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The anthelmintic activity of the drupe extracts of Meliaazedarach L. (Meliaceae) growing in Argentina was tested against tapeworms, hookworms, nodular worms and earthworms, and was shown to be better than the standards piperazine phosphate and hexylresorcinol against tapeworms and hookworms, respectively. PMID:16941610
Szewczuk, Víctor D; Mongelli, Elena R; Pomilio, Alicia B
A germination experiment of pre-treated seeds of Meliaazedarach was conducted in the nursery of Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Bangladesh. Matured seeds of\\u000a Meliaazedarach were collected from healthy trees of National Botanical Garden, Bangladesh and were treated with five pre-sowing treatments\\u000a (control, immersion in cold water, immersion in hot water, scarification with sand paper, and immersion
The antifungal activity of Meliaazedarach L. leaves was investigated against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of destructive blight disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Bioassay guided fractionation revealed that the chloroform fraction of the methanolic extract of M. azedarach leaves was highly effective against A. rabiei. Six compounds, namely ?-sitosterol (1), ?-amyrin (2), ursolic acid (3), benzoic acid
Meliaazedarach has great interest because of its insecticidal properties. Recently, the occurrence of precocious flowering in tissue cultures of this species was reported. This paper describes some in vitro morphogenetic responses using hypocotyl segments as explants and MS basal medium. Amongst the results we report are: (a) in basal medium, 5% of the explants neo-formed floral buds and flowers,
Alzanzalakhet, Meliaazedarach L. (Sapindales: Meliaceae) is a common medicinal plant which is found in Hail desert in Saudi Arabia and traditionally used for various purposes. In this study, toxin effectiveness of the ethanolic, acetonic, and aqueous extracts of M. azedarach leaves was tested to determine a larvicidal activity against the cucurbit fly, Dacus ciliatus (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Different treatments
Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the fruit pulps of Meliaazedarach and some columns were undertaken to isolate the major polysaccharide (MPS-III). Its structural features were elucidated by IR analysis, carbohydrate analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. Then it was evaluated for the cytotoxic activity in vitro against four human cell lines, using the sulphorhodamine B
Liang He; Ning Yin; Jun-Wen Cheng; Xue-Qian Wu; Jian-Xin Jiang; Xian-Liang Song
An effective tissue culture system to regenerate Meliaazedarach (Meliaceae), an important multipurpose - including ornamental value - tree, was established. The optimized protocol resulted in plant formation from cotyledon explants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Embryogenic callus induction occurred on full strength (salts and vitamins) MS medium containing 3 mg\\/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1 mg\\/L 6-benzyladenine (BA) with
The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Meliaazedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of
Two new natural compounds, a symmetrical disulfide dimer didodecyl 3,3''-dithiodipropionate (1) and a pregnane steroid 5,16-pregnadien-3beta-ol-20-one acetate (2), were isolated together with two known compounds, ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3) and ergosterol peroxide (4), from the ethyl acetate soluble extract of fermentation broth of an endophytic fungus, Sphaceloma sp. LN-15 isolated from the leaves of Meliaazedarach L. and grown in pure culture. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) experiments and by mass spectrometric measurements (MS). These fungal metabolites were isolated for the first time from the genus Sphaceloma. The structure of 1 was also confirmed by chemical synthesis. PMID:19543932
Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Meliaazedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.
Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali
The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 +/- 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Meliaazedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05) in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 +/- 0.33 and 4.67 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 +/- 1.67 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 +/- 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 +/- 0.40 and 1.80 +/- 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 +/- 7.02) and follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05) the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 +/- 5.93 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 +/- 0.88 and 5.33 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF) and dharek (13.00 +/- 3.58 and 14.60 +/- 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF) treatments compared to control (216.00 +/- 15.72 and 222.20 +/- 19.52, respectively). Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of follicles. This may help elevate the socio-economic status of the country. Thus, the present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of A. indica and M. azedarach seed extracts on reproduction of albino rats. PMID:15933789
In the present study, the effect of oral administration of Meliaazedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract on fertility index, uterine weight and various histological and biochemical parameters of uterus were studied in the adult cyclic Wistar rats. Average number of embryos and implantation losses in the pregnant animals treated with dharek seed extract was also studied. The extract was prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on per kg body weight basis. The results indicated a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats treated with the dharek extract. Pre-implantation, post-implantation and total prenatal mortalities were increased in rats treated with dharek seed extract during early (D1-D7) and late (D7-D18) stages of gestation period at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1). Histological studies showed a significant reduction in myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelial cell height in rats treated with dharek seed extract at 1mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1) for 18 days. Pits and folds in luminal epithelial, mitotic activity in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of uterus were observed to be absent. Biochemically, a significant increase in protein and glycogen contents was observed. Thus, in conclusion, the application of this plant extract in rodent control programme may help to elevate the socioeconomic status of the society. PMID:17948733
Paradise tree (Meliaazedarach L.) is a multipurpose ornamental and timber tree, and its extracts are used to make insecticides and fungicides. Conventional propagation is done by seeds; however, sexual reproduction results in wide genetic variability. Therefore, clonal propagation is desirable to reduce genetic variation. This chapter describes a protocol for in vitro propagation of paradise tree by axillary buds. There are major steps for this protocol. Firstly, shoot induction by in vitro culture of axillary buds, excised from potted plants obtained by rooting of cuttings of 10-15-year-old adult trees. The initiation medium was composed of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP (benzylaminopurine), 0.1 mg/L IBA (indolebutyric acid), and 0.1 mg/L GA(3) (gibberellic acid). Secondly, multiplication of the regenerated shoots on MS medium amended with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L GA(3). Thirdly, rooting of the regenerated shoots on MS medium containing 0.1 mg/L IBA. Fully well-developed plants were transferred to pots containing sand, peat moss, and perlite (1:1:1), and maintained initially in the greenhouse or plastic tunnels. PMID:23179702
Aqueous extract of Meliaazedarach seeds were tested against cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, and its predator Coccinella septempunctata in a cabbage field. The field experiment was conducted at Bridge to Israel children village farm, around the vicinity of Tewodros campus, University of Gondar, where the cabbage was grown fully organically. A field experiment was started in the middle of April
