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Sample records for paraiso melia azedarach

  1. Pediculicidal treatment using ethanol and Melia azedarach L.

    PubMed

    Rutkauskis, João Ricardo; Jacomini, Debora; Temponi, Livia Godinho; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; da Silva, Edson Antonio Alves; Jorge, Tereza Cristina Marinho; Jorge, Tereza Cristina Marino

    2015-06-01

    Pediculosis is an infestation of the scalp caused by Pediculus humanus capitis, known as lice, which affects thousands of people throughout the world. Disease control is achieved by topical insecticides, whose indiscriminate use has led to the emergence of resistant populations of lice. Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) is an Asian tree that is found in Brazil, where it is popularly known as cinnamon or santa-bárbara. This study aimed to evaluate a pediculicidal treatment, made from a hydroethanolic extract of M. azedarach, and to study the effect of extraction solvents (ethanol and water) on insect mortality. The chemical composition of crude extract was studied by gas chromatography, identifying 32 methyl esters of fatty acids, with esters of heneicosanoic, palmitic, and arachidic acids present in greatest abundance. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra suggested the presence of flavonoids and terpenes. Quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1) and quercetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1???6)-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the extract. The bioassay of pediculicidal activity shows that the M. azedarach extract had a pediculicidal activity, inducing the death of all lice faster than 1% permethrin, a topical insecticide commonly used to control lice. PMID:25758585

  2. Intoxication of cattle by the fruits of Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    del Mendez, Maria Carmen; Elias, Fabiana; Aragao, Marcos; Gimeno, Eduardo Juan; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2002-06-01

    Melia azedarach fruits were administered at single doses ranging from 5 to 30 g/kg bw to 10 calves. The animals dosed with 25 g/kg bw and 30 g/ kg bw died, as well as 1/2 cattle that received 15 g/kg bw. Clinical signs were depression, ruminal stasis, anorexia, diarrhea, incoordination, muscle tremors, difficulty to stand, sternal recumbence, hypothermia and dyspnea. Serum AST and CPK were increased. Signs appeared 4 to 24 h after dosing and the clinical manifestations continued for 20 to 72 h. Macroscopic findings included congestion of the intestine, focal or diffuseyellow discoloration of the liver, and brain congestion. LiQuid content was in rumen, reticulum and intestines. The liver had swollen and vacuolated hepatocytes, and necrotic hepatocytes were scattered throughout the parenchyma or concentrated in the periacinar zone. Degenerative and necrotic changes were in the epithelium of the forestomachs. There was also necrosis of lymphoid tissue. Skeletal muscles had hyaline degeneration and fiber necrosis. PMID:12046965

  3. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  4. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistiyani; Safithri, Mega; Puspita Sari, Yoana

    2016-01-01

    Development of α-glucosidase inhibitor derived from natural products is an opportunity for a more economic management of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to test the activity of α-glucosidase with or without potential inhibitor compounds. By in vitro method, α-glucosidase hydrolizes p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopiranoside to glucose and the yellow of p-nitrophenol which can be determined with spectrophotometry at 400 nm. The ability of ethanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. as a-glucosidase inhibitor was compared with that of commercial acarbose (Glucobay®). Acarbose showed strong inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase with IC50 values of 2.154 µg/mL. The crude ethanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach, however, showed less inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3, 444.114 µg/mL. Total phenolics of M. azedarach leaves EtOH extract showed 17.94 µg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids total compound of 9.55 µg QE/mg extract. Based on the published wide range of IC50 values of extracts reported as a-glucosidase inhibitor which were between 10, 000 ppm-0.66 ppm, our result suggests that extract of M.azedarach leaves is potential candidate for development of anti-hyperglycemic formulation.

  5. Melia azedarach plants show tolerance properties to water shortage treatment: an ecophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria Celeste; Azevedo, Carla; Costa, Maria; Pinto, Glória; Santos, Conceição

    2014-02-01

    Candidate species for reforestation of areas prone to drought must combine water stress (WS) tolerance and economic or medicinal interest. Melia azedarach produces high quality timber and has insecticidal and medicinal properties. However, the impact of WS on M. azedarach has not yet been studied. Two-month old M. azedarach plants were exposed to WS during 20 days. After this period, plant's growth, water potential, photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. WS did not affect plants' growth, but induced stomatal closure, reduced net CO? assimilation rate (A) and the intercellular CO? availability in mesophyll (C(i)). WS also reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of PSII but not the pigment levels. WS up-regulated the antioxidant enzymes and stimulated the production of antioxidant metabolites, preventing lipid peroxidation. Therefore, despite some repression of photosynthetic parameters by WS, they did not compromise plant growth, and plants increased their antioxidant capacity. Our data demonstrate that M. azedarach juvenile plants have the potential to acclimate to water shortage conditions, opening new perspectives to the use of this species in reforestation/afforestation programs of drought prone areas. PMID:24440555

  6. In vitro anthelmintic effect of Melia azedarach L. and Trichilia claussenii C. against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Cala, A C; Chagas, A C S; Oliveira, M C S; Matos, A P; Borges, L M F; Sousa, L A D; Souza, F A; Oliveira, G P

    2012-02-01

    The control of parasitic diseases in small ruminants is mainly done with the use of synthetic anthelmintics. However, incorrect and indiscriminate use of these products has caused the emergence of parasite resistance. Plants with anthelmintic activity are used in folk veterinary medicine, but it is necessary to investigate and scientifically validate low-cost phytotherapeutic alternatives for future use to control gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants by family farmers. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effect of plant extracts from Melia azedarach and Trichilia claussenii by the egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. The hexane extract of M. azedarach fruits was extracted through cold percolation and the methanol extract of T. claussenii leaves was obtained by extraction at room temperature in solvents in order of increasing polarity. The efficacy results were analyzed using the Probit program of SAS. The M. azedarach extract showed a LC(50) of 572.2 ?g/mL and LC(99) of 1137.8 ?g/mL in the EHT, and LC(50) of 0.7 ?g/mL and LC(99) of 60.8 ?g/mL in the LDT. In turn, the T. claussenii extract presented a LC(50) of 263.8 ?g/mL and LC(99) of 522.5 ?g/mL in the EHT and LC(50) of 1.1 ?g/mL and LC(99) of 26.4 ?g/mL in the LDT. Comparing the extracts of the species from the Meliaceae family, T. claussenii showed greater anti-parasite potential in vitro than M. azedarach. However, studies on the isolated compounds, toxicity and administration forms to animals are also needed to validate low-cost alternative herbal remedies for use to control gastrointestinal nematodes by family farmers. PMID:22209941

  7. Antifungal and antibacterial metabolites from an endophytic Aspergillus sp. associated with Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yu-Qi; Shi, Xin-Wei; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Seven known metabolites, dianhydro-aurasperone C (1), isoaurasperone A (2), fonsecinone A (3), asperpyrone A (4), asperazine (5), rubrofusarin B (6) and (R)-3-hydroxybutanonitrile (7), were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus sp. KJ-9, a fungal endophyte isolated from Melia azedarach and identified by spectroscopic methods. All isolates were evaluated in vitro against several phytopathogenic fungi (Gibberella saubinetti, Magnaporthe grisea, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria solani) and pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus cereus). Compounds 3 and 7 were active against almost all phytopathogenic fungi tested with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 6.25-50 ?M. Moreover, compound 3 was active against all pathogenic bacteria with MIC in the range of 25-100 ?M. Compound 7 is a rare new natural product isolated from a natural source for the first time, and the detailed NMR data of 1 were first assigned. PMID:24708541

  8. Limonoids from Melia azedarach Fruits as Inhibitors of Flaviviruses and Mycobacterium tubercolosis

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Giuseppina; Madeddu, Silvia; Giliberti, Gabriele; Ntalli, Nikoletta G.; Cottiglia, Filippo; De Logu, Alessandro; Agus, Emanuela; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    The biological diversity of nature is the source of a wide range of bioactive molecules. The natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, have been a successful source of inspiration for the development of new drugs. The present work was carried out to investigate the cytotoxicity, antiviral and antimycobacterial activity of the methanol extract and of four identified limonoids from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae). The extract and purified limonoids were tested in cell-based assays for antiviral activity against representatives of ssRNA, dsRNA and dsDNA viruses and against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Very interestingly, 3-α-tigloyl-melianol and melianone showed a potent antiviral activity (EC50 in the range of 3–11μM) against three important human pathogens, belonging to Flaviviridae family, West Nile virus, Dengue virus and Yellow Fever virus. Mode of action studies demonstrated that title compounds were inhibitors of West Nile virus only when added during the infection, acting as inhibitors of the entry or of a very early event of life cycle. Furthermore, 3-α-tigloyl-melianol and methyl kulonate showed interesting antimycobacterial activity (with MIC values of 29 and 70 μM respectively). The limonoids are typically lipophilic compounds present in the fruits of Melia azeradach. They are known as cytotoxic compounds against different cancer cell lines, while their potential as antiviral and antibacterial was poorly investigated. Our studies show that they may serve as a good starting point for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of infections by Flaviviruses and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for which there is a continued need. PMID:26485025

  9. Micropropagation of paradise tree (Melia azedarach) by in vitro culture of axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Mroginski, Luis A; Rey, Hebe Y

    2013-01-01

    Paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.) is a multipurpose ornamental and timber tree, and its extracts are used to make insecticides and fungicides. Conventional propagation is done by seeds; however, sexual reproduction results in wide genetic variability. Therefore, clonal propagation is desirable to reduce genetic variation. This chapter describes a protocol for in vitro propagation of paradise tree by axillary buds. There are major steps for this protocol. Firstly, shoot induction by in vitro culture of axillary buds, excised from potted plants obtained by rooting of cuttings of 10-15-year-old adult trees. The initiation medium was composed of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP (benzylaminopurine), 0.1 mg/L IBA (indolebutyric acid), and 0.1 mg/L GA(3) (gibberellic acid). Secondly, multiplication of the regenerated shoots on MS medium amended with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L GA(3). Thirdly, rooting of the regenerated shoots on MS medium containing 0.1 mg/L IBA. Fully well-developed plants were transferred to pots containing sand, peat moss, and perlite (1:1:1), and maintained initially in the greenhouse or plastic tunnels. PMID:23179702

  10. Fusaroside, a unique glycolipid from Fusarium sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Peng; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Qiang; Laatsch, Hartmut; Kuang, Yi

    2012-01-28

    Fusaroside (1), a unique trehalose-containing glycolipid composed of the 4-hydroxyl group of a trehalose unit attached to the carboxylic carbon of a long-chain fatty acid, was isolated from the organic extract of fermentation broths of an endophytic fungus, Fusarium sp. LN-11 isolated from the leaves of Melia azedarach. Six known compounds, phalluside (2), (9R*,10R*,7E)-6, 9,10-trihydroxyoctadec-7-enoic acid (3), porrigenic acid (4), (9Z)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadeca-9-enoate (5), cerevisterol (6) and ergokonin B (7), were also isolated from this fungus. The glycolipid contains a rare branched long-chain fatty acid (C(20:4)) with a conjugated diene moiety and a conjugated ketone moiety. The structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR experiments, MS) and chemical degradations. The metabolites 1-5 were shown to have moderate to weak active against the brine shrimp larvae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of the first representative of a new family of glycolipids from natural sources. PMID:22124543

  11. Laboratory evaluation of Melia azedarach L. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Extracts in order to control Ocneridia volxemi Bolivar (Orthoptera, Pamphaginae) hoppers.

