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1

Antiangiogenic activity of flavonoids from Melia azedarach.  

PubMed

Three flavonoid glycosides, 1 (rutin: quercetin 3-O-rutinoside), 2 (kaempferol 3-O-robinobioside) and 3 (kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside) were isolated from the subcritical water extracts of Melia azedarach leaves. Strong antiangiogenic activity of these compounds was observed in the in vivo assay using the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) from growing chick embryos. PMID:24555281

Kumazawa, Shigenori; Kubota, Satomi; Yamamoto, Haruna; Okamura, Naoki; Sugiyamab, Yasumasa; Kobayashia, Hirokazu; Nakanishi, Motoyasu; Ohta, Toshiro

2013-12-01

2

Antifungal compounds from Melia azedarach leaves for management of Ascochyta rabiei, the cause of chickpea blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity of Melia azedarach L. leaves was investigated against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of destructive blight disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Bioassay guided fractionation revealed that the chloroform fraction of the methanolic extract of M. azedarach leaves was highly effective against A. rabiei. Six compounds, namely ?-sitosterol (1), ?-amyrin (2), ursolic acid (3), benzoic acid

Khajista Jabeen; Arshad Javaid; Ejaz Ahmad; Makshoof Athar

2011-01-01

3

Repellent and insecticidal activities of Melia azedarach L. against cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.).  

PubMed

A crude acetone extract and oil of ripe fruits from Melia azedarach L. were evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Both oil and extract exhibited highly significant growth inhibition at all concentrations tested, while the oil of M. azedarach recorded higher insecticidal activity against both instars than the crude extract. GC-MS analysis of the oil revealed the presence of linoleic acid methyl ester, oleic acid methyl ester, and free oleic acid as the main components in addition to hexadecanol, palmitic acid, methyl esters of stearic acid and myristic acid. Fatty acids and their esters were not only the main constituents of essential oil from the ripe fruits of M. azedarach, but also mainly responsible for the insecticidal and growth inhibition activity against S. littoralis. PMID:21630586

Farag, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed H M; Yousef, Heba; Abdel-Rahman, Adel A H

2011-01-01

4

Toxic polyketides produced by Fusarium sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Melia azedarach.  

PubMed

A new isocoumarin derivative named fusariumin (1), together with two known related resorcylic acid lactones aigialomycin D (2) and pochonin N (3), has been isolated from the cultures of Fusarium sp. LN-10, an endophytic fungus originated from the leaves of Melia azedarach. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyzes including 1D- and 2D- NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. Compounds 1-3 displayed significant growth inhibitory activity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina). PMID:21353539

Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Qiang; Laatsch, Hartmut

2011-03-15

5

Antifungal and antibacterial metabolites from an endophytic Aspergillus sp. associated with Melia azedarach.  

PubMed

Seven known metabolites, dianhydro-aurasperone C (1), isoaurasperone A (2), fonsecinone A (3), asperpyrone A (4), asperazine (5), rubrofusarin B (6) and (R)-3-hydroxybutanonitrile (7), were isolated from the culture of Aspergillus sp. KJ-9, a fungal endophyte isolated from Melia azedarach and identified by spectroscopic methods. All isolates were evaluated in vitro against several phytopathogenic fungi (Gibberella saubinetti, Magnaporthe grisea, Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria solani) and pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphyloccocus aureus and Bacillus cereus). Compounds 3 and 7 were active against almost all phytopathogenic fungi tested with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 6.25-50 ?M. Moreover, compound 3 was active against all pathogenic bacteria with MIC in the range of 25-100 ?M. Compound 7 is a rare new natural product isolated from a natural source for the first time, and the detailed NMR data of 1 were first assigned. PMID:24708541

Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yu-Qi; Shi, Xin-Wei; Gao, Jin-Ming

2014-01-01

6

Bioactivity-guided chemical analysis of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae), displaying antidiabetic activity.  

PubMed

One new Euphane-type triterpenoid 3?-hydroxytirucalla-5, 24-dien-21-oic acid (1), and ten known compounds (2-11) were isolated from Melia azedarach L. through bioassay-guided chemical analysis. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and MS spectral analyses. All the fractions and isolated pure compounds were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by determining their inhibitory effects on PTP-1B enzyme as well as glucose uptake stimulation in C2Cl2 myoblasts cells. Compounds 4 and 7 showed significant in vitro PTP-1B inhibitory activity with 69.2 and 66.8% inhibition at 10?g/ml concentrations respectively. PMID:25062890

Khan, Mohammad Faheem; Rawat, Arun Kumar; Pawar, Bhawna; Gautam, Sudeep; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Negi, Devendra Singh

2014-10-01

7

Ovary histology and quantification of hemolymph proteins of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus treated with Melia azedarach.  

PubMed

This study aimed to analyze ovary histology and quantify total protein in the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus females treated with hexane extracts from green fruits of Melia azedarach. Eight engorged females were immersed in the extract at 0.25% concentration, and eight in water containing 5% acetone (control). The females were dissected 72 hours after treatment, and the ovaries were weighed and subjected to standard histological techniques. The total protein concentration was measured in the hemolymph of 200 females, of which 100 were treated as described above and 100 served as a control. In the treated group, ovary weight reduction and predominance of immature oocytes were observed. In addition, there were decreases in the diameters of the cytoplasm and germ vesicle of the oocytes in the treated group, compared with the controls. The protein concentration in the hemolymph was higher in the treated group than in the controls. The morphological changes observed in the treated ovaries included: presence of vacuolization; alteration of oocyte morphology, which changed from rounded to elongated; deformation of the chorion; and disorganization of the yolk granules. These results demonstrate the action of M. azedarach fruit extracts on R. (B.) microplus oogenesis. PMID:24142163

de Sousa, Lorena Alessandra Dias; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

2013-01-01

8

Antifungal compounds from Melia azedarach leaves for management of Ascochyta rabiei, the cause of chickpea blight.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of Melia azedarach L. leaves was investigated against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of destructive blight disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Bioassay guided fractionation revealed that the chloroform fraction of the methanolic extract of M. azedarach leaves was highly effective against A. rabiei. Six compounds, namely ?-sitosterol (1), ?-amyrin (2), ursolic acid (3), benzoic acid (4), 3,5 dimethoxybenzoic acid (5) and maesol (6) were isolated from the chloroform fraction through column chromatography. The in vitro antifungal activity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against A. rabiei. A commercial fungicide, mancozeb, was used as a positive control. Different concentrations of mancozeb and the isolated compounds, ranging from 0.0039 to 4 mg mL(-1), were used in the antifungal bioassay, and data regarding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was recorded 24, 48 and 72 h after incubation. All concentrations of mancozeb inhibited the fungal spore germination at all three incubation periods. The tested compounds exhibited variable antifungal activity against the target fungal pathogens. All compounds showed their highest antifungal activity after 24 h of incubation. Compound 2 was found to be the most effective, with an MIC of 0.0156 mg mL(-1), followed by compounds 3, 4 and 5, with MIC values of 0.0312, 0.25 and 0.125 mg mL(-1), respectively. PMID:20628965

Jabeen, Khajista; Javaid, Arshad; Ahmad, Ejaz; Athar, Makshoof

2011-02-01

9

Micropropagation of paradise tree (Melia azedarach) by in vitro culture of axillary buds.  

PubMed

Paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.) is a multipurpose ornamental and timber tree, and its extracts are used to make insecticides and fungicides. Conventional propagation is done by seeds; however, sexual reproduction results in wide genetic variability. Therefore, clonal propagation is desirable to reduce genetic variation. This chapter describes a protocol for in vitro propagation of paradise tree by axillary buds. There are major steps for this protocol. Firstly, shoot induction by in vitro culture of axillary buds, excised from potted plants obtained by rooting of cuttings of 10-15-year-old adult trees. The initiation medium was composed of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP (benzylaminopurine), 0.1 mg/L IBA (indolebutyric acid), and 0.1 mg/L GA(3) (gibberellic acid). Secondly, multiplication of the regenerated shoots on MS medium amended with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L GA(3). Thirdly, rooting of the regenerated shoots on MS medium containing 0.1 mg/L IBA. Fully well-developed plants were transferred to pots containing sand, peat moss, and perlite (1:1:1), and maintained initially in the greenhouse or plastic tunnels. PMID:23179702

Mroginski, Luis A; Rey, Hebe Y

2013-01-01

10

Effect of fruit and leaves of Meliaceae plants (Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach) on the development of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) under experimental conditions.  

