Optical Frequency Domain Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Vakoc, Benjamin; Yun, Seok Hyun
In this chapter, we discuss a frequency-domain approach, optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), which is based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry and uses a wavelength-swept laser and standard single-element photodetectors. The chapter begins with an overview of the fundamental aspects of the technology, including the detected signal, sensitivity, depth range, and resolution, and then goes on to discuss specific component technologies including the light source, interferometer and acquisition electronics, and image processing. The final section of the chapter provides a brief glimpse at some of the biomedical applications that most directly take advantage of the improved speed and sensitivity of OFDI.
Frequency domain nonlinear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legare, Francois
2016-05-01
The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.
Frequency domain optical parametric amplification
Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François
2014-01-01
Today’s ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43 mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8 μm wavelength. PMID:24805968
Frequency domain optical tomography in human tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Yuqi; Wang, Yao; Pei, Yaling; Zhu, Wenwu; Hu, Jenhun; Barbour, Randall L.
1995-10-01
In this paper, a reconstruction algorithm for frequency-domain optical tomography in human tissue is presented. A fast and efficient multigrid finite difference (MGFD) method is adopted as a forward solver to obtain the simulated detector responses and the required imaging operator. The solutions obtained form MGFD method for 3D problems with weakly discontinuous cocoefficients are compared with analyzed solutions to determine the accuracy of the numerical method. Simultaneous reconstruction of both absorption and scattering coefficients for tissue-like media is accomplished by solving a perturbation equation using the Born approximation. This solution is obtained by a conjugate gradient descent method with Tikhonov regularization. Two examples are given to show the quality of the reconstruction results. Both involve the examination of anatomically accurate optical models of tissue derived from segmented 3D magnetic resonance images to which have been assigned optical coefficients to the designated tissue types. One is a map of a female breast containing two small 'added pathologies', such as tumors. The other is a map of the brain containing a 'local bleeding' area, representing a hemorrhage. The reconstruction results show that the algorithm is computationally practical and can yield qualitatively correct geometry of the objects embedded in the simulated human tissue. Acceptable results are obtaiend even when 10% noise is present in the data.
Frequency Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Techniques in Eye Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wojtkowski, M.; Kowalczyk, A.; Targowski, P.; Gorczyñska, I.
2000-12-01
This contribution presents an application of frequency-domain optical tomography to ophthalmology. Essential theoretical foundations of time-domain and frequency-domain optical tomography are presented. Images of sections through the anterior chamber, the corneo-scleral angle and fundus of the eye are reconstructed from the spectral fringes. The morphological information gained by tomograms is important for diagnosing and planning of a treatment of glaucoma.
Vector optical fields broken in the spatial frequency domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Li, Si-Min; Wang, Dan; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian
2016-03-01
We theoretically and experimentally explore the redistribution of polarization states and orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the output plane, induced by the symmetry breaking in the spatial frequency domain. When the vector fields are obstructed by sector-shaped filters in the spatial frequency domain, the local polarization states in the output plane undergo an abrupt transition from linear to circular polarization. The results reveal the polarization-dependent splitting and the appearance of a series of opposite OAMs in the output plane. We also find the self-healing effect of the vector fields broken in the spatial frequency domain and further explore its potential application. If the vector optical fields are used for information transferring or for imaging, even if the optical field carrying the information or image is partially blocked, the complete information or image can still be obtained, implying that which may increase the robustness of the information transferring and the imaging.
Frequency domain optical tomography using a Monte Carlo perturbation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki
2016-04-01
A frequency domain Monte Carlo method is applied to near-infrared optical tomography, where an intensity-modulated light source with a given modulation frequency is used to reconstruct optical properties. The frequency domain reconstruction technique allows for better separation between the scattering and absorption properties of inclusions, even for ill-posed inverse problems, due to cross-talk between the scattering and absorption reconstructions. The frequency domain Monte Carlo calculation for light transport in an absorbing and scattering medium has thus far been analyzed mostly for the reconstruction of optical properties in simple layered tissues. This study applies a Monte Carlo calculation algorithm, which can handle complex-valued particle weights for solving a frequency domain transport equation, to optical tomography in two-dimensional heterogeneous tissues. The Jacobian matrix that is needed to reconstruct the optical properties is obtained by a first-order "differential operator" technique, which involves less variance than the conventional "correlated sampling" technique. The numerical examples in this paper indicate that the newly proposed Monte Carlo method provides reconstructed results for the scattering and absorption coefficients that compare favorably with the results obtained from conventional deterministic or Monte Carlo methods.
High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging
Yun, S. H.; Tearney, G. J.; de Boer, J. F.; Iftimia, N.; Bouma, B. E.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate high-speed, high-sensitivity, high-resolution optical imaging based on optical frequency-domain interferometry using a rapidly-tuned wavelength-swept laser. We derive and show experimentally that frequency-domain ranging provides a superior signal-to-noise ratio compared with conventional time-domain ranging as used in optical coherence tomography. A high sensitivity of −110 dB was obtained with a 6 mW source at an axial resolution of 13.5 µm and an A-line rate of 15.7 kHz, representing more than an order-of-magnitude improvement compared with previous OCT and interferometric imaging methods. PMID:19471415
Lu, Yujie; Zhu, Banghe; Shen, Haiou; Rasmussen, John C; Wang, Ge; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M
2010-08-21
Fluorescence molecular imaging/tomography may play an important future role in preclinical research and clinical diagnostics. Time- and frequency-domain fluorescence imaging can acquire more measurement information than the continuous wave (CW) counterpart, improving the image quality of fluorescence molecular tomography. Although diffusion approximation (DA) theory has been extensively applied in optical molecular imaging, high-order photon migration models need to be further investigated to match quantitation provided by nuclear imaging. In this paper, a frequency-domain parallel adaptive finite element solver is developed with simplified spherical harmonics (SP(N)) approximations. To fully evaluate the performance of the SP(N) approximations, a fast time-resolved tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo fluorescence simulator suitable for complex heterogeneous geometries is developed using a convolution strategy to realize the simulation of the fluorescence excitation and emission. The validation results show that high-order SP(N) can effectively correct the modeling errors of the diffusion equation, especially when the tissues have high absorption characteristics or when high modulation frequency measurements are used. Furthermore, the parallel adaptive mesh evolution strategy improves the modeling precision and the simulation speed significantly on a realistic digital mouse phantom. This solver is a promising platform for fluorescence molecular tomography using high-order approximations to the radiative transfer equation. PMID:20671350
Spectrally balanced detection for optical frequency domain imaging.
Chen, Yueli; de Bruin, Daniel M; Kerbage, Charles; de Boer, Johannes F
2007-12-10
In optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) or swept-source optical coherence tomography, balanced detection is required to suppress relative intensity noise (RIN). A regular implementation of balanced detection by combining reference and sample arm signal in a 50/50 coupler and detecting the differential output with a balanced receiver is however, not perfect. Since the splitting ratio of the 50/50 coupler is wavelength dependent, RIN is not optimally canceled at the edges of the wavelength sweep. The splitting ratio has a nearly linear shift of 0.4% per nanometer. This brings as much as +/-12% deviation at the margins of wavelength-swept range centered at 1060nm. We demonstrate a RIN suppression of 33dB by spectrally corrected balanced detection, 11dB more that regular balanced detection. PMID:19550929
Optical Frequency Domain Visualization of Electron Beam Driven Plasma Wakefields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, M. C.; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Fedurin, Mikhail
2010-11-01
Beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators (PWFA), such as the ``plasma afterburner,'' are a promising approach for significantly increasing the particle energies of conventional accelerators. The study and optimization of PWFA would benefit from an experimental correlation between the parameters of the drive bunch, the accelerated bunch and the corresponding, accelerating plasma wave structure. However, the plasma wave structure has not yet been observed directly in PWFA. We will report our current work on noninvasive optical Frequency Domain Interferometric (FDI) and Holographic (FDH) visualization of beam-driven plasma waves. Both techniques employ two laser pulses (probe and reference) co-propagating with the particle drive-beam and its plasma wake. The reference pulse precedes the drive bunch, while the probe overlaps the plasma wave and maps its longitudinal and transverse structure. The experiment is being developed at the BNL/ATF Linac to visualize wakes generated by two and multi-bunch drive beams.
Polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system for endobronchial imaging.
Li, Jianan; Feroldi, Fabio; de Lange, Joop; Daniels, Johannes M A; Grünberg, Katrien; de Boer, Johannes F
2015-02-01
A polarization sensitive endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) system with a motorized distal scanning catheter is demonstrated. It employs a passive polarization delay unit to multiplex two orthogonal probing polarization states in depth, and a polarization diverse detection unit to detect interference signal in two orthogonal polarization channels. Per depth location four electro-magnetic field components are measured that can be represented in a complex 2x2 field matrix. A Jones matrix of the sample is derived and the sample birefringence is extracted by eigenvalue decomposition. The condition of balanced detection and the polarization mode dispersion are quantified. A complex field averaging method based on the alignment of randomly pointing field phasors is developed to reduce speckle noise. The variation of the polarization states incident on the tissue due to the circular scanning and catheter sheath birefringence is investigated. With this system we demonstrated imaging of ex vivo chicken muscle, in vivo pig lung and ex vivo human lung specimens. PMID:25836196
Optical Frequency Domain Visualization of Electron Beam Driven Plasma Wakefields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, Michael C.; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl; Fedurin, Michhail; Babzien, Marcus
2010-11-01
Bunch driven plasma wakefield accelerators (PWFA), such as the "plasma afterburner," are a promising emerging method for significantly increasing the energy output of conventional particle accelerators [1]. The study and optimization of this method would benefit from an experimental correlation of the drive bunch parameters and the accelerated particle parameters with the corresponding plasma wave structure. However, the plasma wave structure has not been observed directly so far. We will report ongoing development of a noninvasive optical Frequency Domain Interferometric (FDI) [2] and Holographic (FDH) [3] diagnostics of bunch driven plasma wakes. Both FDI and FDH have been previously demonstrated in the case of laser driven wakes. These techniques employ two laser pulses co-propagating with the drive particle bunch and the trailing plasma wave. One pulse propagates ahead of the drive bunch and serves as a reference, while the second is overlapped with the plasma wave and probes its structure. The multi-shot FDI and single-shot FDH diagnostics permit direct noninvasive observation of longitudinal and transverse structure of the plasma wakes. The experiment is being developed at the 70 MeV Linac in the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to visualize wakes generated by two [4] and multi-bunch [5] drive beams.
Optical Frequency Domain Visualization of Electron Beam Driven Plasma Wakefields
Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, Michael C.; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl; Fedurin, Michhail; Babzien, Marcus
2010-11-04
Bunch driven plasma wakefield accelerators (PWFA), such as the 'plasma afterburner', are a promising emerging method for significantly increasing the energy output of conventional particle accelerators. The study and optimization of this method would benefit from an experimental correlation of the drive bunch parameters and the accelerated particle parameters with the corresponding plasma wave structure. However, the plasma wave structure has not been observed directly so far. We will report ongoing development of a noninvasive optical Frequency Domain Interferometric (FDI) and Holographic (FDH) diagnostics of bunch driven plasma wakes. Both FDI and FDH have been previously demonstrated in the case of laser driven wakes. These techniques employ two laser pulses co-propagating with the drive particle bunch and the trailing plasma wave. One pulse propagates ahead of the drive bunch and serves as a reference, while the second is overlapped with the plasma wave and probes its structure. The multi-shot FDI and single-shot FDH diagnostics permit direct noninvasive observation of longitudinal and transverse structure of the plasma wakes. The experiment is being developed at the 70 MeV Linac in the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to visualize wakes generated by two and multi-bunch drive beams.
Vakoc, B J; Yun, S H; Tearney, G J; Bouma, B E
2006-02-01
A novel optical frequency-domain imaging system is demonstrated that employs a passive optical demodulation circuit and a chirped digital acquisition clock derived from a voltage-controlled oscillator. The demodulation circuit allows the separation of signals from positive and negative depths to better than 50 dB, thereby eliminating depth degeneracy and doubling the imaging depth range. Our system design is compatible with dual-balanced and polarization-diverse detection, important techniques in the practical biomedical application of optical frequency-domain imaging. PMID:16480209
Quantum theory of optical coherence of nonstationary light in the space-frequency domain
Lahiri, Mayukh; Wolf, Emil
2010-10-15
Classical theories of coherence for statistically stationary, as well as, nonstationary optical fields are frequently discussed both in the space-time and in the space-frequency domains. However, the quantum treatment of coherence theory is generally carried out in the space-time domain. In this paper, we present a quantum-mechanical theory of first-order coherence for statistically nonstationary light in the space-frequency domain.
Parallel full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain by the Gauss-Newton method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wensheng; Zhuang, Yuan
2016-06-01
In this paper, we investigate the full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain. We first test the inversion ability of three numerical optimization methods, i.e., the steepest-descent method, the Newton-CG method and the Gauss- Newton method, for a simple model. The results show that the Gauss-Newton method performs well and efficiently. Then numerical computations for a benchmark model named Marmousi model by the Gauss-Newton method are implemented. Parallel algorithm based on message passing interface (MPI) is applied as the inversion is a typical large-scale computational problem. Numerical computations show that the Gauss-Newton method has good ability to reconstruct the complex model.
Optical frequency domain reflectometry: principles and applications in fiber optic sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreger, Stephen T.; Rahim, Nur Aida Abdul; Garg, Naman; Klute, Sandra M.; Metrey, Daniel R.; Beaty, Noah; Jeans, James W.; Gamber, Robert
2016-05-01
Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) is the basis of an emerging high-definition distributed fiber optic sensing (HD-FOS) technique that provides an unprecedented combination of resolution and sensitivity. OFDR employs swept laser interferometry to produce strain or temperature vs. sensor length with fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) or Rayleigh scatter as the source signal. We look at the influence of HD-FOS on design and test of new, lighter weight, stronger and more fuel efficient vehicles. Examples include defect detection, model verification and structural health monitoring of composites, and temperature distribution monitoring of battery packs and inverters in hybrid and electric powertrains.
Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)
Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Shishko, Milen; Yun, Seok H.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Suter, Melissa J.; Desjardins, Adrien E.; Evans, John A.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Bouma, Brett E.
2009-01-01
Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used for high-resolution endoscopic imaging and diagnosis of specialized intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and intramucosal carcinoma of the esophagus. However, the relatively slow image-acquisition rate of the present OCT systems inhibits wide-field imaging and limits the clinical utility of OCT for diagnostic imaging in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Objective This study describes a new optical imaging technology, optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), derived from OCT, that enables comprehensive imaging of large esophageal segments with microscopic resolution. Design A prototype OFDI system was developed for endoscopic imaging. The system was used in combination with a balloon-centering catheter to comprehensively image the distal esophagus in swine. Results Volumetric images of the mucosa and portions of the muscularis propria were obtained for 4.5-cm-long segments. Image resolution was 7 μm in depth and 30 μm parallel to the lumen, and provided clear delineation of each mucosal layer. The 3-dimensional data sets were used to create cross-sectional microscopic images, as well as vascular maps of the esophagus. Submucosal vessels and capillaries were visualized by using Doppler-flow processing. Conclusions Comprehensive microscopic imaging of the distal esophagus in vivo by using OFDI is feasible. The unique capabilities of this technology for obtaining detailed information of tissue microstructure over large mucosal areas may open up new possibilities for improving the management of patients with Barrett's esophagus. PMID:17383652
Spatially-dense, multi-spectral, frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ban, Han Yong
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) employs near-infrared light to image the concentration of chromophores and cell organelles in tissue and thereby providing access to functional parameters that can differentiate cancerous from normal tissues. This thesis describes research at the bench and in the clinic that explores and identifies the potential of DOT breast cancer imaging. The bench and clinic instrumentation differ but share important features: they utilize a very large, spatially dense, set of source-detector pairs (10 7) for imaging in the parallel-plate geometry. The bench experiments explored three-dimensional (3D) image resolution and fidelity as a function of numerous parameters and also ascertained the effects of a chest wall phantom. The chest wall is always present but is typically ignored in breast DOT. My experiments clarified chest wall influences and developed schemes to mitigate these effects. Mostly, these schemes involved selective data exclusion, but their efficacy also depended on reconstruction approach. Reconstruction algorithms based on analytic (fast) Fourier inversion and linear algebraic techniques were explored. The clinical experiments centered around a DOT instrument that I designed, constructed, and have begun to test (in-vitro and in-vivo). This instrumentation offers many features new to the field. Specifically, the imager employs spatially-dense, multi-spectral, frequency-domain data; it possesses the world's largest optical source-detector density yet reported, facilitated by highly-parallel CCD-based frequency-domain imaging based on gain-modulation heterodyne detection. The instrument thus measures both phase and amplitude of the diffusive light waves. Other features include both frontal and sagittal breast imaging capabilities, ancillary cameras for measurement of breast boundary profiles, real-time data normalization, and mechanical improvements for patient comfort. The instrument design and construction is my most significant
High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing
MacLachlan, Robert A.; Riviere, Cameron N.
2010-01-01
Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large angular measurement range and allows the use of a probe that is small in comparison with the measurement volume. We review PSD characteristics and quantitative resolution limits, consider the lock-in amplifier measurement system as a communication link, discuss the application of FDM to PSDs, and make comparisons with time-domain techniques. We consider the phase-sensitive detector as a multirate DSP problem, explore parallels with Fourier spectral estimation and filter banks, discuss how to choose the modulation frequencies and sample rates that maximize channel isolation under design constraints, and describe efficient digital implementation. We also discuss hardware design considerations, sensor calibration, probe construction and calibration, and 3-D measurement by triangulation using two sensors. As an example, we characterize the resolution, speed, and accuracy of an instrument that measures the position and orientation of a 10 mm × 5 mm probe in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) over a 30-mm cube with 4-μm peak-to-peak resolution at 1-kHz sampling. PMID:20428484
High-Speed Microscale Optical Tracking Using Digital Frequency-Domain Multiplexing.
Maclachlan, Robert A; Riviere, Cameron N
2009-06-01
Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), or lateral-effect photodiodes, are commonly used for high-speed, high-resolution optical position measurement. This paper describes the instrument design for multidimensional position and orientation measurement based on the simultaneous position measurement of multiple modulated sources using frequency-domain-multiplexed (FDM) PSDs. The important advantages of this optical configuration in comparison with laser/mirror combinations are that it has a large angular measurement range and allows the use of a probe that is small in comparison with the measurement volume. We review PSD characteristics and quantitative resolution limits, consider the lock-in amplifier measurement system as a communication link, discuss the application of FDM to PSDs, and make comparisons with time-domain techniques. We consider the phase-sensitive detector as a multirate DSP problem, explore parallels with Fourier spectral estimation and filter banks, discuss how to choose the modulation frequencies and sample rates that maximize channel isolation under design constraints, and describe efficient digital implementation. We also discuss hardware design considerations, sensor calibration, probe construction and calibration, and 3-D measurement by triangulation using two sensors. As an example, we characterize the resolution, speed, and accuracy of an instrument that measures the position and orientation of a 10 mm × 5 mm probe in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) over a 30-mm cube with 4-μm peak-to-peak resolution at 1-kHz sampling. PMID:20428484
Speckle reduction in OCT using massively-parallel detection and frequency-domain ranging
Desjardins, A. E.; Vakoc, B. J.; Tearney, G. J.; Bouma, B. E.
2009-01-01
Speckle noise significantly limits the information content provided by coherent optical imaging methods such as optical coherence tomography and its recent derivative, optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI). In this paper, we demonstrate a novel OFDI system that simultaneously acquires hundreds of angularly resolved images, which can be compounded to reduce speckle noise. The system comprises an InGaAs line-scan camera and an interferometer, configured so that the elements of the detector array simultaneously capture light spanning a backscattering angular range of 32 degrees. On successive read-outs of the array, the wavelength of the laser source was stepped through a range of 130 nm centered at 1295 nm to concurrently generate 400 angle-resolved OFDI images. A theory of angle-resolved OFDI and the design equations of the system are presented. Incoherent averaging of the angle-resolved data is shown to yield substantial speckle reduction (as high as an 8 dB SNR improvement) in images of a tissue phantom and esophageal tissue ex vivo. PMID:19516630
Spectral and temporal phase measurement by optical frequency-domain reflectometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robillart, Bruno; Calò, Cosimo; Fall, Abdoulaye; Lamare, François; Gottesman, Yaneck; Benkelfat, Badr-Eddine
2014-03-01
The capability of measuring the spectral and temporal phase of an optical signal is of fundamental importance for the advanced characterization of photonic and optoelectronic components, biochemical sensors, structural monitoring sensors and distributed sensor networks. To address this problem, several techniques have been developed (frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER), stepped-heterodyne technique, laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) and Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT)). However, such techniques often lack of versatility for the mentioned applications. Swept-wavelength interferometric techniques and, among these, optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) are flexible and highly sensitive tools for complete characterization of amplitude and phase of target devices. In this work, we investigate the spectral and temporal phase measurement capabilities of OFDR. Precise characterization of spectral phase information is demonstrated by retrieving the phase response of a commercial optical filter, the Finisar Waveshaper 1000 S/X, programmable in attenuation and phase over C+L band (1530- 1625 nm). The presented results show accurate retrieval of group delay dispersion (GDD) and discrete phase shift as well as filter attenuation profile. Although some intrinsic accuracy limitations of OFDR phase measurements may be encountered (and herein specified), we show that information encoded in OFDR reflectogram data is very rich when adequately exploited. In addition to previously published results, we demonstrate the high sensitivity of the technique to Doppler effects. From practical point of view, such sensitivity can be beneficially exploited for the characterisation of dynamical aspects of samples under test. Unlike LDV, OFDR allows the simultaneous retrieval of the temporal position of several localised reflecting target along the beam path. All these aspects make OFDR a highly
Removing the depth-degeneracy in optical frequency domain imaging with frequency shifting
Yun, S. H.; Tearney, G. J.; de Boer, J. F.; Bouma, B. E.
2009-01-01
A novel technique using an acousto-optic frequency shifter in optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) is presented. The frequency shift eliminates the ambiguity between positive and negative differential delays, effectively doubling the interferometric ranging depth while avoiding image cross-talk. A signal processing algorithm is demonstrated to accommodate nonlinearity in the tuning slope of the wavelength-swept OFDI laser source. PMID:19484034
Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren
2014-07-01
Near-Infrared frequency-domain technologies, such as Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS), have demonstrated growing potential in a number of clinical applications. The broader dissemination of this technology is limited by the complexity and cost of instrumentation. We present here a simple system constructed with off-the-shelf components that utilizes undersampling for digital frequency-domain dDOS measurements. Broadband RF sweeps (50-300 MHz) were digitally sampled at 25 MSPS; amplitude, phase, and optical property extractions were within 5% of network analyzer derived values. The use of undersampling for broad bandwidth dDOS provides a significant reduction in complexity, power consumption, and cost compared with high-speed ADCs and analog techniques. PMID:25085193
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren
2014-07-01
Near-Infrared frequency-domain technologies, such as Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS), have demonstrated growing potential in a number of clinical applications. The broader dissemination of this technology is limited by the complexity and cost of instrumentation. We present here a simple system constructed with off-the-shelf components that utilizes undersampling for digital frequency-domain dDOS measurements. Broadband RF sweeps (50-300 MHz) were digitally sampled at 25 MSPS; amplitude, phase, and optical property extractions were within 5% of network analyzer derived values. The use of undersampling for broad bandwidth dDOS provides a significant reduction in complexity, power consumption, and cost compared with high-speed ADCs and analog techniques.
Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren
2014-01-01
Near-Infrared frequency-domain technologies, such as Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS), have demonstrated growing potential in a number of clinical applications. The broader dissemination of this technology is limited by the complexity and cost of instrumentation. We present here a simple system constructed with off-the-shelf components that utilizes undersampling for digital frequency-domain dDOS measurements. Broadband RF sweeps (50–300 MHz) were digitally sampled at 25 MSPS; amplitude, phase, and optical property extractions were within 5% of network analyzer derived values. The use of undersampling for broad bandwidth dDOS provides a significant reduction in complexity, power consumption, and cost compared with high-speed ADCs and analog techniques. PMID:25085193
High speed 3D endoscopic optical frequency domain imaging probe for lung cancer diagnosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianan; Feroldi, Fabio; Mo, Jianhua; Helderman, Frank; de Groot, Mattijs; de Boer, Johannes F.
2013-06-01
We present a miniature motorized endoscopic probe for Optical Frequency Domain Imaging with an outer diameter of 1.65 mm and a rotation speed of 3,000 - 12,500 rpm. The probe has a motorized distal end which provides a significant advantage over proximally driven probes since it does not require a drive shaft to transfer the rotational torque to the distal end of the probe and functions without a fiber rotary junction. The probe has a focal Full Width at Half Maximum of 9.6 μm and a working distance of 0.47 mm. We analyzed the non-uniform rotation distortion and found a location fluctuation of only 1.87° in repeated measurements of the same object. The probe was integrated in a high-speed Optical Frequency Domain Imaging setup at 1310 nm. We demonstrated its performance with imaging ex vivo pig bronchial and in vivo goat lung.
Nonuniform strain measurement in composite material based on optical frequency domain reflection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huajun; Zhang, Dongsheng; Li, Litong; Wu, Mengqi; Wen, Xiaoyan
2016-06-01
Traditional electrical sensor or traditional fiber Bragg grating sensing technology is not applicable to the measurement of nonuniform strain in composite material. Therefore, the distributed nonuniform strain in the lap plate position of composite interlining material is measured using a single fiber with optical frequency domain reflection technology in this study. The experimental results show consistency with the experiment phenomena, and the measurement accuracy could be increased to the submillimeter level.
Comparison of DSP schemes with frequency domain equalization for passive optical networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hui; Ye, Jia; Liu, Yanhe; Yan, Lianshan
2015-08-01
In recent years, digital signal processing (DSP) has been widely investigated for the applications in future next generation passive optical networks (PONs). In this paper, we compare four transmission technologies based on DSP with frequency domain equalization (FDE) for PON transmission with double-side band (DSB) intensity modulation and direct detection. These schemes include orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), single-carrier frequency domain equalization (SCFDE), discrete Fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DFT-S-OFDM) and interleaved frequency division multiplexing (IFDM). We analyze their computational complexity and flexibility in PON applications, and compare their transmission performance by experiments. Based on above work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid DSP-enhanced PON architecture with downstream OFDM modulation and upstream SCFDE modulation.
Brain connectivity study of joint attention using frequency-domain optical imaging technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaudhary, Ujwal; Zhu, Banghe; Godavarty, Anuradha
2010-02-01
Autism is a socio-communication brain development disorder. It is marked by degeneration in the ability to respond to joint attention skill task, from as early as 12 to 18 months of age. This trait is used to distinguish autistic from nonautistic populations. In this study, diffuse optical imaging is being used to study brain connectivity for the first time in response to joint attention experience in normal adults. The prefrontal region of the brain was non-invasively imaged using a frequency-domain based optical imager. The imaging studies were performed on 11 normal right-handed adults and optical measurements were acquired in response to joint-attention based video clips. While the intensity-based optical data provides information about the hemodynamic response of the underlying neural process, the time-dependent phase-based optical data has the potential to explicate the directional information on the activation of the brain. Thus brain connectivity studies are performed by computing covariance/correlations between spatial units using this frequency-domain based optical measurements. The preliminary results indicate that the extent of synchrony and directional variation in the pattern of activation varies in the left and right frontal cortex. The results have significant implication for research in neural pathways associated with autism that can be mapped using diffuse optical imaging tools in the future.
24 mm depth range discretely swept optical frequency domain imaging in dentistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakuma, Hideo; Choi, DongHak; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Hiro-Oka, Hideaki; Ohbayashi, Kohji
2009-02-01
A large depth range is needed if optical coherence tomography (OCT) is to be used to observe multiple teeth simultaneously. A discretely swept optical frequency domain imaging system with a 24-mm depth range was made by using a superstructure-grating distributed Bragg reflector (SSG-DBR) laser as the light source and setting the frequencystep interval to be 3.13 GHz (λ ~ 0.026 nm). The swept wavelength range was 40 nm centered at 1580 nm, the resolution was 29 μm, and the A-scan rate was 1.3 kHz. Application of the OCT system to a dental phantom was demonstrated.
Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging
Yun, S. H.; Tearney, G. J.; de Boer, J. F.; Bouma, B. E.
2009-01-01
We describe results of theoretical and experimental investigations of artifacts that can arise in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) as a result of sample or probe beam motion. While SD-OCT and OFDI are based on similar spectral interferometric principles, the specifics of motion effects are quite different because of distinct signal acquisition methods. These results provide an understanding of motion artifacts such as signal fading, spatial distortion and blurring, and emphasize the need for fast image acquisition in biomedical applications. PMID:19483816
Merrer, Pierre-Henri; Saleh, Khaldoun; Llopis, Olivier; Berneschi, Simone; Cosi, Franco; Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi
2012-07-10
Optical Q factor measurements are performed on a whispering gallery mode (WGM) disk resonator using a microwave frequency domain approach instead of using an optical domain approach. An absence of hysteretic behavior and a better linearity are obtained when performing linewidth measurements by using a microwave modulation for scanning the resonances instead of the piezoelectric-based frequency tuning capability of the laser. The WGM resonator is then used to stabilize a microwave optoelectronic oscillator. The microwave output of this system generates a 12.48 GHz signal with -94 dBc/Hz phase noise at 10 kHz offset. PMID:22781250
Ha, Jinyong; Yoo, Hongki; Tearney, Guillermo J.
