These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Antiangiogenic activity of flavonoids from Melia azedarach.  

PubMed

Three flavonoid glycosides, 1 (rutin: quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), 2 (kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside) and 3 (kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside) were isolated from the subcritical water extracts of Melia azedarach leaves. Strong antiangiogenic activity of these compounds was observed in the in vivo assay using the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) from growing chick embryos. PMID:24555281

Kumazawa, Shigenori; Kubota, Satomi; Yamamoto, Haruna; Okamura, Naoki; Sugiyamab, Yasumasa; Kobayashia, Hirokazu; Nakanishi, Motoyasu; Ohta, Toshiro

2013-12-01

2

Evaluation of Melia azedarach extracts against Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed

Although the incidence of caries worldwide has declined in recent years, it is necessary to search for new means to overcome this disease and its microbiological agents. Phytochemistry can become an effective alternative to antibiotics, offering a promising strategy in the prevention and therapy of dental caries. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the bactericide activity of a bioactive phytocomponent from Melia azedarach against Streptococcus mutans. The crude extract (CEx) from leaves and stem barks of M. azedarach in chloroform, petroleum ether, acetate ethyl, butanol, and aqueous fractions was evaluated using seven different concentrations. Disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assays were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. 0.12% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. The CEx and the petroleum ether fraction from M. azedarach showed significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans, confirming its antibiotic potential. PMID:25069066

Della Bona, Alvaro; Nedel, Fernanda

2015-02-01

3

Nematotoxic phenolic compounds from Melia azedarach against Meloidogyne incognita.  

PubMed

In the present study, evaluated was the paralysis activity of whole Italian and Algerian Melia azedarach, commonly known as chinaberry, fruits and parts (seeds, wood, and kernels) against Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J(2)). The paralysis activity was evaluated in vitro after 1 h and 1 day immersion periods of nematodes in test solutions. Phenolic constituent components of the extracts were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, while confirmation was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array. The water extract of the Italian M. azedarach fruit pulp (IPWE) showed significant nematicidal activity (EC(50/48h) = 955 ?g/mL) and among its active ingredient components were p-coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (EC(50/48h) = 840 and 871 ?g/mL, respectively). This is the first report of the nematicidal activity of M. azedarach pulp water extract and phenolic acids against the root knot nematode M. incognita. PMID:23136941

Aoudia, Hassiba; Ntalli, Nikoletta; Aissani, Nadhem; Yahiaoui-Zaidi, R; Caboni, Pierluigi

2012-11-28

4

Triterpenoids and Sterols from the Leaves and Twigs of Melia azedarach.  

PubMed

Two new triterpenoids (1 and 2) and a new sterol (3), together with six known constituents (4-9), were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Melia azedarach. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:24955297

Zhang, Wei-Ming; Liu, Jie-Qing; Peng, Xing-Rong; Wan, Luo-Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Run; Li, Zhong-Rong; Qiu, Ming-Hua

2014-06-01

5

Larvicidal and histological effects of Melia azedarach extract on Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were effective against third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in Saudi Arabia, using crude extract obtained in ethanolic solution from King Saud University. Toxicity was varied according to the concentration and period of exposure. We investigated the effect of the LC50 on midgut and gastric caecae of 3rd larval instar of Cx. quinquefasciatus,

R. M. Al-Mehmadi; A. A. Al-Khalaf

2010-01-01

6

Effect of cream containing Melia azedarach flowers on skin diseases in children.  

PubMed

A herbal cream containing a methanolic HPLC-standardized extract of Melia azedarach flowers has been prepared and found potent against bacterial skin diseases like cellulitis, pustules, pyogenic infections, etc. in children. The results obtained are comparable to those with neomycin. PMID:18375108

Saleem, Rubeena; Rani, Rizwana; Ahmed, Muhammad; Sadaf, Farzana; Ahmad, Syed Iqbal; ul Zafar, Navaid; Khan, Sobia Sajida; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Lubna; Ansari, Farheen; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Faizi, Shaheen

2008-04-01

7

Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

8

Cytotoxic evaluation of Melia azedarach in comparison with, Azadirachta indica and its phytochemical investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages. Methods In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study. Results Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1). In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively) than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1). The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine. Conclusions The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows that flavonols are abundant in the leaves of M. azedarach and these compounds seem to be responsible for many of medicinal effects exploited in the traditional uses. PMID:23679992

2013-01-01

9

Melia azedarach plants show tolerance properties to water shortage treatment: an ecophysiological study.  

PubMed

Candidate species for reforestation of areas prone to drought must combine water stress (WS) tolerance and economic or medicinal interest. Melia azedarach produces high quality timber and has insecticidal and medicinal properties. However, the impact of WS on M. azedarach has not yet been studied. Two-month old M. azedarach plants were exposed to WS during 20 days. After this period, plant's growth, water potential, photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. WS did not affect plants' growth, but induced stomatal closure, reduced net CO? assimilation rate (A) and the intercellular CO? availability in mesophyll (C(i)). WS also reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII but not the pigment levels. WS up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes and stimulated the production of antioxidant metabolites, preventing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, despite some repression of photosynthetic parameters by WS, they did not compromise plant growth, and plants increased their antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that M. azedarach juvenile plants have the potential to acclimate to water shortage conditions, opening new perspectives to the use of this species in reforestation/afforestation programs of drought prone areas. PMID:24440555

Dias, Maria Celeste; Azevedo, Carla; Costa, Maria; Pinto, Glria; Santos, Conceio

2014-02-01

10

Bioactivity-guided chemical analysis of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae), displaying antidiabetic activity.  

PubMed

One new Euphane-type triterpenoid 3?-hydroxytirucalla-5, 24-dien-21-oic acid (1), and ten known compounds (2-11) were isolated from Melia azedarach L. through bioassay-guided chemical analysis. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and MS spectral analyses. All the fractions and isolated pure compounds were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by determining their inhibitory effects on PTP-1B enzyme as well as glucose uptake stimulation in C2Cl2 myoblasts cells. Compounds 4 and 7 showed significant in vitro PTP-1B inhibitory activity with 69.2 and 66.8% inhibition at 10 ?g/ml concentrations respectively. PMID:25062890

Khan, Mohammad Faheem; Rawat, Arun Kumar; Pawar, Bhawna; Gautam, Sudeep; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Negi, Devendra Singh

2014-10-01

11

Cytotoxic, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts of the bark of Melia azedarach (China Berry).  

PubMed

Nature provides a variety of drugs and medicinal agents derived from plants. This study was conducted to determine antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts of Melia azedarach bark with methanol/water (9:1 v/v), chloroform, butanol, hexane, water and ethyl acetate. For the determination of the antimicrobial activities, the agar well diffusion method was employed. Cytotoxicity was studied by brine shrimp lethality assay; antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The chloroform extract was active against Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis, the ethyl acetate extract had highest antibacterial spectrum against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the n-hexane extract had highest inhibition against E. aerogenes, the aqueous extract showed highest activities against P. mirabilis, the butanol fraction showed highest activities against E. aerogenes and the methanolic extract was highly active against P. mirabilis. PMID:25426766

Zahoor, Muhammad; Ahmed, Manzoor; Naz, Sumaira; Ayaz, Musarrat

2014-11-26

12

Antifeedant activity of fruit and seed extracts of Melia azedarach and azadirachta indica on larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of seeds and fruits of the chinaberry tree,Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae), showed strong antifeedant activity against 2nd instar larvae ofSesamia nonagrioides Lefbvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a very serious pest of maize(Zea mays L.) in Mediterranean countries. Extracts were applied in an artificial diet at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 ppm. The parameters\\u000a used to evaluate the activity were larval

Andreu Juan; Albert Sans; Mag Riba

2000-01-01

13

Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05g%

Carolina B. Wandscheer; Jonny E. Duque; Mario A. N. da Silva; Yoshiyasu Fukuyama; Jonathan L. Wohlke; Juliana Adelmann; Jos D. Fontana

2004-01-01

14

Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections. PMID:23569812

Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

2011-01-01

15

Three new and other limonoids from the hexane extract of melia azedarach fruits and their cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

A defatted fraction obtained from the hexane extract of the fruits of Melia azedarach L. (chinaberry tree; Meliaceae) exhibited cytotoxic activities against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), stomach (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 2.9-21.9??g/ml. Three new limonoids, 3-deacetyl-4'-demethylsalannin (5), 3-deacetyl-28-oxosalannin (14), and 1-detigloylohchinolal (17), along with 16 known limonoids, 1-4, 6-13, 15, 16, 18, and 19, and one known triterpenoid, 20, were isolated from the fraction. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the four cancer cell lines mentioned above. 3-Deacetyl-4'-demethyl-28-oxosalannin (16), which exhibited potent cytotoxicity against AZ521 (IC50 3.2??M) cells, induced typical apoptotic cell death in AZ521 cells upon evaluation of the apoptosis-inducing activity by flow cytometry. This work provided, furthermore, valuable information on the structural features of limonoids of the fruits and/or seeds of Melia azedarach and related Meliaceae plants, M. toosendan and Azadirachta indica. PMID:25044585

Pan, Xin; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Zhang, Jie; Ukiya, Motohiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Koike, Kazuo; Akihisa, Rima; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2014-07-01

16

Bioactive compound synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from leaves of Melia azedarach and its control for mosquito larvae.  

PubMed

Larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag nanoparticles using 2,7.bis[2-[diethylamino]-ethoxy]fluorence isolate from the Melia azedarach leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions were collected and concentrated, fraction three showed a single spot on TLC which was found to be a pure compound. The structures were elucidated by analyses of UV, MS, and NMR spectral data. The maximum mortality was fluorence against A.?aegypti and C.?quinquefasciatus (LC50?=?7.94, LC90?=?23.82?ppm and LC50?=?13.58 and LC90?=?40.03?ppm). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as Ag nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and HRTEM analysis. The maximum activity was observed in synthesized AgNPs against A.?aegypti and C.?quinquefasciatus (LC50?=?4.27 and 3.43?g/mL; LC90?=?12.61 and 10.29?g/mL). Rephrase test was studied to analyze the toxicological effects of Mesocyclops pehpeiensis for 24?h at synthesized AgNPs. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach that can be used to control mosquitoes. PMID:25496834

Ramanibai, R; Velayutham, K

2015-02-01

17

Secondary metabolites from the endophytic Botryosphaeria dothidea of Melia azedarach and their antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

Two new metabolites, an ?-pyridone derivative, 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one (1), and a ceramide derivative, 3-hydroxy-N-(1-hydroxy-3-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (2), and a new natural product, 3-hydroxy-N-(1-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (3), along with 15 known compounds including chaetoglobosin C (7) and chaetoglobosin F (8) were isolated from the solid culture of the endophytic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea KJ-1, collected from the stems of white cedar (Melia azedarach L). The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR experiments and by mass spectrometric measurements), and the structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. These metabolites were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity activities. Pycnophorin (4) significantly inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus with equal minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25 ?M. Stemphyperylenol (5) displayed a potent antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Alternaria solani with MIC of 1.57 ?M comparable to the commonly used fungicide carbendazim. Both altenusin (9) and djalonensone (10) showed markedly DPPH radical scavenging activities. In addition, stemphyperylenol (5) and altenuene (6) exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HCT116 cancer cell line with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.13 ?M in comparison with the positive control etoposide (IC50 = 2.13 ?M). This is the first report of the isolation of these compounds from the endophytic B. dothidea. PMID:24689437

Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yu-Qi; Tang, Jiang-Jiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

2014-04-23

18

Metabolites from Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, and their antifungal, antifeedant, and toxic activities.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine fungal metabolites 1-39, including two new alkaloids, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6) and 3-hydroxyfumiquinazoline A (16), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus fumigatus LN-4, an endophytic fungus isolated from the stem bark of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. These isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities against some phytopathogenic fungi, toxicity against brine shrimps, and antifeedant activities against armyworm larvae (Mythimna separata Walker). Among them, sixteen compounds showed potent antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, and Gibberella saubinettii), and four of them, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6), fumitremorgin B (7), verruculogen (8), and helvolic acid (39), exhibited antifungal activities with MIC values of 6.25-50 ?g/mL, which were comparable to the two positive controls carbendazim and hymexazol. In addition, of eighteen that exerted moderate lethality toward brine shrimps, compounds 7 and 8 both showed significant toxicities with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 13.6 and 15.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, among nine metabolites that were found to possess antifeedant activity against armyworm larvae, compounds 7 and 8 gave the best activity with antifeedant indexes (AFI) of 50.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of the metabolites were also discussed. PMID:22409377

Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

2012-04-01

19

The Toxicity and Anti-cancer Activity of the Hexane Layer of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makino's Bark Extract.  

PubMed

In this study, the 4-week oral toxicity and anti-cancer activity of the hexane layer of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makino's bark extract were investigated. We carried out a hollow fiber (HF) assay and 28- day repeated toxicity study to confirm the anti-cancer effect and safety of the hexane layer. The HF assay was carried out using an A549 human adenocarcinoma cell via intraperitoneal (IP) site with or without cisplatin. In the result, the 200 mg/kg b.w of hexane layer with 4 mg/kg b.w of cisplatin treated group, showed the highest cytotoxicity aginst A549 carcinoma cells. For the 28-day repeated toxicity study, 6 groups of 10 male and female mice were given by gavage 200, 100, or 50 mg/kg b.w hexane layer with or without 4 mg/kg b.w of cisplatin against body weight, and were then sacrificed for blood and tissue sampling. The subacute oral toxicity study in mice with doses of 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg b.w hexane layer showed no significant changes in body weight gain and general behavior. The cisplatin-treated group significantly decreased in body weight compared to the control group but regained weight with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w of hexane layer. The biochemical analysis showed significant increase in several parameters (ALT, total billirubin, AST, creatinine, and BUN) in cisplatin-treated groups. However, in the group given a co-treatment of hexane layer (200 mg/kg b.w), levels of these parameters decreased. In hematological analysis, cisplatin induced the reduction of WBCs and neutrophils but co-treatment with hexane layer (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w) improved these toxicities caused by cisplatin. The histological profile of the livers showed eosinophilic cell foci in central vein and portal triad in cisplatin treated mice. These results show that hexane layer might have an anti-cancer activity and could improve the toxicity of cisplatin. PMID:24278590

Kim, Hyun Woo; Kang, Se Chan

2012-03-01

20

Cytotoxic and nitric oxide production-inhibitory activities of limonoids and other compounds from the leaves and bark of Melia azedarach.  