PubMed

This no-choice, laboratory study focuses on the feeding of dried, ground, homogeneous powdered, unprocessed fruit and leaves of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach to Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae to determine the effects on their mortality and metamorphosis. A. indica and M. azedarach fruit and leaves significantly increased larval mortality in comparison to larvae fed the untreated, standard diet. A. indica fruit and leaves blocked the molting of the larvae to the fourth instar, resulting in them remaining as third instars until the end of the experiment. M. azedarach fruit also blocked the molting of larvae, which remained permanently in the fourth instar. Feeding M. azedarach leaves resulted in greater molt inhibition. All insects in this group stopped their development as second-instar larvae. No antifeedant effect was detected for any experimental treatment. The results indicate that nontoxic, unprocessed materials obtained from A. indica and M. azedarach are potent development inhibitors of L. longipalpis larvae. PMID:19769044

Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Souza, Nataly A; Gouveia, Cheryl; Silva, Vanderlei C; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Rangel, Elizabeth F

2009-09-01

11

Cytotoxic effect of Green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Melia azedarach against in vitro HeLa cell lines and lymphoma mice model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication explains the biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Melia azedarach and its cytotoxicity against in vitro HeLa cells and in vivo Dalton's ascites Lymphoma (DAL) mice model. The AgNPs synthesis was determined by UV- visible spectrum and it was further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Dynamic light Scattering (DLS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. Zeta potential

Raman Sukirtha; Kandula Manasa Priyanka; Jacob Joe Antony; Soundararajan Kamalakkannan; Thangam Ramar; Gunasekaran Palani; Muthukalingan Krishnan; Shanmugam Achiraman

12

Secondary metabolites from the endophytic Botryosphaeria dothidea of Melia azedarach and their antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

Two new metabolites, an ?-pyridone derivative, 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one (1), and a ceramide derivative, 3-hydroxy-N-(1-hydroxy-3-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (2), and a new natural product, 3-hydroxy-N-(1-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (3), along with 15 known compounds including chaetoglobosin C (7) and chaetoglobosin F (8) were isolated from the solid culture of the endophytic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea KJ-1, collected from the stems of white cedar (Melia azedarach L). The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR experiments and by mass spectrometric measurements), and the structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. These metabolites were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity activities. Pycnophorin (4) significantly inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus with equal minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25 ?M. Stemphyperylenol (5) displayed a potent antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Alternaria solani with MIC of 1.57 ?M comparable to the commonly used fungicide carbendazim. Both altenusin (9) and djalonensone (10) showed markedly DPPH radical scavenging activities. In addition, stemphyperylenol (5) and altenuene (6) exhibited strong cytotoxicity against HCT116 cancer cell line with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.13 ?M in comparison with the positive control etoposide (IC50 = 2.13 ?M). This is the first report of the isolation of these compounds from the endophytic B. dothidea. PMID:24689437

Xiao, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yu-Qi; Tang, Jiang-Jiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

2014-04-23

13

Paraiso: an automated tuning framework for explicit solvers of partial differential equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose Paraiso, a domain-specific language embedded in the functional programming language Haskell, for the automated tuning of explicit solvers of partial differential equations (PDEs) on graphic processing units (GPUs), and also multicore central processing units (CPUs). In Paraiso, one can describe PDE-solving algorithms succinctly using tensor equations notation. Hydrodynamic properties, interpolation methods and other building blocks are described in abstract, modular, re-usable and combinable forms, which lets us generate versatile solvers from a small set of Paraiso source codes. We demonstrate Paraiso by implementing a compressive hydrodynamics solver. A single source code of less than 500 lines can be used to generate solvers of arbitrary dimensions, for both multicore CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate both manual annotation-based tuning and evolutionary computing-based automated tuning of the program.

Muranushi, Takayuki

2012-01-01

14

Meliavolkenin, a new bioactive triterpenoid from Melia volkensii (Meliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meliavolkenin, a new triterpene with an apotirucallane skeleton, has been isolated from the root bark of Melia volkensli (Meliaceae) by bioactivity-directed fractionation using the brine shrimp lethality test. The structure has been elucidated using spectral and chemical data. The relative stereochemistries were determined by reduction and acetonide derivations, and the ring conformations were analyzed using the results of NOESY experiments.

Lu Zeng; Zhe-ming Gu; Ching-jer Chang; Karl V. Wood; Jerry L. McLaughlin

1995-01-01

15

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Fulvio Melia: High-Energy Astrophysics  

E-print Network

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Fulvio Melia: High-Energy Astrophysics is published by Princeton University Press@press.princeton.edu #12;Chapter One Introduction and Motivation 1.1 THE FIELD OF HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS Compared-energy astrophysics is a relatively new science, dealing with astro nomical sources and phenomena largely discovered

Landweber, Laura

16

Insecticidal activity of Melia toosendan extracts and toosendanin against three stored-product insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellency, toxicity, and fecundity-reducing effects of bark extracts of Melia toosendan on three stored-product beetles, the rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were investigated in the laboratory. Wheat kernels treated with extracts containing 75 and 3% toosendanin at concentrations from 0.05 to 0.4% (375-3000 ppm toosendanin),

Y. S. Xie; P. G. Fields; M. B. Isman; W. K. Chen; X. Zhang

1995-01-01

17

Limonoids from the fruits of Melia toosendan and their NF-?B modulating activities.  

PubMed

Eight ring C-seco and ring-intact limonoids, and 25 known limonoids were isolated from the fruits of Melia toosendan (Meliaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic evidence including HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. A total of 29 isolated limonoids was evaluated for NF-?B activities. Among them, eight compounds significantly enhanced the TNF?-induced NF-?B luciferase activity at 10?M, while 10 compounds suppressed the NF-?B activation. PMID:25189120

Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Bai, Li-Ping; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

2014-11-01

18

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed.

Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.

2014-09-01

19

Triterpenoids with anti-tobacco mosaic virus activities from Melia Toosendan.  

PubMed

Four new triterpenoids, named Toosendansins A-D (1-4), along with nine known ones (5-13) were isolated from the fruits of Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data. The isolation of compounds 1-12 were reported for the first time from this plant. All compounds were analyzed for the anti-Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) activity and protective effect on H2O2-induced damage of SH-SY5Y cells. Compound 7 showed evident anti-TMV activity. Compounds 2 and 9 exhibited modest protection against H2O2-induced damage of SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:24972348

Chen, Lin; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Wang, Bin; Mu, Shu-Zhen; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

2014-09-01

20

Laboratory Evaluation and Ranked Preference Assessment of Subterranean Termites Coptotermes Formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on Pecan Cultivars of Carya Illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch in Texas  

E-print Network

. formosanus on commercially versus native cultivars. In a multiple-choice test, the Desirable pecan cultivar, was significantly (P palustris), chinaberry (Melia azedarach), and the pecan... preferences on samples collected from Brazos County, TX. Common Name Scientific Name Southern yellow pine a Pinus Palustris Chinaberry b Melia azedarach Pecan (Desirable) b Carya illinoensis Pecan (Barton) b Carya illinoensis a heartwood b...

Swain, Christopher R.

2010-07-14

21

Triterpenoids from the stem bark of Melia toosendan and determination of their absolute configurations at C(24).  

