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1

Evaluation of Melia azedarach Extracts Against Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed

Although the incidence of caries worldwide has declined in recent years, it is necessary to search for new means to overcome this disease and its microbiological agents. Phytochemistry can become an effective alternative to antibiotics, offering a promising strategy in the prevention and therapy of dental caries. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the bactericide activity of a bioactive phytocomponent from Melia azedarach against Streptococcus mutans. The crude extract (CEx) from leaves and stem barks of M. azedarach in chloroform, petroleum ether, acetate ethyl, butanol, and aqueous fractions was evaluated using seven different concentrations. Disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assays were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. 0.12% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. The CEx and the petroleum ether fraction from M. azedarach showed significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans, confirming its antibiotic potential. PMID:25069066

Della Bona, Alvaro; Nedel, Fernanda

2015-02-01

2

EFEITO DE EXTRATOS DE NIM (Azadiractha indica) E CINAMOMO (Melia azedarach) SOBRE Anastrepha fraterculus (WIED.) (DIPTERA:TEPHRITIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

EFFECT OF NEEM (Azadiractha indica) AND CHINABERRY (Melia azedarach) FRUIT EXTRACTS ON Anastrepha fraterculus (WIED.) (DIPTERA:TEPHRITIDAE). In laboratory trials, treatments of fruit extracts of Azadiractha indica (neem) and Melia azedarach (chinaberry) reduced laying, larval and pupal development of the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera:Tephritidae). Larvae died without molting; pupae were malformed and adults were not able to

3

Toxicological and larvicidal activities of Alzanzalakhet, Melia azedarach against cucurbit fly, Dacus ciliatus at Hail Province in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzanzalakhet, Melia azedarach L. (Sapindales: Meliaceae) is a common medicinal plant which is found in Hail desert in Saudi Arabia and traditionally used for various purposes. In this study, toxin effectiveness of the ethanolic, acetonic, and aqueous extracts of M. azedarach leaves was tested to determine a larvicidal activity against the cucurbit fly, Dacus ciliatus (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Different treatments

Badr El-Sabah A. Fetoh; Khalid A. Asiry

2012-01-01

4

Melia azedarach plants show tolerance properties to water shortage treatment: an ecophysiological study.  

PubMed

Candidate species for reforestation of areas prone to drought must combine water stress (WS) tolerance and economic or medicinal interest. Melia azedarach produces high quality timber and has insecticidal and medicinal properties. However, the impact of WS on M. azedarach has not yet been studied. Two-month old M. azedarach plants were exposed to WS during 20 days. After this period, plant's growth, water potential, photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. WS did not affect plants' growth, but induced stomatal closure, reduced net CO? assimilation rate (A) and the intercellular CO? availability in mesophyll (C(i)). WS also reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII but not the pigment levels. WS up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes and stimulated the production of antioxidant metabolites, preventing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, despite some repression of photosynthetic parameters by WS, they did not compromise plant growth, and plants increased their antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that M. azedarach juvenile plants have the potential to acclimate to water shortage conditions, opening new perspectives to the use of this species in reforestation/afforestation programs of drought prone areas. PMID:24440555

Dias, Maria Celeste; Azevedo, Carla; Costa, Maria; Pinto, Glória; Santos, Conceição

2014-02-01

5

Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of Melia azedarach extracts on Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

Haemonchus contortus is responsible for severe economic losses in sheep and goat breeding in the Northeast of Brazil. However, the effectiveness of control is compromised due to anthelmintic resistance and misuse. In the search for natural anthelmintics, Melia azedarach L., a plant indigenous to India but now distributed throughout Brazil, was selected due to the reported anthelmintic properties of its seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the seed and leaf extracts of the Brazilian adapted plant and investigate the type of organic chemical compounds present in the most active extracts. The ovicidal and larvicidal activity of M. azedarach extracts on H. contortus was evaluated through egg hatching and larval development tests. Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds and chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaves of M. azedarach were used in the tests. To perform the larval development test, feces of an animal free from parasites were mixed with third instar H. contortus larvae and extracts in several concentrations. The coprocultures were incubated for 7 days at 30 degrees C, then the larvae were recovered and counted. LC50 was calculated by probits using the SPSS 8.0 program. The seed ethanol extract was the most active on eggs (LC50=0.36mgmL(-1)) and the leaf ethanol extract showed the best inhibition of larval development (LC50=9.18mgmL(-1)). Phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts revealed the presence of condensed tannins, triterpenes and alkaloids. PMID:16621294

Maciel, M V; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Costa, C T C; Castro, C M S

2006-08-31

6

Bioactivity-guided chemical analysis of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae), displaying antidiabetic activity.  

PubMed

One new Euphane-type triterpenoid 3?-hydroxytirucalla-5, 24-dien-21-oic acid (1), and ten known compounds (2-11) were isolated from Melia azedarach L. through bioassay-guided chemical analysis. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and MS spectral analyses. All the fractions and isolated pure compounds were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by determining their inhibitory effects on PTP-1B enzyme as well as glucose uptake stimulation in C2Cl2 myoblasts cells. Compounds 4 and 7 showed significant in vitro PTP-1B inhibitory activity with 69.2 and 66.8% inhibition at 10 ?g/ml concentrations respectively. PMID:25062890

Khan, Mohammad Faheem; Rawat, Arun Kumar; Pawar, Bhawna; Gautam, Sudeep; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Negi, Devendra Singh

2014-10-01

7

Antifeedant activity of fruit and seed extracts of Melia azedarach and azadirachta indica on larvae of Sesamia nonagrioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of seeds and fruits of the chinaberry tree,Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae), showed strong antifeedant activity against 2nd instar larvae ofSesamia nonagrioides Lefèbvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a very serious pest of maize(Zea mays L.) in Mediterranean countries. Extracts were applied in an artificial diet at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 ppm. The parameters\\u000a used to evaluate the activity were larval

Andreu Juan; Albert Sans; Magí Riba

2000-01-01

8

Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05g%

Carolina B. Wandscheer; Jonny E. Duque; Mario A. N. da Silva; Yoshiyasu Fukuyama; Jonathan L. Wohlke; Juliana Adelmann; José D. Fontana

2004-01-01

9

Three new and other limonoids from the hexane extract of melia azedarach fruits and their cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

A defatted fraction obtained from the hexane extract of the fruits of Melia azedarach L. (chinaberry tree; Meliaceae) exhibited cytotoxic activities against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), stomach (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 2.9-21.9??g/ml. Three new limonoids, 3-deacetyl-4'-demethylsalannin (5), 3-deacetyl-28-oxosalannin (14), and 1-detigloylohchinolal (17), along with 16 known limonoids, 1-4, 6-13, 15, 16, 18, and 19, and one known triterpenoid, 20, were isolated from the fraction. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the four cancer cell lines mentioned above. 3-Deacetyl-4'-demethyl-28-oxosalannin (16), which exhibited potent cytotoxicity against AZ521 (IC50 3.2??M) cells, induced typical apoptotic cell death in AZ521 cells upon evaluation of the apoptosis-inducing activity by flow cytometry. This work provided, furthermore, valuable information on the structural features of limonoids of the fruits and/or seeds of Melia azedarach and related Meliaceae plants, M. toosendan and Azadirachta indica. PMID:25044585