    PubMed

    Bounechada, M; Doumandji, S E; Laouer, H

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) dry fruit extracts (oil and water) and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae) dry leaves extracts (water) on Oneridia volxemi hoppers (fifth-instar) feeding on cereals leaves (Triticum durum) under laboratory conditions. Larva feeding reduced and mortality was significatly (p < 0.05) on cereals leaves sprayed with three concentrations 0, 5, 1 and 2% of oil extracted from Melia azederach. In addition, O. volxemi feeding and mortality was significantly (p < 0.05) on cereals leaves sprayed with two concentrations 50 g/l and 80 g/l of water extracts from Melia azedarach dry fruits soaked for 24 hours. the water extract solution of 80 g/l significantly reduced feeding than the other concentrations 50 and 25 g/l. This study showed also the water extract solution from Eucalyptus globulus dry leaves reduced also feeding and induced the mortality of O. volxemi but not better than Melia azedarach dry fruit extracts water at the same concentration (80 g/l). The aim of this study is in an integrated management program for control of O. PMID:15759419

  12. Formulations of Melia azedarach to Control Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larvae in Corn and Plant Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Souza, B H S; Costa, E N; Forim, M R; Costa, E S; Boiça Júnior, A L

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated oil and powder formulations of Melia azedarach for controlling larvae of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) in corn and plant enhancement. Five concentrations of each formulation were evaluated and compared to fipronil (negative control) and distilled water (positive control). After treatment, the number of surviving insects (larvae, pupae, and adults), the adult body weight, the sex ratio, and the longevity were recorded, while the height, dry weight of aerial part and roots, and number of leaves of plants were measured. The oil formulation at 4.0 mL reduced the larvae population of D. speciosa similarly to the insecticide fipronil, which resulted in greater height, dry weight of the root system, and number of leaves. Powder formulation at concentrations of 40, 80, and 160 mg caused larval mortality above 80%; however, these concentrations did not prevent reduction of plant height and dry weight of aerial part. Further studies assessing the residual period of M. azedarach control against D. speciosa larvae and its phytotoxicity, which are common traits associated with azadirachtin application, are necessary to subsidize the next steps of this alternative control strategy. PMID:26013136

  13. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Charleston, D S; Kfir, R; Vet, L E M; Dicke, M

    2005-10-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of cabbage leaves and consuming less of the treated half of cabbage leaves. The botanical insecticides had less of an effect on the oviposition behaviour of P. xylostella moths. In laboratory and glasshouse trials, significantly fewer eggs were oviposited on the plants that had been treated with syringa extracts. Therefore, the syringa extracts appear to have a repellent effect. In contrast, when exposed to the neem extracts the moths did not discriminate between control plants and treated plants. Behavioural observation indicated that, despite the lower number of eggs oviposited on cabbage treated with syringa extracts, the moths chose cabbage treated with the highest dose of syringa more often than they chose control cabbage plants. Similar observations were found in cabbage plants treated with neem, moths chose the medium dose more often than they chose the control. Oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are important factors in pest control, and results from this study indicate that botanical insecticides have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for P. xylostella in South Africa. PMID:16197566

  14. [Effects of tomato genotypes and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].

    PubMed

    Brunherotto, Rogério; Vendramim, José D; de G Oriani, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    Insecticide plants are an important tool among the new alternatives for pest control in IPM systems because they reduce the use of synthetic insecticides, preserving human health and the environment. We investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds and three tomato genotypes, 'Santa Clara', 'IPA-5'--Solanum lycopersicum (=Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), and LA444-1--S. peruvianum (=L. peruvianum), on the development, reproduction and longevity of the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), under laboratory conditions. The trials were set up in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments [three genotypes x two extracts (M. azedarach and A. indica) and control]. The replication consisted on five tubes, each with three newly hatched larvae, totalizing 90 individuals per treatment. The larvae were fed with tomato leaves treated with aqueous extracts at 0.1% concentration or distilled water (control) and daily observed until adults' emergence. Larval and pupal development and mortality, pupal weight, longevity and fecundity were evaluated. The accession LA444-1 negatively affected the development and reproduction of T. absoluta; the tomato pinworm had similar development and reproduction on 'IPA-5' and 'Santa Clara' (the susceptible control). The association of resistant tomato genotypes and extracts of M. azedarach leaves and neem seeds did not result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on T. absoluta. PMID:21120389

  15. Melia azedarach extract stimulates melanogenesis through increase of tyrosinase-related protein 1 expression in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng; Jin, Cheng Long; Oh, Inn Gyung; Park, Chi-Hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2015-06-01

    Melia azedarach (MA) has been used in folk medicine in Asia for the treatment of several diseases. Several constituents from MA possess anti-herpetic, anti-angiogenic and anticancer properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a 70% ethanol extract of MA on melanogenesis and the underlying mechanisms involved. A B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line was used in our experiments. Treatment of B16F10 cells with the MA extract (10, 20 and 40 µg/ml) increased melanin content in a concentration-dependent manner without cytotoxicity at 24 h. Further experiments indicated that the MA extract (20 µg/ml) increased melanin content as early as at 4 h after treatment. Additionally, although the MA extract did not affect intracellular tyrosinase activity and the protein levels of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2) at 2 and 4 h after treatment, the MA extract increased TRP-1 protein expression at both time points. However, no significant effect of the MA extract treatment on TRP-1 mRNA level at the time points measured was observed. In conclusion, the results from the present study demonstrate that the MA extract increases melanogenesis through the upregulation of TRP-1 protein expression by post-transcriptional control in B16F10 cells and suggest that the MA extract can be viewed as a rapid inducer of melanogenesis, thus rendering it a potential treatment for hypopigmentation diseases including vitiligo. PMID:25872655

  16. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract Parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants.

    PubMed

    Charleston, Deidre S; Gols, Rieta; Hordijk, Kees A; Kfir, Rami; Vet, Louise E M; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Cotesia plutellae was attracted only to Plutella xylostella-infested cabbage plants in a wind tunnel after an oviposition experience. Female C. plutellae did not distinguish between P. xylostella-infested cabbage plants treated with neem and control P. xylostella-infested plants. However, females preferred infested cabbage plants that had been treated with syringa extract to control infested plants. Syringa extract on filter paper did not attract C. plutellae. This suggests that an interaction between the plant and the syringa extract enhances parasitoid attraction. Diadromus collaris was not attracted to cabbage plants in a wind tunnel and did not distinguish between caterpillar-damaged and undamaged cabbage plants. Headspace analysis revealed 49 compounds in both control cabbage plants and cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract. Among these are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, terpenoids, sulfides, and an isothiocyanate. Cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract emitted larger quantities of volatiles, and these increased quantities were not derived from the syringa extract. Therefore, the syringa extract seemed to induce the emission of cabbage volatiles. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a plant extract inducing the emission of plant volatiles in another plant. This interesting phenomenon likely explains the preference of C. plutellae parasitoids for cabbage plants that have been treated with syringa extracts. PMID:16555134

  17. Paraiso: an automated tuning framework for explicit solvers of partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muranushi, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    We propose Paraiso, a domain-specific language embedded in the functional programming language Haskell, for the automated tuning of explicit solvers of partial differential equations (PDEs) on graphic processing units (GPUs), and also multicore central processing units (CPUs). In Paraiso, one can describe PDE-solving algorithms succinctly using tensor equations notation. Hydrodynamic properties, interpolation methods and other building blocks are described in abstract, modular, re-usable and combinable forms, which lets us generate versatile solvers from a small set of Paraiso source codes. We demonstrate Paraiso by implementing a compressive hydrodynamics solver. A single source code of less than 500 lines can be used to generate solvers of arbitrary dimensions, for both multicore CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate both manual annotation-based tuning and evolutionary computing-based automated tuning of the program.

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2014-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed.

  19. Ecuador Paraiso Escondido Virus, a New Flavivirus Isolated from New World Sand Flies in Ecuador, Is the First Representative of a Novel Clade in the Genus Flavivirus

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Sonia; Bichaud, Laurence; Moureau, Grégory; Lemey, Philippe; Firth, Andrew E.; Gritsun, Tamara S.; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Depaquit, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), named after the village where it was discovered, was isolated from sand flies (Psathyromyia abonnenci, formerly Lutzomyia abonnenci) that are unique to the New World. This represents the first sand fly-borne flavivirus identified in the New World. EPEV exhibited a typical flavivirus genome organization. Nevertheless, the maximum pairwise amino acid sequence identity with currently recognized flaviviruses was 52.8%. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete coding sequence showed that EPEV represents a distinct clade which diverged from a lineage that was ancestral to the nonvectored flaviviruses Entebbe bat virus, Yokose virus, and Sokoluk virus and also the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, which include yellow fever virus, Sepik virus, Saboya virus, and others. EPEV replicated in C6/36 mosquito cells, yielding high infectious titers, but failed to reproduce either in vertebrate cell lines (Vero, BHK, SW13, and XTC cells) or in suckling mouse brains. This surprising result, which appears to eliminate an association with vertebrate hosts in the life cycle of EPEV, is discussed in the context of the evolutionary origins of EPEV in the New World. IMPORTANCE The flaviviruses are rarely (if ever) vectored by sand fly species, at least in the Old World. We have identified the first representative of a sand fly-associated flavivirus, Ecuador Paraiso Escondido virus (EPEV), in the New World. EPEV constitutes a novel clade according to current knowledge of the flaviviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the virus genome showed that EPEV roots the Aedes-associated mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus. In light of this new discovery, the New World origin of EPEV is discussed together with that of the other flaviviruses. PMID:26355096

  20. Larvicidal effects of Chinaberry (Melia azederach) powder on Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthetic insecticides are employed in the widely-used currently favored malaria control techniques involving indoor residual spraying and treated bednets. These methods have repeatedly proven to be highly effective at reducing malaria incidence and prevalence. However, rapidly emerging mosquito resistance to the chemicals and logistical problems in transporting supplies to remote locations threaten the long-term sustainability of these techniques. Chinaberry (Melia azederach) extracts have been shown to be effective growth-inhibiting larvicides against several insects. Because several active chemicals in the trees' seeds have insecticidal properties, the emergence of resistance is unlikely. Here, we investigate the feasibility of Chinaberry as a locally available, low-cost sustainable insecticide that can aid in controlling malaria. Chinaberry fruits were collected from Asendabo, Ethiopia. The seeds were removed from the fruits, dried and crushed into a powder. From developmental habitats in the same village, Anopheles arabiensis larvae were collected and placed into laboratory containers. Chinaberry seed powder was added to the larval containers at three treatment levels: 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, with 100 individual larvae in each treatment level and a control. The containers were monitored daily and larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes were counted. This experimental procedure was replicated three times. Results Chinaberry seed powder caused an inhibition of emergence of 93% at the 5 g m-2 treatment level, and 100% inhibition of emergence at the two higher treatment levels. The Chinaberry had a highly statistically significant larvicidal effect at all treatment levels (?2 = 184, 184, and 155 for 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, respectively; p < 0.0001 in all cases). In addition, estimates suggest that sufficient Chinaberry seed exists in Asendabo to treat developmental habitat for the duration of the rainy season and support a field trial. Conclusions Chinaberry seed is a very potent growth-inhibiting larvicide against the major African malaria vector An. arabiensis. The seed could provide a sustainable additional malaria vector control tool that can be used where the tree is abundant and where An. arabiensis is a dominant vector. Based on these results, a future village-scale field trial using the technique is warranted. PMID:21569263

  1. Meliae cortex extract exhibits anti-allergic activity through the inhibition of Syk kinase in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jun Ho; Ko, Na Young; Kim, Nam Wook; Mun, Se Hwan; Kim, Jie Wan; Her, Erk; Kim, Bo Kyung; Seo, Dong Wan; Chang, Hyun Wook; Moon, Tae Chul; Han, Jeung Whan; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo . E-mail: wahnchoi@kku.ac.kr

    2007-05-01

    The anti-allergic action of various Oriental medicinal herbs was investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Of these extracts, the ethanol extract of Meliae cortex (MC) exhibited the most potent activity in mast cells; its IC{sub 50} values were 29 {+-} 1.5 {mu}g/ml for antigen stimulation and 57 {+-} 3.4 {mu}g/ml for thapsigargin stimulation. It inhibited compound-48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis by 52.9% at a dose of 300 mg/kg in mice; it also inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory mediator TNF-{alpha}. With regard to its mechanism of action, MC suppressed the activating phosphorylation of Syk, a key enzyme in mast-cell signaling processes and that of Akt in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the MAP kinase ERK1/2, which is critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells, as indicated by the suppression of the activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-allergic activity of MC may be due to the inhibition of histamine secretion and cytokine expression through the Syk inhibition in mast cells.

