Sample records for paraiso melia azedarach

  1. Antibacterial effect of Melia azedarach flowers on rabbits.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Rubeena; Ahmed, Syed Iqbal; Shamim, Syed Mohammad; Faizi, Shaheen; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

    2002-12-01

    A methanol extract of Melia azedarach flowers showed potent antibacterial action in rabbits suffering from a skin infection produced by Stapyhlococcus aureus. The healing effects were found comparable to neomycin. PMID:12458483

  2. Evaluation of Melia azedarach extracts against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Nedel, Fernanda

    2015-02-01

    Although the incidence of caries worldwide has declined in recent years, it is necessary to search for new means to overcome this disease and its microbiological agents. Phytochemistry can become an effective alternative to antibiotics, offering a promising strategy in the prevention and therapy of dental caries. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the bactericide activity of a bioactive phytocomponent from Melia azedarach against Streptococcus mutans. The crude extract (CEx) from leaves and stem barks of M. azedarach in chloroform, petroleum ether, acetate ethyl, butanol, and aqueous fractions was evaluated using seven different concentrations. Disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration assays were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. 0.12% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. The CEx and the petroleum ether fraction from M. azedarach showed significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans, confirming its antibiotic potential. PMID:25069066

  3. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  4. Effect of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae) fruit extracts on Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    McKenna, Maher M; Hammad, Efat M Abou-Fakhr; Farran, Mohamad T

    2013-12-01

    Melia azedarach L. extracts were studied in comparison with selected biorational insecticides against the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton under field conditions. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F. trees were exposed to: Melia extracts of green and mature fruits, Neem oil (30% a.i.), abamectin (1.8% a.i.) and control. Two sprays of each treatment (except for Melia mature fruit extract) were executed at 10-d intervals. The live number of the 1(st) and later (2(nd) & 3(rd)) larval instars per leaf were recorded at initial sampling date and at 10-d intervals after each spray application. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the number of live larval instars among treatments. Melia extracts and the two biorationals, neem oil and abamectin, decreased the larvae population significantly to lower numbers than that of the control at 10 days after each spray application. However, the decrease caused by neem oil and abamectin was significantly higher than that of Melia extracts. Thus, these extracts might be considered as potential alternative with other biorational control methods in management of the leafminer. Further research including bioassays is needed to determine the factors responsible for reducing larvae population and whether these Melia extracts can be utilized in future citrus IPM programs as a tool for citrus leafminer management. PMID:23667805

  5. Bioefficacy assessment of Melia azedarach (L.) seed extract on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somnath Roy; Ananda Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous seed extract of Melia azedarach (L.) was evaluated against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner), in relation to mortality of adult mites, viability of eggs and subsequent adult emergence and oviposition deterrence in the laboratory, and the extract underwent field evaluation in terms of per cent reduction of the mite population. Direct spray methods were used in the

  6. Cytotoxic, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of extracts of the bark of Melia azedarach (China Berry).

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Muhammad; Ahmed, Manzoor; Naz, Sumaira; Ayaz, Musarrat

    2015-06-01

    Nature provides a variety of drugs and medicinal agents derived from plants. This study was conducted to determine antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of extracts of Melia azedarach bark with methanol/water (9:1 v/v), chloroform, butanol, hexane, water and ethyl acetate. For the determination of the antimicrobial activities, the agar well diffusion method was employed. Cytotoxicity was studied by brine shrimp lethality assay; antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The chloroform extract was active against Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis, the ethyl acetate extract had highest antibacterial spectrum against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the n-hexane extract had highest inhibition against E. aerogenes, the aqueous extract showed highest activities against P. mirabilis, the butanol fraction showed highest activities against E. aerogenes and the methanolic extract was highly active against P. mirabilis. PMID:25426766

  7. Antifungal compounds from Melia azedarach leaves for management of Ascochyta rabiei, the cause of chickpea blight.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Khajista; Javaid, Arshad; Ahmad, Ejaz; Athar, Makshoof

    2011-02-01

    The antifungal activity of Melia azedarach L. leaves was investigated against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of destructive blight disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Bioassay guided fractionation revealed that the chloroform fraction of the methanolic extract of M. azedarach leaves was highly effective against A. rabiei. Six compounds, namely ?-sitosterol (1), ?-amyrin (2), ursolic acid (3), benzoic acid (4), 3,5 dimethoxybenzoic acid (5) and maesol (6) were isolated from the chloroform fraction through column chromatography. The in vitro antifungal activity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against A. rabiei. A commercial fungicide, mancozeb, was used as a positive control. Different concentrations of mancozeb and the isolated compounds, ranging from 0.0039 to 4 mg mL(-1), were used in the antifungal bioassay, and data regarding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was recorded 24, 48 and 72 h after incubation. All concentrations of mancozeb inhibited the fungal spore germination at all three incubation periods. The tested compounds exhibited variable antifungal activity against the target fungal pathogens. All compounds showed their highest antifungal activity after 24 h of incubation. Compound 2 was found to be the most effective, with an MIC of 0.0156 mg mL(-1), followed by compounds 3, 4 and 5, with MIC values of 0.0312, 0.25 and 0.125 mg mL(-1), respectively. PMID:20628965

  8. Three new and other limonoids from the hexane extract of Melia azedarach fruits and their cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xin; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Zhang, Jie; Ukiya, Motohiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Koike, Kazuo; Akihisa, Rima; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2014-07-01

    A defatted fraction obtained from the hexane extract of the fruits of Melia azedarach L. (chinaberry tree; Meliaceae) exhibited cytotoxic activities against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), stomach (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 2.9-21.9??g/ml. Three new limonoids, 3-deacetyl-4'-demethylsalannin (5), 3-deacetyl-28-oxosalannin (14), and 1-detigloylohchinolal (17), along with 16 known limonoids, 1-4, 6-13, 15, 16, 18, and 19, and one known triterpenoid, 20, were isolated from the fraction. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the four cancer cell lines mentioned above. 3-Deacetyl-4'-demethyl-28-oxosalannin (16), which exhibited potent cytotoxicity against AZ521 (IC50 3.2??M) cells, induced typical apoptotic cell death in AZ521 cells upon evaluation of the apoptosis-inducing activity by flow cytometry. This work provided, furthermore, valuable information on the structural features of limonoids of the fruits and/or seeds of Melia azedarach and related Meliaceae plants, M. toosendan and Azadirachta indica. PMID:25044585

  9. Formulations of Melia azedarach to Control Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larvae in Corn and Plant Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Souza, B H S; Costa, E N; Forim, M R; Costa, E S; Boiça Júnior, A L

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated oil and powder formulations of Melia azedarach for controlling larvae of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) in corn and plant enhancement. Five concentrations of each formulation were evaluated and compared to fipronil (negative control) and distilled water (positive control). After treatment, the number of surviving insects (larvae, pupae, and adults), the adult body weight, the sex ratio, and the longevity were recorded, while the height, dry weight of aerial part and roots, and number of leaves of plants were measured. The oil formulation at 4.0 mL reduced the larvae population of D. speciosa similarly to the insecticide fipronil, which resulted in greater height, dry weight of the root system, and number of leaves. Powder formulation at concentrations of 40, 80, and 160 mg caused larval mortality above 80%; however, these concentrations did not prevent reduction of plant height and dry weight of aerial part. Further studies assessing the residual period of M. azedarach control against D. speciosa larvae and its phytotoxicity, which are common traits associated with azadirachtin application, are necessary to subsidize the next steps of this alternative control strategy. PMID:26013136