2012-01-01
Intracoronary optical coherence tomography and optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) have been utilized for two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging of vascular microanatomy. Image quality and the spatial accuracy of multidimensional reconstructions, however, can be degraded due to artifacts resulting from relative motion between the intracoronary catheter and the vessel wall. To track the relative motion of a catheter with regard to the vessel, a motion tracking system was incorporated with a standard OFDI system by using wavelength division multiplexing techniques. Motion of the vessel was acquired by a frequency shift of the backscattered light caused by the Doppler effect. A single monochromatic beam was utilized for tracking the relative longitudinal displacements of a catheter-based fiber probe with regard to the vessel. Although two tracking beams are, in general, required to correct for longitudinal motion artifacts, the accurate reconstruction in a longitudinal view was achieved by the Doppler frequency information of a single beam. Our results demonstrate that the single beam based motion tracking scheme is a cost-effective, practical approach to compensating for longitudinal distortions due to cardiac dynamics, thus leading to accurate quantitative analysis of 3D intracoronary OFDI. PMID:21993895
Multipixel system for gigahertz frequency-domain optical imaging of finger joints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Netz, Uwe J.; Beuthan, Jürgen; Hielscher, Andreas H.
2008-03-01
Frequency-domain optical imaging systems have shown great promise for characterizing blood oxygenation, hemodynamics, and other physiological parameters in human and animal tissues. However, most of the frequency domain systems presented so far operate with source modulation frequencies below 150MHz. At these low frequencies, their ability to provide accurate data for small tissue geometries such as encountered in imaging of finger joints or rodents is limited. Here, we present a new system that can provide data up to 1GHz using an intensity modulated charged coupled device camera. After data processing, the images show the two-dimensional distribution of amplitude and phase of the light modulation on the finger surface. The system performance was investigated and test measurements on optical tissue phantoms were taken to investigate whether higher frequencies yield better signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). It could be shown that local changes in optical tissue properties, as they appear in the initial stages of rheumatoid arthritis in a finger joint, are detectable by simple image evaluation, with the range of modulation frequency around 500MHz proving to yield the highest SNR.
Coherent Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) using a fiber grating external cavity laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Kao-Yang; Carter, Gary M.
1994-12-01
An optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) system containing a narrow linewidth fiber grating external cavity laser is demonstrated to have 62-dB of sensitivity when detecting Fresnel backreflection and 2 m of resolution at a 115 m range in optical fiber. With this system we were able to detect Rayleigh backscattering in optical fiber with 20-dB signal-to-noise ratio. The phase noise limitation on the distance range for the OFDR was investigated, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data followed the theoretical simulation over the ranges measured. This technique has potential to be applied to the OFDR at 1550 nm with very high dynamic range by using an erbium doped fiber laser.
High speed miniature motorized endoscopic probe for 3D optical frequency domain imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianan; Feroldi, Fabio; Mo, Jianhua; Helderman, Frank; de Groot, Mattijs; de Boer, Johannes F.
2013-03-01
We present a miniature motorized endoscopic probe for Optical Frequency Domain Imaging with an outer diameter of 1.65 mm and a rotation speed of 3,000 - 12,500 rpm. This is the smallest motorized high speed OCT probe to our knowledge. The probe has a motorized distal end which provides a significant advantage over proximally driven probes since it does not require a drive shaft to transfer the rotational torque to the distal end of the probe and functions without a fiber rotary junction. The probe has a focal Full Width at Half Maximum of 9.6 μm and a working distance of 0.47 mm. We analyzed the non-uniform rotation distortion and found a location fluctuation of only 1.87° in repeated measurements of the same object. The probe was integrated in a high-speed Optical Frequency Domain Imaging setup at 1310 nm We demonstrated its performance with imaging ex vivo pig bronchial and in vivo goat lung.
Fiber Bragg grating sensors array based on optical frequency domain reflectometry technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Yanling; He, Lijuan; Chen, Tao; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Wenlong
2007-01-01
In this paper, the optimized Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Arrays system, which was based on Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry(OFDR) Multiplexing and Fabry-Perot Tunable Optical Filter(TOF) Demodulation Technology was Introduced, that FBG sensors in the same operating waveband can be used in different beat frequencies positions was proposed, and then a simulation was made for this proposition. As a result, in the case of duty ratio of the modulation signal w=1, the maximum amplitude B=4OMHz, and saw-tooth frequency f s=5kHz,the maximum measurement range can reach 4000m and , the minimum resolution can be reduced to 2.58m. In addition, A/D converting circuits and a DSP COMS chip were suggested to be designed for the function of frequency mixing, wavelength filtering and Fast Fourier Transform so that instead of expensive frequency analyzer, so that the system cost can be reduced.
Miniature swept source for point of care Optical Frequency Domain Imaging
Goldberg, Brian D.; Nezam, S.M. Reza Motaghian; Jillella, Priyanka; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.
2009-01-01
Point of care (POC) medical technologies require portable, small, robust instrumentation for practical implementation. In their current embodiment, optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) systems employ large form-factor wavelength-swept lasers, making them impractical in the POC environment. Here, we describe a first step toward a POC OFDI system by demonstrating a miniaturized swept-wavelength source. The laser is based on a tunable optical filter using a reflection grating and a miniature resonant scanning mirror. The laser achieves 75 nm of bandwidth centered at 1340 nm, a 0.24 nm instantaneous line width, a 15.3 kHz repetition rate with 12 mW peak output power, and a 30.4 kHz A-line rate when utilizing forward and backward sweeps. The entire laser system is approximately the size of a deck of cards and can operate on battery power for at least one hour. PMID:19259202
Vakoc, Benjamin J; Lanning, Ryan M; Tyrrell, James A; Padera, Timothy P; Bartlett, Lisa A; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Munn, Lance L; Tearney, Guillermo J; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K; Bouma, Brett E
2009-01-01
Intravital multiphoton microscopy has provided powerful mechanistic insights into health and disease, and has become a common instrument in the modern biological laboratory. The requisite high numerical aperture and exogenous contrast agents that enable multiphoton microscopy, however, limit ability to investigate substantial tissue volumes or to probe dynamic changes repeatedly over prolonged periods. Here, we introduce optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) as an intravital microscopy that circumvents the technical limitations of multiphoton microscopy and, as a result, provides unprecedented access to previously unexplored, critically important aspects of tissue biology. Using novel OFDI-based approaches and entirely intrinsic mechanisms of contrast, we present rapid and repeated measurements of tumor angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, tissue viability and both vascular and cellular responses to therapy, thereby demonstrating the potential of OFDI to facilitate the exploration of physiological and pathological processes and the evaluation of treatment strategies. PMID:19749772
Real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse using optical frequency-domain reflectometry.
Jiang, Shoulin; Ma, Lin; Fan, Xinyu; Wang, Bin; He, Zuyuan
2016-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse by analysing the Doppler shift of reflected light using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). Our method can detect the start of a fibre fuse within 200 ms which is equivalent to a propagation distance of about 10 cm in standard single-mode fibre. We successfully measured instantaneous speed of propagating fibre fuses and observed their subtle fluctuation owing to the laser power instability. The resolution achieved for speed measurement in our demonstration is 1 × 10(-3) m/s. We studied the fibre fuse propagation speed dependence on the launched power in different fibres. Our method is promising for both real time fibre fuse monitoring and future studies on its propagation and termination. PMID:27146550
Real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse using optical frequency-domain reflectometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Shoulin; Ma, Lin; Fan, Xinyu; Wang, Bin; He, Zuyuan
2016-05-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse by analysing the Doppler shift of reflected light using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). Our method can detect the start of a fibre fuse within 200 ms which is equivalent to a propagation distance of about 10 cm in standard single-mode fibre. We successfully measured instantaneous speed of propagating fibre fuses and observed their subtle fluctuation owing to the laser power instability. The resolution achieved for speed measurement in our demonstration is 1 × 10‑3 m/s. We studied the fibre fuse propagation speed dependence on the launched power in different fibres. Our method is promising for both real time fibre fuse monitoring and future studies on its propagation and termination.
Distributed vibration sensing with time-resolved optical frequency-domain reflectometry.
Zhou, Da-Peng; Qin, Zengguang; Li, Wenhai; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi
2012-06-01
The distributed vibration or dynamic strain information can be obtained using time-resolved optical frequency-domain reflectometry. Time-domain information is resolved by measuring Rayleigh backscatter spectrum in different wavelength ranges which fall in successive time sequence due to the linear wavelength sweep of the tunable laser source with a constant sweeping rate. The local Rayleigh backscatter spectrum shift of the vibrated state with respect to that of the non-vibrated state in time sequence can be used to determine dynamic strain information at a specific position along the fiber length. Standard single-mode fibers can be used as sensing head, while the measurable frequency range of 0-32 Hz with the spatial resolution of 10 cm can be achieved up to the total length of 17 m. PMID:22714342
Compensation of motion artifacts in catheter-based optical frequency domain imaging
Ha, J. Y.; Shishkov, M.; Colice, M.; Oh, W. Y.; Yoo, H.; Liu, L.; Tearney, G. J.; Bouma, B. E.
2010-01-01
A novel heterodyne Doppler interferometer method for compensating motion artifacts caused by cardiac motion in intracoronary optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) is demonstrated. To track the relative motion of a catheter with regard to the vessel, a motion tracking system is incorporated with a standard OFDI system by using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) techniques. Without affecting the imaging beam, dual WDM monochromatic beams are utilized for tracking the relative radial and longitudinal velocities of a catheter-based fiber probe. Our results demonstrate that tracking instantaneous velocity can be used to compensate for distortion in the images due to motion artifacts, thus leading to accurate reconstruction and volumetric measurements with catheter-based imaging. PMID:20589002
Real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse using optical frequency-domain reflectometry
Jiang, Shoulin; Ma, Lin; Fan, Xinyu; Wang, Bin; He, Zuyuan
2016-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate real-time locating and speed measurement of fibre fuse by analysing the Doppler shift of reflected light using optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). Our method can detect the start of a fibre fuse within 200 ms which is equivalent to a propagation distance of about 10 cm in standard single-mode fibre. We successfully measured instantaneous speed of propagating fibre fuses and observed their subtle fluctuation owing to the laser power instability. The resolution achieved for speed measurement in our demonstration is 1 × 10−3 m/s. We studied the fibre fuse propagation speed dependence on the launched power in different fibres. Our method is promising for both real time fibre fuse monitoring and future studies on its propagation and termination. PMID:27146550
Frequency-Domain Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography of the Femoropopliteal Artery
Karnabatidis, Dimitris Katsanos, Konstantinos; Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Siablis, Dimitris
2011-12-15
Purpose: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a catheter-based imaging method that employs near-infrared light to produce high-resolution intravascular images. The authors report the safety and feasibility and illustrate common imaging findings of frequency-domain OCT (FD-OCT) imaging of the femoropopliteal artery in a series of 20 patients who underwent infrainguinal angioplasty. Methods: After crossing the lesion of interest, OCT was performed with a dextrose saline flush technique with simultaneous obstructive manual groin compression. An automatic pullback FD-OCT device was employed (each scan acquiring 54 mm of vessel lumen in 271 consecutive frames). OCT images were acquired before and after balloon dilatation and following provisional stenting if necessary and were evaluated for baseline characteristics of plaque or in-stent restenosis (ISR), vessel wall trauma after angioplasty, presence of thrombus, stent apposition, and tissue prolapse. Imaging follow-up was not included in this study's protocol. Results: Twenty-seven obstructive lesions (18 cases of de novo atherosclerosis and 9 of ISR) of the femoropopliteal artery were imaged and 148 acquisitions were analyzed in total. High-resolution intravascular OCT imaging with effective blood clearance was achieved in 93.9%. Failure was mainly attributed to preocclusive proximal lesions and/or collateral flow. Mixed features of lipid pool areas, calcium deposits, necrotic core, and fibrosis were identified in all of the imaged atherosclerotic lesions, whereas ISR was purely fibrotic. After balloon angioplasty, OCT identified extensive intimal tears in all cases and one case of severe dissection that biplane subtraction angiography failed to identify. Conclusions: Infrainguinal frequency-domain optical coherence tomography is safe and feasible and may provide intravascular high-resolution imaging of the femoropopliteal artery during infrainguinal angioplasty procedures.
High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing
Yun, S.H.; Vakoc, B.J.; Shishkov, M.; Desjardins, A.E.; Park, B.H.; de Boer, J.F.; Tearney, G.J.; Bouma, B.E.
2009-01-01
Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) provides a cross-sectional image of birefringence in biological samples that is complementary in many applications to the standard reflectance-based image. Recent ex vivo studies have demonstrated that birefringence mapping enables the characterization of collagen and smooth muscle concentration and distribution in vascular tissues. Instruments capable of applying these measurements percutaneously in vivo may provide new insights into coronary atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction. We have developed a polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) system that enables high-speed intravascular birefringence imaging through a fiber-optic catheter. The novel design of this system utilizes frequency multiplexing to simultaneously measure reflectance of two incident polarization states, overcoming concerns regarding temporal variations of the catheter fiber birefringence and spatial variations in the birefringence of the sample. We demonstrate circular cross-sectional birefringence imaging of a human coronary artery ex vivo through a flexible fiber-optic catheter with an A-line rate of 62 kHz and a ranging depth of 6.2 mm. PMID:18542183
Optical periodic code matching by single-shot broadband frequency-domain cross-correlation.
Chuntonov, Lev; Amitay, Zohar
2010-08-16
We introduce and experimentally demonstrate a simple and reliable optical technique for matching between two periodic numerical sequences based on optical single-shot measurement of their broadband cross-correlation function in the frequency domain. Each sequence is optically encoded into the shape of the different broadband femtosecond pulse using pulse-shaping techniques. The two corresponding shaped pulses are mixed in a nonlinear medium together with an additional (amplitude-shaped) narrowband pulse. The spectrum of the resulting four-wave mixing signal is measured to provide the cross-correlation function of the two encoded sequences. For identical sequences it is the auto-correlation function that is being measured, allowing also the identification of the sequence period. The high contrast achieved here between cross-correlation and auto-correlation functions allows to determine with a very high reliability whether the two encoded sequences are identical or not. The demonstrated technique might be employed in an optical implementation of CDMA communication protocol. PMID:20721163
High frame-rate intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging in vivo
Cho, Han Saem; Jang, Sun-Joo; Kim, Kyunghun; Dan-Chin-Yu, Alexey V.; Shishkov, Milen; Bouma, Brett E.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl
2013-01-01
Intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), a second-generation optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, enables imaging of the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of the vessel wall following a short and nonocclusive clear liquid flush. Although 3D vascular visualization provides a greater appreciation of the vessel wall and intraluminal structures, a longitudinal imaging pitch that is several times bigger than the optical imaging resolution of the system has limited true high-resolution 3D imaging, mainly due to the slow scanning speed of previous imaging catheters. Here, we demonstrate high frame-rate intravascular OFDI in vivo, acquiring images at a rate of 350 frames per second. A custom-built, high-speed, and high-precision fiber-optic rotary junction provided uniform and high-speed beam scanning through a custom-made imaging catheter with an outer diameter of 0.87 mm. A 47-mm-long rabbit aorta was imaged in 3.7 seconds after a short contrast agent flush. The longitudinal imaging pitch was 34 μm, comparable to the transverse imaging resolution of the system. Three-dimensional volume-rendering showed greatly enhanced visualization of tissue microstructure and stent struts relative to what is provided by conventional intravascular imaging speeds. PMID:24466489
Doppler imaging with dual-detection full-range frequency domain optical coherence tomography
Meemon, Panomsak; Lee, Kye-Sung; Rolland, Jannick P.
2010-01-01
Most of full-range techniques for Frequency Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (FD-OCT) reported to date utilize the phase relation between consecutive axial lines to reconstruct a complex interference signal and hence may exhibit degradation in either mirror image suppression performance or detectable velocity dynamic range or both when monitoring a moving sample such as flow activity. We have previously reported a technique of mirror image removal by simultaneous detection of the quadrature components of a complex spectral interference called a Dual-Detection Frequency Domain OCT (DD-FD-OCT) [Opt. Lett. 35, 1058-1060 (2010)]. The technique enables full range imaging without any loss of acquisition speed and is intrinsically less sensitive to phase errors generated by involuntary movements of the subject. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of the DD-FD-OCT to a phase-resolved Doppler imaging without degradation in either mirror image suppression performance or detectable velocity dynamic range that were observed in other full-range Doppler methods. In order to accommodate for Doppler imaging, we have developed a fiber-based DD-FD-OCT that more efficiently utilizes the source power compared with the previous free-space DD-FD-OCT. In addition, the velocity sensitivity of the phase-resolved DD-FD-OCT was investigated, and the relation between the measured Doppler phase shift and set flow velocity of a flow phantom was verified. Finally, we demonstrate the Doppler imaging using the DD-FD-OCT in a biological sample. PMID:21258488
Frequency-domain elastic full-waveform multiscale inversion method based on dual-level parallelism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Zhen-Chun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Xuan
2015-12-01
The complexity of an elastic wavefield increases the nonlinearity of inversion. To some extent, multiscale inversion decreases the nonlinearity of inversion and prevents it from falling into local extremes. A multiscale strategy based on the simultaneous use of frequency groups and layer stripping method based on damped wave field improves the stability of inversion. A dual-level parallel algorithm is then used to decrease the computational cost and improve practicability. The seismic wave modeling of a single frequency and inversion in a frequency group are computed in parallel by multiple nodes based on multifrontal massively parallel sparse direct solver and MPI. Numerical tests using an overthrust model show that the proposed inversion algorithm can effectively improve the stability and accuracy of inversion by selecting the appropriate inversion frequency and damping factor in lowfrequency seismic data.
Hirose, A; Eckmiller, R
1996-02-10
Coherent optical neural networks that have optical-frequency-controlled behavior are proposed as sophisticated optical neural systems. The coherent optical neural-network system consists of an optical complex-valued neural network, a phase reference path, and coherent detectors for selfhomodyne detection. The learning process is realized by adjusting the delay time and the transparency of neural connections in the optical neural network with the optical frequency as a learning parameter. Generalization ability in frequency space is also analyzed. Information geometry in the learning process is discussed for obtaining a parameter range in which a reasonable generalization is realized in frequency space. It is found that there are error-function minima periodically both in the delay-time domain and the input-signal-frequency domain. Because of this reason, the initial connection delay should be within a certain range for a meaningful generalization. Simulation experiments demonstrate that a stable learning and a reasonable generalization in the frequency domain are successfully realized in a parameter range obtained in the theory. PMID:21069078
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Applegate, Matthew B.; Hariri, Lida P.; Beagle, John; Tan, Khay Ming; Chee, Chunmin; Hales, Charles A.; Suter, Melissa J.
2012-02-01
Smoke inhalation injury is a serious threat to victims of fires and explosions, however accurate diagnosis of patients remains problematic. Current evaluation techniques are highly subjective, often involving the integration of clinical findings with bronchoscopic assessment. It is apparent that new quantitative methods for evaluating the airways of patients at risk of inhalation injury are needed. Optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) is a high resolution optical imaging modality that enables volumetric microscopy of the trachea and upper airways in vivo. We anticipate that OFDI may be a useful tool in accurately assessing the airways of patients at risk of smoke inhalation injury by detecting injury prior to the onset of symptoms, and therefore guiding patient management. To demonstrate the potential of OFDI for evaluating smoke inhalation injury, we conducted a preclinical study in which we imaged the trachea/upper airways of 4 sheep prior to, and up to 60 minutes post exposure to cooled cotton smoke. OFDI enabled the visualization of increased mucus accumulation, mucosal thickening, epithelial disruption and sloughing, and increased submucosal signal intensity attributed to polymorphonuclear infiltrates. These results were consistent with histopathology findings. Bronchoscopic inspection of the upper airways appeared relatively normal with only mild accumulation of mucus visible within the airway lumen. The ability of OFDI to not only accurately detect smoke inhalation injury, but to quantitatively assess and monitor the progression or healing of the injury over time may provide new insights into the management of patients such as guiding clinical decisions regarding the need for intubation and ventilator support.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Kenneth J.; Pu, Yang; Chen, Jun
2014-03-01
It is well-known that light transport can be well described using Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. In biological tissue, the scattering particles cause the interaction of scattered waves from neighboring particles. Since such interaction cannot be ignored, multiple scattering occurs. The theoretical solution of multiple scattering is complicated. A suitable description is that the wavelike behavior of light is ignored and the transport of an individual photon is considered to be absorbed or scattered. This is known as the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) theory. Analytical solutions to the RTE that explicitly describes photon migration can be obtained by introducing some proper approximations. One of the most popular models used in the field of tissue optics is the Diffusion Approximation (DA). In this study, we report on the results of our initial study of optical properties of ex vivo normal and cancerous prostate tissues and how tissue parameters affect the near infrared light transporting in the two types of tissues. The time-resolved transport of light is simulated as an impulse isotropic point source of energy within a homogeneous unbounded medium with different absorption and scattering properties of cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Light source is also modulated sinusoidally to yield a varied fluence rate in frequency domain at a distant observation point within the cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Due to difference of the absorption and scattering coefficients between cancerous and normal tissues, the expansion of light pulse, intensity, phase are found to be different.
Frequency domain model for analysis of paralleled, series-output-connected Mapham inverters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.; Button, Robert M.
1989-01-01
The Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a two-port network driven by a selected periodic voltage. The two-port model is then used to model a pair of Mapham inverters connected in series and employing phasor voltage regulation. It is shown that the model is useful for predicting power output in paralleled inverter units, and for predicting harmonic current output of inverter pairs, using standard power flow techniques. Some sample results are compared to data obtained from testing hardware inverters.
Frequency domain model for analysis of paralleled, series-output-connected Mapham inverters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.; Button, Robert M.
1989-01-01
The Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a two-port network driven by a selected periodic voltage. The two-port model is then used to model a pair of Mapham inverters connected in series and employing phasor voltage regulation. It is shown that the model is useful for predicting power output in paralleled inverter units, and for predicting harmonic current output of inverter pairs, using standard power flow techniques. Some examples are compared to data obtained from testing hardware inverters.
Real-time frequency domain temperature and oxygen sensor with a single optical fiber.
Liao, S C; Xu, Z; Izatt, J A; Alcala, J R
1997-11-01
The combined excited-state phosphorescence life-times of an alexandrite crystal and platinum tetraphenylporphyrin Pt(TPP) in a single-fiber sensor are used to monitor temperature and oxygen concentration in the physiological range from 15-45 degrees C and 0-50% O2 with precision of 0.24 degree C and 0.15% O2 and accuracy of 0.28 degree C and 0.2% O2. A 500-micron cubic alexandrite crystal bound to the distal end of a 750-micron-diameter optical fiber core and the Pt(TPP) coated circumferentially with a length of 1 cm from the end of the same fiber are excited with pulsed super-bright blue LED light. This apparatus uses a 125-kHz sampler for data acquisition and frequency domain methods for signal processing. The instrument amplifies both the dc and ac components of the photomultiplier output and band limits the signal to 20 kHz. The fundamental frequency of the excitation is set to 488.3 Hz and the highest harmonic used is the 35th. This bandlimited signal is sampled and averaged over a few hundred cycles in the time domain. The frequency domain representation of the data is obtained by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio of each sampled harmonic are then computed. At least four log-spaced harmonic phases or modulations are averaged before decoding the two lifetimes of temperature and oxygen phosphorescent sensors. A component of zero lifetime is introduced to account for the excitation backscatter leakage through optical interference filters seen by the photodetector. Linear and second-order empirical polynomials are employed to compute the temperatures and oxygen concentrations from the inverse lifetimes. In the situation of constant oxygen concentration, the lifetime of Pt(TPP) changes with temperature but can be compensated using the measured temperature lifetime. The system drift is 0.24 degree C for the temperature measurement and 0.59% for the oxygen concentration measurement over 30 h of continuous operation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parent, Francois; Kanti Mandal, Koushik; Loranger, Sebastien; Watanabe Fernandes, Eric Hideki; Kashyap, Raman; Kadoury, Samuel
2016-03-01
We propose here a new alternative to provide real-time device tracking during minimally invasive interventions using a truly-distributed strain sensor based on optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) in optical fibers. The guidance of minimally invasive medical instruments such as needles or catheters (ex. by adding a piezoelectric coating) has been the focus of extensive research in the past decades. Real-time tracking of instruments in medical interventions facilitates image guidance and helps the user to reach a pre-localized target more precisely. Image-guided systems using ultrasound imaging and shape sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBG)-embedded optical fibers can provide retroactive feedback to the user in order to reach the targeted areas with even more precision. However, ultrasound imaging with electro-magnetic tracking cannot be used in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suite, while shape sensors based on FBG embedded in optical fibers provides discrete values of the instrument position, which requires approximations to be made to evaluate its global shape. This is why a truly-distributed strain sensor based on OFDR could enhance the tracking accuracy. In both cases, since the strain is proportional to the radius of curvature of the fiber, a strain sensor can provide the three-dimensional shape of medical instruments by simply inserting fibers inside the devices. To faithfully follow the shape of the needle in the tracking frame, 3 fibers glued in a specific geometry are used, providing 3 degrees of freedom along the fiber. Near real-time tracking of medical instruments is thus obtained offering clear advantages for clinical monitoring in remotely controlled catheter or needle guidance. We present results demonstrating the promising aspects of this approach as well the limitations of using the OFDR technique.
Xu, Xian; Zhuge, Qunbi; Châtelain, Benoît; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Chagnon, Mathieu; Qiu, Meng; Plant, David V
2013-12-30
A new intersymbol interference (ISI)-free nonlinearity-tolerant frequency domain root M-shaped pulse (RMP) is derived for dispersion unmanaged coherent optical transmission systems. Beginning with the relationship between pulse shaping and intra-channel nonlinearity effects, we derive closed-form expressions for the proposed pulse. Experimental demonstrations reveal that by employing the proposed pulse at a roll-off factor of 1, the maximum transmission reach of a single-channel 56 Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PDM-QPSK) system can be extended by 33% and 17%, when compared to systems using a root raised cosine (RRC) pulse and a root optimized pulse (ROP), respectively. For a single-channel 128 Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (PDM-16QAM) system, the reach can be extended by 44% and 18%, respectively. Reach increases of 30% and 13% are also observed for a dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) 504 Gb/s PDM-QPSK transmission system. The tolerance to narrow filtering effect for the three pulses is experimentally studied as well. PMID:24514792
Performance of reduced bit-depth acquisition for optical frequency domain imaging
Goldberg, Brian D.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Suter, Melissa J.; Waxman, Sergio; Freilich, Mark I.; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.
2009-01-01
High-speed optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) has enabled practical wide-field microscopic imaging in the biological laboratory and clinical medicine. The imaging speed of OFDI, and therefore the field of view, of current systems is limited by the rate at which data can be digitized and archived rather than the system sensitivity or laser performance. One solution to this bottleneck is to natively digitize OFDI signals at reduced bit depths, e.g., at 8-bit depth rather than the conventional 12–14 bit depth, thereby reducing overall bandwidth. However, the implications of reduced bit-depth acquisition on image quality have not been studied. In this paper, we use simulations and empirical studies to evaluate the effects of reduced depth acquisition on OFDI image quality. We show that image acquisition at 8-bit depth allows high system sensitivity with only a minimal drop in the signal-to-noise ratio compared to higher bit-depth systems. Images of a human coronary artery acquired in vivo at 8-bit depth are presented and compared with images at higher bit-depth acquisition. PMID:19770914
Correction of phase-error for phase-resolved k-clocked optical frequency domain imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mo, Jianhua; Li, Jianan; de Boer, Johannes F.
2012-01-01
Phase-resolved optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) has emerged as a promising technique for blood flow measurement in human tissues. Phase stability is essential for this technique to achieve high accuracy in flow velocity measurement. In OFDI systems that use k-clocking for the data acquisition, phase-error occurs due to jitter in the data acquisition electronics. We presented a statistical analysis of jitter represented as point shifts of the k-clocked spectrum. We demonstrated a real-time phase-error correction algorithm for phase-resolved OFDI. A 50 KHz wavelength-swept laser (Axsun Technologies) based balanced-detection OFDI system was developed centered at 1310 nm. To evaluate the performance of this algorithm, a stationary gold mirror was employed as sample for phase analysis. Furthermore, we implemented this algorithm for imaging of human skin. Good-quality skin structure and Doppler image can be observed in real-time after phase-error correction. The results show that the algorithm can effectively correct the jitter-induced phase error in OFDI system.