  2. Integrated expression profiles of mRNA and microRNA in the liver of Fructus Meliae Toosendan water extract injured mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Ji, Cai; Lu, Xiaoyan; Tong, Wei; Fan, Xiaohui; Gao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Liver toxicity is a severe problem associated with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Fructus Meliae Toosendan (FMT) is a known hepatotoxic TCM, however, the toxicological mechanisms of liver injury caused by FMT treatment still remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to reveal possible mechanisms of FMT water extract-induced liver injury using a systemic approach. After three consecutive daily dosing of FMT water extract, significant increases of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities, along with elevated total bilirubin and total cholesterol levels and a decrease of triglyceride level, were detected in mice serum. Moreover, hydropic degeneration was observed in hepatocytes, suggesting the presence of FMT-induced liver injury. mRNA and microRNA expression profiles of liver samples from injured mice were analyzed and revealed 8 miRNAs and 1,723 mRNAs were significantly changed after FMT water extract treatment. For the eight differentially expressed miRNAs, their predicted target genes were collected and a final set of 125 genes and 4 miRNAs (miR-139-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-2861, and miR-3960) was selected to investigate important processes involved in FMT hepatotoxicity. Our results demonstrated several cellular functions were disordered after FMT treatment, such as cellular growth and proliferation, gene expression and cellular development. We hypothesized that liver cell necrosis was the main liver toxicity of FMT water extract, which was possibly caused by oxidative stress responses. PMID:26539117

  3. Subsistence economy of el paraiso, an early peruvian site.

    PubMed

    Quilter, J; E, B O; Pearsall, D M; Sandweiss, D H; Jones, J G; Wing, E S

    1991-01-18

    Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of E1 Paraíso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods consisted of a mixture of cultivated resources (squashes, beans, peppers, and jicama) with an additional reliance on fruits (guava, lucuma, and pacae). Wild plants, especially the roots of sedges and cat-tail, also may have accounted for a substantial part of the diet. Cotton was a chief crop, used in making fishing tackle and the textiles that served as clothing and items of high value and status. As an example of the beginnings of civilization, El Paraíso is a case in which impressive architecture was built on a relatively simple subsistence economy and energy was expended in the production of resources useful in local and regional exchange systems. PMID:17733284

  4. Wood density and its radial variation in six canopy tree species differing in shade-tolerance in western Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Charles A.; Geihofer, Daniela; Grabner, Michael; Baker, Patrick J.; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Hietz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Wood density is a key variable for understanding life history strategies in tropical trees. Differences in wood density and its radial variation were related to the shade-tolerance of six canopy tree species in seasonally dry tropical forest in Thailand. In addition, using tree ring measurements, the influence of tree size, age and annual increment on radial density gradients was analysed. Methods Wood density was determined from tree cores using X-ray densitometry. X-ray films were digitized and images were measured, resulting in a continuous density profile for each sample. Mixed models were then developed to analyse differences in average wood density and in radial gradients in density among the six tree species, as well as the effects of tree age, size and annual increment on radial increases in Melia azedarach. Key Results Average wood density generally reflected differences in shade-tolerance, varying by nearly a factor of two. Radial gradients occurred in all species, ranging from an increase of (approx. 70%) in the shade-intolerant Melia azedarach to a decrease of approx. 13% in the shade-tolerant Neolitsea obtusifolia, but the slopes of radial gradients were generally unrelated to shade-tolerance. For Melia azedarach, radial increases were most-parsimoniously explained by log-transformed tree age and annual increment rather than by tree size. Conclusions The results indicate that average wood density generally reflects differences in shade-tolerance in seasonally dry tropical forests; however, inferences based on wood density alone are potentially misleading for species with complex life histories. In addition, the findings suggest that a ‘whole-tree’ view of life history and biomechanics is important for understanding patterns of radial variation in wood density. Finally, accounting for wood density gradients is likely to improve the accuracy of estimates of stem biomass and carbon in tropical trees. PMID:19454592

  5. Screening of allelopathic trees for their antifungal potential against Alternaria alternata strains isolated from dying-back Eucalyptus spp.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Arshad; Samad, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of three tree species, namely Azadirachta indica L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Melia azedarach L. was evaluated against two strains of Alternaria alternata, isolated from dying-back trees of two Eucalyptus spp., namely Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus. All the concentrations (1,?2,?…?,?5% w/v) of the methanolic extracts of the three tree species significantly reduced the fungal biomass. There were reductions in the ranges 82-88%, 88-96% and 83-96% in the biomass of A. alternata strains due to different concentrations of the leaf extracts of S. cumini, A. indica and M. azedarach, respectively. Methanolic extract of M. azedarach was subjected to further fractionation using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol successively in the order of increasing polarity. Aqueous and n-butanol fractions gave promising results in the significant decrease in fungal biomass. This study concludes that aqueous and n-butanol fractions of methanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach can be used as biofungicides for the management of A. alternata. PMID:22007991

  6. Caryophyllene sesquiterpenoids from the endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Yang, Ming-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Tian-Xiao; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Eight new caryophyllene sesquiterpenoids named pestaloporinates A-G (1-7) and 14-acetylhumulane (8) have been isolated from the solid cultures of an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp., which was obtained from the fresh stem bark of Melia azedarach Linn. Their structures as well as absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic data, ECD experimentation, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Among all the isolates, compound 2 displayed potent inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 19.0?M during the evaluation of nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:26687557

  7. New insight into the stereochemistry of botryosphaeridione from a Phoma endophyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shi-Qiong; Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, An-Ling; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2012-05-01

    A dihydronaphthalene-2,6-dione derivative, isolated from Phoma sp. LN-16, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, was identified by spectroscopic data as a previously reported compound, botryosphaeridione (1). The relative configuration was reassigned by quantum chemical analysis of experimental 13C NMR and NOESY data. The first unequivocal assignment of its absolute configuration was made by using circular dichroism spectra and computational model B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ as (-)-(5R,6S)-1, and was also established by means of X-ray diffraction. Also, this is the first time that a trinor-eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Phoma genus.

  8. Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in Europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in European countries. Poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. In Europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), Quercus spp. (oak), Taxus baccata (European yew), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas). Poisoning may occur when the fresh plant is ingested in pasture or when it contaminates hay or silage. In pets, the greatest majority of plant poisonings are the result of ingestion of house or garden plants, such as Cycas revoluta (Sago palm), Ricinus communis (castor bean), Allium spp., Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia), Lilium spp., Convallaria majalis (Lily of the valley), Pyracantha spp. (firethorn), Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas), Melia azedarach (Chinaberry tree), Taxus baccata (European yew) and Nerium oleander (oleander). PMID:23570777

  9. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Luís C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies. PMID:23460431

  10. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.D.; Nebeker, T.E.; Gerard, P.D.

    2007-03-15

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author) [Spanish] El rango de hospederos de Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) en America del Norte esta reportado aqui por la primera vez. Se presentan datos descriptivos como el numero de ataques por hospederos, el tamano de los tallos en el punto de ataque y la altura por encima del nivel de tierra de los ataques. Los hospederos observados en el estado de Mississippi fueron Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux y Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua tuvo ataques significativamente mas exitosos, una probabilidad significativamente mas alta de ataques y un numero significativamente mayor de adultos de escarabajos por arbol hospedero que Carya spp., A. rubrum y L. tulipifera. Esta informacion es pertinente en determinar el impacto que pueda tener este escarabajo exotico en invernaderos, areas urbanas y otros sistemas forestales donde el escarabajo se establece. (author)

  11. Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Mulla, M S; Su, T

    1999-06-01

    Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs. PMID:10412110

  12. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet. PMID:26084100

  13. Poisoning in ostriches following ingestion of toxic plants--field observations.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ross G

    2007-08-01

    Data from post-mortem and field studies were obtained that discussed poisoning in ostriches following ingestion of toxic plants. From the notes, all plants studied caused death in ostriches and there was systemic organ damage. Poisoning from Sarcostemma viminale (Melktou) resulted in beak patting, muscular tremors and head flopping, followed by collapse and violent kicking before death. Ingestion of Combretum oatesii (Red wings) seeds from plants in free grazing pastures resulted in vomiting, restlessness, eyelid flicking, collapse and kicking movements. Dichapetalum cymosum (Gifblaar) killed an ostrich after episodes of shaking legs, rapid respiration and bradycardia and hyperaemia of the lungs, liver and kidneys. Poisoning from Senecio sceleratus (Ragwort) caused skin haemorrhages and bleeding in tracheal mucous membranes, the pericardium, diaphragm and interperitoneal membrane. Consumption of drupes from Melia azedarach (Syringa berry) caused muscle tremors, kicking movements and respiratory distress. Lantana camara (Cherry pie) poisoning resulted in extremely inflamed eyes with copious yellow exudates extending down their beaks and onto their necks. Bentonite was administered by gavage at a dose of 5 g/kg. Poisoning in these cases is usually associated with the farmer allowing his/her birds to roam free-range in paddocks in which toxic plants are growing. Toxic plants should be removed from grass cut for hay. PMID:17966275

  14. Determination of Antibacterial and Antioxidant Potential of Some Medicinal Plants from Saurashtra Region, India

    PubMed Central

    Kaneria, M.; Baravalia, Y.; Vaghasiya, Y.; Chanda, S.

