Note: This page contains sample records for the topic paraiso melia azedarach from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

In vitro anthelmintic activity of Melia azedarach naturalized in Argentina.  

PubMed

The anthelmintic activity of the drupe extracts of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) growing in Argentina was tested against tapeworms, hookworms, nodular worms and earthworms, and was shown to be better than the standards piperazine phosphate and hexylresorcinol against tapeworms and hookworms, respectively. PMID:16941610

Szewczuk, Víctor D; Mongelli, Elena R; Pomilio, Alicia B

2006-11-01

2

Efficacy of Melia azedarach L. extract on the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of leaves and seeds from the chinaberry tree, Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) was tested against mature and immature mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera) under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, antiovipositional activity, repellency and biting deterrency. The M. azedarach seed and leaf extracts were used to determine their effect on A. stephensi adults and

Sengottayan Senthil Nathan; G. Savitha; Dency K. George; Alagirisamy Narmadha; Laxmanan Suganya; Paul Gene Chung

2006-01-01

3

Antifungal compounds from Melia azedarach leaves for management of Ascochyta rabiei, the cause of chickpea blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity of Melia azedarach L. leaves was investigated against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of destructive blight disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Bioassay guided fractionation revealed that the chloroform fraction of the methanolic extract of M. azedarach leaves was highly effective against A. rabiei. Six compounds, namely ?-sitosterol (1), ?-amyrin (2), ursolic acid (3), benzoic acid

Khajista Jabeen; Arshad Javaid; Ejaz Ahmad; Makshoof Athar

2011-01-01

4

Relationship between foliar chemical parameters measured in Melia Azedarach L. and environmental conditions in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diagnostic study was done on Melia azedarach L. in relation to atmospheric pollutants in Córdoba city, Argentina. The study area receives regional pollutants, and it was categorized taking into account traffic level, industrial level, location of the sample point in relation to the corner, treeless condition, building type, topographic level and distance to the river. Water content and Specific

Mar??a L Pignata; Gustavo L Gudiño; Martha S Cañas; Liliana Orellana

1999-01-01

5

Effect of cream containing Melia azedarach flowers on skin diseases in children.  

PubMed

A herbal cream containing a methanolic HPLC-standardized extract of Melia azedarach flowers has been prepared and found potent against bacterial skin diseases like cellulitis, pustules, pyogenic infections, etc. in children. The results obtained are comparable to those with neomycin. PMID:18375108

Saleem, Rubeena; Rani, Rizwana; Ahmed, Muhammad; Sadaf, Farzana; Ahmad, Syed Iqbal; ul Zafar, Navaid; Khan, Sobia Sajida; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Lubna; Ansari, Farheen; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Faizi, Shaheen

2008-04-01

6

Larvicidal and histological effects of Melia azedarach extract on Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were effective against third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in Saudi Arabia, using crude extract obtained in ethanolic solution from King Saud University. Toxicity was varied according to the concentration and period of exposure. We investigated the effect of the LC50 on midgut and gastric caecae of 3rd larval instar of Cx. quinquefasciatus,

R. M. Al-Mehmadi; A. A. Al-Khalaf

2010-01-01

7

Cytotoxic evaluation of Melia azedarach in comparison with, Azadirachta indica and its phytochemical investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Melia azedarach L. is an important medicinal plant that is used for variety of ailments in Iranian traditional medicine. Azadirachta indica A. Juss is its allied species and possesses similar properties and effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate anticancer activity of these M. azedarach in comparison with A. indica on cancer cell lines and also to evaluate their safety in humans by testing them on normal cell line. The study also aimed to determine the active components that are responsible for medicinal effects of M. azedarach in traditional usages. Methods In this study, the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts from M. azedarach and A. indica leaves, pulps and seeds as well as three main fractions of their leaf extracts were assayed against HT-29, A-549, MCF-7 and HepG-2 and MDBK cell lines. MTT assay was used to evaluate their cytotoxic activities. Methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach as the safest leaf fraction in terms of cytotoxicity was subjected for phytochemical study. Results Results of the present study indicated that seed kernel extract of M. azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity and selectivity to cancer cell lines (IC50 range of 8.18- 60.10 μg mL-1). In contrast to crude seed extract of A. indica, crude pulp and crude leaf extracts of this plant showed remarkably stronger anti-prolifrative activity (IC50 ranges of 83.45 - 212.16 μg mL-1 and 34.11- 95.51 μg mL-1 respectively) than those of M. azedarach (all IC50 values of both plants > 650 μg mL-1). The phytochemical analysis led to the isolation of four flavonol 3-O-glycosides including rutin, kaempferol-3-O-robinobioside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and isoquercetin along with a purin nucleoside, β-adenosine. Conclusions The anti-prolifrative potentials of extracts from different parts of M. azedarach and A. indica were determined. By comparison, methanol leaf fraction of M. azedarach seems to be safer in terms of cytotoxicity. Our study shows that flavonols are abundant in the leaves of M. azedarach and these compounds seem to be responsible for many of medicinal effects exploited in the traditional uses.

2013-01-01

8

Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of

D. S. Charleston; R. Kfir; L. E. M. Vet; M. Dicke

2005-01-01

9

Plant regeneration, origin, and development of shoot buds from root segments of Melia azedarach L. ( Meliaceae ) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a In vitro regeneration of plants from root culture of Melia azedarach seedlings was obtained. The origin and mode of development of the regenerated shoot buds were studied by means of histological\\u000a analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Maximum shoot bud regeneration was achieved when root segments were cultured\\u000a on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at quarter strength with 3%

Silvia Vila; Ana Gonzalez; Hebe Rey; Luis Mroginski

2005-01-01

10

Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.

Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

2011-01-01

11

Effect of fruit and leaves of Meliaceae plants (Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach) on the development of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) under experimental conditions.  

PubMed

This no-choice, laboratory study focuses on the feeding of dried, ground, homogeneous powdered, unprocessed fruit and leaves of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach to Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae to determine the effects on their mortality and metamorphosis. A. indica and M. azedarach fruit and leaves significantly increased larval mortality in comparison to larvae fed the untreated, standard diet. A. indica fruit and leaves blocked the molting of the larvae to the fourth instar, resulting in them remaining as third instars until the end of the experiment. M. azedarach fruit also blocked the molting of larvae, which remained permanently in the fourth instar. Feeding M. azedarach leaves resulted in greater molt inhibition. All insects in this group stopped their development as second-instar larvae. No antifeedant effect was detected for any experimental treatment. The results indicate that nontoxic, unprocessed materials obtained from A. indica and M. azedarach are potent development inhibitors of L. longipalpis larvae. PMID:19769044

Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Souza, Nataly A; Gouveia, Cheryl; Silva, Vanderlei C; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2009-09-01

12

Potential synergistic effect of Melia azedarach fruit extract and Beauveria bassiana in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in cattle infestations.  

PubMed

The use of a concentrate emulsion of Melia azedarach green fruits and a suspension of the fungus Beauveria bassiana was evaluated in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus on artificially infested cattle. The evaluation was conducted following the protocol established by the Brazilian Agriculture Ministry. Five groups of 4 or 5 animals were allocated to one of the following treatments: emulsion concentrate of M. azedarach at 0.25% (T AZED 0.25%), emulsion concentrate of M. azedarach at 0.5% (T AZED 0.5%), B. bassiana at 2.4 × 10(8) conidia (T BASS), association of the concentrate of M. azedarach at 0.25% with B. bassiana at 2.4 × 10(8) conidia (T AZED 0.25%+BASS), and control (untreated). The association of the two compounds provided better results than any one isolated treatment, indicating compatibility or perhaps a synergy between M. azedarach and B. bassiana. This treatment resulted in fewer engorged females (129 ± 70) than in the control group (233 ± 82), showing high performance against all developmental stages of the tick. Results revealed an apparent synergistic effect of M. azedarach and B. bassiana in the control of R. microplus that should be further investigated. PMID:21055878

Sousa, Lorena Alessandra Dias; Pires, Hélio Bernardes; Soares, Sara Fernandes; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Ribas, Patricia; Lima, Eliane Martins; Furlong, John; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

2011-02-10

13

Inhibition of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) uncoating by a plant-derived peptide isolated from Melia azedarach L leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?Meliacine (MA), a peptide isolated from leaves of the high plant Melia azedarach L inhibited the multiplication of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in BHK-21 cells. In this report, we establish that\\u000a the MA-inhibitable process takes place within the first hour of the viral reproductive cycle. MA had no virucidal effect and\\u000a did not affect adsorption and penetration of

M. B. Wachsman; V. Castilla; C. E. Coto

1998-01-01

14

Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05 g% in an aqueous medium for 24 and 48 h, at 25 or 30 degrees C, with or without feeding of the larvae. LC50, LC95 and LC99 were determined. Both seed extracts proved lethal for third to fourth instar larvae. Non-fed A. aegypti larvae were more susceptible to Azadirachta extracts at both temperatures. Under a more realistic environmental situation, namely with fed larvae at 25 degrees C, the death rates caused by the Melia extract were higher, although at 30 degrees C the extract of Azadirachta had an even higher lethality. Inter allia, the LC50 values for the crude extracts of these two members of the Meliaceae ranged from 0.017 to 0.034 g% while the LC99 values ranged from 0.133 to 0.189 g%. Since no downstream processing was undertaken to purify the active agents in the extracts, our findings seem very promising, suggesting that it may be possible to increase the larvicidal activity further by improving the extraction and the fractionation of the crude limonoids, for instance removing the co-extracted natural fats. PMID:15530964

Wandscheer, Carolina B; Duque, Jonny E; da Silva, Mario A N; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Wohlke, Jonathan L; Adelmann, Juliana; Fontana, José D

2004-12-15

15

Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica.  