Zero-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM with overlapped frequency-domain CD and PMD equalization.
Chen, Chen; Zhuge, Qunbi; Plant, David V
2011-04-11
This paper presents a new channel estimation/equalization algorithm for coherent OFDM (CO-OFDM) digital receivers, which enables the elimination of the cyclic prefix (CP) for OFDM transmission. We term this new system as the zero-guard-interval (ZGI)-CO-OFDM. ZGI-CO-OFDM employs an overlapped frequency-domain equalizer (OFDE) to compensate both chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) before the OFDM demodulation. Despite the zero CP overhead, ZGI-CO-OFDM demonstrates a superior PMD tolerance than the previous reduced-GI (RGI)-CO-OFDM, which is verified under several different PMD conditions. Additionally, ZGI-CO-OFDM can improve the channel estimation accuracy under high PMD conditions by using a larger intra-symbol frequency-averaging (ISFA) length as compared to RGI-CO-OFDM. ZGI-CO-OFDM also enables the use of ever smaller fast Fourier transform (FFT) sizes (i.e. <128), while maintaining the zero CP overhead. Finally, we provide an analytical comparison of the computation complexity between the conventional, RGI- and ZGI- CO-OFDM. We show that ZGI-CO-OFDM requires reasonably small additional computation effort (~13.6%) compared to RGI-CO-OFDM for 112-Gb/s transmission over a 1600-km dispersion-uncompensated optical link. PMID:21503054
Nandy, Sreyankar; Mostafa, Atahar; Kumavor, Patrick D; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing
2016-10-01
A spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) system was developed for characterizing ex vivo human ovarian tissue using wide-field absorption and scattering properties and their spatial heterogeneities. Based on the observed differences between absorption and scattering images of different ovarian tissue groups, six parameters were quantitatively extracted. These are the mean absorption and scattering, spatial heterogeneities of both absorption and scattering maps measured by a standard deviation, and a fitting error of a Gaussian model fitted to normalized mean Radon transform of the absorption and scattering maps. A logistic regression model was used for classification of malignant and normal ovarian tissues. A sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 100%, and area under the curve of 0.98 were obtained using six parameters extracted from the SFDI images. The preliminary results demonstrate the diagnostic potential of the SFDI method for quantitative characterization of wide-field optical properties and the spatial distribution heterogeneity of human ovarian tissue. SFDI could be an extremely robust and valuable tool for evaluation of the ovary and detection of neoplastic changes of ovarian cancer. PMID:26822943
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yueli; Burnes, Daina L.; de Bruin, Martijn; Mujat, Mircea; de Boer, Johannes F.
2009-03-01
To compare the optical properties of the human retina, 3-D volumetric images of the same eye are acquired with two nearly identical optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems at center wavelengths of 845 and 1060 nm using optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI). To characterize the contrast of individual tissue layers in the retina at these two wavelengths, the 3-D volumetric data sets are carefully spatially matched. The relative scattering intensities from different layers such as the nerve fiber, photoreceptor, pigment epithelium, and choroid are measured and a quantitative comparison is presented. OCT retinal imaging at 1060 nm is found to have a significantly better depth penetration but a reduced contrast between the retinal nerve fiber, the ganglion cell, and the inner plexiform layers compared to the OCT retinal imaging at 845 nm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petersen, Christopher; Adler, Desmond; Schmitt, Joseph
2010-02-01
We report clinical study results of three-dimensional (3D) in vivo imaging of human coronary arteries using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). At the time of this report, over 2000 patients in over 10 countries have been imaged using FD-OCT systems and disposable fiberoptic catheters developed by LightLab Imaging Inc. The first commercial versions of the systems were introduced in Europe in May 2009. The system operates at 50,000 axial lines/s, performing a 50 mm spiral pullback in 2.5 seconds with a rotational frame rate of 100 Hz. The commercial system employs a proprietary micro-cavity swept laser, allowing imaging of vessel diameters up to 10 mm. Data compiled from early studies indicate that FD-OCT is being used for post-intervention imaging of deployed coronary stents in over 40% of cases. High-resolution 3D imaging of stent geometry immediately following deployment enables detection of stent malapposition, which can increase the risk of thrombosis. Longer term follow-up imaging of stented vessels can detect thrombus formation, which can be treated pharmacologically, and excessive neointimal growth, which may require angioplasty or re-stenting. FD-OCT is also being used for pre-intervention imaging of stenotic lesions in about 60% of cases. Here FD-OCT is used to measure the minimum lumen area and to identify calcified deposits, side branches, or other vascular structures that could interfere with the stenting procedure. Overall, FD-OCT continues to be adopted at an increasing rate and has provided interventional cardiologists with a powerful tool for pre- and postintervention assessment of the coronary arteries.
Full field frequency domain common path optical coherence tomography with annular aperture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdulhalim, I.; Friedman, Ron; Liraz, Lior; Dadon, Ronen
2007-07-01
Theoretical and experimental results are presented using the common path Mirau interference microscope and using the Linnik microscope with annular masks to increase the depth of field. The competence between the spatial and temporal coherence was investigated theoretically and confirmed experimentally. Phase imaging of onion epidermis cells was presented showing the possibility of obtaining profiles of the cells. Frequency domain OCT was shown to be possible using full field setup.
Oh, W. Y.; Vakoc, B. J.; Yun, S. H.; Tearney, G. J.; Bouma, B. E.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate a novel high-speed polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging system employing high-speed polarization modulation. Rapid and continuous polarization modulation of light prior to illumination of the sample is accomplished by shifting the frequency of one polarization eigenstate by an amount equal to one quarter of the digitization sampling frequency. This approach enables polarization-sensitive imaging with a single detection channel and overcomes artifacts that may arise from temporal variations of the birefringence in fiber-optic imaging probes and spatial variation of birefringence in the sample. PMID:18552948
Improvements in frequency-domain based NIRF optical tomography modality for preclinical studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darne, Chinmay D.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.
2014-05-01
Herein we present recent improvements in system design and performance evaluation of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system developed for small animal fluorescence tomography and installed within a commercial micro-CT/PET scanner. We improved system performance by increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) through use of high powered rf modulation, novel data collection scheme, and data discrimination based on the associated noise levels. Noise characteristics show improvement with these techniques and are currently being employed to improve 3-D fluorescence for tomographic reconstructions in phantoms before incorporating into hybrid scanner.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Yang; Liu, Tiegen; Ding, Zhenyang; Liu, Kun; Feng, Bowen; Jiang, Junfeng
2015-03-01
The distributed optical fiber magnetic field sensors have a capability of spatially resolving the magnetic field along the entire sensing fiber that is distinguishes from other sensing methods. We present a distributed optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on magnetostriction using Rayleigh backscattering spectra shift in OFDR (optical frequency-domain reflectometry). As the spectral shift of Rayleigh backscattering can be used to achieve a distributed strain measurements with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution using OFDR. In the proposed sensor, the magnetostrictive Fe-Co-V alloy thin films as sensing materials are attached to a 51 m standard single mode fiber (SMF). We detect the strain coupled to SMF caused by variation of magnetic field by measuring Rayleigh Backscattering spectra shift in OFDR. In our experiment, we measure the range of the magnetic field is from 12.9 mT~143.3 mT using proposed method. The minimal measurable magnetic field variation is 12.9 mT when the spatial resolution is 4 cm. The minimal measurable magnetic field variation can be improved to 5.3 mT by increasing the spatial resolution to 14 cm. Moreover, we present the simulation result of two dimension (2D) distribution for the static magnetic field using the Maxwell software program.
Frequency-domain optical probing of coherent spins in nanocrystal quantum dots.
Frey, J A; Berezovsky, J
2012-08-27
Spin-photon interactions such as the Faraday effect provide techniques for measuring coherent spin dynamics in semiconductors. In contrast to typical ultrafast pulsed laser techniques, which measure spin dynamics in the time domain with an intense, spectrally broad probe pulse, we demonstrate a frequency-domain spin-photon resonance effect using modulated continuous-wave lasers which enables measurement of GHz-scale coherent spin dynamics in semiconductors with minimal spectral linewidth. This technique permits high-resolution spectroscopic measurements not possible with ultrafast methods. We have employed this effect to observe coherent spin dynamics in CdSe nanocrystals using standard diode lasers. By fitting the results to the expected model, we extract electron g-factors, and spin coherence and dephasing times in agreement with time-domain measurements. PMID:23037054
Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Shishkov, Milen; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Bouma, Brett E.
2010-01-01
We demonstrate a high-speed wavelength-swept laser with a tuning range of 104 nm (1228–1332 nm) and a repetition rate of 403 kHz. The design of the laser utilizes a high-finesse polygon-based wavelength-scanning filter and a short-length unidirectional ring resonator. Optical frequency domain imaging of the human skin in vivo is presented using this laser, and the system shows sensitivity of higher than 98 dB with single-side ranging depth of 1.7 mm over 4 dB sensitivity roll-off. PMID:20808369
Nadeau, Kyle P.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.
2014-01-01
Abstract. We have developed a method for extracting spatial frequency information content from biological tissue, which is used to calculate tissue optical properties and determine tissue structural orientation. This demodulation method employs a two-dimensional Hilbert transform using a spiral phase function in Fourier space. The approach presented here allows for the determination of tissue optical properties using a single frame of data for each modulation frequency, increasing imaging speed by two to threefold versus conventional, three-phase spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). This new single-phase Hilbert transform approach recovers optical property and scattering orientation index values within 1% and 10% of three-phase SFDI, respectively. These results suggest that, using the Hilbert demodulation technique, SFDI data acquisition speed can be increased significantly while preserving data quality, which will help us move forward toward the implementation of a real-time SFDI platform. PMID:24858131
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klose, C. D.; Kim, H. K.; Netz, U.; Blaschke, S.; Zwaka, P. A.; Mueller, G. A.; Beuthan, J.; Hielscher, A. H.
2009-02-01
Novel methods that can help in the diagnosis and monitoring of joint disease are essential for efficient use of novel arthritis therapies that are currently emerging. Building on previous studies that involved continuous wave imaging systems we present here first clinical data obtained with a new frequency-domain imaging system. Three-dimensional tomographic data sets of absorption and scattering coefficients were generated for 107 fingers. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, MANOVA, Discriminant Analysis DA, and a machine-learning algorithm that is based on self-organizing mapping (SOM) for clustering data in 2-dimensional parameter spaces. Overall we found that the SOM algorithm outperforms the more traditional analysis methods in terms of correctly classifying finger joints. Using SOM, healthy and affected joints can now be separated with a sensitivity of 0.97 and specificity of 0.91. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest that if a combination of multiple image properties is used, statistical significant differences can be found between RA-affected finger joints that show different clinical features (e.g. effusion, synovitis or erosion).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Yang; Liu, Tiegen; Ding, Zhenyang; Liu, Kun; Feng, Bowen; Jiang, Junfeng
2015-01-01
We present a distributed optical-fiber magnetic-field sensor based on magnetostriction using the Rayleigh backscattering spectra (RBS) shift in optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR). The magnetostrictive Fe-Co-V alloy thin films are attached to a 51-m single-mode fiber (SMF). We detect the strain coupled to the SMF caused by the magnetic field using the RBS shift. We measure the range of the magnetic field to be from 0 to 143.3 mT. The minimum measurable magnetic intensity variation is 12.9 mT when the spatial resolution is 4 cm, and it can be improved to 5.3 mT by deteriorating the spatial resolution to 14 cm.
Jun, Changsu; Villiger, Martin; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Bouma, Brett E.
2014-01-01
Innovations in laser engineering have yielded several novel configurations for high repetition rate, broad sweep range, and long coherence length wavelength swept lasers. Although these lasers have enabled high performance frequency-domain optical coherence tomography, they are typically complicated and costly and many require access to proprietary materials or devices. Here, we demonstrate a simplified ring resonator configuration that is straightforward to construct from readily available materials at a low total cost. It was enabled by an insight regarding the significance of isolation against bidirectional operation and by configuring the sweep range of the intracavity filter to exceed its free spectral range. The design can easily be optimized to meet a range of operating specifications while yielding robust and stable performance. As an example, we demonstrate 240 kHz operation with 125 nm sweep range and >70 mW of average output power and demonstrate high quality frequency domain OCT imaging. The complete component list and directions for assembly of the laser are posted on-line at www.octresearch.org. PMID:25401614
Spirou, Gloria M.; Mandelis, Andreas; Vitkin, I. Alex; Whelan, William M
2008-05-10
Photoacoustic (more precisely, photothermoacoustic) signals generated by the absorption of photons can be related to the incident laser fluence rate. The dependence of frequency domain photoacoustic (FD-PA) signals on the optical absorption coefficient ({mu}a) and the effective attenuation coefficient ({mu}eff) of a turbid medium [polyvinyl chloride-plastisol (PVCP)] with tissuelike optical properties was measured, and empirical relationships between these optical properties and the photoacoustic (PA) signal amplitude and the laser fluence rate were derived for the water (PVCP system with and without optical scatterers). The measured relationships between these sample optical properties and the PA signal amplitude were found to be linear, consistent with FD-PA theory: {mu}a=a(A/{phi})-b and {mu}eff=c(A/{phi})+d, where {phi} is the laser fluence, A is the FD-PA amplitude, and a,...,d are empirical coefficients determined from the experiment using linear frequency-swept modulation and a lock-in heterodyne detection technique. This quantitative technique can easily be used to measure the optical properties of general turbid media using FD-PAs.
Lippok, Norman; Villiger, Martin; Jun, Changsu; Bouma, Brett E
2015-05-01
Fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging is more challenging than free-space implementations. Using multiple input states, fiber-based systems provide sample birefringence information with the benefit of a flexible sample arm but come at the cost of increased system and acquisition complexity, and either reduce acquisition speed or require increased acquisition bandwidth. Here we show that with the calibration of a single polarization state, fiber-based configurations can approach the conceptual simplicity of traditional free-space configurations. We remotely control the polarization state of the light incident at the sample using the eigenpolarization states of a wave plate as a reference, and determine the Jones matrix of the output fiber. We demonstrate this method for polarization-sensitive imaging of biological samples. PMID:25927775
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yüksel, Kivilcim; Pala, Deniz
2016-06-01
This work presents a novel approach in interrogating Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) of cascaded identical FBGs using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR). The fundamentals of both polarisation properties of uniform FBGs and polarisation-sensitive OFDR are explained and the benefits of this novel approach in measuring transversal load are discussed. The numerical programs computing the spectral evolution of PDL of the FBGs in the array as a function of grating parameters (grating length and birefringence) are presented. Our simulation results show an excellent agreement with the previously reported simulation (and experimental) results in the literature obtained on a single FBG by using classical state-of-the-art measurement techniques. As an envisaged application, the proposed system shows the feasibility of measuring the residual stresses during manufacturing process of composite materials which is not straightforward by amplitude spectrum measurements and/or considering only the axial strains.
Kildishev, Alexander V; Sivan, Yonatan; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Shalaev, Vladimir M
2009-11-01
An enhanced method is developed for analysis of third-order nonlinearities in optical nanostructures with a scalar magnetic field frequency-domain formulation; it is shown to produce fast and accurate results for 2D problems without a superfluous vector electric field formalism. While a standard TM representation using cubic nonlinear susceptibility results in an intractable implicit equation, our technique alleviates this problem. In addition to a universal approach, simpler, more efficient solutions are proposed for media having solely either a real (lossless Kerr-type medium) or an imaginary (nonlinear absorbing medium) nonlinearity. Combining these solutions with a finite-element method, we show simulation examples validated with alternative approaches. PMID:19881595
Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Hiro-Oka, Hideaki; Satoh, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Reiko; Choi, Donghak; Nakanishi, Motoi; Igarashi, Akihito; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohbayashi, Kohji; Shimizu, Kimiya
2010-01-01
We describe a high-speed long-depth range optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system employing a long-coherence length tunable source and demonstrate dynamic full-range imaging of the anterior segment of the eye including from the cornea surface to the posterior capsule of the crystalline lens with a depth range of 12 mm without removing complex conjugate image ambiguity. The tunable source spanned from 1260 to 1360 nm with an average output power of 15.8 mW. The fast A-scan rate of 20,000 per second provided dynamic OFDI and dependence of the whole anterior segment change on time following abrupt relaxation from the accommodated to the relaxed status, which was measured for a healthy eye and that with an intraocular lens. PMID:21258564
Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A
2014-05-20
An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.
Frequency-domain nonlinear optics in two-dimensionally patterned quasi-phase-matching media.
Phillips, C R; Mayer, B W; Gallmann, L; Keller, U
2016-07-11
Advances in the amplification and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses have led to revolutions in several areas. Examples include chirped pulse amplification for generating high peak-power lasers, power-scalable amplification techniques, pulse shaping via modulation of spatially-dispersed laser pulses, and efficient frequency-mixing in quasi-phase-matched nonlinear crystals to access new spectral regions. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate a new platform for nonlinear optics which has the potential to combine these separate functionalities (pulse amplification, frequency transfer, and pulse shaping) into a single monolithic device that is bandwidth- and power-scalable. The approach is based on two-dimensional (2D) patterning of quasi-phase-matching (QPM) gratings combined with optical parametric interactions involving spatially dispersed laser pulses. Our proof of principle experiment demonstrates this technique via mid-infrared optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of few-cycle pulses. Additionally, we present a detailed theoretical and numerical analysis of such 2D-QPM devices and how they can be designed. PMID:27410862
Transformation Optics: A Time- and Frequency-Domain Analysis of Electron-Energy Loss Spectroscopy.
Kraft, Matthias; Luo, Yu; Pendry, J B
2016-08-10
Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) play a pivotal role in many of the cutting edge experiments in plasmonics. EELS and CL experiments are usually supported by numerical simulations, which-though accurate-may not provide as much physical insight as analytical calculations do. Fully analytical solutions to EELS and CL systems in plasmonics are rare and difficult to obtain. This paper aims to narrow this gap by introducing a new method based on transformation optics that allows to calculate the quasistatic frequency- and time-domain response of plasmonic particles under electron beam excitation. We study a nonconcentric annulus (and ellipse in the Supporting Information ) as an example. PMID:27380143
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franceschini, Maria-Angela; Wallace, Don J.; Barbieri, Beniamino B.; Fantini, Sergio; Mantulin, William W.; Pratesi, Simone; Donzelli, Gian Paolo; Gratton, Enrico
1997-08-01
We present a re-engineered frequency-domain tissue oximeter operating in the near-infrared spectral region. This instrument is based on the multi-distance measurement protocol, which we have implemented in our original design by multiplexing multiple light sources. The new instrument uses intensity modulated (110 MHz) laser diodes emitting at 750 and 840 nm. The laser diodes are coupled to glass optical fibers (600 micrometer core diameter). The average light intensity delivered to the tissue is about 3 mW. The multiplexing electronics are based on solid state switches that allow for acquisition times per point as short as tens of milliseconds. Our tests on phantoms and in vivo with the new oximeter have shown significant improvement in terms of stability, reliability, and reproducibility with respect to the original prototype. Furthermore, by using optical fibers we achieve a high versatility in the design of the measuring probe, permitting custom design for various tissue contours and different measurements. To verify the improved performance of the new oximeter, we have performed an in vivo test consisting of monitoring the hemoglobin saturation (Y) and concentration (THC) on the calf of 18 healthy volunteers during walking and running routines.
Shindo, Seigo; Fujii, Kenichi; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Sugiura, Yuri; Saito, Shin; Ando, Yukio; Yoshimura, Shinichi
2016-03-01
Plaque prolapse through the cell stent has been suggested as one of the major causes of postprocedural distal embolization after carotid artery stenting. A CASPER stent (Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) is the latest-generation stent having the dual layers and expected to reduce the risk of embolization. A 76-year-old male asymptomatic patient with high-grade stenosis in the left internal carotid artery received carotid artery stenting. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated very high intensity signals on T1-weighted images. After a predilatation, a CASPER stent, which has a dual-layer design construction with an inner nitinol micromesh woven onto an external closed-cell stent, was deployed followed by postdilatation. Postprocedural optical frequency domain imaging revealed good apposition of the outer stent to the vascular wall and no significant prolapse of plaque materials between the struts of the inner micromesh. No ischemic lesions were identified on MRI and no abnormal neurological findings were noted after stenting. PMID:26725127
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saager, Rolf B.; Cuccia, David J.; Saggese, Steve; Kelly, Kristen M.; Durkin, Anthony J.
2011-12-01
The ability to quantitatively determine tissue fluorescence is of interest for the purpose of better understanding the details of photodynamic therapy of skin cancer. In particular, we are interested in quantifying protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in vivo. We present a method of correcting fluorescence for effects of native tissue absorption and scattering properties in a spatially resolved manner that preserves the resolution of the fluorescence imaging system, based off a homogeneous representation of tissue. Validation was performed using a series of liquid turbid phantoms having varying concentrations of absorber, scatterer, and fluorophore (PpIX). Through the quantification of tissue optical properties via spatial frequency domain imaging, an empirical model based on Monte Carlo simulations was deployed to successfully decouple the effects of absorption and scattering from fluorescence. From this we were able to deduce the concentration of the PpIX to within 0.2 μg/ml of the known concentration. This method was subsequently applied to the determination of PpIX concentration from in vivo normal skin where the model-based correction determined a concentration of 1.6 μg/ml, which is in agreement with literature.
Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 1300nm bio-imaging window
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meleppat, Ratheesh Kumar; Vadakke Matham, Murukeshan; Seah, Leong Keey
2015-07-01
Optical frequency domain imaging system (OFDI) in the 1300nm biological imaging window is demonstrated by using a high speed frequency swept laser source. The output of the laser with central wave length of 1320nm is continuously tuned over a bandwidth of 100nm with a repetition rate of 16 KHz. The laser source has an instantaneous coherence length of 6mm and delivers an average power of 12mW. Axial resolution ~ 6μm in the biological tissue and peak sensitivity of 110dB are achieved. The experimentally determined values of the imaging parameters such as the axial resolution, sensitivity and depth range are found to be in good agreement with the theoretically estimated values. The developed system is capable of generating the images of size 512x1024 at a rate of 20 frames per second. High resolution and high contrast images of the finger nail and anterior chamber of a pig's eye acquired using the developed OFDI system are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility of the system for in-vivo biomedical imaging applications.
Time-resolved blood flow measurement in the in vivo mouse model by optical frequency domain imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walther, Julia; Mueller, Gregor; Meissner, Sven; Cimalla, Peter; Homann, Hanno; Morawietz, Henning; Koch, Edmund
2009-07-01
In this study, we demonstrate that phase-resolved Doppler optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) is very suitable to quantify the pulsatile blood flow within a vasodynamic measurement in the in vivo mouse model. For this, an OFDI-system with a read-out rate of 20 kHz and a center wavelength of 1320 nm has been used to image the time-resolved murine blood flow in 300 μμm vessels. Because OFDI is less sensitive to fringe washout due to axial sample motion, it is applied to analyze the blood flow velocities and the vascular dynamics in six-week-old C57BL/6 mice compared to one of the LDLR knockout strain kept under sedentary conditions or with access to voluntary wheel running. We have shown that the systolic as well as the diastolic phase of the pulsatile arterial blood flow can be well identified at each vasodynamic state. Furthermore, the changes of the flow velocities after vasoconstriction and -dilation were presented and interpreted in the entire physiological context. With this, the combined measurement of time-resolved blood flow and vessel diameter provides the basis to analyze the vascular function and its influence on the blood flow of small arteries of different mouse strains in response to different life styles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zafar, Haroon; Sharif, Faisal; Leahy, Martin J.
2014-03-01
Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) has been used as a standard technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease for many years. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers higher resolution, faster image acquisition speeds and greater sensitivity than the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Recently developed frequency domain OCT (FD-OCT) systems overcome many technical limitations of conventional time domain OCT systems (TDOCT). The main objective of this study was to compare the FD-OCT and QCA measurements for the assessment of coronary lesions. A total of 21 stenoses in 18 patients were analysed using QCA and FD-OCT. The average minimum lumen diameter (MLD) and percent lumen area stenosis (%AS) by QCA were 1.52+/-0.44 mm and 68+/-9% respectively. The average MLD and %AS by FD-OCT were 1.32+/-0.38 mm and 63+/-14% respectively. There was a moderate but significant correlation between QCA and FD-OCT measured MLD (r = 0.5, p < 0.01) and %AS (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean differences between the QCA and FD-OCT measurements were 0.18+/-0.81 (limits of agreement: -0.63 to 0.99) for MLD and 4.4+/-22.8 (limits of agreement: -18.4 to 27.2) for %AS. The root mean square error (RMSE) between the QCA and FD-OCT measured MLD and %AS was +/-0.44 mm and +/-12.1% respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sourbier, Florent; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean; Amestoy, Patrick; L'Excellent, Jean-Yves
2009-03-01
This is the first paper in a two-part series that describes a massively parallel code that performs 2D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-aperture seismic data for imaging complex structures. Full-waveform inversion methods, namely quantitative seismic imaging methods based on the resolution of the full wave equation, are computationally expensive. Therefore, designing efficient algorithms which take advantage of parallel computing facilities is critical for the appraisal of these approaches when applied to representative case studies and for further improvements. Full-waveform modelling requires the resolution of a large sparse system of linear equations which is performed with the massively parallel direct solver MUMPS for efficient multiple-shot simulations. Efficiency of the multiple-shot solution phase (forward/backward substitutions) is improved by using the BLAS3 library. The inverse problem relies on a classic local optimization approach implemented with a gradient method. The direct solver returns the multiple-shot wavefield solutions distributed over the processors according to a domain decomposition driven by the distribution of the LU factors. The domain decomposition of the wavefield solutions is used to compute in parallel the gradient of the objective function and the diagonal Hessian, this latter providing a suitable scaling of the gradient. The algorithm allows one to test different strategies for multiscale frequency inversion ranging from successive mono-frequency inversion to simultaneous multifrequency inversion. These different inversion strategies will be illustrated in the following companion paper. The parallel efficiency and the scalability of the code will also be quantified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sourbier, F.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.
2006-12-01
We present a distributed-memory parallel algorithm for 2D visco-acoustic full-waveform inversion of wide-angle seismic data. Our code is written in fortran90 and use MPI for parallelism. The algorithm was applied to real wide-angle data set recorded by 100 OBSs with a 1-km spacing in the eastern-Nankai trough (Japan) to image the deep structure of the subduction zone. Full-waveform inversion is applied sequentially to discrete frequencies by proceeding from the low to the high frequencies. The inverse problem is solved with a classic gradient method. Full-waveform modeling is performed with a frequency-domain finite-difference method. In the frequency-domain, solving the wave equation requires resolution of a large unsymmetric system of linear equations. We use the massively parallel direct solver MUMPS (http://www.enseeiht.fr/irit/apo/MUMPS) for distributed-memory computer to solve this system. The MUMPS solver is based on a multifrontal method for the parallel factorization. The MUMPS algorithm is subdivided in 3 main steps: a symbolic analysis step that performs re-ordering of the matrix coefficients to minimize the fill-in of the matrix during the subsequent factorization and an estimation of the assembly tree of the matrix. Second, the factorization is performed with dynamic scheduling to accomodate numerical pivoting and provides the LU factors distributed over all the processors. Third, the resolution is performed for multiple sources. To compute the gradient of the cost function, 2 simulations per shot are required (one to compute the forward wavefield and one to back-propagate residuals). The multi-source resolutions can be performed in parallel with MUMPS. In the end, each processor stores in core a sub-domain of all the solutions. These distributed solutions can be exploited to compute in parallel the gradient of the cost function. Since the gradient of the cost function is a weighted stack of the shot and residual solutions of MUMPS, each processor
Frequency domain photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy
Langer, Gregor; Buchegger, Bianca; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Klar, Thomas A.; Berer, Thomas
2016-01-01
We report on simultaneous frequency domain optical-resolution photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy with sub-µm lateral resolution. With the help of a blood smear, we show that photoacoustic and fluorescence images provide complementary information. Furthermore, we compare theoretically predicted signal-to-noise ratios of sinusoidal modulation in frequency domain with pulsed excitation in time domain. PMID:27446698
Frequency domain photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy.