    2009-01-01

    Many plants used in Saurashtra folk medicine have been reported to exhibit high antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In the present study, some parts of five plants, Guazuma ulmifolia L., Manilkara zapota L., Melia azedarach L., Syzygium cumini L. and Wrightia tomentosa R.& S., were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical analysis, using successive extraction by cold percolation method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. In vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated against five bacterial strains viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes by agar well diffusion method. Among the plants screened, W. tomentosa leaf and fruit showed the best antibacterial activity. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria. Methanol extract of M. zapota showed the best 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. Highest total phenol content was shown by M. zapota and S. cumini in methanol extract, while highest flavonoid content was shown by W. tomentosa stem in petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract. In all the plants, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes were more as compared to other phytoconstituents. PMID:20502546

  15. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Botha, C J; Penrith, M L

    2009-06-01

    Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow), Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar), a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli). Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga) or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants. PMID:19831265

  16. Potential allelopathic indole diketopiperazines produced by the plant endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus using the one strain-many compounds method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Shi-Qiong; Tang, Hao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Lu; Xiao, Jian; Gao, Yu-Qi; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2013-11-27

    On the basis of the OSMAC (one strain-many compounds) strategy, 14 indole diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloids, including spirotryprostatins (1-3), tryprostatins (4-6), and cyclotryprostatins (7-14), were isolated from the endophyte Aspergillus fumigatus associated with Melia azedarach L. Their structures were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data. All the indole DKPs were evaluated for plant growth regulation using the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling growth bioassay, which showed the plant growth influence of the seedling. Among these compounds tested, a tryprostatin-type compound, brevianamide F (6), was identified as a new type of natural potential plant growth inhibitor with a response index (RI) higher than that of the positive control glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide. 6 can also inhibit turnip (Raphanus sativus) shoot and root elongation with RIs of -0.76 and -0.70, respectively, at 120 ppm, and it strongly inhibits amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus) seedling growth with a high RI of -0.9 at 40 ppm. The structure-allelopathic activity relationship analysis of these isolated alkaloids indicates that tryprostatin-type alkaloids without the C5 prenyl and methoxy group give the most potent inhibition of seedling growth. Brevianamide F (6) could be used to develop a natural eco-friendly herbicide. PMID:24188331

  17. Determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants from saurashtra region, India.

    PubMed

    Kaneria, M; Baravalia, Y; Vaghasiya, Y; Chanda, S

    2009-07-01

    Many plants used in Saurashtra folk medicine have been reported to exhibit high antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In the present study, some parts of five plants, Guazuma ulmifolia L., Manilkara zapota L., Melia azedarach L., Syzygium cumini L. and Wrightia tomentosa R.& S., were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical analysis, using successive extraction by cold percolation method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. In vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated against five bacterial strains viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes by agar well diffusion method. Among the plants screened, W. tomentosa leaf and fruit showed the best antibacterial activity. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria. Methanol extract of M. zapota showed the best 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. Highest total phenol content was shown by M. zapota and S. cumini in methanol extract, while highest flavonoid content was shown by W. tomentosa stem in petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract. In all the plants, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes were more as compared to other phytoconstituents. PMID:20502546

  18. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

  19. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from lower Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Zulqarnain; Rahim, Abdur; Ahmad, Khalid; Ullah, Faizan; Ullah, Hamid; Nishan, Umar

    2015-03-01

    The present studies cover antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of 11 medicinal plants viz. Adhatoda vasica, Bauhenia variegate, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa opaca, Caryopteris grata, Debregeasia salicifolia, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii and Olea ferruginea collected from lower Himalayas against two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa) bacterial strains. The extracts were applied at four different concentrations (120 mg/mL, 90mg/mL, 60mg/mL and 30mg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were observed formethanolic extracts of all the above mentioned plants. Greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only exhibited by Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii, Debregeasia salicifolia and Lantana camara. Escherichia coli was highly resistant to all the plant extracts at all concentrations. It is inferred that methanolic crude extracts of the above mentioned plantsexhibitantibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria, which proved the ethnobotanical importance of the selected plants that indigenous people use for cure against various diseases. PMID:25730791

  20. Ethnopharmacological Assessment of Medicinal Plants Used against Livestock Infections by the People Living around Indus River

    PubMed Central

    Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Bibi, Roqaia

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81), mastitis (0.82), and dermatological infections (0.80). Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL) value (66%) followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%). Preference ranking (PR) results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species. PMID:25544941

  1. 1-Cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin is a natural bioactive compound with antiviral and nuclear factor-{kappa}B modulating properties

    SciTech Connect

    Barquero, Andrea A. . E-mail: alecab@qb.fcen.uba.ar; Michelini, Flavia M.; Alche, Laura E.

    2006-06-09

    We have reported the isolation of the tetranortriterpenoid 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (CDM) from partially purified leaf extracts of Melia azedarach L. (MA) that reduced both, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) multiplication. CDM blocks VSV entry and the intracellular transport of VSV-G protein, confining it to the Golgi apparatus, by pre- or post-treatment, respectively. Here, we report that HSV-1 glycoproteins were also confined to the Golgi apparatus independently of the nature of the host cell. Considering that MA could be acting as an immunomodulator preventing the development of herpetic stromal keratitis in mice, we also examined an eventual effect of CDM on NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway. CDM is able to impede NF-{kappa}B activation in HSV-1-infected conjunctival cells and leads to the accumulation of p65 NF-{kappa}B subunit in the cytoplasm of uninfected treated Vero cells. In conclusion, CDM is a pleiotropic agent that not only inhibits the multiplication of DNA and RNA viruses by the same mechanism of action but also modulates the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway.

  2. Antimicrobial emulsion (coating) based on biopolymer containing neem (Melia azardichta) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract for wound covering.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, J H; Radhika, M

    2006-01-01

    Polymeric bio-adhesives emulsion which is biodegradable and non-toxic containing antimicrobial agents can play an important role in preventing infection in wound covering and coating for surgical implants. Therefore a bioadhesive polymer was synthesized by semi-Interpenetrating Network process using blend of shellac, casein and polyvinyl alcohol and Maleic anhydride (MA) as reactive compatibilizer. The synthesized polymer was mixed with neem and turmeric extract and homogenized using an emulsifier. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to measure the molecular miscibility of biopolymer components and emulsion constituents. Stability of emulsion (coating) was measured by keeping property and accelerated stability test. Antimicrobial properties were evaluated for human pathogenic organisms namely E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium using well diffusion assay. The results indicate that stability, miscibility and antimicrobial properties of bioadhesive was satisfactory, however further in vivo studies are required to ascertain suitability of emulsion (coating) for biomedical use. PMID:17075168

  3. Detecting long-term growth trends using tree rings: a critical evaluation of methods.

    PubMed

    Peters, Richard L; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-05-01

    Tree-ring analysis is often used to assess long-term trends in tree growth. A variety of growth-trend detection methods (GDMs) exist to disentangle age/size trends in growth from long-term growth changes. However, these detrending methods strongly differ in approach, with possible implications for their output. Here, we critically evaluate the consistency, sensitivity, reliability and accuracy of four most widely used GDMs: conservative detrending (CD) applies mathematical functions to correct for decreasing ring widths with age; basal area correction (BAC) transforms diameter into basal area growth; regional curve standardization (RCS) detrends individual tree-ring series using average age/size trends; and size class isolation (SCI) calculates growth trends within separate size classes. First, we evaluated whether these GDMs produce consistent results applied to an empirical tree-ring data set of Melia azedarach, a tropical tree species from Thailand. Three GDMs yielded similar results - a growth decline over time - but the widely used CD method did not detect any change. Second, we assessed the sensitivity (probability of correct growth-trend detection), reliability (100% minus probability of detecting false trends) and accuracy (whether the strength of imposed trends is correctly detected) of these GDMs, by applying them to simulated growth trajectories with different imposed trends: no trend, strong trends (-6% and +6% change per decade) and weak trends (-2%, +2%). All methods except CD, showed high sensitivity, reliability and accuracy to detect strong imposed trends. However, these were considerably lower in the weak or no-trend scenarios. BAC showed good sensitivity and accuracy, but low reliability, indicating uncertainty of trend detection using this method. Our study reveals that the choice of GDM influences results of growth-trend studies. We recommend applying multiple methods when analysing trends and encourage performing sensitivity and reliability analysis. Finally, we recommend SCI and RCS, as these methods showed highest reliability to detect long-term growth trends. PMID:25482401

  4. The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

    2014-05-01

    Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

  5. Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in Malakand Valley, District Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malakand valley of District Dir (Lower) is endowed with a diverse plant wealth. Ethnoveterinary knowledge provides the traditional medicines of livestock that are cheaper than standard treatment and are easily accessible. Methods The present study was conducted to document the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices in Malakand valley, District Dir (Lower). Data was collected from February 2012 to January 2013 by interviewing 120 inhabitants through semi-structured questionnaires. Different questions were asked to collect appropriate data regarding the use of plants for livestock treatment. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) was carried out to find out the use diversity of medicinal plants. Findings A total of 28 plants belonging to 23 families were collected and identified for the treatment of livestock in the study area. Majority of the plants were collected from wild (68%) habitat and very few from cultivated sources. The leaves (28%) were identified as the major plant part for herbal preparations. The most frequent ailments of livestocks in the study area were stomach disorders and Charmaikh (local disease name). Various ingredients were used along with ethnoveterinary medicines i.e. sugar, flour, milk etc. The elder people of the village had a rich knowledge as compared to the young generation. According to DMR output, Monotheca buxifolia ranked first and Dalbergia sisso and Melia azedarach ranked second due to high multipurpose uses among all species and was found most threatened in the study area. Conclusion It has been concluded that the native of the region heavily dependent on medicinal plants for the treatment of variety of livestock ailments. Traditional knowledge always provides a baseline for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation. The documentation of the ethnoveterinary practices in study area was necessary before this precious knowledge is lost forever due to rapid socioeconomic, environmental and technological changes. PMID:24580769

  6. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  7. Botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in three districts of the Lesser Himalayas of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnoveterinary knowledge is highly significant for persistence of traditional community-based approaches to veterinary care. This is of particular importance in the context of developing and emerging countries, where animal health (that of livestock, especially) is crucial to local economies and food security. The current survey documents the traditional veterinary uses of medicinal plants in the Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Methods Data were collected through interviews, focus groups, participant observation, and by administering questionnaires. A total of 105 informants aged between 20–75 years old who were familiar with livestock health issues (i.e. farmers, shepherds, housewives and herbalists) participated in the study. Results A total of 89 botanical taxa, belonging to 46 families, were reported to have ethnoveterinary applications. The most quoted families were Poaceae (6 taxa), Fabaceae (6), Asteraceae (5), and Polygonaceae (5). Adhatoda vasica was the most cited species (43%), followed by Trachyspermum ammi (37%), and Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum (36%). About 126 medications were recorded against more than 50 veterinary conditions grouped into seven categories. The highest cultural index values were recorded for Trachyspermum ammi, Curcuma longa, Melia azedarach, Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum and Adhatoda vasica. The highest informant consensus factor was found for pathologies related to respiratory and reproductive disorders. Comparison with the local plant-based remedies used in human folk medicine revealed that many of remedies were used in similar ways in local human phytotherapy. Comparison with other field surveys conducted in surrounding areas demonstrated that approximately one-half of the recorded plants uses are novel to the ethnoveterinary literature of the Himalayas. Conclusion The current survey shows a remarkable resilience of ethnoveterinary botanical knowledge in the study area. Most of the species reported for ethnoveterinary applications are wild and under threat. Thus, not only is it imperative to conserve traditional local knowledge of folk veterinary therapies for bio-cultural conservation motives, but also to assist with in-situ and ex-situ environmental conservation initiatives, which are urgently needed. Future studies that focus on the validation of efficacy of these ethnoveterinary remedies can help to substantiate emic concepts regarding the management of animal health care and for rural development programs. PMID:24359615

  8. Why the Rh = ct cosmology is a vacuum solution in disguise and why all big bang models should be so

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2014-07-01

    Recently, Melia and his coworkers have proposed the so-called Rh = ct cosmology where the scale factor of the universe is a(t) ? t and the spatial part is flat. Here, we look at this proposal from a fundamental angle. First, we note that Melia cosmology looks strikingly similar to the old Milne cosmology where a(t) ? t and the spatial part is negatively curved. It is known that though Milne cosmology is a valid Friedmann solution, it actually corresponds to ? = 0 and can be described by a globally static Minkowski metric. Secondly, we note that for the Melia model, Ricci & Kretschmann scalars assume their perfect static form hinting that it too may tacitly correspond to vacuum. To compare Melia universe with the Milne universe, we express Melia metric too in curvature/Schwarzschild coordinates. Finally, by using the fact for such coordinate transformations dx'4 = Jdx4, where J is the appropriate Jacobian, we explicitly show that Melia metric is static, which for k = 0 case implies vacuum. This shows that even apparently meaningful general relativistic solutions could be illusory as far as physical reality is concerned. And since Melia model is the unique solution for the big bang model, eventually, all big bang models could be mathematical illusions.