  10. Metabolites from Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, and their antifungal, antifeedant, and toxic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Thirty-nine fungal metabolites 1-39, including two new alkaloids, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6) and 3-hydroxyfumiquinazoline A (16), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus fumigatus LN-4, an endophytic fungus isolated from the stem bark of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. These isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities against some phytopathogenic fungi, toxicity against brine shrimps, and antifeedant activities against armyworm larvae (Mythimna separata Walker). Among them, sixteen compounds showed potent antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, and Gibberella saubinettii), and four of them, 12?-hydroxy-13?-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6), fumitremorgin B (7), verruculogen (8), and helvolic acid (39), exhibited antifungal activities with MIC values of 6.25-50 ?g/mL, which were comparable to the two positive controls carbendazim and hymexazol. In addition, of eighteen that exerted moderate lethality toward brine shrimps, compounds 7 and 8 both showed significant toxicities with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 13.6 and 15.8 ?g/mL, respectively. Furthermore, among nine metabolites that were found to possess antifeedant activity against armyworm larvae, compounds 7 and 8 gave the best activity with antifeedant indexes (AFI) of 50.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of the metabolites were also discussed. PMID:22409377

  11. Laboratory and field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) oils as repellents against Phlebotomus orientalis and P. bergeroti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Yosef; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha

    2010-02-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly. PMID:19854142

  12. Melia azedarach extract stimulates melanogenesis through increase of tyrosinase-related protein 1 expression in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng; Jin, Cheng Long; Oh, Inn Gyung; Park, Chi-Hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2015-06-01

    Melia azedarach (MA) has been used in folk medicine in Asia for the treatment of several diseases. Several constituents from MA possess anti-herpetic, anti-angiogenic and anticancer properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a 70% ethanol extract of MA on melanogenesis and the underlying mechanisms involved. A B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line was used in our experiments. Treatment of B16F10 cells with the MA extract (10, 20 and 40 µg/ml) increased melanin content in a concentration?dependent manner without cytotoxicity at 24 h. Further experiments indicated that the MA extract (20 µg/ml) increased melanin content as early as at 4 h after treatment. Additionally, although the MA extract did not affect intracellular tyrosinase activity and the protein levels of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2) at 2 and 4 h after treatment, the MA extract increased TRP-1 protein expression at both time points. However, no significant effect of the MA extract treatment on TRP-1 mRNA level at the time points measured was observed. In conclusion, the results from the present study demonstrate that the MA extract increases melanogenesis through the upregulation of TRP?1 protein expression by post-transcriptional control in B16F10 cells and suggest that the MA extract can be viewed as a rapid inducer of melanogenesis, thus rendering it a potential treatment for hypopigmentation diseases including vitiligo. PMID:25872655

  13. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Melia azedarach against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Mohamed Jamal Mohamed; Gandhi Elango; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Sampath Marimuthu

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited\\u000a the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants\\u000a as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of\\u000a the leaves and seed

  14. Paraiso : An Automated Tuning Framework for Explicit Solvers of Partial Differential Equations

    E-print Network

    Muranushi, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    We propose Paraiso, a domain specific language embedded in functional programming language Haskell, for automated tuning of explicit solvers of partial differential equations (PDEs) on GPUs as well as multicore CPUs. In Paraiso, one can describe PDE solving algorithms succinctly using tensor equations notation. Hydrodynamic properties, interpolation methods and other building blocks are described in abstract, modular, re-usable and combinable forms, which lets us generate versatile solvers from little set of Paraiso source codes. We demonstrate Paraiso by implementing a compressive hydrodynamics solver. A single source code less than 500 lines can be used to generate solvers of arbitrary dimensions, for both multicore CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate both manual annotation based tuning and automated tuning of the program.

  15. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, V; Ravi, S; Ashokkumar, S

    2014-09-15

    Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed. PMID:24769382

  16. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2014-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed.

  17. Phytochemical screening studies on Melia orientalis by GC-MS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Padmaja, Balakrishnan; Nair, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Melia orientalis (MO) is an important Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The plant part such as leaves and roots are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes, edema, traumatic swelling, skin diseases, oligospermia and bleeding disorders. Objective: To investigate the phytochemical identification of ethanol leaf extract of MO. Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of MO (1000g) were collected and shade dried at room temperature for 30 days and the dried leaves were made into a fine powder. The ethanol leaf extract obtained was dried and used for phytochemical identification by GC-MS analysis. Results: The phytochemical screening studies have been carried out and identified ten chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MO. Conclusion: Thus, our results show that MO possess important phytocomponents such as phytol, squalene and stigmasterol. PMID:23901217

  18. Managing Elasticity Across Multiple Cloud Providers Fawaz Paraiso

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .seinturier@inria.fr ABSTRACT In the context of cloud computing, elasticity is the capacity to scale computing resources up providers. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.4 [Cloud Computing Architecture]: Multi-Cloud; D.2, managing, and maintaining their own computing infrastructure. Cloud com- puting brings a way to innovate

  19. Effect of replacement of concentrate mixture with isonitrogenous leaf meal mixture on growth, nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation in goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajit Pal; R. K. Sharma; Ravindra Kumar; K. Barman

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of replacing concentrate mixture with leaf meal mixture of Leucaena leucocephala–Melia azedarach–Morus alba in equal proportion on growth, nutrient utilization, blood and rumen metabolites in growing goats using completely randomized design. Twelve male non-descript goats were divided into two groups, control and experimental, consisting of six animals in each group. The control

  20. Original Texas Land Survey as a Source for Pre-European Settlement Vegetation Mapping 

    E-print Network

    Srinath, Indumathi

    2012-02-14

    ? ? ? Originally these fertile bottomlands were forested with elm ( U l mus spp. ), hackberry ( Celtis occidentalis ), ash ( Fraxinus spp. ), pecan ( Carya illino inens is ) and chinaberry ( Melia azedarach ) (Veatch and Waldrop, 1916). Compared to Navasota... to differ from one census period to the next. 2.1.2 Ground photography Photographs contribute to this body of work by providing excellent visual records of a location, the extent and types of vegetation, and the land-use activities. If photographs...

  1. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Padhy, P K; Varshney, C K

    2005-05-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2 +/- 6.8 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2 +/- 4.9 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. PMID:15701397

  2. A Federated Multi-Cloud PaaS Infrastructure Fawaz Paraiso, Nicolas Haderer, Philippe Merle, Romain Rouvoy, Lionel Seinturier

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    mainstream will lead to scenarios of distributed SaaS applications whose parts are hosted on different cloud firstname.lastname@inria.fr Abstract--Cloud platforms are increasingly being used for hosting a broad will not only have to deploy applications for a specific cloud, but will also have to consider migrating

  3. Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Candida Species from Oral Lesions.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, K; Kumar, L Sathish; Rajendran, S; Chandrasekaran, M; Bhaskar, K; Sajit Khan, A K

    2008-11-01

    Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Melia azedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii. PMID:21369447

  4. Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in Europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in European countries. Poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. In Europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), Quercus spp. (oak), Taxus baccata (European yew), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas). Poisoning may occur when the fresh plant is ingested in pasture or when it contaminates hay or silage. In pets, the greatest majority of plant poisonings are the result of ingestion of house or garden plants, such as Cycas revoluta (Sago palm), Ricinus communis (castor bean), Allium spp., Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia), Lilium spp., Convallaria majalis (Lily of the valley), Pyracantha spp. (firethorn), Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas), Melia azedarach (Chinaberry tree), Taxus baccata (European yew) and Nerium oleander (oleander). PMID:23570777

  5. The feeding habits of gafftopsail catfish Bagre marinus (Ariidae) in Paraiso Coast, Tabasco, Mexico Los hábitos de alimentación del bagre Bagre marinus (Ariidae) en Costa Paraíso, Tabasco, México

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Mendoza-Carranza

    The gafftopsail catfish (Bagre marinus) is one of the species of most importance to fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico, particularly in the coastal region of Tabasco State, where it is captured abundantly almost all year round in shallow coastal zones. Although, there is neither ecological nor biological information about this species in the coastal zone of Tabasco State. This