Langer, Gregor; Buchegger, Bianca; Jacak, Jaroslaw; Klar, Thomas A; Berer, Thomas
2016-07-01
We report on simultaneous frequency domain optical-resolution photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy with sub-µm lateral resolution. With the help of a blood smear, we show that photoacoustic and fluorescence images provide complementary information. Furthermore, we compare theoretically predicted signal-to-noise ratios of sinusoidal modulation in frequency domain with pulsed excitation in time domain. PMID:27446698
Ding, Zhenyang; Liu, Tiegen; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Kun; Chen, Qinnan; Du, Yang; Li, Dingjie; Yao, X Steve
2012-06-01
We propose using non-uniform FFT to minimize the degrading effect of frequency tuning nonlinearity of a tunable laser source (TLS) in an optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) system. We use an auxiliary interferometer to obtain the required instantaneous optical frequency of the TLS and successfully demonstrate 100 times enhancement in spatial resolution of OFDR with only a 20% increase in computation time. The corresponding measurement reflectivity sensitivity is better than -80 dB, sufficient to detect bending induced index changes in an optical fiber. PMID:22755676
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Zhenyang; Liu, Tiegen; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Kun; Chen, Qinnan; Du, Yang; Li, Dingjie; Yao, X. Steve
2012-06-01
We propose using non-uniform FFT to minimize the degrading effect of frequency tuning nonlinearity of a tunable laser source (TLS) in an optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) system. We use an auxiliary interferometer to obtain the required instantaneous optical frequency of the TLS and successfully demonstrate 100 times enhancement in spatial resolution of OFDR with only a 20% increase in computation time. The corresponding measurement reflectivity sensitivity is better than -80 dB, sufficient to detect bending induced index changes in an optical fiber.
Optical parallel selectionist systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caulfield, H. John
1993-01-01
There are at least two major classes of computers in nature and technology: connectionist and selectionist. A subset of connectionist systems (Turing Machines) dominates modern computing, although another subset (Neural Networks) is growing rapidly. Selectionist machines have unique capabilities which should allow them to do truly creative operations. It is possible to make a parallel optical selectionist system using methods describes in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asaka, Kota; Ohbayashi, Kohji
2007-04-01
We demonstrate dispersion matching of sample and reference arms in an optical frequency domain reflectometry-optical coherence tomography (OFDR-OCT) system with a discretely swept light source centered at 1550 nm, using a dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF) in the reference arm. By adjusting the optical length of the DSF so that it is equal to that of the free space in the sample arm, we achieve a high resolution of 27.2 μm (in air), which is very close to the theoretically expected value of 26.8 μm when we measure the reflective mirror. This improves the degraded resolution (36.1 μm ) in a system using a conventional single-mode fiber when the free-space length in the sample arm was 909 mm. We also demonstrate a clear interface between air and the enamel layer of an extracted human tooth with the discretely swept (DS) OFDR-OCT imaging due to the improved resolution provided by this technique. These results show the potential of our DS-OFDR-OCT system for a compact low-cost apparatus with a high axial resolution.
Ghijsen, Michael; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J; Gioux, Sylvain; Tromberg, Bruce J
2016-03-01
In this work we present and validate a wide-field method for the real-time mapping of tissue absorption, scattering and blood flow properties over wide regions of tissue (15 cm x 15 cm) with high temporal resolution (50 frames per second). We achieve this by applying Fourier Domain demodulation techniques to coherent spatial frequency domain imaging to extract optical properties and speckle flow index from a single snapshot. Applying this technique to forearm reactive hyperemia protocols demonstrates the ability to resolve intrinsic physiological signals such as the heart beat waveform and the buildup of deoxyhemoglobin associated with oxygen consumption. PMID:27231595
Ghijsen, Michael; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Gioux, Sylvain; Tromberg, Bruce J.
2016-01-01
In this work we present and validate a wide-field method for the real-time mapping of tissue absorption, scattering and blood flow properties over wide regions of tissue (15 cm x 15 cm) with high temporal resolution (50 frames per second). We achieve this by applying Fourier Domain demodulation techniques to coherent spatial frequency domain imaging to extract optical properties and speckle flow index from a single snapshot. Applying this technique to forearm reactive hyperemia protocols demonstrates the ability to resolve intrinsic physiological signals such as the heart beat waveform and the buildup of deoxyhemoglobin associated with oxygen consumption. PMID:27231595
Lo, William C Y; Villiger, Martin; Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G Felix; Khan, Saiqa; Lian, Christine G; Austen, William G; Yarmush, Martin; Bouma, Brett E
2016-01-01
Hypertrophic scars (HTS), frequently seen after traumatic injuries and surgery, remain a major clinical challenge because of the limited success of existing therapies. A significant obstacle to understanding HTS etiology is the lack of tools to monitor scar remodeling longitudinally and noninvasively. We present an in vivo, label-free technique using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging for the 3D, longitudinal assessment of collagen remodeling in murine HTS. In this study, HTS was induced with a mechanical tension device for 4-10 days on incisional wounds and imaged up to 1 month after device removal; an excisional HTS model was also imaged at 6 months after injury to investigate deeper and more mature scars. We showed that local retardation and degree of polarization provide a robust signature for HTS. Compared with normal skin with heterogeneous local retardation and low degree of polarization, HTS was characterized by an initially low local retardation, which increased as collagen fibers remodeled, and a persistently high degree of polarization. This study demonstrates that polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging offers a powerful tool to gain significant biological insights into HTS remodeling by enabling longitudinal assessment of collagen in vivo, which is critical to elucidating HTS etiology and developing more effective HTS therapies. PMID:26763427
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maris, Michael B.; Mayevsky, Avraham; Sevick, Eva M.; Chance, Britton
1991-05-01
Previously, we have shown that time-resolved spectroscopy can monitor changes in the distribution of photon migration pathlengths which are reflective of the changes in the tissue absorption due primarily to oxygenated or deoxygenated hemoglobin. In this study, we have monitored mean photon migration pathlengths in the frequency domain in the rodent brain insulted by hypoxia, ischemia and spreading depression (SD) using phase modulated spectroscopy (PMS). This technique consisted of monitoring light which emerged from the exposed rodent skull at 8 mm form an incident light source of 754 nm and 816 nm whose intensity was modulated at 220 MHz. The changes in phase-shift, (theta), of the emergent light with respect to the incident light are reflective of the photon pathlengths and hemoglobin absorbance. A multiprobe assembly holding PMS source fiber, nicotinamide dinucleotide (NADH) fluorometric probe, electrocortigraph (ECoG) electrodes, and doppler blood flow probe was placed on the rodent brain to simultaneously monitor brain metabolism, electrical cortical activity (ECoG) and blood flow. The PMS detector fiber was placed 8 mm posterior to the multiprobe assembly. Correlations between changes in intracellular deoxygenation (NADH) and hemoglobin deoxygenation as measured by PMS changes at 754 nm and 816 nm during hypoxia, and ischemia were found. The depolarization phase of spreading depression resulted in a similar increase at both 754 nm and 816 nm. We attribute this result to vasoconstriction and/or the decrease of extracellular space due to water shift in the rodent brain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
John, Pauline; Manoj, Murali; Sujatha, N.; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Rao, Suresh R.
2015-07-01
This work presents a combination of differential absorption technique and frequency domain optical coherence tomography for detection of glucose, which is an important analyte in medical diagnosis of diabetes. Differential absorption technique is used to detect glucose selectively in the presence of interfering species especially water and frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) helps to obtain faster acquisition of depth information. Two broadband super-luminescent diode (SLED) sources with centre wavelengths 1586 nm (wavelength range of 1540 to 1640 nm) and 1312 nm (wavelength range of 1240 to 1380 nm) and a spectral width of ≍ 60 nm (FWHM) are used. Preliminary studies on absorption spectroscopy using various concentrations of aqueous glucose solution gave promising results to distinguish the absorption characteristics of glucose at two wavelengths 1310 nm (outside the absorption band of glucose) and 1625 nm (within the absorption band of glucose). In order to mimic the optical properties of biological skin tissue, 2% and 10% of 20% intralipid with various concentrations of glucose (0 to 4000 mg/dL) was prepared and used as sample. Using OCT technique, interference spectra were obtained using an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution of 0.5 nm. Further processing of the interference spectra provided information on reflections from the surfaces of the cuvette containing the aqueous glucose sample. Due to the absorption of glucose in the wavelength range of 1540 nm to 1640 nm, a trend of reduction in the intensity of the back reflected light was observed with increase in the concentration of glucose.
Nicolaides, L; Chen, Y; Mandelis, A; Vitkin, I A
2001-10-01
In this work, the optical and thermal properties of tissuelike materials are measured by using frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry. This technique is better suited for quantitative multiparameter optical measurements than the widely used pulsed-laser photothermal radiometry (PPTR) because of the availability of two independent signal channels, amplitude and phase, and the superior signal-to-noise ratio provided by synchronous lock-in detection. A rigorous three-dimensional (3-D) thermal-wave formulation with a 3-D diffuse and coherent photon-density-wave source is applied to data from model phantoms. The combined theoretical, experimental, and computational methodology shows good promise with regard to its analytical ability to measure optical properties of turbid media uniquely, as compared with PPTR, which exhibits uniqueness problems. From data sets obtained by using calibrated test phantoms, the reduced optical scattering and absorption coefficients were found to be within 20% and 10%, respectively, of the values independently derived by using Mie theory and spectrophotometric measurements. PMID:11583272
Detector nonlinearity in frequency-domain fluorometry.
Wirth, M J; Burbage, J D; Zulli, S L
1993-02-20
Frequency-domain fluorometry relies on the measurement of the phase and amplitudes of the Fourier components of the time-dependent fluorescence signal. Experimental results that show that a conventional photomultiplier is subject to intensity-dependent phase shifts are presented. The measurements indicate that this is a problem well below the maximum linear current of the photomultiplier response. These results have important implications in frequency-domain fluorescence anisotropy experiments, in which the parallel and the perpendicular components of the emission intensity are inherently different from one another: a phase shift can be introduced by the photomultiplier. PMID:20802776
Xu, Heping; Farrell, Thomas J; Patterson, Michael S
2006-01-01
Four models, standard diffusion approximation (SDA), single Monte Carlo (SMC), delta-P1, and isotropic similarity (ISM), are developed and evaluated as forward calculation tools in the estimation of tissue optical properties. The inverse calculation uses the ratio of the fluences and phase difference at two locations close to an intensity modulated isotropic source to recover the reduced scattering coefficient mus' and the absorption coefficient mua. Diffusion theory allows recovery of optical properties (OPs) within 5% for media with mus'mua>10. The performance of the delta-P1 model is similar to SDA, with limited enhanced accuracy. The collimation approximation may limit the use of the delta-P1 model for spherical geometry, and/or the fluence may not be accurately calculated by this model. The SMC model is the best, recovering OPs within 10% regardless of the albedo. However, the necessary restriction of the searched OPs space is inconvenient. The performance of ISM is similar to that of diffusion theory for media with mus'mua>10, and better for 1
Tromberg, Bruce J.; Tsay, Tsong T.; Berns, Michael W.; Svaasand, Lara O.; Haskell, Richard C.
1995-01-01
Optical measurements of turbid media, that is media characterized by multiple light scattering, is provided through an apparatus and method for exposing a sample to a modulated laser beam. The light beam is modulated at a fundamental frequency and at a plurality of integer harmonics thereof. Modulated light is returned from the sample and preferentially detected at cross frequencies at frequencies slightly higher than the fundamental frequency and at integer harmonics of the same. The received radiance at the beat or cross frequencies is compared against a reference signal to provide a measure of the phase lag of the radiance and modulation ratio relative to a reference beam. The phase and modulation amplitude are then provided as a frequency spectrum by an array processor to which a computer applies a complete curve fit in the case of highly scattering samples or a linear curve fit below a predetermined frequency in the case of highly absorptive samples. The curve fit in any case is determined by the absorption and scattering coefficients together with a concentration of the active substance in the sample. Therefore, the curve fitting to the frequency spectrum can be used both for qualitative and quantitative analysis of substances in the sample even though the sample is highly turbid.
Tromberg, B.J.; Tsay, T.T.; Berns, M.W.; Svaasand, L.O.; Haskell, R.C.
1995-06-13
Optical measurements of turbid media, that is media characterized by multiple light scattering, is provided through an apparatus and method for exposing a sample to a modulated laser beam. The light beam is modulated at a fundamental frequency and at a plurality of integer harmonics thereof. Modulated light is returned from the sample and preferentially detected at cross frequencies at frequencies slightly higher than the fundamental frequency and at integer harmonics of the same. The received radiance at the beat or cross frequencies is compared against a reference signal to provide a measure of the phase lag of the radiance and modulation ratio relative to a reference beam. The phase and modulation amplitude are then provided as a frequency spectrum by an array processor to which a computer applies a complete curve fit in the case of highly scattering samples or a linear curve fit below a predetermined frequency in the case of highly absorptive samples. The curve fit in any case is determined by the absorption and scattering coefficients together with a concentration of the active substance in the sample. Therefore, the curve fitting to the frequency spectrum can be used both for qualitative and quantitative analysis of substances in the sample even though the sample is highly turbid. 14 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehaes, Mathieu; Grant, P. Ellen; Sliva, Danielle D.; Roche-Labarbe, Nadège; Pienaar, Rudolph; Boas, David A.; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Selb, Juliette
2011-03-01
NIRS is safe, non-invasive and offers the possibility to record local hemodynamic parameters at the bedside, avoiding the transportation of neonates and critically ill patients. In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of the frequency-domain multi-distance (FD-MD) method to retrieve brain optical properties from neonate to adult. Realistic measurements are simulated using a 3D Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation. Height different ages were investigated: a term newborn of 38 weeks gestational age, two infants of 6 and 12 months of age, a toddler of 2 year (yr.) old, two children of 5 and 10 years of age, a teenager of 14 yr. old, and an adult. Measurements are generated at multiple distances on the right parietal area of head models and fitted to a homogeneous FD-MD model to estimate the brain optical properties. In the newborn, infants, toddler and 5 yr. old child models, the error was dominated by the head curvature, while the superficial layer in the 10 yr. old child, teenager and adult heads. The influence of the CSF is also evaluated. In this case, absorption coefficients suffer from an additional error. In all cases, measurements at 5 mm provided worse estimation because of the diffusion approximation.
Lo, William C. Y.; Villiger, Martin; Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G. Felix; Khan, Saiqa; Lian, Christine G.; Austen, William G.; Yarmush, Martin; Bouma, Brett E.
2016-01-01
Hypertrophic scars (HTS), frequently seen after traumatic injuries and surgery, remain a major clinical challenge due to the limited success of existing therapies. A significant obstacle to understanding HTS etiology is the lack of tools to monitor scar remodeling longitudinally and non-invasively. We present an in vivo, label-free technique using polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) for the 3D, longitudinal assessment of collagen remodeling in murine HTS. In this study, HTS was induced with a mechanical tension device for 4 to 10 days on incisional wounds and imaged up to one month after device removal; an excisional HTS model was also imaged at 6 months after injury to investigate deeper and more mature scars. We showed that local retardation (LR) and degree of polarization (DOP) provide a robust signature for HTS. Compared to normal skin with heterogeneous LR and low DOP, HTS was characterized by an initially low LR, which increased as collagen fibers remodeled, and a persistently high DOP. This study demonstrates that PS-OFDI offers a powerful tool to gain significant biological insights into HTS remodeling by enabling longitudinal assessment of collagen in vivo, which is critical to elucidating HTS etiology and developing more effective HTS therapies. PMID:26763427
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Yi-Da; Kimura, Hiroto; Hayashi, Kenta; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi
2016-05-01
A terahertz (THz) frequency synthesizer based on photomixing of two near-infrared lasers with a sub-THz to THz frequency offset is a powerful tool for spectroscopy of polar gas molecules due to its broad spectral coverage; however, its frequency accuracy and resolution are relatively low. To tune the output frequency continuously and widely while maintaining its traceability to a frequency standard, we developed a photomixing THz synthesizer phase-locked to dual optical frequency combs (OFCs). While the phase-locking to dual OFCs ensured continuous tuning within a spectral range of 120 GHz, in addition to the traceability to the frequency standard, use of a broadband uni-traveling carrier photodiode for photomixing enabled the generation of CW-THz radiation within a frequency range from 0.2 to 1.5 THz. We demonstrated THz frequency-domain spectroscopy of gas-phase acetonitrile CH3CN and its isotope CH3 13CN in the frequency range of 0.600-0.720 THz using this THz synthesizer. Their rotational transitions were assigned with a frequency accuracy of 8.42 × 10-8 and a frequency resolution of 520 kHz. Furthermore, the concentration of the CH3CN gas at 20 Pa was determined to be (5.41 ± 0.05) × 1014 molecules/cm3 by curve fitting analysis of the measured absorbance spectrum, and the mixture ratio of the mixed CH3CN/CH3 13CN gas was determined to be 1:2.26 with a gas concentration of 1014-1015 molecules/cm3. The developed THz synthesizer is highly promising for high-precision THz-FDS of low-pressure molecular gases and will enable the qualitative and quantitative analyses of multiple gases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Yi-Da; Kimura, Hiroto; Hayashi, Kenta; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi
2016-09-01
A terahertz (THz) frequency synthesizer based on photomixing of two near-infrared lasers with a sub-THz to THz frequency offset is a powerful tool for spectroscopy of polar gas molecules due to its broad spectral coverage; however, its frequency accuracy and resolution are relatively low. To tune the output frequency continuously and widely while maintaining its traceability to a frequency standard, we developed a photomixing THz synthesizer phase-locked to dual optical frequency combs (OFCs). While the phase-locking to dual OFCs ensured continuous tuning within a spectral range of 120 GHz, in addition to the traceability to the frequency standard, use of a broadband uni-traveling carrier photodiode for photomixing enabled the generation of CW-THz radiation within a frequency range from 0.2 to 1.5 THz. We demonstrated THz frequency-domain spectroscopy of gas-phase acetonitrile CH3CN and its isotope CH3 13CN in the frequency range of 0.600-0.720 THz using this THz synthesizer. Their rotational transitions were assigned with a frequency accuracy of 8.42 × 10-8 and a frequency resolution of 520 kHz. Furthermore, the concentration of the CH3CN gas at 20 Pa was determined to be (5.41 ± 0.05) × 1014 molecules/cm3 by curve fitting analysis of the measured absorbance spectrum, and the mixture ratio of the mixed CH3CN/CH3 13CN gas was determined to be 1:2.26 with a gas concentration of 1014-1015 molecules/cm3. The developed THz synthesizer is highly promising for high-precision THz-FDS of low-pressure molecular gases and will enable the qualitative and quantitative analyses of multiple gases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, Jr., Allen R (Inventor); Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Piazza, Anthony (Nino) (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A method and system for multiplexing a network of parallel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor-fibers to a single acquisition channel of a closed Michelson interferometer system via a fiber splitter by distinguishing each branch of fiber sensors in the spatial domain. On each branch of the splitter, the fibers have a specific pre-determined length, effectively separating each branch of fiber sensors spatially. In the spatial domain the fiber branches are seen as part of one acquisition channel on the interrogation system. However, the FBG-reference arm beat frequency information for each fiber is retained. Since the beat frequency is generated between the reference arm, the effective fiber length of each successive branch includes the entire length of the preceding branch. The multiple branches are seen as one fiber having three segments where the segments can be resolved. This greatly simplifies optical, electronic and computational complexity, and is especially suited for use in multiplexed or branched OFS networks for SHM of large and/or distributed structures which need a lot of measurement points.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahin, Gökhan
The influence of the illumination wavelength on the electrical parameters of a vertical parallel junction silicon solar cell by its rear side is theoretically analyzed. Based on the excess minority carrier's density, the photocurrent density and photovoltage across the junction were determined. From both photocurrent and the photovoltage, the series and shunt resistance expressions are deduced and the solar cell associated capacitance and conversion efficiency are calculated. The aim of this study is to show the influence of the illumination wavelength on the electrical parameters of the cell and the behavior of both parasitic resistances and capacitance versus operating point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demel, Anja; Feilke, Katharina; Wolf, Martin; Poets, Christian F.; Franz, Axel R.
2014-01-01
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is increasingly used in neonatal intensive care. We investigated the impact of skin, bone, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer thickness in term and preterm infants on absorption-(μa) and/or reduced scattering coefficients (μs‧) measured by multidistance frequency-domain (FD)-NIRS. Transcranial ultrasound was performed to measure the layer thicknesses. Correlations were only statistically significant for μa at 692 nm with bone thickness and μs‧ at 834 nm with skin thickness. There is no evidence that skin, bone, or CSF thickness have an important effect on μa and μs‧. Layer thicknesses of skin, bone, and CSF in the range studied do not seem to affect cerebral oxygenation measurements by multidistance FD-NIRS significantly.
Radiative Transport Based Frequency Domain Fluorescence Tomography
Joshi, Amit; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Wareing, Todd A.; McGhee, John
2011-01-01
We report the development of radiative transport model based fluorescence optical tomography from frequency domain boundary measurements. The coupled radiative transport model for describing NIR fluorescence propagation in tissue is solved by a novel software based on the established Attila™ particle transport simulation platform. The proposed scheme enables the prediction of fluorescence measurements with non-contact sources and detectors at minimal computational cost. An adjoint transport solution based fluorescence tomography algorithm is implemented on dual grids to efficiently assemble the measurement sensitivity Jacobian matrix. Finally, we demonstrate fluorescence tomography on a realistic computational mouse model to locate nM to μM fluorophore concentration distributions in simulated mouse organs. PMID:18364555
Frequency-domain Hadamard spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupče, Ēriks; Freeman, Ray
2003-05-01
A new technique is proposed for multichannel excitation and detection of NMR signals in the frequency domain, an alternative to the widely used pulse-excited Fourier transform method. An extensive array of N radiofrequency irradiation channels covers the spectrum of interest. A selective radiofrequency pulse sequence is applied to each channel, generating a steady-state NMR response acquired one-point-at-a-time in the intervals between pulses. The excitation pattern is repeated N times, phase-encoded according to a Hadamard matrix, and the corresponding N composite responses are decoded by reference to the same matrix. This multiplex technique offers the same sensitivity advantage as conventional Fourier transform spectroscopy. The irradiation pattern may be tailored to concentrate on interesting spectral regions, to facilitate homonuclear double resonance, or to avoid exciting strong solvent peaks. As no free induction decay is involved, the new method avoids problems of pulse breakthrough or lineshape distortion by premature termination of the time-domain signal.
Frequency domain FIR and IIR adaptive filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lynn, D. W.
1990-01-01
A discussion of the LMS adaptive filter relating to its convergence characteristics and the problems associated with disparate eigenvalues is presented. This is used to introduce the concept of proportional convergence. An approach is used to analyze the convergence characteristics of block frequency-domain adaptive filters. This leads to a development showing how the frequency-domain FIR adaptive filter is easily modified to provide proportional convergence. These ideas are extended to a block frequency-domain IIR adaptive filter and the idea of proportional convergence is applied. Experimental results illustrating proportional convergence in both FIR and IIR frequency-domain block adaptive filters is presented.
Parallel optical memories for very large databases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitkas, Pericles A.; Berra, P. B.
1993-02-01
The steady increase in volume of current and future databases dictates the development of massive secondary storage devices that allow parallel access and exhibit high I/O data rates. Optical memories, such as parallel optical disks and holograms, can satisfy these requirements because they combine high recording density and parallel one- or two-dimensional output. Several configurations for database storage involving different types of optical memory devices are investigated. All these approaches include some level of optical preprocessing in the form of data filtering in an attempt to reduce the amount of data per transaction that reach the electronic front-end.
Real-time background suppression during frequency domain lifetime measurements.
Herman, Petr; Maliwal, Badri P; Lakowicz, Joseph R; Maliwal, Baldri P
2002-10-01
We describe real time background suppression of autofluorescence from biological samples during frequency domain or phase modulation measurements of intensity decays. For these measurements the samples were excited with a train of light pulses with widths below 1 ps. The detector was gated off for a short time period of 10 to 40 ns during and shortly after the excitation pulse. The reference signal needed for the frequency domain measurement was provided by a long-lifetime reference fluorophore which continues to emit following the off-gating pulse. Both the sample and the reference were measured under identical optical and electronic conditions avoiding the need for correction of the photomultiplier tube signal for the gating sequence. We demonstrate frequency domain background suppression using a mixture of short- and long-lifetime probes and for a long-lifetime probe in human plasma with significant autofluorescence. PMID:12381357
Frequency domain modelling of wind turbine structures
Soerensen, P.; Larsen, G.C.; Christensen, C.J.
1995-09-01
The present paper describes a frequency domain model of the structure of an operating horizontal axis wind turbine. The frequency domain model is implemented along with an analogous time domain modeling the Risoe PC code Design Basis 2, and a more detailed description of the model is offered in a Risoe report by Soerensen (1994). The structure of an operating wind turbine is affected by essential non-linearities between structural variables on blades and tower respectively. These non-linearities are caused by the rotation of the blades. The transformations between the blade coordinate systems and the tower coordinate system will depend on the instantaneous azimuth positions of the blades as they rotate. Frequency domain analysis are much faster than time simulations and in some respects they give more insight into the dynamics of the structure. However, the non-linear terms in the dynamic equations for a complex wind turbine structure are usually thought to preclude the use of frequency domain methods. Design Basis 2 is used to verify the frequency domain model comparing loads on the structure calculated with the frequency domain model both to loads calculated with the time domain model and to measured loads. Examples show that frequency and time domain calculations of typical PSD`s of loads are in very good agreement. Also the agreement between the calculated and measured PSD`s is good. Moreover, Design Basis 2 has shown that the frequency domain model results in an extremely fast calculation method.
Correia, Carlos M; Teixeira, Joel
2014-12-01
Computationally efficient wave-front reconstruction techniques for astronomical adaptive-optics (AO) systems have seen great development in the past decade. Algorithms developed in the spatial-frequency (Fourier) domain have gathered much attention, especially for high-contrast imaging systems. In this paper we present the Wiener filter (resulting in the maximization of the Strehl ratio) and further develop formulae for the anti-aliasing (AA) Wiener filter that optimally takes into account high-order wave-front terms folded in-band during the sensing (i.e., discrete sampling) process. We employ a continuous spatial-frequency representation for the forward measurement operators and derive the Wiener filter when aliasing is explicitly taken into account. We further investigate and compare to classical estimates using least-squares filters the reconstructed wave-front, measurement noise, and aliasing propagation coefficients as a function of the system order. Regarding high-contrast systems, we provide achievable performance results as a function of an ensemble of forward models for the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (using sparse and nonsparse representations) and compute point-spread-function raw intensities. We find that for a 32×32 single-conjugated AOs system the aliasing propagation coefficient is roughly 60% of the least-squares filters, whereas the noise propagation is around 80%. Contrast improvements of factors of up to 2 are achievable across the field in the H band. For current and next-generation high-contrast imagers, despite better aliasing mitigation, AA Wiener filtering cannot be used as a standalone method and must therefore be used in combination with optical spatial filters deployed before image formation actually takes place. PMID:25606767
Two-photon experiments in the frequency domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mbodji, I.; Olislager, L.; Woodhead, E.; Galmes, B.; Cussey, J.; Furfaro, L.; Emplit, P.; Massar, S.; Phan Huy, K.; Merolla, J.-M.
2012-06-01
We report on the study of two-photon interference in the frequency domain. Bell and Hong-Ou-Mandel experiments are investigated. These experiments involve the manipulation of photons in the frequency domain, using off-the-shelf telecommunication components such as electro-optic phase modulators and narrow-band frequency filters. In the first experiment, photon pairs entangled in frequency are created and separated. Each photon is then directed through an independent electro-optic phase modulator. Variation of the radio-frequency parameters of the modulation gives rise to a well-controlled Bessel-shape two-photon interference pattern in the frequency domain. This is efficiently measured with narrow-band frequency filters and superconducting single photon detectors. Experimental measurements exhibit high visibilities (over 99 percent both for net and raw visibilities) and allow the (theoretically proven) optimal violation of a Bell inequality for our setup (by more than 18 standard deviations). The second experiment is a Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in the frequency domain. We show that a grating (spatial domain) or a phase modulator (temporal domain) can be seen as a frequency beam splitter. A broadband spectrum of photon pairs is divided into two interleaved frequency combs, each one used as an independent input to this acting beam splitter. A theoretical calculation shows clear photon anti-bunching behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choe, Regine; Durduran, Turgut; Yu, Guoqiang; Nijland, Mark J. M.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Chance, Britton; Yodh, Arjun G.; Ramanujam, Nirmala
2003-07-01
A study using pregnant sheep was designed to simulate fetal hypoxia in order to investigate the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect and quantify fetal hypoxia in utero. The near-infrared spectroscopic probe consisted of two detectors and six source positions. It was placed on the maternal ewe abdomen above the fetal head. The light sources were modulated at 70 MHz and frequency-encoded so that simultaneous measurements at 675, 786, 830 nm for each source position were possible. After the baseline measurements, fetal hypoxia was induced by blocking the aorta of pregnant ewe and thus compromising the blood supply to the uterus. Blood gas samples were concurrently drawn from the fetal brachial artery and jugular veins. Analysis of the diffuse optical data used a two-layer model to separate the maternal layer from the fetal head. The analysis also employed a priori spectral information about tissue chromophores. This approach provided good quantification of blood oxygenation changes, which correlated well with the blood gas analyses. By contrast the homogeneous model underestimated oxygenation changes during hypoxia.