The volatile compositions of Meliaazedarach were studied by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The result was compared with that obtained by soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasonic extraction (UAE). 79 compounds were identified in this study, among which 64 compounds were first reported. The experimental parameters including fiber type (PDMS, PDMS-DVB and CAR-PDMS), desorption time, extraction temperature and time were investigated. 37 compounds were obtained by HS-SPME, including curcumene (33.25%), ?-cadinol (11.16%), ?-muurolene (8.72%), copaene (5.04%), ?-bisabolene (3.41%), and ?-selinene (2.97%). The result suggested that the HS-SPME method is a powerful analytic tool and complementary to traditional methods for the determination of the volatile compounds in Chinese herbs. PMID:22063551
This communication explains the biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Meliaazedarach and its cytotoxicity against in vitro HeLa cells and in vivo Dalton's ascites Lymphoma (DAL) mice model. The AgNPs synthesis was determined by UV- visible spectrum and it was further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Dynamic light Scattering (DLS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Zeta potential
Raman Sukirtha; Kandula Manasa Priyanka; Jacob Joe Antony; Soundararajan Kamalakkannan; Thangam Ramar; Gunasekaran Palani; Muthukalingan Krishnan; Shanmugam Achiraman
The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Meliaazedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly. PMID:19854142
Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Meliaazedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Cotesia plutellae was attracted only to Plutella xylostella-infested cabbage plants in a wind tunnel after an oviposition experience. Female C. plutellae did not distinguish between P. xylostella-infested cabbage plants treated with neem and control P. xylostella-infested plants. However, females preferred infested cabbage plants that had been treated with syringa extract to control infested plants. Syringa extract on filter paper did not attract C. plutellae. This suggests that an interaction between the plant and the syringa extract enhances parasitoid attraction. Diadromus collaris was not attracted to cabbage plants in a wind tunnel and did not distinguish between caterpillar-damaged and undamaged cabbage plants. Headspace analysis revealed 49 compounds in both control cabbage plants and cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract. Among these are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, terpenoids, sulfides, and an isothiocyanate. Cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract emitted larger quantities of volatiles, and these increased quantities were not derived from the syringa extract. Therefore, the syringa extract seemed to induce the emission of cabbage volatiles. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a plant extract inducing the emission of plant volatiles in another plant. This interesting phenomenon likely explains the preference of C. plutellae parasitoids for cabbage plants that have been treated with syringa extracts. PMID:16555134
Charleston, Deidre S; Gols, Rieta; Hordijk, Kees A; Kfir, Rami; Vet, Louise E M; Dicke, Marcel
A comparison of analysis in evaluating the hepatoprotective action of ethanolic extract of M. azedarach (MAE) and P. longum (PLE) with their combination biherbal extract (BHE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage is reported in albino rats. There was a marked elevation of serum marker enzyme levels in CCl4 treated rats, which were restored towards normalization in the drug (MAE and/or PLE:50 mg/kg body weight po, once daily for 14 days) treated animals. The biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. The combined BHE showed more significant reduction of the enzymes than MAE or PLE against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. The results strongly indicate that BHE has more potent hepatoprotective action than MAE or PLE individually against CCl4 induced hepatic damage in rats. Among these extracts, BHE showed similar hepatoprotective action to silymarin, which was the positive control in this study. PMID:21614891
Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of El Paraiso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods
Jeffrey Quilter; Bernardino Ojeda E; D. H. SANDWEISS; J. G. JONES; E. S. WING
The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited\\u000a the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants\\u000a as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of\\u000a the leaves and seed
Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Mohamed Jamal Mohamed; Gandhi Elango; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Sampath Marimuthu
The Sycamore Flat and Paraiso Springs quadrangles are on the west side of the Salinas Valley. Plutonic and metamorphic rocks of the pre-Tertiary basement complex crop out in the N. and W. parts of the map area. A conformable stratigraphic sequence that overlies the basement complex comprises the Tierra Redonda Formation, Monterey Shale, Pancho Rico Formation, and Paso Robles Formation.
In January to March 1989 water, organisms, and sediments within a 2-mile radius of Arthur Harbor were contaminated with an estimated 600,000 L of petroleum spilled by the Bahia Paraiso. All components of the ecosystem were contaminated to varying degrees during the spill, including birds, limpets, macroalgae, clams, bottom-feeding fish, and sediments. The high-energy environment, the relatively small volume of material released, and the volatility of the released product all contributed to limiting toxic effects in time and space. The most effective removal processes were evaporation, dilution, winds, and currents. Sedimentation, biological uptake, microbial oxidation, and photooxidation accounted for removal of only a minor portion of the spill. One year after the spill several areas still exhibited contamination. Subtidal sediments and the more distant intertidal locations were devoid of detectable PAH contaminants whereas sediments near the docking facility at Palmer Station continued to reflect localized nonspill-related activities in the area. Arthur Harbor and adjacent areas continue to be chronically exposed to low-level petroleum contamination emanating from the Bahia Paraiso.
Kennicutt, M.C. II; Sweet, S.T. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA)); Fraser, W.R.; Culver, M. (Pt. Reyes Bird Observatory, Stinson Beach, CA (USA)); Stockton, W.L. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))
The molluscicidal effect of Melia azadirachta was evaluated against the fresh water snail Physa acuta at juvenile freshly hatched stage. Calculating values of different concentrations ( Lc50 - Lc90 ) showed that melia was toxic against juvenile stage . The use of Melia azadirchta fruit extract was considered as an effective control method for Physa acuta in Mosul area .
The essential oils of Chukrasia tabularis and Melia dubia were tested for their antimicrobial activity against ten different pathogenic microorganisms responsible for human pathologies using standard antimicrobial assays. Chukrasia tabularis leaf oil exhibited strong antibiotic activities against Proteus vulgaris and Fusarium oxysporum and did not show any activity against the tested bacteria. Melia dubia leaf essential oil exhibited bacteriostatic and fungistatic activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Fusarium oxysporum and Candida albicans respectively. The inhibitory activities of both essential oils are comparable with that of respective standards. PMID:12722153
The various parts of Melia dubia (Meliaceae) plant was observed to be used by the local tribes of Nilgiris for various infections. There was no report on antimicrobial activity of Melia dubia. Therefore, a preliminary phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial investigations were carried out on different extracts of Melia dubia bark. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the bark were found to posses significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:22556908
The various parts of Melia dubia (Meliaceae) plant was observed to be used by the local tribes of Nilgiris for various infections. There was no report on antimicrobial activity of Melia dubia. Therefore, a preliminary phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial investigations were carried out on different extracts of Melia dubia bark. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the bark were found to posses significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.