  6. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet. PMID:26084100

  7. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

  8. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Botha, C J; Penrith, M L

    2009-06-01

    Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow), Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar), a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli). Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga) or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants. PMID:19831265

  9. Reclamation of tannery polluted soil through phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, V; Vivekanandan, M

    2009-04-01

    The huge volume of sludge emanating from the tannery effluent treatment plants poses a serious environmental problem. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology in which the plants are employed to reclamate the contaminated soil strewn with heavy metals (metalloids) and toxic compounds. This work focuses the impact of application of tannery sludge on biochemical properties of 6 months old tree saplings of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), Melia azedarach Linn. (Wild Neem) and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit (Subabool) raised over the tannery sludge in an attempt to use these plants for phytoremediation. The plants raised over the garden soil served as the control. The porosity and water holding capacity of the tannery sludge were higher. The plant growth supporting elements such as Ca, total N2, NO3 and Mg were higher in the sludge. The plants raised over the sludge were found to be dark green with increased morphometric parameters. Electrophoretic profile revealed amplification of a few polypeptides (100, 105, 49 and 55 KDa). The levels of biomolecules and the CO2 absorption increased in 6 months old plants. There was a significant uptake and transport of chromium in all the three tree species suggesting that these plants could be employed in phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:23572927

  10. Ethnopharmacological assessment of medicinal plants used against livestock infections by the people living around Indus River.

    PubMed

    Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Ullah, Riaz; Bibi, Roqaia

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81), mastitis (0.82), and dermatological infections (0.80). Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL) value (66%) followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%). Preference ranking (PR) results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species. PMID:25544941

  11. Determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants from saurashtra region, India.

    PubMed

    Kaneria, M; Baravalia, Y; Vaghasiya, Y; Chanda, S

    2009-07-01

    Many plants used in Saurashtra folk medicine have been reported to exhibit high antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In the present study, some parts of five plants, Guazuma ulmifolia L., Manilkara zapota L., Melia azedarach L., Syzygium cumini L. and Wrightia tomentosa R.& S., were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical analysis, using successive extraction by cold percolation method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. In vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated against five bacterial strains viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes by agar well diffusion method. Among the plants screened, W. tomentosa leaf and fruit showed the best antibacterial activity. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria. Methanol extract of M. zapota showed the best 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. Highest total phenol content was shown by M. zapota and S. cumini in methanol extract, while highest flavonoid content was shown by W. tomentosa stem in petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract. In all the plants, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes were more as compared to other phytoconstituents. PMID:20502546

  12. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from lower Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Zulqarnain; Rahim, Abdur; Ahmad, Khalid; Ullah, Faizan; Ullah, Hamid; Nishan, Umar

    2015-03-01

    The present studies cover antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of 11 medicinal plants viz. Adhatoda vasica, Bauhenia variegate, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa opaca, Caryopteris grata, Debregeasia salicifolia, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii and Olea ferruginea collected from lower Himalayas against two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa) bacterial strains. The extracts were applied at four different concentrations (120 mg/mL, 90mg/mL, 60mg/mL and 30mg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were observed formethanolic extracts of all the above mentioned plants. Greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only exhibited by Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii, Debregeasia salicifolia and Lantana camara. Escherichia coli was highly resistant to all the plant extracts at all concentrations. It is inferred that methanolic crude extracts of the above mentioned plantsexhibitantibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria, which proved the ethnobotanical importance of the selected plants that indigenous people use for cure against various diseases. PMID:25730791

  13. Determination of Antibacterial and Antioxidant Potential of Some Medicinal Plants from Saurashtra Region, India

    PubMed Central

    Kaneria, M.; Baravalia, Y.; Vaghasiya, Y.; Chanda, S.

    2009-01-01

    Many plants used in Saurashtra folk medicine have been reported to exhibit high antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In the present study, some parts of five plants, Guazuma ulmifolia L., Manilkara zapota L., Melia azedarach L., Syzygium cumini L. and Wrightia tomentosa R.& S., were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, total phenol content, flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity and phytochemical analysis, using successive extraction by cold percolation method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. In vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated against five bacterial strains viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Enterobacter aerogenes by agar well diffusion method. Among the plants screened, W. tomentosa leaf and fruit showed the best antibacterial activity. The Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-negative bacteria. Methanol extract of M. zapota showed the best 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. Highest total phenol content was shown by M. zapota and S. cumini in methanol extract, while highest flavonoid content was shown by W. tomentosa stem in petroleum ether extract and ethyl acetate extract. In all the plants, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes were more as compared to other phytoconstituents. PMID:20502546

  14. Antimycotic activities of selected plant flora, growing wild in Lebanon, against phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf; Sobh, Hana; Salameh, Abdu

    2002-05-22

    Petroleum ether (PE) and methanolic extracts of nine wild plant species were tested in vitro for their antimycotic activity against eight phytopathogenic fungi. The efficacy of PE extracts against all pathogens tested was higher than that of methanolic extracts. Wild marjoram (Origanum syriacum) PE extract showed the highest and widest range of activity. It resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth of six of eight fungi tested and also gave nearly complete inhibition of spore germination of the six fungi included in the assay, namely, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, and Verticillium dahlia. The other plant extracts showed differential activities in the spore germination test, but none was highly active against mycelial growth. Inula viscosa and Mentha longifolia were highly effective (>88%) in spore germination tests against five of six fungi tested, whereas Centaurea pallescens, Cichorium intybus, Eryngium creticum, Salvia fruticosa, and Melia azedarach showed >95% inhibition of spore germination in at least two fungi. Foeniculum vulgare showed the least antimycotic activity. Fractionation followed by autobiography on TLC plates using Cladosporium sp. as a test organism showed that O. syriacum PE extracts contained three inhibition zones, and those of Inula viscosa and Cichorium intybus, two, whereas the PE extracts of the remaining plants showed each one inhibition zone. Some of the major compounds present in these inhibition zones were identified by GC-MS. The possibility for using these extracts, or their mixtures, to control plant diseases is discussed. PMID:12009988

  15. Antimicrobial emulsion (coating) based on biopolymer containing neem (Melia azardichta) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract for wound covering.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, J H; Radhika, M

    2006-01-01

    Polymeric bio-adhesives emulsion which is biodegradable and non-toxic containing antimicrobial agents can play an important role in preventing infection in wound covering and coating for surgical implants. Therefore a bioadhesive polymer was synthesized by semi-Interpenetrating Network process using blend of shellac, casein and polyvinyl alcohol and Maleic anhydride (MA) as reactive compatibilizer. The synthesized polymer was mixed with neem and turmeric extract and homogenized using an emulsifier. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to measure the molecular miscibility of biopolymer components and emulsion constituents. Stability of emulsion (coating) was measured by keeping property and accelerated stability test. Antimicrobial properties were evaluated for human pathogenic organisms namely E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium using well diffusion assay. The results indicate that stability, miscibility and antimicrobial properties of bioadhesive was satisfactory, however further in vivo studies are required to ascertain suitability of emulsion (coating) for biomedical use. PMID:17075168

  16. Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in Malakand Valley, District Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malakand valley of District Dir (Lower) is endowed with a diverse plant wealth. Ethnoveterinary knowledge provides the traditional medicines of livestock that are cheaper than standard treatment and are easily accessible. Methods The present study was conducted to document the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices in Malakand valley, District Dir (Lower). Data was collected from February 2012 to January 2013 by interviewing 120 inhabitants through semi-structured questionnaires. Different questions were asked to collect appropriate data regarding the use of plants for livestock treatment. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) was carried out to find out the use diversity of medicinal plants. Findings A total of 28 plants belonging to 23 families were collected and identified for the treatment of livestock in the study area. Majority of the plants were collected from wild (68%) habitat and very few from cultivated sources. The leaves (28%) were identified as the major plant part for herbal preparations. The most frequent ailments of livestocks in the study area were stomach disorders and Charmaikh (local disease name). Various ingredients were used along with ethnoveterinary medicines i.e. sugar, flour, milk etc. The elder people of the village had a rich knowledge as compared to the young generation. According to DMR output, Monotheca buxifolia ranked first and Dalbergia sisso and Melia azedarach ranked second due to high multipurpose uses among all species and was found most threatened in the study area. Conclusion It has been concluded that the native of the region heavily dependent on medicinal plants for the treatment of variety of livestock ailments. Traditional knowledge always provides a baseline for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation. The documentation of the ethnoveterinary practices in study area was necessary before this precious knowledge is lost forever due to rapid socioeconomic, environmental and technological changes. PMID:24580769