Substructure coupling in the frequency domain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1985-01-01
Frequency domain analysis was found to be a suitable method for determining the transient response of systems subjected to a wide variety of loads. However, since a large number of calculations are performed within the discrete frequency loop, the method loses it computational efficiency if the loads must be represented by a large number of discrete frequencies. It was also discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain work particularly well for analyzing structural system with a small number of interface and loaded degrees of freedom. It was discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain can lead to an efficient method of obtaining natural frequencies of undamped structures. It was also found that the damped natural frequencies of a system may be determined using frequency domain techniques.
Spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yudovsky, Dmitry; Durkin, Anthony J.
2011-10-01
Monitoring of tissue blood volume and oxygen saturation using biomedical optics techniques has the potential to inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities are typically estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in superficial tissue such as the skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis. Furthermore, epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. This study describes a technique for decoupling the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. An artificial neural network was used to map input optical properties to spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance of two layer media. Then, iterative fitting was used to determine the optical properties from simulated spatial frequency domain diffuse reflectance. Additionally, an artificial neural network was trained to directly map spatial frequency domain reflectance to sets of optical properties of a two layer medium, thus bypassing the need for iteration. In both cases, the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis were determined independently. The accuracy and efficiency of the iterative fitting approach was compared with the direct neural network inversion.
Spatial frequency domain error budget
Hauschildt, H; Krulewich, D
1998-08-27
The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for designing and characterizing machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, one of our responsibilities is to design or select the appropriate machine tools to produce advanced optical and weapons systems. Recently, many of the component tolerances for these systems have been specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of residual errors on the surface. We typically use an error budget as a sensitivity analysis tool to ensure that the parts manufactured by a machine will meet the specified component tolerances. Error budgets provide the formalism whereby we account for all sources of uncertainty in a process, and sum them to arrive at a net prediction of how "precisely" a manufactured component can meet a target specification. Using the error budget, we are able to minimize risk during initial stages by ensuring that the machine will produce components that meet specifications before the machine is actually built or purchased. However, the current error budgeting procedure provides no formal mechanism for designing machines that can produce parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from the current error budgeting procedure is a single number estimating the net worst case or RMS error on the work piece. This procedure has limited ability to differentiate between low spatial frequency form errors versus high frequency surface finish errors. Therefore the current error budgeting procedure can lead us to reject a machine that is adequate or accept a machine that is inadequate. This paper will describe a new error budgeting methodology to aid in the design and characterization of machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from this new procedure is the continuous spatial frequency content of errors that result on a machined part. If the machine
Koyama, Kohei; Yoneyama, Kihei; Mitarai, Takanobu; Kuwata, Shingo; Kongoji, Ken; Harada, Tomoo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J
2015-08-01
Longitudinal measurement using intravascular ultrasound is limited because the motorized pullback device assumes no cardiac motion. A newly developed intracoronary imaging modality, optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI), has higher resolution and an increased auto-pullback speed with presumably lesser susceptibility to cardiac motion artifacts during pullback for longitudinal measurement; however, it has not been fully investigated. We aimed to clarify the influence of cardiac motion on the accuracy and reproducibility of longitudinal measurements obtained using OFDI and to determine the optimal pullback speed. This ex vivo study included 31 stents deployed in the mid left anterior descending artery under phantom heartbeat and coronary flow simulation. Longitudinal stent lengths were measured twice using OFDI at three pullback speeds. Differences in stent lengths between OFDI and microscopy and between two repetitive pullbacks were assessed to determine accuracy and reproducibility. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction was used for evaluating image quality. With regard to differences in stent length between OFDI and microscopy, the intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.985, 0.994, and 0.995 at 10, 20, and 40 mm/s, respectively. With regard to reproducibility, the values were 0.995, 0.996, and 0.996 at 10, 20, and 40 mm/s, respectively. 3D reconstruction showed a superior image quality at 10 and 20 mm/s compared with that at 40 mm/s. OFDI demonstrated high accuracy and reproducibility for longitudinal stent measurements. Moreover, its accuracy and reproducibility were remarkable at a higher pullback speed. A 20-mm/s pullback speed may be optimal for clinical and research purposes. PMID:25971841
Optics Program Modified for Multithreaded Parallel Computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lou, John; Bedding, Dave; Basinger, Scott
2006-01-01
A powerful high-performance computer program for simulating and analyzing adaptive and controlled optical systems has been developed by modifying the serial version of the Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems (MACOS) program to impart capabilities for multithreaded parallel processing on computing systems ranging from supercomputers down to Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) personal computers. The modifications included the incorporation of OpenMP, a portable and widely supported application interface software, that can be used to explicitly add multithreaded parallelism to an application program under a shared-memory programming model. OpenMP was applied to parallelize ray-tracing calculations, one of the major computing components in MACOS. Multithreading is also used in the diffraction propagation of light in MACOS based on pthreads [POSIX Thread, (where "POSIX" signifies a portable operating system for UNIX)]. In tests of the parallelized version of MACOS, the speedup in ray-tracing calculations was found to be linear, or proportional to the number of processors, while the speedup in diffraction calculations ranged from 50 to 60 percent, depending on the type and number of processors. The parallelized version of MACOS is portable, and, to the user, its interface is basically the same as that of the original serial version of MACOS.
Parallel Algormiivls For Optical Digital Computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Alan
1983-04-01
Conventional computers suffer from several communication bottlenecks which fundamentally limit their performance. These bottlenecks are characterized by an address-dependent sequential transfer of information which arises from the need to time-multiplex information over a limited number of interconnections. An optical digital computer based on a classical finite state machine can be shown to be free of these bottlenecks. Such a processor would be unique since it would be capable of modifying its entire state space each cycle while conventional computers can only alter a few bits. New algorithms are needed to manage and use this capability. A technique based on recognizing a particular symbol in parallel and replacing it in parallel with another symbol is suggested. Examples using this parallel symbolic substitution to perform binary addition and binary incrementation are presented. Applications involving Boolean logic, functional programming languages, production rule driven artificial intelligence, and molecular chemistry are also discussed.
Parallel algorithms for optical digital computers
Huang, A.
1983-01-01
Conventional computers suffer from several communication bottlenecks which fundamentally limit their performance. These bottlenecks are characterised by an address-dependent sequential transfer of information which arises from the need to time-multiplex information over a limited number of interconnections. An optical digital computer based on a classical finite state machine can be shown to be free of these bottlenecks. Such a processor would be unique since it would be capable of modifying its entire state space each cycle while conventional computers can only alter a few bits. New algorithms are needed to manage and use this capability. A technique based on recognising a particular symbol in parallel and replacing it in parallel with another symbol is suggested. Examples using this parallel symbolic substitution to perform binary addition and binary incrementation are presented. Applications involving Boolean logic, functional programming languages, production rule driven artificial intelligence, and molecular chemistry are also discussed. 12 references.
Parallel Optical Random Access Memory (PORAM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alphonse, G. A.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the need to minimize component count, power and size, and to maximize packing density require a parallel optical random access memory to be designed in a two-level hierarchy: a modular level and an interconnect level. Three module designs are proposed, in the order of research and development requirements. The first uses state-of-the-art components, including individually addressed laser diode arrays, acousto-optic (AO) deflectors and magneto-optic (MO) storage medium, aimed at moderate size, moderate power, and high packing density. The next design level uses an electron-trapping (ET) medium to reduce optical power requirements. The third design uses a beam-steering grating surface emitter (GSE) array to reduce size further and minimize the number of components.
Scalable video coding in frequency domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Civanlar, Mehmet R.; Puri, Atul
1992-11-01
Scalable video coding is important in a number of applications where video needs to be decoded and displayed at a variety of resolution scales. It is more efficient than simulcasting, in which all desired resolution scales are coded totally independent of one another within the constraint of a fixed available bandwidth. In this paper, we focus on scalability using the frequency domain approach. We employ the framework proposed for the ongoing second phase of Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG-2) standard to study the performance of one such scheme and investigate improvements aimed at increasing its efficiency. Practical issues related to multiplexing of encoded data of various resolution scales to facilitate decoding are considered. Simulations are performed to investigate the potential of a chosen frequency domain scheme. Various prospects and limitations are also discussed.
Detecting structural information of scatterers using spatial frequency domain imaging.
Bodenschatz, Nico; Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Foschum, Florian; Bergmann, Florian; Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin
2015-11-01
We demonstrate optical phantom experiments on the phase function parameter γ using spatial frequency domain imaging. The incorporation of two different types of scattering particles allows for control of the optical phantoms’ microscopic scattering properties. By laterally structuring areas with either TiO2 or Al2O3 scattering particles, we were able to obtain almost pure subdiffusive scattering contrast in a single optical phantom. Optical parameter mapping was then achieved using an analytical radiative transfer model revealing the microscopic structural contrast on a macroscopic field of view. As part of our study, we explain several correction and referencing techniques for high spatial frequency analysis and experimentally study the sampling depth of the subdiffusive parameter γ. PMID:26590206
Nonintrusive noncontacting frequency-domain photothermal radiometry of caries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.; Abd-Elwahab, Bassam
2010-04-01
Among diffusion methods, photothermal radiometry (PTR) has the ability to penetrate and yield information about an opaque medium well beyond the range of conventional optical imaging. Owing to this ability, pulsed-laser PTR has been extensively used in turbid media such as biological tissues to study the sub-surface deposition of laser radiation, a task that may be difficult or impossible for many optical methods due to excessive scattering and absorption. In this paper considers the achievements of Pulsed Photothermal Radiometry using IR camera in the investigation of physical properties of biological materials and the diagnostics of the interaction of laser radiation with biological materials. A three-dimensional heat conduction formulation with the use of three-dimensional optical diffusion is developed to derive a turbid frequency-domain PTR model. The present photo-thermal model for frequency-domain PTR may prove useful for non-contact; non-invasive, in situ evaluate the depth profilometric imaging capabilities of FDPTR in monitoring carious and artificial subsurface lesions in human teeth.
Radiative transport in fluorescence-enhanced frequency domain photon migration.
Rasmussen, John C; Joshi, Amit; Pan, Tianshu; Wareing, Todd; McGhee, John; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M
2006-12-01
Small animal optical tomography has significant, but potential application for streamlining drug discovery and pre-clinical investigation of drug candidates. However, accurate modeling of photon propagation in small animal volumes is critical to quantitatively obtain accurate tomographic images. Herein we present solutions from a robust fluorescence-enhanced, frequency domain radiative transport equation (RTE) solver with unique attributes that facilitate its deployment within tomographic algorithms. Specifically, the coupled equations describing time-dependent excitation and emission light transport are solved using discrete ordinates (SN) angular differencing along with linear discontinuous finite-element spatial differencing on unstructured tetrahedral grids. Source iteration in conjunction with diffusion synthetic acceleration is used to iteratively solve the resulting system of equations. This RTE solver can accurately and efficiently predict ballistic as well as diffusion limited transport regimes which could simultaneously exist in small animals. Furthermore, the solver provides accurate solutions on unstructured, tetrahedral grids with relatively large element sizes as compared to commonly employed solvers that use step differencing. The predictions of the solver are validated by a series of frequency-domain, phantom measurements with optical properties ranging from diffusion limited to transport limited propagation. Our results demonstrate that the RTE solution consistently matches measurements made under both diffusion and transport-limited conditions. This work demonstrates the use of an appropriate RTE solver for deployment in small animal optical tomography. PMID:17278821
Compact parallel optical interface built with optical fiber tips
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopp, Christophe; Gilbert, Karen; Bernabe, Stéphane; Albert, Blandine
2006-09-01
MultiChip Module approach and the use of micro-optics offer determinant solutions to reach the mechanical compactness required by most applications for high rate data communications transmitters and receivers. Such a miniaturization often leads to develop very challenging assembling processes when fiber coupling is needed. In this paper we present an original fabrication process to build very small parallel optical interface with optical fiber tips. This fabrication process is based on common fiber ribbon mounting into wet etched V shaped holder into silicon and a dicing-polishing step to create small pieces with optical quality considering flatness and roughness. The dicing-polishing principle is well-known in integrated waveguides technology. An example of realization is presented to connect a parallel optical subassembly transmitter with a MPO/MTP connector. The results show that the dicing-polishing step allows to obtain a diced-polished face with a roughness about 5 to 10nm onto the fiber. Such an optical quality is as good as a cleaved fiber when measuring light coupling performances. Thus, such micro-optical components offer a new building block for designers to extract the light from their photonic devices. Moreover, the fabrication process appears to be low cost and compatible with mass production.
Frequency Domain Modeling of SAW Devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, G. M.
2007-01-01
New SAW sensors for integrated vehicle health monitoring of aerospace vehicles are being investigated. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. However, the lack of design tools for MEMS devices in general, and for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices specifically, has led to the development of tools that will enable integrated design, modeling, simulation, analysis and automatic layout generation of SAW devices. A frequency domain model has been created. The model is mainly first order, but it includes second order effects from triple transit echoes. This paper presents the model and results from the model for a SAW delay line device.
Studies in optical parallel processing. [All optical and electro-optic approaches
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, S. H.
1978-01-01
Threshold and A/D devices for converting a gray scale image into a binary one were investigated for all-optical and opto-electronic approaches to parallel processing. Integrated optical logic circuits (IOC) and optical parallel logic devices (OPA) were studied as an approach to processing optical binary signals. In the IOC logic scheme, a single row of an optical image is coupled into the IOC substrate at a time through an array of optical fibers. Parallel processing is carried out out, on each image element of these rows, in the IOC substrate and the resulting output exits via a second array of optical fibers. The OPAL system for parallel processing which uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer for image thresholding and analog-to-digital conversion, achieves a higher degree of parallel processing than is possible with IOC.
Monitoring electrical and thermal burns with Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramella-Roman, Jessica
2011-10-01
Thermal and electrical injuries are devastating and hard-to-treat clinical lesions. The pathophysiology of these injuries is not fully understood to this day. Further elucidating the natural history of this form of tissue injury could be helpful in offering stage-appropriate therapy. Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI) is a novel non-invasive technique that can be used to determine optical properties of biological media. We have developed an experimental apparatus based on SFDI aimed at monitoring parameters of clinical interest such as tissue oxygen saturation, methemoglobin volume fraction, and hemoglobin volume fraction. Co- registered Laser Doppler images of the lesions are also acquired to assess tissue perfusion. Results of experiments conducted on a rat model and discussions on the systemic changes in tissue optical properties before and after injury will be presented.
Frequency domain state-space system identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Chung-Wen; Juang, Jer-Nan; Lee, Gordon
1992-01-01
An algorithm for identifying state-space models from frequency response data of linear systems is presented. A matrix-fraction description of the transfer function is employed to curve-fit the frequency response data, using the least-squares method. The parameters of the matrix-fraction representation are then used to construct the Markov parameters of the system. Finally, state-space models are obtained through the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm using Markov parameters. The main advantage of this approach is that the curve-fitting and the Markov parameter construction are linear problems which avoid the difficulties of nonlinear optimization of other approaches. Another advantage is that it avoids windowing distortions associated with other frequency domain methods.
Polarization influence on reflectance measurements in the spatial frequency domain.
Wiest, J; Bodenschatz, N; Brandes, A; Liemert, A; Kienle, A
2015-08-01
In this work, we quantify the influence of crossed polarizers on reflectance measurements in the spatial frequency domain. The use of crossed polarizers is a very common approach for suppression of specular surface reflections. However, measurements are typically evaluated using a non-polarized scalar theory. The consequences of this discrepancy are the focus of our study, and we also quantify the related errors of the derived optical properties. We used polarized Monte Carlo simulations for forward calculation of the reflectance from different samples. The samples' scatterers are assumed to be spherical, allowing for the calculation of the scattering functions by Mie theory. From the forward calculations, the reduced scattering coefficient [Formula: see text] and the absorption coefficient μa were derived by means of a scalar theory, as commonly used. Here, we use the analytical solution of the scalar radiative transfer equation. With this evaluation approach, which does not consider polarization, we found large errors in [Formula: see text] and μa in the range of 25% and above. Furthermore, we investigated the applicability of the use of a reference measurement to reduce these errors as suggested in literature. We found that this method is not able to generally improve the accuracy of measurements in the spatial frequency domain. Our general recommendation is to apply a polarized theory when using crossed polarizers. PMID:26158399
High-speed frequency-domain terahertz coherence tomography.
Yahng, Ji Sang; Park, Choon-Su; Lee, Hwi Don; Kim, Chang-Seok; Yee, Dae-Su
2016-01-25
High-speed frequency-domain terahertz (THz) coherence tomography is demonstrated using frequency sweeping of continuous-wave THz radiation and beam steering. For axial scanning, THz frequency sweeping with a kHz sweep rate and a THz sweep range is executed using THz photomixing with an optical beat source consisting of a wavelength-swept laser and a distributed feedback laser diode. During the frequency sweep, frequency-domain THz interferograms are measured using coherent homodyne detection employing signal averaging for noise reduction and used as axial-scan data via fast Fourier transform. Axial-scan data are acquired while scanning a transverse range of 100 × 100 mm(2) by use of a THz beam scanner with moving neither sample nor THz transmitter/receiver unit. It takes 100 s to acquire axial-scan data for 100 × 100 points with 5 averaged traces at a sweep rate of 1 kHz. THz tomographic images of a glass fiber reinforced polymer sample with artificial internal defects are presented, acquired using the tomography system. PMID:26832489
HDMI optical extender based on parallel optical transmitter and receiver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Zhixiang; Zhu, Zhishi; Zhang, Hailiang
2009-08-01
High-Definition Multimedia Interface(HDMI) can carry high quality multi-channel audio data and can carry all standard and highdefinition video formats. To send the information form video source to the display unit, the HDMI cable which carries four differential pairs is used. Now HDMI 1.3 increases its single-link bandwidth from 165MHz (4.95 gigabits per second) to 340 MHz (10.2 Gbps) to support the demands of future high definition display devices, so the traditional copper wire cable imposes limits on signal transmission distance and signal quality at so high speed. Optical fiber is of low dispersion, which in turn has the strength of longer signal transmission distance and better signal transmission quality in comparison to the traditional copper wire cable. So the optical extender consisting of two modules - one transmitter and one receiver- is developed. The transmitter connects to a computer/DVD player etc. The receiver connects to a display. Between the two modules, four-core ribbon fibre is used to transmit the video and audio signals. HDMI needs four differential pairs, so we design the parallel optical transmitter based on VCSEL array and VCSEL driver chip HXT3404 from Gigoptix and the parallel optical receiver based on PIN array and transimpedance amplifier chip HXR3404. Each channel can reach 3.125Gbps, so the data speed of the optical extender is 12.5Gbps. The experiment shows that the optical extender can transfer the video and audio data to the display uint 100 meter away.
Real time frequency domain fibreoptic temperature sensor using ruby crystals.
Alcala, J R; Liao, S C; Zheng, J
1996-01-01
The excited state phosphorescence lifetime of ruby crystals is used to monitor temperature in the physiological range from 15 degrees to 45 degrees C with precision and accuracy less than 1 degree C, in real time. Precision of 0.1 degree C is attained with 3 min integration times. A 500 micron cubic ruby crystal bounded to the distal end of an optical fibre of similar core dimensions is excited with pulsed Ne-He laser light of about 9 microW average power. The instrument uses a sampler for data acquisition, and frequency domain methods for data fitting. The instrument amplifies the a.c. components of the detector output and band limits the signal to 800 Hz. The fundamental frequency of the excitation is set to 24.41 Hz to obtain 32 or less harmonics. This band-limited signal is sampled and averaged between 20 and 100 cycles to obtain temperature measurements in real time. The frequency domain representation of the data is obtained by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio, of each sampled harmonic, is then computed. Five to 32 values of the phase and modulation are averaged before computing the sensor lifetime. The technique is capable of measuring precise and accurate excited state lifetimes from subpicowatt luminescent signals in plastic optical fibres. A least squares fit yields the lifetimes of single exponentials. A component of zero lifetime is introduced to account for the backscatter excitation seen by the photodetector leaking through optical interference filters. The phosphorescence lifetimes measured reproducibly to about six parts in 1000, with a 2 s integration time, are used to monitor physiological temperature. Temperatures are computed employing empirical polynomials. The system drift is 3% over 5 h of continuous operation. The instrumentation and methods allow 2.7 s update times and 50 s full response times. PMID:8771039
Radiative transport-based frequency-domain fluorescence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Amit; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Wareing, Todd A.; McGhee, John
2008-04-01
We report the development of radiative transport model-based fluorescence optical tomography from frequency-domain boundary measurements. The coupled radiative transport model for describing NIR fluorescence propagation in tissue is solved by a novel software based on the established Attila™ particle transport simulation platform. The proposed scheme enables the prediction of fluorescence measurements with non-contact sources and detectors at a minimal computational cost. An adjoint transport solution-based fluorescence tomography algorithm is implemented on dual grids to efficiently assemble the measurement sensitivity Jacobian matrix. Finally, we demonstrate fluorescence tomography on a realistic computational mouse model to locate nM to µM fluorophore concentration distributions in simulated mouse organs.
Frequency Domain Calculations Of Acoustic Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lockard, David P.
2004-01-01
Two complex geometry problems are solved using the linearized Euler equations. The impedance mismatch method1 is used to impose the solid surfaces without the need to use a body-fitted grid. The problem is solved in the frequency domain to avoid long run times. Although the harmonic assumption eliminates all time dependence, a pseudo-time term is added to allow conventional iterative methods to be employed. A Jameson type, Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in pseudo time. The spatial operator is based on a seven-point, sixth-order finite difference. Constant coefficient, sixth-derivative artificial dissipation is used throughout the domain. A buffer zone technique employing a complex frequency to damp all waves near the boundaries is used to minimize reflections. The results show that the method is capable of capturing the salient features of the scattering, but an excessive number of grid points are required to resolve the phenomena in the vicinity of the solid bodies because the wavelength of the acoustics is relatively short compared with the size of the bodies. Smoothly transitioning into the immersed boundary condition alleviates the difficulties, but a fine mesh is still required.
Frequency domain analysis of knock images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Yunliang; He, Xin; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Jianxin
2014-12-01
High speed imaging-based knock analysis has mainly focused on time domain information, e.g. the spark triggered flame speed, the time when end gas auto-ignition occurs and the end gas flame speed after auto-ignition. This study presents a frequency domain analysis on the knock images recorded using a high speed camera with direct photography in a rapid compression machine (RCM). To clearly visualize the pressure wave oscillation in the combustion chamber, the images were high-pass-filtered to extract the luminosity oscillation. The luminosity spectrum was then obtained by applying fast Fourier transform (FFT) to three basic colour components (red, green and blue) of the high-pass-filtered images. Compared to the pressure spectrum, the luminosity spectra better identify the resonant modes of pressure wave oscillation. More importantly, the resonant mode shapes can be clearly visualized by reconstructing the images based on the amplitudes of luminosity spectra at the corresponding resonant frequencies, which agree well with the analytical solutions for mode shapes of gas vibration in a cylindrical cavity.
Frequency Domain Sampling Using Biomedical Imaging Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Gun Ha; Chung, Minji; Kyung, Richard
2015-04-01
In magnetic resonance image analysis using physical and computational method, the process of transformation from frequency domain to image domain requires significant amount time because Inverse Fourier Transformation (IFT) takes every frequency points to determine the final output image. This paper shows the mechanisms and physics of image formation using the selectivity of proper k-space by removing different amounts of high or low frequencies to create the most optimal magnetic resonance image of a human tibial bone. Originally, square unit step function, N/2-N/10:N/2 + N/10 = 1, was used during the Fourier Transformations. And Gaussian filter, y = exp(-t2/40n) , where t = h-L/2, h = [0,M], L =2*7*N/40, the size of frequency matrix (M, N) = (365,557) was tested. Also circle equations as a filter, r = sqrt((x-M/2)2 + (y-N/2)2) , were tested in creating the images of the human tibial bone to find an efficient filter. The best efficiency occurred when the exponent n in the proposed Gaussian filter equation is in between 3 and 8, and therefore, a new algorithm is needed to find the exact number since the number is not only an integer.
Parallel Optical and Electrochemical DNA Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knoll, Wolfgang; Liu, Jianyun; Niu, Lifang; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Tiefenauer, Louis
This contribution introduces strategies for the sensitive detection of oligonucleotides as bio-analytes binding from solution to a variety of probe architectures assembled at the (Au-) sensor surface. Detection principles based on surface plasmon optics and electrochemical techniques are compared. In particular, cyclic- and square wave voltammetry (SWV) are applied for the read-out of ferrocene redox labels conjugated to streptavidin that binds to the (biotinylated) DNA targets after hybridizing to the interfacial probe matrix of either DNA or peptide nucleic acid (PNA) strands. By employing streptavidin modified with fluorophores the identical sensor architecture can be used for the recording of hybridization reactions by surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS). The Langmuir isotherms determined by both techniques, i.e., by SWV and SPFS, give virtually identical affinity constants KA, confirming that the mode of detection has no influence on the hybridization reaction. By using semiconducting nanoparticles as luminescence labels that can be tuned in their bandgap energies over a wide range of emission wavelengths surface plasmon fluorescence microscopy allows for the parallel read-out of multiple analyte binding events simultaneously.
Mastanduno, Michael A.; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.
2013-01-01
Abstract. A new optical parallel detection system of hybrid frequency and continuous-wave domains was developed to improve the data quality and accuracy in recovery of all breast optical properties. This new system was deployed in a previously existing system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided spectroscopy, and allows incorporation of additional near-infrared wavelengths beyond 850 nm, with interlaced channels of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photodiodes (PDs). The acquisition time for obtaining frequency-domain data at six wavelengths (660, 735, 785, 808, 826, and 849 nm) and continuous-wave data at three wavelengths (903, 912, and 948 nm) is 12 min. The dynamic ranges of the detected signal are 105 and 106 for PMT and PD detectors, respectively. Compared to the previous detection system, the SNR ratio of frequency-domain detection was improved by nearly 103 through the addition of an RF amplifier and the utilization of programmable gain. The current system is being utilized in a clinical trial imaging suspected breast cancer tumors as detected by contrast MRI scans. PMID:23979460
El-Ghussein, Fadi; Mastanduno, Michael A; Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W; Paulsen, Keith D
2014-01-01
A new optical parallel detection system of hybrid frequency and continuous-wave domains was developed to improve the data quality and accuracy in recovery of all breast optical properties. This new system was deployed in a previously existing system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided spectroscopy, and allows incorporation of additional near-infrared wavelengths beyond 850 nm, with interlaced channels of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon photodiodes (PDs). The acquisition time for obtaining frequency-domain data at six wavelengths (660, 735, 785, 808, 826, and 849 nm) and continuous-wave data at three wavelengths (903, 912, and 948 nm) is 12 min. The dynamic ranges of the detected signal are 105 and 106 for PMT and PD detectors, respectively. Compared to the previous detection system, the SNR ratio of frequency-domain detection was improved by nearly 103 through the addition of an RF amplifier and the utilization of programmable gain. The current system is being utilized in a clinical trial imaging suspected breast cancer tumors as detected by contrast MRI scans. PMID:23979460
Visible spatial frequency domain imaging with a digital light microprojector
Lin, Alexander J.; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Konecky, Soren D.; Cui, Haotian; Rice, Tyler B.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.
2013-01-01
Abstract. There is a need for cost effective, quantitative tissue spectroscopy and imaging systems in clinical diagnostics and pre-clinical biomedical research. A platform that utilizes a commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) based projector, cameras, and scaled Monte Carlo model for calculating tissue optical properties is presented. These components are put together to perform spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI), a model-based reflectance technique that measures and maps absorption coefficients (μa) and reduced scattering coefficients (μs′) in thick tissue such as skin or brain. We validate the performance of the flexible LED and modulation element (FLaME) system at 460, 530, and 632 nm across a range of physiologically relevant μa values (0.07 to 1.5 mm−1) in tissue-simulating intralipid phantoms, showing an overall accuracy within 11% of spectrophotometer values for μa and 3% for μs′. Comparison of oxy- and total hemoglobin fits between the FLaME system and a spectrophotometer (450 to 1000 nm) is differed by 3%. Finally, we acquire optical property maps of a mouse brain in vivo with and without an overlying saline well. These results demonstrate the potential of FLaME to perform tissue optical property mapping in visible spectral regions and highlight how the optical clearing effect of saline is correlated to a decrease in μs′ of the skull. PMID:24005154
Experimental free-space optical network for massively parallel computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araki, S.; Kajita, M.; Kasahara, K.; Kubota, K.; Kurihara, K.; Redmond, I.; Schenfeld, E.; Suzaki, T.
1996-03-01
A free-space optical interconnection scheme is described for massively parallel processors based on the interconnection-cached network architecture. The optical network operates in a circuit-switching mode. Combined with a packet-switching operation among the circuit-switched optical channels, a high-bandwidth, low-latency network for massively parallel processing results. The design and assembly of a 64-channel experimental prototype is discussed, and operational results are presented.
AU-FREDI - AUTONOMOUS FREQUENCY DOMAIN IDENTIFICATION
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yam, Y.