A novel water-soluble polysaccharide pMTPS-3, obtained from Melia toosendan Sieb. Et Zucc fruit by hot-water extraction and ethanol precipitation, was fractionated by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Its primary structural features and molecular weight were characterized by Fourier infrared spectrometry (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and gas chromatography (GC). And the antioxidant activities of pMTPS-3 in
Six new triterpenoids, meliasenins S-X (1-6, resp.), were isolated from the stem bark of Melia toosendan. Their structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry, NMR experiments, and comparison with the known compounds. Particularly, the absolute configuration at C(24) in new compounds was determined through their CD spectra of the [Pr(FOD)3 ] complex (fod=1,1,1,2,2,3,3,7,7,7-decafluoroheptane-4,6-dione) in CCl4 , as well as by using Mosher's method. PMID:24078597
Zhang, Yi; Tang, Chun-Ping; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Yao, Sheng; Ye, Yang
Background Synthetic insecticides are employed in the widely-used currently favored malaria control techniques involving indoor residual spraying and treated bednets. These methods have repeatedly proven to be highly effective at reducing malaria incidence and prevalence. However, rapidly emerging mosquito resistance to the chemicals and logistical problems in transporting supplies to remote locations threaten the long-term sustainability of these techniques. Chinaberry (Melia azederach) extracts have been shown to be effective growth-inhibiting larvicides against several insects. Because several active chemicals in the trees' seeds have insecticidal properties, the emergence of resistance is unlikely. Here, we investigate the feasibility of Chinaberry as a locally available, low-cost sustainable insecticide that can aid in controlling malaria. Chinaberry fruits were collected from Asendabo, Ethiopia. The seeds were removed from the fruits, dried and crushed into a powder. From developmental habitats in the same village, Anopheles arabiensis larvae were collected and placed into laboratory containers. Chinaberry seed powder was added to the larval containers at three treatment levels: 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, with 100 individual larvae in each treatment level and a control. The containers were monitored daily and larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes were counted. This experimental procedure was replicated three times. Results Chinaberry seed powder caused an inhibition of emergence of 93% at the 5 g m-2 treatment level, and 100% inhibition of emergence at the two higher treatment levels. The Chinaberry had a highly statistically significant larvicidal effect at all treatment levels (?2 = 184, 184, and 155 for 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, respectively; p < 0.0001 in all cases). In addition, estimates suggest that sufficient Chinaberry seed exists in Asendabo to treat developmental habitat for the duration of the rainy season and support a field trial. Conclusions Chinaberry seed is a very potent growth-inhibiting larvicide against the major African malaria vector An. arabiensis. The seed could provide a sustainable additional malaria vector control tool that can be used where the tree is abundant and where An. arabiensis is a dominant vector. Based on these results, a future village-scale field trial using the technique is warranted.
The bark of the giant neem tree Melia dubia was found to contain 11 euphane-type triterpenes. Five new compounds, meliastatins 1-5 (1-5), proved to inhibit growth of the P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line (ED(50) 1.7-5.6 microg/mL). Four of the others, the previously known methyl kulonate (8), kulinone (9), 16-hydroxybutyrospermol (10), and kulactone (11), were also found to inhibit (ED(50) 2.5-6.2 microg/mL) the P388 cancer cell line. In addition, two new euphane triterpenes were isolated and named dubione A (6) and dubione B (7). Structures for each of the 11 euphane triterpenes were established by spectral techniques that included HRMS and 2D NMR. PMID:12502333
Pettit, George R; Numata, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Chika; Morito, Hideaki; Yamada, Takeshi; Goswami, Animesh; Clewlow, Paul J; Cragg, Gordon M; Schmidt, Jean M
The anti-allergic action of various Oriental medicinal herbs was investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Of these extracts, the ethanol extract of Meliae cortex (MC) exhibited the most potent activity in mast cells; its IC(50) values were 29+/-1.5 microg/ml for antigen stimulation and 57+/-3.4 microg/ml for thapsigargin stimulation. It inhibited compound-48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis by 52.9% at a dose of 300 mg/kg in mice; it also inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory mediator TNF-alpha. With regard to its mechanism of action, MC suppressed the activating phosphorylation of Syk, a key enzyme in mast-cell signaling processes and that of Akt in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the MAP kinase ERK1/2, which is critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells, as indicated by the suppression of the activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-allergic activity of MC may be due to the inhibition of histamine secretion and cytokine expression through the Syk inhibition in mast cells. PMID:17395225
Lee, Jun Ho; Ko, Na Young; Kim, Nam Wook; Mun, Se Hwan; Kim, Jie Wan; Her, Erk; Kim, Bo Kyung; Seo, Dong Wan; Chang, Hyun Wook; Moon, Tae Chul; Han, Jeung Whan; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo
The growth inhibitory activity and deterrency of Melia dubia (Meliaceae) extracts to Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera were investigated. Artificial diet bioassays using neonate larvae of both S. litura and H. armigera indicated that dichloroethane (DCE) and methanol (Me) extracts of M. dubia inhibited growth in a dose dependent manner. DCE and Me-5II fractions also resulted in 50% deterrency at concentrations of 22.5 and 16.8 micrograms/cm2 respectively against S. litura larvae in a leaf disc-choice test. The DCE-5 fraction was found to be more toxic to larvae (LC50 of 0.65%) than the Me-5II (LC50 of 0.8%), 72 hr after topical application. Both fractions lack contact toxicity, but the deterrent effect persisted for at least 60 hr under laboratory conditions. Although salannin was isolated from the DCE fraction to show antifeedant activity, the physico-chemical characteristics of the active fractions DCE-5 and Me-5II were not identical with either salannin or azadirachtin. PMID:11233088
The effect of synthetic molluscicide ( Niclosamide) and some botanical molluscicide ( Euphorbia heliscop (EE) and Melia azedirachta (MA)) , of different concentrations on fecundity, survival and embryonic hatchability of the fresh water snails, Physa acuta (Draparnaud) Lymnea auricularia(L)- (pulmonats) and Melanopsis praemorsa (Linnaeus)- (Prosobranchates) in Mosul area were investigated. There are variable lethal effects of different Niclosamide concentrations on
Plants have always been a supreme source of drugs and India is endowed with a wide variety of them with high medicinal values. The Quorum Sensing (QS) quenching efficiency of various solvent extracts of Melia dubia seeds was investigated against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to screen the competitive inhibitor of SdiA, a transcriptional activator of quorum sensing in E. coli. In this study, potentiality of five different extracts of Melia dubia seeds for quorum sensing inhibitory activity was investigated against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Assays such as cell density, swarming motility, protein, protease, hemolysis, hemagglutination, hydrophobicity and biofilm inhibition were performed. Biofilm, hemolysis and swarming motility were found to be inhibited by 92.1%, 20.9 % and 48.52% respectively, when the medium was supplemented with 30 mg/ml of the ethanolic extract. GC-MS spectrum of the ethanolic extract showed an array of 27 structurally unlinked compounds with natural ligand C8HSL. The docking against QS transcriptional regulator SdiA was predicted by in silico studies and the ligand C6 showed significant activity with -10.8 GScore. In vitro and in silico docking analysis showed fairly a good correlation, suggesting that the ethanolic extract showed potency to attenuate quorum sensing of uropathogenic E. coli. Further studies by in vitro and in vivo strategies are necessary to foresee the quorum quenching effect of the ligands. PMID:23210902