  17. Accumulation of perchlorate in aquatic and terrestrial plants at a field scale.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kui; Anderson, Todd A; Jones, Matthew W; Smith, Philip N; Jackson, W Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Previous laboratory-scale studies have documented perchlorate ClO(-)(4) uptake by different plant species, but less information is available at field scale, where ClO(-)(4) uptake may be affected by environmental conditions, such as distance to streams or shallow water tables, exposure duration, and species. This study examined uptake of ClO(-)(4) in smartweed (Polygonum spp.) and watercress (Nasturtium spp.) as well as more than forty trees, including ash (Fraxinus greggii A. Gray), chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.), elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), willow (Salix nigra Marshall), mulberry [Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.], and hackberry (Celtis laevigata Willd.) from multiple streams surrounding a perchlorate-contaminated site. Results indicate a large potential for ClO(-)(4) accumulation in aquatic and terrestrial plants, with ClO(-)(4) concentration in plant tissues approximately 100 times higher than that in bulk water. Perchlorate accumulation in leaves of terrestrial plants was also dependent on species, with hackberry, willow, and elm having a strong potential to accumulate ClO(-)(4). Generally, trees located closer to the stream had a higher ClO(-)(4) accumulation than trees located farther away from the stream. Seasonal leaf sampling of terrestrial plants indicated that ClO(-)(4) accumulation also was affected by exposure duration, with highest accumulation observed in the late growing cycle, although leaf concentrations for a given tree were highly variable. Perchlorate may be re-released into the environment via leaching and rainfall as indicated by lower perchlorate concentrations in collected leaf litter. Information obtained from this study will be helpful to understand the fate of ClO(-)(4) in macrophytes and natural systems. PMID:15356223

  18. Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of novel isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin as insecticidal agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Shao, Yonghua; Wang, Yangyang; Fan, Lingling; Yu, Xiang; Zhi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Chun; Qu, Huan; Yao, Xiaojun; Xu, Hui

    2012-08-29

    In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Melia azedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)loo) is 0.797. PMID:22891988

  19. Media Summary 18-24 October 2014 South West Business -Dr Steve Melia, transport and planning lecturer, University of the West of

    E-print Network

    West of England, University of the

    Architects datafile ­ Water water everywhere ­ Resilience 14: expert speakers for Britain under water seminar talking about water purification. Mohamed Elshorbagy, MSc in Finance student was interviewed by ITV

  20. Do botanical pesticides alter the structure of the soil microbial community?

    PubMed

    Spyrou, Ioanna M; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2009-11-01

    The effects of synthetic pesticides on the soil microbial community have been thoroughly investigated in the past mostly by culture-dependent methods and only few recent studies have used culture-independent approaches for this purpose. However, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted in microcosms where the soil microbial community is exposed to unrealistic concentrations of the pesticides, providing an unrealistic exposure scheme for soil microorganism. On the other hand, little is known regarding the potential impact of botanical pesticides on the soil microbial community. Therefore, a laboratory study and a field study were conducted to investigate the effects of synthetic (metham sodium [MS], sodium tetrathiocarbonate [SoTe], and fosthiazate) and botanical pesticides (azadirachtin, quillaja, and pulverized Melia azedarach fruits [PMF]) on the soil microbial community using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the results of the laboratory study indicated that the application of PMF resulted in significant changes in the soil microbial community. This was obvious by the proportional increase in the abundance of fatty acids 18:1omega9cis, 18:1omega9trans, which are common in gram-negative bacteria and saprotrophic fungi, and 18:2omega6,9, which is a fungal indicator. This response was attributed to the release of copious amounts of organic carbon and nutrients in the soil by the PMF. On the other hand, MS inhibited fungi and gram-negative bacteria, while fosthiazate and the botanical pesticides quillaja and azadirachtin did not impose significant changes in the soil microbial community. Similar results were obtained by the field study where application of the fumigants MS and SoTe significantly altered the structure of the soil microbial community with the former having a more prominent effect. Fosthiazate imposed mild changes in the soil microbial community, whereas quillaja and azadirachtin again did not show a significant effect. Overall, botanical pesticides, at their recommended dose, did not alter the structure of the soil microbial community compared to synthetic nonfumigant and fumigant pesticides which induced significant changes. PMID:19440648

  1. Florecimientos algales en Tabasco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jefe del Depto

    Objective: To show a general panorama, between 2002-2004, of the algae blooming in the coasts and lakes in the cardenas and paraiso municipalities in tabasco. Method and materials: a retrospective descriptive and observational study was performed about the lab outcome for the identification and quantizatión of 109 sea and lake water samples registered in the study period. Statistical analyses with

  2. Florida Master Teacher Initiative Miami-Dade County Public Schools, University of Florida College of Education,

    E-print Network

    Roy, Subrata

    Florida Master Teacher Initiative Partners Miami-Dade County Public Schools, University of Florida PROJECT DIRECTORS Marisel Elias-Miranda Miami-Dade County Public Schools melias@dadeschools.net (305) 995

  3. Cryptic speciation in Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) trapidoi (Fairchild & Hertig) (Diptera: Psychodidae) detected by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, J P; Le Pont, F; Cruz, M; Leon, R; Tarrieu, L F; Guderian, R; Echeverria, R; Tibayrenc, M

    1996-01-01

    Lutzomyia trapidoi is the major vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador. In the framework of an epidemiologic study, female Lu. trapidoi sand flies were captured on human bait in La Tablada and Paraiso Escondido. Some coloration heterogeneity among the specimens caught led us to look for the existence of cryptic species using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. In 196 specimens studied, five of seven enzyme loci proved to be variable, making it possible to check for departures from panmixia both by Hardy-Weinberg statistics and linkage disequilibrium analysis. Two discrete groups were clearly distinguished, which could be differentiated by the diagnostic locus glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. The two groups occurred in sympatry within each locality. Genetic distances measured between these two groups were consistent with values usually found between distinct species. These results suggest the existence of a least two sibling species in Paraiso Escondido as well as La Tablada. The epidemiologic relevance of these results is discussed. PMID:8651367

  4. Eric Meggers List of Publications

    E-print Network

    Meggers, Eric

    . Coxhead, J. McGeehan, C. J. Richards, G. J. Tizzard, S. J. Coles, J. P. Bingham, J. A. Hartley, L. Feng, E Research Publications 1) J. K. John, K. H.T. Paraiso, V. W. Rebecca, L. P. Cantini, E. V. Abel, N. Pagano, Inorg. Chem. 2012, 51, 10004- 10011. 4) L.-A. Chen, J. Ma, M. A. Celik, H.-L. Yu, Z. Cao, G. Frenking, L

  5. Eric Meggers List of Publications

    E-print Network

    Meggers, Eric

    . Spencer, J. Amin, P. Coxhead, J. McGeehan, C. J. Richards, G. J. Tizzard, S. J. Coles, J. P. Bingham, J. A) J. K. John, K. H.T. Paraiso, V. W. Rebecca, L. P. Cantini, E. V. Abel, N. Pagano, E. Meggers, R. 4) L.-A. Chen, J. Ma, M. A. Celik, H.-L. Yu, Z. Cao, G. Frenking, L. Gong, E. Meggers: Active versus