Pan, Xin; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Zhang, Jie; Ukiya, Motohiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Koike, Kazuo; Akihisa, Rima; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2014-07-01

10

Cytotoxic effect of Green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Melia azedarach against in vitro HeLa cell lines and lymphoma mice model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication explains the biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Melia azedarach and its cytotoxicity against in vitro HeLa cells and in vivo Dalton's ascites Lymphoma (DAL) mice model. The AgNPs synthesis was determined by UV- visible spectrum and it was further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Dynamic light Scattering (DLS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Zeta potential

Raman Sukirtha; Kandula Manasa Priyanka; Jacob Joe Antony; Soundararajan Kamalakkannan; Thangam Ramar; Gunasekaran Palani; Muthukalingan Krishnan; Shanmugam Achiraman

11

Bioactive compound synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from leaves of Melia azedarach and its control for mosquito larvae.  

PubMed

Larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag nanoparticles using 2,7.bis[2-[diethylamino]-ethoxy]fluorence isolate from the Melia azedarach leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Six fractions were collected and concentrated, fraction three showed a single spot on TLC which was found to be a pure compound. The structures were elucidated by analyses of UV, MS, and NMR spectral data. The maximum mortality was fluorence against A.?aegypti and C.?quinquefasciatus (LC50?=?7.94, LC90?=?23.82?ppm and LC50?=?13.58 and LC90?=?40.03?ppm). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized and confirmed as Ag nanoparticles by using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD and HRTEM analysis. The maximum activity was observed in synthesized AgNPs against A.?aegypti and C.?quinquefasciatus (LC50?=?4.27 and 3.43?µg/mL; LC90?=?12.61 and 10.29?µg/mL). Rephrase test was studied to analyze the toxicological effects of Mesocyclops pehpeiensis for 24?h at synthesized AgNPs. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach that can be used to control mosquitoes. PMID:25496834

Ramanibai, R; Velayutham, K

2015-02-01

12

Metabolites from Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, and their antifungal, antifeedant, and toxic activities.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine fungal metabolites 1-39, including two new alkaloids, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6) and 3-hydroxyfumiquinazoline A (16), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus fumigatus LN-4, an endophytic fungus isolated from the stem bark of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. These isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities against some phytopathogenic fungi, toxicity against brine shrimps, and antifeedant activities against armyworm larvae (Mythimna separata Walker). Among them, sixteen compounds showed potent antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, and Gibberella saubinettii), and four of them, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6), fumitremorgin B (7), verruculogen (8), and helvolic acid (39), exhibited antifungal activities with MIC values of 6.25-50 ?g/mL, which were comparable to the two positive controls carbendazim and hymexazol. In addition, of eighteen that exerted moderate lethality toward brine shrimps, compounds 7 and 8 both showed significant toxicities with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 13.6 and 15.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, among nine metabolites that were found to possess antifeedant activity against armyworm larvae, compounds 7 and 8 gave the best activity with antifeedant indexes (AFI) of 50.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of the metabolites were also discussed. PMID:22409377

Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

2012-04-01

13

Paraiso: an automated tuning framework for explicit solvers of partial differential equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose Paraiso, a domain-specific language embedded in the functional programming language Haskell, for the automated tuning of explicit solvers of partial differential equations (PDEs) on graphic processing units (GPUs), and also multicore central processing units (CPUs). In Paraiso, one can describe PDE-solving algorithms succinctly using tensor equations notation. Hydrodynamic properties, interpolation methods and other building blocks are described in abstract, modular, re-usable and combinable forms, which lets us generate versatile solvers from a small set of Paraiso source codes. We demonstrate Paraiso by implementing a compressive hydrodynamics solver. A single source code of less than 500 lines can be used to generate solvers of arbitrary dimensions, for both multicore CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate both manual annotation-based tuning and evolutionary computing-based automated tuning of the program.

Muranushi, Takayuki

2012-01-01

14

Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Melia azedarach against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited\\u000a the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants\\u000a as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of\\u000a the leaves and seed

Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Mohamed Jamal Mohamed; Gandhi Elango; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Sampath Marimuthu

2010-01-01

15

Regeneration of Melia volkensii Gürke (Meliaceae) through direct somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to study plant regeneration through direct somatic embryogenesis using mature zygotic embryo and\\u000a cotyledonary explants from seeds of Melia volkensii stored for 12 months. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BAP, NAA and 2,4-D\\u000a (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg l?1) alone, and BAP (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg l?1) in combination with 2,4-D or NAA (0.2

S. A. Indieka; D. W. Odee; G. M. Muluvi; K. N. Rao; J. Machuka

2007-01-01

16

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed. PMID:24769382

Kathiravan, V; Ravi, S; Ashokkumar, S

2014-09-15

17

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed.

Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.

2014-09-01

18

Triterpenoids with anti-tobacco mosaic virus activities from Melia Toosendan.  

PubMed

Four new triterpenoids, named Toosendansins A-D (1-4), along with nine known ones (5-13) were isolated from the fruits of Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data. The isolation of compounds 1-12 were reported for the first time from this plant. All compounds were analyzed for the anti-Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) activity and protective effect on H2O2-induced damage of SH-SY5Y cells. Compound 7 showed evident anti-TMV activity. Compounds 2 and 9 exhibited modest protection against H2O2-induced damage of SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:24972348

Chen, Lin; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Wang, Bin; Mu, Shu-Zhen; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

2014-09-01

19

High-Frequency Regeneration of the Drought-Tolerant Tree Melia volkensii Gurke Using Low-Cost Agrochemical Thidiazuron.  

PubMed

Melia volkensii Gurke is a drought-tolerant tree native to East Africa's arid and semiarid lands (ASALs), with vast but underutilized potential for agroforestry and sustainable livelihoods in the ASALs. Its cultivation is limited by difficulties in propagation via conventional means. Full exploitation of the ability of thidiazuron (TDZ) to elicit regeneration in plant tissue cultures, as sole plant growth regulator (PGR), is hampered by high costs. This study tested the effectiveness of a low-cost agrochemical TDZ for in vitro propagation of M. volkensii. Zygotic embryos from mature seeds were cultured on Gamborg's B5 medium containing 0 to 4?mg/L of agrochemical TDZ from Kingtai Chemicals Co.,Ltd., China. Callus induction frequency was 96.67 to 100%. Significantly large callus fresh mass was produced at 0.05?mg/L TDZ concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.001). The effect of TDZ on embryogenicity was significant over certain ranges of concentrations (Anova, P < 0.001). Multiple somatic embryos developed within 14 days of subculture to hormone-free B5 medium. Somatic embryos developed into microshoots which elongated when transferred to 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.1?mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine plus 10% coconut water. The Kingtai-TDZ showed a high potency and suitability for use in M. volkensii tissue culture. PMID:23227344

Mulanda, Eliud Sagwa; Adero, Mark Ochieng; Amugune, Nelson Onzere; Akunda, Elijah; Kinyamario, Jenesio I

2012-01-01

20

Differential Expression of Melatonin Receptor Subtypes MelIa, MelIb and MelIc in Relation to Melatonin Binding in the Male Songbird Brain.  