  9. NEW RECORDS OF PHLEBOTOMINE SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) FROM ECUADOR

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lynn A.; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). PMID:22628901

  10. [Severe poisoning by plants used for traditional medicine in Mayotte].

    PubMed

    Durasnel, P; Vanhuffel, L; Blondé, R; Lion, F; Galas, T; Mousset-Hovaere, M; Balaÿ, I; Viscardi, G; Valyi, L

    2014-12-01

    The authors describe three cases of severe accidental poisoning by plants used as part of a traditional treatment in Mayotte. The established, or suspected, toxicity of Thevetia peruviana (Yellow oleander), Cinchona pubescens (Red quinine-tree), Melia azaderach (Persian lilac, also called china berry) and Azadirachta indica (Neem), is discussed. The clinical presentation is cardiac (atrioventricular block) and well known for Thevetia and Cinchona intoxications. Neurological signs and multi-organ failure are found for Azadirachta and Melia. The identification of the plants is never easy, nor is the evidence of their accountability. In the three cases reported, no other cause than the traditional treatment has been found to explain the clinical presentation. The outcome was favorable in all cases. The authors emphasize the difficulties to investigate these accidents, the poor medical knowledge of these practices in tropical areas, and in Mayotte particularly. The need for cooperation with local botanists, familiar with traditional medicine, is also underlined. PMID:25301110

  11. A tale of two cave records from the Amazon lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Auler, A.; Edwards, R.; Cheng, H.; Dorale, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present here a comparison between two high-resolved, U/Th-dated, speleothem d18O records through the last ~45,000 years from caves located in the eastern and western Amazon lowlands. The record from Paraiso Cave (04o04'S, 55o27'W) shows higher d18O values during the glacial period, but lower values in Holocene, with a shift of 7 per mil. On the other hand, the d18O values recorded at Diamante cave (05o44'S, 77o30'W) stay low with similar late glacial and Holocene values, varying within ~2 per mil through the whole profile. Both records register millennial-scale variations, which are anti-phased with the Hulu-Dongge speleothem record, consistent with the previously observed meridional shift of the tropical rainfall belt. However, d18O values in two records have a large offset during the glacial, but not in Holocene. We suggest the Amazon Basin was relatively dry in the glacial time. Therefore, rainfall d18O in the Basin was dominated by a typical continental fractionation along a moisture trajectory. During the Holocene, higher rainfall and denser rainforest in the lowlands may have resulted in more water recycling through transpiration. Therefore, moisture d18O gradient would be reduced between the two sites. Despite the drier conditions inferred for the glacial Amazon lowlands, d13C values in the Paraiso record never reach high values; thus ruling out vegetation dominated by C4 plants.

  12. Energy from sawmill waste in Honduras: Teupasenti case study

    SciTech Connect

    Wimberly, J.; Holloman, B.

    1993-01-01

    A 1991 A.I.D.-funded study (PN-ABH-607) documented the economic and environmental potential of using wastes from Honduras's sawmills as an energy source. The follow-up study assesses the economic viability of six alternative wastewood energy system configurations for a representative small sawmill, Maderas de Oriente, located in Teupasenti, El Paraiso Department. Of the six systems, three are designed for electricity production only during peak demand hours and three are designed for continuous electricity generation with output maximized during peak hours. Four of the configurations include steam-heated lumber drying techniques, with two different kiln designs considered. All of the systems utilize all of the wastewood produced by the sawmill.

  13. Endophytic bacteria improve seedling growth of sunflower under water stress, produce salicylic acid, and inhibit growth of pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Forchetti, Gabriela; Masciarelli, Oscar; Izaguirre, María J; Alemano, Sergio; Alvarez, Daniel; Abdala, Guillermina

    2010-12-01

    Endophytic bacterial strains SF2 (99.9% homology with Achromobacter xylosoxidans), and SF3 and SF4 (99.9% homology with Bacillus pumilus) isolated from sunflower grown under irrigation or drought were selected on the basis of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) characteristics. Aims of the study were to examine effects of inoculation with SF2, SF3, and SF4 on sunflower cultivated under water stress, to evaluate salicylic acid (SA) production by these strains in control medium or at ?a = -2.03 MPa, and to analyze effects of exogenously applied SA, jasmonic acid (JA), bacterial pellets, and bacterial supernatants on growth of pathogenic fungi Alternaria sp., Sclerotinia sp., and Verticillum sp. Growth response to bacterial inoculation was studied in two inbred lines (water stress-sensitive B59 and water stress-tolerant B71) and commercial hybrid Paraiso 24. Under both water stress and normal conditions, plant growth following inoculation was more strongly enhanced for Paraiso 24 and B71 than for B59. All three strains produced SA in control medium; levels for SF3 and SF4 were higher than for SF2. SA production was dramatically higher at ?a = -2.03 MPa. Exogenously applied SA or JA caused a significant reduction of growth for Sclerotinia and a lesser reduction for Alternaria and Verticillum. Fungal growth was more strongly inhibited by bacterial pellets than by bacterial supernatants. Our findings indicate that these endophytic bacteria enhance growth of sunflower seedlings under water stress, produce SA, and inhibit growth of pathogenic fungi. These characteristics are useful for formulation of inoculants to improve growth and yield of sunflower crops. PMID:20383767

  14. Deep seated tectonic-gravitive failure and large landslide in the area from Scilla to Punta Pezzo (Calabria region South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerricchio, A.; Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.

    2012-04-01

    A critical analysis of the morphological characters of the Southern Calabria region in the area from Scilla (RC province- Southern Italy) to Messina Strait show some geomorphological anomalies due to deep tectonic-gravitational failures and landslides induced by the uplift of the same area. The above mentioned phenomena involve, in fact the whole structure of the ridge included between the coastline and Fiumara di Catona (Catona Torrent), starting from Melia Highland (Pian della Melia) towards the promontory of Punta Pezzo on Messina Strait; and have a severe influence on the morphological forms of the territory, on the surface and coastal erosion phenomena and probably, also on the effect of seismic shocks on large engineering works, as the-to-be built Messina Strait bridge, which is very close to Scilla and Punta Pezzo area. The evidence of these failure can be recognized in the arched morphological steps breaking down the crystalline rock masses, but specially in the hydrographic stream network that is so deep and irregular in crystalline rocks that cannot be imputed only to surficial erosion. In fact at the end of the main streams or torrents as Santa Trara or San Gregorio torrents (fiumare) there are not relevant alluvial fan deposits. These tectonic-gravitative failure have been favored by the presence of biotitic schists underlying gneiss and granite rock masses. The first ones has a stiffness lower than the seconds, so they are more deformable. It is also possible that schist rock masses overlie the more deformable phyllite rocks, not outcropping in the area, as it happen in other zones of Calabria region (Guerricchio e Al., 2007). Tectonic-gravitative failures have broken and disarticulated also the terraces of Late Pleistocene deposits lying over the crystalline basement multiplied by these failures, so that may seem terraces of different order. The coastal slope between Gioia Tauro and Scilla is quite high and in a sudden way changes its form just in the area of Scilla. It is due to the presence of an ancient deep large landslide involving the whole area from Melia Highland to the town of Scilla and the sea, changing the form of the landscape. The deep failures toward West have created at the level of Scilla a large opening that has made it possible large gravitative collapse, that with a sort of "pincer" movements involving the masses in the high zone back to Scilla toward Melia Highlands, that slide toward Scilla displacing also the Tirrenian alluvial fans and the terraces creating the today coastline.

  15. Why the Big Bang Model does not allow inflationary and cyclic cosmologies though mathematically one can obtain any model with favourable assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2014-07-01

    Various versions of standard Big Bang Model (BBM) including the current LCDM cosmology require an “inflationary” phase for the nascent universe (?t?10-32 s) during which the size of the universe blows up by a factor of ?1078. However, the so-called Rh=ct cosmology (Melia, 2013a) claims that the isotropy and homogeneity of the present universe can be understood without assuming any inflationary phase. To this effect, Melia and his coworkers have often invoked “Weyl’s Postulate” and “Birkhoff’s Theorem” to qualitatively argue for this novel model. On the other hand, here, we explore for a cogent analytical basis of the Rh=ct proposal which is claimed to have such a profound implication. First we show that (i) if the spatial flatness of the BBM would be presumed, Rh=ct cosmology may indeed follow. To further explore this issue without prior assumption of flatness (ii) we equate the twin expressions for the Energy Complex (EC) associated with BBM computed by using the same Einstein pseudo-tensor and quasi-Cartesian coordinates (Mitra, 2013b). This exercise surprisingly shows that BBM has tacit and latent self-consistency constraints: it is spatially flat and its scale factor a(t)?t. Accordingly, it seems that, there is no scope for the other models including inflationary and cyclic ones. The real lumpy universe may be too complex for the simplistic Big Bang model.

  16. The scientific basis of flocculator design.

    PubMed

    Lawler, D F; Nason, J A

    2004-01-01

    A new guideline for the design of flocculators is proposed. This guideline is to design continuous flow flocculators on the basis of the characteristic reaction time for the loss of one micrometre particles in the suspension. The most commonly used guideline at the present time is that of Camp, but later proposals by Ives and O'Melia expanded the Camp guideline and incorporated more complete knowledge of flocculation. The suggestion here continues that process, by accounting explicitly for the heterodisperse nature of typical suspensions and the multiple collision mechanisms for particles in determining a characteristic reaction time. While the historical guidelines have served the water treatment industry well for reasonably similar size distributions in waters destabilized by precipitating metal hydroxides, the proposed guideline should be more robust in considering other suspensions. In particular, the new guideline can account explicitly for the effects of nanoparticles on flocculation. PMID:15686016

  17. Measuring the black hole parameters in the galactic center with RADIOASTRON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.

    2005-06-01

    Recently, Holz and Wheeler (2002) [ApJ 578, 330] considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e., retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper, we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. Some time ago Falcke, Melia, Agol (2000) [ApJ 528, L13S] suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper, we present the boundaries for shadows. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.