Crude extracts of chinaberry tree (Meliaazedarach L.), mexican marigold (Tagates spp.), water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes, Martius) and Castor oil (Ricinus communis L.) were tested for their effect on weevil mortality, settling responses and oviposition in the laboratory. All extracts of the botanicals did not show significant effects on weevil mortality compared to controls. Weevil settling responses on corms treated
W. Tinzaara; W. Tushemereirwe; C. K. Nanking; C. S. Gold; I. Kashaija
Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of three tree species, namely Azadirachta indica L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Meliaazedarach L. was evaluated against two strains of Alternaria alternata, isolated from dying-back trees of two Eucalyptus spp., namely Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus. All the concentrations (1,?2,?…?,?5% w\\/v) of the methanolic extracts of the three tree species significantly
Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of three tree species, namely Azadirachta indica L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Meliaazedarach L. was evaluated against two strains of Alternaria alternata, isolated from dying-back trees of two Eucalyptus spp., namely Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus. All the concentrations (1,?2,?…?,?5% w\\/v) of the methanolic extracts of the three tree species significantly
This study was conducted to examine the effect of replacing concentrate mixture with leaf meal mixture of Leucaena leucocephala–Meliaazedarach–Morus alba in equal proportion on growth, nutrient utilization, blood and rumen metabolites in growing goats using completely randomized design. Twelve male non-descript goats were divided into two groups, control and experimental, consisting of six animals in each group. The control
Background and Aims Wood density is a key variable for understanding life history strategies in tropical trees. Differences in wood density and its radial variation were related to the shade-tolerance of six canopy tree species in seasonally dry tropical forest in Thailand. In addition, using tree ring measurements, the influence of tree size, age and annual increment on radial density gradients was analysed. Methods Wood density was determined from tree cores using X-ray densitometry. X-ray films were digitized and images were measured, resulting in a continuous density profile for each sample. Mixed models were then developed to analyse differences in average wood density and in radial gradients in density among the six tree species, as well as the effects of tree age, size and annual increment on radial increases in Meliaazedarach. Key Results Average wood density generally reflected differences in shade-tolerance, varying by nearly a factor of two. Radial gradients occurred in all species, ranging from an increase of (approx. 70%) in the shade-intolerant Meliaazedarach to a decrease of approx. 13% in the shade-tolerant Neolitsea obtusifolia, but the slopes of radial gradients were generally unrelated to shade-tolerance. For Meliaazedarach, radial increases were most-parsimoniously explained by log-transformed tree age and annual increment rather than by tree size. Conclusions The results indicate that average wood density generally reflects differences in shade-tolerance in seasonally dry tropical forests; however, inferences based on wood density alone are potentially misleading for species with complex life histories. In addition, the findings suggest that a ‘whole-tree’ view of life history and biomechanics is important for understanding patterns of radial variation in wood density. Finally, accounting for wood density gradients is likely to improve the accuracy of estimates of stem biomass and carbon in tropical trees.
Nock, Charles A.; Geihofer, Daniela; Grabner, Michael; Baker, Patrick J.; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Hietz, Peter
Seventy five patients with oral lesions attending the different departments of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University were screened for Candida. Forty six (61.3%) Candida strains were isolated from the oral lesions. Of the 46 Candida strains, Candida albicans accounted for 35 (76.08%), Candida glabrata for 5 (10.86%), Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei for 2 (4.34%) each and Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii for one (2.17%) each. Antifungal activity of ethanol extracts of five plant species that included Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea, Odina wodier, Momordica charantia and Meliaazedarach and two algal species, Sargassum wightii and Caulerpa scalpelliformis were tested against 25 isolated strains by disc diffusion method. Antifungal activity was observed at 100 mg/ml for Syzygium jambolanum, Cassia siamea and Caulerpa scalpelliformis and at 10 mg/ml for Sargassum wightii. PMID:21369447
Prabhakar, K; Kumar, L Sathish; Rajendran, S; Chandrasekaran, M; Bhaskar, K; Sajit Khan, A K
In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, twenty-six new piperine-based hydrazone derivatives were synthesized from piperine, an alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum Linn. The single-crystal structures of 6c, 6q and 6w were unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker in vivo. Especially compounds 6b, 6i and 6r, the final mortality rates of which, at the concentration of 1mg/mL, were 62.1%, 65.5% and 65.5%, respectively, exhibited more pronounced insecticidal activity compared to toosendanin at 1mg/mL, a commercial botanical insecticide isolated from Meliaazedarach. It suggested that introduction of the substituents at the C-2 position on the phenyl ring of the hydrazone derivatives was important for their insecticidal activity. PMID:24018189
Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Meliaazedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow), Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar), a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli). Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga) or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants. PMID:19831265
The huge volume of sludge emanating from the tannery effluent treatment plants poses a serious environmental problem. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology in which the plants are employed to reclamate the contaminated soil strewn with heavy metals (metalloids) and toxic compounds. This work focuses the impact of application of tannery sludge on biochemical properties of 6 months old tree saplings of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), Meliaazedarach Linn. (Wild Neem) and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit (Subabool) raised over the tannery sludge in an attempt to use these plants for phytoremediation. The plants raised over the garden soil served as the control. The porosity and water holding capacity of the tannery sludge were higher. The plant growth supporting elements such as Ca, total N2, NO3 and Mg were higher in the sludge. The plants raised over the sludge were found to be dark green with increased morphometric parameters. Electrophoretic profile revealed amplification of a few polypeptides (100, 105, 49 and 55 KDa). The levels of biomolecules and the CO2 absorption increased in 6 months old plants. There was a significant uptake and transport of chromium in all the three tree species suggesting that these plants could be employed in phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:23572927
In continuation of a program aimed at the discovery and development of natural products-based insecticidal agents, two series of novel fraxinellone-based esters were synthesized by modification at the C-4 or C-10 position of fraxinellone and evaluated for their insecticidal activity against the pre-third-instar larvae of Mythimna separata in vivo. An efficient method for the stereoselective synthesis of 4?-hydroxyfraxinellone from fraxinellonone was developed, and the steric configuration of 6h was unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Among 37 compounds, some derivatives displayed potent insecticidal activity; especially compounds 6h, 6q, 6t, and 7q showed more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide derived from Meliaazedarach . This suggested that introduction of the fluorine atom on the phenyl ring could lead to a more potent compound than one possessing chlorine or bromine. Meanwhile, introduction of the heterocyclic fragments at the C-4 or C-10 position of fraxinellone was essential for their insecticidal activity. This will pave the way for further design, structural modification, and development of fraxinellone as an insecticidal agent. PMID:22724658