PubMed

Previous autoradiography studies illustrated that several areas of the avian brain can bind the pineal hormone melatonin. In birds, there are three melatonin receptor (MelR) subtypes: MelIa, MelIb and MelIc. To date, their brain distribution has not been studied in any passerine bird. Therefore, we investigated mRNA distribution of MelR subtypes in adjacent sections of the brain of two songbirds, the blackcap and the zebra finch, in parallel with that of 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin (IMEL) binding sites in the same brains. The general pattern of receptor expression shown by in situ hybridization of species-specific probes matched well with that of IMEL binding. However, the expression of the three subtypes was area specific with similar patterns in the two species. Some brain areas expressed only one receptor subtype, most brain regions co-expressed either MelIa with MelIb or MelIa with MelIc, whereas few areas expressed MelIb and MelIc or all three receptor subtypes. Since many sensory areas, most thalamic areas and subareas of the neopallium, a cortex analogue, express MelR, it is likely that most sensory motor integration functions are melatonin sensitive. Further, the area-specific expression patterns suggest that the regulatory role of melatonin differs among different brain areas. Since subareas of well-defined neural circuits, such as the visual system or the song control system, are equipped with different receptor types, we hypothesize a diversity of functions for melatonin in the control of sensory integration and behavior. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25427872

Fusani, Leonida; Gahr, Manfred

2014-11-22

21

Screening of SdiA inhibitors from Melia dubia seeds extracts towards the hold back of uropathogenic E.coli quorum sensing-regulated factors.  

PubMed

Plants have always been a supreme source of drugs and India is endowed with a wide variety of them with high medicinal values. The Quorum Sensing (QS) quenching efficiency of various solvent extracts of Melia dubia seeds was investigated against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to screen the competitive inhibitor of SdiA, a transcriptional activator of quorum sensing in E. coli. In this study, potentiality of five different extracts of Melia dubia seeds for quorum sensing inhibitory activity was investigated against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Assays such as cell density, swarming motility, protein, protease, hemolysis, hemagglutination, hydrophobicity and biofilm inhibition were performed. Biofilm, hemolysis and swarming motility were found to be inhibited by 92.1%, 20.9 % and 48.52% respectively, when the medium was supplemented with 30 mg/ml of the ethanolic extract. GC-MS spectrum of the ethanolic extract showed an array of 27 structurally unlinked compounds with natural ligand C8HSL. The docking against QS transcriptional regulator SdiA was predicted by in silico studies and the ligand C6 showed significant activity with -10.8 GScore. In vitro and in silico docking analysis showed fairly a good correlation, suggesting that the ethanolic extract showed potency to attenuate quorum sensing of uropathogenic E. coli. Further studies by in vitro and in vivo strategies are necessary to foresee the quorum quenching effect of the ligands. PMID:23210902

Ravichandiran, Vinothkannan; Shanmugam, Karthi; Solomon, Adline Princy

2013-09-01

22

Managing Elasticity Across Multiple Cloud Providers Fawaz Paraiso  

E-print Network

.seinturier@inria.fr ABSTRACT In the context of cloud computing, elasticity is the capacity to scale computing resources up providers. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.4 [Cloud Computing Architecture]: Multi-Cloud; D.2, managing, and maintaining their own computing infrastructure. Cloud com- puting brings a way to innovate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Natural products-based insecticidal agents 4. Semisynthesis and insecticidal activity of novel esters of 2-chloropodophyllotoxin against Mythimna separata Walker in vivo.  

PubMed

By using podophyllotoxin as a lead compound, eight novel esters of 2-chloropodophyllotoxin were designed, semisynthesized, and preliminarily evaluated for their insecticidal activity against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo for the first time. Among all the tested compounds, especially three esters of 2-chloropodophyllotoxin 8a, 8c, and 8g, and one intermediate 6 showed more promising and pronounced insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia azedarach. PMID:19665895

Xu, Hui; Xiao, Xiao

2009-09-15

24

Accumulation of alpha-Tocopherol in Senescing Organs as Related to Chlorophyll Degradation.  

PubMed

alpha-Tocopherol (alpha-T) has been identified, using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and (1)H- and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance, in senescing leaves of Melia azedarach L. The content of alpha-T increased concomitantly with the breakdown of chlorophyll in senescing Vinca and Melia leaves. An increase in alpha-T was found also in detached Melia leaves, senescing in either light or darkness and in senescing, ethylene-treated orange leaves and fruit. The possibility that phytol, which is released from chlorophyll by chlorophyllase is utilized for the biosynthesis of alpha-T is discussed. Senescing leaves of the low chlorophyllase plants, parsley and tobacco, did not contain alpha-T in measureable amounts. PMID:16666657

Rise, M; Cojocaru, M; Gottlieb, H E; Goldschmidt, E E

1989-04-01

25

Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.  

PubMed

Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense. PMID:19897309

Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

2010-01-20

26

Natural products-based insecticidal agents 5. Design, semisynthesis and insecticidal activity of novel 4'-substituted benzenesulfonate derivatives of 4-deoxypodophyllotoxin against Mythimna separata Walker in vivo.  

PubMed

In an attempt to find the effective phytopesticides, eight novel 4'-substituted benzenesulfonate derivatives of 4-deoxypodophyllotoxin were synthesized and preliminarily tested against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo at the concentration of 1mg/mL. Among all of the tested analogs, compounds 5a, 5c, 5d, and 5h showed the higher insecticidal activity than 4-deoxypodophyllotoxin. Especially 5a exhibited the most potent insecticidal activity compared with toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia azedarach. PMID:20346661

Xu, Hui; Wang, Juan-Juan

2010-04-15

27

Natural-product-based insecticidal agents 14. Semisynthesis and insecticidal activity of new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives against Mythimna separata Walker in vivo.  

PubMed

In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, twenty-six new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives were synthesized from piperine, an alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum Linn. The single-crystal structures of 6c, 6q and 6w were unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo. Especially compounds 6b, 6i and 6r, the final mortality rates of which, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, were 62.1%, 65.5% and 65.5%, respectively, exhibited more pronounced insecticidal activity compared to toosendanin at 1 mg/mL, a commercial botanical insecticide isolated from Melia azedarach. It suggested that introduction of the substituents at the C-2 position on the phenyl ring of the hydrazone derivatives was important for their insecticidal activity. PMID:24018189

Qu, Huan; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Lv, Min; Xu, Hui

2013-10-15

28

Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe.  