  18. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd Allah, E F; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ullah, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117

  19. Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

  20. Integral water treatment plant modeling: improvements for particle processes.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Desmond F; Nason, Jeffrey A

    2005-09-01

    An update of research on particle behavior in water treatment plants first performed 25 years ago under the direction of Charles O'Melia is provided. The earlier work involved mathematical modeling of the changes in particle size distributions in the flocculation and sedimentation processes in water treatment plants. The current model includes corrections for short-range interactions between particles as they approach one another. These corrections severely reduce the expected collision frequency between particles that are very different in size and, therefore, substantially change the model predictions. Both experimental and field measurements of particle size distributions are provided; such measurements were unavailable in the earlier work and represent a touchstone to reality for the modeling efforts. The short-range model successfully fits experimental results for flocculation when the mechanism of particle destabilization is charge neutralization. However, the model does not account for the creation of new solids by precipitation either when hydrolyzing salts of aluminum or iron are added for particle destabilization by "sweep floc" destabilization or lime is added to remove calcium and magnesium as calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide in softening. The flocculent sedimentation model yields results that are in strong qualitative agreement with typical field measurements. PMID:16190185

  1. Shadow shapes around the black hole in the galactic centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.

    Recently Holz & Wheeler (2002) considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e. retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. We discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. Some time ago Falcke, Melia & Agol (2000) suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper we present the boundaries for shadows calculated numerically. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.

  2. Shadows (Mirages) Around Black Holes and Retro Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; Depaolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.

    Recently Holz & Wheeler [1] considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e. retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages (a detailed description of the problem is given in [2]). In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. Some time ago Falcke, Melia & Agol [3] suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper we present the boundaries for shadows calculated numerically. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.

  3. Estimation of Anticipated Performance Index and Air Pollution Tolerance Index and of vegetation around the marble industrial areas of Potwar region: bioindicators of plant pollution response.

    PubMed

    Noor, Mehwish Jamil; Sultana, Shazia; Fatima, Sonia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Maliha; Balkhyour, Masour A; Safi, Sher Zaman; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-06-01

    Mitigating industrial air pollution is a big challenge, in such scenario screening of plants as a bio monitor is extremely significant. It requires proper selection and screening of sensitive and tolerant plant species which are bio indicator and sink for air pollution. The present study was designed to evaluate the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the common flora. Fifteen common plant species from among trees, herb and shrubs i.e. Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae), Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceaea), Ziziphus nummulari (Rhamnaceae), Silibum merianum (Asteraceae), Cannabis sativa (Cannabinaceae), Calatropis procera (Asclepediaceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Melia azadirachta (Meliaceae), Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae), Broussonetia papyrifera (Moraceae), Withania somnifera (Solanaceae) and Sapium sabiferum (Euphorbiaceae) were selected growing frequently in vicinity of Marble industries in Potwar region. APTI and API of selected plant species were analyzed by determining important biochemical parameter i.e. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, relative water content and pH etc. Furthermore the selected vegetation was studied for physiological, economic, morphological and biological characteristics. The soil of studied sites was analyzed. It was found that most the selected plant species are sensitive to air pollution. However B. papyrifera, E. globulus and R. communis shows the highest API and therefore recommended for plantation in marble dust pollution stress area. PMID:25503327

  4. Mitigating nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil in rice-wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic plain with nitrification and urease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Malla, G; Bhatia, Arti; Pathak, H; Prasad, S; Jain, Niveta; Singh, J

    2005-01-01

    Mitigation of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil is important to reduce the global warming. Efficacy of five nitrification inhibitors, i.e. neem (Azadirachta melia) cake, thiosulphate, coated calcium carbide, neem oil coated urea and dicyandiamide (DCD) and one urease inhibitor, hydroquinone, in mitigating N2O and CH4 emissions from fertilized soil was tested in rice-wheat system in the Indo-Gangetic plains. The closed chamber technique was used for the collection of gas samples, which were analyzed using gas chromatography. Reduction in N2O emission on the application of nitrification/urease inhibitors along with urea ranged from 5% with hydroquinone to 31% with thiosulphate in rice and 7% with hydroquinone to 29% with DCD in wheat crop. The inhibitors also influenced the emission of CH4. While application of neem coated urea, coated calcium carbide, neem oil and DCD reduced the emission of CH4; hydroquinone and thiosulphate increased the emission when compared to urea alone. However, the global warming potential was lower with the inhibitors (except hydroquinone) as compared to urea alone, suggesting that these substances could be used for mitigating greenhouse gas emission from the rice-wheat systems. PMID:15571746

  5. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Abinash Pratim; Ryakala, Venkat Kishore; Sharma, Pragya; Goswami, Pranab; Bora, Utpal

    2006-06-30

    The present paper deals with the medicinal plants used by the people of Assam for curing different skin ailments and for cosmetics. A total of 85 plants belonging to 49 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against skin diseases and as herbal care. The herbal medicines were prepared from various plant parts of single plant, or multiple plants. The majority of the preparation was made using water as the medium. The mode of application was topical, but in many cases it was also administered orally. In several cases the pure herbal preparations was administered along with milk, ghee, honey, coconut oil, curd, etc. Remedies for 18 skin ailments were documented through this study. About 14 plants are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Curcuma longa and Melia azaderach constitute the major plants. The herbal cosmetic products used by the people of Assam ranges from the enhancement of skin colour, hair care, removal of ugly spots, colouring of nails, palms, and teeth. However, many of the plant preparations used for enhancing beauty were also applied for therapeutic use. Herbal remedies were also available for skin burns, prickly heat and pimples. Information on nine plants used for managing dry skin also emerged from this study. PMID:16473486

  6. Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.

    PubMed

    Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

  7. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerma, Dirk O.; Climent-Font, Aurelio; Respaldiza, Miguel Ángel

    2006-08-01

    The IBA conference has taken place in different countries from all over the world. It started in the United States in 1973, and since then has been held biennially without interruption, becoming the reference meeting on ion beam analysis and related methods and techniques. In its 17th edition, two Spanish laboratories, one from the Universidad de Sevilla and one from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid had the honour and responsibility of organizing the conference. These two laboratories are, so far, the only ones in the country equipped with accelerators dedicated to ion beam analysis; the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Seville and the Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM) in Madrid. We took up this task enthusiastically, conscious that Spain has only very recently been equipped with IBA techniques and that this event would highlight to the scientific community of our country the importance and involvement of IBA techniques in new scientific and technological developments. The conference was held at the Melia Sevilla Hotel in Seville, Spain from 26 June-1 July 2005. This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the published proceedings of the conference.

  8. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd_Allah, E. F.; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117

  9. Review on pharmacological and toxicologyical effects of oleum azadirachti oil

    PubMed Central

    Koriem, Khaled MM

    2013-01-01

    Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds,ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects. PMID:24075352

  10. Review on pharmacological and toxicologyical effects of oleum azadirachti oil.

    PubMed

    Koriem, Khaled M M

    2013-10-01

    Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds, ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects. PMID:24075352

  11. Identification and distribution of New World Leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, G; David, J R; McMahon-Pratt, D

    1987-03-01

    Five hundred thirty stocks of Leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of American cutaneous (ACL) and visceral leishmaniases (AVL) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. This study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these monoclonals for the L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. donovani complexes. This study also demonstrates the relative stability of these molecular markers and the general usefulness of the method for parasite identification. Two hundred ninety-two of 420 isolates of ACL were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex. Two hundred twenty-seven were L. b. braziliensis; these showed the widest geographical distribution (Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo; Honduras: Santa Barbara and Yoko; Peru: Ancash, Piura, and Ucayali; and Venezuela: Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Portuguesa, Vale Hondo, Yaracuy, and Zulia). Forty-one stocks were identified as L. b. guyanensis (from North Brazil: Amazonas, Amapa, Para, and Rondonia). Twenty-one stocks were identified as L. b. panamensis (from Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacasten, Limon, Puntarenas, and San Jose; and Honduras: El Paraiso, and Olancho). Out of 128 isolates classified as members of the L. mexicana complex, 74 were differentiated as L. m. amazonensis (from Bolivia; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso do Norte, and Para; Peru: Pasco Forest and Van Humboldt; and Venezuela: Carabobo, Guarico, and Merida). Forty-four stocks were identified as L. m. venezuelensis (from Venezuela: Lara). Six stocks were L. m. mexicana (from Belize; and Mexico: Campeche [corrected] and Quintana Roo, Yucatan). One hundred ten isolates from AVL were identified as L. donovani chagasi (from Brazil: Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, and Sergipe; and Honduras: Valle). The implications of these results with respect to both the clinical and epidemiological data (including the detection of seven unusual characterized stocks) are discussed. PMID:3826486

  12. Coupling GELATO 4 sea-ice model to NEMO 3: a new ocean/sea-ice model for global climate studies at CNRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevallier, Matthieu; Salas-Melia, David

    2010-05-01

    A new configuration of the ocean-sea ice model in use at the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM, Météo-France, France) is presented. The sea-ice component of the global coupled model is an updated version of GELATO (Salas-Melia, 2002). GELATO is a dynamic-thermodynamic model, and includes elastic-visco-plastic rheology, redistribution of ice floes of different thicknesses, and also takes into account leads, snow cover and snow ice formation. The new version of GELATO sea-ice model includes also a tracer of ice age. GELATO 4 is coupled to the NEMO3.3 global ocean model (Madec et al., 2008), a hydrostatic, primitive equation, finite difference ocean model in the 1°-configuration ORCA1. In this new configuration, the straits in the Arctic Ocean are opened, leading to more realistic features in the sea-ice state compared to previous systems. Model performance is evaluated by performing a hindcast of the Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice covers, forced by the ERA40-based atmospheric forcing DFS4 (DRAKKAR Forcing Set 4, Brodeau et al., 2009) during the 1958-2004 period. To test the impact of a more refined description of melting sea-ice surface albedo, a new sea-ice albedo scheme was also implemented in GELATO. The scheme is based on Pedersen et al.(2009) parametrization, and includes melt ponds evolution. Performance with this latter refinement is also evaluated. The NEMO3.3-GELATO4 model is meant to be used at CNRM for Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) experiments, and also for investigations dealing with seasonal-to-decadal predictability in the Arctic.

  13. Testing cosmology from fundamental considerations: Is the Friedmann universe intrinsically flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2014-02-01

    Recently Melia and Shevchuk (Mon Not R Astron Soc 419:2579,2012) (MS) have proposed the so-called cosmology where the "Gravitational Horizon" of the universe is equal to the distance travelled by light since "Big Bang". Here we would like to see whether the basic claim is correct or not because MS have not given any cogent derivation for the same. Essentially we will compare the twin expressions for the Einstein energy momentum complex (EMC) of the Friedmann universe obtained by using an appropriate superpotential and also by a direct method. To enable a meaningful comparison of the twin expressions, both are computed by using the same quasi-Cartesian coordinates. We however do not claim that Einstein EMC is superior to many other routes of defining EM of a self-gravitating system. In fact, for static isolated spherical syatems, the idea of a coordinate independent field energy of Lynden-Bell and Katz (Mon Not R Astron Soc 213:21, 1985) might be quite physically significant. Yet, here, we use Einstein EMC because (i) our system is non-static and not isolated one (ii) our primary aim is not find any absolute value of EM, and, finally, (iii) only Einstein pseudo-tensor offers equivalent twin expressions for EM which one can be equated irrespective of any physical significance. Following such comparison of equivalent twin expressions of Einstein energy, we find an exact proof as to why Friedmann universe must be spatially flat even though, mathematically one can conceive of curved spaces in any dimension. Additionally, it follows that, apparently, the scale factor as insisted by proposition. Nonetheless, because of close similarity of this form, , with the (vacuum) Milne metric, and also because of implied unphysical equation of state, cosmology is unlikely to represent the physical universe.