Petroleum ether (PE) and methanolic extracts of nine wild plant species were tested in vitro for their antimycotic activity against eight phytopathogenic fungi. The efficacy of PE extracts against all pathogens tested was higher than that of methanolic extracts. Wild marjoram (Origanum syriacum) PE extract showed the highest and widest range of activity. It resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth of six of eight fungi tested and also gave nearly complete inhibition of spore germination of the six fungi included in the assay, namely, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, and Verticillium dahlia. The other plant extracts showed differential activities in the spore germination test, but none was highly active against mycelial growth. Inula viscosa and Mentha longifolia were highly effective (>88%) in spore germination tests against five of six fungi tested, whereas Centaurea pallescens, Cichorium intybus, Eryngium creticum, Salvia fruticosa, and Meliaazedarach showed >95% inhibition of spore germination in at least two fungi. Foeniculum vulgare showed the least antimycotic activity. Fractionation followed by autobiography on TLC plates using Cladosporium sp. as a test organism showed that O. syriacum PE extracts contained three inhibition zones, and those of Inula viscosa and Cichorium intybus, two, whereas the PE extracts of the remaining plants showed each one inhibition zone. Some of the major compounds present in these inhibition zones were identified by GC-MS. The possibility for using these extracts, or their mixtures, to control plant diseases is discussed. PMID:12009988
Data from post-mortem and field studies were obtained that discussed poisoning in ostriches following ingestion of toxic plants. From the notes, all plants studied caused death in ostriches and there was systemic organ damage. Poisoning from Sarcostemma viminale (Melktou) resulted in beak patting, muscular tremors and head flopping, followed by collapse and violent kicking before death. Ingestion of Combretum oatesii (Red wings) seeds from plants in free grazing pastures resulted in vomiting, restlessness, eyelid flicking, collapse and kicking movements. Dichapetalum cymosum (Gifblaar) killed an ostrich after episodes of shaking legs, rapid respiration and bradycardia and hyperaemia of the lungs, liver and kidneys. Poisoning from Senecio sceleratus (Ragwort) caused skin haemorrhages and bleeding in tracheal mucous membranes, the pericardium, diaphragm and interperitoneal membrane. Consumption of drupes from Meliaazedarach (Syringa berry) caused muscle tremors, kicking movements and respiratory distress. Lantana camara (Cherry pie) poisoning resulted in extremely inflamed eyes with copious yellow exudates extending down their beaks and onto their necks. Bentonite was administered by gavage at a dose of 5 g/kg. Poisoning in these cases is usually associated with the farmer allowing his/her birds to roam free-range in paddocks in which toxic plants are growing. Toxic plants should be removed from grass cut for hay. PMID:17966275
Polymeric bio-adhesives emulsion which is biodegradable and non-toxic containing antimicrobial agents can play an important role in preventing infection in wound covering and coating for surgical implants. Therefore a bioadhesive polymer was synthesized by semi-Interpenetrating Network process using blend of shellac, casein and polyvinyl alcohol and Maleic anhydride (MA) as reactive compatibilizer. The synthesized polymer was mixed with neem and turmeric extract and homogenized using an emulsifier. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to measure the molecular miscibility of biopolymer components and emulsion constituents. Stability of emulsion (coating) was measured by keeping property and accelerated stability test. Antimicrobial properties were evaluated for human pathogenic organisms namely E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium using well diffusion assay. The results indicate that stability, miscibility and antimicrobial properties of bioadhesive was satisfactory, however further in vivo studies are required to ascertain suitability of emulsion (coating) for biomedical use. PMID:17075168
In continuation of our program aimed at the discovery and development of natural-product-based insecticidal agents, 33 isoxazoline and oxime derivatives of podophyllotoxin modified in the C and D rings were synthesized and their structures were characterized by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), optical rotation, melting point (mp), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The stereochemical configurations of compounds 5e, 5f, and 9f were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. Their insecticidal activity was evaluated against the pre-third-instar larvae of northern armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), in vivo. Compounds 5e, 9c, 11g, and 11h especially exhibited more promising insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial botanical insecticide extracted from Meliaazedarach . A genetic algorithm combined with multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) calculation is performed by the MOBY DIGS package. Five selected descriptors are as follows: one two-dimensional (2D) autocorrelation descriptor (GATS4e), one edge adjacency indice (EEig06x), one RDF descriptor (RDF080v), one three-dimensional (3D) MoRSE descriptor (Mor09v), and one atom-centered fragment (H-052) descriptor. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the insecticidal activity of these compounds was mainly influenced by many factors, such as electronic distribution, steric factors, etc. For this model, the standard deviation error in prediction (SDEP) is 0.0592, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) is 0.861, and the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)(loo)) is 0.797. PMID:22891988
Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Meliaazedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.
The effects of synthetic pesticides on the soil microbial community have been thoroughly investigated in the past mostly by culture-dependent methods and only few recent studies have used culture-independent approaches for this purpose. However, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted in microcosms where the soil microbial community is exposed to unrealistic concentrations of the pesticides, providing an unrealistic exposure scheme for soil microorganism. On the other hand, little is known regarding the potential impact of botanical pesticides on the soil microbial community. Therefore, a laboratory study and a field study were conducted to investigate the effects of synthetic (metham sodium [MS], sodium tetrathiocarbonate [SoTe], and fosthiazate) and botanical pesticides (azadirachtin, quillaja, and pulverized Meliaazedarach fruits [PMF]) on the soil microbial community using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the results of the laboratory study indicated that the application of PMF resulted in significant changes in the soil microbial community. This was obvious by the proportional increase in the abundance of fatty acids 18:1omega9cis, 18:1omega9trans, which are common in gram-negative bacteria and saprotrophic fungi, and 18:2omega6,9, which is a fungal indicator. This response was attributed to the release of copious amounts of organic carbon and nutrients in the soil by the PMF. On the other hand, MS inhibited fungi and gram-negative bacteria, while fosthiazate and the botanical pesticides quillaja and azadirachtin did not impose significant changes in the soil microbial community. Similar results were obtained by the field study where application of the fumigants MS and SoTe significantly altered the structure of the soil microbial community with the former having a more prominent effect. Fosthiazate imposed mild changes in the soil microbial community, whereas quillaja and azadirachtin again did not show a significant effect. Overall, botanical pesticides, at their recommended dose, did not alter the structure of the soil microbial community compared to synthetic nonfumigant and fumigant pesticides which induced significant changes. PMID:19440648
Spyrou, Ioanna M; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania
The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc).