PubMed

Nine limonoids, 1-9, one apocarotenoid, 11, one alkaloid, 12, and one steroid, 13, from the leaf extract; and one triterpenoid, 10, five steroids, 14-18, and two flavonoids, 19 and 20, from the bark extract of Melia azedarach L. (Chinaberry tree; Meliaceae) were isolated. Among these compounds, three compounds, 4-6, were new, and their structures were established as 3-deacetyl-28-oxosalannolactone, 3-deacetyl-28-oxosalanninolide, and 3-deacetyl-17-defurano-17,28-dioxosalannin, respectively, on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), stomach (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines. 3-Deacetyl-4'-demethyl-28-oxosalannin (3) against HL60 and AZ521 cells, and methyl kulonate (10) against HL60 cells exhibited potent cytotoxicities with IC50 values in the range of 2.8-5.8 ?M. In addition, upon evaluation of compounds 1-13 against production of nitric oxide (NO) in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), seven, i.e., trichilinin B (1), 4, ohchinin (7), 23-hydroxyohchininolide (8), 21-hydroxyisoohchininolide (9), 10, and methyl indole 3-carboxylate (12), inhibited production of NO with IC50 values in the range of 4.6-87.3 ?M with no, or almost no, toxicity to the cells (IC50 93.2-100 ?M). Western blot analysis revealed that compound 7 reduced the expression levels of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and COX-2 proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, compounds 5, 6, 13, and 18-20 exhibited potent inhibitory effects (IC50 299-381 molar ratio/32 pmol TPA) against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cell line. PMID:25146759

Pan, Xin; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Nishimoto, Yuki; Ogihara, Eri; Zhang, Jie; Ukiya, Motohiko; Tokuda, Harukuni; Koike, Kazuo; Akihisa, Momoko; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2014-08-01

21

The Toxicity and Anti-cancer Activity of the Hexane Layer of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makinos Bark Extract  

PubMed Central

In this study, the 4-week oral toxicity and anti-cancer activity of the hexane layer of Melia azedarach L. var. japonica Makinos bark extract were investigated. We carried out a hollow fiber (HF) assay and 28- day repeated toxicity study to confirm the anti-cancer effect and safety of the hexane layer. The HF assay was carried out using an A549 human adenocarcinoma cell via intraperitoneal (IP) site with or without cisplatin. In the result, the 200 mg/kg b.w of hexane layer with 4 mg/kg b.w of cisplatin treated group, showed the highest cytotoxicity aginst A549 carcinoma cells. For the 28-day repeated toxicity study, 6 groups of 10 male and female mice were given by gavage 200, 100, or 50 mg/kg b.w hexane layer with or without 4 mg/kg b.w of cisplatin against body weight, and were then sacrificed for blood and tissue sampling. The subacute oral toxicity study in mice with doses of 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg b.w hexane layer showed no significant changes in body weight gain and general behavior. The cisplatin-treated group significantly decreased in body weight compared to the control group but regained weight with 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w of hexane layer. The biochemical analysis showed significant increase in several parameters (ALT, total billirubin, AST, creatinine, and BUN) in cisplatin-treated groups. However, in the group given a co-treatment of hexane layer (200 mg/kg b.w), levels of these parameters decreased. In hematological analysis, cisplatin induced the reduction of WBCs and neutrophils but co-treatment with hexane layer (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w) improved these toxicities caused by cisplatin. The histological profile of the livers showed eosinophilic cell foci in central vein and portal triad in cisplatin treated mice. These results show that hexane layer might have an anti-cancer activity and could improve the toxicity of cisplatin. PMID:24278590

Kim, Hyun Woo

2012-01-01

22

In vitro plant regeneration in Melia azedarach L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodal explants of 3- 6-week-old seedlings cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (BA)\\u000a (17.75 ?m) produced multiple shoots. Shoots were isolated and induced to root on 1\\/2-strength MS medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric\\u000a acid (4.92 ?m). In-vitro-rooted shoots resumed growth after a short period of acclimatization and resulted in plantlets which were successfully\\u000a established in soil. In

R. Thakur; P. S. Rao; V. A. Bapat

1998-01-01

23

AZIENDA (denominazione e indirizzo): Sol Melia Italia S.r.l.  

E-print Network

AZIENDA (denominazione e indirizzo): Sol Melia Italia S.r.l. SEDE DEL TIROCINIO E AREA DI INSERIMENTO: HOTEL MELIA GENOVA, Via Corsica, 4 ­ 16128 Genova OBIETTIVO DEL TIROCINIO: Acquisire competenze (da contattare da parte dei candidati): Federica Barbero RECAPITO TELEFONICO: E-MAIL: hr.meliagenova@melia

Robbiano, Lorenzo

24

Neolignans, lignans and glycoside from the fruits of Melia toosendan.  

PubMed

Four new neolignans, meliasendanins A-D (1-4), and a new glycoside, toosenoside A (5), together with ten known ones (6-15), were isolated from a n-BuOH partition of the fruits of Melia toosendan. Their structures were elucidated by analyses of extensive spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those reported previously. Meliasendanin A (1) was a rare neolignan containing isochroman moiety, and its absolute configuration was determined using a CD spectrum. Toosenoside A (5) was an unusual glycoside with a rare naturally occurring aglycone and its structure was confirmed by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The antioxidant activity of the isolated neolignans and lignans was evaluated by ABTS radical-scavenging assay. Compounds 1 and 13 exhibited strong antioxidant activity, with IC?? values of 62.8 and 45.1 ?M, respectively. PMID:25250895

Wang, Lun; Li, Fu; Yang, Chun-Yan; Khan, Ashfaq-Ahmad; Liu, Xin; Wang, Ming-Kui

2014-12-01

25

Novel NGF-potentiating limonoids from the fruits of Melia toosendan.  

PubMed

Four new limonoids (1-4), together with five known limonoids (5-9), were isolated from the fruits of Melia toosendan. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D- and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, IR, [?](D)). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their neurite outgrowth-promoting activities. Compounds 2 and 6 significantly enhanced NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 50.0 ?M. PMID:23916581

Zhang, Qiong; Li, Jian-Kuan; Ge, Rui; Liang, Jing-Yu; Li, Qing-Shan; Min, Zhi-Da

2013-10-01

26

Insecticidal activity of Melia toosendan extracts and toosendanin against three stored-product insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellency, toxicity, and fecundity-reducing effects of bark extracts of Melia toosendan on three stored-product beetles, the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were investigated in the laboratory. Wheat kernels treated with extracts containing 75 and 3% toosendanin at concentrations from 0.05 to 0.4% (375-3000 ppm toosendanin),

Y. S. Xie; P. G. Fields; M. B. Isman; W. K. Chen; X. Zhang

1995-01-01

27

Limonoids from the fruits of Melia toosendan and their NF-?B modulating activities.  

PubMed

Eight ring C-seco and ring-intact limonoids, and 25 known limonoids were isolated from the fruits of Melia toosendan (Meliaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic evidence including HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. A total of 29 isolated limonoids was evaluated for NF-?B activities. Among them, eight compounds significantly enhanced the TNF?-induced NF-?B luciferase activity at 10?M, while 10 compounds suppressed the NF-?B activation. PMID:25189120

Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Bai, Li-Ping; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

2014-11-01

28

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed. PMID:24769382

Kathiravan, V; Ravi, S; Ashokkumar, S

2014-09-15

29

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed.

Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.

2014-09-01

30

Phytochemical screening studies on Melia orientalis by GC-MS analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Melia orientalis (MO) is an important Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The plant part such as leaves and roots are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes, edema, traumatic swelling, skin diseases, oligospermia and bleeding disorders. Objective: To investigate the phytochemical identification of ethanol leaf extract of MO. Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of MO (1000g) were collected and shade dried at room temperature for 30 days and the dried leaves were made into a fine powder. The ethanol leaf extract obtained was dried and used for phytochemical identification by GC-MS analysis. Results: The phytochemical screening studies have been carried out and identified ten chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MO. Conclusion: Thus, our results show that MO possess important phytocomponents such as phytol, squalene and stigmasterol. PMID:23901217

Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Padmaja, Balakrishnan; Nair, Sudarsan

2013-01-01

31

Triterpenoids with anti-tobacco mosaic virus activities from Melia Toosendan.  

PubMed

Four new triterpenoids, named Toosendansins A-D (1-4), along with nine known ones (5-13) were isolated from the fruits of Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data. The isolation of compounds 1-12 were reported for the first time from this plant. All compounds were analyzed for the anti-Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) activity and protective effect on H2O2-induced damage of SH-SY5Y cells. Compound 7 showed evident anti-TMV activity. Compounds 2 and 9 exhibited modest protection against H2O2-induced damage of SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:24972348

Chen, Lin; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Wang, Bin; Mu, Shu-Zhen; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

2014-09-01

32

Differential Expression of Melatonin Receptor Subtypes MelIa, MelIb and MelIc in Relation to Melatonin Binding in the Male Songbird Brain.  

PubMed

Previous autoradiography studies illustrated that several areas of the avian brain can bind the pineal hormone melatonin. In birds, there are three melatonin receptor (MelR) subtypes: MelIa, MelIb and MelIc. To date, their brain distribution has not been studied in any passerine bird. Therefore, we investigated mRNA distribution of MelR subtypes in adjacent sections of the brain of two songbirds, the blackcap and the zebra finch, in parallel with that of 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin (IMEL) binding sites in the same brains. The general pattern of receptor expression shown by in situ hybridization of species-specific probes matched well with that of IMEL binding. However, the expression of the three subtypes was area specific with similar patterns in the two species. Some brain areas expressed only one receptor subtype, most brain regions co-expressed either MelIa with MelIb or MelIa with MelIc, whereas few areas expressed MelIb and MelIc or all three receptor subtypes. Since many sensory areas, most thalamic areas and subareas of the neopallium, a cortex analogue, express MelR, it is likely that most sensory motor integration functions are melatonin sensitive. Further, the area-specific expression patterns suggest that the regulatory role of melatonin differs among different brain areas. Since subareas of well-defined neural circuits, such as the visual system or the song control system, are equipped with different receptor types, we hypothesize a diversity of functions for melatonin in the control of sensory integration and behavior. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25427872

Fusani, Leonida; Gahr, Manfred

2014-11-22

33

Anti-amyloidogenic effects of ID1201, the ethanolic extract of the fruits of Melia toosendan, through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.  

PubMed

Amyloid beta (A?) peptides, which are generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP), are thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the anti-amyloidogenic effects of the ethanolic extract of Meliae Fructus (ID1201) using human embryonic kidney 293 cells with stably expressed human wild-type or Swedish mutant APP695 and ?-secretase 1. ID1201 treatment enhanced the non-amyloidogenic metabolism of APP; increases in soluble APP? levels and decreases in soluble APP? and A? levels resulted from the ?-secretase activation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. In addition, ID1201-treated 5familial AD (FAD) mice with 5 mutations in APP and presenilin 1 showed reduced levels of A? and amyloid plaques in the brain relative to those of 5FAD mice with vehicle treatments. These results indicate that ID1201 possesses anti-amyloidogenic effects via the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, suggesting that it is a potential therapeutic agent for AD. PMID:24566006

Park, Hanbyeol; Yoo, Jong-Su; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Jung-Soo; Yeon, Seung-Woo; Kang, Jae-Hoon

2014-03-01

34

ID1201, the ethanolic extract of the fruit of Melia toosendan ameliorates impairments in spatial learning and reduces levels of amyloid beta in 5XFAD mice.  

PubMed

A previous study has demonstrated the anti-amyloidogenic effects of the ethanolic extract of Meliae Fructus (ID1201) using cell lines with stably expressed human Swedish mutant APP695 and ?-secretase 1, and 5Xfamilial AD (FAD) mice carrying five mutations. Here, we investigated the effects of ID1201 on cognitive impairment in 5XFAD mice. Daily administration of ID1201 was commenced at 3 months of age and continued for 3 months. Mice were serially trained in cued/response and place/spatial training tasks in the Morris water maze. After this training, testing for strategy preference was conducted. Non-transgenic control mice with vehicle treatment, vehicle-treated 5XFAD, and ID1201-treated 5XFAD mice showed equivalent performance in cued/response training. However, as training progressed to the subsequent place/spatial learning, vehicle-treated control and ID1201-treated 5XFAD mice differed significantly from vehicle-treated 5XFAD mice in measures of spatial learning (search error and adaptive spatial learning strategy). In the strategy preference test that followed, control mice preferred a place/spatial strategy relative to vehicle-treated 5XFAD mice, but differences between ID1201-treated 5XFAD mice and vehicle-treated 5XFAD mice were not significant. Additionally, ID1201 treatment reduced hippocampal levels of insoluble A?42 and increased cortical levels of soluble amyloid precursor protein ?. These results indicate that ID1201 may possess potential as a therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease by decreasing A? deposits. PMID:25281546

Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Min-Su; Lee, Sun-Young; Park, Hanbyeol; Kang, Jae-Hoon; Yeon, Seung-Woo; Han, Jung-Soo

2014-11-01

35

Nitrogen release from leaves of leguminous and nonleguminous tree species in sandy loam soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To decrease adverse environmental impacts of fertilizer N and to decrease input costs in agroecosystems, there is a renewed interest in using green manure to maintain soil fertility. Nitrogen mineralization from the leaves of two leguminous \\/Leucaena leucocephala (Lamb.) de Witt, and Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Willd. ex Del] and two nonleguminous (Azadirachta indica A. Jussieu and Melia azedarach L.) tree

J. P. Singh; V. S. Yadav; Y. P. Singh

1996-01-01

36

Comparative ecology of the thrashers, Toxostoma, of South Texas  

E-print Network

total vegetative cover of 298. 8Z, essentially like HACK; however, the component species differed somewhat (Table 1). Hackberry was again the dominant tree species, but elm and anacua were virtually absent. La Coma, {Bumelia celastrina) was abundant... (Melia azedarach) La Coma (Bumelia celastrina) M bib y (M ~b Subtotal Shrubs Beebush (Eysenhartia texensis) Blackbrush acacia (Acacia rigidula) Cl'(Zhml fg Brasil (Condalia hookeri) gp y ~At p' ) Hog plum (Colubrine texensis) Torchwood (~Am ris...

Fischer, David Herman

1979-01-01

37

Chlorophyll Catabolism in Senescing Plant Tissues: In vivo Breakdown Intermediates Suggest Different Degradative Pathways for Citrus Fruit and Parsley Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to separate chlorophyll derivatives in acetone extracts from senescing Citrus fruit peel, autumnal Melia azedarach L. leaves, and dark-held detached parsley (Petroselinum sativum L.) leaves. Chlorophyllide a and another polar, dephytylated derivative accumulated in large amounts in senescing Citrus peel, particularly in fruit treated with ethylene. Ethylene also induced a 4-fold increase in the specific

Dekel Amir-Shapira; Eliezer E. Goldschmidt; Arie Altman

1987-01-01

38

New insight into the stereochemistry of botryosphaeridione from a Phoma endophyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dihydronaphthalene-2,6-dione derivative, isolated from Phoma sp. LN-16, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, was identified by spectroscopic data as a previously reported compound, botryosphaeridione (1). The relative configuration was reassigned by quantum chemical analysis of experimental 13C NMR and NOESY data. The first unequivocal assignment of its absolute configuration was made by using circular dichroism spectra and computational model B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ as (-)-(5R,6S)-1, and was also established by means of X-ray diffraction. Also, this is the first time that a trinor-eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Phoma genus.

Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shi-Qiong; Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, An-Ling; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Jin-Ming

2012-05-01

39

Laboratory Evaluation and Ranked Preference Assessment of Subterranean Termites Coptotermes Formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on Pecan Cultivars of Carya Illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch in Texas  

E-print Network

. formosanus on commercially versus native cultivars. In a multiple-choice test, the Desirable pecan cultivar, was significantly (P Pinus palustris), chinaberry (Melia azedarach), and the pecan... in-ground wood blocks made of southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.). Three wood blocks, 2.54 x 15.2 x 15.2 cm, were connected by running all-thread rod 9 cm in length and 0.6 cm in diameter inserted through a 0.6 cm hole drilled in the center...

Swain, Christopher R.

2010-07-14

40

Isoprene emission from tropical tree species.  

PubMed

Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2 +/- 6.8 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2 +/- 4.9 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. PMID:15701397

Padhy, P K; Varshney, C K

2005-05-01

41

Natural-product-based insecticidal agents 14. Semisynthesis and insecticidal activity of new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives against Mythimna separata Walker in vivo.  

PubMed

In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, twenty-six new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives were synthesized from piperine, an alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum Linn. The single-crystal structures of 6c, 6q and 6w were unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo. Especially compounds 6b, 6i and 6r, the final mortality rates of which, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, were 62.1%, 65.5% and 65.5%, respectively, exhibited more pronounced insecticidal activity compared to toosendanin at 1 mg/mL, a commercial botanical insecticide isolated from Melia azedarach. It suggested that introduction of the substituents at the C-2 position on the phenyl ring of the hydrazone derivatives was important for their insecticidal activity. PMID:24018189

Qu, Huan; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Lv, Min; Xu, Hui

2013-10-15

42

Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubirat and Nova Aurora, PR.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubirat and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies. PMID:23460431

Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Lus C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

2013-03-01

43

Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe.  