  14. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, K F A

    2014-06-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust National Cancer Institute botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through put microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015-0.5 mg/mL) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % of the extracts tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50 ) properties <0.0183 mg/mL. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao [symbol: see text] Speranskia herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite clay, Bunge root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi [symbol: see text] root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone root (Collinsonia Canadensis), and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun, and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth root (Trillium Pendulum), and alkanet root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (S. tuberculata), which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis, leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of anti-mitotic natural plants that are effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  15. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds. PMID:18390447

  16. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, KFA

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust NCI botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015–0.5 mg/ml) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50) properties <0.0183 mg/ml. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja Twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao Speranskia Herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite Clay, Bunge Root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea Fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder Root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane Root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi Root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree Fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone Root (Collinsonia Canadensis) and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth-root (Trillium Pendulum) and alkanet-root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (Speranskia tuberculata) which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of natural anti-mitotic resources effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  17. Evidence of hydrocarbon pollution in soil exploiting satellite optical and radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Galvan-Pineda, J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, A.; Jimenez-Escalona, J. C.; Ramos-Rodriguez, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    Oil spills are one of the most important sources of hydrocarbon pollution in soils of areas near centers of extraction, storage or transportation of petroleum products. These spills or leaks can occur arising from deficient maintenance of facilities or accidents. The effects of these spills can spread for kilometers affecting large areas. This has a strong impact on the local ecosystem disturbing the flora and fauna. In costal tourist areas, this type of contaminants represents significant health risks for visitors and therefore, economic losses for the place. For this reason, it is very important to know and identify the areas affected by this type of pollution in order to create action plans for remediation of the ecosystem. Due to the large land extensions that can cover such disasters, satellite images become a valuable tool because of their large spatial coverage. Nowadays, different satellite techniques have been developed to recognize land affected by the presence of hydrocarbons. In the optical spectrum, optical sensing imagery (e.g. Landsat, SPOT, MODIS, etc.) has been widely used. However, these techniques have the intrinsic limitation in scenes with vegetation cover. In contrast, techniques exploiting radar images are still rare. The type of signal that is detected by the radar provides information even in areas with vegetation cover. The radar signal interacts with the vegetation and soil collecting information about the dielectric properties of the soil. This study identifies zones of contaminated soil by using the synergy of optical and radar images. This site of study is located in Paraiso, Tabasco, in Southern Mexico (18°27'N 93°32'W). The region is composed of coastal and tropical forest ecosystems and includes the Port Dos Bocas. The Port Dos Bocas has its points of extractions 130m away from the coast. The annual activities report 10 millions of tons of hydrocarbons transported using around 5500 ships. The methodology presented in this paper includes field measurements collecting soil samples at depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm, the implementation of an algorithm to exploit Landsat 5 and 7 images to identify polluted zones, and the implementation of an algorithm using Envisat ASAR and an incoherent scattering model to delineate the polluted soil. The laboratory analysis of the soil samples showed that in all cases the most contaminated region of the soil is the deeper layer (30-60 cm). The processing of the optical images identifies contaminated regions mainly for bare soils and short vegetation. For highly vegetated regions, the optical images do not detect the polluted soils because the wavelength of observation cannot penetrate vegetation. The radar algorithm indicates that the most contaminated zones showed the lowest backscattering coefficient in comparison to clean zones. Unlike optical images, the Envisat images allowed the identification of polluted zones even under high vegetation conditions.

  18. Development of a biofilm inhibitor molecule against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with gestational urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, P.; Hema, M.; Kaur, Gurmeet; Sridharan, V.; Prabu, P. C.; Sumana, M. N.; Princy, S. Adline

    2015-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a globally widespread human infection caused by an infestation of uropathogens. Eventhough, Escherichia coli is often quoted as being the chief among them, Staphylococcus aureus involvement in UTI especially in gestational UTI is often understated. Staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA) is a quorum regulator of S. aureus that controls the expression of various virulence and biofilm phenotypes. Since SarA had been a focussed target for antibiofilm agent development, the study aims to develop a potential drug molecule targeting the SarA of S. aureus to combat biofilm associated infections in which it is involved. In our previous studies, we have reported the antibiofilm activity of SarA based biofilm inhibitor, (SarABI) with a 50% minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50) value of 200 μg/mL against S. aureus associated with vascular graft infections and also the antibiofilm activity of the root ethanolic extracts of Melia dubia against uropathogenic E. coli. In the present study, in silico design of a hybrid molecule composed of a molecule screened from M. dubia root ethanolic extracts and a modified SarA based inhibitor (SarABIM) was undertaken. SarABIM is a modified form of SarABI where the fluorine groups are absent in SarABIM. Chemical synthesis of the hybrid molecule, 4-(Benzylamino)cyclohexyl 2-hydroxycinnamate (henceforth referred to as UTI Quorum-Quencher, UTIQQ) was then performed, followed by in vitro and in vivo validation. The MBIC50 and MBIC90 of UTIQQ were found to be 15 and 65 μg/mL, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images witnessed biofilm reduction and bacterial killing in either UTIQQ or in combined use of antibiotic gentamicin and UTIQQ. Similar results were observed with in vivo studies of experimental UTI in rat model. So, we propose that the drug UTIQQ would be a promising candidate when used alone or, in combination with an antibiotic for staphylococcal associated UTI. PMID:26322037

  19. A new definition of a correlation equation for single collector efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    The transport and deposition of colloidal particles in porous media are important phenomena involved in many environmental and engineering problems as, for instance, the use of micro- and nanoscale zerovalent iron, a promising reagent in the field of groundwater remediation [1]. Particle transport and deposition in the proximity of injection or pumping wells and in porous media in general may also be relevant in other fields of chemical and petroleum engineering. Mathematical models able to predict particles transport and deposition in porous media are often needed in order to design field applications. The basic concept of these models is the single collector efficiency η, which predicts particles deposition onto a single grain of a complex porous medium in terms of probability that an approaching particle would be retained on a solid grain. Many different approaches and equations exist in the literature, however most of them are valid only under specific conditions (eg. specific range of flow rate, particle size, etc.), and predict, for certain parametric conditions, efficiency values exceeding unity, which is, for an efficiency concept, a contradiction [2][3]. The objectives of this study are to analyze the causes of the failure of the existing models in predicting the deposition rate in certain conditions and to modify the definition of collector efficiency in order to have a more general equation. The definition of collector efficiency, first proposed by Yao at al. [4], is based on the particles deposition onto a spherical grain (the collector) in an infinite domain. It is defined as the ration between the flux of particles that deposit on the grain and the total amount of particles that could reach the collector by advective flux from an area equal to the projection of the spherical grain itself. In the present work Yao's model has been implemented by COMSOL Multiphysics and solved with an Eulerian approach; particles deposition simulations were run. From these results a new definition of η is proposed, considering all the flux that potentially reach the collector. A new equation, valid in a broader range of parameters (eg. low Pe number, big particle size, etc.), has been formulated starting from the numerical results. References .1. Boccardo, G., D.L. Marchisio, and R. Sethi, Microscale simulation of particle deposition in porous media. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2014. 417: p. 227-37. 2. Ma, H., M. Hradisky, and W.P. Johnson, Extending Applicability of Correlation Equations to Predict Colloidal Retention in Porous Media at Low Fluid Velocity. Environ. Sci. Technology, 2013. 47: p. 2272-2278. 3. Song, L.F. and M. Elimelech, Deposition of Brownian Particles in Porous-Media - Modified Boundary-Conditions for the Sphere-in-Cell Model. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1992. 153(1): p. 294-297. 4. Yao, K.M., M.T. Habibian, and C.R. O'Melia, Water and Waste Water Filtration: Concepts and Applications. 1971.

  20. Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, Minas; Michalitsianos, Andrew G.

    2006-11-01

    Foreword; Acknowledgements; Workshop participants; 1. Images and spectrograms of Sanduleak - 69º202, the SN 1987a progenitor N. R. Walborn; 2. The progenitor of SN 1987A G. Sonneborn; 3. Another supernova with a blue progenitor C. M. Gaskell and W. C. Keel; 4. Optical and infrared observations of SN 1987A from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory M. M. Phillips; 5. SN 1987A: observational results obtained at ESO I. J. Danziger, P. Bouchet, R. A. E. Fosbury, C. Gouiffes, L. B. Lucy, A. F. M. Moorwood, E. Oliva and F. Rufener; 6. Observations of SN 1987A at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) M. W. Feast; 7. Observations of SN 1987A at the Anglo-Australian Telescope W. J. Couch; 8. Linear polarimetric study of SN 1987A A. Clocchiatti, M. Méndez, O. Benvenuto, C. Feinstein, H. Marraco, B. García and N. Morrell; 9. Infrared spectroscopy of SN 1987A from the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory H. P. Larson, S. Drapatz, M. J. Mumma and H. A. Weaver; 10. Radio observations of SN 1987A N. Bartel et al.; 11. Ultraviolet observations of SN 1987A: clues to mass loss R. P. Kirshner; 12. On the energetics of SN 1987A N. Panagia; 13. On the nature and apparent uniqueness of SN 1987A A. V. Filippenko; 14. A comparison of the SN 1987A light curve with other type II supernovae, and the detectability of similar supernovae M. F. Schmitz and C. M. Gaskell; 15. P-Cygni features and photospheric velocities L. Bildsten and J. C. L. Wang; 16. The Neutrino burst from SN 1987A detected in the Mont Blanc LSD experiment M. Aglietta et al.; 17. Toward observational neutrino astrophysics M. Koshiba; 18. The discovery of neutrinos from SN 1987A with the IMB detector J. Matthews; 19. Peering into the abyss: the neutrinos from SN 1987A A. Burrows; 20. Phenomenological analysis of neutrino emission from SN 1987A J. N. Bahcall, D. N. Spergel and W. H. Press; 21. Mass determination of neutrinos H. Y. Chiu; 22. Neutrino transport in a type II supernova D. C. Ellison, P. M. Giovanoni and S. W. Bruenn; 23. Neutrino masses from SN 1987A J. Franklin; 24. Supernova neutrinos and their oscillations T. K. Kuo and J. T. Pantaleone; 25. Neutrinos from SN 1987A and cooling of the nascent neutron star D. Q. Lamb, F. Melia and T. J. Loredo; 26. Neutrino Energetics of SN 1987A J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 27. Neutrino emission from cooling neutron stars E. S. Myra, J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 28. Statistical analysis of the time structure of the neutrinos from SN 1987A P. J. Schinder and S. A. Bludman; 29. Neutrino properties from observations of SN 1987A A. Dar; 30. SN 1987A and companion C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, and C. Standley; 31. Supernovae light echoes B. E. Schaefer; 32. A real light echo: Nova Persei 1901 J. E. Felten; 33. IR speckle- interferometry of SN 1987A A. A. Chalabaev, C. Perrier and J. M. Mariotti; 34. Infrared opportunities for Supernova 1987A E. Dwek; 35. The UV interstellar spectrum and environment of SN 1987A F. C. Bruhweiler; 36. The interstellar spectrum of SN 1987A in the ultraviolet J. C. Blades, J. M. Wheatley, N. Panagia, M. Grewing, M. Pettini and W. Wamsteker; 37. The structure and spectrum of SN 1987A J. C. Wheeler, R. P. Harkness, and Z. Barkat; 38. Supernova 1987A: constraints on the theoretical model K. Nomoto and T. Shigeyama; 39. Supernova 1987A: a model and its predictions S. E. Woosley; 40. SN 1987A: circumstellar and interstellar interaction R. A. Chevalier; 41. Theoretical models of Supernova 1987A W. D. Arnett; 42. Evolution of the stellar progenitor of Supernova 1987A J. W. Truran and A. Weiss; 43.Modelling the atmosphere of SN 1987A L. B. Lucy; 44. SN 1987A: a stripped asymptotic- branch giant in a binary system P. C. Joss, Ph. Podsiadlowski, J. J. L. Hsu and S. Rappaport; 45. Pulsar formation and the fall back mass fraction S. A. Colgate; 46. An unusual hard X-ray source in the region of SN 19