PubMed

The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of cabbage leaves and consuming less of the treated half of cabbage leaves. The botanical insecticides had less of an effect on the oviposition behaviour of P. xylostella moths. In laboratory and glasshouse trials, significantly fewer eggs were oviposited on the plants that had been treated with syringa extracts. Therefore, the syringa extracts appear to have a repellent effect. In contrast, when exposed to the neem extracts the moths did not discriminate between control plants and treated plants. Behavioural observation indicated that, despite the lower number of eggs oviposited on cabbage treated with syringa extracts, the moths chose cabbage treated with the highest dose of syringa more often than they chose control cabbage plants. Similar observations were found in cabbage plants treated with neem, moths chose the medium dose more often than they chose the control. Oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are important factors in pest control, and results from this study indicate that botanical insecticides have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for P. xylostella in South Africa. PMID:16197566

Charleston, D S; Kfir, R; Vet, L E M; Dicke, M

2005-10-01

16

Role of energy metabolism in the pregnancy interceptive action of Ferula assafoetida and Melia azedarach extracts in rat.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extract of Ferula assafoetida and chloroform fraction of Melia azedarach, both devoid of estrogenic activity, were examined for their pregnancy interceptive property. Treatment of rats from days 1 to 7 of pregnancy with either of the plant extracts resulted in pregnancy failure in about 65-85% of the animals. The possible role of energy metabolism in the antifertility action was investigated by measuring changes in activities of the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in uterus on day 7 of pregnancy. It was observed that on the day 7 of pregnancy, one key enzyme of glycolytic pathway (phosphofructokinase) was significantly reduced in the uteri of treated rats as compared to controls. Hexosemonophosphate pathway also appeared to be sensitive to treatment with the plant extracts and showed an inhibitory effect on the enzyme activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Oxidative energy metabolism through tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is considered to be the main source of energy to the uterus at this stage, was maximally affected by the treatment with several enzymes showing significant inhibition. The two plant materials appeared to interrupt the latter metabolic pathway more significantly. It is thus concluded that plants lacking phytoestrogens may intercept pregnancy by their ability to disrupt energy metabolism in rat uterus during implantation, especially the oxidative pathway. PMID:15504384

Keshri, Govind; Bajpai, Malini; Lakshmi, Vijai; Setty, Bachu Sreenivasulu; Gupta, Gopal

2004-11-01

17

Suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages by two ?-carboline alkaloids extracted from Melia azedarach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the mechanism of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by two ?-carboline alkaloids isolated from Melia azedarach, 4,8-dimethoxy-1-vinyl-?-carboline (compound 1, C-1) and 4-methoxy-1-vinyl-?-carboline (compound 2, C-2). iNOS activity in a cell-free extract of lipopolysaccharide\\/interferon-?-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was found to be markedly increased, and this increase was prevented by C-1 and C-2, accompanied by the parallel reduction

Byeong Gon Lee; Seung Hee Kim; Ok Pyo Zee; Kang Ro Lee; Hoi Young Lee; Jeung Whan Han; Hyang Woo Lee

2000-01-01

18

[Effects of tomato genotypes and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].  

PubMed

Insecticide plants are an important tool among the new alternatives for pest control in IPM systems because they reduce the use of synthetic insecticides, preserving human health and the environment. We investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds and three tomato genotypes, 'Santa Clara', 'IPA-5'--Solanum lycopersicum (=Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), and LA444-1--S. peruvianum (=L. peruvianum), on the development, reproduction and longevity of the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), under laboratory conditions. The trials were set up in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments [three genotypes x two extracts (M. azedarach and A. indica) and control]. The replication consisted on five tubes, each with three newly hatched larvae, totalizing 90 individuals per treatment. The larvae were fed with tomato leaves treated with aqueous extracts at 0.1% concentration or distilled water (control) and daily observed until adults' emergence. Larval and pupal development and mortality, pupal weight, longevity and fecundity were evaluated. The accession LA444-1 negatively affected the development and reproduction of T. absoluta; the tomato pinworm had similar development and reproduction on 'IPA-5' and 'Santa Clara' (the susceptible control). The association of resistant tomato genotypes and extracts of M. azedarach leaves and neem seeds did not result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on T. absoluta. PMID:21120389

Brunherotto, Rogério; Vendramim, José D; de G Oriani, Maria A

2010-01-01

19

Laboratory and field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) oils as repellents against Phlebotomus orientalis and P. bergeroti (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The study evaluated the efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) seed oils as repellents against laboratory and field populations of some sandflies in Ethiopia. In the laboratory, concentrations of 2% and 5% neem oil in coconut oil tested against Phlebotomus orientalis (vector of visceral leishmaniasis) provided 96.28% (95% CI=95.60-96.97) protection up to a mean time of 7h and 20 min and 98.26% (95% CI=93.46-104. 07) protection up to 9h, respectively. Similarly, M. azedarach oil at 2% concentration produced 95.13% (95% CI=90.74-99.52) protection for the same duration (7h and 20 min), while the 5% oil gave 96.20 (95% CI=86.98-105.41) protection for 8h and 20 min against the same species with no significant difference in percentage protection between the two oils at 2% and 5% concentrations. In the field tests with only neem oil (A. indica) against field populations of P. orientalis and P. bergeroti, similar high level of repellencies were recorded with about the same duration of protection. Application of both neem and Chinaberry oils can be safe and low-cost means of personal protection against sandfly bites in endemic areas of Ethiopia, if the community is advised and encouraged to grow the plants abundantly. PMID:19854142

Kebede, Yosef; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Balkew, Meshesha

2010-02-01

20

Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract Parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants.  

PubMed

Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Cotesia plutellae was attracted only to Plutella xylostella-infested cabbage plants in a wind tunnel after an oviposition experience. Female C. plutellae did not distinguish between P. xylostella-infested cabbage plants treated with neem and control P. xylostella-infested plants. However, females preferred infested cabbage plants that had been treated with syringa extract to control infested plants. Syringa extract on filter paper did not attract C. plutellae. This suggests that an interaction between the plant and the syringa extract enhances parasitoid attraction. Diadromus collaris was not attracted to cabbage plants in a wind tunnel and did not distinguish between caterpillar-damaged and undamaged cabbage plants. Headspace analysis revealed 49 compounds in both control cabbage plants and cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract. Among these are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, terpenoids, sulfides, and an isothiocyanate. Cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract emitted larger quantities of volatiles, and these increased quantities were not derived from the syringa extract. Therefore, the syringa extract seemed to induce the emission of cabbage volatiles. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a plant extract inducing the emission of plant volatiles in another plant. This interesting phenomenon likely explains the preference of C. plutellae parasitoids for cabbage plants that have been treated with syringa extracts. PMID:16555134

Charleston, Deidre S; Gols, Rieta; Hordijk, Kees A; Kfir, Rami; Vet, Louise E M; Dicke, Marcel

2006-02-01

21

Subsistence Economy of El Paraiso, an Early Peruvian Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of El Paraiso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods

Jeffrey Quilter; Bernardino Ojeda E; D. H. SANDWEISS; J. G. JONES; E. S. WING

1991-01-01

22

Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Melia azedarach against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited\\u000a the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants\\u000a as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of\\u000a the leaves and seed

Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Asokan Bagavan; Mohamed Jamal Mohamed; Gandhi Elango; Govindasamy Rajakumar; Abdul Abduz Zahir; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Sampath Marimuthu

2010-01-01

23

Meliavolkenin, a new bioactive triterpenoid from Melia volkensii (Meliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meliavolkenin, a new triterpene with an apotirucallane skeleton, has been isolated from the root bark of Melia volkensli (Meliaceae) by bioactivity-directed fractionation using the brine shrimp lethality test. The structure has been elucidated using spectral and chemical data. The relative stereochemistries were determined by reduction and acetonide derivations, and the ring conformations were analyzed using the results of NOESY experiments.