PubMed

This review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in Europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in European countries. Poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. In Europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), Quercus spp. (oak), Taxus baccata (European yew), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas). Poisoning may occur when the fresh plant is ingested in pasture or when it contaminates hay or silage. In pets, the greatest majority of plant poisonings are the result of ingestion of house or garden plants, such as Cycas revoluta (Sago palm), Ricinus communis (castor bean), Allium spp., Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia), Lilium spp., Convallaria majalis (Lily of the valley), Pyracantha spp. (firethorn), Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas), Melia azedarach (Chinaberry tree), Taxus baccata (European yew) and Nerium oleander (oleander). PMID:23570777

Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

2013-08-01

29

Semisynthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel aromatic esters of 4'-demethyl-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.  

PubMed

By using podophyllotoxin as a phytoinsecticidal lead compound, 15 novel aromatic esters of 4'-demethyl-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin were semisynthesized and preliminarily tested for their insecticidal activity against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo for the first time. Among all of the tested compounds, especially two compounds, 4m and 4o, containing a pyridinyl group, for which final corrected mortality rates against M. separata at 1 mg/mL were 62.9 and 59.2%, respectively, showed the most promising and pronounced insecticidal activity as compared with toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia azedarach . The quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of compounds 4a-4o showed that the relative number of benzene rings and final heat of formation were very important descriptors to their insecticidal activity. PMID:19689137

Xu, Hui; Wang, Juanjuan; Sun, Huijun; Lv, Min; Tian, Xuan; Yao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xing

2009-09-01

30

Chlorophyll catabolism in senescing plant tissues: In vivo breakdown intermediates suggest different degradative pathways for Citrus fruit and parsley leaves.  

PubMed

High-pressure liquid chromatography was used to separate chlorophyll derivatives in acetone extracts from senescing Citrus fruit peel, autumnal Melia azedarach L. leaves, and dark-held detached parsley (Petroselinum sativum L.) leaves. Chlorophyllide a and another polar, dephytylated derivative accumulated in large amounts in senescing Citrus peel, particularly in fruit treated with ethylene. Ethylene also induced a 4-fold increase in the specific activity of Citrus chlorophyllase (chlorophyll chlorophyllidohydrolase, EC 3.1.1.14). Detailed kinetics based on a hexane/acetone solvent partition system showed that the in vivo increase in dephytylated derivatives coincided with the decrease in total chlorophyll. Polar, dephytylated derivatives accumulated also in senescing Melia leaves. Senescing parsley leaves revealed a very different picture. The gradual disappearance of chlorophyll a was accompanied by an increase in pheophytin a and by the transient appearance of several phytylated derivatives. Only pheophytin a and an adjacent peak were left when all the chlorophyll a had disappeared. The pathways for breakdown of chlorophyll in the Citrus and parsley senescence systems are discussed. PMID:16593821

Amir-Shapira, D; Goldschmidt, E E; Altman, A

1987-04-01

31

Ethnopharmacological Assessment of Medicinal Plants Used against Livestock Infections by the People Living around Indus River.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81), mastitis (0.82), and dermatological infections (0.80). Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL) value (66%) followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%). Preference ranking (PR) results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species. PMID:25544941

Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Ullah, Riaz; Bibi, Roqaia

2014-01-01

32

Potential allelopathic indole diketopiperazines produced by the plant endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus using the one strain-many compounds method.  

PubMed

On the basis of the OSMAC (one strain-many compounds) strategy, 14 indole diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloids, including spirotryprostatins (1-3), tryprostatins (4-6), and cyclotryprostatins (7-14), were isolated from the endophyte Aspergillus fumigatus associated with Melia azedarach L. Their structures were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data. All the indole DKPs were evaluated for plant growth regulation using the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling growth bioassay, which showed the plant growth influence of the seedling. Among these compounds tested, a tryprostatin-type compound, brevianamide F (6), was identified as a new type of natural potential plant growth inhibitor with a response index (RI) higher than that of the positive control glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide. 6 can also inhibit turnip (Raphanus sativus) shoot and root elongation with RIs of -0.76 and -0.70, respectively, at 120 ppm, and it strongly inhibits amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus) seedling growth with a high RI of -0.9 at 40 ppm. The structure-allelopathic activity relationship analysis of these isolated alkaloids indicates that tryprostatin-type alkaloids without the C5 prenyl and methoxy group give the most potent inhibition of seedling growth. Brevianamide F (6) could be used to develop a natural eco-friendly herbicide. PMID:24188331

Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Shi-Qiong; Tang, Hao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Lu; Xiao, Jian; Gao, Yu-Qi; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

2013-11-27

33

Ethnopharmacological Assessment of Medicinal Plants Used against Livestock Infections by the People Living around Indus River  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81), mastitis (0.82), and dermatological infections (0.80). Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL) value (66%) followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%). Preference ranking (PR) results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species. PMID:25544941

Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Bibi, Roqaia

2014-01-01

34

Antimycotic activities of selected plant flora, growing wild in Lebanon, against phytopathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Petroleum ether (PE) and methanolic extracts of nine wild plant species were tested in vitro for their antimycotic activity against eight phytopathogenic fungi. The efficacy of PE extracts against all pathogens tested was higher than that of methanolic extracts. Wild marjoram (Origanum syriacum) PE extract showed the highest and widest range of activity. It resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth of six of eight fungi tested and also gave nearly complete inhibition of spore germination of the six fungi included in the assay, namely, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, and Verticillium dahlia. The other plant extracts showed differential activities in the spore germination test, but none was highly active against mycelial growth. Inula viscosa and Mentha longifolia were highly effective (>88%) in spore germination tests against five of six fungi tested, whereas Centaurea pallescens, Cichorium intybus, Eryngium creticum, Salvia fruticosa, and Melia azedarach showed >95% inhibition of spore germination in at least two fungi. Foeniculum vulgare showed the least antimycotic activity. Fractionation followed by autobiography on TLC plates using Cladosporium sp. as a test organism showed that O. syriacum PE extracts contained three inhibition zones, and those of Inula viscosa and Cichorium intybus, two, whereas the PE extracts of the remaining plants showed each one inhibition zone. Some of the major compounds present in these inhibition zones were identified by GC-MS. The possibility for using these extracts, or their mixtures, to control plant diseases is discussed. PMID:12009988

Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf; Sobh, Hana; Salameh, Abdu

2002-05-22

35

The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2014-05-01

36

The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.  

PubMed

Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C?¹, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially. PMID:23732443

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2014-05-01

37

Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.  