  1. BOOK REVIEW Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    General relativity is arguably the most beautiful scientific theory ever conceived but its status within mainstream physics has vacillated since it was proposed in 1915. It began auspiciously with the successful explanation of the precession of Mercury and the dramatic confirmation of light-bending in the 1919 solar eclipse expedition, which turned Einstein into an overnight celebrity. Though little noticed at the time, there was also Karl Schwarzschild's discovery of the spherically symmetric solution in 1916 (later used to predict the existence of black holes) and Alexander Friedmann's discovery of the cosmological solution in 1922 (later confirmed by the discovery of the cosmic expansion). Then for 40 years the theory was more or less forgotten, partly because most physicists were turning their attention to the even more radical developments of quantum theory but also because the equations were too complicated to solve except in situations involving special symmetries or very weak gravitational fields (where general relativity is very similar to Newtonian theory). Furthermore, it was not clear that strong gravitational fields would ever arise in the real universe and, even if they did, it seemed unlikely that Einstein's equations could then be solved. So research in relativity became a quiet backwater as mainstream physics swept forward in other directions. Even Einstein lost interest, turning his attention to the search for a unified field theory. This book tells the remarkable story of how the tide changed in 1963, when the 28-year-old New Zealand mathematician Roy Kerr discovered an exact solution of Einstein's equations which represents a rotating black hole, thereby cracking the code of the title. The paper was just a few pages long, it being left for others to fill in the extensive beautiful mathematics which underlay the result, but it ushered in a golden age of relativity and is now one of the most cited works in physics. Coincidentally, Kerr's breakthrough was not the only one in 1963 because Maarten Schmidt also discovered the first quasar, 3C273. By recognizing its redshifted spectrum and hence its huge cosmological distance, he demonstrated that some stupendous source of energy was required. Nowadays, most astrophysicists assume this must involve a supermassive black hole of the kind Kerr discovered, so it was a serendipitous combination of theoretical and observational developments that placed general relativity once more at centre-stage. Both discoveries were announced at the First Texas Symposium of Relativistic Astrophysics in Dallas in December 1963 but met with very different receptions. Schmidt's report generated huge excitement and was the main focus of the meeting. By contrast, Kerr's report was a mere 10-minute presentation - its importance appreciated only by the small group of relativists present, including Achilles Papapetrou, who admonished the audience for giving the talk such a lukewarm reception. Indeed, Kerr nearly didn't speak at all since Roger Penrose had originally been asked to report on his new solution as part of an overview talk. Nevertheless, Kerr's discovery proved to be of equal importance in the burgeoning field of relativistic astrophysics and it soon spawned dozens of other important papers. Indeed, by the time John Wheeler coined the phrase `black hole' in 1967, many of the well-known properties of the Kerr solution - the rotating event horizon, the ring singularity, the inner horizon, the closed timelike curves and the ergosphere - had already been established. The solution was also generalized to the electrically charged case by Ted Newman. Most remarkably, work by Werner Israel, Brandon Carter and Stephen Hawking showed that the Kerr-Newman solution represents the unique end-state of rotating collapsing matter. This means that black holes (unlike other astronomical objects) can be completely described by their mass, angular momentum and charge. This so-called `no hair theorem' explains why Kerr's discovery is so important. Today 15000 quasars are known and all are thought to be powered by Kerr black holes. Indeed, a large fraction of the x-ray background detected by the Chandra satellite is thought to have been generated by such holes, in which case there could 300 million of them in the observable universe. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, after whom the satellite is named, best expressed the situation [1]: `the most shattering experience has been the realization that an exact solution of Einstein's equations of general relativity…provides the absolutely exact representation of untold numbers of black holes that populate the universe'. The account so far will be very familiar to most relativists. However, probably very few know the full story of the events leading up to Kerr's great discovery and that is what this fascinating and informative book provides. It adds three important elements to the usual accounts: it describes the personalities involved, it explains how the solution was found, and it puts the episode in a broader historical context. I will now discuss these elements in turn. Focusing on the personalities is important because science is a very human endeavour - involving passion, excitement, missed opportunity, serendipidity and sometimes tragedy - and this story has all of these elements. The central character is Kerr himself, who provides his own afterword to the book. Surprisingly, he was not originally a relativist at all but a pure mathematician. After his undergraduate studies at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, he started a PhD in group theory at Cambridge. However, it was during this period that he was introduced to relativity by his friend John Moffatt and then further enthused by an influential seminar on gravitational radiation by Felix Pirani at King's College London. A sequence of postdoctoral positions in the USA followed, culminating in his move to Alfred Schild's Center for Relativity in Austin, Texas, where he wrote his seminal paper. The second strength of this book is that it shows how Kerr's discovery related to other developments in the field. Progress in physics is rarely made in isolation and there is a strong supporting cast in this drama. The key to his breakthrough was the simplification of Einstein's equations entailed in studying what are termed `shear-free' solutions. The first clue came from Ray Sachs, whose studies of asymptotically shear-free bundles of light-rays reduced Einstein's equations to manageable form. Ivor Robinson and Andrzej Trautman then considered bundles which are shear-free everywhere but they were looking for solutions with gravity waves rather than time-independent ones and so missed the great discovery. Kerr learnt about these developments at a 1962 meeting on Gravitation and General Relativity in Warsaw, which clearly played a seminal role in the development of his ideas. But what most excited him was the enthusiastic summary of Vitaly Ginzburg, extolling the virtues of general relativity and emphasizing the need to understand strong gravity effects such as rotation. In any case, he returned to Austin convinced that he had the tools required to solve the problem. At first, he was discouraged when Newman claimed to prove that no shear-free space is possible but fortunately Kerr found a mistake in this work. By using coordinates which incorporated the rotational symmetry of the problem, he was able to find an exact solution in which the metric contains an event horizon and is asymptotically rotating. Since the Warsaw meeting played such a crucial role, it is interesting to recall that Richard Feynman also attended the meeting and described it in rather unflattering terms in a letter to his wife [2]: `I am not getting anything out of the meeting. I am learning nothing. Because there are no experiments, this field is not an active one, so few of the best men are doing work in it. The result is that there are hosts of dopes here and it is not good for my blood pressure…remind me not to come to any more gravity conferences!'. The book does not mention this but Feynman's negativity may have resulted from the fact that he attended the meeting primarily to present his early work on quantum gravity. This did not excite the relativists as much as he had hoped, so this may have generated some antipathy. Nevertheless, his impression is interesting because it reflects the prevailing opinion at the time that relativity had made little progress since the 1930s. Feynman clearly did't recognize the significance of the Pound-Rebka experiment (which had recently measured the slowing down of time in the gravitational field of the Earth) or appreciate that a new band of young relativists were instilling fresh energy into the field, unintimidated by the fear (prevalent at the time) of what Einstein might say about their endeavours. The third strength of this book is that it puts Kerr's discovery in broader historical context. It starts with a useful discussion of the earlier development of ideas in special and general relativity. Most of this is well known but it also includes some points which are rarely described in popular accounts. Of particular interest is Melia's account of the exchanges between Einstein and the mathematician David Hilbert in 1915. He suggests that Hilbert may have submitted a paper containing the correct equations of general relativity five days earlier than Einstein, although this is controversial since Einstein's paper was certainly published first and Hilbert may well have modified his own paper after reading it [3]. It is also good to stress the contribution of Emmy Noether, who first found the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. This is described in a book by Leon Lederman and Chris Hill [4] as `certainly one of the most important mathematical theorems ever proved in guiding the development of modern physics'. Since Kerr was himself a mathematician, one important message of this book (at least implicitly) seems to be the fundamental importance of mathematics in the development of physics. This is very topical in view of the current controversy over whether string theory should be regarded as mathematics or physics. One might question Melia's assertion that the golden age initiated by Kerr ended in the mid-1970s. Certainly the detection of stellar black holes, the discovery of the binary pulse PSR 1913+16, the precise measurement of the slowing down of time in a gravitational field by Gravity Probe A, and the discovery of black hole quantum radiation all came in this period. However, in some ways relativity is still enjoying a golden age: it is just that most research now focuses on numerical relativity, gravitational waves and quantum gravity rather than looking for exact solutions of Einstein's equations. For example, the detection of gravitational waves will surely herald another golden age within the next few years. What is true is that old-fashioned classical relativity has again moved to the side-lines and this raises an interesting point. In the search for a unified theory, either quantum theory or relativity must triumph because they are incompatible. Some people (in particular, the string theorists) feel that quantum theory will eventually triumph, with general relativity just representing a first level of approximation to the final picture. However, others (e.g., Roger Penrose and proponents of loop quantum gravity) feel that general relativity will turn out to be more fundamental. It is too soon to decide which side is correct. There are clearly further codes to break. Finally, what has become of the code-breaker himself? Kerr maintained links with Austin until 1977 when Schild died. By then he had become disillusioned with the aggressive nature of science in America. Nor was the aggression confined to the ivory towers of academia, since he was in Austin in 1966, when a crazed gunman in the university tower shot several people dead, one of whom was Kerr's fellow-relativist Robert Boyer. He returned to the University of Canterbury in 1971, where he headed the Mathematics Department until his retirement in 1993. He remains a colourful character, whose interests go well beyond relativity. Indeed, his first love is now rumoured to be bridge! To an end on a personal note, I've always felt a close affinity with Kerr because his surname is a variant of my own. This has sometimes had amusing consequences. On a trip to China in 1985, I was surprised when one of my talks attracted a huge audience. It later transpired that I had been confused with my more famous near name-sake! References [1] Chandrasekher S 1987 Truth and Beauty: Aesthetics and Motivations in Science (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) [2] Feynman, RP 1988 What Do You Care What Other People Think? (New York, NY: Norton Press) [3] Corry L, Renn J and Stachel J, 1997 Belated decision in the Hilbert--Einstein priority dispute Science278 1270 [4] Lederman L M and Hill C T 2004 Symmetry and the Beautiful Universe (New York, NY: Prometheus Books)