Lu Zeng; Zhe-ming Gu; Ching-jer Chang; Karl V. Wood; Jerry L. McLaughlin

1995-01-01

24

Two new bioactive triterpenoids from Melia volkensii (Meliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meliavolin (1), a new triterpene with an apotirucallane skeleton, and meliavolkin (2), a new tetranortriterpene, together with melianin A, a known compound, have been isolated from the root bark of Melia volkensii (Meliaceae) by using activity-directed fractionation with brine shrimp. The structures have been elucidated by spectral data. The relative and absolute stereochemistry of meliavolin (1) was determined by analysis

Lu Zeng; Zhe-ming Gu; Xin-ping Fang; Phillip E Fanwick; Ching-jer Chang; David L Smith; Jerry L McLaughlin

1995-01-01

25

Meliavolkenin, a new bioactive triterpenoid from Melia volkensii (Meliaceae).  

PubMed

Meliavolkenin, a new triterpene with an apotirucallane skeleton, has been isolated from the root bark of Melia volkensii (Meliaceae) by bioactivity-directed fractionation using the brine shrimp lethality test. The structure has been elucidated using spectral and chemical data. The relative stereochemistries were determined by reduction and acetonide derivations, and the ring conformations were analyzed using the results of NOESY experiments. Meliavolkenin was bioactive in the brine shrimp lethality test and gave moderate cytotoxicities against three human solid tumor lines. PMID:8581421

Zeng, L; Gu, Z M; Chang, C J; Wood, K V; McLaughlin, J L

1995-04-01

26

The Molluscicidal Activity of Melia azadirchta on The Fresh water snail Physa acuta ( Draparnaud , 1805 ) A snail Associated with habitat of Lymnaea auricularia ( L )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molluscicidal effect of Melia azadirachta was evaluated against the fresh water snail Physa acuta at juvenile freshly hatched stage. Calculating values of different concentrations ( Lc50 - Lc90 ) showed that melia was toxic against juvenile stage . The use of Melia azadirchta fruit extract was considered as an effective control method for Physa acuta in Mosul area .

Talib Hussen Ali; Azhar Abul; Jabbar Hamed

27

Novel NGF-potentiating limonoids from the fruits of Melia toosendan.  

PubMed

Four new limonoids (1-4), together with five known limonoids (5-9), were isolated from the fruits of Melia toosendan. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D- and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, IR, [?](D)). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their neurite outgrowth-promoting activities. Compounds 2 and 6 significantly enhanced NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 50.0 ?M. PMID:23916581

Zhang, Qiong; Li, Jian-Kuan; Ge, Rui; Liang, Jing-Yu; Li, Qing-Shan; Min, Zhi-Da

2013-10-01

28

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed.

Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.

2014-09-01

29

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed. PMID:24769382

Kathiravan, V; Ravi, S; Ashokkumar, S

2014-09-15

30

Phytochemical screening studies on Melia orientalis by GC-MS analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Melia orientalis (MO) is an important Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The plant part such as leaves and roots are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes, edema, traumatic swelling, skin diseases, oligospermia and bleeding disorders. Objective: To investigate the phytochemical identification of ethanol leaf extract of MO. Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of MO (1000g) were collected and shade dried at room temperature for 30 days and the dried leaves were made into a fine powder. The ethanol leaf extract obtained was dried and used for phytochemical identification by GC-MS analysis. Results: The phytochemical screening studies have been carried out and identified ten chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MO. Conclusion: Thus, our results show that MO possess important phytocomponents such as phytol, squalene and stigmasterol.

Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Padmaja, Balakrishnan; Nair, Sudarsan

2013-01-01

31

The Effect of Melia azadirchta Fruit extract on eggs, embryo and Juveniles of the fresh water snail Physa acuta ( Draparnaud) , at different experimental temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the alcoholic extract of Melia azadirchta fruit of different concentrations at different experimental temperatures on the fecundity, embryonic development and hatching of Physa. acuta was investigated. There was a significant difference between the embryonic development reared at relatively higher temperature ( 32ºC ± 2 ) and those reared at low temperature ( 10 ºC± 2 ) ,

Talib Hussen Ali

32

Larvicidal effects of Chinaberry (Melia azederach) powder on Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic insecticides are employed in the widely-used currently favored malaria control techniques involving indoor residual spraying and treated bednets. These methods have repeatedly proven to be highly effective at reducing malaria incidence and prevalence. However, rapidly emerging mosquito resistance to the chemicals and logistical problems in transporting supplies to remote locations threaten the long-term sustainability of these techniques. Chinaberry (Melia azederach) extracts have been shown to be effective growth-inhibiting larvicides against several insects. Because several active chemicals in the trees' seeds have insecticidal properties, the emergence of resistance is unlikely. Here, we investigate the feasibility of Chinaberry as a locally available, low-cost sustainable insecticide that can aid in controlling malaria. Chinaberry fruits were collected from Asendabo, Ethiopia. The seeds were removed from the fruits, dried and crushed into a powder. From developmental habitats in the same village, Anopheles arabiensis larvae were collected and placed into laboratory containers. Chinaberry seed powder was added to the larval containers at three treatment levels: 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, with 100 individual larvae in each treatment level and a control. The containers were monitored daily and larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes were counted. This experimental procedure was replicated three times. Results Chinaberry seed powder caused an inhibition of emergence of 93% at the 5 g m-2 treatment level, and 100% inhibition of emergence at the two higher treatment levels. The Chinaberry had a highly statistically significant larvicidal effect at all treatment levels (?2 = 184, 184, and 155 for 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, respectively; p < 0.0001 in all cases). In addition, estimates suggest that sufficient Chinaberry seed exists in Asendabo to treat developmental habitat for the duration of the rainy season and support a field trial. Conclusions Chinaberry seed is a very potent growth-inhibiting larvicide against the major African malaria vector An. arabiensis. The seed could provide a sustainable additional malaria vector control tool that can be used where the tree is abundant and where An. arabiensis is a dominant vector. Based on these results, a future village-scale field trial using the technique is warranted.

2011-01-01

33

Antineoplastic agents. 489. Isolation and structures of meliastatins 1-5 and related euphane triterpenes from the tree Melia dubia.  

PubMed

The bark of the giant neem tree Melia dubia was found to contain 11 euphane-type triterpenes. Five new compounds, meliastatins 1-5 (1-5), proved to inhibit growth of the P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line (ED(50) 1.7-5.6 microg/mL). Four of the others, the previously known methyl kulonate (8), kulinone (9), 16-hydroxybutyrospermol (10), and kulactone (11), were also found to inhibit (ED(50) 2.5-6.2 microg/mL) the P388 cancer cell line. In addition, two new euphane triterpenes were isolated and named dubione A (6) and dubione B (7). Structures for each of the 11 euphane triterpenes were established by spectral techniques that included HRMS and 2D NMR. PMID:12502333

Pettit, George R; Numata, Atsushi; Iwamoto, Chika; Morito, Hideaki; Yamada, Takeshi; Goswami, Animesh; Clewlow, Paul J; Cragg, Gordon M; Schmidt, Jean M

2002-12-01

34

Meliae cortex extract exhibits anti-allergic activity through the inhibition of Syk kinase in mast cells.  

PubMed

The anti-allergic action of various Oriental medicinal herbs was investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Of these extracts, the ethanol extract of Meliae cortex (MC) exhibited the most potent activity in mast cells; its IC(50) values were 29+/-1.5 microg/ml for antigen stimulation and 57+/-3.4 microg/ml for thapsigargin stimulation. It inhibited compound-48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis by 52.9% at a dose of 300 mg/kg in mice; it also inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory mediator TNF-alpha. With regard to its mechanism of action, MC suppressed the activating phosphorylation of Syk, a key enzyme in mast-cell signaling processes and that of Akt in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the MAP kinase ERK1/2, which is critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells, as indicated by the suppression of the activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-allergic activity of MC may be due to the inhibition of histamine secretion and cytokine expression through the Syk inhibition in mast cells. PMID:17395225

Lee, Jun Ho; Ko, Na Young; Kim, Nam Wook; Mun, Se Hwan; Kim, Jie Wan; Her, Erk; Kim, Bo Kyung; Seo, Dong Wan; Chang, Hyun Wook; Moon, Tae Chul; Han, Jeung Whan; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

2007-05-01

35

Meliae cortex extract exhibits anti-allergic activity through the inhibition of Syk kinase in mast cells  

SciTech Connect

The anti-allergic action of various Oriental medicinal herbs was investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Of these extracts, the ethanol extract of Meliae cortex (MC) exhibited the most potent activity in mast cells; its IC{sub 50} values were 29 {+-} 1.5 {mu}g/ml for antigen stimulation and 57 {+-} 3.4 {mu}g/ml for thapsigargin stimulation. It inhibited compound-48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis by 52.9% at a dose of 300 mg/kg in mice; it also inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory mediator TNF-{alpha}. With regard to its mechanism of action, MC suppressed the activating phosphorylation of Syk, a key enzyme in mast-cell signaling processes and that of Akt in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the MAP kinase ERK1/2, which is critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells, as indicated by the suppression of the activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-allergic activity of MC may be due to the inhibition of histamine secretion and cytokine expression through the Syk inhibition in mast cells.