PubMed

In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797. PMID:22891988

Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

2012-08-29

38

Anatomy and lignin distribution in reaction phloem fibres of several Japanese hardwoods  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Although tension wood formation and the structure of gelatinous fibres (G-fibres) have been widely investigated, studies of the influence of the reaction phenomenon on phloem fibres have been few and incomplete in comparison with those of xylem wood fibres. This study was undertaken to clarify the influence of stem inclination on phloem fibres using several Japanese hardwood species that produce different G-fibre types in tension wood. Methods Eight hardwood species were inclined at 30–45° at the beginning of April. Specimens were collected in July and December. The cell-wall structure and lignin distribution of phloem fibres on both the tension and opposite sides were compared by light microscopy, ultraviolet microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with acriflavine, and transmission electron microscopy after staining with potassium permanganate. Key Results Three types of changes were found in tension-side phloem fibres: (1) increases in the proportion of the syringyl unit in lignin in the S1 and S2 layers and compound middle lamella (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), (2) formation of unlignified gelatinous layers (Melia azedarach and Acer rufinerve) and (3) increases in the number of layers (n) in the multi-layered structure of S1 + S2 + n (G + L) (Mallotus japonicus). Other species showed no obvious change in cell-wall structure or lignin distribution. Conclusions Phloem fibres of the tree species examined in our study showed three types of changes in lignin distribution and cell-wall structure. The reaction phenomenon may vary with tree species and may not be closely related to G-fibre type in tension wood. PMID:22778147

Nakagawa, Kaori; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji

2012-01-01

39

Media Summary 18-24 October 2014 South West Business -Dr Steve Melia, transport and planning lecturer, University of the West of  

E-print Network

Architects datafile ­ Water water everywhere ­ Resilience 14: expert speakers for Britain under water seminar talking about water purification. Mohamed Elshorbagy, MSc in Finance student was interviewed by ITV

West of England, University of the

40

Detecting long-term growth trends using tree rings: A critical evaluation of methods.  

PubMed

Tree-ring analysis is often used to assess long-term trends in tree growth. A variety of growth-trend detection methods (GDMs) exist to disentangle age/size trends in growth from long-term growth changes. However, these detrending methods strongly differ in approach, with possible implications for their output. Here we critically evaluate the consistency, sensitivity, reliability and accuracy of four most widely used GDMs: Conservative Detrending applies mathematical functions to correct for decreasing ring-widths with age; Basal Area Correction transforms diameter into basal-area growth; Regional Curve Standardization detrends individual tree-ring series using average age/size trends; and Size Class Isolation calculates growth trends within separate size classes. First, we evaluated whether these GDMs produce consistent results applied to an empirical tree-ring dataset of Melia azedarach, a tropical tree species from Thailand. Three GDMs yielded similar results - a growth decline over time - but the widely used Conservative Detrending method did not detect any change. Second, we assessed the sensitivity (probability of correct growth trend detection), reliability (1- probability of detecting false trends), and accuracy (whether the strength of imposed trends is correctly detected) of these GDMs, by applying them to simulated growth trajectories with different imposed trends: no trend, strong trends (-6% and +6% change per decade), and weak trends (-2%, +2%). All methods except Conservative Detrending, showed high sensitivity, reliability and accuracy to detect strong imposed trends. However, these were considerably lower in the weak or no-trend scenarios. Basal Area Correction showed good sensitivity and accuracy, but low reliability, indicating uncertainty of trend-detection using this method. Our study reveals that the choice of GDM influences results of growth-trend studies. We recommend applying multiple methods when analysing trends and encourage performing sensitivity and reliability analysis. Finally, we recommend Size Class Isolation and Regional Curve Standardization, as these methods showed highest reliability to detect long-term growth trends. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25482401

Peters, Richard L; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, Pieter A

2014-12-01

41

Remote Sensing Coastal Areas Personal Introduction  

E-print Network

Management · Tropical Marine Ecology, Coral Reef Ecology, GIS in Landscape Ecology, Limnology 4 #12 ­ Tropical Marine Ecology ­ Coral Reef Ecology 5 #12;Examples of Remote Sensing in Coastal Areas · Cozumel Summary · Additional Cruise Ship Piers ­ 1-3 Piers: Sediment from concrete mixing, Paraiso reef damage

Kuligowski, Bob

42

Eric Meggers List of Publications  

E-print Network

for Asymmetric Coordination Chemistry with Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II), Dalton Trans. 2013, 42, 5623-5626. 5) J. K. John, K. H.T. Paraiso, V. W. Rebecca, L. P. Cantini, E. V. Abel, N. Pagano, E. Meggers, R. Mathew Phthalimides: Design, Synthesis and Kinase Inhibition, Dalton Trans. 2012, 41, 9337-9348. 10) Y. Xiang, C. Fu

Meggers, Eric

43

Eric Meggers List of Publications  

E-print Network

Assistance for Asymmetric Coordination Chemistry with Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II), Dalton Trans. 2013, 42 systems, Chem. Commun. 2013, 49, 1581-1587 (feature article). 86. J. K. John, K. H.T. Paraiso, V. W, Dalton Trans. 2012, 41, 9337-9348. 81. Y. Xiang, C. Fu, T. Breiding, P. K. Sasmal, H. Liu, Q. Shen, K

Meggers, Eric

44

NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR.  

PubMed

The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). PMID:22628901

Jones, Lynn A; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E

2010-01-01

45

NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR  

PubMed Central

The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). PMID:22628901

Jones, Lynn A.; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E.

2012-01-01

46

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Molecular Mobility during Dissolution of Poly(vinyl alcohol) in Water  

E-print Network

for recycling,4 the semiconductor industry,5 and packaging.6 The dissolution of a polymer in a solvent involves) in Water B. Narasimhan,*, J. E. M. Snaar, R. W. Bowtell, S. Morgan,§ C. D. Melia,§ and N. A. Peppas microstructure and molecular motion during dissolution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in water. One

Peppas, Nicholas A.

47

Introduction In the year 2000 the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) issued the  

E-print Network

't have enough food, we call this Virtual Water." ­ Charles O'Melia Access to Clean Water Keynote of homes and businesses, clean water, refrigeration and air conditioning), as well as advances of the 14 Grand Challenges: clean water; carbon, energy and climate; urban sustainability; and global

Heller, Barbara

48

EFFECTS OF SIX PLANT EXTRACTS ON RICE WEEVIL SITOPHILUS ORYZAE L. IN THE STORED WHEAT GRAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol extracts of six plants materials i.e. bakain drupes (Melia azdarach), habulas leaves (Myrtus communis), mint leaves (Mentha longifolia), bakain leaves, harmal shoots and seeds (Pegnum harmala) and lemon grass roots (Cymbopogon citrates) against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L. were tested to determine their insecticidal properties. The results revealed that all of the tested materials with some variations had repellent

A. U. R. Saljoqi; Munir Khan Afridi; Shah Alam Khan

2006-01-01

49

Maintien du potentiel adaptatif chez les plantes domestiques propagation clonale.  