PubMed

Six new triterpenoids, meliasenins S-X (1-6, resp.), were isolated from the stem bark of Melia toosendan. Their structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry, NMR experiments, and comparison with the known compounds. Particularly, the absolute configuration at C(24) in new compounds was determined through their CD spectra of the [Pr(FOD)3 ] complex (fod=1,1,1,2,2,3,3,7,7,7-decafluoroheptane-4,6-dione) in CCl4 , as well as by using Mosher's method. PMID:24078597

Zhang, Yi; Tang, Chun-Ping; Ke, Chang-Qiang; Yao, Sheng; Ye, Yang

2013-09-01

22

Larvicidal effects of Chinaberry (Melia azederach) powder on Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic insecticides are employed in the widely-used currently favored malaria control techniques involving indoor residual spraying and treated bednets. These methods have repeatedly proven to be highly effective at reducing malaria incidence and prevalence. However, rapidly emerging mosquito resistance to the chemicals and logistical problems in transporting supplies to remote locations threaten the long-term sustainability of these techniques. Chinaberry (Melia azederach) extracts have been shown to be effective growth-inhibiting larvicides against several insects. Because several active chemicals in the trees' seeds have insecticidal properties, the emergence of resistance is unlikely. Here, we investigate the feasibility of Chinaberry as a locally available, low-cost sustainable insecticide that can aid in controlling malaria. Chinaberry fruits were collected from Asendabo, Ethiopia. The seeds were removed from the fruits, dried and crushed into a powder. From developmental habitats in the same village, Anopheles arabiensis larvae were collected and placed into laboratory containers. Chinaberry seed powder was added to the larval containers at three treatment levels: 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, with 100 individual larvae in each treatment level and a control. The containers were monitored daily and larvae, pupae and adult mosquitoes were counted. This experimental procedure was replicated three times. Results Chinaberry seed powder caused an inhibition of emergence of 93% at the 5 g m-2 treatment level, and 100% inhibition of emergence at the two higher treatment levels. The Chinaberry had a highly statistically significant larvicidal effect at all treatment levels (?2 = 184, 184, and 155 for 5 g m-2, 10 g m-2 and 20 g m-2, respectively; p < 0.0001 in all cases). In addition, estimates suggest that sufficient Chinaberry seed exists in Asendabo to treat developmental habitat for the duration of the rainy season and support a field trial. Conclusions Chinaberry seed is a very potent growth-inhibiting larvicide against the major African malaria vector An. arabiensis. The seed could provide a sustainable additional malaria vector control tool that can be used where the tree is abundant and where An. arabiensis is a dominant vector. Based on these results, a future village-scale field trial using the technique is warranted. PMID:21569263

2011-01-01

23

High-Frequency Regeneration of the Drought-Tolerant Tree Melia volkensii Gurke Using Low-Cost Agrochemical Thidiazuron  

PubMed Central

Melia volkensii Gurke is a drought-tolerant tree native to East Africa's arid and semiarid lands (ASALs), with vast but underutilized potential for agroforestry and sustainable livelihoods in the ASALs. Its cultivation is limited by difficulties in propagation via conventional means. Full exploitation of the ability of thidiazuron (TDZ) to elicit regeneration in plant tissue cultures, as sole plant growth regulator (PGR), is hampered by high costs. This study tested the effectiveness of a low-cost agrochemical TDZ for in vitro propagation of M. volkensii. Zygotic embryos from mature seeds were cultured on Gamborg's B5 medium containing 0 to 4?mg/L of agrochemical TDZ from Kingtai Chemicals Co.,Ltd., China. Callus induction frequency was 96.67 to 100%. Significantly large callus fresh mass was produced at 0.05?mg/L TDZ concentration (ANOVA, P < 0.001). The effect of TDZ on embryogenicity was significant over certain ranges of concentrations (Anova, P < 0.001). Multiple somatic embryos developed within 14 days of subculture to hormone-free B5 medium. Somatic embryos developed into microshoots which elongated when transferred to 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 0.1?mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine plus 10% coconut water. The Kingtai-TDZ showed a high potency and suitability for use in M. volkensii tissue culture. PMID:23227344

Mulanda, Eliud Sagwa; Adero, Mark Ochieng; Amugune, Nelson Onzere; Akunda, Elijah; Kinyamario, Jenesio I.

2012-01-01

24

Meliae cortex extract exhibits anti-allergic activity through the inhibition of Syk kinase in mast cells  

SciTech Connect

The anti-allergic action of various Oriental medicinal herbs was investigated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Of these extracts, the ethanol extract of Meliae cortex (MC) exhibited the most potent activity in mast cells; its IC{sub 50} values were 29 {+-} 1.5 {mu}g/ml for antigen stimulation and 57 {+-} 3.4 {mu}g/ml for thapsigargin stimulation. It inhibited compound-48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis by 52.9% at a dose of 300 mg/kg in mice; it also inhibited the expression of the proinflammatory mediator TNF-{alpha}. With regard to its mechanism of action, MC suppressed the activating phosphorylation of Syk, a key enzyme in mast-cell signaling processes and that of Akt in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited the MAP kinase ERK1/2, which is critical for the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells, as indicated by the suppression of the activating phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-allergic activity of MC may be due to the inhibition of histamine secretion and cytokine expression through the Syk inhibition in mast cells.

Lee, Jun Ho [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Ko, Na Young [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Kim, Nam Wook [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Mun, Se Hwan [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Kim, Jie Wan [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Her, Erk [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Kim, Bo Kyung [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Seo, Dong Wan [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of) ; Chang, Hyun Wook [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of) ; Moon, Tae Chul [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of) ; Han, Jeung Whan [College of Pharamacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of) ; Kim, Young Mi [College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women's University, Seoul 132-714 (Korea, Republic of) ; Choi, Wahn Soo [College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of) ]. E-mail: wahnchoi@kku.ac.kr

2007-05-01

25

Screening of SdiA inhibitors from Melia dubia seeds extracts towards the hold back of uropathogenic E.coli quorum sensing-regulated factors.  

PubMed

Plants have always been a supreme source of drugs and India is endowed with a wide variety of them with high medicinal values. The Quorum Sensing (QS) quenching efficiency of various solvent extracts of Melia dubia seeds was investigated against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to screen the competitive inhibitor of SdiA, a transcriptional activator of quorum sensing in E. coli. In this study, potentiality of five different extracts of Melia dubia seeds for quorum sensing inhibitory activity was investigated against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Assays such as cell density, swarming motility, protein, protease, hemolysis, hemagglutination, hydrophobicity and biofilm inhibition were performed. Biofilm, hemolysis and swarming motility were found to be inhibited by 92.1%, 20.9 % and 48.52% respectively, when the medium was supplemented with 30 mg/ml of the ethanolic extract. GC-MS spectrum of the ethanolic extract showed an array of 27 structurally unlinked compounds with natural ligand C8HSL. The docking against QS transcriptional regulator SdiA was predicted by in silico studies and the ligand C6 showed significant activity with -10.8 GScore. In vitro and in silico docking analysis showed fairly a good correlation, suggesting that the ethanolic extract showed potency to attenuate quorum sensing of uropathogenic E. coli. Further studies by in vitro and in vivo strategies are necessary to foresee the quorum quenching effect of the ligands. PMID:23210902

Ravichandiran, Vinothkannan; Shanmugam, Karthi; Solomon, Adline Princy

2013-09-01

26

Screening the antiviral activity of Indian medicinal plants against white spot syndrome virus in shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty species of Indian traditional medicinal plants were selected for this study. They were Aegle marmelos, Allium sativum, Aristolochia indica, Azadirachta indica, Cassia fistula, Catharanthus roseus, Curcuma longa, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Mimosa pudica, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Ocimum americanum, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus emblica, Psidium guajava, Solanum nigrum, Tridax procumban and Tylophora indica. These plants were used to

G. Balasubramanian; M. Sarathi; S. Rajesh Kumar; A. S. Sahul Hameed

2007-01-01

27

Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.  

PubMed

Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense. PMID:19897309

Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

2010-01-20

28

Isoprene emission from tropical tree species.  

PubMed

Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2 +/- 6.8 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2 +/- 4.9 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. PMID:15701397

Padhy, P K; Varshney, C K

2005-05-01

29

Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies. PMID:23460431

Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Luís C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

2013-03-01

30

Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe.  