Lee, Jun Ho [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Ko, Na Young [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Kim, Nam Wook [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Mun, Se Hwan [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Kim, Jie Wan [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Her, Erk [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Kim, Bo Kyung [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Seo, Dong Wan [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Chang, Hyun Wook [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of) ; Moon, Tae Chul [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of) ; Han, Jeung Whan [College of Pharamacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of) ; Kim, Young Mi [College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women's University, Seoul 132-714 (Korea, Republic of) ; Choi, Wahn Soo [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ]. E-mail: wahnchoi@kku.ac.kr

2007-05-01

36

Anti-amyloidogenic effects of ID1201, the ethanolic extract of the fruits of Melia toosendan, through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway.  

PubMed

Amyloid beta (A?) peptides, which are generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP), are thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the anti-amyloidogenic effects of the ethanolic extract of Meliae Fructus (ID1201) using human embryonic kidney 293 cells with stably expressed human wild-type or Swedish mutant APP695 and ?-secretase 1. ID1201 treatment enhanced the non-amyloidogenic metabolism of APP; increases in soluble APP? levels and decreases in soluble APP? and A? levels resulted from the ?-secretase activation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. In addition, ID1201-treated 5×familial AD (FAD) mice with 5 mutations in APP and presenilin 1 showed reduced levels of A? and amyloid plaques in the brain relative to those of 5×FAD mice with vehicle treatments. These results indicate that ID1201 possesses anti-amyloidogenic effects via the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, suggesting that it is a potential therapeutic agent for AD. PMID:24566006

Park, Hanbyeol; Yoo, Jong-Su; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Han, Jung-Soo; Yeon, Seung-Woo; Kang, Jae-Hoon

2014-03-01

37

Subsistence economy of el paraiso, an early peruvian site.  

PubMed

Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of E1 Paraíso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods consisted of a mixture of cultivated resources (squashes, beans, peppers, and jicama) with an additional reliance on fruits (guava, lucuma, and pacae). Wild plants, especially the roots of sedges and cat-tail, also may have accounted for a substantial part of the diet. Cotton was a chief crop, used in making fishing tackle and the textiles that served as clothing and items of high value and status. As an example of the beginnings of civilization, El Paraíso is a case in which impressive architecture was built on a relatively simple subsistence economy and energy was expended in the production of resources useful in local and regional exchange systems. PMID:17733284

Quilter, J; E, B O; Pearsall, D M; Sandweiss, D H; Jones, J G; Wing, E S

1991-01-18

38

Observations on the rooting patterns of some agroforestry trees in an arid region of north-western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with root architecture of 6-year-old trees of 9 indigenous and 3 exotic species growing in arid climate of north-western India. Observations, made on excavated root systems (3 tree replicates of each species) showed large variation in horizontal and vertical spread of roots. In Morus alba, Melia azedarach and Populus deltoides, the roots were confined to 80

O. P. Toky; R. P. Bisht

1992-01-01

39

Plant responses to water stress: changes in growth, dry matter production, stomatal frequency and leaf anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of seedlings of three fast growing tree species,Eucalyptus hybrid(E. camaldulensis × E. teriticornis), Casuarina equisetifolia andMelia azedarach, to different levels of soil moisture in controlled glasshouse conditions were compared. The survival percentage, height\\u000a of plants, number of leaves per plant, number of branches, fresh mass and dry mass of roots, stems, branches and leaves decreased\\u000a in the three

S. Nautiyal; H. K. Badola; M. Pal; D. S. Negi

1994-01-01

40

Isoprene emission from tropical tree species.  

PubMed

Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2 +/- 6.8 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2 +/- 4.9 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. PMID:15701397

Padhy, P K; Varshney, C K

2005-05-01

41

Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies. PMID:23460431

Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Luís C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

2013-03-01

42

An investigation of phenolic compounds from plant sources as trypsin inhibitors.  

PubMed

In the search of new trypsin inhibitors caffeic acid (1), cinnamic acid (2), gallic acid (3) and eugenol (4) from Cinnamomum zeylanicum, ferulic acid (5) from Impatiens bicolor, vanillin (6) from Melia azedarach and catechol (7) from Allium cepa were isolated through bioassay guided fractionation of the plant extracts. IC (50) values of the compounds 1, 2 and 5 were found to be 0.35?±?0.02?mM, 0.96?±?0.05?mM and 1.22?±?0.06?mM, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots and their secondary replots showed that 1 was non-competitive inhibitor of this enzyme with K(i) value 0.102?±?0.006?mM. PMID:22011193

Shahwar, Durre; Raza, Muhammad Asam; Shafiq-Ur-Rehman; Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Atta-Ur-Rahman

2012-01-01

43

Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi  

SciTech Connect

Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author) [Spanish] El rango de hospederos de Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) en America del Norte esta reportado aqui por la primera vez. Se presentan datos descriptivos como el numero de ataques por hospederos, el tamano de los tallos en el punto de ataque y la altura por encima del nivel de tierra de los ataques. Los hospederos observados en el estado de Mississippi fueron Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux y Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua tuvo ataques significativamente mas exitosos, una probabilidad significativamente mas alta de ataques y un numero significativamente mayor de adultos de escarabajos por arbol hospedero que Carya spp., A. rubrum y L. tulipifera. Esta informacion es pertinente en determinar el impacto que pueda tener este escarabajo exotico en invernaderos, areas urbanas y otros sistemas forestales donde el escarabajo se establece. (author)

Stone, W.D.; Nebeker, T.E. [Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Box 9775, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Gerard, P.D. [Experimental Statistics Unit, Mississippi State University, Box 9731, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

2007-03-15

44

Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.  

PubMed

Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs. PMID:10412110

Mulla, M S; Su, T

1999-06-01

45

Antimycotic activities of selected plant flora, growing wild in Lebanon, against phytopathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Petroleum ether (PE) and methanolic extracts of nine wild plant species were tested in vitro for their antimycotic activity against eight phytopathogenic fungi. The efficacy of PE extracts against all pathogens tested was higher than that of methanolic extracts. Wild marjoram (Origanum syriacum) PE extract showed the highest and widest range of activity. It resulted in complete inhibition of mycelial growth of six of eight fungi tested and also gave nearly complete inhibition of spore germination of the six fungi included in the assay, namely, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, and Verticillium dahlia. The other plant extracts showed differential activities in the spore germination test, but none was highly active against mycelial growth. Inula viscosa and Mentha longifolia were highly effective (>88%) in spore germination tests against five of six fungi tested, whereas Centaurea pallescens, Cichorium intybus, Eryngium creticum, Salvia fruticosa, and Melia azedarach showed >95% inhibition of spore germination in at least two fungi. Foeniculum vulgare showed the least antimycotic activity. Fractionation followed by autobiography on TLC plates using Cladosporium sp. as a test organism showed that O. syriacum PE extracts contained three inhibition zones, and those of Inula viscosa and Cichorium intybus, two, whereas the PE extracts of the remaining plants showed each one inhibition zone. Some of the major compounds present in these inhibition zones were identified by GC-MS. The possibility for using these extracts, or their mixtures, to control plant diseases is discussed. PMID:12009988

Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf; Sobh, Hana; Salameh, Abdu

2002-05-22

46

Poisoning in ostriches following ingestion of toxic plants--field observations.  

PubMed

Data from post-mortem and field studies were obtained that discussed poisoning in ostriches following ingestion of toxic plants. From the notes, all plants studied caused death in ostriches and there was systemic organ damage. Poisoning from Sarcostemma viminale (Melktou) resulted in beak patting, muscular tremors and head flopping, followed by collapse and violent kicking before death. Ingestion of Combretum oatesii (Red wings) seeds from plants in free grazing pastures resulted in vomiting, restlessness, eyelid flicking, collapse and kicking movements. Dichapetalum cymosum (Gifblaar) killed an ostrich after episodes of shaking legs, rapid respiration and bradycardia and hyperaemia of the lungs, liver and kidneys. Poisoning from Senecio sceleratus (Ragwort) caused skin haemorrhages and bleeding in tracheal mucous membranes, the pericardium, diaphragm and interperitoneal membrane. Consumption of drupes from Melia azedarach (Syringa berry) caused muscle tremors, kicking movements and respiratory distress. Lantana camara (Cherry pie) poisoning resulted in extremely inflamed eyes with copious yellow exudates extending down their beaks and onto their necks. Bentonite was administered by gavage at a dose of 5 g/kg. Poisoning in these cases is usually associated with the farmer allowing his/her birds to roam free-range in paddocks in which toxic plants are growing. Toxic plants should be removed from grass cut for hay. PMID:17966275

Cooper, Ross G

2007-08-01

47

Effect of the potent antiviral 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin on cytokine production by murine macrophages stimulated with HSV-2.  