E-print Network

gestion par les cultivateurs de manioc amérindiens Doyle McKEY1 , Marianne ELIAS2, 3 , Benoît PUJOL4 addressescourriel des auteurs: Doyle McKey : doyle.mckey@cefe.cnrs.fr ; Marianne Elias : melias2008@googlemail

50

Endophytic bacteria improve seedling growth of sunflower under water stress, produce salicylic acid, and inhibit growth of pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Endophytic bacterial strains SF2 (99.9% homology with Achromobacter xylosoxidans), and SF3 and SF4 (99.9% homology with Bacillus pumilus) isolated from sunflower grown under irrigation or drought were selected on the basis of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) characteristics. Aims of the study were to examine effects of inoculation with SF2, SF3, and SF4 on sunflower cultivated under water stress, to evaluate salicylic acid (SA) production by these strains in control medium or at ?a = -2.03 MPa, and to analyze effects of exogenously applied SA, jasmonic acid (JA), bacterial pellets, and bacterial supernatants on growth of pathogenic fungi Alternaria sp., Sclerotinia sp., and Verticillum sp. Growth response to bacterial inoculation was studied in two inbred lines (water stress-sensitive B59 and water stress-tolerant B71) and commercial hybrid Paraiso 24. Under both water stress and normal conditions, plant growth following inoculation was more strongly enhanced for Paraiso 24 and B71 than for B59. All three strains produced SA in control medium; levels for SF3 and SF4 were higher than for SF2. SA production was dramatically higher at ?a = -2.03 MPa. Exogenously applied SA or JA caused a significant reduction of growth for Sclerotinia and a lesser reduction for Alternaria and Verticillum. Fungal growth was more strongly inhibited by bacterial pellets than by bacterial supernatants. Our findings indicate that these endophytic bacteria enhance growth of sunflower seedlings under water stress, produce SA, and inhibit growth of pathogenic fungi. These characteristics are useful for formulation of inoculants to improve growth and yield of sunflower crops. PMID:20383767

Forchetti, Gabriela; Masciarelli, Oscar; Izaguirre, María J; Alemano, Sergio; Alvarez, Daniel; Abdala, Guillermina

2010-12-01

51

Podophyllotoxin derivatives show activity against Brontispa longissima larvae.  

PubMed

In an attempt to find biorational insecticides, eleven podophyllotoxin analogues were tested for their insecticidal activity against the fifth-instar larvae of Brontispa longissima in vivo for the first time. Among all of the tested compounds, deoxypodophyllotoxin (3) and beta-apopicropodophyllin (4) showed more promising and pronounced insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia toosendan, and important SAR information has been revealed. Together, these preliminary results may be useful in guiding further modification of podophyllotoxins in the development of potential new insecticides. PMID:20839628

Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying-Qian; Yang, Liu; Feng, Gang

2010-08-01

52

Why the Big Bang Model does not allow inflationary and cyclic cosmologies though mathematically one can obtain any model with favourable assumptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various versions of standard Big Bang Model (BBM) including the current LCDM cosmology require an “inflationary” phase for the nascent universe (?t?10-32 s) during which the size of the universe blows up by a factor of ?1078. However, the so-called Rh=ct cosmology (Melia, 2013a) claims that the isotropy and homogeneity of the present universe can be understood without assuming any inflationary phase. To this effect, Melia and his coworkers have often invoked “Weyl’s Postulate” and “Birkhoff’s Theorem” to qualitatively argue for this novel model. On the other hand, here, we explore for a cogent analytical basis of the Rh=ct proposal which is claimed to have such a profound implication. First we show that (i) if the spatial flatness of the BBM would be presumed, Rh=ct cosmology may indeed follow. To further explore this issue without prior assumption of flatness (ii) we equate the twin expressions for the Energy Complex (EC) associated with BBM computed by using the same Einstein pseudo-tensor and quasi-Cartesian coordinates (Mitra, 2013b). This exercise surprisingly shows that BBM has tacit and latent self-consistency constraints: it is spatially flat and its scale factor a(t)?t. Accordingly, it seems that, there is no scope for the other models including inflationary and cyclic ones. The real lumpy universe may be too complex for the simplistic Big Bang model.

Mitra, Abhas

2014-07-01

53

Identification of echinoderms (Echinodermata) from an anchialine cave in Cozumel Island, Mexico, using DNA barcodes.  

PubMed

The echinoderm species richness of the Aerolito de Paraiso anchialine cave, on Cozumel Island, in the Mexican Caribbean, is assessed on the basis of morphological and DNA barcoding data. We included specimens from this cave system and from different open sea areas, and employed two different approaches for species delineation based on DNA barcoding data: a 2% cox1 divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) approaches. We subsequently compared the results derived from these approaches with our morphospecies discrimination. A total of 188 cox1 sequences belonging to specimens of four echinoderm classes were examined. The 2% cox1 divergence and GMYC approaches recovered 78 and 70 putative species, respectively, 24 and 22 of which corresponded to specimens from the anchialine system. Of 26 echinoderm species identified in the cave system, seven appear to be endemic to it. Among these are Copidaster carvenicola Solís-Marín & Laguarda-Figueras, 2010, two morphologically distinctive, undescribed species belonging to Asterinides and Ophionereis and four probably cryptic undescribed species originally assigned to Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1839), Astropecten duplicatus Gray, 1840, Copidaster lymani (AH Clark, 1948) and Ophiothrix angulata (Say, 1825). Further research and protection of this particularly fragile ecosystem becomes urgent because construction of tourism developments is planned nearby. PMID:23551841

Bribiesca-Contreras, Guadalupe; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

2013-11-01

54

Spoc-experiment: Seismic Imaging and Bathymetry of The Central Chile Margin - First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the RV SONNE cruise 161 Leg 1 to 5 (October 2001 to January 2002) Sub- duction Processes Off Chile (SPOC) have been investigated using a multi-disciplinary geoscientific approach. Here we report first results of multi channel seismic (MCS) experiments and high-resolution swath bathymetry data from Leg 3, south of Val- paraiso. 24 MCS profiles with a total length of 3670 km were run between 36 S to 4020' S, providing a detailed view of the structures related to the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the Chile Margin. The oceanic crust of the Nazca Plate shows at least three sets of structural trends associated with the Mocha and Valdivia Fractures Zones, the spreading lineations and subduction related horst and graben structures. In the study area the trench is filled with well stratified turbidites up to 2 seconds TWT thick. Along the trench axis a turbidite channel exceeding 80 m relief exists. Several large deep sea fan complexes are developed at the slope toe. Their distributary canyons cut deep into the slope and shelf and can be traced back to major river mouths. The deformation front is coincident with the slope toe; compressional structures of the trench fill are uncommon. The deformation front is curved and offset along strike, caused presumably by collision and indentation of structures of the Nazca Plate. The most remarkable features of the MCS - profiles, yet, are the only very rudimentary developed modern accretionary prism as well as the high variability of the lower slope angles. Lower slope angles locally exceed 10. The continental crust extends seawards to the middle slope and acts as a backstop. Several profiles reveal landward dipping reflectors above the downgoing slab, possibly depicting a subduction channel beneath the slope. Thus, the geometry of the subduction units U a young thick trench fill, only rudimental frontal accretion and a subduction channel U argues for subduction of the bulk of the sediments.