PubMed

This review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in Europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in European countries. Poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. In Europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), Quercus spp. (oak), Taxus baccata (European yew), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas). Poisoning may occur when the fresh plant is ingested in pasture or when it contaminates hay or silage. In pets, the greatest majority of plant poisonings are the result of ingestion of house or garden plants, such as Cycas revoluta (Sago palm), Ricinus communis (castor bean), Allium spp., Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia), Lilium spp., Convallaria majalis (Lily of the valley), Pyracantha spp. (firethorn), Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas), Melia azedarach (Chinaberry tree), Taxus baccata (European yew) and Nerium oleander (oleander). PMID:23570777

Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

2013-08-01

31

Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi  

SciTech Connect

Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author) [Spanish] El rango de hospederos de Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) en America del Norte esta reportado aqui por la primera vez. Se presentan datos descriptivos como el numero de ataques por hospederos, el tamano de los tallos en el punto de ataque y la altura por encima del nivel de tierra de los ataques. Los hospederos observados en el estado de Mississippi fueron Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux y Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua tuvo ataques significativamente mas exitosos, una probabilidad significativamente mas alta de ataques y un numero significativamente mayor de adultos de escarabajos por arbol hospedero que Carya spp., A. rubrum y L. tulipifera. Esta informacion es pertinente en determinar el impacto que pueda tener este escarabajo exotico en invernaderos, areas urbanas y otros sistemas forestales donde el escarabajo se establece. (author)

Stone, W.D.; Nebeker, T.E. [Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Mississippi State University, Box 9775, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Gerard, P.D. [Experimental Statistics Unit, Mississippi State University, Box 9731, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

2007-03-15

32

Potential allelopathic indole diketopiperazines produced by the plant endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus using the one strain-many compounds method.  

PubMed

On the basis of the OSMAC (one strain-many compounds) strategy, 14 indole diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloids, including spirotryprostatins (1-3), tryprostatins (4-6), and cyclotryprostatins (7-14), were isolated from the endophyte Aspergillus fumigatus associated with Melia azedarach L. Their structures were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data. All the indole DKPs were evaluated for plant growth regulation using the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling growth bioassay, which showed the plant growth influence of the seedling. Among these compounds tested, a tryprostatin-type compound, brevianamide F (6), was identified as a new type of natural potential plant growth inhibitor with a response index (RI) higher than that of the positive control glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide. 6 can also inhibit turnip (Raphanus sativus) shoot and root elongation with RIs of -0.76 and -0.70, respectively, at 120 ppm, and it strongly inhibits amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus) seedling growth with a high RI of -0.9 at 40 ppm. The structure-allelopathic activity relationship analysis of these isolated alkaloids indicates that tryprostatin-type alkaloids without the C5 prenyl and methoxy group give the most potent inhibition of seedling growth. Brevianamide F (6) could be used to develop a natural eco-friendly herbicide. PMID:24188331

Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Shi-Qiong; Tang, Hao-Yu; Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Lu; Xiao, Jian; Gao, Yu-Qi; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

2013-11-27

33

Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

2014-01-01

34

Reclamation of tannery polluted soil through phytoremediation.  

PubMed

The huge volume of sludge emanating from the tannery effluent treatment plants poses a serious environmental problem. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology in which the plants are employed to reclamate the contaminated soil strewn with heavy metals (metalloids) and toxic compounds. This work focuses the impact of application of tannery sludge on biochemical properties of 6 months old tree saplings of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), Melia azedarach Linn. (Wild Neem) and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit (Subabool) raised over the tannery sludge in an attempt to use these plants for phytoremediation. The plants raised over the garden soil served as the control. The porosity and water holding capacity of the tannery sludge were higher. The plant growth supporting elements such as Ca, total N2, NO3 and Mg were higher in the sludge. The plants raised over the sludge were found to be dark green with increased morphometric parameters. Electrophoretic profile revealed amplification of a few polypeptides (100, 105, 49 and 55 KDa). The levels of biomolecules and the CO2 absorption increased in 6 months old plants. There was a significant uptake and transport of chromium in all the three tree species suggesting that these plants could be employed in phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:23572927

Sakthivel, V; Vivekanandan, M

2009-04-01

35

1-Cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin is a natural bioactive compound with antiviral and nuclear factor-{kappa}B modulating properties  

SciTech Connect

We have reported the isolation of the tetranortriterpenoid 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin (CDM) from partially purified leaf extracts of Melia azedarach L. (MA) that reduced both, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) multiplication. CDM blocks VSV entry and the intracellular transport of VSV-G protein, confining it to the Golgi apparatus, by pre- or post-treatment, respectively. Here, we report that HSV-1 glycoproteins were also confined to the Golgi apparatus independently of the nature of the host cell. Considering that MA could be acting as an immunomodulator preventing the development of herpetic stromal keratitis in mice, we also examined an eventual effect of CDM on NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway. CDM is able to impede NF-{kappa}B activation in HSV-1-infected conjunctival cells and leads to the accumulation of p65 NF-{kappa}B subunit in the cytoplasm of uninfected treated Vero cells. In conclusion, CDM is a pleiotropic agent that not only inhibits the multiplication of DNA and RNA viruses by the same mechanism of action but also modulates the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway.

Barquero, Andrea A. [Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Piso 4to., Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: alecab@qb.fcen.uba.ar; Michelini, Flavia M. [Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Piso 4to., Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alche, Laura E. [Laboratorio de Virologia, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Piso 4to., Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2006-06-09

36

Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each). The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each). The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol.) Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61%) and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45%) was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine. PMID:24963328

Khan, Imran; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Fouad, Hassan; Tariq, Akash; Ullah, Riaz; Adnan, Muhammad

2014-01-01

37

Potential anti-osteoporotic effects of herbal extracts on osteoclasts, osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporosis (OP) is one of the most serious diseases in the modern world, and OP patients frequently suffer from fragility fractures in the hip, spine and wrist, resulting in a limited quality of life. Although bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most effective class of anti-bone-resorptive drugs currently available and the most commonly prescribed for the clinical treatment of OP, they are known to cause serious side effects such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Novel therapeutic materials that can replace the use of BPs have therefore been developed. Methods We commenced an institutional collaborative project in which candidates of herbal extracts were selected from more than 400 bioactive herbal products for their potential therapeutic effects not only in OP, but also in oral and skeletal diseases. In the present study, we report on 3 Chinese medical herbal extracts from the root barks of Melia azedarach, Corydalis turtschaninovii, and Cynanchum atratum. Results All of these extracts inhibited osteoclast proliferation and induced apoptosis by up-regulation of caspase activity and increase of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins expression. Furthermore, the extracts enhanced differentiation, but did not affect proliferation of both osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The osteo-inducible effect was also observed in cultured primary bone marrow cells. Conclusions Although these extracts have been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for hundreds of years, there are no reports to our knowledge, on their therapeutic effects in OP. In this study, we elucidate the potency of these herbal extracts as novel candidates for OP therapy. PMID:24438322

2014-01-01

38

Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in Malakand Valley, District Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background The Malakand valley of District Dir (Lower) is endowed with a diverse plant wealth. Ethnoveterinary knowledge provides the traditional medicines of livestock that are cheaper than standard treatment and are easily accessible. Methods The present study was conducted to document the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices in Malakand valley, District Dir (Lower). Data was collected from February 2012 to January 2013 by interviewing 120 inhabitants through semi-structured questionnaires. Different questions were asked to collect appropriate data regarding the use of plants for livestock treatment. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) was carried out to find out the use diversity of medicinal plants. Findings A total of 28 plants belonging to 23 families were collected and identified for the treatment of livestock in the study area. Majority of the plants were collected from wild (68%) habitat and very few from cultivated sources. The leaves (28%) were identified as the major plant part for herbal preparations. The most frequent ailments of livestocks in the study area were stomach disorders and Charmaikh (local disease name). Various ingredients were used along with ethnoveterinary medicines i.e. sugar, flour, milk etc. The elder people of the village had a rich knowledge as compared to the young generation. According to DMR output, Monotheca buxifolia ranked first and Dalbergia sisso and Melia azedarach ranked second due to high multipurpose uses among all species and was found most threatened in the study area. Conclusion It has been concluded that the native of the region heavily dependent on medicinal plants for the treatment of variety of livestock ailments. Traditional knowledge always provides a baseline for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation. The documentation of the ethnoveterinary practices in study area was necessary before this precious knowledge is lost forever due to rapid socioeconomic, environmental and technological changes. PMID:24580769

2014-01-01

39

The spatial pattern of leaf phenology and its response to climate change in China.  