PubMed

The limonoid 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (CDM) isolated from leaf extracts of Melia azedarach L, has potent antiherpetic effect in epithelial cells. Since Meliacine, the partially purified extract source of CDM, has therapeutic effect on murine genital herpes, the potential use of CDM as microbicide against herpetic infections was studied here. To determine the cytotoxic effect of CDM, the MTT assay and acridine orange staining of living cells were performed. The antiherpetic action of CDM was measured by plaque reduction assay, and the immunomodulatory effect was determined by measuring the cytokine production using a bioassay and ELISA method. The results presented here showed that CDM inhibited Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) multiplication in Vero cells but did not affect its replication in macrophages which were not permissive to HSV infection. In macrophages, levels of TNF-?, IFN-?, NO, IL-6 and IL-10 were increased by CDM used alone or in combination with HSV-2. Besides, CDM not only synergized TNF-? production combined with IFN-?, but also prolonged its expression in time. Results indicate that CDM inhibits HSV-2 multiplication in epithelial cells and also increases cytokine production in macrophages, both important actions to the clearance of infecting virus in the mouse vagina. PMID:23512754

Petrera, Erina; Coto, Celia E

2014-01-01

48

1-Cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin is a natural bioactive compound with antiviral and nuclear factor-{kappa}B modulating properties  

SciTech Connect

We have reported the isolation of the tetranortriterpenoid 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (CDM) from partially purified leaf extracts of Melia azedarach L. (MA) that reduced both, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) multiplication. CDM blocks VSV entry and the intracellular transport of VSV-G protein, confining it to the Golgi apparatus, by pre- or post-treatment, respectively. Here, we report that HSV-1 glycoproteins were also confined to the Golgi apparatus independently of the nature of the host cell. Considering that MA could be acting as an immunomodulator preventing the development of herpetic stromal keratitis in mice, we also examined an eventual effect of CDM on NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway. CDM is able to impede NF-{kappa}B activation in HSV-1-infected conjunctival cells and leads to the accumulation of p65 NF-{kappa}B subunit in the cytoplasm of uninfected treated Vero cells. In conclusion, CDM is a pleiotropic agent that not only inhibits the multiplication of DNA and RNA viruses by the same mechanism of action but also modulates the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway.

Barquero, Andrea A. [Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Piso 4to., Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: alecab@qb.fcen.uba.ar; Michelini, Flavia M. [Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Piso 4to., Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alche, Laura E. [Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Piso 4to., Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2006-06-09

49

Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine.

Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

2014-01-01

50

Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

2014-01-01

51

Potential anti-osteoporotic effects of herbal extracts on osteoclasts, osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most serious diseases in the modern world, and OP patients frequently suffer from fragility fractures in the hip, spine and wrist, resulting in a limited quality of life. Although bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most effective class of anti-bone-resorptive drugs currently available and the most commonly prescribed for the clinical treatment of OP, they are known to cause serious side effects such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Novel therapeutic materials that can replace the use of BPs have therefore been developed. Methods We commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only in OP, but also in oral and skeletal diseases. In the present study, we report on 3 Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Melia azedarach, Corydalis turtschaninovii, and Cynanchum atratum. Results All of these extracts inhibited osteoclast proliferation and induced apoptosis by up-regulation of caspase activity and increase of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins expression. Furthermore, the extracts enhanced differentiation, but did not affect proliferation of both osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The osteo-inducible effect was also observed in cultured primary bone marrow cells. Conclusions Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects in OP. In this study, we elucidate the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for OP therapy.

2014-01-01

52

The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2013-06-01

53

Anatomy and lignin distribution in reaction phloem fibres of several Japanese hardwoods  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Although tension wood formation and the structure of gelatinous fibres (G-fibres) have been widely investigated, studies of the influence of the reaction phenomenon on phloem fibres have been few and incomplete in comparison with those of xylem wood fibres. This study was undertaken to clarify the influence of stem inclination on phloem fibres using several Japanese hardwood species that produce different G-fibre types in tension wood. Methods Eight hardwood species were inclined at 30–45° at the beginning of April. Specimens were collected in July and December. The cell-wall structure and lignin distribution of phloem fibres on both the tension and opposite sides were compared by light microscopy, ultraviolet microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy after staining with acriflavine, and transmission electron microscopy after staining with potassium permanganate. Key Results Three types of changes were found in tension-side phloem fibres: (1) increases in the proportion of the syringyl unit in lignin in the S1 and S2 layers and compound middle lamella (Cercidiphyllum japonicum), (2) formation of unlignified gelatinous layers (Melia azedarach and Acer rufinerve) and (3) increases in the number of layers (n) in the multi-layered structure of S1 + S2 + n (G + L) (Mallotus japonicus). Other species showed no obvious change in cell-wall structure or lignin distribution. Conclusions Phloem fibres of the tree species examined in our study showed three types of changes in lignin distribution and cell-wall structure. The reaction phenomenon may vary with tree species and may not be closely related to G-fibre type in tension wood.

Nakagawa, Kaori; Yoshinaga, Arata; Takabe, Keiji

2012-01-01

54

The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C-1 and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C-1, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially.

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2014-05-01

55

The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.  

PubMed

Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C(-1), respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially. PMID:23732443

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2014-05-01

56

27 CFR 9.139 - Santa Lucia Highlands.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Escrito Peak, Calif., 1956 (photorevised 1984) (5) Soledad, Calif., 1955 (photorevised 1984) (6) Sycamore Flat...4 miles to the junction of Foothill and Paraiso Roads on the Soledad, California U.S.G.S. map. (8) Then...

2009-04-01

57

Do botanical pesticides alter the structure of the soil microbial community?  

PubMed

The effects of synthetic pesticides on the soil microbial community have been thoroughly investigated in the past mostly by culture-dependent methods and only few recent studies have used culture-independent approaches for this purpose. However, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted in microcosms where the soil microbial community is exposed to unrealistic concentrations of the pesticides, providing an unrealistic exposure scheme for soil microorganism. On the other hand, little is known regarding the potential impact of botanical pesticides on the soil microbial community. Therefore, a laboratory study and a field study were conducted to investigate the effects of synthetic (metham sodium [MS], sodium tetrathiocarbonate [SoTe], and fosthiazate) and botanical pesticides (azadirachtin, quillaja, and pulverized Melia azedarach fruits [PMF]) on the soil microbial community using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the results of the laboratory study indicated that the application of PMF resulted in significant changes in the soil microbial community. This was obvious by the proportional increase in the abundance of fatty acids 18:1omega9cis, 18:1omega9trans, which are common in gram-negative bacteria and saprotrophic fungi, and 18:2omega6,9, which is a fungal indicator. This response was attributed to the release of copious amounts of organic carbon and nutrients in the soil by the PMF. On the other hand, MS inhibited fungi and gram-negative bacteria, while fosthiazate and the botanical pesticides quillaja and azadirachtin did not impose significant changes in the soil microbial community. Similar results were obtained by the field study where application of the fumigants MS and SoTe significantly altered the structure of the soil microbial community with the former having a more prominent effect. Fosthiazate imposed mild changes in the soil microbial community, whereas quillaja and azadirachtin again did not show a significant effect. Overall, botanical pesticides, at their recommended dose, did not alter the structure of the soil microbial community compared to synthetic nonfumigant and fumigant pesticides which induced significant changes. PMID:19440648

Spyrou, Ioanna M; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

2009-11-01

58

Why the Rh = ct cosmology is a vacuum solution in disguise and why all big bang models should be so  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Melia and his coworkers have proposed the so-called Rh = ct cosmology where the scale factor of the universe is a(t) ? t and the spatial part is flat. Here, we look at this proposal from a fundamental angle. First, we note that Melia cosmology looks strikingly similar to the old Milne cosmology where a(t) ? t and the spatial part is negatively curved. It is known that though Milne cosmology is a valid Friedmann solution, it actually corresponds to ? = 0 and can be described by a globally static Minkowski metric. Secondly, we note that for the Melia model, Ricci & Kretschmann scalars assume their perfect static form hinting that it too may tacitly correspond to vacuum. To compare Melia universe with the Milne universe, we express Melia metric too in curvature/Schwarzschild coordinates. Finally, by using the fact for such coordinate transformations dx'4 = Jdx4, where J is the appropriate Jacobian, we explicitly show that Melia metric is static, which for k = 0 case implies vacuum. This shows that even apparently meaningful general relativistic solutions could be illusory as far as physical reality is concerned. And since Melia model is the unique solution for the big bang model, eventually, all big bang models could be mathematical illusions.