  6. Spectral and Temporal Variability Incorporating General Relativistic Effects

    E-print Network

    Wiita, Paul J.

    and in the spectrum, as do motions of the power­law source. Here general relativistic effects are completely included the central engine (Guilbert & Rees 1988; Lightman & White 1988). If clouds (or disk regions) are dense enough of the spectrum arising directly from the accre­ tion disk, (e.g., Hollywood & Melia 1995). GR effects have

  7. EUTROPHICATION OF SWEDISH SEAS Donald Boesch

    E-print Network

    #12;EUTROPHICATION OF SWEDISH SEAS Donald Boesch Robert Hecky Charles O'Melia, Chair David and the water mass. In the in-depth evaluation of the environmental quality objective "Zero Eutrophication to achieve the environmental quality objective. An international panel of highly qualified eutrophication

  8. Journal of Controlled Release 61 (1999) 8391 Observation of swelling process and diffusion front position

    E-print Network

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    1999-01-01

    position during swelling in hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) matrices containing a soluble drug cellulose (HPMC) tablets or Swelling of hydrophilic polymeric matrices has matrices. For example, Melia et,10] pre- the swelling process (macromolecular chain exten- sented studies on HPMC swelling using

  9. Decreased Response to Feeding Deterrents Following Prolonged Exposure in the Larvae of a Generalist Herbivore, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmin Akhtar; Catharine H. Rankin; Murray B. Isman

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the role of experience with several antifeedants on the feeding behavior of a generalist herbivore, Trichoplusia ni. Second-, third-, and fifth-instar larvae of T. ni were examined for their feeding responses to plant extracts (Melia volkensii, Origanum vulgare) and individual plant allelochemicals (cymarin, digitoxin, xanthotoxin, toosendanin, and thymol), after being exposed to them continually beginning as neonates. All

  10. Food web structure and habitat loss Carlos J. Melian* and Jordi

    E-print Network

    REPORT Food web structure and habitat loss Carlos J. MeliaÂn* and Jordi Bascompte Estacio n Biolo@ebd.csic.es Abstract In this paper we explore simple food web models to study how metacommunity structure affects to the kind of food web. Second, for intermediate species, a slight decrease in the exploration cost

  11. The Effect of Plant Diversity on Fungus Garden Development and Foraging Behavior of Leaf-Cutting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto S. Camargo; Luiz C. Forti; Mariana de Melo Rocha; Carlos Alberto; Juliane F. Lopes; Ana Paula; Sandra S. Verza

    The leaf-cutting ants forage a wide variety of plant species, used for symbiotic fungus cultivation. To better understand this tripartite complex interaction, 24 colonies of Acromyrmex subterraneus brunneus were conditioned for 4 months to 6 different plants (Citrus spp., Ligustrum spp., Acalypha spp., Eucalyptus spp., Alchornea triplinervia, Melia spp.), to verify the influence of conditioning on foraging behavior of workers.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of some indigenous plant extracts as toxicants against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. A. Mamun; M. Shahjahan; M. Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the toxicity of six botanicals, Bazna (Zanthoxylum rhetsa), Ghora-neem (Melia sempervirens), Hijal (Barringtonia acutangula), Karanja (Pongamia pinnata), Mahogoni (Swietenia mahagoni) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Leaf and seed extracts were prepared by using acetone, methanol and water as solvents. The results showed that extracts of all the six

  13. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 1. Incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis on the Pacific coast].

    PubMed

    Barrera, C; Herrera, M; Martinez, F; Leon, R; Richard, A; Guderian, R H; Mouchet, J; Echeverria, R; Le Pont, F

    1994-03-01

    A clinico-epidemiologic survey on cutaneous leishmaniasis, due to Leishmania panamensis, was carried out on 961 persons in two study areas of the Pacific coast of Ecuador, to estimate the prevalence and the incidence of the disease. In the preandean hills, at Paraiso Escondido, the prevalence of active lesions was 4.8%; in the hills of the coastal cordillera, at La Tablada, it was 3.6%. The incidence of new cases in 1991 was high: 147% in the first village, and 106% in the second. These data are far higher than the Health Ministry statistics. The cumulated prevalence, obtained by addition of the scars and active lesions of leishmaniasis, was as high as 66% at Paraiso Escondido, and 47% at La Tablada. Most of the patients (62%) had only one ulcer or scar. Most of the people are contaminated during the first five years they live in these endemic areas. Nevertheless, the incidence remains high in all the age groups, because large numbers of migrants coming from non endemic regions are continuously settling in these colonization areas. Interviews have shown that the contaminations had occurred in the dry season, between July and December. These findings were confirmed by passive case detection at the Hospital A. Egas of Santo Domingo which covered the region. Contamination of young children and position of the lesions on the face suggested a domiciliary transmission, like in Panama and on the Pacific coast of Colombia. PMID:8024344

  14. [Severe poisoning by plants used for traditional medicine in Mayotte].

    PubMed

    Durasnel, P; Vanhuffel, L; Blondé, R; Lion, F; Galas, T; Mousset-Hovaere, M; Balaÿ, I; Viscardi, G; Valyi, L

    2014-12-01

    The authors describe three cases of severe accidental poisoning by plants used as part of a traditional treatment in Mayotte. The established, or suspected, toxicity of Thevetia peruviana (Yellow oleander), Cinchona pubescens (Red quinine-tree), Melia azaderach (Persian lilac, also called china berry) and Azadirachta indica (Neem), is discussed. The clinical presentation is cardiac (atrioventricular block) and well known for Thevetia and Cinchona intoxications. Neurological signs and multi-organ failure are found for Azadirachta and Melia. The identification of the plants is never easy, nor is the evidence of their accountability. In the three cases reported, no other cause than the traditional treatment has been found to explain the clinical presentation. The outcome was favorable in all cases. The authors emphasize the difficulties to investigate these accidents, the poor medical knowledge of these practices in tropical areas, and in Mayotte particularly. The need for cooperation with local botanists, familiar with traditional medicine, is also underlined. PMID:25301110

  15. Mitigating nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil in rice–wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic plain with nitrification and urease inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Malla; Arti Bhatia; H. Pathak; S. Prasad; Niveta Jain; J. Singh

    2005-01-01

    Mitigation of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil is important to reduce the global warming. Efficacy of five nitrification inhibitors, i.e. neem (Azadirachta melia) cake, thiosulphate, coated calcium carbide, neem oil coated urea and dicyandiamide (DCD) and one urease inhibitor, hydroquinone, in mitigating N2O and CH4 emissions from fertilized soil was tested in rice–wheat system in the

  16. 5, 1196512030, 2005 Dispersion on

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ). The results show that the coupled models (MM5 and FLEXPART) are able to predict the plume integral advection.atmos-chem-phys.org/acpd/5/11965/ SRef-ID: 1680-7375/acpd/2005-5-11965 European Geosciences Union Atmospheric Chemistry-resolution mesoscale and Lagrangian particle models J. L. Palau1 , G. P´erez-Landa1 , J. Meli´a2 , D. Segarra2 , and M

  17. Hydrodynamic Aspects of Particle Clogging in Porous Media

    PubMed Central

    MAYS, DAVID C.; HUNT, JAMES R.

    2010-01-01

    Data from 6 filtration studies, representing 43 experiments, are analyzed with a simplified version of the single-parameter O’Melia and Ali clogging model. The model parameter displays a systematic dependence on fluid velocity, which was an independent variable in each study. A cake filtration model also explains the data from one filtration study by varying a single, velocity-dependent parameter, highlighting that clogging models, because they are empirical, are not unique. Limited experimental data indicate exponential depth dependence of particle accumulation, whose impact on clogging is quantified with an extended O’Melia and Ali model. The resulting two-parameter model successfully describes the increased clogging that is always observed in the top segment of a filter. However, even after accounting for particle penetration, the two-parameter model suggests that a velocity-dependent parameter representing deposit morphology must also be included to explain the data. Most of the experimental data are described by the single-parameter O’Melia and Ali model, and the model parameter is correlated to the collector Peclet number. PMID:15707058

  18. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 3. Lutzomyia trapidoi, vector of Leishmania panamensis].