PubMed

Leaf phenology has been shown to be one of the most important indicators of the effects of climate change on biological systems. Few such studies have, however, been published detailing the relationship between phenology and climate change in Asian contexts. With the aim of quantifying species' phenological responsiveness to temperature and deepening understandings of spatial patterns of phenological and climate change in China, this study analyzes the first leaf date (FLD) and the leaf coloring date (LCD) from datasets of four woody plant species, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, Salix babylonica, and Melia azedarach, collected from 1963 to 2009 at 47 Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON) stations spread across China (from 21° to 50° N). The results of this study show that changes in temperatures in the range of 39-43 days preceding the date of FLD of these plants affected annual variations in FLD, while annual variations in temperature in the range of 71-85 days preceding LCD of these plants affected the date of LCD. Average temperature sensitivity of FLD and LCD for these plants was -3.93 to 3.30 days °C(-1) and 2.11 to 4.43 days °C?¹, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of FLD was found to be stronger at lower latitudes or altitude as well as in more continental climates, while the response of LCD showed no consistent pattern. Within the context of significant warming across China during the study period, FLD was found to have advanced by 5.44 days from 1960 to 2009; over the same period, LCD was found to have been delayed by 4.56 days. These findings indicate that the length of the growing season of the four plant species studied was extended by a total of 10.00 days from 1960 to 2009. They also indicate that phenological response to climate is highly heterogeneous spatially. PMID:23732443

Dai, Junhu; Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng

2014-05-01

40

Why the Rh = ct cosmology is a vacuum solution in disguise and why all big bang models should be so  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Melia and his coworkers have proposed the so-called Rh = ct cosmology where the scale factor of the universe is a(t) ? t and the spatial part is flat. Here, we look at this proposal from a fundamental angle. First, we note that Melia cosmology looks strikingly similar to the old Milne cosmology where a(t) ? t and the spatial part is negatively curved. It is known that though Milne cosmology is a valid Friedmann solution, it actually corresponds to ? = 0 and can be described by a globally static Minkowski metric. Secondly, we note that for the Melia model, Ricci & Kretschmann scalars assume their perfect static form hinting that it too may tacitly correspond to vacuum. To compare Melia universe with the Milne universe, we express Melia metric too in curvature/Schwarzschild coordinates. Finally, by using the fact for such coordinate transformations dx'4 = Jdx4, where J is the appropriate Jacobian, we explicitly show that Melia metric is static, which for k = 0 case implies vacuum. This shows that even apparently meaningful general relativistic solutions could be illusory as far as physical reality is concerned. And since Melia model is the unique solution for the big bang model, eventually, all big bang models could be mathematical illusions.

Mitra, Abhas

2014-07-01

41

Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the

M. I. Nieva Moreno; M. I. Isla; N. G. Cudmani; M. A. Vattuone; A. R. Sampietro

1999-01-01

42

Agroforestry diffusion and secondary forest regeneration in the Brazilian Amazon: further findings from the Rondonia Agroforestry Pilot Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1992 the Rondonia Agroforestry Pilot Project (RAPP) was launched in two agricultural munici- palities (Nova Uniao and Alto Paraiso) in the western Brazilian Amazon State of Rondonia. The purpose of the RAPP was to assess the conditions under which colonist farmers in the western Amazon would integrate agroforestry plantings into their small-scale farming systems and to assess the

John O. Browder; Randolph H. Wynne; Marcos A. Pedlowski

2005-01-01

43

Eric Meggers List of Publications  

E-print Network

Assistance for Asymmetric Coordination Chemistry with Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II), Dalton Trans. 2013, 42 systems, Chem. Commun. 2013, 49, 1581-1587 (feature article). 86. J. K. John, K. H.T. Paraiso, V. W, Dalton Trans. 2012, 41, 9337-9348. 81. Y. Xiang, C. Fu, T. Breiding, P. K. Sasmal, H. Liu, Q. Shen, K

Meggers, Eric

44

Agroforestry diffusion and secondary forest regeneration in the Brazilian Amazon: further findings from the Rondônia Agroforestry Pilot Project (1992–2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1992 the Rondnia Agroforestry Pilot Project (RAPP) was launched in two agricultural municipalities (Nova Unio and\\u000a Alto Paraiso) in the western Brazilian Amazon State of Rondnia. The purpose of the RAPP was to assess the conditions under\\u000a which colonist farmers in the western Amazon would integrate agroforestry plantings into their small-scale farming systems\\u000a and to assess the performance

John O. Browder; Randolph H. Wynne; Marcos A. Pedlowski

2005-01-01

45

Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1998 momentum, and so flow in radially. Such  

E-print Network

`Bondi­Hoyle' flows have very low radiation efficiencies. Melia then showed that a 10­4 -solar-mass yr­1 the purely radial flow would create a very large amount of infrared radiation, inconsistent most of the mass, and thus of the ener- gy, whereas the electrons produce most of the radiation

Columbia University

46

Key Function Interfacing for the MEDIEVAL Project Video-Enhancing Architecture  

E-print Network

.melia@alcatel- lucent.com , michelle.wetterwald@eurecom.fr , lbadia@ing.unife.it, ruilaa@det.ua.pt Abstract. The FP7 into consideration the requirements placed by a core set of next generation video services and defining a global the operation of these services in different use cases. Keywords: Wireless networks, Mobile communication, Video

Gesbert, David

47

Media coverage week commencing 3 December 2012 Monday 3 December  

E-print Network

about Global Body image for BBC 2 series Your Body: Your Image. Dr Steve Melia (FET) was interviewedMedia coverage ­ week commencing 3 December 2012 Monday 3 December This is Gloucestershire - First/sustainable-business/top-five-world-healthiest-cities-health-wellbeing Insider Media - British Retail Consortium man to join Business West (VC, Steve West) http

Aickelin, Uwe

48

EUTROPHICATION OF SWEDISH SEAS Donald Boesch  

E-print Network

and the water mass. In the in-depth evaluation of the environmental quality objective "Zero Eutrophication#12;EUTROPHICATION OF SWEDISH SEAS Donald Boesch Robert Hecky Charles O'Melia, Chair David to achieve the environmental quality objective. An international panel of highly qualified eutrophication

49

Complex networks: two ways to be robust? Carlos J. Melian* and Jordi  

E-print Network

IDEA Complex networks: two ways to be robust? Carlos J. Melia´n* and Jordi Bascompte Integrative to the robustness of biological networks to different types of perturbation. Keywords Complex networks, food webs work is providing insight into how these complex networks are assembled and how they remain stable

50

A tale of two cave records from the Amazon lowlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here a comparison between two high-resolved, U/Th-dated, speleothem d18O records through the last ~45,000 years from caves located in the eastern and western Amazon lowlands. The record from Paraiso Cave (04o04'S, 55o27'W) shows higher d18O values during the glacial period, but lower values in Holocene, with a shift of 7 per mil. On the other hand, the d18O values recorded at Diamante cave (05o44'S, 77o30'W) stay low with similar late glacial and Holocene values, varying within ~2 per mil through the whole profile. Both records register millennial-scale variations, which are anti-phased with the Hulu-Dongge speleothem record, consistent with the previously observed meridional shift of the tropical rainfall belt. However, d18O values in two records have a large offset during the glacial, but not in Holocene. We suggest the Amazon Basin was relatively dry in the glacial time. Therefore, rainfall d18O in the Basin was dominated by a typical continental fractionation along a moisture trajectory. During the Holocene, higher rainfall and denser rainforest in the lowlands may have resulted in more water recycling through transpiration. Therefore, moisture d18O gradient would be reduced between the two sites. Despite the drier conditions inferred for the glacial Amazon lowlands, d13C values in the Paraiso record never reach high values; thus ruling out vegetation dominated by C4 plants.

Wang, X.; Auler, A.; Edwards, R.; Cheng, H.; Dorale, J. A.

2013-12-01

51

Diseases caused by Ganoderma spp. on perennial crops in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Ganoderma applanatum (Pres. Wallr) Pat. and G. lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst attack species of Pinus, Dalbergia, Artocarpus, Morus, Cedrus, Melia, Quercus, Populus and other trees in Pakistan causing stem, butt and root rot diseases. A research institution to manage the diseases of perennial crops in general and of trees yielding edible oil in particular such as coconut and oil palm needs to be established in Pakistan. PMID:15750743

Nasir, Nasreen

2005-01-01

52

Mathematical Explanation: Examining Approaches to the Problem of Applied Mathematics  

E-print Network

and Langford: Ampli cation of Melia . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2 Baker on Indispensability and Mathematical Explanation . . . . . . . 25 3.2.1 Daly and Langford?s Response to Baker . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4. THE APPLICATIONS LITERATURE... representation of some sort, to reject mathematics from explanations on this basis seems misguided. 12ibid., 24 3.2 Baker on Indispensability and Mathematical Explanation Alan Baker is the second key author who enters this debate on the side of those who...