Mitra, Abhas

2014-07-01

59

Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the

M. I. Nieva Moreno; M. I. Isla; N. G. Cudmani; M. A. Vattuone; A. R. Sampietro

1999-01-01

60

27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...minute series, edition of 1956; (2) âParaiso Springs, California,â 7.5 minute series, edition of 1956; (3) âSoledad, California,â 7.5 minute series, edition of 1955; and (4) âSycamore Flat, California,â 7.5 minute...

2010-04-01

61

27 CFR 9.59 - Arroyo Seco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...minute series, edition of 1956; (2) âParaiso Springs, California,â 7.5 minute series, edition of 1956; (3) âSoledad, California,â 7.5 minute series, edition of 1955; and (4) âSycamore Flat, California,â 7.5 minute...

2009-04-01

62

Hydrodynamics and Long-term Permeability Evolution in Clogging Porous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeability reduction caused by colloid deposition in porous media, or clogging, is important in water treatment, aquifer hydraulics, and subsurface remediation. Analysis of six published data sets, representing a variety of particles, porous media and fluids, indicates greater clogging at lower fluid velocity. There is a unique relationship between a clogging parameter in a modified O'Melia and Ali model and

D. C. Mays; J. R. Hunt

2004-01-01

63

Decreased Response to Feeding Deterrents Following Prolonged Exposure in the Larvae of a Generalist Herbivore, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of experience with several antifeedants on the feeding behavior of a generalist herbivore, Trichoplusia ni. Second-, third-, and fifth-instar larvae of T. ni were examined for their feeding responses to plant extracts (Melia volkensii, Origanum vulgare) and individual plant allelochemicals (cymarin, digitoxin, xanthotoxin, toosendanin, and thymol), after being exposed to them continually beginning as neonates. All

Yasmin Akhtar; Catharine H. Rankin; Murray B. Isman

2003-01-01

64

Ovicidal activity of crude extracts of few traditional plants against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cipadessa baccifera Miq., Melia dubia (Cav.) (Meliaceae); Clausena dentata (Rutaceae) and Dodonaea angustifolia (Sapindaceae) are common medicinal plants found in Western Ghats and are used traditionally for various purposes. The petroleum ether, chloroform, hexane, acetone and water extracts of the leaves were investigated for their ovicidal property against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae). The different extracts of the test

S. Malarvannan; R. Giridharan; S. Sekar; V. R. Prabavathy; Sudha Nair

2009-01-01

65

Putting the clamps on membrane fusion: How complexin sets the stage for calcium-mediated exocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three recent papers have addressed a long-standing question in exocytosis: how does a sudden calcium influx trigger a coordinated synchronous release in regulated exocytosis [Giraudo, C.G., Eng, W.S., Melia, T.J. and Rothman, J.E. (2006) A clamping mechanism involved in SNARE-dependent exocytosis. Science 313, 676–680; Schaub, J.R., Lu, X., Doneske, B., Shin, Y.K. and McNew, J.A. (2006) Hemifusion arrest by complexin

Thomas J. Melia

2007-01-01

66

Mineral chemical and geochronological constraints on the age and provenance of the eastern Circum-Rhodope Belt low-grade metasedimentary rocks, NE Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In north-eastern Greece the mid-greenschist facies Makri Unit and the anchizonal Melia Formation belong to the eastern Circum-Rhodope Belt that forms the uppermost tectonostratigraphic unit of the Rhodope metamorphic nappe pile. The two metasedimentary successions had different source areas, although they now lie in close proximity in the Rhodope Massif. The U–Pb isotopic ages of detrital zircons from a metasandstone

Guido Meinhold; Thomas Reischmann; Dimitrios Kostopoulos; Dirk Frei; Alexander N. Larionov

2010-01-01

67

Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.  

PubMed

Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation. PMID:10624867

Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

1999-12-15

68

Holocene precipitation changes in the deep tropics recorded by Speleothems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained a high-resolution oxygen isotope (?18O) record of cave calcite from Paraiso Cave, eastern Amazon, which covers most of the Holocene. Its chronology was determined by U-Th ages from three column-shaped stalagmites. Their ?18O profiles replicate among their contemporaneous growth periods. Therefore, the samples were likely precipitated under equilibrium conditions and their oxygen isotopic variations are primarily caused by climate change. We find that the ?18O decreases steadily from ~11.0 to 5.0 thousand years ago, with a growth gap between ~8.4 to 6.3 thousand years ago, and then gradually increases until the present. The large amplitude of the ?18O change (up to 4 per mil) suggests that the variation in ?18O value is dominated by meteoric precipitation change at this equatorial site. In order to investigate the interactions between the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), monsoons and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity during the Holocene, we compare the Paraiso record to speleothem records from other locations in the deep tropics, namely, cave sites from Flores, Borneo and Peru. We find that all these speleothem records are consistent, with a progressive ?18O decrease (rainfall increase) during the early Holocene, probably in response to the southward retreat of the ITCZ from its northernmost location in the early Holocene. This is evident from the strong anti-correlation between the speleothem monsoonal records from China and southern Brazil. However, our record is distinct from the others during the last 4 thousand years, when it switches to a continuous ?18O increase (rainfall decrease) trend, while the others flatten out. We propose that, during the late Holocene, the strengthened South American Summer Monsoon may override the ENSO influence and cause the discrepancy in precipitation between eastern Amazon and other deep tropical cave sites.

Wang, X.; Auler, A. S.; Edwards, R.; Kong, X.; Cheng, H.; Cruz, F. W.; Wang, Y.; Broecker, W. S.

2010-12-01

69

Multipeaked X-ray bursts from 4U/MXB 1636-53 - evidence against burst-induced accretion disk coronae  

SciTech Connect

The burst-induced accretion-disk corona (BIADC) model proposed by Melia (1987) to explain the multiple-peak burst profiles of 4U/MXB 1636-53 in terms of direct and scattered components is examined critically. Published observational data (Sztajno et al., 1986, and Lewin et al., 1987) are presented in tables and graphs and analyzed. A number of possible BIADC scenarios are discussed, and it is argued that the observed characteristics of the 1636-53 bursts are not well accounted for by the BIADC model. 11 references.

Penninx, W.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Van Paradijs, J.

1987-10-01

70

Why the Big Bang Model does not allow inflationary and cyclic cosmologies though mathematically one can obtain any model with favourable assumptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various versions of standard Big Bang Model (BBM) including the current LCDM cosmology require an “inflationary” phase for the nascent universe (?t?10-32 s) during which the size of the universe blows up by a factor of ?1078. However, the so-called Rh=ct cosmology (Melia, 2013a) claims that the isotropy and homogeneity of the present universe can be understood without assuming any inflationary phase. To this effect, Melia and his coworkers have often invoked “Weyl’s Postulate” and “Birkhoff’s Theorem” to qualitatively argue for this novel model. On the other hand, here, we explore for a cogent analytical basis of the Rh=ct proposal which is claimed to have such a profound implication. First we show that (i) if the spatial flatness of the BBM would be presumed, Rh=ct cosmology may indeed follow. To further explore this issue without prior assumption of flatness (ii) we equate the twin expressions for the Energy Complex (EC) associated with BBM computed by using the same Einstein pseudo-tensor and quasi-Cartesian coordinates (Mitra, 2013b). This exercise surprisingly shows that BBM has tacit and latent self-consistency constraints: it is spatially flat and its scale factor a(t)?t. Accordingly, it seems that, there is no scope for the other models including inflationary and cyclic ones. The real lumpy universe may be too complex for the simplistic Big Bang model.

Mitra, Abhas

2014-07-01

71

Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.  

PubMed

Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus. PMID:3497307

Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

1987-01-01

72

Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of hyponidd, an ayurvedic herbomineral formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Hyponidd is a herbomineral formulation composed of the extracts of ten medicinal plants ( Momordica charantia, Melia azadirachta, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia , Gymnema sylvestre, Enicostemma littorale, Emblica officinalis, Eugenia jambolana, Cassia auriculata and Curcuma longa). We have investigated hyponidd for its possible antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect in diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg kg(-1) body weight). Oral administration of hyponidd (100 mg kg(-1) and 200 mg kg(-1)) for 45 days resulted in significant lowered levels of blood glucose and significant increased levels of hepatic glycogen and total haemoglobin. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in experimental diabetic rats in which there was a significant improvement in blood glucose tolerance in the rats treated with hyponidd. Hyponidd administration also decreased levels of glycosylated haemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and alpha-tocopherol in diabetic rats. Plasma reduced glutathione and vitamin C were significantly elevated by oral administration of hyponidd. The effect of hyponidd at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1) was more effective than glibenclamide (600 microg kg(-1)) in restoring the values to near normal. The results showed that hyponidd exhibits antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:15525451

Babu, P Subash; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

2004-11-01

73

Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics.  