Jones, Lynn A.; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Beati, Lorenza; Teran, Rommy; Leon, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E.
Sunflower is considered to be a drought tolerant crop due to its root system. In Argentina, water availability and mineral nutrition are the main factors determining yield. We evaluated the behavior of a sunflower hybrid subjected to fertilization in a period of drought. A trial with the hybrid Paraiso 5 was carried out on a Typic Hapludoll located in western
The number of recorded phlebotomine sand fly species in Ecuador has nearly doubled during the past 20 years as a result of surveys. In 2005, a sand fly survey of two localities, Tiputini in the Amazon rain forest and Paraiso Escondido in the Pacific coastal lowland forest, resulted in the capture of 25 species. New records for Ecuador consisted of five species from the Amazonian region and one from Paraiso Escondido. The Amazonian species were Nyssomyia richardwardi (Ready and Fraiha), Psathyromyia dreisbachi (Causey and Damasceno), Psathyromyia runoides (Fairchild and Hertig), Trichophoromyia pabloi (Barretto, Burbano and Young), and Trichopygomyia witoto (Young and Morales). The Pacific coastal lowland species was Psathyromyia punctigeniculata (Floch and Abonnenc). PMID:22628901
Jones, Lynn A; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Beati, Lorenza; Terán, Rommy; León, Renato; Munstermann, Leonard E
This page furnishes the background for a group of activities investigating living things in Antarctica centered around a voyage aboard the research vessel Polar Duke from South America to Antarctica. It describes the ship and the people aboard and discusses their duties and areas of research. There is also an account of the wreck of the Argentine supply and cruise ship, Bahia Paraiso which spilled 200,000 gallons of diesel and jet fuel into some of the most pristine waters on Earth, and a description of the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research project (LTER), which began partly as a reponse ot the wreck.
In north-eastern Greece the mid-greenschist facies Makri Unit and the anchizonal Melia Formation belong to the eastern Circum-Rhodope Belt that forms the uppermost tectonostratigraphic unit of the Rhodope metamorphic nappe pile. The two metasedimentary successions had different source areas, although they now lie in close proximity in the Rhodope Massif. The U–Pb isotopic ages of detrital zircons from a metasandstone
Guido Meinhold; Thomas Reischmann; Dimitrios Kostopoulos; Dirk Frei; Alexander N. Larionov
The hypothesis that temporal separation of resource use between trees and crops minimises competition for wa ter in agroforestry\\u000a systems during the cropping period and increases utilisation of annual rainfall was tested at Machakos in semi-arid Kenya.\\u000a Four popular tree species were chosen to provide a range of leafing phenologies. These included Melia volkensii, which sheds\\u000a its leaves twice a
Data from 6 filtration studies, representing 43 experiments, are analyzed with a simplified version of the single-parameter O’Melia and Ali clogging model. The model parameter displays a systematic dependence on fluid velocity, which was an independent variable in each study. A cake filtration model also explains the data from one filtration study by varying a single, velocity-dependent parameter, highlighting that clogging models, because they are empirical, are not unique. Limited experimental data indicate exponential depth dependence of particle accumulation, whose impact on clogging is quantified with an extended O’Melia and Ali model. The resulting two-parameter model successfully describes the increased clogging that is always observed in the top segment of a filter. However, even after accounting for particle penetration, the two-parameter model suggests that a velocity-dependent parameter representing deposit morphology must also be included to explain the data. Most of the experimental data are described by the single-parameter O’Melia and Ali model, and the model parameter is correlated to the collector Peclet number.
A 1991 A.I.D.-funded study (PN-ABH-607) documented the economic and environmental potential of using wastes from Honduras's sawmills as an energy source. The follow-up study assesses the economic viability of six alternative wastewood energy system configurations for a representative small sawmill, Maderas de Oriente, located in Teupasenti, El Paraiso Department. Of the six systems, three are designed for electricity production only during peak demand hours and three are designed for continuous electricity generation with output maximized during peak hours. Four of the configurations include steam-heated lumber drying techniques, with two different kiln designs considered. All of the systems utilize all of the wastewood produced by the sawmill.
Endophytic bacterial strains SF2 (99.9% homology with Achromobacter xylosoxidans), and SF3 and SF4 (99.9% homology with Bacillus pumilus) isolated from sunflower grown under irrigation or drought were selected on the basis of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) characteristics. Aims of the study were to examine effects of inoculation with SF2, SF3, and SF4 on sunflower cultivated under water stress, to evaluate salicylic acid (SA) production by these strains in control medium or at ?a = -2.03 MPa, and to analyze effects of exogenously applied SA, jasmonic acid (JA), bacterial pellets, and bacterial supernatants on growth of pathogenic fungi Alternaria sp., Sclerotinia sp., and Verticillum sp. Growth response to bacterial inoculation was studied in two inbred lines (water stress-sensitive B59 and water stress-tolerant B71) and commercial hybrid Paraiso 24. Under both water stress and normal conditions, plant growth following inoculation was more strongly enhanced for Paraiso 24 and B71 than for B59. All three strains produced SA in control medium; levels for SF3 and SF4 were higher than for SF2. SA production was dramatically higher at ?a = -2.03 MPa. Exogenously applied SA or JA caused a significant reduction of growth for Sclerotinia and a lesser reduction for Alternaria and Verticillum. Fungal growth was more strongly inhibited by bacterial pellets than by bacterial supernatants. Our findings indicate that these endophytic bacteria enhance growth of sunflower seedlings under water stress, produce SA, and inhibit growth of pathogenic fungi. These characteristics are useful for formulation of inoculants to improve growth and yield of sunflower crops. PMID:20383767
A critical analysis of the morphological characters of the Southern Calabria region in the area from Scilla (RC province- Southern Italy) to Messina Strait show some geomorphological anomalies due to deep tectonic-gravitational failures and landslides induced by the uplift of the same area. The above mentioned phenomena involve, in fact the whole structure of the ridge included between the coastline and Fiumara di Catona (Catona Torrent), starting from Melia Highland (Pian della Melia) towards the promontory of Punta Pezzo on Messina Strait; and have a severe influence on the morphological forms of the territory, on the surface and coastal erosion phenomena and probably, also on the effect of seismic shocks on large engineering works, as the-to-be built Messina Strait bridge, which is very close to Scilla and Punta Pezzo area. The evidence of these failure can be recognized in the arched morphological steps breaking down the crystalline rock masses, but specially in the hydrographic stream network that is so deep and irregular in crystalline rocks that cannot be imputed only to surficial erosion. In fact at the end of the main streams or torrents as Santa Trara or San Gregorio torrents (fiumare) there are not relevant alluvial fan deposits. These tectonic-gravitative failure have been favored by the presence of biotitic schists underlying gneiss and granite rock masses. The first ones has a stiffness lower than the seconds, so they are more deformable. It is also possible that schist rock masses overlie the more deformable phyllite rocks, not outcropping in the area, as it happen in other zones of Calabria region (Guerricchio e Al., 2007). Tectonic-gravitative failures have broken and disarticulated also the terraces of Late Pleistocene deposits lying over the crystalline basement multiplied by these failures, so that may seem terraces of different order. The coastal slope between Gioia Tauro and Scilla is quite high and in a sudden way changes its form just in the area of Scilla. It is due to the presence of an ancient deep large landslide involving the whole area from Melia Highland to the town of Scilla and the sea, changing the form of the landscape. The deep failures toward West have created at the level of Scilla a large opening that has made it possible large gravitative collapse, that with a sort of "pincer" movements involving the masses in the high zone back to Scilla toward Melia Highlands, that slide toward Scilla displacing also the Tirrenian alluvial fans and the terraces creating the today coastline.