Lishinski, Alex

2013-05-01

53

A preliminary investigation of the effect of compositional variation on compressional-wave velocity in transversely isotropic media  

E-print Network

A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF COMPOSITIONAL VARIATION ON COMPRESSIONAL-WAVE VELOCITY IN TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC MEDIA A Thesis by PATRICR JOHN MELIA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Ma)or Sub)ect: Geophysics A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT ON COMPOSITIONAL VARIATION ON COMPRESSIONAL-WAVE VELOCITY IN TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC MEDIA A Thesis...

Melia, Patrick John

2012-06-07

54

Comparative studies of adriamycin and 28-Deacetyl sendanin on in vitro growth inhibition of human cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limonoid compound (28-deacetyl sendanin) isolated from the fruit ofMelia toosendan SIEB. et ZUCC. was evaluated on anticancer activity. According to a standardin vitro cytotoxicity assay, eight human cancer cell lines and SRB assay were introduced for present evaluation. As a positive standard,\\u000a adriamycin was tested in parallel The cell lines were originated from six different organs. In view of

Hwan Mook Kim; Goo Taeg Oh; Sang Bae Han; Dong Ho Hong; Bang Yeon Hwang; Young Ho Kim; Jung Joon Lee

1994-01-01

55

Why the Big Bang Model does not allow inflationary and cyclic cosmologies though mathematically one can obtain any model with favourable assumptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various versions of standard Big Bang Model (BBM) including the current LCDM cosmology require an “inflationary” phase for the nascent universe (?t?10-32 s) during which the size of the universe blows up by a factor of ?1078. However, the so-called Rh=ct cosmology (Melia, 2013a) claims that the isotropy and homogeneity of the present universe can be understood without assuming any inflationary phase. To this effect, Melia and his coworkers have often invoked “Weyl’s Postulate” and “Birkhoff’s Theorem” to qualitatively argue for this novel model. On the other hand, here, we explore for a cogent analytical basis of the Rh=ct proposal which is claimed to have such a profound implication. First we show that (i) if the spatial flatness of the BBM would be presumed, Rh=ct cosmology may indeed follow. To further explore this issue without prior assumption of flatness (ii) we equate the twin expressions for the Energy Complex (EC) associated with BBM computed by using the same Einstein pseudo-tensor and quasi-Cartesian coordinates (Mitra, 2013b). This exercise surprisingly shows that BBM has tacit and latent self-consistency constraints: it is spatially flat and its scale factor a(t)?t. Accordingly, it seems that, there is no scope for the other models including inflationary and cyclic ones. The real lumpy universe may be too complex for the simplistic Big Bang model.

Mitra, Abhas

2014-07-01

56

Structure-based virtual screening for plant-derived SdiA-selective ligands as potential antivirulent agents against uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The uropathogenic Escherichia coli pathogenecity is affected by quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA. In this study, in vitro characterization of the active principles that could potentially antagonize with SdiA from the Melia dubia bark extracts has been described. After in vitro assays carried out to evaluate the inhibitory activities against the uropathogenic E. coli, the ethanolic extract (30 mg/ml) which showed the strongest suppression of haemolysis, swarming motility, hydrophobicity and biofilm formation, was subjected to GC-MS analysis and an array of 40 unrelated compounds was identified. Docking studies was conducted to screen for plant-based SdiA inhibitors. Five hits were assessed for their binding profiles and 7-(1-bromoethyl)-3, 3-dimethyl-bicyclo [4.1.0]heptan-2-one showed 66.95% binding ability with respect to C(8)HSL. PMID:22209416

Ravichandiran, Vinothkannan; Shanmugam, Karthi; Anupama, K; Thomas, Sabu; Princy, Adline

2012-02-01

57

Magnetic braking and the evolution of cataclysmic binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors study the evolution and the period distribution of cataclysmic variables using a magnetic braking law proposed recently by Mestel & Spruit (1987). The application of this law gives a predicted period distribution that matches the observed one. The authors also show that the observed accumulation of AM Her systems with periods in the range 114 - 115 min can be explained in terms of evolution, as a result of the adiabatic expansion of the secondary when accretion resumes at the end of the period gap provided that the masses of the white dwarfs in AM Her systems are in a restricted range. The authors examine finally the recent claim by Lamb & Melia (1987) that when the magnetic white dwarf synchronizes with the orbit, the system detaches, and enters a prolonged gap. They show that the proposed mechanism does not work, and that synchronization has a relatively small effect on the evolution of these systems.

Hameury, J. M.; King, A. R.; Lasota, J. P.; Ritter, H.

1988-03-01

58

Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways that lead to stimulated epidermal pigmentation: perspective of anti-pigmenting agents.  

PubMed

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

59

Evaluation of toxicity of plant extracts against vector of lymphatic filariasis, Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Conventional insecticides are generally used as larvicides to control Culex quinquefasciatus, vector of lymphatic filariasis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal activity of some potential larvicidal plants leaf extracts against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Methods: The toxic effects of petroleum ether leaf extracts of plants viz., Argemone mexicana (Mexican prickly poppy), Clausena dentata (Dentate), Cipadessa baccifera (Rana bili), Dodonaea angustifolia (Hop bush) and Melia dubia (Pride of India) were evaluated under laboratory conditions in individual and in combination against 3rd - 4th instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Results: The results indicated that among the selected plants, A. mexicana showed maximum larvicidal activity with an LC50 value of 48.89 ppm. Its toxicity was enhanced when the extract was mixed (1:1) with that of C. dentata as the LC50 value became 28.60 ppm indicating synergistic action of A. mexicana. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed high larvicidal potential in A. mexicana leaf extract, and it also showed additive effect when mixed with C. dentata extract. PMID:22561628

Sakthivadivel, M.; Eapen, Alex; Dash, A.P.

2012-01-01

60

Inhibitors of Intracellular Signaling Pathways that Lead to Stimulated Epidermal Pigmentation: Perspective of Anti-Pigmenting Agents  

PubMed Central

Few anti-pigmenting agents have been designed and developed according to their known hyperpigmentation mechanisms and corresponding intracellular signaling cascades. Most anti-pigmenting agents developed so far are mechanistically involved in the interruption of constitutional melanogenic mechanisms by which skin color is maintained at a normal and unstimulated level. Thus, owing to the difficulty of confining topical application to a specific hyperpigmented skin area, potent anti-pigmenting agents capable of attenuating the natural unstimulated pigmentation process have the risk of leading to hypopigmentation. Since intracellular signaling pathways within melanocytes do not function substantially in maintaining normal skin color and are activated only by environmental stimuli such as UV radiation, specifically down-regulating the activation of melanogenesis to the constitutive level would be an appropriate strategy to develop new potent anti-pigmenting agents with a low risk of hypopigmentation. In this article, we review the hyperpigmentation mechanisms and intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the stimulation of melanogenesis. We also discuss a screening and evaluation system to select candidates for new anti-melanogenic substances by focusing on inhibitors of endothelin-1 or stem cell factor-triggered intracellular signaling cascades. From this viewpoint, we show that extracts of the herbs Withania somnifera and Melia toosendan and the natural chemicals Withaferin A and Astaxanthin are new candidates for potent anti-pigmenting substances that avoid the risk of hypopigmentation. PMID:24823877

Imokawa, Genji; Ishida, Koichi

2014-01-01

61

Preliminary observations on leukaemia specific agglutinins from seeds.  

PubMed

Semipurified saline extracts of seeds from Crotolaria juncea, Cassia marginata, Ficus racemosa, Cicer arietinum (L-532), Gossipium indicum (G-27), Melia composita, Acacia lenticularis, Meletia ovalifolia, Acacia catechu and Peltophorum ferrenginium were tested for leukoagglutinating activity against whole leukocytes and mononuclear cells from patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (34), acute myeloblastic leukaemia (5), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (7), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (3), various lymphoproliferative/haematologic disorders (54), and normal healthy subjects (50). In addition, bone marrow cells from three patients undergoing diagnostic bone marrow aspiration and activated lymphocytes from mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) were also tested. All the seed extracts agglutinated white blood cells from patients with different types of leukaemia. But none of them reacted with peripheral blood cells of normal individuals, patients with various lymphoproliferative/haematologic disorders or cells from MLC. Leukoagglutination of leukaemic cells with each of the seed extracts was inhibited by simple sugars. Only in one instance, cells from bone marrow of an individual who had undergone diagnostic bone marrow aspiration for a non-malignant condition were agglutinated. It is felt that purification of these seed extracts may yield leukaemia-specific lectins. PMID:2347609

Agrawal, S; Agarwal, S S

1990-02-01

62

The Kerr Spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

List of illustrations; Contributors; Foreword; Part I. General Relativity: Classical Studies of the Kerr Geometry: 1. The Kerr spacetime: a brief introduction Matt Visser; 2. The Kerr and Kerr-Schild metrics Roy P. Kerr; 3. Roy Kerr and twistor theory Roger Penrose; 4. Global and local problems solved by the Kerr metric Brandon Carter; 5. Four decades of black hole uniqueness theorems David C. Robinson; 6. Ray-traced visualisations Benjamin R. Lewis, Susan M. Scott; Part II. Astrophysics: The Ongoing Observational Revolution: 7. The ergosphere and dyadosphere of the Kerr black hole Remo Ruffini; 8. Supermassive Black Holes Fulvio Melia; 9. The X-ray spectra of accreting Kerr black holes Andrew C. Fabian, Giovanni Miniutti; 10. Cosmological flashes from rotating black holes Maurice H.P.M. van Putten; Part III. Quantum Gravity: Rotating Black Holes at the Theoretical Frontiers: 11. Horizon constraints and black hole entropy Steve Carlip; 12. Higher dimensional generalizations of the Kerr black hole Gary T. Horowitz; Part IV. Appendices: 13. Gravitational field of a spinning mass … Roy P. Kerr; 14. Gravitational collapse and rotation Roy P. Kerr; Index.

Wiltshire, David L.; Visser, Matt; Scott, Susan M.

2009-01-01

63

Review on pharmacological and toxicologyical effects of oleum azadirachti oil.  

PubMed

Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds, ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects. PMID:24075352

Koriem, Khaled M M

2013-10-01

64

Review on pharmacological and toxicologyical effects of oleum azadirachti oil  

PubMed Central

Oleum azadirachti consists of the oil obtained from dried seeds of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (family: Meliaceae). Local names of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. are Abodua, aforo-oyinbo, anwe egyane, arista, azad dirakht, azadarakht, azedarach and bead tree. Indigenous to India, and widely distributed in South and South-East Asia and cultivated in Africa, the South Pacific Islands, South and Central America and Australia, and in southern Florida and California, United States of America, it is a straight-boled deciduous tree, which is 6-25 m high. Bark is dark-brown, externally fissured with a buff inner surface and fibrous fracture. Leaves alternately arranged, pinnately compound and up to 40 cm long, and composed of 8-18 short-petiolate narrow-ovate, pointed and curved toothed leaflets, 3-10 cm long and 1-4 cm wide arranged in alternate pairs. The major constituents are oxidized tetranortriterpenes including azadirachtin (azadirachtin A), azadiriadione, epoxyazadiradione, azadirone, nimbidin, nimbin, deacetylnimbin, salannin, gedunin, mahmoodin, 17-hydroxydiradione and related derivatives. It is of various medicinal uses, such as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, a mosquito repellent, and treatment of vaginal infections, treatment of gastric ulcers, cardiovascular disease, malaria, rheumatism and skin disorders, external applications for treatment of septic wounds,ulcers and boils, treatment of allergic skin reactions, asthma, bruises, colic, conjunctivitis, dysmenorrhoea, fever, gout, headache, itching due to varicella, kidney stones, leukorrhoea, psoriasis, scabies, sprains and muscular pain, and wounds. It is also used as an emmenagogue, tonic, stomatic and vermicide. In conclusion, the plant oil had antifertility, antihyperglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiulcer, estrogenic, immune, contraceptive, antibacterial, insect repellent, and skin treatment effects. PMID:24075352

Koriem, Khaled MM

2013-01-01

65

Testing cosmology from fundamental considerations: Is the Friedmann universe intrinsically flat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Melia and Shevchuk (Mon Not R Astron Soc 419:2579,2012) (MS) have proposed the so-called cosmology where the "Gravitational Horizon" of the universe is equal to the distance travelled by light since "Big Bang". Here we would like to see whether the basic claim is correct or not because MS have not given any cogent derivation for the same. Essentially we will compare the twin expressions for the Einstein energy momentum complex (EMC) of the Friedmann universe obtained by using an appropriate superpotential and also by a direct method. To enable a meaningful comparison of the twin expressions, both are computed by using the same quasi-Cartesian coordinates. We however do not claim that Einstein EMC is superior to many other routes of defining EM of a self-gravitating system. In fact, for static isolated spherical syatems, the idea of a coordinate independent field energy of Lynden-Bell and Katz (Mon Not R Astron Soc 213:21, 1985) might be quite physically significant. Yet, here, we use Einstein EMC because (i) our system is non-static and not isolated one (ii) our primary aim is not find any absolute value of EM, and, finally, (iii) only Einstein pseudo-tensor offers equivalent twin expressions for EM which one can be equated irrespective of any physical significance. Following such comparison of equivalent twin expressions of Einstein energy, we find an exact proof as to why Friedmann universe must be spatially flat even though, mathematically one can conceive of curved spaces in any dimension. Additionally, it follows that, apparently, the scale factor as insisted by proposition. Nonetheless, because of close similarity of this form, , with the (vacuum) Milne metric, and also because of implied unphysical equation of state, cosmology is unlikely to represent the physical universe.

Mitra, Abhas

2014-02-01

66

Identification of Amino Acid and Glutathione N-Conjugates of Toosendanin: Bioactivation of the Furan Ring Mediated by CYP3A4.  

PubMed

Toosendanin (TSN) is a hepatotoxic triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc. Considering that TSN contains the structural alert of the furan ring, it is believed that bioactivation of TSN may be responsible for its toxicity. Herein, the bioactivation potential and metabolism profiles of TSN were investigated. After an oral administration of 10 mg/kg TSN to rats, esterolysis and conjugation with amino acids were identified as the main metabolic pathways. The same types of conjugates were detected in liver microsomes in an NADPH-dependent manner. According to the remaining amount of the parent drug, the reactivity of trapping reagents with TSN reactive metabolites was sorted in a decreasing order of N(?)-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-lysine (Boc-Lys) > alanine, lysine, taurine, phenylalanine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine, and glutathione (GSH) > cysteine. No conjugates were observed in NADPH and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)-supplemented human liver microsomal incubations. Further phenotyping studies and the chemical synthesis of the major conjugated standards proved that TSN was bioactivated by CYP3A4 and yielded a cis-butene-1,4-dial intermediate, which was prone to undergo 1,2-addition with the amino group of amino acids and GSH to form 3-pyrroline-2-one adducts. The sulfydryl group of GSH also attacked the intermediate and yielded S-conjugates by 1,4- or 1,2-addition, which would form pyrrole conjugates by further reacting with the amino group. Compared to the well-recognized S-conjugation of the furan ring, N-conjugation with multiple amino acids and GSH played a more important part in the elimination of reactive metabolites of TSN. The significance of these conjugates requires further investigation. PMID:25105339

Yu, Jinghua; Deng, Pan; Zhong, Dafang; Chen, Xiaoyan

2014-09-15

67

High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust National Cancer Institute botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through put microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015-0.5?mg/mL) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % of the extracts tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50 ) properties <0.0183?mg/mL. The most potent anti-mitotics (independent of toxicity) were Mandrake root (Podophyllum peltatum), Truja twigs (Thuja occidentalis), Colorado desert mistletoe (Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao [symbol: see text] Speranskia herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite clay, Bunge root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi [symbol: see text] root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone root (Collinsonia Canadensis), and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun, and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth root (Trillium Pendulum), and alkanet root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (S. tuberculata), which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis, leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of anti-mitotic natural plants that are effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, K F A

2014-06-01

68

Hydrodynamics and Long-term Permeability Evolution in Clogging Porous Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permeability reduction caused by colloid deposition in porous media, or clogging, is important in water treatment, aquifer hydraulics, and subsurface remediation. Analysis of six published data sets, representing a variety of particles, porous media and fluids, indicates greater clogging at lower fluid velocity. There is a unique relationship between a clogging parameter in a modified O'Melia and Ali model and the depositing particle's Peclet number. The adopted Peclet number is the ratio of advective to Brownian particle transport within a porous medium and includes hydrodynamics, particle size, and the grain size of the porous medium. Although these data quantify the dependence of clogging on Peclet number, they do not describe steady-state clogging, achieved under conditions of constant flow, with a constant permeability and a constant mass of deposited particles. Data and models for steady-state clogging are lacking because classical filtration research focused on water treatment filters, which are backwashed periodically, and so are not allowed to reach steady state. Steady-state clogging is relevant to flow in natural subsurface environments as an important limiting case in the feedback process between particle deposition and permeability evolution, and as an initial condition for models that describe permeability alteration from mechanical or seismic forces. A model for steady-state clogging assumes deposit permeability to be negligible, then calculates Poiseuille flow in open tubes through the clogged media. The radius of these tubes is a characteristic pore size; the number of these tubes is determined by the applied flow rate and the deposit shear strength, using published estimates. With these assumptions, the model predicts that the pressure drop across the clogged sample is independent of the imposed flow rate, so steady-state permeability will be proportional to flow rate. Deposition experiments (destabilized montmorillonite on quartz sand) to test the power-law relationship between hydrodynamics and permeability and the steady-state clogging model are in progress.

Mays, D. C.; Hunt, J. R.

2004-12-01

69

[Clinical features of Wei Yuheng].  

PubMed

Wei Yuheng held that the endogenous miscellaneous diseases are mostly caused by liver diseases, highly stressed the treating method of nourishing yin to generate liver. He claimed that liver deficiency is mostly caused by congenital factors, sexual strain or improper treatment. He criticized that the improper treatment by elder generations mainly was caused by their ignorance of tonifying the liver based on the saying of "no tonifying treatment for the liver". Wei Yuheng's medical theories and clinical experiences are scattered in his book Xu Mingyi Lei'an (Supplement to Classified Case Records of Celebrated Physicians). Wang Mengying collected part of his thoughts and experiences and wrote the book Liuzhou Yihua (Liuzhou Medical Talks). Although Wang Mengying's book could deduce part of the thoughts of Wei Yuheng, it didn't disclose his theories completely. It is known to all that the compound recipe Yiguan Jian is a representative formula of Wei Yuheng to tonify liver yin. Actually, it can be concluded from the analysis of Xu Mingyi Lei'an that he used Fructus Lycii (Gouqi) as a main herb to tonify liver yin in the method of nourishing yin to generate liver. Based on the idea that there are accept, restriction, generation and transformation relationship among the lung, kidney and liver yin, so he also always used Radix Glehniae (Beishashen), Radix Ophiopogonis (Maidong), Radix Rehmanniae Recens (Shengdihuang), and Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shudihuang) in his compound recipes. If the yin blood is insufficient, Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (Suanzaoren) should be added. In order to prepare a out way for phlegm-heat caused dy liver yin deficiency, a lubricative, Semen Trichosanthis (Gualouren) was always used and raw Semen Coicis Recens (Shengyiyiren) too. Sichuan Rhizoma Coptidis (Chuanhuanglian) can be used to clear fire-heat, and Fructus Meliae Toosendan (Chuanlianzi) for pain caused by fire-heat. PMID:17096983

Yu, Zhong-yuan

2006-04-01

70

Supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Acknowledgements; Workshop participants; 1. Images and spectrograms of Sanduleak - 69º202, the SN 1987a progenitor N. R. Walborn; 2. The progenitor of SN 1987A G. Sonneborn; 3. Another supernova with a blue progenitor C. M. Gaskell and W. C. Keel; 4. Optical and infrared observations of SN 1987A from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory M. M. Phillips; 5. SN 1987A: observational results obtained at ESO I. J. Danziger, P. Bouchet, R. A. E. Fosbury, C. Gouiffes, L. B. Lucy, A. F. M. Moorwood, E. Oliva and F. Rufener; 6. Observations of SN 1987A at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) M. W. Feast; 7. Observations of SN 1987A at the Anglo-Australian Telescope W. J. Couch; 8. Linear polarimetric study of SN 1987A A. Clocchiatti, M. Méndez, O. Benvenuto, C. Feinstein, H. Marraco, B. García and N. Morrell; 9. Infrared spectroscopy of SN 1987A from the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory H. P. Larson, S. Drapatz, M. J. Mumma and H. A. Weaver; 10. Radio observations of SN 1987A N. Bartel et al.; 11. Ultraviolet observations of SN 1987A: clues to mass loss R. P. Kirshner; 12. On the energetics of SN 1987A N. Panagia; 13. On the nature and apparent uniqueness of SN 1987A A. V. Filippenko; 14. A comparison of the SN 1987A light curve with other type II supernovae, and the detectability of similar supernovae M. F. Schmitz and C. M. Gaskell; 15. P-Cygni features and photospheric velocities L. Bildsten and J. C. L. Wang; 16. The Neutrino burst from SN 1987A detected in the Mont Blanc LSD experiment M. Aglietta et al.; 17. Toward observational neutrino astrophysics M. Koshiba; 18. The discovery of neutrinos from SN 1987A with the IMB detector J. Matthews; 19. Peering into the abyss: the neutrinos from SN 1987A A. Burrows; 20. Phenomenological analysis of neutrino emission from SN 1987A J. N. Bahcall, D. N. Spergel and W. H. Press; 21. Mass determination of neutrinos H. Y. Chiu; 22. Neutrino transport in a type II supernova D. C. Ellison, P. M. Giovanoni and S. W. Bruenn; 23. Neutrino masses from SN 1987A J. Franklin; 24. Supernova neutrinos and their oscillations T. K. Kuo and J. T. Pantaleone; 25. Neutrinos from SN 1987A and cooling of the nascent neutron star D. Q. Lamb, F. Melia and T. J. Loredo; 26. Neutrino Energetics of SN 1987A J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 27. Neutrino emission from cooling neutron stars E. S. Myra, J. M. Lattimer and A. Yahil; 28. Statistical analysis of the time structure of the neutrinos from SN 1987A P. J. Schinder and S. A. Bludman; 29. Neutrino properties from observations of SN 1987A A. Dar; 30. SN 1987A and companion C. Papaliolios, M. Karovska, P. Nisenson, and C. Standley; 31. Supernovae light echoes B. E. Schaefer; 32. A real light echo: Nova Persei 1901 J. E. Felten; 33. IR speckle- interferometry of SN 1987A A. A. Chalabaev, C. Perrier and J. M. Mariotti; 34. Infrared opportunities for Supernova 1987A E. Dwek; 35. The UV interstellar spectrum and environment of SN 1987A F. C. Bruhweiler; 36. The interstellar spectrum of SN 1987A in the ultraviolet J. C. Blades, J. M. Wheatley, N. Panagia, M. Grewing, M. Pettini and W. Wamsteker; 37. The structure and spectrum of SN 1987A J. C. Wheeler, R. P. Harkness, and Z. Barkat; 38. Supernova 1987A: constraints on the theoretical model K. Nomoto and T. Shigeyama; 39. Supernova 1987A: a model and its predictions S. E. Woosley; 40. SN 1987A: circumstellar and interstellar interaction R. A. Chevalier; 41. Theoretical models of Supernova 1987A W. D. Arnett; 42. Evolution of the stellar progenitor of Supernova 1987A J. W. Truran and A. Weiss; 43.Modelling the atmosphere of SN 1987A L. B. Lucy; 44. SN 1987A: a stripped asymptotic- branch giant in a binary system P. C. Joss, Ph. Podsiadlowski, J. J. L. Hsu and S. Rappaport; 45. Pulsar formation and the fall back mass fraction S. A. Colgate; 46. An unusual hard X-ray source in the region of SN 19

Kafatos, Minas; Michalitsianos, Andrew G.

2006-11-01