PubMed

The present paper deals with the medicinal plants used by the people of Assam for curing different skin ailments and for cosmetics. A total of 85 plants belonging to 49 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against skin diseases and as herbal care. The herbal medicines were prepared from various plant parts of single plant, or multiple plants. The majority of the preparation was made using water as the medium. The mode of application was topical, but in many cases it was also administered orally. In several cases the pure herbal preparations was administered along with milk, ghee, honey, coconut oil, curd, etc. Remedies for 18 skin ailments were documented through this study. About 14 plants are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Curcuma longa and Melia azaderach constitute the major plants. The herbal cosmetic products used by the people of Assam ranges from the enhancement of skin colour, hair care, removal of ugly spots, colouring of nails, palms, and teeth. However, many of the plant preparations used for enhancing beauty were also applied for therapeutic use. Herbal remedies were also available for skin burns, prickly heat and pimples. Information on nine plants used for managing dry skin also emerged from this study. PMID:16473486

Saikia, Abinash Pratim; Ryakala, Venkat Kishore; Sharma, Pragya; Goswami, Pranab; Bora, Utpal

2006-06-30

74

Mitigating nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil in rice-wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic plain with nitrification and urease inhibitors.  

PubMed

Mitigation of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil is important to reduce the global warming. Efficacy of five nitrification inhibitors, i.e. neem (Azadirachta melia) cake, thiosulphate, coated calcium carbide, neem oil coated urea and dicyandiamide (DCD) and one urease inhibitor, hydroquinone, in mitigating N2O and CH4 emissions from fertilized soil was tested in rice-wheat system in the Indo-Gangetic plains. The closed chamber technique was used for the collection of gas samples, which were analyzed using gas chromatography. Reduction in N2O emission on the application of nitrification/urease inhibitors along with urea ranged from 5% with hydroquinone to 31% with thiosulphate in rice and 7% with hydroquinone to 29% with DCD in wheat crop. The inhibitors also influenced the emission of CH4. While application of neem coated urea, coated calcium carbide, neem oil and DCD reduced the emission of CH4; hydroquinone and thiosulphate increased the emission when compared to urea alone. However, the global warming potential was lower with the inhibitors (except hydroquinone) as compared to urea alone, suggesting that these substances could be used for mitigating greenhouse gas emission from the rice-wheat systems. PMID:15571746

Malla, G; Bhatia, Arti; Pathak, H; Prasad, S; Jain, Niveta; Singh, J

2005-01-01

75

Putting the clamps on membrane fusion: how complexin sets the stage for calcium-mediated exocytosis.  

PubMed

Three recent papers have addressed a long-standing question in exocytosis: how does a sudden calcium influx trigger a coordinated synchronous release in regulated exocytosis [Giraudo, C.G., Eng, W.S., Melia, T.J. and Rothman, J.E. (2006) A clamping mechanism involved in SNARE-dependent exocytosis. Science 313, 676-680; Schaub, J.R., Lu, X., Doneske, B., Shin, Y.K. and McNew, J.A. (2006) Hemifusion arrest by complexin is relieved by Ca(2+)-synaptotagmin I. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 13, 748-750; Tang, J., Maximov, A., Shin, O.H., Dai, H., Rizo, J. and Sudhof, T.C. (2006) A complexin/synaptotagmin 1 switch controls fast synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Cell 126, 1175-1187]? Using diverse approaches that include cell-free reconstitution of the membrane fusion machinery and in vivo manipulation of fusogenic proteins, these groups have established that the complexin proteins are fusion clamps. By arresting vesicle secretion just prior to fusion, complexin primes select vesicles for a fast, synchronous response to calcium. PMID:17350005

Melia, Thomas J

2007-05-22

76

Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.  

PubMed

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

77

Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov., represented by xenobiotics degrading type strains.  

PubMed

Two strains of gram-negative bacteria isolated because of their abilities to decompose xenobiotic compounds were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the two strains were found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas. Benzene degrading strain DSM 8628(T) was moderately related to P. flavescens NCPP 3063(T) (98.3% similarity), P. monteilii CIP 104883(T), and P. plecoglossicida FPC 951(T) (98.1%). Strain DSM 9751(T) capable to grow with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride as the sole carbon source showed the highest similarity values with P. tremae CFBP 2341(T) and P. meliae MAFF 301463(T) (98.0%), both related to Pseudomonas syringae. The fatty acid pattern of strain DSM 8628(T) was distinct from patterns of other members of the genus Pseudomonas in combining a high ratio of 3OH-C(12:1) (5.1%), a low ratio of 2OH-C(12:0) (0.2%) and a relatively low ratio of C(18:1)omega7c (23.8%). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological properties and the composition of whole cell fatty acids, two novel species, Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 8628(T) (=CIP 109857(T)) and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 9751(T) (=CIP 109856(T)), are proposed. PMID:19771475

Lang, Elke; Burghartz, Melanie; Spring, Stefan; Swiderski, Jolanthe; Spröer, Cathrin

2010-02-01

78

Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents  

PubMed Central

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation.

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

79

Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi. PMID:15567249

Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A

2004-12-01

80

Identification and distribution of New World Leishmania species characterized by serodeme analysis using monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Five hundred thirty stocks of Leishmania isolated from human and domestic and wild reservoir hosts, representing a wide geographic distribution of endemic foci of American cutaneous (ACL) and visceral leishmaniases (AVL) were characterized and identified at species and/or subspecies levels based on their reactivity to a cross-panel of specific monoclonal antibodies using a radioimmune binding assay. This study confirms and extends our preliminary results on the high specificity of some of these monoclonals for the L. braziliensis, L. mexicana, and L. donovani complexes. This study also demonstrates the relative stability of these molecular markers and the general usefulness of the method for parasite identification. Two hundred ninety-two of 420 isolates of ACL were classified as members of the L. braziliensis complex. Two hundred twenty-seven were L. b. braziliensis; these showed the widest geographical distribution (Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo; Honduras: Santa Barbara and Yoko; Peru: Ancash, Piura, and Ucayali; and Venezuela: Cojedes, Distrito Federal, Lara, Portuguesa, Vale Hondo, Yaracuy, and Zulia). Forty-one stocks were identified as L. b. guyanensis (from North Brazil: Amazonas, Amapa, Para, and Rondonia). Twenty-one stocks were identified as L. b. panamensis (from Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacasten, Limon, Puntarenas, and San Jose; and Honduras: El Paraiso, and Olancho). Out of 128 isolates classified as members of the L. mexicana complex, 74 were differentiated as L. m. amazonensis (from Bolivia; Brazil: Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso do Norte, and Para; Peru: Pasco Forest and Van Humboldt; and Venezuela: Carabobo, Guarico, and Merida). Forty-four stocks were identified as L. m. venezuelensis (from Venezuela: Lara). Six stocks were L. m. mexicana (from Belize; and Mexico: Campeche [corrected] and Quintana Roo, Yucatan). One hundred ten isolates from AVL were identified as L. donovani chagasi (from Brazil: Bahia, Ceara, Maranhao, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, and Sergipe; and Honduras: Valle). The implications of these results with respect to both the clinical and epidemiological data (including the detection of seven unusual characterized stocks) are discussed. PMID:3826486

Grimaldi, G; David, J R; McMahon-Pratt, D

1987-03-01

81

Hydrodynamics and Long-term Permeability Evolution in Clogging Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeability reduction caused by colloid deposition in porous media, or clogging, is important in water treatment, aquifer hydraulics, and subsurface remediation. Analysis of six published data sets, representing a variety of particles, porous media and fluids, indicates greater clogging at lower fluid velocity. There is a unique relationship between a clogging parameter in a modified O'Melia and Ali model and the depositing particle's Peclet number. The adopted Peclet number is the ratio of advective to Brownian particle transport within a porous medium and includes hydrodynamics, particle size, and the grain size of the porous medium. Although these data quantify the dependence of clogging on Peclet number, they do not describe steady-state clogging, achieved under conditions of constant flow, with a constant permeability and a constant mass of deposited particles. Data and models for steady-state clogging are lacking because classical filtration research focused on water treatment filters, which are backwashed periodically, and so are not allowed to reach steady state. Steady-state clogging is relevant to flow in natural subsurface environments as an important limiting case in the feedback process between particle deposition and permeability evolution, and as an initial condition for models that describe permeability alteration from mechanical or seismic forces. A model for steady-state clogging assumes deposit permeability to be negligible, then calculates Poiseuille flow in open tubes through the clogged media. The radius of these tubes is a characteristic pore size; the number of these tubes is determined by the applied flow rate and the deposit shear strength, using published estimates. With these assumptions, the model predicts that the pressure drop across the clogged sample is independent of the imposed flow rate, so steady-state permeability will be proportional to flow rate. Deposition experiments (destabilized montmorillonite on quartz sand) to test the power-law relationship between hydrodynamics and permeability and the steady-state clogging model are in progress.