1994-01-01
The Autonomous Frequency Domain Identification program, AU-FREDI, is a system of methods, algorithms and software that was developed for the identification of structural dynamic parameters and system transfer function characterization for control of large space platforms and flexible spacecraft. It was validated in the CALTECH/Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Large Spacecraft Control Laboratory. Due to the unique characteristics of this laboratory environment, and the environment-specific nature of many of the software's routines, AU-FREDI should be considered to be a collection of routines which can be modified and reassembled to suit system identification and control experiments on large flexible structures. The AU-FREDI software was originally designed to command plant excitation and handle subsequent input/output data transfer, and to conduct system identification based on the I/O data. Key features of the AU-FREDI methodology are as follows: 1. AU-FREDI has on-line digital filter design to support on-orbit optimal input design and data composition. 2. Data composition of experimental data in overlapping frequency bands overcomes finite actuator power constraints. 3. Recursive least squares sine-dwell estimation accurately handles digitized sinusoids and low frequency modes. 4. The system also includes automated estimation of model order using a product moment matrix. 5. A sample-data transfer function parametrization supports digital control design. 6. Minimum variance estimation is assured with a curve fitting algorithm with iterative reweighting. 7. Robust root solvers accurately factorize high order polynomials to determine frequency and damping estimates. 8. Output error characterization of model additive uncertainty supports robustness analysis. The research objectives associated with AU-FREDI were particularly useful in focusing the identification methodology for realistic on-orbit testing conditions. Rather than estimating the entire structure, as is
Laser Safety Method For Duplex Open Loop Parallel Optical Link
Baumgartner, Steven John; Hedin, Daniel Scott; Paschal, Matthew James
2003-12-02
A method and apparatus are provided to ensure that laser optical power does not exceed a "safe" level in an open loop parallel optical link in the event that a fiber optic ribbon cable is broken or otherwise severed. A duplex parallel optical link includes a transmitter and receiver pair and a fiber optic ribbon that includes a designated number of channels that cannot be split. The duplex transceiver includes a corresponding transmitter and receiver that are physically attached to each other and cannot be detached therefrom, so as to ensure safe, laser optical power in the event that the fiber optic ribbon cable is broken or severed. Safe optical power is ensured by redundant current and voltage safety checks.
Polarized spatial frequency domain imaging of heart valve fiber structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goth, Will; Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Allen, Alicia; Sacks, Michael S.; Tunnell, James W.
2016-03-01
Our group previously introduced Polarized Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (PSFDI), a wide-field, reflectance imaging technique which we used to empirically map fiber direction in porcine pulmonary heart valve leaflets (PHVL) without optical clearing or physical sectioning of the sample. Presented is an extended analysis of our PSFDI results using an inverse Mueller matrix model of polarized light scattering that allows additional maps of fiber orientation distribution, along with instrumentation permitting increased imaging speed for dynamic PHVL fiber measurements. We imaged electrospun fiber phantoms with PSFDI, and then compared these measurements to SEM data collected for the same phantoms. PHVL was then imaged and compared to results of the same leaflets optically cleared and imaged with small angle light scattering (SALS). The static PHVL images showed distinct regional variance of fiber orientation distribution, matching our SALS results. We used our improved imaging speed to observe bovine tendon subjected to dynamic loading using a biaxial stretching device. Our dynamic imaging experiment showed trackable changes in the fiber microstructure of biological tissue under loading. Our new PSFDI analysis model and instrumentation allows characterization of fiber structure within heart valve tissues (as validated with SALS measurements), along with imaging of dynamic fiber remodeling. The experimental data will be used as inputs to our constitutive models of PHVL tissue to fully characterize these tissues' elastic behavior, and has immediate application in determining the mechanisms of structural and functional failure in PHVLs used as bio-prosthetic implants.
Ultrasound breast imaging using frequency domain reverse time migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, O.; Zuberi, M. A. H.; Pratt, R. G.; Duric, N.
2016-04-01
Conventional ultrasonography reconstruction techniques, such as B-mode, are based on a simple wave propagation model derived from a high frequency approximation. Therefore, to minimize model mismatch, the central frequency of the input pulse is typically chosen between 3 and 15 megahertz. Despite the increase in theoretical resolution, operating at higher frequencies comes at the cost of lower signal-to-noise ratio. This ultimately degrades the image contrast and overall quality at higher imaging depths. To address this issue, we investigate a reflection imaging technique, known as reverse time migration, which uses a more accurate propagation model for reconstruction. We present preliminary simulation results as well as physical phantom image reconstructions obtained using data acquired with a breast imaging ultrasound tomography prototype. The original reconstructions are filtered to remove low-wavenumber artifacts that arise due to the inclusion of the direct arrivals. We demonstrate the advantage of using an accurate sound speed model in the reverse time migration process. We also explain how the increase in computational complexity can be mitigated using a frequency domain approach and a parallel computing platform.
Characterization of nonmelanoma skin cancer for light therapy using spatial frequency domain imaging
Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Zeitouni, Nathalie C.; Muffoletto, Daniel; Saager, Rolf; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Sunar, Ulas
2015-01-01
The dosimetry of light-based therapies critically depends on both optical and vascular parameters. We utilized spatial frequency domain imaging to quantify optical and vascular parameters, as well as estimated light penetration depth from 17 nonmelanoma skin cancer patients. Our data indicates that there exist substantial spatial variations in these parameters. Characterization of these parameters may inform understanding and optimization of the clinical response of light-based therapies. PMID:26137378
Frequency domain optoacoustic tomography using amplitude and phase
Mohajerani, Pouyan; Kellnberger, Stephan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis
2014-01-01
We introduce optoacoustic tomographic imaging using intensity modulated light sources and collecting amplitude and phase information in the frequency domain. Imaging is performed at multiple modulation frequencies. The forward modeling uses the Green's function solution to the pressure wave equation in frequency domain and the resulting inverse problem is solved using regularized least squares minimization. We study the effect of the number of frequencies and of the bandwidth employed on the image quality achieved. The possibility of employing an all-frequency domain optoacoustic imaging for experimental measurements is studied as a function of noise. We conclude that frequency domain optoacoustic tomography may evolve to a practical experimental method using light intensity modulated sources, with advantages over time-domain optoacoustics. PMID:25431755
A statistical package for computing time and frequency domain analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brownlow, J.
1978-01-01
The spectrum analysis (SPA) program is a general purpose digital computer program designed to aid in data analysis. The program does time and frequency domain statistical analyses as well as some preanalysis data preparation. The capabilities of the SPA program include linear trend removal and/or digital filtering of data, plotting and/or listing of both filtered and unfiltered data, time domain statistical characterization of data, and frequency domain statistical characterization of data.
In vivo spatial frequency domain spectroscopy of two layer media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yudovsky, Dmitry; Nguyen, John Quan M.; Durkin, Anthony J.
2012-10-01
Monitoring of tissue blood volume and local oxygen saturation can inform the assessment of tissue health, healing, and dysfunction. These quantities can be estimated from the contribution of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin to the absorption spectrum of the dermis. However, estimation of blood related absorption in skin can be confounded by the strong absorption of melanin in the epidermis and epidermal thickness and pigmentation varies with anatomic location, race, gender, and degree of disease progression. Therefore, a method is desired that decouples the effect of melanin absorption in the epidermis from blood absorption in the dermis for a large range of skin types and thicknesses. A previously developed inverse method based on a neural network forward model was applied to simulated spatial frequency domain reflectance of skin for multiple wavelengths in the near infrared. It is demonstrated that the optical thickness of the epidermis and absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the dermis can be determined independently and with minimal coupling. Then, the same inverse method was applied to reflectance measurements from a tissue simulating phantom and in vivo human skin. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentrations were estimated from the volar forearms of weakly and strongly pigmented subjects using a standard homogeneous model and the present two layer model.
Frequency-Domain Interferometry of Electron Bunch Driven Wakefields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zgadzaj, Rafal; Downer, M. C.; Yi, Austin; Shvets, Gennady; Fang, Yun; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Babzien, Marcus; Fedurin, Mikhail; Kusche, Karl
2012-10-01
Beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators (PWFA), such as the ``plasma afterburner'' can potentially greatly increase the particle energies of conventional accelerators . Various schemes using single and multiple bunches of electrons, positrons and protons have been investigated. Appropriately delayed witness bunches have been the usual method to probe the fields of such wakes, and indirectly, the corresponding plasma wake structures. However, the wake structure has not been observed directly in the PWFA. We will report our progress in the development of direct, optical interferometric methods of measuring the plasma density modulation in electron beam driven wakefields. Frequency Domain Holography (FDH), employing two chirped laser pulses (probe and reference) co-propagating with the particle drive-beam and its plasma wake, permits single shot observation of an extended section of the wakefield behind a drive bunch. The chirped, temporally stretched, probe samples several periods of the wake, while the undisturbed reference pulse propagates ahead of the electron drive bunch. The technique is being developed in the Accelerator Test Facility at the Brookhaven National Laboratory as a probe for two and multibunch driven plasmawakefield experiments
Imaging scattering orientation with spatial frequency domain imaging
Konecky, Soren D.; Rice, Tyler; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.
2011-01-01
Optical imaging techniques based on multiple light scattering generally have poor sensitivity to the orientation and direction of microscopic light scattering structures. In order to address this limitation, we introduce a spatial frequency domain method for imaging contrast from oriented scattering structures by measuring the angular-dependence of structured light reflectance. The measurement is made by projecting sinusoidal patterns of light intensity on a sample, and measuring the degree to which the patterns are blurred as a function of the projection angle. We derive a spatial Fourier domain solution to an anisotropic diffusion model. This solution predicts the effects of bulk scattering orientation on the amplitude and phase of the projected patterns. We introduce a new contrast function based on a scattering orientation index (SOI) which is sensitive to the degree to which light scattering is directionally dependent. We validate the technique using tissue simulating phantoms, and ex vivo samples of muscle and brain. Our results show that SOI is independent of the overall amount of bulk light scattering and absorption, and that isotropic versus oriented scattering structures can be clearly distinguished. We determine the orientation of subsurface microscopic scattering structures located up to 600 μm beneath highly scattering (μ′s = 1.5 mm−1) material. PMID:22191918
Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) sources for frequency domain photon migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; No, Keun-Sik; Matlock, Alex; Hill, Brian; Cerussi, Albert E.; Tromberg, Bruce J.
2015-03-01
Frequency domain photon migration (FDPM) uses modulated laser light to measure the bulk optical properties of turbid media and is increasingly being applied for noninvasive functional medical imaging. Though semiconductor edge emitting laser diodes (EELs) have been traditionally used for this application, we show that VCSELs exhibit performance characteristics suitable for FDPM measurements of tissue optical properties. Their output power and modulation characteristics are more than sufficient for optical property recovery. In addition, their small size, high efficiency, low cost, and simple packaging make them an attractive choice as components in clinical FDPM systems. We demonstrate a unique, compact optical probe that was enabled by VCSEL technology.
Parallel optical readout of cantilever arrays in dynamic mode.
Koelmans, W W; van Honschoten, J; de Vries, J; Vettiger, P; Abelmann, L; Elwenspoek, M C
2010-10-01
Parallel frequency readout of an array of cantilevers is demonstrated using optical beam deflection with a single laser-diode pair. Multi-frequency addressing makes the individual nanomechanical response of each cantilever distinguishable within the received signal. Addressing is accomplished by exciting the array with the sum of all cantilever resonant frequencies. This technique requires considerably less hardware compared to other parallel optical readout techniques. Readout is demonstrated in beam deflection mode and interference mode. Many cantilevers can be readout in parallel, limited by the oscillators' quality factor and available bandwidth. The proposed technique facilitates parallelism in applications at the nano-scale, including probe-based data storage and biological sensing. PMID:20820095
Dynamically reconfigurable optical interconnect architecture for parallel multiprocessor systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girard, Mary M.; Husbands, Charles R.; Antoszewska, Reza
1991-12-01
The progress in parallel processing technology in recent years has resulted in increased requirements to process large amounts of data in real time. The massively parallel architectures proposed for these applications require the use of a high speed interconnect system to achieve processor-to-processor connectivity without incurring excessive delays. The characteristics of optical components permit high speed operation while the nonconductive nature of the optical medium eliminates ground loop and transmission line problems normally associated with a conductive medium. The MITRE Corp. is evaluating an optical wavelength division multiple access interconnect network design to improve interconnectivity within parallel processor systems and to allow reconfigurability of processor communication paths. This paper describes the architecture and control of and highlights the results from an 8- channel multiprocessor prototype with effective throughput of 3.2 Gigabits per second (Gbps).
Imaging using parallel integrals in optical projection tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yi; Wang, Ruikang
2006-12-01
We develop and demonstrate improved image-forming optics for optical projection tomography (OPT), with which the parallel integral throughout an object can be obtained. This method results in an improved resolution for OPT images, especially for the cross sections far from the optical axis of the image-forming optics. We find the optimal configuration used in our OPT system by use of a point spread function and simulation technique. The new method is validated by both numerical simulations and experimental results. The spatial resolution of the OPT system presented is ~40 µm.
Massively parallel spatial light modulation-based optical signal processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yao
1993-03-01
A new optical parallel arithmetic processing scheme using a nonholographic optoelectronic content-addressable memory (CAM) was proposed. The design of a four-bit CAM-based optical carry look-ahead adder was studied. Compared with existing optoelectronic binary addition approaches, this nonholographic CAM Scheme offers a number of practical advantages, such as faster processing speed and ease of optical implementation and alignment. For an addition of numbers longer than four bits, by incorporating the previous stage's carry, a number of four-bit CLA's can be cascaded. Experimental results were also demonstrated. One paper to the Optics Letters was published.
Table-top mirror based parallel programmable optical logic device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2014-12-01
Light rays can easily be reflected to different path by mechanical movement of mirrors. Using this basic operational principle we can design parallel programmable optical logic device (PPOLD) by arranging mirrors on a table. The ‘table-top mirror' models of this proposed circuit have been shown here. We can program it to design all the two input 16-Boolean logical expressions from a single design. The design is based on only plane mirrors. No active optical material is used in this design. Not only that the proposed circuit is optically reversible in nature. Moreover this design is very simple in sense. It can be fabricated in MEMS based optical switches.
Robust time and frequency domain estimation methods in adaptive control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamaire, Richard Orville
1987-01-01
A robust identification method was developed for use in an adaptive control system. The type of estimator is called the robust estimator, since it is robust to the effects of both unmodeled dynamics and an unmeasurable disturbance. The development of the robust estimator was motivated by a need to provide guarantees in the identification part of an adaptive controller. To enable the design of a robust control system, a nominal model as well as a frequency-domain bounding function on the modeling uncertainty associated with this nominal model must be provided. Two estimation methods are presented for finding parameter estimates, and, hence, a nominal model. One of these methods is based on the well developed field of time-domain parameter estimation. In a second method of finding parameter estimates, a type of weighted least-squares fitting to a frequency-domain estimated model is used. The frequency-domain estimator is shown to perform better, in general, than the time-domain parameter estimator. In addition, a methodology for finding a frequency-domain bounding function on the disturbance is used to compute a frequency-domain bounding function on the additive modeling error due to the effects of the disturbance and the use of finite-length data. The performance of the robust estimator in both open-loop and closed-loop situations is examined through the use of simulations.
2D Seismic Imaging of Elastic Parameters by Frequency Domain Full Waveform Inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brossier, R.; Virieux, J.; Operto, S.
2008-12-01
Thanks to recent advances in parallel computing, full waveform inversion is today a tractable seismic imaging method to reconstruct physical parameters of the earth interior at different scales ranging from the near- surface to the deep crust. We present a massively parallel 2D frequency-domain full-waveform algorithm for imaging visco-elastic media from multi-component seismic data. The forward problem (i.e. the resolution of the frequency-domain 2D PSV elastodynamics equations) is based on low-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method (P0 and/or P1 interpolations). Thanks to triangular unstructured meshes, the DG method allows accurate modeling of both body waves and surface waves in case of complex topography for a discretization of 10 to 15 cells per shear wavelength. The frequency-domain DG system is solved efficiently for multiple sources with the parallel direct solver MUMPS. The local inversion procedure (i.e. minimization of residuals between observed and computed data) is based on the adjoint-state method which allows to efficiently compute the gradient of the objective function. Applying the inversion hierarchically from the low frequencies to the higher ones defines a multiresolution imaging strategy which helps convergence towards the global minimum. In place of expensive Newton algorithm, the combined use of the diagonal terms of the approximate Hessian matrix and optimization algorithms based on quasi-Newton methods (Conjugate Gradient, LBFGS, ...) allows to improve the convergence of the iterative inversion. The distribution of forward problem solutions over processors driven by a mesh partitioning performed by METIS allows to apply most of the inversion in parallel. We shall present the main features of the parallel modeling/inversion algorithm, assess its scalability and illustrate its performances with realistic synthetic case studies.
Quantitative modulated imaging of turbid media in the high spatial frequency domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Weihao; Cao, Zili; Zeng, Bixin; Xu, M.
2016-03-01
The Spatial-frequency dependence of turbid media reflectance encodes both optical properties and depth information. The high spatial frequency domain imaging (HSFDI) can, in particular, extract key characteristics of the phase function of the scattering medium which carries the ultimate structural information of the medium. We first outline the principle of HSFDI and then present here a compact optical configuration integrating the modulated illumination and imaging systems, facilitating quantitative wide-field optical properties mapping at high spatial frequencies. The performance of HSFDI is assessed on both tissue phantoms and in vivo.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faris, Gregory W.; Alexandrakis, George; Busch, David R.; Patterson, Michael S.
2001-06-01
We examine the ability to recover the optical properties of a two-layer turbid medium using multi-distance frequency domain reflectance measurements and a hybrid Monte Carlo-- diffusion model. Frequency domain measurements are performed on two-layer liquid tissue phantoms simulating skin on muscle and skin on fat. Particular care to systematic effects in the photomultiplier is required for the measurements at short source-detectors distances. The model converges when fitting five free parameters (the optical properties of the upper and lower layers and the upper layer thickness). However, discrepancies between experimental and model yield insufficient accuracy for the absorption coefficient of the upper layer.
Frequency Domain Tomography Of Evolving Laser-Plasma Accelerator Structures
Dong Peng; Reed, Stephen; Kalmykov, Serguei; Shvets, Gennady; Downer, Mike
2009-01-22
Frequency Domain Holography (FDH), a technique for visualizing quasistatic objects propagating near the speed of light, has produced 'snapshots' of laser wakefields, but they are averaged over structural variations that occur during propagation through the plasma medium. Here we explore via simulations a generalization of FDH--that we call Frequency Domain Tomography (FDT)--that can potentially record a time sequence of quasistatic snapshots, like the frames of a movie, of the wake structure as it propagates through the plasma. FDT utilizes a several probe-reference pulse pairs that propagate obliquely to the drive pulse and wakefield, along with tomographic reconstruction algorithms similar to those used in medical CAT scans.
Parallel optical trap assisted nanopatterning on rough surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Y.-C.; Leitz, K.-H.; Fardel, R.; Otto, A.; Schmidt, M.; Arnold, C. B.
2012-04-01
There exist many optical lithography techniques for generating nanostructures on hard, flat surfaces over large areas. However, few techniques are able to create such patterns on soft materials or surfaces with pre-existing structure. To address this need, we demonstrate the use of parallel optical trap assisted nanopatterning (OTAN) to provide an efficient and robust direct-write method of producing nanoscale features without the need for focal plane adjustment. Parallel patterning on model surfaces of polyimide with vertical steps greater than 1.5 µm shows a feature size uncertainty better than 4% across the step and lateral positional accuracy of 25 nm. A Brownian motion model is used to describe the positional accuracy enabling one to predict how variation in system parameters will affect the nanopatterning results. These combined results suggest that OTAN is a viable technique for massively parallel direct-write nanolithography on non-traditional surfaces.
Parallel optical trap assisted nanopatterning on rough surfaces.
Tsai, Y C; Leitz, K H; Fardel, R; Otto, A; Schmidt, M; Arnold, C B
2012-04-27
There exist many optical lithography techniques for generating nanostructures on hard, flat surfaces over large areas. However, few techniques are able to create such patterns on soft materials or surfaces with pre-existing structure. To address this need, we demonstrate the use of parallel optical trap assisted nanopatterning (OTAN) to provide an efficient and robust direct-write method of producing nanoscale features without the need for focal plane adjustment. Parallel patterning on model surfaces of polyimide with vertical steps greater than 1.5 µm shows a feature size uncertainty better than 4% across the step and lateral positional accuracy of 25 nm. A Brownian motion model is used to describe the positional accuracy enabling one to predict how variation in system parameters will affect the nanopatterning results. These combined results suggest that OTAN is a viable technique for massively parallel direct-write nanolithography on non-traditional surfaces. PMID:22469693
Parallel optics technology assessment for the versatile link project
Chramowicz, J.; Kwan, S.; Rivera, R.; Prosser, A.; /Fermilab
2011-01-01
This poster describes the assessment of commercially available and prototype parallel optics modules for possible use as back end components for the Versatile Link common project. The assessment covers SNAP12 transmitter and receiver modules as well as optical engine technologies in dense packaging options. Tests were performed using vendor evaluation boards (SNAP12) as well as custom evaluation boards (optical engines). The measurements obtained were used to compare the performance of these components with single channel SFP+ components operating at a transmission wavelength of 850 nm over multimode fibers.
Adaptive optics parallel near-confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy.
Lu, Jing; Gu, Boyu; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua
2016-08-15
We present an adaptive optics parallel near-confocal scanning ophthalmoscope (AOPCSO) using a digital micromirror device (DMD). The imaging light is modulated to be a line of point sources by the DMD, illuminating the retina simultaneously. By using a high-speed line camera to acquire the image and using adaptive optics to compensate the ocular wave aberration, the AOPCSO can image the living human eye with cellular level resolution at the frame rate of 100 Hz. AOPCSO has been demonstrated with improved spatial resolution in imaging of the living human retina compared with adaptive optics line scan ophthalmoscopy. PMID:27519106
Feasibility of optically interconnected parallel processors using wavelength division multiplexing
Deri, R.J.; De Groot, A.J.; Haigh, R.E.
1996-03-01
New national security demands require enhanced computing systems for nearly ab initio simulations of extremely complex systems and analyzing unprecedented quantities of remote sensing data. This computational performance is being sought using parallel processing systems, in which many less powerful processors are ganged together to achieve high aggregate performance. Such systems require increased capability to communicate information between individual processor and memory elements. As it is likely that the limited performance of today`s electronic interconnects will prevent the system from achieving its ultimate performance, there is great interest in using fiber optic technology to improve interconnect communication. However, little information is available to quantify the requirements on fiber optical hardware technology for this application. Furthermore, we have sought to explore interconnect architectures that use the complete communication richness of the optical domain rather than using optics as a simple replacement for electronic interconnects. These considerations have led us to study the performance of a moderate size parallel processor with optical interconnects using multiple optical wavelengths. We quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency requirements which allow a bus-type interconnect to achieve scalable computing performance using up to 256 nodes, each operating at GFLOP performance. Our key conclusion is that scalable performance, to {approx}150 GFLOPS, is achievable for several scientific codes using an optical bus with a small number of WDM channels (8 to 32), only one WDM channel received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency requirements. 21 refs. , 10 figs.
A frequency-domain channel model and emulator for aeronautical communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaopeng; Liang, Jun; Yao, Kun; Shi, Haoshan
2005-11-01
In this paper, we propose a frequency domain simulation structure for aeronautical wideband frequency-selective channel, which features ground-air and air-air wireless links. With appropriate channel parameters, the emulator can model the parking, taxi and en-route scenarios. The wideband frequency-selective channel consists of some parallel sub-channels in frequency domain, which are assumed to be independent to each other and have Rayleigh-distributed envelopes. The sub-channel models and emulators are based on a simple structure and characterized by flat fading. Through such decomposition approach, a frequency domain frequency-selective channel model can be achieved, which is suitable for an implementation of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) or multi-carrier code-division multi-access (MC-CDMA) channel emulator on computer. Some appropriate emulator parameters have been proposed through channel sounding data collected for different scenarios. Particularly, in order to emulate the time-varying fading model well, the parameter sets are generated from time to time before the simulation with the same statistics.
Turbulence excited frequency domain damping measurement and truncation effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soovere, J.
1976-01-01
Existing frequency domain modal frequency and damping analysis methods are discussed. The effects of truncation in the Laplace and Fourier transform data analysis methods are described. Methods for eliminating truncation errors from measured damping are presented. Implications of truncation effects in fast Fourier transform analysis are discussed. Limited comparison with test data is presented.
A Windowing Frequency Domain Adaptive Filter for Acoustic Echo Cancellation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Sheng; Qiu, Xiaojun
This letter proposes a windowing frequency domain adaptive algorithm, which reuses the filtering error to apply window function in the filter updating symmetrically. By using a proper window function to reduce the negative influence of the spectral leakage, the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the performance of the acoustic echo cancellation for speech signals.
Frequency-Domain Methods for Characterization of Pulsed Power Diagnostics
White, A D; Anderson, R A; Ferriera, T J; Goerz, D A
2009-07-27
This paper discusses methods of frequency-domain characterization of pulsed power sensors using vector network analyzer and spectrum analyzer techniques that offer significant simplification over time-domain methods, while mitigating or minimizing the effect of the difficulties present in time domain characterization. These methods are applicable to characterization of a wide variety of sensors.
High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway
St. John, Wallace B.; DuBois, David H.
1996-01-01
A system of sending and receiving gateways interconnects high speed data interfaces, e.g., HIPPI interfaces, through fiber optic links, e.g., a SONET network. An electronic stripe distributor distributes bytes of data from a first interface at the sending gateway onto parallel fiber optics of the fiber optic link to form transmitted data. An electronic stripe collector receives the transmitted data on the parallel fiber optics and reforms the data into a format effective for input to a second interface at the receiving gateway. Preferably, an error correcting syndrome is constructed at the sending gateway and sent with a data frame so that transmission errors can be detected and corrected in a real-time basis. Since the high speed data interface operates faster than any of the fiber optic links the transmission rate must be adapted to match the available number of fiber optic links so the sending and receiving gateways monitor the availability of fiber links and adjust the data throughput accordingly. In another aspect, the receiving gateway must have sufficient available buffer capacity to accept an incoming data frame. A credit-based flow control system provides for continuously updating the sending gateway on the available buffer capacity at the receiving gateway.
High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway
St. John, W.B.; DuBois, D.H.
1996-12-03
Disclosed is a system of sending and receiving gateways interconnects high speed data interfaces, e.g., HIPPI interfaces, through fiber optic links, e.g., a SONET network. An electronic stripe distributor distributes bytes of data from a first interface at the sending gateway onto parallel fiber optics of the fiber optic link to form transmitted data. An electronic stripe collector receives the transmitted data on the parallel fiber optics and reforms the data into a format effective for input to a second interface at the receiving gateway. Preferably, an error correcting syndrome is constructed at the sending gateway and sent with a data frame so that transmission errors can be detected and corrected in a real-time basis. Since the high speed data interface operates faster than any of the fiber optic links the transmission rate must be adapted to match the available number of fiber optic links so the sending and receiving gateways monitor the availability of fiber links and adjust the data throughput accordingly. In another aspect, the receiving gateway must have sufficient available buffer capacity to accept an incoming data frame. A credit-based flow control system provides for continuously updating the sending gateway on the available buffer capacity at the receiving gateway. 7 figs.
Frequency-domain stimulated and spontaneous light emission signals at molecular junctions
Harbola, Upendra; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Mukamel, Shaul
2014-08-21
Using a diagrammatic superoperator formalism we calculate optical signals at molecular junctions where a single molecule is coupled to two metal leads which are held at different chemical potentials. The molecule starts in a nonequilibrium steady state whereby it continuously exchanges electrons with the leads with a constant electron flux. Expressions for frequency domain optical signals measured in response to continuous laser fields are derived by expanding the molecular correlation functions in terms of its many-body states. The nonunitary evolution of molecular states is described by the quantum master equation.
Transmissive Nanohole Arrays for Massively-Parallel Optical Biosensing
2015-01-01
A high-throughput optical biosensing technique is proposed and demonstrated. This hybrid technique combines optical transmission of nanoholes with colorimetric silver staining. The size and spacing of the nanoholes are chosen so that individual nanoholes can be independently resolved in massive parallel using an ordinary transmission optical microscope, and, in place of determining a spectral shift, the brightness of each nanohole is recorded to greatly simplify the readout. Each nanohole then acts as an independent sensor, and the blocking of nanohole optical transmission by enzymatic silver staining defines the specific detection of a biological agent. Nearly 10000 nanoholes can be simultaneously monitored under the field of view of a typical microscope. As an initial proof of concept, biotinylated lysozyme (biotin-HEL) was used as a model analyte, giving a detection limit as low as 0.1 ng/mL. PMID:25530982
SERODS optical data storage with parallel signal transfer
Vo-Dinh, Tuan
2003-09-02
Surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS) systems having increased reading and writing speeds, that is, increased data transfer rates, are disclosed. In the various SERODS read and write systems, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) data is written and read using a two-dimensional process called parallel signal transfer (PST). The various embodiments utilize laser light beam excitation of the SERODS medium, optical filtering, beam imaging, and two-dimensional light detection. Two- and three-dimensional SERODS media are utilized. The SERODS write systems employ either a different laser or a different level of laser power.