Ladage, S.; Reichert, C.; Schreckenberger, B.; Block, M.; Bönnemann, C.; Canuta, J.; Damaske, D.; Diaz-Naveas, J.; Gaedicke, C.; Krawczyk, C.; Kus, J.; Urbina, O.; Sepulveda, J.

55

Anticancer drugs from traditional toxic Chinese medicines.  

PubMed

Many anticancer drugs are obtained from natural sources. Nature produces a variety of toxic compounds, which are often used as anticancer drugs. Up to now, there are at least 120 species of poisonous botanicals, animals and minerals, of which more than half have been found to possess significant anticancer properties. In spite of their clinical toxicity, they exhibit pharmacological effects and have been used as important traditional Chinese medicines for the different stages of cancer. The article reviews many structures such as alkaloids of Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus and Cephalotaxus fortunei, lignans of Dysosma versipellis and Podophyllum emodi, ketones of Garcinia hanburyi, terpenoids of Mylabris and Ginkgo biloba, diterpenoids of Tripterygium wilfordii, Euphorbia fischeriana, Euphorbia lathyris, Euphorbia kansui, Daphne genkwa, Pseudolarix kaempferi and Brucea javanica, triterpenoids of Melia toosendan, steroids of Periploca sepium, Paris polyphylla and Venenum Bufonis, and arsenic compounds including Arsenicum and Realgar. By comparing their related phytochemistry, toxic effects and the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of action, this review puts forward some ideals and examples about how to increase antitumour activity and/or reduce the side effects experienced with Chinese medicine. PMID:22389143

Man, Shuli; Gao, Wenyuan; Wei, Changlong; Liu, Changxiao

2012-10-01

56

Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.  

PubMed

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

57

Mitigating nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil in rice-wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic plain with nitrification and urease inhibitors.  

PubMed

Mitigation of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil is important to reduce the global warming. Efficacy of five nitrification inhibitors, i.e. neem (Azadirachta melia) cake, thiosulphate, coated calcium carbide, neem oil coated urea and dicyandiamide (DCD) and one urease inhibitor, hydroquinone, in mitigating N2O and CH4 emissions from fertilized soil was tested in rice-wheat system in the Indo-Gangetic plains. The closed chamber technique was used for the collection of gas samples, which were analyzed using gas chromatography. Reduction in N2O emission on the application of nitrification/urease inhibitors along with urea ranged from 5% with hydroquinone to 31% with thiosulphate in rice and 7% with hydroquinone to 29% with DCD in wheat crop. The inhibitors also influenced the emission of CH4. While application of neem coated urea, coated calcium carbide, neem oil and DCD reduced the emission of CH4; hydroquinone and thiosulphate increased the emission when compared to urea alone. However, the global warming potential was lower with the inhibitors (except hydroquinone) as compared to urea alone, suggesting that these substances could be used for mitigating greenhouse gas emission from the rice-wheat systems. PMID:15571746

Malla, G; Bhatia, Arti; Pathak, H; Prasad, S; Jain, Niveta; Singh, J

2005-01-01

58

Preliminary description of biocidal (syringomycin) activity in fluorescent plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species.  

PubMed

Strains representing the fluorescent plant pathogenic Pseudomonas spp., Ps. agarici, Ps. asplenii, Ps. avellanae, Ps. beteli, Ps. caricapapayae, Ps. cichorii, Ps. corrugata, Ps. ficuserectae, Ps. flectens, Ps. fuscovaginae, Ps. marginalis, Ps. meliae, Ps. savastanoi, Ps. syringae, Ps. tolaasii and Ps. viridiflava were tested for biocidal activity using Aspergillus niger as assay organism. Inhibitory behaviour was found in strains of Ps. asplenii, Ps. blatchfordae, Ps. cichorii, Ps. corrugata, Ps. fuscovaginae, Ps. marginalis, Ps. marginalis pv. pastinacea, Ps. syringae pv. syringae, Ps. syringae pv. aptata, Ps. syringae pv. atrofaciens, Ps. syringae pv. lapsa, Ps. tolaasii, and strains of a Pseudomonas sp. pathogenic to Actinidia, in the Ps. savastanoi genomic sp. Antifungal activity could be identified with the production of members of the syringomycin family of toxins by strains in Ps. syringae, Ps. asplenii and Ps. fuscovaginae. These toxin reactions support suggestions made elsewhere of the synonym of the latter two species. In a preliminary characterization using tests for stability to heat, protease, acid and alkaline treatments, unknown toxins consistent with syringomycin-like toxins the strains from Actinidia species. The toxins from Ps. cichorii and from Ps. corrugata differed in their reactions from all other agents. Pseudomonas tolaasii produces the antifungal compound tolaasin. The white line reaction with Ps. reactions, a test for tolaasin production by strains of Ps. tolaasii, was confirmed as specific for this compound. Some of these low molecular weight toxins may be produced by some of these plant pathogenic strains. PMID:9750309

Hu, F P; Young, J M; Fletcher, M J

1998-08-01

59

Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of hyponidd, an ayurvedic herbomineral formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Hyponidd is a herbomineral formulation composed of the extracts of ten medicinal plants ( Momordica charantia, Melia azadirachta, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia , Gymnema sylvestre, Enicostemma littorale, Emblica officinalis, Eugenia jambolana, Cassia auriculata and Curcuma longa). We have investigated hyponidd for its possible antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect in diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg kg(-1) body weight). Oral administration of hyponidd (100 mg kg(-1) and 200 mg kg(-1)) for 45 days resulted in significant lowered levels of blood glucose and significant increased levels of hepatic glycogen and total haemoglobin. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in experimental diabetic rats in which there was a significant improvement in blood glucose tolerance in the rats treated with hyponidd. Hyponidd administration also decreased levels of glycosylated haemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and alpha-tocopherol in diabetic rats. Plasma reduced glutathione and vitamin C were significantly elevated by oral administration of hyponidd. The effect of hyponidd at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1) was more effective than glibenclamide (600 microg kg(-1)) in restoring the values to near normal. The results showed that hyponidd exhibits antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:15525451

Babu, P Subash; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

2004-11-01

60

Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents  

PubMed Central

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

61

Identification and distribution of New World Leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Five hundred thirty stocks of Leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of American cutaneous (ACL) and visceral leishmaniases (AVL) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. This study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these monoclonals for the L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. donovani complexes. This study also demonstrates the relative stability of these molecular markers and the general usefulness of the method for parasite identification. Two hundred ninety-two of 420 isolates of ACL were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex. Two hundred twenty-seven were L. b. braziliensis; these showed the widest geographical distribution (Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo; Honduras: Santa Barbara and Yoko; Peru: Ancash, Piura, and Ucayali; and Venezuela: Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Portuguesa, Vale Hondo, Yaracuy, and Zulia). Forty-one stocks were identified as L. b. guyanensis (from North Brazil: Amazonas, Amapa, Para, and Rondonia). Twenty-one stocks were identified as L. b. panamensis (from Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacasten, Limon, Puntarenas, and San Jose; and Honduras: El Paraiso, and Olancho). Out of 128 isolates classified as members of the L. mexicana complex, 74 were differentiated as L. m. amazonensis (from Bolivia; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso do Norte, and Para; Peru: Pasco Forest and Van Humboldt; and Venezuela: Carabobo, Guarico, and Merida). Forty-four stocks were identified as L. m. venezuelensis (from Venezuela: Lara). Six stocks were L. m. mexicana (from Belize; and Mexico: Campeche [corrected] and Quintana Roo, Yucatan). One hundred ten isolates from AVL were identified as L. donovani chagasi (from Brazil: Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, and Sergipe; and Honduras: Valle). The implications of these results with respect to both the clinical and epidemiological data (including the detection of seven unusual characterized stocks) are discussed. PMID:3826486

Grimaldi, G; David, J R; McMahon-Pratt, D

1987-03-01

62

Review on pharmacological and toxicologyical effects of oleum azadirachti oil  

PubMed Central

Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds,ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects. PMID:24075352

Koriem, Khaled MM

2013-01-01

63

Testing cosmology from fundamental considerations: Is the Friedmann universe intrinsically flat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Melia and Shevchuk (Mon Not R Astron Soc 419:2579,2012) (MS) have proposed the so-called cosmology where the "Gravitational Horizon" of the universe is equal to the distance travelled by light since "Big Bang". Here we would like to see whether the basic claim is correct or not because MS have not given any cogent derivation for the same. Essentially we will compare the twin expressions for the Einstein energy momentum complex (EMC) of the Friedmann universe obtained by using an appropriate superpotential and also by a direct method. To enable a meaningful comparison of the twin expressions, both are computed by using the same quasi-Cartesian coordinates. We however do not claim that Einstein EMC is superior to many other routes of defining EM of a self-gravitating system. In fact, for static isolated spherical syatems, the idea of a coordinate independent field energy of Lynden-Bell and Katz (Mon Not R Astron Soc 213:21, 1985) might be quite physically significant. Yet, here, we use Einstein EMC because (i) our system is non-static and not isolated one (ii) our primary aim is not find any absolute value of EM, and, finally, (iii) only Einstein pseudo-tensor offers equivalent twin expressions for EM which one can be equated irrespective of any physical significance. Following such comparison of equivalent twin expressions of Einstein energy, we find an exact proof as to why Friedmann universe must be spatially flat even though, mathematically one can conceive of curved spaces in any dimension. Additionally, it follows that, apparently, the scale factor as insisted by proposition. Nonetheless, because of close similarity of this form, , with the (vacuum) Milne metric, and also because of implied unphysical equation of state, cosmology is unlikely to represent the physical universe.

Mitra, Abhas

2014-02-01

64

High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of pyoverdin siderophores differentiate among phytopathogenic fluorescent Pseudomonas Species.  

PubMed

The relationship of pyoverdins produced by 41 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and by phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing the culture medium proved to be superior to isoelectric focusing for detecting pyoverdin production, for differentiating slightly different pyoverdins, and for differentiating atypical from typical Fe(III)-chelated pyoverdins. Nonfluorescent strains were found in Pseudomonas amygdali, Pseudomonas meliae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and P. syringae. Pseudomonas agarici and Pseudomonas marginalis produced typical pyoverdins. Among the arginine dihydrolase-negative fluorescent Pseudomonas species, spectral, amino acid, and mass spectrometry analyses underscored for the first time the clear similarities among the pyoverdins produced by related species. Within this group, the oxidase-negative species Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas ficuserectae and the pathovars of P. syringae produced the same atypical pyoverdin, whereas the oxidase-positive species Pseudomonas cichorii produced a similar atypical pyoverdin that contained a glycine instead of a serine. The more distantly related species Pseudomonas asplenii and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae both produced a less similar atypical pyoverdin. The spectral characteristics of Fe(III)-chelated atypical pyoverdins at pH 7.0 were related to the presence of two beta-hydroxyaspartic acids as iron ligands, whereas in typical pyoverdins one of the ligands is always ornithine based. The peptide chain influenced the chelation of iron more in atypical pyoverdins. Our results demonstrated that there is relative pyoverdin conservation in the amino acids involved in iron chelation and that there is faster evolution of the other amino acids, highlighting the usefulness of pyoverdins in systematics and in identification. PMID:12571041

Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; de Hoffmann, Edmond

2003-02-01

65

A new definition of a correlation equation for single collector efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport and deposition of colloidal particles in porous media are important phenomena involved in many environmental and engineering problems as, for instance, the use of micro- and nanoscale zerovalent iron, a promising reagent in the field of groundwater remediation [1]. Particle transport and deposition in the proximity of injection or pumping wells and in porous media in general may also be relevant in other fields of chemical and petroleum engineering. Mathematical models able to predict particles transport and deposition in porous media are often needed in order to design field applications. The basic concept of these models is the single collector efficiency ?, which predicts particles deposition onto a single grain of a complex porous medium in terms of probability that an approaching particle would be retained on a solid grain. Many different approaches and equations exist in the literature, however most of them are valid only under specific conditions (eg. specific range of flow rate, particle size, etc.), and predict, for certain parametric conditions, efficiency values exceeding unity, which is, for an efficiency concept, a contradiction [2][3]. The objectives of this study are to analyze the causes of the failure of the existing models in predicting the deposition rate in certain conditions and to modify the definition of collector efficiency in order to have a more general equation. The definition of collector efficiency, first proposed by Yao at al. [4], is based on the particles deposition onto a spherical grain (the collector) in an infinite domain. It is defined as the ration between the flux of particles that deposit on the grain and the total amount of particles that could reach the collector by advective flux from an area equal to the projection of the spherical grain itself. In the present work Yao's model has been implemented by COMSOL Multiphysics and solved with an Eulerian approach; particles deposition simulations were run. From these results a new definition of ? is proposed, considering all the flux that potentially reach the collector. A new equation, valid in a broader range of parameters (eg. low Pe number, big particle size, etc.), has been formulated starting from the numerical results. References .1. Boccardo, G., D.L. Marchisio, and R. Sethi, Microscale simulation of particle deposition in porous media. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2014. 417: p. 227-37. 2. Ma, H., M. Hradisky, and W.P. Johnson, Extending Applicability of Correlation Equations to Predict Colloidal Retention in Porous Media at Low Fluid Velocity. Environ. Sci. Technology, 2013. 47: p. 2272-2278. 3. Song, L.F. and M. Elimelech, Deposition of Brownian Particles in Porous-Media - Modified Boundary-Conditions for the Sphere-in-Cell Model. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1992. 153(1): p. 294-297. 4. Yao, K.M., M.T. Habibian, and C.R. O'Melia, Water and Waste Water Filtration: Concepts and Applications. 1971.

Messina, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

2014-05-01