Mays, D. C.; Hunt, J. R.

2004-12-01

82

DNA relatedness among the pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and description of Pseudomonas tremae sp. nov. and Pseudomonas cannabina sp. nov. (ex Sutic and Dowson 1959).  

PubMed

A total of 48 pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae and eight related species were studied by DNA-DNA hybridization (S1 nuclease method) and ribotyping. The existence of nine discrete genomospecies was indicated. Genomospecies 1 corresponded to P. syringae sensu stricto and included P. syringae pathovars syringae, aptata, lapsa, papulans, pisi, atrofaciens, aceris, panici, dysoxyli and japonica. Genomospecies 2 included P. syringae pathovars phaseolicola, ulmi, mori, lachrymans, sesami, tabaci, morsprunorum, glycinea, ciccaronei, eriobotryae, mellea, aesculi, hibisci, myricae, photiniae and dendropanacis and nomenspecies Pseudomonas savastanoi, Pseudomonas ficuserectae, Pseudomonas meliae and Pseudomonas amygdali, which are thus synonymous. P. amygdali is the earliest valid name for this genomospecies. Genomospecies 3 included P. syringae pathovars tomato, persicae, antirrhini, maculicola, viburni, berberidis, apii, delphinii, passiflorae, philadelphi, ribicola and primulae. We recommend strain CFBP 2212 of P. syringae pv. tomato to serve as the type strain. Genomospecies 4 included 'Pseudomonas coronafaciens' and P. syringae pathovars porri, garcae, striafaciens, atropurpurea, oryzae and zizaniae and corresponds to 'P. coronafaciens'. Genomospecies 5 included P. syringae pv. tremae and corresponds to Pseudomonas tremae sp. nov. Genomospecies 6 included Pseudomonas viridiflava and the presently misidentified pathotype strains of P. syringae pv. ribicola and P. syringae pv. primulae and thus corresponds to P. viridiflava. Genomospecies 7 included P. syringae pv. tagetis and P. syringae pv. helianthi. We recommend strain CFBP 1694 of P. syringae pv. tagetis to serve as a reference strain. Genomospecies 8 included P. syringae pv. these and Pseudomonas avellanae and thus corresponds to P. avellanae. Genomospecies 9 included P. syringae pv. cannabina and corresponds to Pseudomonas cannabina sp. nov. Ribotyping (SmaI and HincII endonucleases) could separate seven of the nine genomospecies. The unnamed genomospecies 3 and 7 will be named when phenotypic data are available for identification. Two species are described, P. tremae sp. nov. and P. cannabina sp. nov. Other species will be named when phenotypic data are available for identification. PMID:10319466

Gardan, L; Shafik, H; Belouin, S; Broch, R; Grimont, F; Grimont, P A

1999-04-01

83

Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.  

PubMed

Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds. PMID:18390447

Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

2008-04-01

84

High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust National Cancer Institute botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through put microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015-0.5?mg/mL) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % of the extracts tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50 ) properties <0.0183?mg/mL. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao [symbol: see text] Speranskia herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite clay, Bunge root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi [symbol: see text] root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone root (Collinsonia Canadensis), and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun, and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth root (Trillium Pendulum), and alkanet root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (S. tuberculata), which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis, leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of anti-mitotic natural plants that are effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, K F A

2014-06-01

85

Evidence of hydrocarbon pollution in soil exploiting satellite optical and radar images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil spills are one of the most important sources of hydrocarbon pollution in soils of areas near centers of extraction, storage or transportation of petroleum products. These spills or leaks can occur arising from deficient maintenance of facilities or accidents. The effects of these spills can spread for kilometers affecting large areas. This has a strong impact on the local ecosystem disturbing the flora and fauna. In costal tourist areas, this type of contaminants represents significant health risks for visitors and therefore, economic losses for the place. For this reason, it is very important to know and identify the areas affected by this type of pollution in order to create action plans for remediation of the ecosystem. Due to the large land extensions that can cover such disasters, satellite images become a valuable tool because of their large spatial coverage. Nowadays, different satellite techniques have been developed to recognize land affected by the presence of hydrocarbons. In the optical spectrum, optical sensing imagery (e.g. Landsat, SPOT, MODIS, etc.) has been widely used. However, these techniques have the intrinsic limitation in scenes with vegetation cover. In contrast, techniques exploiting radar images are still rare. The type of signal that is detected by the radar provides information even in areas with vegetation cover. The radar signal interacts with the vegetation and soil collecting information about the dielectric properties of the soil. This study identifies zones of contaminated soil by using the synergy of optical and radar images. This site of study is located in Paraiso, Tabasco, in Southern Mexico (18°27'N 93°32'W). The region is composed of coastal and tropical forest ecosystems and includes the Port Dos Bocas. The Port Dos Bocas has its points of extractions 130m away from the coast. The annual activities report 10 millions of tons of hydrocarbons transported using around 5500 ships. The methodology presented in this paper includes field measurements collecting soil samples at depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm, the implementation of an algorithm to exploit Landsat 5 and 7 images to identify polluted zones, and the implementation of an algorithm using Envisat ASAR and an incoherent scattering model to delineate the polluted soil. The laboratory analysis of the soil samples showed that in all cases the most contaminated region of the soil is the deeper layer (30-60 cm). The processing of the optical images identifies contaminated regions mainly for bare soils and short vegetation. For highly vegetated regions, the optical images do not detect the polluted soils because the wavelength of observation cannot penetrate vegetation. The radar algorithm indicates that the most contaminated zones showed the lowest backscattering coefficient in comparison to clean zones. Unlike optical images, the Envisat images allowed the identification of polluted zones even under high vegetation conditions.

Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Galvan-Pineda, J.; Espinosa-Hernandez, A.; Jimenez-Escalona, J. C.; Ramos-Rodriguez, J. M.

2013-05-01

86

A new definition of a correlation equation for single collector efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport and deposition of colloidal particles in porous media are important phenomena involved in many environmental and engineering problems as, for instance, the use of micro- and nanoscale zerovalent iron, a promising reagent in the field of groundwater remediation [1]. Particle transport and deposition in the proximity of injection or pumping wells and in porous media in general may also be relevant in other fields of chemical and petroleum engineering. Mathematical models able to predict particles transport and deposition in porous media are often needed in order to design field applications. The basic concept of these models is the single collector efficiency ?, which predicts particles deposition onto a single grain of a complex porous medium in terms of probability that an approaching particle would be retained on a solid grain. Many different approaches and equations exist in the literature, however most of them are valid only under specific conditions (eg. specific range of flow rate, particle size, etc.), and predict, for certain parametric conditions, efficiency values exceeding unity, which is, for an efficiency concept, a contradiction [2][3]. The objectives of this study are to analyze the causes of the failure of the existing models in predicting the deposition rate in certain conditions and to modify the definition of collector efficiency in order to have a more general equation. The definition of collector efficiency, first proposed by Yao at al. [4], is based on the particles deposition onto a spherical grain (the collector) in an infinite domain. It is defined as the ration between the flux of particles that deposit on the grain and the total amount of particles that could reach the collector by advective flux from an area equal to the projection of the spherical grain itself. In the present work Yao's model has been implemented by COMSOL Multiphysics and solved with an Eulerian approach; particles deposition simulations were run. From these results a new definition of ? is proposed, considering all the flux that potentially reach the collector. A new equation, valid in a broader range of parameters (eg. low Pe number, big particle size, etc.), has been formulated starting from the numerical results. References .1. Boccardo, G., D.L. Marchisio, and R. Sethi, Microscale simulation of particle deposition in porous media. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2014. 417: p. 227-37. 2. Ma, H., M. Hradisky, and W.P. Johnson, Extending Applicability of Correlation Equations to Predict Colloidal Retention in Porous Media at Low Fluid Velocity. Environ. Sci. Technology, 2013. 47: p. 2272-2278. 3. Song, L.F. and M. Elimelech, Deposition of Brownian Particles in Porous-Media - Modified Boundary-Conditions for the Sphere-in-Cell Model. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 1992. 153(1): p. 294-297. 4. Yao, K.M., M.T. Habibian, and C.R. O'Melia, Water and Waste Water Filtration: Concepts and Applications. 1971.

Messina, Francesca; Sethi, Rajandrea

2014-05-01