    PubMed

    Le Ponti, F; Leon, R; Guerrini, F; Gantier, J C; Mouchet, J; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    Lutzomyia trapidoi, the more abundant anthropophilic species, is a presumed leishmaniasis vector in the Pacific foothills of Ecuador. Three biotopes have been sampled (dwelling, and nearby coffee crop and primary forest) in the focus of Paraiso Escondido, by human bait catches, from August 1991 to October 1992. A large number of sandflies, 6,965 specimens, have been dissected to estimate peri and hypopyloric infections. All the peripyloric infections, characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis, were Leishmania panamensis. The percentage of these infections was low, around 3%, but they were massive. They occurred only in dry season. Hypopyloric infections were observed in Lu. trapidoi all the year round in the three biotopes. Their percentage was high, reaching 40%. Despite of many trials to cultivate the parasite on NNN medium, no stain could be isolated. It is suggested that the parasite could be L. equatorensis. PMID:8024346

  19. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 5. Leishmaniasis and anthropization on the Pacific coast].

    PubMed

    Mouchet, J; Le Pont, F; Leon, R; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    We have evaluated the impact of anthropization of the forest on the incidence of leishmaniasis, due to Leishmania panamensis, in three coastal study areas, Corriente Grande (primary forest), Paraiso Escondido and La Tablada (secondary forest). The situation of isolated dwellings, in deforested areas, has also been analysed in the last two stations. In each station, the study of the density of anthropophilic sand flies, specially Lutzomyia trapidoi, has been conducted in the domestic environment, coffee plantations and undergrowth. The incidence of leishmaniasis was nearly non existent in primary forest, though it ranged from 106 to 147% in the more or less cleared forest. At Corriente Grande, none Lu. trapidoi was caught in houses. In the undergrowth, catches were low (8% of the total). At Paraiso Escondido, Lu. trapidoi was the dominant species, with more than 83% of the catches in the undergrowth and in the coffee plantations (41 Man/hour), as well as in dwellings (10.6 M/h). At La Tablada, in the domestic environment, Lu. gomezi, was the dominant species: 2.8 M/h against 0.1 M/h for Lu. trapidoi. In the coffee plantations and in the undergrowth Lu. trapidoi was the main species, 21 M/h and 14 M/h. Thus in the primary rainforest, leishmaniasis transmission can be very low. In disturbed forest, coffee plantations near houses are good biotopes for Lu. trapidoi. The cycle of L. panamensis has been adapted to this new ecological situation, by being closer to the houses. The reservoirs live and circulate throughout coffee plantations. In deforested areas, neither aggressive sand flies have been observed, nor leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:8024348

  20. [Leishmaniasis in Ecuador. 2. Man/vector contacts in leishmaniasis: the case of Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. Gomezi].

    PubMed

    Le Ponti, F; Leon, R; Moucheti, J; Echeverria, R; Guderian, R H

    1994-03-01

    In two leishmaniasis endemic foci of the Pacific coast of Ecuador, where the primary forest is severely attacked by human settlements, intradomiciliary sandfly catches, with light trap and human bait, have been carried out from August 1991 to October 1992. The presumed vector Lutzomyia trapidoi was by far the dominant species inside dwellings at Paraiso Escondido in the preandean hills (86% of the anthropophilic sandfly population, and 8.5 females/night catch by light trap). Not a single Lu. gomezi was caught in this village. At La Tablada, Lu. gomezi was the dominant anthropophilic species in the coastal cordillera (83% of anthropophilic sandfly population and 3.7 females/night catch by light trap); Lu. trapidoi accounted only for 4.6% of the total catches in this village. On human bait, catches were variable depending on the day and on the season, but dominant species were always the same. The percentage of Lu. trapidoi was higher on human bait than in light trap. Blood meal identifications of engorged Lu. gomezi and Lu. trapidoi confirmed the anthropophily of these two species in the houses. PMID:8024345

  1. Spoc-experiment: Seismic Imaging and Bathymetry of The Central Chile Margin - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladage, S.; Reichert, C.; Schreckenberger, B.; Block, M.; Bönnemann, C.; Canuta, J.; Damaske, D.; Diaz-Naveas, J.; Gaedicke, C.; Krawczyk, C.; Kus, J.; Urbina, O.; Sepulveda, J.

    During the RV SONNE cruise 161 Leg 1 to 5 (October 2001 to January 2002) Sub- duction Processes Off Chile (SPOC) have been investigated using a multi-disciplinary geoscientific approach. Here we report first results of multi channel seismic (MCS) experiments and high-resolution swath bathymetry data from Leg 3, south of Val- paraiso. 24 MCS profiles with a total length of 3670 km were run between 36 S to 4020' S, providing a detailed view of the structures related to the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the Chile Margin. The oceanic crust of the Nazca Plate shows at least three sets of structural trends associated with the Mocha and Valdivia Fractures Zones, the spreading lineations and subduction related horst and graben structures. In the study area the trench is filled with well stratified turbidites up to 2 seconds TWT thick. Along the trench axis a turbidite channel exceeding 80 m relief exists. Several large deep sea fan complexes are developed at the slope toe. Their distributary canyons cut deep into the slope and shelf and can be traced back to major river mouths. The deformation front is coincident with the slope toe; compressional structures of the trench fill are uncommon. The deformation front is curved and offset along strike, caused presumably by collision and indentation of structures of the Nazca Plate. The most remarkable features of the MCS - profiles, yet, are the only very rudimentary developed modern accretionary prism as well as the high variability of the lower slope angles. Lower slope angles locally exceed 10. The continental crust extends seawards to the middle slope and acts as a backstop. Several profiles reveal landward dipping reflectors above the downgoing slab, possibly depicting a subduction channel beneath the slope. Thus, the geometry of the subduction units U a young thick trench fill, only rudimental frontal accretion and a subduction channel U argues for subduction of the bulk of the sediments.

  2. The Kerr Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, David L.; Visser, Matt; Scott, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    List of illustrations; Contributors; Foreword; Part I. General Relativity: Classical Studies of the Kerr Geometry: 1. The Kerr spacetime: a brief introduction Matt Visser; 2. The Kerr and Kerr-Schild metrics Roy P. Kerr; 3. Roy Kerr and twistor theory Roger Penrose; 4. Global and local problems solved by the Kerr metric Brandon Carter; 5. Four decades of black hole uniqueness theorems David C. Robinson; 6. Ray-traced visualisations Benjamin R. Lewis, Susan M. Scott; Part II. Astrophysics: The Ongoing Observational Revolution: 7. The ergosphere and dyadosphere of the Kerr black hole Remo Ruffini; 8. Supermassive Black Holes Fulvio Melia; 9. The X-ray spectra of accreting Kerr black holes Andrew C. Fabian, Giovanni Miniutti; 10. Cosmological flashes from rotating black holes Maurice H.P.M. van Putten; Part III. Quantum Gravity: Rotating Black Holes at the Theoretical Frontiers: 11. Horizon constraints and black hole entropy Steve Carlip; 12. Higher dimensional generalizations of the Kerr black hole Gary T. Horowitz; Part IV. Appendices: 13. Gravitational field of a spinning mass … Roy P. Kerr; 14. Gravitational collapse and rotation Roy P. Kerr; Index.

  3. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd Allah, E F; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ullah, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117

  4. Preliminary description of biocidal (syringomycin) activity in fluorescent plant pathogenic Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Hu, F P; Young, J M; Fletcher, M J

    1998-08-01

    Strains representing the fluorescent plant pathogenic Pseudomonas spp., Ps. agarici, Ps. asplenii, Ps. avellanae, Ps. beteli, Ps. caricapapayae, Ps. cichorii, Ps. corrugata, Ps. ficuserectae, Ps. flectens, Ps. fuscovaginae, Ps. marginalis, Ps. meliae, Ps. savastanoi, Ps. syringae, Ps. tolaasii and Ps. viridiflava were tested for biocidal activity using Aspergillus niger as assay organism. Inhibitory behaviour was found in strains of Ps. asplenii, Ps. blatchfordae, Ps. cichorii, Ps. corrugata, Ps. fuscovaginae, Ps. marginalis, Ps. marginalis pv. pastinacea, Ps. syringae pv. syringae, Ps. syringae pv. aptata, Ps. syringae pv. atrofaciens, Ps. syringae pv. lapsa, Ps. tolaasii, and strains of a Pseudomonas sp. pathogenic to Actinidia, in the Ps. savastanoi genomic sp. Antifungal activity could be identified with the production of members of the syringomycin family of toxins by strains in Ps. syringae, Ps. asplenii and Ps. fuscovaginae. These toxin reactions support suggestions made elsewhere of the synonym of the latter two species. In a preliminary characterization using tests for stability to heat, protease, acid and alkaline treatments, unknown toxins consistent with syringomycin-like toxins the strains from Actinidia species. The toxins from Ps. cichorii and from Ps. corrugata differed in their reactions from all other agents. Pseudomonas tolaasii produces the antifungal compound tolaasin. The white line reaction with Ps. reactions, a test for tolaasin production by strains of Ps. tolaasii, was confirmed as specific for this compound. Some of these low molecular weight toxins may be produced by some of these plant pathogenic strains. PMID:9750309

  5. Inhibitory effect of anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory herbs on herpes simplex virus replication.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, C Y; Hsieh, C L; Wu, S L; Lai, I L; Ho, T Y

    2001-01-01

    The increasing clinical use of acyclovir, ganciclovir, and foscarnet against herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus has been associated with the emergence of drug-resistant herpesvirus strains. To develop anti-HSV compounds from plants, 31 herbs used as antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents in Chinese medicine were screened. Five different preparations (cold aqueous, hot aqueous, ethanolic, acid ethanolic, and methanolic) from 31 herbs were analyzed by plaque reduction assay, and 7 extracts. which showed significant antiviral activities, were further elucidated for their antiviral mechanisms. Our results showed that ethanolic extract of Rheum officinale and methanolic extract of Paeonia suffruticosa prevented the process of virus attachment and penetration. Aqueous extract of P. suffruticosa and ethanolic extract of Melia toosendan inhibited virus attachment to cell surface. Aqueous extract of Sophora flavescens and methanolic extract of M. toosendan showed no effect on virus attachment and penetration. These data indicated that these 4 herbs have a potential value as a source of new powerful anti-HSV compounds. PMID:11789588

  6. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd_Allah, E. F.; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation.

  7. Identification and distribution of New World Leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, G; David, J R; McMahon-Pratt, D

    1987-03-01

    Five hundred thirty stocks of Leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of American cutaneous (ACL) and visceral leishmaniases (AVL) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. This study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these monoclonals for the L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. donovani complexes. This study also demonstrates the relative stability of these molecular markers and the general usefulness of the method for parasite identification. Two hundred ninety-two of 420 isolates of ACL were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex. Two hundred twenty-seven were L. b. braziliensis; these showed the widest geographical distribution (Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo; Honduras: Santa Barbara and Yoko; Peru: Ancash, Piura, and Ucayali; and Venezuela: Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Portuguesa, Vale Hondo, Yaracuy, and Zulia). Forty-one stocks were identified as L. b. guyanensis (from North Brazil: Amazonas, Amapa, Para, and Rondonia). Twenty-one stocks were identified as L. b. panamensis (from Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacasten, Limon, Puntarenas, and San Jose; and Honduras: El Paraiso, and Olancho). Out of 128 isolates classified as members of the L. mexicana complex, 74 were differentiated as L. m. amazonensis (from Bolivia; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso do Norte, and Para; Peru: Pasco Forest and Van Humboldt; and Venezuela: Carabobo, Guarico, and Merida). Forty-four stocks were identified as L. m. venezuelensis (from Venezuela: Lara). Six stocks were L. m. mexicana (from Belize; and Mexico: Campeche [corrected] and Quintana Roo, Yucatan). One hundred ten isolates from AVL were identified as L. donovani chagasi (from Brazil: Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, and Sergipe; and Honduras: Valle). The implications of these results with respect to both the clinical and epidemiological data (including the detection of seven unusual characterized stocks) are discussed. PMID:3826486

  8. Review on pharmacological and toxicologyical effects of oleum azadirachti oil

    PubMed Central

    Koriem, Khaled MM

    2013-01-01

    Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds,ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects. PMID:24075352

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of pyoverdin siderophores differentiate among phytopathogenic fluorescent Pseudomonas Species.

    PubMed

    Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; de Hoffmann, Edmond

    2003-02-01

    The relationship of pyoverdins produced by 41 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and by phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing the culture medium proved to be superior to isoelectric focusing for detecting pyoverdin production, for differentiating slightly different pyoverdins, and for differentiating atypical from typical Fe(III)-chelated pyoverdins. Nonfluorescent strains were found in Pseudomonas amygdali, Pseudomonas meliae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and P. syringae. Pseudomonas agarici and Pseudomonas marginalis produced typical pyoverdins. Among the arginine dihydrolase-negative fluorescent Pseudomonas species, spectral, amino acid, and mass spectrometry analyses underscored for the first time the clear similarities among the pyoverdins produced by related species. Within this group, the oxidase-negative species Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas ficuserectae and the pathovars of P. syringae produced the same atypical pyoverdin, whereas the oxidase-positive species Pseudomonas cichorii produced a similar atypical pyoverdin that contained a glycine instead of a serine. The more distantly related species Pseudomonas asplenii and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae both produced a less similar atypical pyoverdin. The spectral characteristics of Fe(III)-chelated atypical pyoverdins at pH 7.0 were related to the presence of two beta-hydroxyaspartic acids as iron ligands, whereas in typical pyoverdins one of the ligands is always ornithine based. The peptide chain influenced the chelation of iron more in atypical pyoverdins. Our results demonstrated that there is relative pyoverdin conservation in the amino acids involved in iron chelation and that there is faster evolution of the other amino acids, highlighting the usefulness of pyoverdins in systematics and in identification. PMID:12571041

  10. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, KFA

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust NCI botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015–0.5 mg/ml) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50) properties <0.0183 mg/ml. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja Twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao Speranskia Herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite Clay, Bunge Root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea Fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder Root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane Root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi Root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree Fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone Root (Collinsonia Canadensis) and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth-root (Trillium Pendulum) and alkanet-root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (Speranskia tuberculata) which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of natural anti-mitotic resources effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  11. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analyses of Pyoverdin Siderophores Differentiate among Phytopathogenic Fluorescent Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Wathelet, Bernard; Maraite, Henri; de Hoffmann, Edmond

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of pyoverdins produced by 41 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and by phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species was investigated. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing the culture medium proved to be superior to isoelectric focusing for detecting pyoverdin production, for differentiating slightly different pyoverdins, and for differentiating atypical from typical Fe(III)-chelated pyoverdins. Nonfluorescent strains were found in Pseudomonas amygdali, Pseudomonas meliae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and P. syringae. Pseudomonas agarici and Pseudomonas marginalis produced typical pyoverdins. Among the arginine dihydrolase-negative fluorescent Pseudomonas species, spectral, amino acid, and mass spectrometry analyses underscored for the first time the clear similarities among the pyoverdins produced by related species. Within this group, the oxidase-negative species Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas ficuserectae and the pathovars of P. syringae produced the same atypical pyoverdin, whereas the oxidase-positive species Pseudomonas cichorii produced a similar atypical pyoverdin that contained a glycine instead of a serine. The more distantly related species Pseudomonas asplenii and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae both produced a less similar atypical pyoverdin. The spectral characteristics of Fe(III)-chelated atypical pyoverdins at pH 7.0 were related to the presence of two ?-hydroxyaspartic acids as iron ligands, whereas in typical pyoverdins one of the ligands is always ornithine based. The peptide chain influenced the chelation of iron more in atypical pyoverdins. Our results demonstrated that there is relative pyoverdin conservation in the amino acids involved in iron chelation and that there is faster evolution of the other amino acids, highlighting the usefulness of pyoverdins in systematics and in identification. PMID:12571041

  12. Evidence of hydrocarbon pollution in soil exploiting satellite optical and radar images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Galvan-Pineda, J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, A.; Jimenez-Escalona, J. C.; Ramos-Rodriguez, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    Oil spills are one of the most important sources of hydrocarbon pollution in soils of areas near centers of extraction, storage or transportation of petroleum products. These spills or leaks can occur arising from deficient maintenance of facilities or accidents. The effects of these spills can spread for kilometers affecting large areas. This has a strong impact on the local ecosystem disturbing the flora and fauna. In costal tourist areas, this type of contaminants represents significant health risks for visitors and therefore, economic losses for the place. For this reason, it is very important to know and identify the areas affected by this type of pollution in order to create action plans for remediation of the ecosystem. Due to the large land extensions that can cover such disasters, satellite images become a valuable tool because of their large spatial coverage. Nowadays, different satellite techniques have been developed to recognize land affected by the presence of hydrocarbons. In the optical spectrum, optical sensing imagery (e.g. Landsat, SPOT, MODIS, etc.) has been widely used. However, these techniques have the intrinsic limitation in scenes with vegetation cover. In contrast, techniques exploiting radar images are still rare. The type of signal that is detected by the radar provides information even in areas with vegetation cover. The radar signal interacts with the vegetation and soil collecting information about the dielectric properties of the soil. This study identifies zones of contaminated soil by using the synergy of optical and radar images. This site of study is located in Paraiso, Tabasco, in Southern Mexico (18°27'N 93°32'W). The region is composed of coastal and tropical forest ecosystems and includes the Port Dos Bocas. The Port Dos Bocas has its points of extractions 130m away from the coast. The annual activities report 10 millions of tons of hydrocarbons transported using around 5500 ships. The methodology presented in this paper includes field measurements collecting soil samples at depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm, the implementation of an algorithm to exploit Landsat 5 and 7 images to identify polluted zones, and the implementation of an algorithm using Envisat ASAR and an incoherent scattering model to delineate the polluted soil. The laboratory analysis of the soil samples showed that in all cases the most contaminated region of the soil is the deeper layer (30-60 cm). The processing of the optical images identifies contaminated regions mainly for bare soils and short vegetation. For highly vegetated regions, the optical images do not detect the polluted soils because the wavelength of observation cannot penetrate vegetation. The radar algorithm indicates that the most contaminated zones showed the lowest backscattering coefficient in comparison to clean zones. Unlike optical images, the Envisat images allowed the identification of polluted zones even under high vegetation conditions.

  13. Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, Minas; Michalitsianos, Andrew G.

    2006-11-01

    Foreword; Acknowledgements; Workshop participants; 1. Images and spectrograms of Sanduleak - 69º202, the SN 1987a progenitor N. R. Walborn; 2. The progenitor of SN 1987A G. Sonneborn; 3. Another supernova with a blue progenitor C. M. Gaskell and W. C. Keel; 4. Optical and infrared observations of SN 1987A from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory M. M. Phillips; 5. SN 1987A: observational results obtained at ESO I. J. Danziger, P. Bouchet, R. A. E. Fosbury, C. Gouiffes, L. B. Lucy, A. F. M. Moorwood, E. Oliva and F. Rufener; 6. Observations of SN 1987A at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) M. W. Feast; 7. Observations of SN 1987A at the Anglo-Australian Telescope W. J. Couch; 8. Linear polarimetric study of SN 1987A A. Clocchiatti, M. Méndez, O. Benvenuto, C. Feinstein, H. Marraco, B. García and N. Morrell; 9. Infrared spectroscopy of SN 1987A from the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory H. P. Larson, S. Drapatz, M. J. Mumma and H. A. Weaver; 10. Radio observations of SN 1987A N. Bartel et al.; 11. Ultraviolet observations of SN 1987A: clues to mass loss R. P. Kirshner; 12. On the energetics of SN 1987A N. Panagia; 13. On the nature and apparent uniqueness of SN 1987A A. V. Filippenko; 14. A comparison of the SN 1987A light curve with other type II supernovae, and the detectability of similar supernovae M. F. Schmitz and C. M. Gaskell; 15. P-Cygni features and photospheric velocities L. Bildsten and J. C. L. Wang; 16. The Neutrino burst from SN 1987A detected in the Mont Blanc LSD experiment M. Aglietta et al.; 17. Toward observational neutrino astrophysics M. Koshiba; 18. The discovery of neutrinos from SN 1987A with the IMB detector J. Matthews; 19. Peering into the abyss: the neutrinos from SN 1987A A. Burrows; 20. Phenomenological analysis of neutrino emission from SN 1987A J. N. Bahcall, D. N. Spergel and W. H. Press; 21. Mass determination of neutrinos H. Y. Chiu; 22. Neutrino transport in a type II supernova D. C. Ellison, P. M. Giovanoni and S. W. Bruenn; 23. Neutrino masses from SN 1987A J. Franklin; 24. Supernova neutrinos and their oscillations T. K. Kuo and J. T. Pantaleone; 25. Neutrinos from SN 1987A and cooling of the nascent neutron star D. Q. Lamb, F. Melia and T. J. Loredo; 26. Neutrino Energetics of SN 1987A J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 27. Neutrino emission from cooling neutron stars E. S. Myra, J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 28. Statistical analysis of the time structure of the neutrinos from SN 1987A P. J. Schinder and S. A. Bludman; 29. Neutrino properties from observations of SN 1987A A. Dar; 30. SN 1987A and companion C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, and C. Standley; 31. Supernovae light echoes B. E. Schaefer; 32. A real light echo: Nova Persei 1901 J. E. Felten; 33. IR speckle- interferometry of SN 1987A A. A. Chalabaev, C. Perrier and J. M. Mariotti; 34. Infrared opportunities for Supernova 1987A E. Dwek; 35. The UV interstellar spectrum and environment of SN 1987A F. C. Bruhweiler; 36. The interstellar spectrum of SN 1987A in the ultraviolet J. C. Blades, J. M. Wheatley, N. Panagia, M. Grewing, M. Pettini and W. Wamsteker; 37. The structure and spectrum of SN 1987A J. C. Wheeler, R. P. Harkness, and Z. Barkat; 38. Supernova 1987A: constraints on the theoretical model K. Nomoto and T. Shigeyama; 39. Supernova 1987A: a model and its predictions S. E. Woosley; 40. SN 1987A: circumstellar and interstellar interaction R. A. Chevalier; 41. Theoretical models of Supernova 1987A W. D. Arnett; 42. Evolution of the stellar progenitor of Supernova 1987A J. W. Truran and A. Weiss; 43.Modelling the atmosphere of SN 1987A L. B. Lucy; 44. SN 1987A: a stripped asymptotic- branch giant in a binary system P. C. Joss, Ph. Podsiadlowski, J. J. L. Hsu and S. Rappaport; 45. Pulsar formation and the fall back mass fraction S. A. Colgate; 46. An unusual hard X-ray source in the region of SN 19