The echinoderm species richness of the Aerolito de Paraiso anchialine cave, on Cozumel Island, in the Mexican Caribbean, is assessed on the basis of morphological and DNA barcoding data. We included specimens from this cave system and from different open sea areas, and employed two different approaches for species delineation based on DNA barcoding data: a 2% cox1 divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) approaches. We subsequently compared the results derived from these approaches with our morphospecies discrimination. A total of 188 cox1 sequences belonging to specimens of four echinoderm classes were examined. The 2% cox1 divergence and GMYC approaches recovered 78 and 70 putative species, respectively, 24 and 22 of which corresponded to specimens from the anchialine system. Of 26 echinoderm species identified in the cave system, seven appear to be endemic to it. Among these are Copidaster carvenicola Solís-Marín & Laguarda-Figueras, 2010, two morphologically distinctive, undescribed species belonging to Asterinides and Ophionereis and four probably cryptic undescribed species originally assigned to Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje, 1839), Astropecten duplicatus Gray, 1840, Copidaster lymani (AH Clark, 1948) and Ophiothrix angulata (Say, 1825). Further research and protection of this particularly fragile ecosystem becomes urgent because construction of tourism developments is planned nearby. PMID:23551841
Bribiesca-Contreras, Guadalupe; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro
Polariton quantum fluids may be created both spontaneously through a standard phase transition towards a Bose Einstein condensate, or may be resonantly driven with a well-defined speed. Thanks to the photonic component of polaritons, the properties of the quantum fluid may be accessed rather directly with in particular the possibility of detained interferometric studies. Here, I will detail the dynamics of vortices, obtained with a picosecond time resolution, in different configurations, with in particular their phase dynamics. I will show in particular the dynamics the dynamics of spontaneous creation of a vortex, the dissociation of a full vortex into two half vortices as well as the dynamics of the dissociation of a dark soliton line into a street of pairs of vortices. Work done at EPFL by a dream team of Postdocs PhD students and collaborators: K. Lagoudakis, G. Nardin, T. Paraiso, G. Grosso, F. Manni, Y L'eger, M. Portella Oberli, F. Morier-Genoud and the help of our friend theorists V, Savona, M. Vouters and T. Liew.
Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus. PMID:3497307
The authors study the evolution and the period distribution of cataclysmic variables using a magnetic braking law proposed recently by Mestel & Spruit (1987). The application of this law gives a predicted period distribution that matches the observed one. The authors also show that the observed accumulation of AM Her systems with periods in the range 114 - 115 min can be explained in terms of evolution, as a result of the adiabatic expansion of the secondary when accretion resumes at the end of the period gap provided that the masses of the white dwarfs in AM Her systems are in a restricted range. The authors examine finally the recent claim by Lamb & Melia (1987) that when the magnetic white dwarf synchronizes with the orbit, the system detaches, and enters a prolonged gap. They show that the proposed mechanism does not work, and that synchronization has a relatively small effect on the evolution of these systems.
Hameury, J. M.; King, A. R.; Lasota, J. P.; Ritter, H.
The uropathogenic Escherichia coli pathogenecity is affected by quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA. In this study, in vitro characterization of the active principles that could potentially antagonize with SdiA from the Melia dubia bark extracts has been described. After in vitro assays carried out to evaluate the inhibitory activities against the uropathogenic E. coli, the ethanolic extract (30 mg/ml) which showed the strongest suppression of haemolysis, swarming motility, hydrophobicity and biofilm formation, was subjected to GC-MS analysis and an array of 40 unrelated compounds was identified. Docking studies was conducted to screen for plant-based SdiA inhibitors. Five hits were assessed for their binding profiles and 7-(1-bromoethyl)-3, 3-dimethyl-bicyclo [4.1.0]heptan-2-one showed 66.95% binding ability with respect to C(8)HSL. PMID:22209416
We have obtained three high-resolution oxygen isotopic records of cave calcites from Caverna Botuverá, southern Brazil, Gruta do Padre, central Brazil, and Caverna Paraíso, Amazonian Brazil. All three records have chronologies determined by U-Th dates and span the last 90, 20 and 50 thousand years, respectively. Tests for equilibrium conditions show that their oxygen isotopic variations are primarily caused by climate change. The three records thus can provide information about precipitation history and fluctuations of the South American Summer Monsoon along a latitudinal transect from 28° S to 4° S. During the last glacial period, the three oxygen isotopic profiles show abrupt millennial-scale variations, which are anti- correlated with the Chinese speleothem monsoon records and northern high-latitude ice core records. This is likely related to the displacement of the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone and associated asymmetry of Hadley cells, consistent with an oceanic meridional overturning circulation mechanism for driving the abrupt climate events. However, the three records show distinct isotopic patterns in Holocene epoch. The ?18O values in the Botuvera record decrease steadily throughout Holocene, while in the Padre record, the ?18O drops slightly until ~6-7 thousand years ago and then gradually increases until the present. The Paraiso Holocene record is similar to the Padre one, but with a much greater amplitude. Together with Andean ice core and lake records, our observations suggest asynchronous changes in Holocene monsoonal precipitation in South America, possibly related to strengthened zonal tropical air-sea interactions after the melting of the large northern ice sheets.