SERODS optical data storage with parallel signal transfer
Vo-Dinh, Tuan
2003-06-24
Surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS) systems having increased reading and writing speeds, that is, increased data transfer rates, are disclosed. In the various SERODS read and write systems, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) data is written and read using a two-dimensional process called parallel signal transfer (PST). The various embodiments utilize laser light beam excitation of the SERODS medium, optical filtering, beam imaging, and two-dimensional light detection. Two- and three-dimensional SERODS media are utilized. The SERODS write systems employ either a different laser or a different level of laser power.
Theoretical and empirical qualification of a mechanical-optical interface for parallel optics links
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuang, S.; Schoellner, D.; Ugolini, A.; Wakjira, J.; Wolf, G.; Gandhi, P.; Persaud, A.
2015-03-01
As the implementation of parallel optics continues to evolve, development of a universal coupling interface between VCSEL/PD arrays and the corresponding photonic turn connector is necessary. A newly developed monolithic mechanical-optical interface efficiently couples optical transmit/receive arrays to the accompanying fiber optic connector. This paper describes the optical model behind the coupling interface and validates the model using empirical measurements. Optical modeling will address how the interface is adaptable to the broad range of VCSEL/PD optical parameters from commercially available VCSEL hardware manufacturers; the optical model will illustrate coupling efficiencies versus launch specifications. Theoretical modeling will examine system sensitivity through Monte Carlo simulations and provide alignment tolerance requirements. Empirical results will be presented to validate the optical model predictions and subsequent system performance. Functionality will be demonstrated through optical loss and coupling efficiency measurements. System metrics will include characterizations such as eye diagram results and link loss measurements.
Multifunction tests of a frequency domain based flutter suppression system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christhilf, David M.; Adams, William M., Jr.
1992-01-01
This paper describes the process of analysis, design, digital implementation and subsonic testing of an active controls flutter suppression system for a full span, free-to-roll wind-tunnel model of an advanced fighter concept. The design technique employed a frequency domain representation of the plant and used optimization techniques to generate a robust multi-input/multi-output controller. During testing in a fixed-in-roll configuration, simultaneous suppression of both symmetric and antisymmetric flutter was successfully demonstrated. For a free-to-roll configuration, symmetric flutter was suppressed to the limit of the tunnel test envelope. During aggressive rolling maneuvers above the open-loop flutter boundary, simultaneous flutter suppression and maneuver load control were demonstrated. Finally, the flutter suppression controller was reoptimized overnight during the test using combined experimental and analytical frequency domain data, resulting in improved stability robustness.
Multifunction tests of a frequency domain based flutter suppression system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christhilf, David M.; Adams, William M., Jr.
1992-01-01
The process is described of analysis, design, digital implementation, and subsonic testing of an active control flutter suppression system for a full span, free-to-roll wind tunnel model of an advanced fighter concept. The design technique uses a frequency domain representation of the plant and used optimization techniques to generate a robust multi input/multi output controller. During testing in a fixed-in-roll configuration, simultaneous suppression of both symmetric and antisymmetric flutter was successfully shown. For a free-to-roll configuration, symmetric flutter was suppressed to the limit of the tunnel test envelope. During aggressive rolling maneuvers above the open-loop flutter boundary, simultaneous flutter suppression and maneuver load control were demonstrated. Finally, the flutter damping controller was reoptimized overnight during the test using combined experimental and analytical frequency domain data, resulting in improved stability robustness.
Identification of characteristic components in frequency domain from signal singularities.
Miao, Qiang; Wang, Dong; Huang, Hong-Zhong
2010-03-01
In rotating machinery condition monitoring, identification of characteristic components is fundamental in many engineering applications so as to obtain fault sensitive features for fault detection and diagnosis. This paper proposed a novel method for the identification of characteristic components in frequency domain based on singularity analysis. In this process, Lipschitz exponent function is constructed from the signal through wavelet-based singularity analysis. In order to highlight the periodic phenomena, autocorrelation transform is employed to extract the periodic exponents and Fourier transform is used to map the time-domain information into frequency domain. Case study with rolling element bearing vibration data shows that the proposed has very excellent capability for the identification of characteristic components compared with traditional methods. PMID:20370219
Autonomous Frequency-Domain System-Identification Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yam, Yeung; Mettler, Edward; Bayard, David S.; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Milman, Mark H.; Scheid, Robert E.
1993-01-01
Autonomous Frequency Domain Identification (AU-FREDI) computer program implements system of methods, algorithms, and software developed for identification of parameters of mathematical models of dynamics of flexible structures and characterization, by use of system transfer functions, of such models, dynamics, and structures regarded as systems. Software considered collection of routines modified and reassembled to suit system-identification and control experiments on large flexible structures.
Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy.
Boens, Noël; Qin, Wenwu; Basarić, Nikola; Hofkens, Johan; Ameloot, Marcel; Pouget, Jacques; Lefèvre, Jean-Pierre; Valeur, Bernard; Gratton, Enrico; vandeVen, Martin; Silva, Norberto D; Engelborghs, Yves; Willaert, Katrien; Sillen, Alain; Rumbles, Garry; Phillips, David; Visser, Antonie J W G; van Hoek, Arie; Lakowicz, Joseph R; Malak, Henryk; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Szabo, Arthur G; Krajcarski, Don T; Tamai, Naoto; Miura, Atsushi
2007-03-01
A series of fluorophores with single-exponential fluorescence decays in liquid solution at 20 degrees C were measured independently by nine laboratories using single-photon timing and multifrequency phase and modulation fluorometry instruments with lasers as excitation source. The dyes that can serve as fluorescence lifetime standards for time-domain and frequency-domain measurements are all commercially available, are photostable under the conditions of the measurements, and are soluble in solvents of spectroscopic quality (methanol, cyclohexane, water). These lifetime standards are anthracene, 9-cyanoanthracene, 9,10-diphenylanthracene, N-methylcarbazole, coumarin 153, erythrosin B, N-acetyl-l-tryptophanamide, 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl)benzene, 2,5-diphenyloxazole, rhodamine B, rubrene, N-(3-sulfopropyl)acridinium, and 1,4-diphenylbenzene. At 20 degrees C, the fluorescence lifetimes vary from 89 ps to 31.2 ns, depending on fluorescent dye and solvent, which is a useful range for modern pico- and nanosecond time-domain or mega- to gigahertz frequency-domain instrumentation. The decay times are independent of the excitation and emission wavelengths. Dependent on the structure of the dye and the solvent, the excitation wavelengths used range from 284 to 575 nm, the emission from 330 to 630 nm. These lifetime standards may be used to either calibrate or test the resolution of time- and frequency-domain instrumentation or as reference compounds to eliminate the color effect in photomultiplier tubes. Statistical analyses by means of two-sample charts indicate that there is no laboratory bias in the lifetime determinations. Moreover, statistical tests show that there is an excellent correlation between the lifetimes estimated by the time-domain and frequency-domain fluorometries. Comprehensive tables compiling the results for 20 (fluorescence lifetime standard/solvent) combinations are given. PMID:17269654
Frequency-domain multiscale quantum mechanics/electromagnetics simulation method
Meng, Lingyi; Yin, Zhenyu; Yam, ChiYung E-mail: ghc@everest.hku.hk; Koo, SiuKong; Chen, GuanHua E-mail: ghc@everest.hku.hk; Chen, Quan; Wong, Ngai
2013-12-28
A frequency-domain quantum mechanics and electromagnetics (QM/EM) method is developed. Compared with the time-domain QM/EM method [Meng et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 1190–1199 (2012)], the newly developed frequency-domain QM/EM method could effectively capture the dynamic properties of electronic devices over a broader range of operating frequencies. The system is divided into QM and EM regions and solved in a self-consistent manner via updating the boundary conditions at the QM and EM interface. The calculated potential distributions and current densities at the interface are taken as the boundary conditions for the QM and EM calculations, respectively, which facilitate the information exchange between the QM and EM calculations and ensure that the potential, charge, and current distributions are continuous across the QM/EM interface. Via Fourier transformation, the dynamic admittance calculated from the time-domain and frequency-domain QM/EM methods is compared for a carbon nanotube based molecular device.
Parallel optical interconnects utilizing VLSI/FLC spatial light modulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genco, Sheryl M.
1991-12-01
Interconnection architectures are a cornerstone of parallel computing systems. However, interconnections can be a bottleneck in conventional computer architectures because of queuing structures that are necessary to handle the traffic through a switch at very high data rates and bandwidths. These issues must find new solutions to advance the state of the art in computing beyond the fundamental limit of silicon logic technology. Today's optoelectronic (OE) technology in particular VLSI/FLC spatial light modulators (SLMs) can provide a unique and innovative solution to these issues. This paper reports on the motivations for the system, describes the major areas of architectural requirements, discusses interconnection topologies and processor element alternatives, and documents an optical arbitration (i.e., control) scheme using `smart' SLMs and optical logic gates. The network topology is given in section 2.1 `Architectural Requirements -- Networks,' but it should be noted that the emphasis is on the optical control scheme (section 2.4) and the system.
Biwavelength transceiver module for parallel simultaneous bidirectional optical interconnections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Nga T. H.; Ukaegbu, Ikechi A.; Sangirov, Jamshid; Cho, Mu-Hee; Lee, Tae-Woo; Park, Hyo-Hoon
2013-12-01
The design of a biwavelength transceiver (TRx) module for parallel simultaneous bidirectional optical interconnects is described. The TRx module has been implemented using two different wavelengths, 850 and 1060 nm, to send and receive signals simultaneously through a common optical interface while optimizing cost and performance. Filtering mirrors are formed in the optical fibers which are embedded on a V-grooved silicon substrate for reflecting and filtering optical signals from/to vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)/photodiode (PD). The VCSEL and PD are flip-chip bonded on individual silicon optical benches, which are attached on the silicon substrate for optical signal coupling from the VCSEL to fiber and from fiber to the PD. A high-speed and low-loss ceramic printed circuit board, which has a compact size of 0.033 cc, has been designed to carry transmitter and receiver chips for easy packaging of the TRx module. Applied for quad small form-factor pluggable applications at 40-Gbps operation, the four-channel biwavelength TRx module showed clear eye diagrams with a bit error rate (BER) of 10-12 at input powers of -5 and -5.8 dBm for 1060 and 850 nm operation modes, respectively.
1060-nm VCSEL-based parallel-optical modules for optical interconnects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, N.; Nagashima, K.; Kise, T.; Rizky, A. F.; Uemura, T.; Nekado, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Nasu, H.
2015-03-01
The capability of mounting a parallel-optical module onto a PCB through solder-reflow process contributes to reduce the number of piece parts, simplify its assembly process, and minimize a foot print for both AOC and on-board applications. We introduce solder-reflow-capable parallel-optical modules employing 1060-nm InGaAs/GaAs VCSEL which leads to the advantages of realizing wider modulation bandwidth, longer transmission distance, and higher reliability. We demonstrate 4-channel parallel optical link performance operated at a bit stream of 28 Gb/s 231-1 PRBS for each channel and transmitted through a 50-μm-core MMF beyond 500 m. We also introduce a new mounting technology of paralleloptical module to realize maintaining good coupling and robust electrical connection during solder-reflow process between an optical module and a polymer-waveguide-embedded PCB.
Parallel multithread computing for spectroscopic analysis in optical coherence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trojanowski, Michal; Kraszewski, Maciej; Strakowski, Marcin; Pluciński, Jerzy
2014-05-01
Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) is an extension of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). It allows gathering spectroscopic information from individual scattering points inside the sample. It is based on time-frequency analysis of interferometric signals. Such analysis requires calculating hundreds of Fourier transforms while performing a single A-scan. Additionally, further processing of acquired spectroscopic information is needed. This significantly increases the time of required computations. During last years, application of graphical processing units (GPU's) was proposed to reduce computation time in OCT by using parallel computing algorithms. GPU technology can be also used to speed-up signal processing in SOCT. However, parallel algorithms used in classical OCT need to be revised because of different character of analyzed data. The classical OCT requires processing of long, independent interferometric signals for obtaining subsequent A-scans. The difference with SOCT is that it requires processing of multiple, shorter signals, which differ only in a small part of samples. We have developed new algorithms for parallel signal processing for usage in SOCT, implemented with NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). We present details of the algorithms and performance tests for analyzing data from in-house SD-OCT system. We also give a brief discussion about usefulness of developed algorithm. Presented algorithms might be useful for researchers working on OCT, as they allow to reduce computation time and are step toward real-time signal processing of SOCT data.
3D frequency-domain finite-difference modeling of acoustic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Operto, S.; Virieux, J.
2006-12-01
We present a 3D frequency-domain finite-difference method for acoustic wave propagation modeling. This method is developed as a tool to perform 3D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-angle seismic data. For wide-angle data, frequency-domain full-waveform inversion can be applied only to few discrete frequencies to develop reliable velocity model. Frequency-domain finite-difference (FD) modeling of wave propagation requires resolution of a huge sparse system of linear equations. If this system can be solved with a direct method, solutions for multiple sources can be computed efficiently once the underlying matrix has been factorized. The drawback of the direct method is the memory requirement resulting from the fill-in of the matrix during factorization. We assess in this study whether representative problems can be addressed in 3D geometry with such approach. We start from the velocity-stress formulation of the 3D acoustic wave equation. The spatial derivatives are discretized with second-order accurate staggered-grid stencil on different coordinate systems such that the axis span over as many directions as possible. Once the discrete equations were developed on each coordinate system, the particle velocity fields are eliminated from the first-order hyperbolic system (following the so-called parsimonious staggered-grid method) leading to second-order elliptic wave equations in pressure. The second-order wave equations discretized on each coordinate system are combined linearly to mitigate the numerical anisotropy. Secondly, grid dispersion is minimized by replacing the mass term at the collocation point by its weighted averaging over all the grid points of the stencil. Use of second-order accurate staggered- grid stencil allows to reduce the bandwidth of the matrix to be factorized. The final stencil incorporates 27 points. Absorbing conditions are PML. The system is solved using the parallel direct solver MUMPS developed for distributed
Technological aspects of frequency domain data storage using persistent spectral hole burning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schellenberg, F. M.; Lenth, W.; Bjorklund, G. C.
1986-09-01
Persistent spectral hole burning permits use of optical frequency for encoding digital information at cryogenic temperatures, with storage densities far beyond the limits of conventional laser-disk recording. In the work presented here, several key technological issues of such a storage system have been investigated. Data were encoded with high spatial and spectral resolution using a specially designed cryostat. The fast tuning characteristics of semiconductor diode lasers were studied to test the feasibility of fast data access in the frequency domain. Fast readout was investigated in a simulation experiment using heterodyne detection with frequency modulated diode lasers.
Implementation of an LED-based clinical spatial frequency domain imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazhar, Amaan; Sharif, Seyed A.; Saggese, Steve; Choi, Bernard; Cuccia, David J.; Durkin, Anthony J.
2012-03-01
Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SFDI) is a non-contact imaging method that uses multiple frequency spatial illumination to generate two dimensional maps of tissue optical properties (absorption and reduced scattering) and chromophore concentrations. We present phantom validation and pilot clinical data of a deployed light-emitting diode (LED) based system. The system employs four LED wavelengths (658 nm, 730 nm, 850 nm, 970 nm) to quantitatively assess tissue health by measurement of common tissue constituents. Phantom validation results and maps of oxyhemoglobin, deoxy-hemoglobin, water content, reduced scattering, and surface topography will be presented for pilot studies assessing burn severity and efficacy of port wine stain treatment.
Measurement of the fluorescence lifetime in scattering media by frequency-domain photon migration.
Mayer, R H; Reynolds, J S; Sevick-Muraca, E M
1999-08-01
A method is presented to determine fluorescence decay lifetimes within tissuelike scattering media. Fluorescence lifetimes are determined for micromolar concentrations of the dyes 3,3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine Iodide and Indocyanine Green by frequency-domain investigations of light propagating in turbid media. Dual-wavelength photon-migration measurements that use intensity-modulated sources at excitation and emission wavelengths of the fluorophores provide optical parameters of the media as well as fluorescence properties of the dyes. The deduction of fluorescence lifetimes requires no calibration with reference fluorophores, and the results are shown to be independent of dye concentration. PMID:18323983
A Simple Physical Optics Algorithm Perfect for Parallel Computing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Imbriale, W. A.; Cwik, T.
1993-01-01
One of the simplest reflector antenna computer programs is based upon a discrete approximation of the radiation integral. This calculation replaces the actual reflector surface with a triangular facet representation so that the reflector resembles a geodesic dome. The Physical Optics (PO) current is assumed to be constant in magnitude and phase over each facet so the radiation integral is reduced to a simple summation. This program has proven to be surprisingly robust and useful for the analysis of arbitrary reflectors, particularly when the near-field is desired and surface derivatives are not known. Because of its simplicity, the algorithm has proven to be extremely easy to adapt to the parallel computing architecture of a modest number of large-grain computing elements such as are used in the Intel iPSC and Touchstone Delta parallel machines.
Lu, Yujie; Darne, Chinmay D; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rightmer, Ryan; Rasmussen, John C; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M
2015-06-01
The performance evaluation of a variety of small animal tomography measurement approaches and algorithms for recovery of fluorescent absorption cross section has not been conducted. Herein, we employed an intensified CCD system installed in a commercial small animal CT (Computed Tomography) scanner to compare image reconstructions from time-independent, continuous wave (CW) measurements and from time-dependent, frequency domain (FD) measurements in a series of physical phantoms specifically designed for evaluation. Comparisons were performed as a function of (1) number of projections, (2) the level of preprocessing filters used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), (3) endogenous heterogeneity of optical properties, as well as in the cases of (4) two fluorescent targets and (5) a mouse-shaped phantom. Assessment of quantitative recovery of fluorescence absorption cross section was performed using a fully parallel, regularization-free, linear reconstruction algorithm with diffusion approximation (DA) and high order simplified spherical harmonics ( SPN) approximation to the radiative transport equation (RTE). The results show that while FD measurements may result in superior image reconstructions over CW measurements, data acquisition times are significantly longer, necessitating further development of multiple detector/source configurations, improved data read-out rates, and detector technology. FD measurements with SP3 reconstructions enabled better quantitative recovery of fluorescent target strength, but required increased computational expense. Despite the developed parallel reconstruction framework being able to achieve more than 60 times speed increase over sequential implementation, further development in faster parallel acceleration strategies for near-real time and real-time image recovery and more precise forward solution is necessary. PMID:25438307
Massively parallel processor networks with optical express channels
Deri, R.J.; Brooks, E.D. III; Haigh, R.E.; DeGroot, A.J.
1999-08-24
An optical method for separating and routing local and express channel data comprises interconnecting the nodes in a network with fiber optic cables. A single fiber optic cable carries both express channel traffic and local channel traffic, e.g., in a massively parallel processor (MPP) network. Express channel traffic is placed on, or filtered from, the fiber optic cable at a light frequency or a color different from that of the local channel traffic. The express channel traffic is thus placed on a light carrier that skips over the local intermediate nodes one-by-one by reflecting off of selective mirrors placed at each local node. The local-channel-traffic light carriers pass through the selective mirrors and are not reflected. A single fiber optic cable can thus be threaded throughout a three-dimensional matrix of nodes with the x,y,z directions of propagation encoded by the color of the respective light carriers for both local and express channel traffic. Thus frequency division multiple access is used to hierarchically separate the local and express channels to eliminate the bucket brigade latencies that would otherwise result if the express traffic had to hop between every local node to reach its ultimate destination. 3 figs.
Massively parallel processor networks with optical express channels
Deri, Robert J.; Brooks, III, Eugene D.; Haigh, Ronald E.; DeGroot, Anthony J.
1999-01-01
An optical method for separating and routing local and express channel data comprises interconnecting the nodes in a network with fiber optic cables. A single fiber optic cable carries both express channel traffic and local channel traffic, e.g., in a massively parallel processor (MPP) network. Express channel traffic is placed on, or filtered from, the fiber optic cable at a light frequency or a color different from that of the local channel traffic. The express channel traffic is thus placed on a light carrier that skips over the local intermediate nodes one-by-one by reflecting off of selective mirrors placed at each local node. The local-channel-traffic light carriers pass through the selective mirrors and are not reflected. A single fiber optic cable can thus be threaded throughout a three-dimensional matrix of nodes with the x,y,z directions of propagation encoded by the color of the respective light carriers for both local and express channel traffic. Thus frequency division multiple access is used to hierarchically separate the local and express channels to eliminate the bucket brigade latencies that would otherwise result if the express traffic had to hop between every local node to reach its ultimate destination.
Robust spike classification based on frequency domain neural waveform features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chenhui; Yuan, Yuan; Si, Jennie
2013-12-01
Objective. We introduce a new spike classification algorithm based on frequency domain features of the spike snippets. The goal for the algorithm is to provide high classification accuracy, low false misclassification, ease of implementation, robustness to signal degradation, and objectivity in classification outcomes. Approach. In this paper, we propose a spike classification algorithm based on frequency domain features (CFDF). It makes use of frequency domain contents of the recorded neural waveforms for spike classification. The self-organizing map (SOM) is used as a tool to determine the cluster number intuitively and directly by viewing the SOM output map. After that, spike classification can be easily performed using clustering algorithms such as the k-Means. Main results. In conjunction with our previously developed multiscale correlation of wavelet coefficient (MCWC) spike detection algorithm, we show that the MCWC and CFDF detection and classification system is robust when tested on several sets of artificial and real neural waveforms. The CFDF is comparable to or outperforms some popular automatic spike classification algorithms with artificial and real neural data. Significance. The detection and classification of neural action potentials or neural spikes is an important step in single-unit-based neuroscientific studies and applications. After the detection of neural snippets potentially containing neural spikes, a robust classification algorithm is applied for the analysis of the snippets to (1) extract similar waveforms into one class for them to be considered coming from one unit, and to (2) remove noise snippets if they do not contain any features of an action potential. Usually, a snippet is a small 2 or 3 ms segment of the recorded waveform, and differences in neural action potentials can be subtle from one unit to another. Therefore, a robust, high performance classification system like the CFDF is necessary. In addition, the proposed algorithm
Baseband feedback for SAFARI-SPICA using Frequency Domain Multiplexing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bounab, A.; de Korte, P.; Cros, A.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; Monna, B.; Mossel, R.; Nieuwenhuizen, A.; Ravera, L.
We report on the performance of the digital baseband feedback circuit developed to readout and process signals from arrays of transition edge sensors for SPICA-SAFARI in frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). The standard procedure to readout the SQUID current amplifiers is to use a feedback loop (flux-locked loop: FLL). However the achievable FFL bandwidth is limited by the cable transport delay t_d, which makes standard feedback inconvenient. A much better approach is to use baseband feedback. We have developed a model of the electronic readout chain for SPICA-SAFARI instrument by using an Anlog-digital co-simulation based on Simulink-System Generator environment.
Single SQUID frequency-domain multiplexer for large bolometer arrays
Yoon, Jongsoo; Clarke, John; Gildemeister, J.M.; Lee, Adrian T.; Myers, M.J.; Skidmore, J.T.; Richards, P.L.; Spieler, H.G.
2001-08-20
We describe the development of a frequency-domain superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer which monitors a row of low-temperature sensors simultaneously with a single SQUID. Each sensor is ac biased with a unique frequency and all the sensor currents are added in a superconducting summing loop. A single SQUID measures the current in the summing loop, and the individual signals are lock-in detected after the room temperature SQUID electronics. The current in the summing loop is nulled by feedback to eliminate direct crosstalk. We have built an eight-channel prototype and demonstrated channel separation and signal recovery.
SPA- STATISTICAL PACKAGE FOR TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brownlow, J. D.
1994-01-01
The need for statistical analysis often arises when data is in the form of a time series. This type of data is usually a collection of numerical observations made at specified time intervals. Two kinds of analysis may be performed on the data. First, the time series may be treated as a set of independent observations using a time domain analysis to derive the usual statistical properties including the mean, variance, and distribution form. Secondly, the order and time intervals of the observations may be used in a frequency domain analysis to examine the time series for periodicities. In almost all practical applications, the collected data is actually a mixture of the desired signal and a noise signal which is collected over a finite time period with a finite precision. Therefore, any statistical calculations and analyses are actually estimates. The Spectrum Analysis (SPA) program was developed to perform a wide range of statistical estimation functions. SPA can provide the data analyst with a rigorous tool for performing time and frequency domain studies. In a time domain statistical analysis the SPA program will compute the mean variance, standard deviation, mean square, and root mean square. It also lists the data maximum, data minimum, and the number of observations included in the sample. In addition, a histogram of the time domain data is generated, a normal curve is fit to the histogram, and a goodness-of-fit test is performed. These time domain calculations may be performed on both raw and filtered data. For a frequency domain statistical analysis the SPA program computes the power spectrum, cross spectrum, coherence, phase angle, amplitude ratio, and transfer function. The estimates of the frequency domain parameters may be smoothed with the use of Hann-Tukey, Hamming, Barlett, or moving average windows. Various digital filters are available to isolate data frequency components. Frequency components with periods longer than the data collection interval
Frequency domain, waveform inversion of laboratory crosswell radar data
Ellefsen, Karl J.; Mazzella, Aldo T.; Horton, Robert J.; McKenna, Jason R.
2010-01-01
A new waveform inversion for crosswell radar is formulated in the frequency-domain for a 2.5D model. The inversion simulates radar waves using the vector Helmholtz equation for electromagnetic waves. The objective function is minimized using a backpropagation method suitable for a 2.5D model. The inversion is tested by processing crosswell radar data collected in a laboratory tank. The estimated model is consistent with the known electromagnetic properties of the tank. The formulation for the 2.5D model can be extended to inversions of acoustic and elastic data.
A frequency-domain derivation of shot-noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rice, Frank
2016-01-01
A formula for shot-noise is derived in the frequency-domain. The derivation is complete and reasonably rigorous while being appropriate for undergraduate students; it models a sequence of random pulses using Fourier sine and cosine series, and requires some basic statistical concepts. The text here may serve as a pedagogic introduction to the spectral analysis of random processes and may prove useful to introduce students to the logic behind stochastic problems. The concepts of noise power spectral density and equivalent noise bandwidth are introduced.
A frequency domain approach to handling qualities design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolovich, W. A.
1978-01-01
A method for designing linear multivariable feedback control systems based on desired closed loop transfer matrix information is introduced. The technique which was employed to achieve the final design was based on a theoretical result, known as the structure theorem. The structure theorem was a frequency domain relationship which simplified the expression for the transfer matrix (matrix of transfer functions) of a linear time-invariant multivariable system. The effect of linear state variable feedback on the closed loop transfer matrix of the system was also clarified.
All-optical biomolecular parallel logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin.
Sharma, Parag; Roy, Sukhdev
2004-06-01
All-optical two input parallel logic gates with bacteriorhodopsin (BR) protein have been designed based on nonlinear intensity-induced excited-state absorption. Amplitude modulation of a continuous wave (CW) probe laser beam transmission at 640 nm corresponding to the peak absorption of O intermediate state through BR, by a modulating CW pump laser beam at 570 nm corresponding to the peak absorption of initial BR state has been analyzed considering all six intermediate states in its photocycle using the rate equation approach. The transmission characteristics have been shown to exhibit a dip, which is sensitive to normalized small-signal absorption coefficient (beta), rate constants of O and N intermediate states and absorption of the O state at 570 nm. There is an optimum value of beta for a given pump intensity range for which maximum modulation can be achieved. It is shown that 100% modulation can be achieved if the initial state of BR does not absorb the probe beam. The results have been used to design low-power all-optical parallel NOT, AND, OR, XNOR, and the universal NAND and NOR logic gates for two cases: 1) only changing the output threshold and 2) considering a common threshold with different beta values. PMID:15382746
Frequency Domain Beamforming for a Deep Space Network Downlink Array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Navarro, Robert
2012-01-01
This paper describes a frequency domain beamformer to array up to 8 antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network currently in development. The objective of this array is to replace and enhance the capability of the DSN 70m antennas with multiple 34m antennas for telemetry, navigation and radio science use. The array will coherently combine the entire 500 MHz of usable bandwidth available to DSN receivers. A frequency domain beamforming architecture was chosen over a time domain based architecture to handle the large signal bandwidth and efficiently perform delay and phase calibration. The antennas of the DSN are spaced far enough apart that random atmospheric and phase variations between antennas need to be calibrated out on an ongoing basis in real-time. The calibration is done using measurements obtained from a correlator. This DSN Downlink Array expands upon a proof of concept breadboard array built previously to develop the technology and will become an operational asset of the Deep Space Network. Design parameters for frequency channelization, array calibration and delay corrections will be presented as well a method to efficiently calibrate the array for both wide and narrow bandwidth telemetry.
Phasor plotting with frequency-domain flow cytometry.
Cao, Ruofan; Jenkins, Patrick; Peria, William; Sands, Bryan; Naivar, Mark; Brent, Roger; Houston, Jessica P
2016-06-27
Interest in time resolved flow cytometry is growing. In this paper, we collect time-resolved flow cytometry data and use it to create polar plots showing distributions that are a function of measured fluorescence decay rates from individual fluorescently-labeled cells and fluorescent microspheres. Phasor, or polar, graphics are commonly used in fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). In FLIM measurements, the plotted points on a phasor graph represent the phase-shift and demodulation of the frequency-domain fluorescence signal collected by the imaging system for each image pixel. Here, we take a flow cytometry cell counting system, introduce into it frequency-domain optoelectronics, and process the data so that each point on a phasor plot represents the phase shift and demodulation of an individual cell or particle. In order to demonstrate the value of this technique, we show that phasor graphs can be used to discriminate among populations of (i) fluorescent microspheres, which are labeled with one fluorophore type; (ii) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells labeled with one and two different fluorophore types; and (iii) Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that express combinations of fluorescent proteins with different fluorescence lifetimes. The resulting phasor plots reveal differences in the fluorescence lifetimes within each sample and provide a distribution from which we can infer the number of cells expressing unique single or dual fluorescence lifetimes. These methods should facilitate analysis time resolved flow cytometry data to reveal complex fluorescence decay kinetics. PMID:27410612
Frequency-domain seismic-wave modeling, migration, and full-waveform inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Kun
In the dissertation, I have proposed and developed new approaches for seismic modeling, migration, and full-waveform inversion in the frequency domain. For 3D scalar-wave simulations in the frequency-space domain, we develop a fourth-order compact finite-difference (FD) form with a high-order spatial accuracy (4-5 grid points per shortest wavelength), and optimal one-way wave-equation (OWWE) absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) with only one outer layer; these strategies greatly reduce the total number of the model grid points, and thus the overall computational cost. For reverse-time migration (RTM) using the cross-correlation imaging condition in the time domain, extra disk storage or wavefield simulations are required to make the forward propagated source and backward-propagated receiver wavefields available at the same time. We propose a new method to implement RTM in the frequency domain. Using virtual sources for the backward propagation of the receiver wavefield, we can straightforwardly implement the excitation-time and cross-correlation imaging conditions at each frequency without any disk storage or I/O and with complete spatial coverage of the migrated images. As both time and frequency domains have their own advantages for the inversion, we implement a hybrid scheme to combine both advantages in elastic full-waveform inversion (FWI). We simulate the wavefields using a time-domain high-precision finite-element (FE) modeling parallelized over shots with the message passing interface (MPI), and implement the inversion in the frequency domain via Fourier transform. Thus, we can easily apply both frequency-selection and time-windowing techniques to reduce the nonlinearity in inversion. To decouple different parameters in elastic FWI, we propose a new multi-steplength gradient approach to assign individual weights separately for each parameter gradient, and search for an optimal steplength along the composite gradient direction. As variations in the results
2.5D forward modeling and inversion of frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wen-Ben; Zeng, Zhao-Fa; Li, Jing; Chen, Xiong; Wang, Kun; Xia, Zhao
2016-03-01
Frequency-domain airborne electromagnetics is a proven geophysical exploration method. Presently, the interpretation is mainly based on resistivity—depth imaging and one-dimensional layered inversion; nevertheless, it is difficult to obtain satisfactory results for two- or three-dimensional complex earth structures using 1D methods. 3D forward modeling and inversion can be used but are hampered by computational limitations because of the large number of data. Thus, we developed a 2.5D frequency-domain airborne electromagnetic forward modeling and inversion algorithm. To eliminate the source singularities in the numerical simulations, we split the fields into primary and secondary fields. The primary fields are calculated using homogeneous or layered models with analytical solutions, and the secondary (scattered) fields are solved by the finite-element method. The linear system of equations is solved by using the large-scale sparse matrix parallel direct solver, which greatly improves the computational efficiency. The inversion algorithm was based on damping least-squares and singular value decomposition and combined the pseudo forward modeling and reciprocity principle to compute the Jacobian matrix. Synthetic and field data were used to test the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Dynamic fluorescence anisotropy imaging microscopy in the frequency domain (rFLIM).
Clayton, Andrew H A; Hanley, Quentin S; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J; Subramaniam, Vinod; Jovin, Thomas M
2002-01-01
We describe a novel variant of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), denoted anisotropy-FLIM or rFLIM, which enables the wide-field measurement of the anisotropy decay of fluorophores on a pixel-by-pixel basis. We adapted existing frequency-domain FLIM technology for rFLIM by introducing linear polarizers in the excitation and emission paths. The phase delay and intensity ratios (AC and DC) between the polarized components of the fluorescence signal are recorded, leading to estimations of rotational correlation times and limiting anisotropies. Theory is developed that allows all the parameters of the hindered rotator model to be extracted from measurements carried out at a single modulation frequency. Two-dimensional image detection with a sensitive CCD camera provides wide-field imaging of dynamic depolarization with parallel interrogation of different compartments of a complex biological structure such as a cell. The concepts and technique of rFLIM are illustrated with a fluorophore-solvent (fluorescein-glycerol) system as a model for isotropic rotational dynamics and with bacteria expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) exhibiting depolarization due to homotransfer of electronic excitation energy (emFRET). The frequency-domain formalism was extended to cover the phenomenon of emFRET and yielded data consistent with a concentration depolarization mechanism resulting from the high intracellular concentration of EGFP. These investigations establish rFLIM as a powerful tool for cellular imaging based on rotational dynamics and molecular proximity. PMID:12202387
3D micro profile measurement with the method of spatial frequency domain analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yongxiang
2015-10-01
3D micro profiles are often needed for measurement in many fields, e.g., binary optics, electronic industry, mechanical manufacturing, aeronautic and space industry, etc. In the case where height difference between two neighboring points of a test profile is equal to or greater than λ / 4, microscopic interferometry based on laser source will no longer be applicable because of the uncertainty in phase unwrapping. As white light possesses the characteristic of interference length approximate to zero, applying it for micro profilometry can avoid the trouble and can yield accurate results. Using self-developed Mirau-type scanning interference microscope, a step-like sample was tested twice, with 128 scanning interferograms recorded for each test. To process each set of the interferograms, the method of spatial frequency domain analysis was adopted. That is, for each point, by use of Furrier transform, white-light interference intensities were decomposed in spatial frequency domain, thus obtaining phase values corresponding to different wavenumbers; by using least square fitting on phases and wave numbers, a group-velocity OPD was gained for the very point; and finally in terms of the relation between relative height and the group-velocity OPD, the profile of the test sample was obtained. Two tests yielded same profile result for the sample, and step heights obtained were 50.88 nm and 50.94 nm, respectively. Meantime, the sample was also measured with a Zygo Newview 7200 topography instrument, with same profile result obtained and step height differing by 0.9 nm. In addition, data processing results indicate that chromatic dispersion equal to and higher than 2nd order is negligible when applying spatial frequency domain analysis method.
Merging parallel optics packaging and surface mount technologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kopp, Christophe; Volpert, Marion; Routin, Julien; Bernabé, Stéphane; Rossat, Cyrille; Tournaire, Myriam; Hamelin, Régis
2008-02-01
Optical links are well known to present significant advantages over electrical links for very high-speed data rate at 10Gpbs and above per channel. However, the transition towards optical interconnects solutions for short and very short reach applications requires the development of innovative packaging solutions that would deal with very high volume production capability and very low cost per unit. Moreover, the optoelectronic transceiver components must be able to move from the edge to anywhere on the printed circuit board, for instance close to integrated circuits with high speed IO. In this paper, we present an original packaging design to manufacture parallel optic transceivers that are surface mount devices. The package combines highly integrated Multi-Chip-Module on glass and usual IC ceramics packaging. The use of ceramic and the development of sealing technologies achieve hermetic requirements. Moreover, thanks to a chip scale package approach the final device exhibits a much minimized footprint. One of the main advantages of the package is its flexibility to be soldered or plugged anywhere on the printed circuit board as any other electronic device. As a demonstrator we present a 2 by 4 10Gbps transceiver operating at 850nm.
Frequency Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Layered Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Felix; Lünenschloss, Peter; Mai, Juliane; Wagner, Norman; Töpfer, Hannes; Bumberger, Jan
2016-04-01
The amount of water in porous media such as soils and rocks is a key parameter when water resources are under investigation. Especially the quantitative spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water contents in soil formations are needed. In high frequency electromagnetic applications soil water content is quantitatively derived from the propagation behavior of electromagnetic waves along waveguides embedded in soil formations. The spatial distribution of the dielectric material properties along the waveguide can be estimated by numerical solving of the inverse problem based on the full wave forward model in time or frequency domain. However, current approaches mostly neglect or approximate the frequency dependence of the electromagnetic material properties of transfer function of the waveguide. As a first prove of concept a full two port broadband frequency domain forward model for propagation of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves in coaxial waveguide has been implemented. It is based on the propagation matrix approach for layered transmission line sections. Depending on the complexity of the material different models for the frequency dependent complex permittivity were applied. For the validation of the model a broadband frequency domain measurement with network analyzer technique was used. The measurement is based on a 20 cm long 50 Ohm 20/46 coaxial transmission line cell considering inhomogeneous material distributions. This approach allows (i) an increase of the waveguide calibration accuracy in comparison to conventional TDR based technique and (ii) the consideration of the broadband permittivity spectrum of the porous material. In order to systematic analyze the model, theoretical results were compared with measurements as well as 3D broadband finite element modeling of homogeneous and layered media in the coaxial transmission line cell. Defined standards (Teflon, dry glass beads, de-ionized water) were placed inside the line as the dielectric
Frequency Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Layered Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Felix; Wagner, Norman; Lünenschloß, Peter; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter; Kaliorias, Andreas; Bumberger, Jan
2015-04-01
The amount of water in porous media such as soils and rocks is a key parameter when water resources are under investigation. Especially the quantitative spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water contents in soil formations are needed. In high frequency electromagnetic applications soil water content is quantitatively derived from the propagation behavior of electromagnetic waves along waveguides embedded in soil formations. The spatial distribution of the dielectric material properties along the waveguide can be estimated by numerical solving of the inverse problem based on the full wave forward model in time or frequency domain. However, current approaches mostly neglect or approximate the frequency dependence of the electromagnetic material properties of transfer function of the waveguide. As a first prove of concept a full two port broadband frequency domain forward model for propagation of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves in coaxial waveguide has been implemented. It is based on the propagation matrix approach for layered transmission line sections Depending on the complexity of the material different models for the frequency dependent complex permittivity were applied. For the validation of the model a broadband frequency domain measurement with network analyzer technique was used. The measurement is based on a 20 cm long 50 Ohm 20/46 coaxial transmission line cell considering inhomogeneous material distributions. This approach allows (i) an increase of the waveguide calibration accuracy in comparison to conventional TDR based technique and (ii) the consideration of the broadband permittivity spectrum of the porous material. In order to systematic analyze the model, theoretical results were compared with measurements as well as 3D broadband finite element modeling of homogeneous and layered media in the coaxial transmission line cell. Defined standards (Teflon, dry glass beads, de-ionized water) were placed inside the line as the dielectric
Frequency-domain measurement of luminescent lanthanide chelates.
Hyppänen, Iko; Soukka, Tero; Kankare, Jouko
2010-08-01
The sinusoidal modulation of excitation intensity and phase-sensitive detection of emission is ideally suitable for the accurate determination of the lifetime and intensity of lanthanide luminescence. In this work we elaborate on the general mathematical and instrumental techniques of the frequency-domain (FD) measurements in the low-frequency domain below 100 kHz. A modular FD luminometer is constructed by using a UV-LED as the excitation source, proper light filters in the excitation and emission paths, a photomultiplier with a fast preamplifier, and a conventional dual-phase lock-in amplifier. Starting from the set of linear differential equations governing the excited-state processes of the lanthanide chelates, an equation linking the luminescence intensity to the general form of the excitation modulation was derived. Application to the sinusoidal modulation in the Euler's exponential form gives the expression for the in-phase and out-of-phase signals of a dual-phase lock-in amplifier. It is shown that by using a relatively large number of logarithmically equidistant modulation frequencies it is possible to use the Kramers-Kronig relation for checking the compatibility of the out-of-phase and in-phase signals. As an example, the emission from two different europium(III) chelates were measured by using 200 modulation frequencies between 10 Hz and 100 kHz. In addition to the conventional transition between (5)D(0) and (7)F(2) levels emitting at 615 nm, also the emission from the transition between (5)D(1) and (7)F(1) levels at ca. 540 nm was measured. The latter emission was also measured at different temperatures, yielding the energy difference between the (5)D(1) and (5)D(0) levels. The relatively large number of modulation frequencies allows also an accurate determination of lifetimes and corresponding amplitudes by using an appropriate nonlinear regression method. Comparison of the time-domain and frequency-domain methods shows that the weighting of data is
Scalable multiplexing for parallel imaging with interleaved optical coherence tomography.
Lee, Hee Yoon; Marvdashti, Tahereh; Duan, Lian; Khan, Saara A; Ellerbee, Audrey K
2014-09-01
We demonstrate highly parallel imaging with interleaved optical coherence tomography (iOCT) using an in-house-fabricated, air-spaced virtually-imaged phased array (VIPA). The air-spaced VIPA performs spectral encoding of the interferograms from multiple lateral points within a single sweep of the source and allows us to tune and balance several imaging parameters: number of multiplexed points, ranging depth, and sensitivity. In addition to a thorough discussion of the parameters and operating principles of the VIPA, we experimentally demonstrate the effect of different VIPA designs on the multiplexing potential of iOCT. Using a 200-kHz light source, we achieve an effective A-scan rate of 3.2-MHz by multiplexing 16 lateral points onto a single wavelength sweep. The improved sensitivity of this system is demonstrated for 3D imaging of biological samples such as a human finger and a fruit fly. PMID:25401031
Scalable multiplexing for parallel imaging with interleaved optical coherence tomography
Lee, Hee Yoon; Marvdashti, Tahereh; Duan, Lian; Khan, Saara A.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.
2014-01-01
We demonstrate highly parallel imaging with interleaved optical coherence tomography (iOCT) using an in-house-fabricated, air-spaced virtually-imaged phased array (VIPA). The air-spaced VIPA performs spectral encoding of the interferograms from multiple lateral points within a single sweep of the source and allows us to tune and balance several imaging parameters: number of multiplexed points, ranging depth, and sensitivity. In addition to a thorough discussion of the parameters and operating principles of the VIPA, we experimentally demonstrate the effect of different VIPA designs on the multiplexing potential of iOCT. Using a 200-kHz light source, we achieve an effective A-scan rate of 3.2-MHz by multiplexing 16 lateral points onto a single wavelength sweep. The improved sensitivity of this system is demonstrated for 3D imaging of biological samples such as a human finger and a fruit fly. PMID:25401031
Angle correction for small animal tumor imaging with spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI)
Zhao, Yanyu; Tabassum, Syeda; Piracha, Shaheer; Nandhu, Mohan Sobhana; Viapiano, Mariano; Roblyer, Darren
2016-01-01
Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) is a widefield imaging technique that allows for the quantitative extraction of tissue optical properties. SFDI is currently being explored for small animal tumor imaging, but severe imaging artifacts occur for highly curved surfaces (e.g. the tumor edge). We propose a modified Lambertian angle correction, adapted from the Minnaert correction method for satellite imagery, to account for tissue surface angles up to 75°. The method was tested in a hemisphere phantom study as well as a small animal tumor model. The proposed method reduced µa and µs` extraction errors by an average of 64% and 16% respectively compared to performing no angle correction, and provided more physiologically agreeable optical property and chromophore values on tumors. PMID:27375952
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fishkin, Joshua B.; So, Peter T. C.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela
1995-03-01
We have measured the optical absorption and scattering coefficient spectra of a multiple-scattering medium (i.e., a biological tissue-simulating phantom comprising a lipid colloid) containing methemoglobin by using frequency-domain techniques. The methemoglobin absorption spectrum determined in the multiple-scattering medium is in excellent agreement with a corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum obtained from a steady-state spectrophotometer measurement of the optical density of a minimally scattering medium. The determination of the corrected methemoglobin absorption spectrum takes into account the scattering from impurities in the methemoglobin solution containing no lipid colloid. Frequency-domain techniques allow for the separation of the absorbing from the scattering properties of multiple-scattering media, and these techniques thus provide an absolute
Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation
Martin, Stephen J.; Butler, Michael A.; Frye, Gregory C.; Schubert, W. Kent
1998-01-01
An apparatus and method is provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine).
Frequency-domain direct waveform inversion based on perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwak, Sangmin; Kim, Youngseo; Shin, Changsoo
2014-05-01
A direct waveform inversion based on perturbation theory is proposed to delineate a subsurface velocity structure from seismic data. This technique can directly compute the difference between the actual subsurface velocity and an initial guess of the velocity, while full waveform inversion updates the velocity model in the directions of reducing the data residual. Unlike full waveform inversion using the steepest descent method, the direct waveform inversion does not require a proper step length to iteratively update the velocity model. We present an algorithm for the waveform inversion method in the frequency domain and numerical examples demonstrating how the inversion method can reconstruct subsurface velocity structures using surface seismic data. The time-domain seismograms synthesized in the inversion procedure match the corresponding shot-gather seismograms of field data.
Frequency domain compensation of a DYNGEN turbofan engine model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schafer, R. M.; Gejji, R. R.; Hoppner, P. W.; Longenbaker, W. E.; Sain, M. K.
1977-01-01
Following Rosenbrock's ideas regarding the advantages of dominance in linear multivariable control systems, a new graphical technique is used for the design of compensators that achieve dominance. The technique is illustrated with an application to the problem of designing compensators for a linear turbofan-engine model. The resulting design is put into perspective by examining it in the light of two other multivariable frequency-domain methods. One, MacFarlane's method of characteristic loci, is used to realize a final design for stability and low interaction. The other is a direct technique based upon the algebraic expansion of the determinant of the return difference in terms of it's elements. Results from simulations carried out on the NASA DYNGEN software are included.
Frequency domain fluorimetry using a mercury vapor lamp
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohn, Matthew J.; Lundin, Michael A.; Marciniak, Michael A.
2009-04-01
Frequency Domain (FD) fluorimetry, capitalizes on the frequency response function of a fluorophore and offers independence from light scatter and excitation/emission intensity variations in order to extract the sample's fluorescent lifetime. Mercury vapor lamps, a common source of industrial facility lighting, emit radiation that overlaps the UV/blue absorption spectrum of many fluorophores and may be used as an efficient and portable excitation source. The AC power modulation of mercury vapor lamps modulates the lamp's intensity at 120 Hz (in the United States) and higher harmonics. The fluorescent lifetimes for 3 different materials (willemite, uranium doped glass and U3O8) are measured with conventional techniques and compared with the FD technique using the power harmonics from a mercury vapor lamp. The mercury lamp measurements agree to within 25% of the conventional methods.
Frequency domain identification experiment on a large flexible structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayard, D. S.; Hadaegh, F. Y.; Yam, Y.; Scheid, R. E.; Mettler, E.; Milman, M. H.
1989-01-01
Recent experiences in the field of flexible structure control in space have indicated a need for on-orbit system identification to support robust control redesign to avoid in-flight instabilities and maintain high spacecraft performance. The authors highlight an automated frequency domain system identification methodology recently developed to fill this need. The methodology supports (1) the estimation of system quantities useful for robust control analysis and design, (2) experiment design tailored to performing system identification in a typically constrained on-orbit environment, and (3) the automation of operations to reduce human-in-the-loop requirements. A basic overview of the methodology is presented first, followed by an experimental verification of the approach performed on the JPL/AFAL testbed facility.
Frequency domain identification for robust large space structure control design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yam, Y.; Bayard, D. S.; Scheid, R. E.
1991-01-01
A methodology is demonstrated for frequency domain identification of large space structures which systematically transforms experimental raw data into a form required for synthesizing H(infinity) controllers using modern robust control design software (e.g., Matlab Toolboxes). A unique feature of this approach is that the additive uncertainty is characterized to a specified statistic confidence rather than with hard bounds. In this study, the difference in robust performance is minimal between the two levels of confidence. In general cases, the present methodology provides a tool for performance/confidence level tradeoff studies. For simplicity, the additive uncertainty on a frequency grid is considered and the interpolation error in between grid points is neglected.
Noise characteristics of heterodyne/homodyne frequency-domain measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Dongyel; Kupinski, Matthew A.
2012-01-01
We theoretically develop and experimentally validate the noise characteristics of heterodyne and/or homodyne measurements that are widely used in frequency-domain diffusive imaging. The mean and covariance of the modulated heterodyne output are derived by adapting the random amplification of a temporal point process. A multinomial selection rule is applied to the result of the temporal noise analysis to additionally model the spatial distribution of intensified photons measured by a charge-coupled device (CCD), which shows that the photon detection efficiency of CCD pixels plays an important role in the noise property of detected photons. The approach of using a multinomial probability law is validated from experimental results. Also, experimentally measured characteristics of means and variances of homodyne outputs are in agreement with the developed theory. The developed noise model can be applied to all photon amplification processes.
Segmentation and frequency domain ML pitch estimation of speech signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanna, Salim A.
The rate of oscillation of the vocal cords and its inverse value, the pitch period, are important speech features that are useful for speech analysis/synthesis, speech recognition, and speech coding. An automatic approach for the estimation of the pitch period in continuous speech is presented. The proposed approach considers the segmentation of the speech signal into homogeneous regions and the detection of segments that are generated by vocal cord oscillations prior to pitch estimation. The pitch period of voiced segments is estimated in the frequency domain using a maximum likelihood (ML) procedure. The estimated pitch period is chosen to maximize a likelihood function over the range of expected pitch periods. An efficient simplified realization of the generalized likelihood ratio segmentation method is also described.
Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation
Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Schubert, W.K.
1998-08-04
An apparatus and method are provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine). 6 figs.
Frequency-domain ultrasound waveform tomography breast attenuation imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandhu, Gursharan Yash Singh; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; West, Erik; Montgomery, Katelyn; Boone, Michael; Duric, Neb
2016-04-01
Ultrasound waveform tomography techniques have shown promising results for the visualization and characterization of breast disease. By using frequency-domain waveform tomography techniques and a gradient descent algorithm, we have previously reconstructed the sound speed distributions of breasts of varying densities with different types of breast disease including benign and malignant lesions. By allowing the sound speed to have an imaginary component, we can model the intrinsic attenuation of a medium. We can similarly recover the imaginary component of the velocity and thus the attenuation. In this paper, we will briefly review ultrasound waveform tomography techniques, discuss attenuation and its relations to the imaginary component of the sound speed, and provide both numerical and ex vivo examples of waveform tomography attenuation reconstructions.
Remote Strain Sensing of CFRP Using Microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.
2016-01-01
NASA's Advanced Composites Project is investigating technologies that increase automated remote inspection of aircraft composite structures. Therefore, microwave Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) is being investigated as a method of enabling rapid remote measurement of strain occurring at the first ply of a composite fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) structure using Radio Frequency (RF) Electro-Magnetic (EM) radiation. While microwave reflectometry has been used to detect disbonds in CFRP structures, its use in detecting strain has been limited. This work will present data demonstrating the measurement of the reactance changes due to loading conditions that are indicative of strain in a CFRP structure. In addition, the basic EM signature will be presented along with an analysis of temperature and humidity effects.
Frequency domain stress intensity calibration of damped cracked panels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doyle, James F.; Rizzi, Stephen A.
1993-01-01
This paper discusses two schemes for doing finite element K calibration in the frequency domain. The baseline scheme uses the definition of K as a limit toward the crack tip. The limiting process requires using a very fine mesh around the crack tip making the scheme computationally very expensive. It is shown that the behavior of K as a function of frequency is very similar to a modal response. Taking advantage of this, a more efficient scheme involves a modal analysis of the cracked sheet and scaling the response to that of the static stress intensity. In this way, only a static K calibration need be performed. All the examples shown are for a frequency range spanning multiple resonances and with two levels of damping.
Joint time-frequency domain identification of nonlinearly controlled structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Gang; Sain, Michael K.; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.; Pham, Khanh D.
2006-05-01
This paper introduces a 3-step approach for the identification of a linear structure that is controlled by nonlinear damping devices. First, the structure with the integrated nonlinear damper is subjected to random vibration test and the frequency response function (FRF) of the structure is calculated from the input-output data of the physical system. Based on the frequency domain data, a state space model is then estimated using a recently developed FRF curve-fitting technique that is designed especially for lightly damped structures with control inputs. Finally an iterative process is used to optimize the model performance in the time domain and an integrated model of the nonlinearly controlled structure is derived by interconnecting the structure model with that of the nonlinear damper. The complete approach is illustrated by the modeling of a base-isolated structure controlled by a magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper.
Real-Time Parameter Estimation in the Frequency Domain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
2000-01-01
A method for real-time estimation of parameters in a linear dynamic state-space model was developed and studied. The application is aircraft dynamic model parameter estimation from measured data in flight. Equation error in the frequency domain was used with a recursive Fourier transform for the real-time data analysis. Linear and nonlinear simulation examples and flight test data from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle were used to demonstrate that the technique produces accurate model parameter estimates with appropriate error bounds. Parameter estimates converged in less than one cycle of the dominant dynamic mode, using no a priori information, with control surface inputs measured in flight during ordinary piloted maneuvers. The real-time parameter estimation method has low computational requirements and could be implemented
Real-Time Parameter Estimation in the Frequency Domain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.
1999-01-01
A method for real-time estimation of parameters in a linear dynamic state space model was developed and studied. The application is aircraft dynamic model parameter estimation from measured data in flight for indirect adaptive or reconfigurable control. Equation error in the frequency domain was used with a recursive Fourier transform for the real-time data analysis. Linear and nonlinear simulation examples and flight test data from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle HARV) were used to demonstrate that the technique produces accurate model parameter estimates with appropriate error bounds. Parameter estimates converged in less than 1 cycle of the dominant dynamic mode natural frequencies, using control surface inputs measured in flight during ordinary piloted maneuvers. The real-time parameter estimation method has low computational requirements, and could be implemented aboard an aircraft in real time.
Face identification with frequency domain matched filtering in mobile environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Dong-Su; Woo, Yong-Hyun; Yeom, Seokwon; Kim, Shin-Hwan
2012-06-01
Face identification at a distance is very challenging since captured images are often degraded by blur and noise. Furthermore, the computational resources and memory are often limited in the mobile environments. Thus, it is very challenging to develop a real-time face identification system on the mobile device. This paper discusses face identification based on frequency domain matched filtering in the mobile environments. Face identification is performed by the linear or phase-only matched filter and sequential verification stages. The candidate window regions are decided by the major peaks of the linear or phase-only matched filtering outputs. The sequential stages comprise a skin-color test and an edge mask filtering test, which verify color and shape information of the candidate regions in order to remove false alarms. All algorithms are built on the mobile device using Android platform. The preliminary results show that face identification of East Asian people can be performed successfully in the mobile environments.
P(N) approximation for frequency-domain measurements in scattering media.
Faris, Gregory W
2005-04-10
Presented here are expressions for the P(N) approximation for light propagation in scattering media in the frequency domain. To elucidate parametric dependencies, the derivation uses normalization of the resulting expressions to either the total interaction coefficient or the reduced total interaction coefficient. For the latter case, a set of reduced phase function coefficients are introduced. Expression of the P(N) approximation as a conventional eigenvalue problem facilitates computation of the eigenvalues or attenuation coefficients. This approach is used to determine the attenuation coefficients in the asymptotic regime over the full values of the scattering albedo and reduced scattering albedo (0 to 1) and all positive values of the asymmetry factor (0 to 1). Frequency-domain measurements yield a sensitivity to turbid media optical properties for reduced scattering albedos as small as 0.2. P(N) calculations are used to assess the magnitude of errors associated with the P1 and P3 approximations over a range of scattering albedo, phase function, and modulation frequency. PMID:15835355
High-speed camera with real time processing for frequency domain imaging
Shia, Victor; Watt, David; Faris, Gregory W.
2011-01-01
We describe a high-speed camera system for frequency domain imaging suitable for applications such as in vivo diffuse optical imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging. 14-bit images are acquired at 2 gigapixels per second and analyzed with real-time pipeline processing using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Performance of the camera system has been tested both for RF-modulated laser imaging in combination with a gain-modulated image intensifier and a simpler system based upon an LED light source. System amplitude and phase noise are measured and compared against theoretical expressions in the shot noise limit presented for different frequency domain configurations. We show the camera itself is capable of shot noise limited performance for amplitude and phase in as little as 3 ms, and when used in combination with the intensifier the noise levels are nearly shot noise limited. The best phase noise in a single pixel is 0.04 degrees for a 1 s integration time. PMID:21750770