PubMed

This review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in Europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in European countries. Poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. In Europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), Quercus spp. (oak), Taxus baccata (European yew), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas). Poisoning may occur when the fresh plant is ingested in pasture or when it contaminates hay or silage. In pets, the greatest majority of plant poisonings are the result of ingestion of house or garden plants, such as Cycas revoluta (Sago palm), Ricinus communis (castor bean), Allium spp., Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia), Lilium spp., Convallaria majalis (Lily of the valley), Pyracantha spp. (firethorn), Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas), Melia azedarach (Chinaberry tree), Taxus baccata (European yew) and Nerium oleander (oleander). PMID:23570777

Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

2013-08-01

44

Dairy Sci. Technol. 89 (2009) 115122 Available online at: c INRA, EDP Sciences, 2009 www.dairy-journal.org  

E-print Network

acid composition of milk from Reggiana cows Selenia Melia*, Giuseppe Losi, Gian Battista Castagnetti * Corresponding author (): selenia.melia@libero.it Article published by EDP Sciences #12;116 S. Melia et al. , C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

45

Publications Astronomical Society Pacific , 117:483--484, 2005  

E-print Network

; Nayakshin & Melia 1998). The technique outlined Nayakshin Melia (1998) has been integrated a Monte Carlo Melia (1998), with integrals computed numerically. malized to background electron proton density of 1

Boettcher, Markus

46

Model Evolution With Built-in Theories Version 3 Peter Baumgartner  

E-print Network

with equality, MEE [4], and the ME calculus extended with linear integer arithmetic, MELIA [3]. Version 3 from MELIA [3]. MELIA, however, does not support free function symbols (other than free constants

Baumgartner, Peter

47

Determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants from saurashtra region, India.  

PubMed

Many plants used in Saurashtra folk medicine have been reported to exhibit high antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In the present study, some parts of five plants, Guazuma ulmifolia L., Manilkara zapota L., Melia azedarach L., Syzygium cumini L. and Wrightia tomentosa R.& S., were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical analysis, using successive extraction by cold percolation method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. In vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated against five bacterial strains viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes by agar well diffusion method. Among the plants screened, W. tomentosa leaf and fruit showed the best antibacterial activity. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria. Methanol extract of M. zapota showed the best 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. Highest total phenol content was shown by M. zapota and S. cumini in methanol extract, while highest flavonoid content was shown by W. tomentosa stem in petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract. In all the plants, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes were more as compared to other phytoconstituents. PMID:20502546

Kaneria, M; Baravalia, Y; Vaghasiya, Y; Chanda, S

2009-07-01

48

1-Cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin is a natural bioactive compound with antiviral and nuclear factor-{kappa}B modulating properties  

SciTech Connect

We have reported the isolation of the tetranortriterpenoid 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (CDM) from partially purified leaf extracts of Melia azedarach L. (MA) that reduced both, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) multiplication. CDM blocks VSV entry and the intracellular transport of VSV-G protein, confining it to the Golgi apparatus, by pre- or post-treatment, respectively. Here, we report that HSV-1 glycoproteins were also confined to the Golgi apparatus independently of the nature of the host cell. Considering that MA could be acting as an immunomodulator preventing the development of herpetic stromal keratitis in mice, we also examined an eventual effect of CDM on NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway. CDM is able to impede NF-{kappa}B activation in HSV-1-infected conjunctival cells and leads to the accumulation of p65 NF-{kappa}B subunit in the cytoplasm of uninfected treated Vero cells. In conclusion, CDM is a pleiotropic agent that not only inhibits the multiplication of DNA and RNA viruses by the same mechanism of action but also modulates the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway.

Barquero, Andrea A. [Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Piso 4to., Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: alecab@qb.fcen.uba.ar; Michelini, Flavia M. [Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Piso 4to., Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alche, Laura E. [Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Piso 4to., Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2006-06-09

49

Effect of the potent antiviral 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin on cytokine production by murine macrophages stimulated with HSV-2.  

PubMed

The limonoid 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (CDM) isolated from leaf extracts of Melia azedarach L, has potent antiherpetic effect in epithelial cells. Since Meliacine, the partially purified extract source of CDM, has therapeutic effect on murine genital herpes, the potential use of CDM as microbicide against herpetic infections was studied here. To determine the cytotoxic effect of CDM, the MTT assay and acridine orange staining of living cells were performed. The antiherpetic action of CDM was measured by plaque reduction assay, and the immunomodulatory effect was determined by measuring the cytokine production using a bioassay and ELISA method. The results presented here showed that CDM inhibited Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) multiplication in Vero cells but did not affect its replication in macrophages which were not permissive to HSV infection. In macrophages, levels of TNF-?, IFN-?, NO, IL-6 and IL-10 were increased by CDM used alone or in combination with HSV-2. Besides, CDM not only synergized TNF-? production combined with IFN-?, but also prolonged its expression in time. Results indicate that CDM inhibits HSV-2 multiplication in epithelial cells and also increases cytokine production in macrophages, both important actions to the clearance of infecting virus in the mouse vagina. PMID:23512754

Petrera, Erina; Coto, Celia E

2014-01-01

50

Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

2014-01-01

51

Ethnopharmacological assessment of medicinal plants used against livestock infections by the people living around Indus River.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81), mastitis (0.82), and dermatological infections (0.80). Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL) value (66%) followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%). Preference ranking (PR) results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species. PMID:25544941

Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Ullah, Riaz; Bibi, Roqaia

2014-01-01

52

Ethnopharmacological Assessment of Medicinal Plants Used against Livestock Infections by the People Living around Indus River  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81), mastitis (0.82), and dermatological infections (0.80). Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL) value (66%) followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%). Preference ranking (PR) results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species. PMID:25544941

Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Bibi, Roqaia

2014-01-01

53

Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa.  

PubMed

Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow), Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar), a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli). Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga) or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants. PMID:19831265

Botha, C J; Penrith, M L

2009-06-01

54

Potential allelopathic indole diketopiperazines produced by the plant endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus using the one strain-many compounds method.  

PubMed

On the basis of the OSMAC (one strain-many compounds) strategy, 14 indole diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloids, including spirotryprostatins (1-3), tryprostatins (4-6), and cyclotryprostatins (7-14), were isolated from the endophyte Aspergillus fumigatus associated with Melia azedarach L. Their structures were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data. All the indole DKPs were evaluated for plant growth regulation using the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling growth bioassay, which showed the plant growth influence of the seedling. Among these compounds tested, a tryprostatin-type compound, brevianamide F (6), was identified as a new type of natural potential plant growth inhibitor with a response index (RI) higher than that of the positive control glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide. 6 can also inhibit turnip (Raphanus sativus) shoot and root elongation with RIs of -0.76 and -0.70, respectively, at 120 ppm, and it strongly inhibits amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus) seedling growth with a high RI of -0.9 at 40 ppm. The structure-allelopathic activity relationship analysis of these isolated alkaloids indicates that tryprostatin-type alkaloids without the C5 prenyl and methoxy group give the most potent inhibition of seedling growth. Brevianamide F (6) could be used to develop a natural eco-friendly herbicide. PMID:24188331

Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Shi-Qiong; Tang, Hao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Lu; Xiao, Jian; Gao, Yu-Qi; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

2013-11-27

55

In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from lower Himalayas.  

PubMed

The present studies cover antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of 11 medicinal plants viz. Adhatoda vasica, Bauhenia variegate, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa opaca, Caryopteris grata, Debregeasia salicifolia, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii and Olea ferruginea collected from lower Himalayas against two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa) bacterial strains. The extracts were applied at four different concentrations (120 mg/mL, 90mg/mL, 60mg/mL and 30mg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were observed formethanolic extracts of all the above mentioned plants. Greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only exhibited by Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii, Debregeasia salicifolia and Lantana camara. Escherichia coli was highly resistant to all the plant extracts at all concentrations. It is inferred that methanolic crude extracts of the above mentioned plantsexhibitantibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria, which proved the ethnobotanical importance of the selected plants that indigenous people use for cure against various diseases. PMID:25730791

Zulqarnain; Rahim, Abdur; Ahmad, Khalid; Ullah, Faizan; Ullah, Hamid; Nishan, Umar

2015-03-01

56

UNCONFIRMED UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN  

E-print Network

, Martyn Gorman, Duncan Heddle, Melia Knecht, Mark Paterson, Jonathan Pettitt, Anna Shortland, Nicole Stahl Director), Jenny Downes (Curator - Science & Exhibitions and Project Manager), Melia Knecht (Curatorial

Levi, Ran

57

Accretion Disk Evolution With Wind Infall I. General Solution and Application to Sgr A*  

E-print Network

@astro.umd.edu) Fulvio Melia 1 Department of Physics & Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (melia@as.arizona.edu) ABSTRACT The evolution of an accretion disk can be influenced significantly extend as far out as the binary orbital midpoint (e.g., Lamb & Melia 1987; Melia & Lamb 1987). Its

Falcke, Heino

58

Detecting long-term growth trends using tree rings: a critical evaluation of methods.  

PubMed

Tree-ring analysis is often used to assess long-term trends in tree growth. A variety of growth-trend detection methods (GDMs) exist to disentangle age/size trends in growth from long-term growth changes. However, these detrending methods strongly differ in approach, with possible implications for their output. Here, we critically evaluate the consistency, sensitivity, reliability and accuracy of four most widely used GDMs: conservative detrending (CD) applies mathematical functions to correct for decreasing ring widths with age; basal area correction (BAC) transforms diameter into basal area growth; regional curve standardization (RCS) detrends individual tree-ring series using average age/size trends; and size class isolation (SCI) calculates growth trends within separate size classes. First, we evaluated whether these GDMs produce consistent results applied to an empirical tree-ring data set of Melia azedarach, a tropical tree species from Thailand. Three GDMs yielded similar results - a growth decline over time - but the widely used CD method did not detect any change. Second, we assessed the sensitivity (probability of correct growth-trend detection), reliability (100% minus probability of detecting false trends) and accuracy (whether the strength of imposed trends is correctly detected) of these GDMs, by applying them to simulated growth trajectories with different imposed trends: no trend, strong trends (-6% and +6% change per decade) and weak trends (-2%, +2%). All methods except CD, showed high sensitivity, reliability and accuracy to detect strong imposed trends. However, these were considerably lower in the weak or no-trend scenarios. BAC showed good sensitivity and accuracy, but low reliability, indicating uncertainty of trend detection using this method. Our study reveals that the choice of GDM influences results of growth-trend studies. We recommend applying multiple methods when analysing trends and encourage performing sensitivity and reliability analysis. Finally, we recommend SCI and RCS, as these methods showed highest reliability to detect long-term growth trends. PMID:25482401

Peters, Richard L; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, Pieter A

2015-05-01

59

Anatomy and lignin distribution in reaction phloem fibres of several Japanese hardwoods  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Although tension wood formation and the structure of gelatinous fibres (G-fibres) have been widely investigated, studies of the influence of the reaction phenomenon on phloem fibres have been few and incomplete in comparison with those of xylem wood fibres. This study was undertaken to clarify the influence of stem inclination on phloem fibres using several Japanese hardwood species that produce different G-fibre types in tension wood. Methods Eight hardwood species were inclined at 3045 at the beginning of April. Specimens were collected in July and December. The cell-wall structure and lignin distribution of phloem fibres on both the tension and opposite sides were compared by light microscopy, ultraviolet microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with acriflavine, and transmission electron microscopy after staining with potassium permanganate. Key Results Three types of changes were found in tension-side phloem fibres: (1) increases in the proportion of the syringyl unit in lignin in the S1 and S2 layers and compound middle lamella (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), (2) formation of unlignified gelatinous layers (Melia azedarach and Acer rufinerve) and (3) increases in the number of layers (n) in the multi-layered structure of S1 + S2 + n (G + L) (Mallotus japonicus). Other species showed no obvious change in cell-wall structure or lignin distribution. Conclusions Phloem fibres of the tree species examined in our study showed three types of changes in lignin distribution and cell-wall structure. The reaction phenomenon may vary with tree species and may not be closely related to G-fibre type in tension wood. PMID:22778147

Nakagawa, Kaori; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji

2012-01-01

60

The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21 to 50 N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2014-05-01

61

The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.  

PubMed

Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21 to 50 N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days C?, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially. PMID:23732443

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2014-05-01

62

Potential anti-osteoporotic effects of herbal extracts on osteoclasts, osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most serious diseases in the modern world, and OP patients frequently suffer from fragility fractures in the hip, spine and wrist, resulting in a limited quality of life. Although bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most effective class of anti-bone-resorptive drugs currently available and the most commonly prescribed for the clinical treatment of OP, they are known to cause serious side effects such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Novel therapeutic materials that can replace the use of BPs have therefore been developed. Methods We commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only in OP, but also in oral and skeletal diseases. In the present study, we report on 3 Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Melia azedarach, Corydalis turtschaninovii, and Cynanchum atratum. Results All of these extracts inhibited osteoclast proliferation and induced apoptosis by up-regulation of caspase activity and increase of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins expression. Furthermore, the extracts enhanced differentiation, but did not affect proliferation of both osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The osteo-inducible effect was also observed in cultured primary bone marrow cells. Conclusions Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects in OP. In this study, we elucidate the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for OP therapy. PMID:24438322

2014-01-01

63

Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.  

PubMed

In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797. PMID:22891988

Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

2012-08-29

64

Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in Malakand Valley, District Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The Malakand valley of District Dir (Lower) is endowed with a diverse plant wealth. Ethnoveterinary knowledge provides the traditional medicines of livestock that are cheaper than standard treatment and are easily accessible. Methods The present study was conducted to document the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices in Malakand valley, District Dir (Lower). Data was collected from February 2012 to January 2013 by interviewing 120 inhabitants through semi-structured questionnaires. Different questions were asked to collect appropriate data regarding the use of plants for livestock treatment. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) was carried out to find out the use diversity of medicinal plants. Findings A total of 28 plants belonging to 23 families were collected and identified for the treatment of livestock in the study area. Majority of the plants were collected from wild (68%) habitat and very few from cultivated sources. The leaves (28%) were identified as the major plant part for herbal preparations. The most frequent ailments of livestocks in the study area were stomach disorders and Charmaikh (local disease name). Various ingredients were used along with ethnoveterinary medicines i.e. sugar, flour, milk etc. The elder people of the village had a rich knowledge as compared to the young generation. According to DMR output, Monotheca buxifolia ranked first and Dalbergia sisso and Melia azedarach ranked second due to high multipurpose uses among all species and was found most threatened in the study area. Conclusion It has been concluded that the native of the region heavily dependent on medicinal plants for the treatment of variety of livestock ailments. Traditional knowledge always provides a baseline for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation. The documentation of the ethnoveterinary practices in study area was necessary before this precious knowledge is lost forever due to rapid socioeconomic, environmental and technological changes. PMID:24580769

2014-01-01

65

Expression of the Melia-melatonin receptor mRNA in T and B subsets of lymphocytes from rat thymus and spleen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we analyze by re- verse transcription, polymerase chain reaction, cDNA cloning, and sequence analysis the expression of membrane melatonin receptors in rat thymus and spleen. Results show, for the first time, that the mel- atonin receptor mRNA is expressed in both the thy- mus and spleen. Moreover, the melatonin receptor mRNA was expressed in all the

DAVID POZO; MARIO DELGADO; JOSE M. FERNANDEZ-SANTOS; JUAN R. CALVO; ROSA P. GOMARIZ; INES MARTINLACAVE; GENARO G. ORTIZ

1997-01-01

66

Media Summary 18-24 October 2014 South West Business -Dr Steve Melia, transport and planning lecturer, University of the West of  

E-print Network

Architects datafile Water water everywhere Resilience 14: expert speakers for Britain under water seminar talking about water purification. Mohamed Elshorbagy, MSc in Finance student was interviewed by ITV

West of England, University of the

67

Future Network and MobileSummit 2011 Conference Proceedings Paul Cunningham and Miriam Cunningham (Eds)  

E-print Network

.21 and Proxy Mobile IPv6: A Network Controlled Mobility Solution Telemaco Melia1 , Fabio Giust2,4 , Riccardo, France, Email: telemaco.melia@alcatel-lucent.com 2 Institute IMDEA Networks, Spain, Email: fabio

Gesbert, David

68

Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate Graduate Council  

E-print Network

for Concurrent Master's Degrees Letter sent to Committee on Rules and Elections Chair Daniel Melia (10/27/08). Response received from Chair Melia (6/11/09). · Proposed Name Change for the Department of Industrial

Iglesia, Enrique

69

THSE DE DOCTORAT UNIVERSIT PARIS VII --DENIS DIDEROT  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . Rapporteur M. Fulvio MELIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examinateur M. Berrie GIEBELS synergie prenne corps. Merci à mes examinateurs, Fulvio Melia et Berrie Giebels, pour l'intérêt qu'ils ont

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

PDF versions of previous colloquia and more information can be found in "events" at http://gcosmo.bao.ac.cn/  

E-print Network

: Wednesday, 2:30 PM, Nov. 20 2013 LOCATION: A601 NAOC A Unique Metric for Cosmology Prof. Fulvio Melia (University of Arizona) Fulvio Melia is Professor of Physics, Astronomy, and the Applied Math Program

Tian, Weidong

71

The Astrophysical Journal, 560:L123--L126, 2001 October 20 # 2001. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.  

E-print Network

of the radio emission has been debated for quite some time (see Melia & Falcke 2001 for a review). Either an origin in an accretion flow (Melia 1992; Narayan, Yi, & Mahadevan 1995) or in a jet has been proposed

Brunthaler, Andreas

72

BIMA Observations of Linear Polarization in Sagittarius A* at Geoffrey C. Bower 1;2 , Melvyn C.H. Wright 2 , Heino Falcke 3 , Donald C. Backer 2  

E-print Network

or an outflow and whether the emission mechanism is synchrotron or gyrosynchrotron (e.g., Melia 1994; ¨ Ozel et of the emission region (Quataert & Gruzinov 2000; Agol 2000; Melia et al. 2000). We have also pursued circular

Bower, Geoffrey

73

Interferometric Detection of Linear Polarization from Sagittarius A* at 230 GHz  

E-print Network

hole (Melia & Falcke 2001). While much is known about this source, there is still dispute over; Quataert & Gruzinov 2000; Liu & Melia 2001; Falcke & Marko#11; 2000; Yuan et al. 2002). In general models

Falcke, Heino

74

A&A 383, 854--863 (2002) DOI: 10.1051/00046361:20011709  

E-print Network

of a massive black hole with mass M = 2.6 ? 10 6 M# (Melia & Falcke 2001; Haller et al. 1996; Eckart & Genzel case the angular momentum of the accretion flow should be small, Melia (1992, 1994) proposed

Falcke, Heino

75

The Spectrum and Variability of Circular Polarization in Sagittarius A* from 1.4 to 15 GHz  

E-print Network

and closest candidate for a supermassive black hole in the center of a galaxy (Maoz 1998; Melia & Falcke 2001 (Melia 1994). Significant details of the emission mechanism are not understood. In particular, leading

Bower, Geoffrey

76

Interferometric Detection of Linear Polarization from Sagittarius A* at 230 GHz  

E-print Network

(Melia & Falcke 2001). While much is known about this source, there is still dispute over the nature & Gruzinov 2000; Liu & Melia 2001; Falcke & Marko# 2000; Yuan et al. 2002). In general models account

Bower, Geoffrey

77

A Search for Infrared Positronium Line Emission from the Great Annihilator near the Galactic Centre  

E-print Network

. 1992). Misra & Melia (1993) have modeled the lobe emission as synchrotron radiation from e+ and e of the eld (Skinner 1992, personal communication Haller & Melia 1994). Previous radio recombination line

78

Hindawi Publishing Corporation EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing  

E-print Network

in Echoic Environments Using DESPRIT Thomas Melia and Scott Rickard Sparse Signal Processing Group experiments conducted on synthetic and real world mixtures. Copyright © 2007 T. Melia and S. Rickard

Rickard, Scott

79

A Search for Infrared Positronium Line Emission from the Great Annihilator near the Galactic Centre  

E-print Network

and for the radio and hard X­ray fluxes to be correlated (Mirabel et al. 1992). Misra & Melia (1993) have modeled, personal communication; Haller & Melia 1994). Previous radio recombination line searches for Ps near

80

27 CFR 9.139 - Santa Lucia Highlands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5) Soledad, Calif., 1955 (photorevised 1984) (6) Sycamore Flat, Calif., 1956 (photorevised 1984) (7) Paraiso...northwest corner of section 24, T. 18S., R. 5E on the Sycamore Flat, California U.S.G.S. map. (14) Then...

2010-04-01

81

The Shadow of the Black Hole at the Galactic Center 1  

E-print Network

The Shadow of the Black Hole at the Galactic Center 1 Heino Falcke \\Lambda , Fulvio Melia y (Khokhlov & Melia 1996). The nature of the radio emission in Sgr A* is not clear; the latter may be due hole (Melia 1992,1994; Narayan et al. 1995). Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations have

Falcke, Heino

82

Research Frontiers in Environmental  

E-print Network

September 15, 1998 Editors: Bruce E. Logan Charles R. O'Melia Bruce E. Rittmann A Report of a Workshop Chairs, Bruce Logan and Charles O'Melia, based on either membership in the National Academy. Perry L. McCarty,* Stanford University Dr. Charles R. O'Melia, The Johns Hopkins University Dr. James J

83

Astronomy & Astrophysics manuscript no. (will be inserted by hand later)  

E-print Network

solutions (Melia, Liu, & Coker 2001; Narayan et al. 1998) out ow solutions (Falcke, Mannheim, & Biermann). A recent review of Sgr A* can be found in Melia & Falcke (2001). Recently, Sgr A* was #12;nally detected) or a magnetic dynamo within the circularized accreting plasma (Melia, Liu, & Coker 2001). In this picture, the X

Falcke, Heino

84

IAU Symp. 205: Galaxies and their Constituents at the Highest Angular Resolution ASP Conference Series, Vol. TBD, 2001  

E-print Network

. Biermann 1 , Thomas P. Krichbaum 1 , Fulvio Melia 2 , Eric Agol 3 , Geo#11;rey Bower 4 Abstract. We show is still under deliberation (see Melia & Falcke 2001 for a review). One important question is whether the radiation from Sgr A* we see is actually produced in plasma being accreted (Melia 1992; Narayan et al. 1998

Falcke, Heino

85

Sex differentiation of the European eel in brackish and freshwater environments: a comparative analysis  

E-print Network

analysis P. MELIA` *, D. BEVACQUA*, A. J. CRIVELLI, J. PANFILI§, G. A. DE LEO{ AND M. GATTO* *Dipartimento be addressed. Tel.: þ39 02 2399 3680; fax: þ39 02 2399 3412; email: melia@elet.polimi.it Journal of Fish procedure described in Melia` et al. (2006) are used to compare three European eel populations from Medi

Gatto, Marino

86

Analysis and Improvement of a Pseudorandom Number Generator for EPC Gen2 Tags  

E-print Network

Analysis and Improvement of a Pseudorandom Number Generator for EPC Gen2 Tags J. Melia-Segui1 , J, 08018 Barcelona - Spain, melia@uoc.edu 2 Universitat Aut`onoma de Barcelona, Edifici Q, Campus de-destruction). PRNGs are, therefore, the crucial components that guarantee Gen2 security. #12;2 J. Melia-Segui, J

Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

87

The Central Parsecs of the Galaxy ASP Conference Series, Vol. 186, 1999  

E-print Network

.J. Duschl, F. Melia, M.J. Rieke, eds. Disks with Jet, ADAF, or EDAF for Sgr A ? A. C. Donea 1 , H. Falcke 2, Melia 1992), but the exact number will depend critically on the distribution of stellar wind sources in the Galactic Center (Coker & Melia 1999). What is peculiar about the central part of our Galaxy is that

Falcke, Heino

88

The Central Parsecs of the Galaxy ASP Conference Series, Vol. 186, 1999  

E-print Network

.J. Duschl, F. Melia, M.J. Rieke, eds. The Jet Model for Sgr A* H. Falcke Max­Planck­Institut f­temperature accretion flows (ADAFs, Narayan et al. 1995), Bondi­Hoyle accretion (Melia 1994), emission from mono A*; a comparison of the various approaches is given in Falcke (1996a) and Melia (1999). This paper

Falcke, Heino

89

Acuerdo de Colaboracin ao 2012-2013Acuerdo de Colaboracin ao 2012-2013Acuerdo de Colaboracin ao 2012-2013Acuerdo de Colaboracin ao 2012-2013 Equipo de Meli Hotels International -Reservas y ConsultasEquipo de Meli Hotels International -Reservas y Consultas  

E-print Network

.mail Exclusivo -----> kareservas@melia.com Es necesario indicar el código 208399208399208399208399 Internet ------------->Internet ------------->Internet ------------->Internet -------------> www.melia.com * Pinchando en la 44901 24 44 44901 24 44 44901 24 44 44 / e.mail: Grupos@melia.com CODIGO DE CLIENTE 208399CODIGO DE

Oro, Daniel

90

Accretion Disk Evolution with Wind Infall II. Results of 3D Hydrodynamical Simulations with an Illustrative Application to  

E-print Network

85721 (rfc@physics.arizona.edu) Fulvio Melia 2 Department of Physics & Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (melia@as.arizona.edu) Heino Falcke Max­Planck­Institut f¨ur Radioastronomie­dimensional equations for the temporal evolution of accretion disks with wind infall developed in Falcke & Melia 1997

Falcke, Heino

91

Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnoveterinary knowledge is highly significant for persistence of traditional community-based approaches to veterinary care. This is of particular importance in the context of developing and emerging countries, where animal health (that of livestock, especially) is crucial to local economies and food security. The current survey documents the traditional veterinary uses of medicinal plants in the Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Methods Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and by administering questionnaires. A total of 105 informants aged between 2075 years old who were familiar with livestock health issues (i.e. farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists) participated in the study. Results A total of 89 botanical taxa, belonging to 46 families, were reported to have ethnoveterinary applications. The most quoted families were Poaceae (6 taxa), Fabaceae (6), Asteraceae (5), and Polygonaceae (5). Adhatoda vasica was the most cited species (43%), followed by Trachyspermum ammi (37%), and Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum (36%). About 126 medications were recorded against more than 50 veterinary conditions grouped into seven categories. The highest cultural index values were recorded for Trachyspermum ammi, Curcuma longa, Melia azedarach, Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum and Adhatoda vasica. The highest informant consensus factor was found for pathologies related to respiratory and reproductive disorders. Comparison with the local plant-based remedies used in human folk medicine revealed that many of remedies were used in similar ways in local human phytotherapy. Comparison with other field surveys conducted in surrounding areas demonstrated that approximately one-half of the recorded plants uses are novel to the ethnoveterinary literature of the Himalayas. Conclusion The current survey shows a remarkable resilience of ethnoveterinary botanical knowledge in the study area. Most of the species reported for ethnoveterinary applications are wild and under threat. Thus, not only is it imperative to conserve traditional local knowledge of folk veterinary therapies for bio-cultural conservation motives, but also to assist with in-situ and ex-situ environmental conservation initiatives, which are urgently needed. Future studies that focus on the validation of efficacy of these ethnoveterinary remedies can help to substantiate emic concepts regarding the management of animal health care and for rural development programs. PMID:24359615

2013-01-01

92

arXiv:1304.1802v1[astro-ph.CO]5Apr2013 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 1?? (2013) Printed 9 April 2013 (MN LATEX style file v2.2)  

E-print Network

2013 (MN LATEX style file v2.2) Cosmic Chronometers in the Rh = ct Universe Fulvio Melia1 and Robert S. E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu E-mail: rsm@math.arizona.edu #12;2 Fulvio Melia and Robert S compliant to the underlying cosmology (see, e.g., Melia 2012a). Even so, some progress has been made

Masci, Frank

93

ccsd-00008003,version1-17Aug2005 2005 JANUARY 27  

E-print Network

/22/04 REPEATED X-RAY FLARING ACTIVITY IN SAGITTARIUS A* G. B´ELANGER,12 A. GOLDWURM,12 , F. MELIA3 , P. FERRANDO typical active and bright galactic nuclei, Sgr A* is very dim and shines at less than 10-9 (Melia & Falcke

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

Climate change under aggressive mitigation: the ENSEMBLES multi-model experiment  

E-print Network

° · D. P. van Vuuren · D. Salas y Melia · M. A. Giorgetta · S. Denvil · S. Yang · P. G. Fogli · J. Ko.-F. Royer Á D. Salas y Melia Centre National de Recherches Me´te´orologiques-Groupe d'Etude de l

Dufresne, Jean-Louis

95

Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 momentum, and so flow in radially. Such  

E-print Network

`Bondi­Hoyle' flows have very low radiation efficiencies. Melia then showed that a 10­4 -solar-mass yr­1 for a 2.6-million-solar-mass black hole accreting at 10­4 solar masses per year. Like Melia's Bondi

Columbia University

96

A VARIABILITY AND LOCALIZATION STUDY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER GAMMA-RAY SOURCE 3EG J17462851  

E-print Network

of high-energy -ray emission (Melia & Falcke 2001). A point source of GeV-scale -ray emission, 3EG J1746 be a separate source. Fattuzzo & Melia (2003) discuss Sgr A East, a nonthermal radio source with a supernova

Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

97

Spoc-experiment: Seismic Imaging and Bathymetry of The Central Chile Margin - First Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the RV SONNE cruise 161 Leg 1 to 5 (October 2001 to January 2002) Sub- duction Processes Off Chile (SPOC) have been investigated using a multi-disciplinary geoscientific approach. Here we report first results of multi channel seismic (MCS) experiments and high-resolution swath bathymetry data from Leg 3, south of Val- paraiso. 24 MCS profiles with a total length of

S. Ladage; C. Reichert; B. Schreckenberger; M. Block; C. Bnnemann; J. Canuta; D. Damaske; J. Diaz-Naveas; C. Gaedicke; C. Krawczyk; J. Kus; O. Urbina; J. Sepulveda

2002-01-01

98

Solar modulation of Little Ice Age climate in the tropical Andes  

E-print Network

Libertador, Avenida Paez, El Paraiso, Caracas, Venezuela; and Departament de Biologia Animal, Vegetal, i activity during the LIA. Venezuela is situated near the northern limit of the annual migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) (Fig. 1). The annual migration of the ITCZ between hemispheres leads

Wolfe, Alexander P.

99

Why the Rh = ct cosmology is a vacuum solution in disguise and why all big bang models should be so  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Melia and his coworkers have proposed the so-called Rh = ct cosmology where the scale factor of the universe is a(t) ? t and the spatial part is flat. Here, we look at this proposal from a fundamental angle. First, we note that Melia cosmology looks strikingly similar to the old Milne cosmology where a(t) ? t and the spatial part is negatively curved. It is known that though Milne cosmology is a valid Friedmann solution, it actually corresponds to ? = 0 and can be described by a globally static Minkowski metric. Secondly, we note that for the Melia model, Ricci & Kretschmann scalars assume their perfect static form hinting that it too may tacitly correspond to vacuum. To compare Melia universe with the Milne universe, we express Melia metric too in curvature/Schwarzschild coordinates. Finally, by using the fact for such coordinate transformations dx'4 = Jdx4, where J is the appropriate Jacobian, we explicitly show that Melia metric is static, which for k = 0 case implies vacuum. This shows that even apparently meaningful general relativistic solutions could be illusory as far as physical reality is concerned. And since Melia model is the unique solution for the big bang model, eventually, all big bang models could be mathematical illusions.

Mitra, Abhas

2014-07-01

100

accoladesCelebratingStudentandFacultyExcellenceintheCollegeofLiberalArts Thursday,April17,2014-IronsRecitalHall  

E-print Network

T. McDowell Research Awards Melia Belli (ART), Switzerland Justin Ginsberg (ART), Germany Seiji Ikeda (ART), Germany Darryl Lauster (ART), Holland Jennifer Ronyak (MUSI), Germany Brent Sasley (POLS Campbell (COMM) Sophia Ceballos (ART) Morgan Chivers (ART) Jason Clayden

Huang, Haiying

101

Nova Hedwigia Vol. 97 (2013) Issue 34, 415428 published online August 29, 2013  

E-print Network

Vinatzer (Chlorophyta) Veronika Kaufnerová1 and Marek Eliás1,2* 1 Charles University in Prague, Faculty incorporated it into the family Oocystaceae (Chlorophyta). Vinatzer pointed *corresponding author: melias

102

NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR  

PubMed Central

The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). PMID:22628901

Jones, Lynn A.; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Tern, Rommy; Len, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E.

2012-01-01

103

DERAPAGES DE L'ECOTOURISME DANS LA CONCEPTION D'ANNE VIGNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper has three parts: Introduction wich has the following sub chapters: 1.1. Tourism a double faceted activity and 1.2 OMT and ecotourism. The second part, Ecotourism failures, structured on the following sub chapters: 2.1.A list of disgrace, 2.2. The archaeological site of Mirador, 2.3. Paraiso del Mar, 2.4. Micos Beach, and the last part Conclusions and Bibliography. The paper

BORMA AFRODITA

2010-01-01

104

Multiple mode of action of the feeding deterrent, toosendanin, on the sense of taste in Pieris brassicae larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toosendanin, a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the bark of Melia toosendan, is a feeding deterrent for larvae of Pieris brassicae. By using electrophysiological techniques, it was found that toosendanin stimulates a deterrent receptor cell located in the medial maxillary sensillum styloconicum. Toosendanin also inhibits responses of both the sugar and glucosinolate receptor cell, which are localized in the lateral sensillum styloconicum.

L. M. Schoonhoven; Luo Lin-er

1994-01-01

105

Biological effects of toosendanin, a triterpenoid extracted from Chinese traditional medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toosendanin (TSN) is a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc, which was used as a digestive tract-parasiticide and agricultural insecticide in ancient China. TSN was demonstrated to be a selective presynaptic blocker and an effective antibotulismic agent. By interfering with neurotransmitter release through an initial facilitation followed by a subsequent depression, TSN eventually blocks synaptic transmission at both

Yu-Liang Shi; Mu-Feng Li

2007-01-01

106

EUTROPHICATION OF SWEDISH SEAS Donald Boesch  

E-print Network

#12;EUTROPHICATION OF SWEDISH SEAS Donald Boesch Robert Hecky Charles O'Melia, Chair David and the water mass. In the in-depth evaluation of the environmental quality objective "Zero Eutrophication to achieve the environmental quality objective. An international panel of highly qualified eutrophication

107

PLANT CRUDE EXTRACTS COULD BE THE SOLUTION: EXTRACTS SHOWING IN VIVO ANTITUMORIGENIC ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of:

AMARA AA; EL-MASRY MH; BOGDADY HH

108

Ovicidal activity of crude extracts of few traditional plants against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cipadessa baccifera Miq., Melia dubia (Cav.) (Meliaceae); Clausena dentata (Rutaceae) and Dodonaea angustifolia (Sapindaceae) are common medicinal plants found in Western Ghats and are used traditionally for various purposes. The petroleum ether, chloroform, hexane, acetone and water extracts of the leaves were investigated for their ovicidal property against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae). The different extracts of the test

S. Malarvannan; R. Giridharan; S. Sekar; V. R. Prabavathy; Sudha Nair

2009-01-01

109

A tale of two cave records from the Amazon lowlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a comparison between two high-resolved, U/Th-dated, speleothem d18O records through the last ~45,000 years from caves located in the eastern and western Amazon lowlands. The record from Paraiso Cave (04o04'S, 55o27'W) shows higher d18O values during the glacial period, but lower values in Holocene, with a shift of 7 per mil. On the other hand, the d18O values recorded at Diamante cave (05o44'S, 77o30'W) stay low with similar late glacial and Holocene values, varying within ~2 per mil through the whole profile. Both records register millennial-scale variations, which are anti-phased with the Hulu-Dongge speleothem record, consistent with the previously observed meridional shift of the tropical rainfall belt. However, d18O values in two records have a large offset during the glacial, but not in Holocene. We suggest the Amazon Basin was relatively dry in the glacial time. Therefore, rainfall d18O in the Basin was dominated by a typical continental fractionation along a moisture trajectory. During the Holocene, higher rainfall and denser rainforest in the lowlands may have resulted in more water recycling through transpiration. Therefore, moisture d18O gradient would be reduced between the two sites. Despite the drier conditions inferred for the glacial Amazon lowlands, d13C values in the Paraiso record never reach high values; thus ruling out vegetation dominated by C4 plants.

Wang, X.; Auler, A.; Edwards, R.; Cheng, H.; Dorale, J. A.

2013-12-01

110

Mineral chemical and geochronological constraints on the age and provenance of the eastern Circum-Rhodope Belt low-grade metasedimentary rocks, NE Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In north-eastern Greece the mid-greenschist facies Makri Unit and the anchizonal Melia Formation belong to the eastern Circum-Rhodope Belt that forms the uppermost tectonostratigraphic unit of the Rhodope metamorphic nappe pile. The two metasedimentary successions had different source areas, although they now lie in close proximity in the Rhodope Massif. The U-Pb isotopic ages of detrital zircons from a metasandstone of the Makri Unit analysed using LA-SF-ICP-MS and SHRIMP-II gave age clusters at ca. 310-290 Ma and at ca. 240 Ma for magmatic zircons, which may have been derived from Carboniferous-Permian basement rocks of the Thracia Terrane (Lower Tectonic Unit of the Rhodope Massif) that subsequently underwent Triassic rifting. The youngest detrital zircon grains found so far indicate that the metasedimentary succession of the Makri Unit, or at least parts of it, cannot be older than Late Triassic. By contrast, clastic sedimentary rocks of the Melia Formation contain the primary detrital mineral assemblage of epidote, zoisite, garnet, and phengitic mica, which is absent in the Makri Unit, and clearly points to metamorphic rocks being the major source for these sediments. U-Pb analyses of detrital zircons gave a prominent age cluster at ca. 315-285 Ma for magmatic zircons. Inherited cores indicate the involvement of Pan-African and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian crustal sources during Late Carboniferous-Early Permian igneous event(s). Moreover, U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology indicates that the Melia Formation cannot be older than latest Middle Jurassic. We suggest that the Melia Formation was deposited in front of a metamorphic nappe pile with Rhodopean affinities in Tithonian or Cretaceous times. Both the Makri Unit and the Melia Formation have been tectonically juxtaposed from different sources to their present location during Balkan and Alpine orogenic processes.

Meinhold, Guido; Reischmann, Thomas; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Frei, Dirk; Larionov, Alexander N.

2010-08-01

111

The period distribution of cataclysmic variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper, Warner and Livio (1987) claim that the AM Her and SU UMa cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods P less than 2 hr show a tendency to cluster in disjoint period ranges. It is shown here that the statistical significance of this result is entirely due to the large accumulation of AM Her systems in the range 113.5-114.8 minutes. It has been shown elsewhere that this period spike is probably caused by the resumption of mass transfer after the systems cross the 2-3 hr period gap. It is emphasized that the 'synchronization-induced gap' mechanism of Lamb and Melia (1987) is based on an incorrect assumption about the contraction time scale of a mass-losing secondary star and cannot produce any significant gap in the period distribution of AM Her systems or lead to the formation of ultrashort-period CVs, as claimed by Lamb and Melia.

Hameury, J. M.; King, A. R.; Lasota, J. P.; Ritter, H.

1988-04-01

112

[Severe poisoning by plants used for traditional medicine in Mayotte].  

PubMed

The authors describe three cases of severe accidental poisoning by plants used as part of a traditional treatment in Mayotte. The established, or suspected, toxicity of Thevetia peruviana (Yellow oleander), Cinchona pubescens (Red quinine-tree), Melia azaderach (Persian lilac, also called china berry) and Azadirachta indica (Neem), is discussed. The clinical presentation is cardiac (atrioventricular block) and well known for Thevetia and Cinchona intoxications. Neurological signs and multi-organ failure are found for Azadirachta and Melia. The identification of the plants is never easy, nor is the evidence of their accountability. In the three cases reported, no other cause than the traditional treatment has been found to explain the clinical presentation. The outcome was favorable in all cases. The authors emphasize the difficulties to investigate these accidents, the poor medical knowledge of these practices in tropical areas, and in Mayotte particularly. The need for cooperation with local botanists, familiar with traditional medicine, is also underlined. PMID:25301110

Durasnel, P; Vanhuffel, L; Blond, R; Lion, F; Galas, T; Mousset-Hovaere, M; Bala, I; Viscardi, G; Valyi, L

2014-12-01

113

Diseases caused by Ganoderma spp. on perennial crops in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Ganoderma applanatum (Pres. Wallr) Pat. and G. lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst attack species of Pinus, Dalbergia, Artocarpus, Morus, Cedrus, Melia, Quercus, Populus and other trees in Pakistan causing stem, butt and root rot diseases. A research institution to manage the diseases of perennial crops in general and of trees yielding edible oil in particular such as coconut and oil palm needs to be established in Pakistan. PMID:15750743

Nasir, Nasreen

2005-01-01

114

The Anti-Botulism Triterpenoid Toosendanin Elicits Calcium Increase and Exocytosis in Rat Sensory Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toosendanin, a triterpenoid from Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc, has been found before to be an effective anti-botulism agent, with a bi-phasic effect at both motor nerve endings and central\\u000a synapse: an initial facilitation followed by prolonged depression. Initial facilitation may be due to activation of voltage-dependent\\u000a calcium channels plus inhibition of potassium channels, but the depression is not fully

Xiao Feng Fang; Zong Jie Cui

115

Hydrodynamic Aspects of Particle Clogging in Porous Media  

PubMed Central

Data from 6 filtration studies, representing 43 experiments, are analyzed with a simplified version of the single-parameter OMelia and Ali clogging model. The model parameter displays a systematic dependence on fluid velocity, which was an independent variable in each study. A cake filtration model also explains the data from one filtration study by varying a single, velocity-dependent parameter, highlighting that clogging models, because they are empirical, are not unique. Limited experimental data indicate exponential depth dependence of particle accumulation, whose impact on clogging is quantified with an extended OMelia and Ali model. The resulting two-parameter model successfully describes the increased clogging that is always observed in the top segment of a filter. However, even after accounting for particle penetration, the two-parameter model suggests that a velocity-dependent parameter representing deposit morphology must also be included to explain the data. Most of the experimental data are described by the single-parameter OMelia and Ali model, and the model parameter is correlated to the collector Peclet number. PMID:15707058

MAYS, DAVID C.; HUNT, JAMES R.

2010-01-01

116

Trial Protocol: Using genotype to tailor prescribing of nicotine replacement therapy: a randomised controlled trial assessing impact of communication upon adherence  

E-print Network

in its broader context. In Dual process theories in social psychology. Edited by: Chaiken S, Trope Y. New York: Guildford Press; 1999:73-96. 7. Li MD: The genetics of nicotine dependence. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2006, 8:158-164. 8. Li MD, Cheng R, Ma JZ, Swan... , Johnson AD, Papp AC, Sadee W: Allelic expression imbalance of human mu opioid receptor (OPRM1) caused by variant A118G. J Biol Chem 2005, 280:32618-32624. 14. Bond C, LaForge KS, Tian M, Melia D, Zhang S, Borg L, Gong J, Schluger J, Strong JA, Leal SM...

Marteau, Theresa M; Munafo, Marcus R; Aveyard, Paul; Hill, Chloe; Whitwell, Sophia C L; Willis, Thomas A; Crockett, Rachel A; Hollands, Gareth J; Johnstone, Elaine C; Wright, Alison J; Prevost, A Toby; Armstrong, David; Sutton, Stephen; Kinmonth, Ann Louise

2010-11-09

117

Multipeaked X-ray bursts from 4U/MXB 1636-53 - Evidence against burst-induced accretion disk coronae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The burst-induced accretion-disk corona (BIADC) model proposed by Melia (1987) to explain the multiple-peak burst profiles of 4U/MXB 1636-53 in terms of direct and scattered components is examined critically. Published observational data (Sztajno et al., 1986, and Lewin et al., 1987) are presented in tables and graphs and analyzed. A number of possible BIADC scenarios are discussed, and it is argued that the observed characteristics of the 1636-53 bursts are not well accounted for by the BIADC model.

Penninx, W.; Lewin, W. H. G.; van Paradijs, J.

1987-10-01

118

Multipeaked X-ray bursts from 4U/MXB 1636-53 - evidence against burst-induced accretion disk coronae  

SciTech Connect

The burst-induced accretion-disk corona (BIADC) model proposed by Melia (1987) to explain the multiple-peak burst profiles of 4U/MXB 1636-53 in terms of direct and scattered components is examined critically. Published observational data (Sztajno et al., 1986, and Lewin et al., 1987) are presented in tables and graphs and analyzed. A number of possible BIADC scenarios are discussed, and it is argued that the observed characteristics of the 1636-53 bursts are not well accounted for by the BIADC model. 11 references.

Penninx, W.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Van Paradijs, J.

1987-10-01

119

Deep seated tectonic-gravitive failure and large landslide in the area from Scilla to Punta Pezzo (Calabria region South Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical analysis of the morphological characters of the Southern Calabria region in the area from Scilla (RC province- Southern Italy) to Messina Strait show some geomorphological anomalies due to deep tectonic-gravitational failures and landslides induced by the uplift of the same area. The above mentioned phenomena involve, in fact the whole structure of the ridge included between the coastline and Fiumara di Catona (Catona Torrent), starting from Melia Highland (Pian della Melia) towards the promontory of Punta Pezzo on Messina Strait; and have a severe influence on the morphological forms of the territory, on the surface and coastal erosion phenomena and probably, also on the effect of seismic shocks on large engineering works, as the-to-be built Messina Strait bridge, which is very close to Scilla and Punta Pezzo area. The evidence of these failure can be recognized in the arched morphological steps breaking down the crystalline rock masses, but specially in the hydrographic stream network that is so deep and irregular in crystalline rocks that cannot be imputed only to surficial erosion. In fact at the end of the main streams or torrents as Santa Trara or San Gregorio torrents (fiumare) there are not relevant alluvial fan deposits. These tectonic-gravitative failure have been favored by the presence of biotitic schists underlying gneiss and granite rock masses. The first ones has a stiffness lower than the seconds, so they are more deformable. It is also possible that schist rock masses overlie the more deformable phyllite rocks, not outcropping in the area, as it happen in other zones of Calabria region (Guerricchio e Al., 2007). Tectonic-gravitative failures have broken and disarticulated also the terraces of Late Pleistocene deposits lying over the crystalline basement multiplied by these failures, so that may seem terraces of different order. The coastal slope between Gioia Tauro and Scilla is quite high and in a sudden way changes its form just in the area of Scilla. It is due to the presence of an ancient deep large landslide involving the whole area from Melia Highland to the town of Scilla and the sea, changing the form of the landscape. The deep failures toward West have created at the level of Scilla a large opening that has made it possible large gravitative collapse, that with a sort of "pincer" movements involving the masses in the high zone back to Scilla toward Melia Highlands, that slide toward Scilla displacing also the Tirrenian alluvial fans and the terraces creating the today coastline.

Guerricchio, A.; Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.

2012-04-01

120

Multipeaked X-ray bursts from 4U/MXB 1636-53 - Evidence against burst-induced accretion disk coronae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The burst-induced accretion-disk corona (BIADC) model proposed by Melia (1987) to explain the multiple-peak burst profiles of 4U/MXB 1636-53 in terms of direct and scattered components is examined critically. Published observational data (Sztajno et al., 1986, and Lewin et al., 1987) are presented in tables and graphs and analyzed. A number of possible BIADC scenarios are discussed, and it is argued that the observed characteristics of the 1636-53 bursts are not well accounted for by the BIADC model.

Penninx, W.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Van Paradijs, J.

1987-01-01

121

Phytochemical Analysis of Eight Medicinal Plants from Amravati District (MS) India  

E-print Network

Abstract- The preliminary phytochemical analysis of eight medicinal plants from Amravati District (MS) was done. The plants were Abutilon indicum L.(Swart)., Euphrbia hirta L., Ficus hispida L. f., Melia azedarch L., Phyllathus reticulatus Poir.,Psidium guajava L., vitex negundo L., Vitex pinnata L. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plants confirms the presence of various phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoid. The presence of these phytochemicals can be correlated with medicinal potential of these plants. Index Terms- Medicinal plants, Phytochemical analysis, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoid

P. G. Dhawale

122

Determination of the reactivity of cytotoxic immune cells with preimplantation mouse embryos  

SciTech Connect

Cytotoxic immune cells were used in an assay, MELIA (mixed embryo leukocyte interaction assay) to test the ability of the cells to kill blastocyst stage embryos. The cytotoxic immune cells generated for use in this study, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer (NK) cells, and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells were shown to have phenotypic and cytolytic characteristics similar to those reported by other investigators. The lysis of the blastocysts in the MELIA was determined by measuring the inhibition of blastocoel retention and/or by the inhibition of incorporation of tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) into embryonic DNA. Blastocysts which possess or lack their zonae pellucidae were tested to determine whether the zona pellucida plays an immunoprotective role in preimplantation development. The results indicated that CTLs only lysed embryonic cells when the zona pellucida was absent, but NK and LAK cells lysed embryonic cells whether the zona pellucida was present or absent. The results suggest that the zona pellucida may protect the preimplantation mouse embryo from lysis by CTLs but what protects the embryo from lysis by NK and LAK cells is unclear.

Ewoldsen, M.A.

1987-01-01

123

Why the Big Bang Model does not allow inflationary and cyclic cosmologies though mathematically one can obtain any model with favourable assumptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various versions of standard Big Bang Model (BBM) including the current LCDM cosmology require an inflationary phase for the nascent universe (?t?10-32 s) during which the size of the universe blows up by a factor of ?1078. However, the so-called Rh=ct cosmology (Melia, 2013a) claims that the isotropy and homogeneity of the present universe can be understood without assuming any inflationary phase. To this effect, Melia and his coworkers have often invoked Weyls Postulate and Birkhoffs Theorem to qualitatively argue for this novel model. On the other hand, here, we explore for a cogent analytical basis of the Rh=ct proposal which is claimed to have such a profound implication. First we show that (i) if the spatial flatness of the BBM would be presumed, Rh=ct cosmology may indeed follow. To further explore this issue without prior assumption of flatness (ii) we equate the twin expressions for the Energy Complex (EC) associated with BBM computed by using the same Einstein pseudo-tensor and quasi-Cartesian coordinates (Mitra, 2013b). This exercise surprisingly shows that BBM has tacit and latent self-consistency constraints: it is spatially flat and its scale factor a(t)?t. Accordingly, it seems that, there is no scope for the other models including inflationary and cyclic ones. The real lumpy universe may be too complex for the simplistic Big Bang model.

Mitra, Abhas

2014-07-01

124

Magnetic braking and the evolution of cataclysmic binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors study the evolution and the period distribution of cataclysmic variables using a magnetic braking law proposed recently by Mestel & Spruit (1987). The application of this law gives a predicted period distribution that matches the observed one. The authors also show that the observed accumulation of AM Her systems with periods in the range 114 - 115 min can be explained in terms of evolution, as a result of the adiabatic expansion of the secondary when accretion resumes at the end of the period gap provided that the masses of the white dwarfs in AM Her systems are in a restricted range. The authors examine finally the recent claim by Lamb & Melia (1987) that when the magnetic white dwarf synchronizes with the orbit, the system detaches, and enters a prolonged gap. They show that the proposed mechanism does not work, and that synchronization has a relatively small effect on the evolution of these systems.

Hameury, J. M.; King, A. R.; Lasota, J. P.; Ritter, H.

1988-03-01

125

Evolution of magnetic cataclysmic binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors study the magnetic cataclysmic binary evolution. They describe the results of recent calculations (Lamb and Melia, 1986) and identify four regimes: (1) When the magnetic moment ?1 ? 1031G cm3, the magnetic field of the degenerate dwarf is unable to funnel the accretion flow; these systems are not DQ Her stars and may show little or no evidence of a magnetic field. (2) Systems with 1031G cm3 ? ?1 ? 1033G cm3 are always DQ Her stars. (3) Systems with 1033G cm3 ? ?1 ? 1035G cm3 are DQ Her stars which evolve into AM Her stars, assuming ?1 is constant throughout their evolution (an assumption which may not be valid). (4) Systems with 1035G cm3 ? ?1 are always AM Her stars.

Lamb, D. Q.; Melia, F.

1987-03-01

126

The edge of infinity. Supermassive black holes in the universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, they were recognized as the most destructive force in nature. Now, following a cascade of astonishing discoveries, supermassive black holes have undergone a dramatic shift in paradigm. Astronomers are finding out that these objects may have been critical to the formation of structure in the early universe, spawning bursts of star formation, planets, and even life itself. They may have contributed as much as half of all the radiation produced after the Big Bang, and as many as 200 million of them may now be lurking through the vast expanses of the observable cosmos. In this elegant, non-technical account, Melia conveys for the general reader the excitement generated by the quest to expose what these giant distortions in the fabric of space and time have to say about our origin and ultimate destiny.

Melia, Fulvio

127

Ray tracing in FLRW flat space-times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we take moves from the debate triggered by Melia et al. in [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 09 (2012) 029; Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 421, 3356 (2012)] and followed by opposite comments by Lewis and Oirschot in [Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. Lett. 423, 26 (2012); 431, 25 (2013)]. The point in question regards the role of the Hubble horizon as a limit for observability in a cosmological setting. We propose to tackle the issue in a broader way by relating it to the causal character of the Hubble surface and to the tracing of null trajectories, focusing on both three-fluids and generalized Chaplygin gas models. The results should make clear that for quite reasonable and physically motivated models, light rays reaching a comoving observer at R(t0)=0 have never traveled a distance greater than the proper radius of the horizon until t0.

Acquaviva, Giovanni; Bonetti, Luca; Cognola, Guido; Zerbini, Sergio

2013-12-01

128

A Search for SGR A* at 8.8microns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a deep continuum map of the central parsec of the Galaxy at 8.8 microns obtained with SpectroCam-10 at Palomar Observatory in June and July 1994 with 0.8" spatial resolution. These observations were conducted in order to search for a point source at the position of Sgr A*. The infrared position of Sgr A* was determined by registering the infrared and radio positions of the supergiant IRS 7 and then offsetting by the relative radio positions of IRS 7 and Sgr A*. The predicted flux from a thin accretion disk around a supermassive black hole at the position of Sgr A* is 19 mJy at 8.8 microns based on the detection of a near infrared source at K~12. This infrared wavelength was chosen in order to maximize the ratio of expected flux to background dust continuum, which dominates the point source sensitivity rather than the noise level. We discuss the results of various methods employed in an attempt to detect a point source in the region. A point-like source was detected 1.5" to the southwest of Sgr A*; however, we estimate our absolute positioning to be correct to better than 0.5", so it is unlikely that this source is coincident with Sgr A*. We also detected a ``tail'' of continuum emission extending northward of IRS 7. This tail was previously observed in the radio continuum \\footnote{Yusef-Zadeh, F. and Melia, F. 1992, ApJ 385, L41.} and is thought to be a cometary feature created by strong stellar winds originating from the IRS16 cluster. Close, L., McCarthy, D., and Melia, F. ApJ. 1994, in press.

Stolovy, Susan R.; Hayward, Thomas; Herter, Terry

1994-12-01

129

The Circum-Rhodope Belt, northern Greece: Age, provenance, and tectonic setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Circum-Rhodope Belt (CRB) sensu stricto comprises low-grade metamorphosed Triassic and Jurassic sedimentary rocks fringing the high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Serbo-Macedonian and Rhodope massifs in northern Greece. Main outcrops occur in the easternmost part of the Vardar suture zone in the Chalkidiki peninsula (Melissochori Formation; formerly Svoula flysch) and in Thrace (Makri unit and Melia Formation). The tectonostratigraphic relationship between the CRB and the high-grade metamorphics has been the subject of long discussions. Older interpretations maintain that the CRB represents the original Mesozoic stratigraphic cover of the Serbo-Macedonian crystalline basement, whereas later revisions propose the existence of two distinct greenschist-facies Mesozoic metasedimentary units: an eastern unit related to the development of a Jurassic black shale basin north of the Rhodope, and a western unit related to the development of an olistostromic flysch in the Cretaceous. Here we present a critical re-evaluation of the CRB with regard to its age, provenance, and tectonic setting based on novel geochemical and isotopic data. The Makri unit and the Melissochori Formation belong to the CRB proper and were deposited in proximity to Carboniferous-Early Permian igneous basement rocks (Pelagonia / Strandja / Thracia Terrane) in latest Triassic and Jurassic times, as shown by a prominent detrital zircon age population of 350-290 Ma. By contrast, the Melia Formation is unrelated to the CRB and was deposited in a foreland basin in front of a metamorphic nappe pile with Rhodopean affinities in the early Cretaceous, as shown by a prominent detrital zircon age population of 315-285 Ma and xenocrysts of ~ 550 Ma and ~ 450 Ma. Thus, the commonly accepted CRB concepts have to be revisited. All units have been tectonically juxtaposed to their present location during Balkan and Alpine orogenic processes.

Meinhold, Guido; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios K.

2013-06-01

130

Fluid Velocity, Particle Penetration, and Permeability Reduction in Clogging Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colloids depositing in porous media cause significant permeability reduction, which is relevant in groundwater remediation, aquifer storage and hydroseismicity. It is well known that permeability depends on soil chemistry, which influences deposit morphology. However, the effect of hydrodynamics on deposit morphology has received less attention; efforts to describe this relationship in constant-flow column experiments have been confounded by the fact that higher fluid velocity causes deeper particle penetration and consequentially less clogging near the filter inlet. This poster describes an attempt to quantify the influence of fluid velocity on particle penetration and deposit morphology based on O'Melia and Ali's filter clogging model. Previous applications of this model have accounted for non-uniform deposition along the flow direction by considering segments in series. We propose an alternative approach by assuming that (1) O'Melia and Ali's clogging model is locally valid, and (2) the distribution of particles along the flow direction is exponential, as predicted by the classical filtration theory for clean beds. Integrating a differential head loss equation along the flow direction results in an expression for head loss at any point along the column that depends on two empirical factors: one that describes the characteristic distance of particle penetration, and one that describes the deposit morphology. The approach was applied to published data from three sources, representing a total of 29 filtration experiments, in which head loss was measured separately in the top section of the column. The imposed approach velocity in these experiments ranged from 6 to 480 m/d. Results confirm that increasing fluid velocity results in deeper particle penetration. However, the increasing penetration depth only partially explains the increasing permeability observed for a given mass of deposited particles, suggesting that deposit morphology also plays an important role.

Mays, D. C.; Hunt, J. R.

2003-12-01

131

South American Summer Monsoon history recorded in Brazilian speleothems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained three high-resolution oxygen isotopic records of cave calcites from Caverna Botuver, southern Brazil, Gruta do Padre, central Brazil, and Caverna Paraso, Amazonian Brazil. All three records have chronologies determined by U-Th dates and span the last 90, 20 and 50 thousand years, respectively. Tests for equilibrium conditions show that their oxygen isotopic variations are primarily caused by climate change. The three records thus can provide information about precipitation history and fluctuations of the South American Summer Monsoon along a latitudinal transect from 28 S to 4 S. During the last glacial period, the three oxygen isotopic profiles show abrupt millennial-scale variations, which are anti- correlated with the Chinese speleothem monsoon records and northern high-latitude ice core records. This is likely related to the displacement of the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone and associated asymmetry of Hadley cells, consistent with an oceanic meridional overturning circulation mechanism for driving the abrupt climate events. However, the three records show distinct isotopic patterns in Holocene epoch. The ?18O values in the Botuvera record decrease steadily throughout Holocene, while in the Padre record, the ?18O drops slightly until ~6-7 thousand years ago and then gradually increases until the present. The Paraiso Holocene record is similar to the Padre one, but with a much greater amplitude. Together with Andean ice core and lake records, our observations suggest asynchronous changes in Holocene monsoonal precipitation in South America, possibly related to strengthened zonal tropical air-sea interactions after the melting of the large northern ice sheets.

Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.

2008-12-01

132

Identification and distribution of New World Leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Five hundred thirty stocks of Leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of American cutaneous (ACL) and visceral leishmaniases (AVL) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. This study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these monoclonals for the L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. donovani complexes. This study also demonstrates the relative stability of these molecular markers and the general usefulness of the method for parasite identification. Two hundred ninety-two of 420 isolates of ACL were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex. Two hundred twenty-seven were L. b. braziliensis; these showed the widest geographical distribution (Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo; Honduras: Santa Barbara and Yoko; Peru: Ancash, Piura, and Ucayali; and Venezuela: Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Portuguesa, Vale Hondo, Yaracuy, and Zulia). Forty-one stocks were identified as L. b. guyanensis (from North Brazil: Amazonas, Amapa, Para, and Rondonia). Twenty-one stocks were identified as L. b. panamensis (from Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacasten, Limon, Puntarenas, and San Jose; and Honduras: El Paraiso, and Olancho). Out of 128 isolates classified as members of the L. mexicana complex, 74 were differentiated as L. m. amazonensis (from Bolivia; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso do Norte, and Para; Peru: Pasco Forest and Van Humboldt; and Venezuela: Carabobo, Guarico, and Merida). Forty-four stocks were identified as L. m. venezuelensis (from Venezuela: Lara). Six stocks were L. m. mexicana (from Belize; and Mexico: Campeche [corrected] and Quintana Roo, Yucatan). One hundred ten isolates from AVL were identified as L. donovani chagasi (from Brazil: Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, and Sergipe; and Honduras: Valle). The implications of these results with respect to both the clinical and epidemiological data (including the detection of seven unusual characterized stocks) are discussed. PMID:3826486

Grimaldi, G; David, J R; McMahon-Pratt, D

1987-03-01

133

Towards incorporating a turbulent magnetic field in an accreting black hole model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model proposed by Melia & Ruffert to evaluate the spectrum and radiation flux for accretion on to a black hole makes use of the `equipartition assumption' in which the magnetic, turbulent and gravitational energy densities are assumed to be in approximate equilibrium for distances below the accretion radius, where Bondi-Hoyle infall begins. As a consequence, the mechanism for the dissipation of the magnetic field and the resulting effect on the flow of the accreting gas have not been treated quantitatively. Here we examine alternative approaches for modelling the dissipation of magnetic fields and turbulent flow to see how these may be incorporated into the model. The results of our study should be immediately applicable to the ever-improving measurements of the spectrum and size of the massive black hole at our Galactic Centre, in particular producing a more accurate estimate of its mass. Combined with greatly refined kinematic studies of this region, our work may constrain the dark matter concentration in the nucleus of our Galaxy.

Kowalenko, Victor; Melia, Fulvio

1999-12-01

134

We do not live in the Rh = ct universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the possibility that our Universe could be described by the model recently proposed by Melia & Shevchuk, where the Hubble scale Rh = c/H is at all times equal to the distance ct that light has travelled since the big bang. In such a model, the scale factor is proportional to cosmic time, and there is neither acceleration nor deceleration of the expansion. We first point out problems with the very foundations of the model and its consequences for the evolution of the Universe. Next, we compare predictions of the model with observational data. As probes of the expansion we use distance data of Type Ia supernovae as well as Hubble rate data obtained from cosmic chronometers and radial baryon acoustic oscillations. We analyse the redshift evolution of the Hubble parameter and its redshift derivatives, together with the so-called Om diagnostic and the deceleration parameter. To reliably estimate smooth functions and their derivatives from discrete data, we use the recently developed Gaussian Processes in PYTHON (GAPP) package. Our general conclusion is that the discussed model is strongly disfavoured by observations, especially at low redshifts (z?0.5). In particular, it predicts specific constant values for the deceleration parameter and for redshift derivatives of the Hubble parameter, which is ruled out by the data.

Bilicki, Maciej; Seikel, Marina

2012-09-01

135

1-O-tigloyl-1-O-deacetyl-nimbolinin B inhibits LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses by suppressing NF-?B and JNK activation in microglia cells.  

PubMed

Overactivation of microglia may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and HIV dementia. Thus, regulating microglial activation has been an important therapeutic strategy for treating neurodegenerative diseases. In this research, we compared three limonoids compounds extracted from Melia toosendan by a cell-based assay to investigate their anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglia cells. Our study indicated that 1-O-tigloyl-1-O-deacetyl-nimbolinin B (TNB) markedly suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in LPS-stimulated microglia cells. TNB also inhibited the gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TNF-?, cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and interleukin (IL)-1?. In addition, TNB inhibited generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that TNB significantly attenuated the nuclear translocation of NF-?B, inhibiting the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Furthermore, TNB reduced cytotoxicity of activated microglia toward HT-22 hippocampal cells in a co-culture system. Taken together, our experimental results reveal, for the first time, that TNB is a potent inhibitor of microglia-mediated inflammation, and it might be a potential candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25018136

Tao, Li; Zhang, Fali; Hao, Lili; Wu, Jing; Jia, Jia; Liu, Jiang-yun; Zheng, Long Tai; Zhen, Xuechu

2014-01-01

136

Measuring the black hole parameters in the galactic center with RADIOASTRON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Holz and Wheeler (2002) [ApJ 578, 330] considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e., retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper, we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. Some time ago Falcke, Melia, Agol (2000) [ApJ 528, L13S] suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper, we present the boundaries for shadows. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.

Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.

2005-06-01

137

Shadows (Mirages) Around Black Holes and Retro Gravitational Lensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Holz & Wheeler [1] considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e. retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages (a detailed description of the problem is given in [2]). In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. Some time ago Falcke, Melia & Agol [3] suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper we present the boundaries for shadows calculated numerically. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.

Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; Depaolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.

138

Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.  

PubMed

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

139

The Kerr Spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of illustrations; Contributors; Foreword; Part I. General Relativity: Classical Studies of the Kerr Geometry: 1. The Kerr spacetime: a brief introduction Matt Visser; 2. The Kerr and Kerr-Schild metrics Roy P. Kerr; 3. Roy Kerr and twistor theory Roger Penrose; 4. Global and local problems solved by the Kerr metric Brandon Carter; 5. Four decades of black hole uniqueness theorems David C. Robinson; 6. Ray-traced visualisations Benjamin R. Lewis, Susan M. Scott; Part II. Astrophysics: The Ongoing Observational Revolution: 7. The ergosphere and dyadosphere of the Kerr black hole Remo Ruffini; 8. Supermassive Black Holes Fulvio Melia; 9. The X-ray spectra of accreting Kerr black holes Andrew C. Fabian, Giovanni Miniutti; 10. Cosmological flashes from rotating black holes Maurice H.P.M. van Putten; Part III. Quantum Gravity: Rotating Black Holes at the Theoretical Frontiers: 11. Horizon constraints and black hole entropy Steve Carlip; 12. Higher dimensional generalizations of the Kerr black hole Gary T. Horowitz; Part IV. Appendices: 13. Gravitational field of a spinning mass Roy P. Kerr; 14. Gravitational collapse and rotation Roy P. Kerr; Index.

Wiltshire, David L.; Visser, Matt; Scott, Susan M.

2009-01-01

140

The Galactic Positron Annihilation Medium: Is Ionized Helium A Viable Candidate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the possibility that the 511 keV electron-positron annihilation line coming from the direction of the galactic center could be the result of thermal positrons annihilating via Ps formation from charge exchange with singly ionized helium.[Fatuzzo:2000] We present an analysis of the galactic line profiles, comparing the observed line shape to the expected line shape for the proposed annihilation mechanism at various temperatures. We calculate the FWHM by both Monte Carlo and analytical techniques, using empirically derived Ps formation, ionization, and excitation cross sections for the e^+- He^+ interactions. It is found that the FWHM of the annihilation spectrum for this process shows a logarithmic temperature dependence. We conclude that ionized helium is an unlikely annihilation medium for a reasonable ambient electron temperature, given that the calculated FWHM exceeds the upper maximum of the error bars of the weighted average of the line widths of all observations known to the authors. [Fatuzzo:2000] M. Fatuzzo, F. Melia, and J. Rafelski, Astrophys. J. 549, 293 (2000)

Franking, Matthew

2005-04-01

141

Shadow shapes around the black hole in the galactic centre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Holz & Wheeler (2002) considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e. retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. We discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. Some time ago Falcke, Melia & Agol (2000) suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper we present the boundaries for shadows calculated numerically. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.

Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.

142

Preliminary description of biocidal (syringomycin) activity in fluorescent plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species.  

PubMed

Strains representing the fluorescent plant pathogenic Pseudomonas spp., Ps. agarici, Ps. asplenii, Ps. avellanae, Ps. beteli, Ps. caricapapayae, Ps. cichorii, Ps. corrugata, Ps. ficuserectae, Ps. flectens, Ps. fuscovaginae, Ps. marginalis, Ps. meliae, Ps. savastanoi, Ps. syringae, Ps. tolaasii and Ps. viridiflava were tested for biocidal activity using Aspergillus niger as assay organism. Inhibitory behaviour was found in strains of Ps. asplenii, Ps. blatchfordae, Ps. cichorii, Ps. corrugata, Ps. fuscovaginae, Ps. marginalis, Ps. marginalis pv. pastinacea, Ps. syringae pv. syringae, Ps. syringae pv. aptata, Ps. syringae pv. atrofaciens, Ps. syringae pv. lapsa, Ps. tolaasii, and strains of a Pseudomonas sp. pathogenic to Actinidia, in the Ps. savastanoi genomic sp. Antifungal activity could be identified with the production of members of the syringomycin family of toxins by strains in Ps. syringae, Ps. asplenii and Ps. fuscovaginae. These toxin reactions support suggestions made elsewhere of the synonym of the latter two species. In a preliminary characterization using tests for stability to heat, protease, acid and alkaline treatments, unknown toxins consistent with syringomycin-like toxins the strains from Actinidia species. The toxins from Ps. cichorii and from Ps. corrugata differed in their reactions from all other agents. Pseudomonas tolaasii produces the antifungal compound tolaasin. The white line reaction with Ps. reactions, a test for tolaasin production by strains of Ps. tolaasii, was confirmed as specific for this compound. Some of these low molecular weight toxins may be produced by some of these plant pathogenic strains. PMID:9750309

Hu, F P; Young, J M; Fletcher, M J

1998-08-01

143

Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents  

PubMed Central

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

144

Folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in India (review, experimental and clinical approach).  

PubMed

Though a number of plants and their parts are used for dental ailments among population in rural and urban areas of developing countries, in India however, the most common house-hold, road-side plants are mango (Mangifera indica), neem (Azadirachta indica; Melia azadirachta), ocimum (Ocimum basilicum), tea-dust (Camellia sinensis) and uncommonly murayya, i.e., currey leaf (Murayya koenigi) [Chopra et al. 1958, Kirtikar and Basu 1935, Nadakarni 1954, Satyavati 1984]. The leaves of these plants are folded and brushed (massage with teadust) against the teeth. Therefore, the present study is restricted only to the fleshy leaf extracts [Jindal et al. 1975] (except tea) of these plants inspite of certain limitations in the methodology and arbitrations in the microbial identification and isolation in the light of recent advances in folk dentistry. The investigation was carried out in two parts: 1) Experimental study: The efficacy of various dentifrices (commonly available in the market) and the potentiating effect of the leaf extract (LE) of the aforesaid indigenous plants when amalgamated with the tooth-paste against pathogens, were investigated. Further, the protection afforded by the said plant extracts (PE) over the conventional allopathic medicines on the human plaque cultures and gram negative bacteria from patients were studied. 2) Clinical study: The therapeutic effects of the said PE (individually) on clinical application among severely infected patients were examined. PMID:3042642

Patel, V K; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H

1988-04-01

145

Inhibitory effect of anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory herbs on herpes simplex virus replication.  

PubMed

The increasing clinical use of acyclovir, ganciclovir, and foscarnet against herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus has been associated with the emergence of drug-resistant herpesvirus strains. To develop anti-HSV compounds from plants, 31 herbs used as antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents in Chinese medicine were screened. Five different preparations (cold aqueous, hot aqueous, ethanolic, acid ethanolic, and methanolic) from 31 herbs were analyzed by plaque reduction assay, and 7 extracts. which showed significant antiviral activities, were further elucidated for their antiviral mechanisms. Our results showed that ethanolic extract of Rheum officinale and methanolic extract of Paeonia suffruticosa prevented the process of virus attachment and penetration. Aqueous extract of P. suffruticosa and ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan inhibited virus attachment to cell surface. Aqueous extract of Sophora flavescens and methanolic extract of M. toosendan showed no effect on virus attachment and penetration. These data indicated that these 4 herbs have a potential value as a source of new powerful anti-HSV compounds. PMID:11789588

Hsiang, C Y; Hsieh, C L; Wu, S L; Lai, I L; Ho, T Y

2001-01-01

146

Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov., represented by xenobiotics degrading type strains.  

PubMed

Two strains of gram-negative bacteria isolated because of their abilities to decompose xenobiotic compounds were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the two strains were found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas. Benzene degrading strain DSM 8628(T) was moderately related to P. flavescens NCPP 3063(T) (98.3% similarity), P. monteilii CIP 104883(T), and P. plecoglossicida FPC 951(T) (98.1%). Strain DSM 9751(T) capable to grow with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride as the sole carbon source showed the highest similarity values with P. tremae CFBP 2341(T) and P. meliae MAFF 301463(T) (98.0%), both related to Pseudomonas syringae. The fatty acid pattern of strain DSM 8628(T) was distinct from patterns of other members of the genus Pseudomonas in combining a high ratio of 3OH-C(12:1) (5.1%), a low ratio of 2OH-C(12:0) (0.2%) and a relatively low ratio of C(18:1)omega7c (23.8%). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological properties and the composition of whole cell fatty acids, two novel species, Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 8628(T) (=CIP 109857(T)) and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 9751(T) (=CIP 109856(T)), are proposed. PMID:19771475

Lang, Elke; Burghartz, Melanie; Spring, Stefan; Swiderski, Jolanthe; Sprer, Cathrin

2010-02-01

147

Review on pharmacological and toxicologyical effects of oleum azadirachti oil.  

PubMed

Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds, ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects. PMID:24075352

Koriem, Khaled M M

2013-10-01

148

Review on pharmacological and toxicologyical effects of oleum azadirachti oil  

PubMed Central

Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds,ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects. PMID:24075352

Koriem, Khaled MM

2013-01-01

149

Evidence of hydrocarbon pollution in soil exploiting satellite optical and radar images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil spills are one of the most important sources of hydrocarbon pollution in soils of areas near centers of extraction, storage or transportation of petroleum products. These spills or leaks can occur arising from deficient maintenance of facilities or accidents. The effects of these spills can spread for kilometers affecting large areas. This has a strong impact on the local ecosystem disturbing the flora and fauna. In costal tourist areas, this type of contaminants represents significant health risks for visitors and therefore, economic losses for the place. For this reason, it is very important to know and identify the areas affected by this type of pollution in order to create action plans for remediation of the ecosystem. Due to the large land extensions that can cover such disasters, satellite images become a valuable tool because of their large spatial coverage. Nowadays, different satellite techniques have been developed to recognize land affected by the presence of hydrocarbons. In the optical spectrum, optical sensing imagery (e.g. Landsat, SPOT, MODIS, etc.) has been widely used. However, these techniques have the intrinsic limitation in scenes with vegetation cover. In contrast, techniques exploiting radar images are still rare. The type of signal that is detected by the radar provides information even in areas with vegetation cover. The radar signal interacts with the vegetation and soil collecting information about the dielectric properties of the soil. This study identifies zones of contaminated soil by using the synergy of optical and radar images. This site of study is located in Paraiso, Tabasco, in Southern Mexico (1827'N 9332'W). The region is composed of coastal and tropical forest ecosystems and includes the Port Dos Bocas. The Port Dos Bocas has its points of extractions 130m away from the coast. The annual activities report 10 millions of tons of hydrocarbons transported using around 5500 ships. The methodology presented in this paper includes field measurements collecting soil samples at depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm, the implementation of an algorithm to exploit Landsat 5 and 7 images to identify polluted zones, and the implementation of an algorithm using Envisat ASAR and an incoherent scattering model to delineate the polluted soil. The laboratory analysis of the soil samples showed that in all cases the most contaminated region of the soil is the deeper layer (30-60 cm). The processing of the optical images identifies contaminated regions mainly for bare soils and short vegetation. For highly vegetated regions, the optical images do not detect the polluted soils because the wavelength of observation cannot penetrate vegetation. The radar algorithm indicates that the most contaminated zones showed the lowest backscattering coefficient in comparison to clean zones. Unlike optical images, the Envisat images allowed the identification of polluted zones even under high vegetation conditions.

Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Galvan-Pineda, J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, A.; Jimenez-Escalona, J. C.; Ramos-Rodriguez, J. M.

2013-05-01

150

Hydrodynamics and Long-term Permeability Evolution in Clogging Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeability reduction caused by colloid deposition in porous media, or clogging, is important in water treatment, aquifer hydraulics, and subsurface remediation. Analysis of six published data sets, representing a variety of particles, porous media and fluids, indicates greater clogging at lower fluid velocity. There is a unique relationship between a clogging parameter in a modified O'Melia and Ali model and the depositing particle's Peclet number. The adopted Peclet number is the ratio of advective to Brownian particle transport within a porous medium and includes hydrodynamics, particle size, and the grain size of the porous medium. Although these data quantify the dependence of clogging on Peclet number, they do not describe steady-state clogging, achieved under conditions of constant flow, with a constant permeability and a constant mass of deposited particles. Data and models for steady-state clogging are lacking because classical filtration research focused on water treatment filters, which are backwashed periodically, and so are not allowed to reach steady state. Steady-state clogging is relevant to flow in natural subsurface environments as an important limiting case in the feedback process between particle deposition and permeability evolution, and as an initial condition for models that describe permeability alteration from mechanical or seismic forces. A model for steady-state clogging assumes deposit permeability to be negligible, then calculates Poiseuille flow in open tubes through the clogged media. The radius of these tubes is a characteristic pore size; the number of these tubes is determined by the applied flow rate and the deposit shear strength, using published estimates. With these assumptions, the model predicts that the pressure drop across the clogged sample is independent of the imposed flow rate, so steady-state permeability will be proportional to flow rate. Deposition experiments (destabilized montmorillonite on quartz sand) to test the power-law relationship between hydrodynamics and permeability and the steady-state clogging model are in progress.

Mays, D. C.; Hunt, J. R.

2004-12-01

151

Identification of amino acid and glutathione N-conjugates of toosendanin: bioactivation of the furan ring mediated by CYP3A4.  

PubMed

Toosendanin (TSN) is a hepatotoxic triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc. Considering that TSN contains the structural alert of the furan ring, it is believed that bioactivation of TSN may be responsible for its toxicity. Herein, the bioactivation potential and metabolism profiles of TSN were investigated. After an oral administration of 10 mg/kg TSN to rats, esterolysis and conjugation with amino acids were identified as the main metabolic pathways. The same types of conjugates were detected in liver microsomes in an NADPH-dependent manner. According to the remaining amount of the parent drug, the reactivity of trapping reagents with TSN reactive metabolites was sorted in a decreasing order of N(?)-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-lysine (Boc-Lys) > alanine, lysine, taurine, phenylalanine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, and glutathione (GSH) > cysteine. No conjugates were observed in NADPH and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)-supplemented human liver microsomal incubations. Further phenotyping studies and the chemical synthesis of the major conjugated standards proved that TSN was bioactivated by CYP3A4 and yielded a cis-butene-1,4-dial intermediate, which was prone to undergo 1,2-addition with the amino group of amino acids and GSH to form 3-pyrroline-2-one adducts. The sulfydryl group of GSH also attacked the intermediate and yielded S-conjugates by 1,4- or 1,2-addition, which would form pyrrole conjugates by further reacting with the amino group. Compared to the well-recognized S-conjugation of the furan ring, N-conjugation with multiple amino acids and GSH played a more important part in the elimination of reactive metabolites of TSN. The significance of these conjugates requires further investigation. PMID:25105339

Yu, Jinghua; Deng, Pan; Zhong, Dafang; Chen, Xiaoyan

2014-09-15

152

Coupling GELATO 4 sea-ice model to NEMO 3: a new ocean/sea-ice model for global climate studies at CNRM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new configuration of the ocean-sea ice model in use at the Centre National de Recherches Mtorologiques (CNRM, Mto-France, France) is presented. The sea-ice component of the global coupled model is an updated version of GELATO (Salas-Melia, 2002). GELATO is a dynamic-thermodynamic model, and includes elastic-visco-plastic rheology, redistribution of ice floes of different thicknesses, and also takes into account leads, snow cover and snow ice formation. The new version of GELATO sea-ice model includes also a tracer of ice age. GELATO 4 is coupled to the NEMO3.3 global ocean model (Madec et al., 2008), a hydrostatic, primitive equation, finite difference ocean model in the 1-configuration ORCA1. In this new configuration, the straits in the Arctic Ocean are opened, leading to more realistic features in the sea-ice state compared to previous systems. Model performance is evaluated by performing a hindcast of the Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice covers, forced by the ERA40-based atmospheric forcing DFS4 (DRAKKAR Forcing Set 4, Brodeau et al., 2009) during the 1958-2004 period. To test the impact of a more refined description of melting sea-ice surface albedo, a new sea-ice albedo scheme was also implemented in GELATO. The scheme is based on Pedersen et al.(2009) parametrization, and includes melt ponds evolution. Performance with this latter refinement is also evaluated. The NEMO3.3-GELATO4 model is meant to be used at CNRM for Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) experiments, and also for investigations dealing with seasonal-to-decadal predictability in the Arctic.

Chevallier, Matthieu; Salas-Melia, David

2010-05-01

153

High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analyses of Pyoverdin Siderophores Differentiate among Phytopathogenic Fluorescent Pseudomonas Species  

PubMed Central

The relationship of pyoverdins produced by 41 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and by phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing the culture medium proved to be superior to isoelectric focusing for detecting pyoverdin production, for differentiating slightly different pyoverdins, and for differentiating atypical from typical Fe(III)-chelated pyoverdins. Nonfluorescent strains were found in Pseudomonas amygdali, Pseudomonas meliae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and P. syringae. Pseudomonas agarici and Pseudomonas marginalis produced typical pyoverdins. Among the arginine dihydrolase-negative fluorescent Pseudomonas species, spectral, amino acid, and mass spectrometry analyses underscored for the first time the clear similarities among the pyoverdins produced by related species. Within this group, the oxidase-negative species Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas ficuserectae and the pathovars of P. syringae produced the same atypical pyoverdin, whereas the oxidase-positive species Pseudomonas cichorii produced a similar atypical pyoverdin that contained a glycine instead of a serine. The more distantly related species Pseudomonas asplenii and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae both produced a less similar atypical pyoverdin. The spectral characteristics of Fe(III)-chelated atypical pyoverdins at pH 7.0 were related to the presence of two ?-hydroxyaspartic acids as iron ligands, whereas in typical pyoverdins one of the ligands is always ornithine based. The peptide chain influenced the chelation of iron more in atypical pyoverdins. Our results demonstrated that there is relative pyoverdin conservation in the amino acids involved in iron chelation and that there is faster evolution of the other amino acids, highlighting the usefulness of pyoverdins in systematics and in identification. PMID:12571041

Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; de Hoffmann, Edmond

2003-01-01

154

High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of pyoverdin siderophores differentiate among phytopathogenic fluorescent Pseudomonas Species.  

PubMed

The relationship of pyoverdins produced by 41 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and by phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing the culture medium proved to be superior to isoelectric focusing for detecting pyoverdin production, for differentiating slightly different pyoverdins, and for differentiating atypical from typical Fe(III)-chelated pyoverdins. Nonfluorescent strains were found in Pseudomonas amygdali, Pseudomonas meliae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and P. syringae. Pseudomonas agarici and Pseudomonas marginalis produced typical pyoverdins. Among the arginine dihydrolase-negative fluorescent Pseudomonas species, spectral, amino acid, and mass spectrometry analyses underscored for the first time the clear similarities among the pyoverdins produced by related species. Within this group, the oxidase-negative species Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas ficuserectae and the pathovars of P. syringae produced the same atypical pyoverdin, whereas the oxidase-positive species Pseudomonas cichorii produced a similar atypical pyoverdin that contained a glycine instead of a serine. The more distantly related species Pseudomonas asplenii and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae both produced a less similar atypical pyoverdin. The spectral characteristics of Fe(III)-chelated atypical pyoverdins at pH 7.0 were related to the presence of two beta-hydroxyaspartic acids as iron ligands, whereas in typical pyoverdins one of the ligands is always ornithine based. The peptide chain influenced the chelation of iron more in atypical pyoverdins. Our results demonstrated that there is relative pyoverdin conservation in the amino acids involved in iron chelation and that there is faster evolution of the other amino acids, highlighting the usefulness of pyoverdins in systematics and in identification. PMID:12571041

Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; de Hoffmann, Edmond

2003-02-01

155

Testing cosmology from fundamental considerations: Is the Friedmann universe intrinsically flat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Melia and Shevchuk (Mon Not R Astron Soc 419:2579,2012) (MS) have proposed the so-called cosmology where the "Gravitational Horizon" of the universe is equal to the distance travelled by light since "Big Bang". Here we would like to see whether the basic claim is correct or not because MS have not given any cogent derivation for the same. Essentially we will compare the twin expressions for the Einstein energy momentum complex (EMC) of the Friedmann universe obtained by using an appropriate superpotential and also by a direct method. To enable a meaningful comparison of the twin expressions, both are computed by using the same quasi-Cartesian coordinates. We however do not claim that Einstein EMC is superior to many other routes of defining EM of a self-gravitating system. In fact, for static isolated spherical syatems, the idea of a coordinate independent field energy of Lynden-Bell and Katz (Mon Not R Astron Soc 213:21, 1985) might be quite physically significant. Yet, here, we use Einstein EMC because (i) our system is non-static and not isolated one (ii) our primary aim is not find any absolute value of EM, and, finally, (iii) only Einstein pseudo-tensor offers equivalent twin expressions for EM which one can be equated irrespective of any physical significance. Following such comparison of equivalent twin expressions of Einstein energy, we find an exact proof as to why Friedmann universe must be spatially flat even though, mathematically one can conceive of curved spaces in any dimension. Additionally, it follows that, apparently, the scale factor as insisted by proposition. Nonetheless, because of close similarity of this form, , with the (vacuum) Milne metric, and also because of implied unphysical equation of state, cosmology is unlikely to represent the physical universe.

Mitra, Abhas

2014-02-01

156

High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust National Cancer Institute botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through put microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015-0.5?mg/mL) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % of the extracts tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50 ) properties <0.0183?mg/mL. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao [symbol: see text] Speranskia herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite clay, Bunge root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi [symbol: see text] root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone root (Collinsonia Canadensis), and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun, and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth root (Trillium Pendulum), and alkanet root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (S. tuberculata), which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis, leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of anti-mitotic natural plants that are effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, K F A

2014-06-01

157

A new definition of a correlation equation for single collector efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport and deposition of colloidal particles in porous media are important phenomena involved in many environmental and engineering problems as, for instance, the use of micro- and nanoscale zerovalent iron, a promising reagent in the field of groundwater remediation [1]. Particle transport and deposition in the proximity of injection or pumping wells and in porous media in general may also be relevant in other fields of chemical and petroleum engineering. Mathematical models able to predict particles transport and deposition in porous media are often needed in order to design field applications. The basic concept of these models is the single collector efficiency ?, which predicts particles deposition onto a single grain of a complex porous medium in terms of probability that an approaching particle would be retained on a solid grain. Many different approaches and equations exist in the literature, however most of them are valid only under specific conditions (eg. specific range of flow rate, particle size, etc.), and predict, for certain parametric conditions, efficiency values exceeding unity, which is, for an efficiency concept, a contradiction [2][3]. The objectives of this study are to analyze the causes of the failure of the existing models in predicting the deposition rate in certain conditions and to modify the definition of collector efficiency in order to have a more general equation. The definition of collector efficiency, first proposed by Yao at al. [4], is based on the particles deposition onto a spherical grain (the collector) in an infinite domain. It is defined as the ration between the flux of particles that deposit on the grain and the total amount of particles that could reach the collector by advective flux from an area equal to the projection of the spherical grain itself. In the present work Yao's model has been implemented by COMSOL Multiphysics and solved with an Eulerian approach; particles deposition simulations were run. From these results a new definition of ? is proposed, considering all the flux that potentially reach the collector. A new equation, valid in a broader range of parameters (eg. low Pe number, big particle size, etc.), has been formulated starting from the numerical results. References .1. Boccardo, G., D.L. Marchisio, and R. Sethi, Microscale simulation of particle deposition in porous media. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2014. 417: p. 227-37. 2. Ma, H., M. Hradisky, and W.P. Johnson, Extending Applicability of Correlation Equations to Predict Colloidal Retention in Porous Media at Low Fluid Velocity. Environ. Sci. Technology, 2013. 47: p. 2272-2278. 3. Song, L.F. and M. Elimelech, Deposition of Brownian Particles in Porous-Media - Modified Boundary-Conditions for the Sphere-in-Cell Model. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1992. 153(1): p. 294-297. 4. Yao, K.M., M.T. Habibian, and C.R. O'Melia, Water and Waste Water Filtration: Concepts and Applications. 1971.

Messina, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

2014-05-01

158

Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Acknowledgements; Workshop participants; 1. Images and spectrograms of Sanduleak - 69202, the SN 1987a progenitor N. R. Walborn; 2. The progenitor of SN 1987A G. Sonneborn; 3. Another supernova with a blue progenitor C. M. Gaskell and W. C. Keel; 4. Optical and infrared observations of SN 1987A from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory M. M. Phillips; 5. SN 1987A: observational results obtained at ESO I. J. Danziger, P. Bouchet, R. A. E. Fosbury, C. Gouiffes, L. B. Lucy, A. F. M. Moorwood, E. Oliva and F. Rufener; 6. Observations of SN 1987A at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) M. W. Feast; 7. Observations of SN 1987A at the Anglo-Australian Telescope W. J. Couch; 8. Linear polarimetric study of SN 1987A A. Clocchiatti, M. Mndez, O. Benvenuto, C. Feinstein, H. Marraco, B. Garca and N. Morrell; 9. Infrared spectroscopy of SN 1987A from the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory H. P. Larson, S. Drapatz, M. J. Mumma and H. A. Weaver; 10. Radio observations of SN 1987A N. Bartel et al.; 11. Ultraviolet observations of SN 1987A: clues to mass loss R. P. Kirshner; 12. On the energetics of SN 1987A N. Panagia; 13. On the nature and apparent uniqueness of SN 1987A A. V. Filippenko; 14. A comparison of the SN 1987A light curve with other type II supernovae, and the detectability of similar supernovae M. F. Schmitz and C. M. Gaskell; 15. P-Cygni features and photospheric velocities L. Bildsten and J. C. L. Wang; 16. The Neutrino burst from SN 1987A detected in the Mont Blanc LSD experiment M. Aglietta et al.; 17. Toward observational neutrino astrophysics M. Koshiba; 18. The discovery of neutrinos from SN 1987A with the IMB detector J. Matthews; 19. Peering into the abyss: the neutrinos from SN 1987A A. Burrows; 20. Phenomenological analysis of neutrino emission from SN 1987A J. N. Bahcall, D. N. Spergel and W. H. Press; 21. Mass determination of neutrinos H. Y. Chiu; 22. Neutrino transport in a type II supernova D. C. Ellison, P. M. Giovanoni and S. W. Bruenn; 23. Neutrino masses from SN 1987A J. Franklin; 24. Supernova neutrinos and their oscillations T. K. Kuo and J. T. Pantaleone; 25. Neutrinos from SN 1987A and cooling of the nascent neutron star D. Q. Lamb, F. Melia and T. J. Loredo; 26. Neutrino Energetics of SN 1987A J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 27. Neutrino emission from cooling neutron stars E. S. Myra, J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 28. Statistical analysis of the time structure of the neutrinos from SN 1987A P. J. Schinder and S. A. Bludman; 29. Neutrino properties from observations of SN 1987A A. Dar; 30. SN 1987A and companion C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, and C. Standley; 31. Supernovae light echoes B. E. Schaefer; 32. A real light echo: Nova Persei 1901 J. E. Felten; 33. IR speckle- interferometry of SN 1987A A. A. Chalabaev, C. Perrier and J. M. Mariotti; 34. Infrared opportunities for Supernova 1987A E. Dwek; 35. The UV interstellar spectrum and environment of SN 1987A F. C. Bruhweiler; 36. The interstellar spectrum of SN 1987A in the ultraviolet J. C. Blades, J. M. Wheatley, N. Panagia, M. Grewing, M. Pettini and W. Wamsteker; 37. The structure and spectrum of SN 1987A J. C. Wheeler, R. P. Harkness, and Z. Barkat; 38. Supernova 1987A: constraints on the theoretical model K. Nomoto and T. Shigeyama; 39. Supernova 1987A: a model and its predictions S. E. Woosley; 40. SN 1987A: circumstellar and interstellar interaction R. A. Chevalier; 41. Theoretical models of Supernova 1987A W. D. Arnett; 42. Evolution of the stellar progenitor of Supernova 1987A J. W. Truran and A. Weiss; 43.Modelling the atmosphere of SN 1987A L. B. Lucy; 44. SN 1987A: a stripped asymptotic- branch giant in a binary system P. C. Joss, Ph. Podsiadlowski, J. J. L. Hsu and S. Rappaport; 45. Pulsar formation and the fall back mass fraction S. A. Colgate; 46. An unusual hard X-ray source in the region of SN 19

Kafatos, Minas; Michalitsianos, Andrew G.

2006-11-01