During the RV SONNE cruise 161 Leg 1 to 5 (October 2001 to January 2002) Sub- duction Processes Off Chile (SPOC) have been investigated using a multi-disciplinary geoscientific approach. Here we report first results of multi channel seismic (MCS) experiments and high-resolution swath bathymetry data from Leg 3, south of Val- paraiso. 24 MCS profiles with a total length of 3670 km were run between 36 S to 4020' S, providing a detailed view of the structures related to the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the Chile Margin. The oceanic crust of the Nazca Plate shows at least three sets of structural trends associated with the Mocha and Valdivia Fractures Zones, the spreading lineations and subduction related horst and graben structures. In the study area the trench is filled with well stratified turbidites up to 2 seconds TWT thick. Along the trench axis a turbidite channel exceeding 80 m relief exists. Several large deep sea fan complexes are developed at the slope toe. Their distributary canyons cut deep into the slope and shelf and can be traced back to major river mouths. The deformation front is coincident with the slope toe; compressional structures of the trench fill are uncommon. The deformation front is curved and offset along strike, caused presumably by collision and indentation of structures of the Nazca Plate. The most remarkable features of the MCS - profiles, yet, are the only very rudimentary developed modern accretionary prism as well as the high variability of the lower slope angles. Lower slope angles locally exceed 10. The continental crust extends seawards to the middle slope and acts as a backstop. Several profiles reveal landward dipping reflectors above the downgoing slab, possibly depicting a subduction channel beneath the slope. Thus, the geometry of the subduction units U a young thick trench fill, only rudimental frontal accretion and a subduction channel U argues for subduction of the bulk of the sediments.
The effect of oxadiazolyl 3(2H)-pyridazinone (ODP), a new insect growth regulator, on growth of larvae of the armyworm, Pseudaletia separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was evaluated in comparison to the insecticide, toosendanin, a tetranortriterpenoid extracted from the bark of Melia toosendan that has multiple effects on insects. The digestive physiological properties of these compounds on insects were investigated by feeding them maize leaves dipped in these compounds. The results showed that ODP inhibited the growth of P. separata significantly, causing a slowed development and a prolonged larval period, smaller body size and sluggish behavior, delayed pupation and a reduced eclosion rate of pupae and adults. Moreover, ODP strongly inhibited the activities of weak alkaline trypsine-like enzyme, chymotrypsin-like enzyme and alpha amylase in the midguts of fifth instar P. separata larvae, in vivo, and inhibited the activity of alpha amylase, in vitro. These data suggest that ODP has severe consequences on the larval carbohydrate assimilation and/or nutrient intake and thereby causes inhibition of larval growth. The regulatory action of ODP on larval growth development was similar to that of toosendanin; both could be used to decrease the growth of insect populations.
Huang, Qingchun; Kong, Yuping; Liu, Manhui; Feng, Jun; Liu, Yang
The effect of oxadiazolyl 3(2H)-pyridazinone (ODP), a new insect growth regulator, on growth of larvae of the armyworm, Pseudaletia separata Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was evaluated in comparison to the insecticide, toosendanin, a tetranortriterpenoid extracted from the bark of Melia toosendan that has multiple effects on insects. The digestive physiological properties of these compounds on insects were investigated by feeding them maize leaves dipped in these compounds. The results showed that ODP inhibited the growth of P. separata significantly, causing a slowed development and a prolonged larval period, smaller body size and sluggish behavior, delayed pupation and a reduced eclosion rate of pupae and adults. Moreover, ODP strongly inhibited the activities of weak alkaline trypsin-like enzyme, chymotrypsin-like enzyme and alpha amylase in the midguts of fifth instar P. separata larvae, in vivo, and inhibited the activity of alpha amylase, in vitro. These data suggest that ODP has severe consequences on the larval carbohydrate assimilation and/or nutrient intake and thereby causes inhibition of larval growth. The regulatory action of ODP on larval growth development was similar to that of toosendanin; both could be used to decrease the growth of insect populations. PMID:20337556
Huang, Qingchun; Kong, Yuping; Liu, Manhui; Feng, Jun; Liu, Yang
In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi. PMID:15567249
Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A
Background & objectives: Conventional insecticides are generally used as larvicides to control Culex quinquefasciatus, vector of lymphatic filariasis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal activity of some potential larvicidal plants leaf extracts against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Methods: The toxic effects of petroleum ether leaf extracts of plants viz., Argemone mexicana (Mexican prickly poppy), Clausena dentata (Dentate), Cipadessa baccifera (Rana bili), Dodonaea angustifolia (Hop bush) and Melia dubia (Pride of India) were evaluated under laboratory conditions in individual and in combination against 3rd - 4th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results: The results indicated that among the selected plants, A. mexicana showed maximum larvicidal activity with an LC50 value of 48.89 ppm. Its toxicity was enhanced when the extract was mixed (1:1) with that of C. dentata as the LC50 value became 28.60 ppm indicating synergistic action of A. mexicana. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed high larvicidal potential in A. mexicana leaf extract, and it also showed additive effect when mixed with C. dentata extract.
The present paper deals with the medicinal plants used by the people of Assam for curing different skin ailments and for cosmetics. A total of 85 plants belonging to 49 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against skin diseases and as herbal care. The herbal medicines were prepared from various plant parts of single plant, or multiple plants. The majority of the preparation was made using water as the medium. The mode of application was topical, but in many cases it was also administered orally. In several cases the pure herbal preparations was administered along with milk, ghee, honey, coconut oil, curd, etc. Remedies for 18 skin ailments were documented through this study. About 14 plants are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Curcuma longa and Melia azaderach constitute the major plants. The herbal cosmetic products used by the people of Assam ranges from the enhancement of skin colour, hair care, removal of ugly spots, colouring of nails, palms, and teeth. However, many of the plant preparations used for enhancing beauty were also applied for therapeutic use. Herbal remedies were also available for skin burns, prickly heat and pimples. Information on nine plants used for managing dry skin also emerged from this study. PMID:16473486
Hyponidd is a herbomineral formulation composed of the extracts of ten medicinal plants ( Momordica charantia, Melia azadirachta, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia , Gymnema sylvestre, Enicostemma littorale, Emblica officinalis, Eugenia jambolana, Cassia auriculata and Curcuma longa). We have investigated hyponidd for its possible antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect in diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg kg(-1) body weight). Oral administration of hyponidd (100 mg kg(-1) and 200 mg kg(-1)) for 45 days resulted in significant lowered levels of blood glucose and significant increased levels of hepatic glycogen and total haemoglobin. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in experimental diabetic rats in which there was a significant improvement in blood glucose tolerance in the rats treated with hyponidd. Hyponidd administration also decreased levels of glycosylated haemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and alpha-tocopherol in diabetic rats. Plasma reduced glutathione and vitamin C were significantly elevated by oral administration of hyponidd. The effect of hyponidd at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1) was more effective than glibenclamide (600 microg kg(-1)) in restoring the values to near normal. The results showed that hyponidd exhibits antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:15525451
Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds, ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects. PMID:24075352
Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds,ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects.