NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schunk, Richard Gregory; Chung, T. J.
2001-01-01
A parallelized version of the Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) Method is developed to analyze a problem of current research interest, the flowfield resulting from a triple shock/boundary layer interaction. Such flowfields are often encountered in the inlets of high speed air-breathing vehicles including the NASA Hyper-X research vehicle. In order to resolve the complex shock structure and to provide adequate resolution for boundary layer computations of the convective heat transfer from surfaces inside the inlet, models containing over 500,000 nodes are needed. Efficient parallelization of the computation is essential to achieving results in a timely manner. Results from a parallelization scheme, based upon multi-threading, as implemented on multiple processor supercomputers and workstations is presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schunk, Greg; chung, T. J.
1999-01-01
A parallelized version of the Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) Method is developed to analyze a problem of current research interest, the flowfield resulting from a triple shock/boundary layer interaction. Such flowfields are often encountered in the inlets of high speed air-breathing vehicles including NASA's Hyper-X. In order to resolve the complex shock structure and to provide adequate resolution for boundary layer computations of the convective heat transfer from surfaces inside the inlet, models containing over 500,000 nodes are needed. Efficient parallelization of the computation is essential to obtaining the results in a timely manner. Results from different parallelization schemes, based upon multi-threading and message passing, as implemented on multiple processor supercomputers and on distributed workstations are compared.
Theory and simulation of collisionless parallel shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quest, K. B.
1988-01-01
This paper presents a self-consistent theoretical model for collisionless parallel shock structure, based on the hypothesis that shock dissipation and heating can be provided by electromagnetic ion beam-driven instabilities. It is shown that shock formation and plasma heating can result from parallel propagating electromagnetic ion beam-driven instabilities for a wide range of Mach numbers and upstream plasma conditions. The theoretical predictions are compared with recently published observations of quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks. It was found that low Mach number interplanetary shock observations were consistent with the explanation that group-standing waves are providing the dissipation; two high Mach number observations confirmed the theoretically predicted rapid thermalization across the shock.
Double layers and electrostatic shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hershkowitz, N.
1981-01-01
It is shown that it is useful to define double layers and shocks so that the ion phase spaces of double layers are the mirror image (about zero ion velocity) of the ion phase spaces for laminar electrostatic shocks. The distinguishing feature is the direction of the free ion velocity. It is also shown that double layers can exist without the presence of trapped ions. The Bohm condition for double layers, that the ion drift velocity on the high potential side must be greater than the ion sound velocity, is shown to be related to a requirement of a lower limit on the Mach number of laminar electrostatic shocks
Modelling Layer parallel stylolites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koehn, Daniel; Pataki Rood, Daisy; Beaudoin, Nicolas
2016-04-01
We modeled the geometrical roughening of mainly layer-dominated stylolites in order to understand their structural evolution, to present an advanced classification of stylolite shapes and to relate this classification to chemical compaction and stylolite sealing capabilities. Our simulations show that layer-dominated stylolites can grow in three distinct stages, an initial slow nucleation, a fast layer-pinning phase and a final freezing stage if the layer dissolves completely during growth. Dissolution of the pinning layer and thus destruction of the compaction tracking capabilities is a function of the background noise in the rock and the dissolution rate of the layer itself. Low background noise needs a slower dissolving layer for pinning to be successful but produces flatter teeth than higher background noise. We present an advanced classification based on our simulations and separate stylolites into four classes: rectangular layer type, seismogram pinning type, suture/sharp peak type and simple wave-like type.
Low Mach number parallel and quasi-parallel shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Omidi, N.; Quest, K. B.; Winske, D.
1990-01-01
The properties of low-Mach-number parallel and quasi-parallel shocks are studied using the results of one-dimensional hybrid simulations. It is shown that both the structure and ion dissipation at the shocks differ considerably. In the parallel limit, the shock remains coupled to the piston and consists of large-amplitude magnetosonic-whistler waves in the upstream, through the shock and into the downstream region, where the waves eventually damp out. These waves are generated by an ion beam instability due to the interaction between the incident and piston-reflected ions. The excited waves decelerate the plasma sufficiently that it becomes stable far into the downstream. The increase in ion temperature along the shock normal in the downstream region is due to superposition of incident and piston-rflected ions. These two populations of ions remain distinct through the downstream region. While they are both gyrophase-bunched, their counterstreaming nature results in a 180-deg phase shift in their perpendicular velocities.
Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.
2010-11-01
A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007). The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density) that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.
Internal hypersonic flow. [in thin shock layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, T. C.; Rubin, S. G.
1974-01-01
An approach for studying hypersonic internal flow with the aid of a thin-shock-layer approximation is discussed, giving attention to a comparison of thin-shock-layer results with the data obtained on the basis of the imposition theory or a finite-difference integration of the Euler equations. Relations in the case of strong interaction are considered together with questions of pressure distribution and aspects of the boundary-layer solution.
Escape of heated ions upstream of quasi-parallel shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmiston, J. P.; Kennel, C. F.; Eichler, D.
1982-01-01
A simple theoretical criterion by which quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks may be distinguished is proposed on the basis of an investigation of the free escape of ions from the post-shock plasma into the region upstream of a fast collisionless shock. It was determined that the accessibility of downstream ions to the upstream region depends on upstream magnetic field shock normal angle, in addition to the upstream plasma parameters, with post-shock ions escaping upstream for shock normal angles of less than 45 deg, in agreement with the observed transition between quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shock structure. Upstream ion distribution functions resembling those of observed intermediate ions and beams are also calculated.
Shock-boundary-layer interaction in flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertelrud, Arild
1989-01-01
A brief survey is given on the study of transonic shock/boundary layer effects in flight. Then the possibility of alleviating the adverse shock effects through passive shock control is discussed. A Swedish flight experiment on a swept wing attack aircraft is used to demonstrate how it is possible to reduce the extent of separated flow and increase the drag-rise Mach number significantly using a moderate amount of perforation of the surface.
Scale lengths in quasi-parallel shocks. [interplanetary and earth bow waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scudder, J. D.; Burlaga, L. F.; Greenstadt, E. W.
1984-01-01
A review was carried out of ISEE and Voyager spacecraft magnetometer data to determine if quasi-parallel bow shocks are really broad, disordered regions. The key parameter was the deceleration scale (thickness, Lp) across which random energy would need to increase and a localized electrostatic field (E) would be present. Lp would define the breadth of the shock and be associated with a plasma deceleration. The ISEE 1 satellite collected data on the electron density, bulk speed, magnetic intensity, and electron temperature in November 1977 during five traverses of the bow shock. Similar data were gathered from an interplanetary shock wave in 1981. The evidence supported the concept of a plasma deceleration across a thin layer (Lp) in both types of shocks. The layers were about 50 times (interplanetary) and 20 times (earth) thinner than surrounding magnetic fluctuation regions. It is asserted that the regions of deceleration, although much thinner, are the actual shocks and not the entire regions of magnetic fluctuations.
Preliminary investigation of interplanetary shock structure: Quasi-parallel shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenstadt, E. W.
1974-01-01
Pioneer 9's magnetic field and plasma data were studied to develop arguments for or against the observation of oblique interplanetary shocks. Structural classifications are defined, and the justification for seeking these classifications in the solar wind are presented.
Ion Acceleration at the Quasi-parallel Bow Shock: Decoding the Signature of Injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundberg, Torbjörn; Haynes, Christopher T.; Burgess, D.; Mazelle, Christian X.
2016-03-01
Collisionless shocks are efficient particle accelerators. At Earth, ions with energies exceeding 100 keV are seen upstream of the bow shock when the magnetic geometry is quasi-parallel, and large-scale supernova remnant shocks can accelerate ions into cosmic-ray energies. This energization is attributed to diffusive shock acceleration however, for this process to become active, the ions must first be sufficiently energized. How and where this initial acceleration takes place has been one of the key unresolved issues in shock acceleration theory. Using Cluster spacecraft observations, we study the signatures of ion reflection events in the turbulent transition layer upstream of the terrestrial bow shock, and with the support of a hybrid simulation of the shock, we show that these reflection signatures are characteristic of the first step in the ion injection process. These reflection events develop in particular in the region where the trailing edge of large-amplitude upstream waves intercept the local shock ramp and the upstream magnetic field changes from quasi-perpendicular to quasi-parallel. The dispersed ion velocity signature observed can be attributed to a rapid succession of ion reflections at this wave boundary. After the ions’ initial interaction with the shock, they flow upstream along the quasi-parallel magnetic field. Each subsequent wavefront in the upstream region will sweep the ions back toward the shock, where they gain energy with each transition between the upstream and the shock wave frames. Within three to five gyroperiods, some ions have gained enough parallel velocity to escape upstream, thus completing the injection process.
Ion reflection and downstream thermalization at the quasi-parallel bow shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gosling, J. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Bame, S. J.; Russell, C. T.
1989-01-01
Using the results of ISEE 2 plasma and magnetic field measurements, two features related to the ion thermalization process at high-Mach-number (M above 2) quasi-parallel collisionless shocks are discussed. These are the presence of a coherent secondary beam of ions within the shock layer which is considered to be produced by reflection, and downstream ion distributions which contain both a relatively cold core of directly transmitted ions and a hotter 'shell' of ions, which appear to result from the disruption and scattering of ions initially reflected at the shock. Evidence is presented that coherent ion reflection is an important element of the ion energy dissipation process at high-Mach-number quasi-parallel shocks.
Shock timing measurements in DT ice layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Ross, J. S.; Lepape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.
2013-10-01
Shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are routinely conducted using the keyhole target geometry, in which the strength and timing of multiple shocks are measured in a liquid-deuterium (D2) filled capsule interior. These targets have recently been modified to improve the surrogacy to ignition implosions by replacing the standard, continuous liquid D2 capsule fill with a deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer with a central DT gas fill. These experiments remove any possible material surrogacy difference between D2 and DT as well as incorporating the physics of multiple shock release and recompression events from an ice layer of finite thickness, an effect that is absent in the liquid-filled targets. Experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulation are presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Thermal shock response of layered orthotropic media
Santhosh, U. )
1992-09-01
In this article a coupled thermoelastic theory including inertia effects is used to determine the through-thickness temperature and stress distribution in a laminated medium subjected to thermal shock loading. The solution is obtained using an implicit-explicit finite difference procedure, and numerical results are presented for composites made of layers of a carbon substrate and a coating. 14 refs.
Direct Simulation of Shock Layer Plasmas
Farbar, E. D.; Boyd, I. D.
2011-05-20
Approximate models of the electric field used with the DSMC method all impose quasi-neutrality everywhere in the shock layer plasma. The shortcomings of these models are examined in this study by simulating a weak shock layer plasma with a coupled DSMC-Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method. The stagnation streamline of an axisymmetric shock layer is simulated for entry velocities in air that correspond to both lunar and Mars return trajectories. The atmospheric densities, particle diameters and chemical reaction rates are varied from the actual values to make the computations tractable while retaining the mean free path of air at 85 km altitude. In contrast to DSMC flow field predictions, regions of non-neutrality are predicted by the DSMC-PIC method, and the electrons are predicted to be isothermal. Perhaps the most important result of this study is that the DSMC-PIC results at both reentry energies yield a 14% increase in heat flux to the vehicle surface relative to the DSMC results. Rather unintuitively, this is mostly due to an increase in ion flux to the surface, rather than the potential energy gained by each ion as it traverses the plasma sheath. In this study, an approximate electric field model is presented, with the goal of accounting for this heat flux augmentation without the need for a computationally expensive DSMC-PIC calculation of the entire flow-field. Convective heat flux results obtained with new electric field model are compared to results from the rigorous DSMC-PIC calculations.
Quasi-perpendicular/quasi-parallel divisions of Earth's bow shock
Greenstadt, E.W. )
1991-02-01
Computer-drawn diagrams of the boundaries between quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel areas of Earth's bow shock are displayed for a few selected cone angles of static interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The effect on the boundary of variable IMF in the foreshock is also discussed and shown for one nominal case. The boundaries demand caution in applying them to the realistic, dynamic conditions of the solar wind and in interpreting the effects of small cone angles on the distributions of structures at the shock. However, the calculated, first-order boundaries are helpful in defining areas of the shock where contributions from active structures inherent in quasi-parallel geometry may be distinguishable from those derived secondarily from upstream reflected ion dynamics. The boundaries are also compatible with known behavior of daytime ULF geomagnetic waves and pulsations according to models postulating that cone angle-controlled, time-dependent ULF activity around the subsolar point of the bow shock provides the source of geomagnetic excitation.
Shock-wave boundary layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Delery, J.; Marvin, J. G.; Reshotko, E.
1986-01-01
Presented is a comprehensive, up-to-date review of the shock-wave boundary-layer interaction problem. A detailed physical description of the phenomena for transonic and supersonic speed regimes is given based on experimental observations, correlations, and theoretical concepts. Approaches for solving the problem are then reviewed in depth. Specifically, these include: global methods developed to predict sudden changes in boundary-layer properties; integral or finite-difference methods developed to predict the continuous evolution of a boundary-layer encountering a pressure field induced by a shock wave; coupling methods to predict entire flow fields; analytical methods such as multi-deck techniques; and finite-difference methods for solving the time-dependent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations used to predict the development of entire flow fields. Examples are presented to illustrate the status of the various methods and some discussion is devoted to delineating their advantages and shortcomings. Reference citations for the wide variety of subject material are provided for readers interested in further study.
Shock interactions with a dense-gas wall layer
Kuhl, A.L. ); Reichenbach, H. ); Ferguson, R.E. )
1991-11-19
Described here are experiments and calculations of the interaction of a planar shock with a dense-gas layer located on the floor of the shock tube test section. The shock front deposited vorticity in the layer by the baroclynic mechanism. The wall shear layer was unstable and rapidly evolved into a turbulent boundary layer with a wide spectrum of mixing scales. Density effects dominated the dynamics in the wall region.
On Nonequilibrium Radiation in Hydrogen Shock Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Chul
2005-01-01
The influence of thermochemical nonequilibrium in the shock layer over a vehicle entering the atmosphere of an outer planet is examined qualitatively. The state of understanding of the heating environment for the Galileo Probe vehicle is first reviewed. Next, the possible reasons for the high recession in the frustum region and the low recession in the stagnation region are examined. The state of understanding of the nonequilibrium in the hydrogen flow is then examined. For the entry flight in Neptune, the possible influence of nonequilibrium is predicted.
Improved method for solving the viscous shock layer equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gordon, Rachel; Davis, R. T.
1992-01-01
An improved method for solving the viscous shock layer equations for supersonic/hypersonic flows past blunt-nosed bodies is presented. The method is capable of handling slender to thick bodies. The solution is obtained by solving a coupled set of five equations, built of the four basic viscous shock layer equations and an additional equation for the standoff distance. The coupling of the equations prevents the local iterations divergence problems encountered by previous methods of solution far downstream on slender bodies. It also eliminates the need for local iterations, which were required by previous methods of solution, for a first-order scheme in the streamwise direction. A new global iteration procedure is employed to impose the shock boundary conditions. The procedure prevents the global iteration instability encountered by the basic method of solution and improves the convergence rate of the global iteration procedure of later methods devised to overcome this difficulty. The new technique reduces the computation time by 65-95 percent as compared to previous methods of solution. The method can efficiently be implemented in vector/parallel computers.
Magnetic pulsations at the quasi-parallel shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomsen, M. F.; Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Russell, C. T.
1990-01-01
The plasma and field properties of large-amplitude magnetic field pulsatins upstream from the quasi-parallel region of the earth's bow shock are examined in high time resolution using data from ISEE 1 and 2. The relative timing of the magnetic field profiles observed at the two spacecraft shows that some of the pulsations are convecting antisunward across the spacecraft while others are brief out/in motions of bow shock across the spacecraft. Pulsations with both timing signatures are the site of slowing and heating of the solar wind plasma. The ions tend to be only weakly heated in the convecting pulsations, while within the out/in pulsations the ion heating can be quite substantial but variable. This variation occurs not only from pulsation to pulsation but also from point to point within a given pulsation. In general, the hottest distributions within the out/in pulsations tend to occur in regions of lower density and field strength. Magnetic pulsations bear a number of similarities to previously identified hot diamagnetic cavity events as well as to more durable crossings of the quasi-parallel shock itself. These various phenomena may be different manifestations of the same basic physical processes, in particular the coupling of coherently reflected ions to the solar wind beam.
Radiography for a Shock-accelerated Liquid Layer
P. Meekunnasombat J.G. Oakley\\inst M.H. Anderson R. Bonazza
2005-07-01
This program supported the experimental study of the itneraction of planar shock waves with both solid structures (a single cylinder or a bank of cylinders) and single and multiple liquid layers. Objectives of the study included: characterization of the shock refraction patterns; measurements of the impulsive loading of the solid structures; observation of the response of the liquid layers to shock acceleration; assessment of the shock-mitigation effects of single and multiple liquid layers. The uploaded paper is intended as a final report for the entire funding period. The poster described in the paper won the Best Poster Award at the 25 International Symposium on Shock Waves.
On Reflection of Shock Waves from Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liepmann, H W; Roshko, A; Dhawan, S
1952-01-01
Measurements are presented at Mach numbers from about 1.3 to 1.5 of reflection characteristics and the relative upstream influence of shock waves impinging on a flat surface with both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The difference between impulse and step waves is discussed and their interaction with the boundary layer is compared. General considerations on the experimental production of shock waves from wedges and cones and examples of reflection of shock waves from supersonic shear layers are also presented.
Shock layer radiance effects on endoatmospheric interceptor seeker performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trolier, J.; Hudson, D.; Carlson, D.; Krawczyk, W.
1992-05-01
A method is described in detail to allow prediction of infrared radiance from shock layers surrounding high altitude hypersonic endoatmospheric interceptors. Flowfield properties calculated with the EXTC code for a representative endoatmospheric interceptor forebody are shown, including thermal and chemical nonequilibrium effects for both clean air and atmospheric trace species. The SIRRM-II radiative transport code was used with a modified version of the NORSE infrared radiance database to predict radiance and transmission through the shock layer. A simple sensor model, including spectral target signatures, window thermal emission noise, and shock layer radiance is employed to illustrate the importance of the shock layer radiance effects. Shock layer radiance is found to increase with decreasing altitude, with significant broadening of spectral emission bands at lower altitudes.
Re-forming supercritical quasi-parallel shocks. I - One- and two-dimensional simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, V. A.; Winske, D.; Omidi, N.
1990-01-01
The process of reforming supercritical quasi-parallel shocks is investigated using one-dimensional and two-dimensional hybrid (particle ion, massless fluid electron) simulations both of shocks and of simpler two-stream interactions. It is found that the supercritical quasi-parallel shock is not steady. Instread of a well-defined shock ramp between upstream and downstream states that remains at a fixed position in the flow, the ramp periodically steepens, broadens, and then reforms upstream of its former position. It is concluded that the wave generation process is localized at the shock ramp and that the reformation process proceeds in the absence of upstream perturbations intersecting the shock.
Unsteadiness of Shock Wave / Boundary Layer Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clemens, Noel
2009-11-01
Shock wave / boundary layer interactions are an important feature of high-speed flows that occur in a wide range of practical configurations including aircraft control surfaces, inlets, missile base flows, nozzles, and rotating machinery. These interactions are often associated with severe boundary layer separation, which is highly unsteady, and exhibits high fluctuating pressure and heat loads. The unsteady motions are characterized by a wide range of frequencies, including low-frequency motions that are about two orders of magnitude lower than those that characterize the upstream boundary layer. It is these low-frequency motions that are of most interest because they have been the most difficult to explain and model. Despite significant work over the past few decades, the source of the low-frequency motions remains a topic of intense debate. Owing to a flurry of activity over the past decade on this single topic we are close to developing a comprehensive understanding of the low-frequency unsteadiness. For example, recent work in our laboratory and others suggests that the driving mechanism is related to low-frequency fluctuations in the upstream boundary layer. However, several recent studies suggest the dominant mechanism is an intrinsic instability of the separated flow. Here we attempt to reconcile these views by arguing that the low-frequency unsteadiness is driven by both upstream and downstream processes, but the relative importance of each mechanism depends on the strength (or length-scale) of separation. In cases where the separation bubble is relatively small, then the flow is intermittently separated, and there exists a strong correlation between upstream velocity fluctuations and the separation bubble dynamics. It appears that superstructures in the upstream boundary layer can play an important role in driving the unsteadiness for this case. It is not clear, however, if the upstream fluctuations directly move the separation point or indirectly couple
Critical pitch angle for electron acceleration in a collisionless shock layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narita, Y.; Comişel, H.; Motschmann, U.
2016-07-01
Collisionless shock waves in space and astrophysical plasmas can accelerate electrons along the shock layer by an electrostatic potential, and scatter or reflect electrons back to the upstream region by the amplified magnetic field or turbulent fluctuations. The notion of the critical pitch angle is introduced for non-adiabatic electron acceleration by balancing the two timescales under a quasi-perpendicular shock wave geometry in which the upstream magnetic field is nearly perpendicular to the shock layer normal direction. An analytic expression of the critical pitch angle is obtained as a function of the electron velocity parallel to the magnetic field, the ratio of the electron gyro- to plasma frequency, the cross-shock potential, the width of the shock transition layer, and the shock angle (which is the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal direction). For typical non-relativistic solar system applications, the critical pitch angle is predicted to be about 10°. An efficient acceleration is expected below the critical pitch angle.
Planar shock wave sliding over a water layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, V.; Jourdan, G.; Marty, A.; Allou, A.; Parisse, J.-D.
2016-08-01
In this work, we conduct experiments to study the interaction between a horizontal free water layer and a planar shock wave that is sliding over it. Experiments are performed at atmospheric pressure in a shock tube with a square cross section (200× 200 mm^2) for depths of 10, 20, and 30 mm; a 1500-mm-long water layer; and two incident planar shock waves having Mach numbers of 1.11 and 1.43. We record the pressure histories and high-speed visualizations to study the flow patterns, surface waves, and spray layers behind the shock wave. We observe two different flow patterns with ripples formed at the air-water interface for the weaker shock wave and the dispersion of a droplet mist for the stronger shock wave. From the pressure signals, we extract the delay time between the arrival of the compression wave into water and the shock wave in air at the same location. We show that the delay time evolves with the distance traveled over the water layer, the depth of the water layer, and the Mach number of the shock wave.
Experimental study of a shock accelerated thin gas layer
Jacobs, J.W.; Jenkins, D.G.; Klein, D.L.; Benjamin, R.F.
1993-08-01
Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging is utilized in shock-tube experiments to visualize the development of a shock-accelerated thin gas layer. The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of both sides of the heavy gas layer causes perturbations initially imposed on the two interfaces to develop into one of three distinct flow patterns. Two of the patterns exhibit vortex pairs which travel either upstream or downstream in the shock tube, while the third is a sinuous pattern that shows no vortex development until late in its evolution. The development of the observed patterns as well as the growth in the layer thickness is modeled by considering the dynamics of vorticity deposited in the layer by the shock interaction process. This model yields an expression for the layer growth which is in good agreement with measurements.
Vorticity interaction effects on blunt bodies. [hypersonic viscous shock layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, E. C.; Wilcox, D. C.
1977-01-01
Numerical solutions of the viscous shock layer equations governing laminar and turbulent flows of a perfect gas and radiating and nonradiating mixtures of perfect gases in chemical equilibrium are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically blunted cones and hyperboloids. Turbulent properties are described in terms of the classical mixing length. Results are compared with boundary layer and inviscid flowfield solutions; agreement with inviscid flowfield data is satisfactory. Agreement with boundary layer solutions is good except in regions of strong vorticity interaction; in these flow regions, the viscous shock layer solutions appear to be more satisfactory than the boundary layer solutions. Boundary conditions suitable for hypersonic viscous shock layers are devised for an advanced turbulence theory.
Nonequilibrium effects on shock-layer radiometry during earth entry.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnold, J. O.; Whiting, E. E.
1973-01-01
Radiative enhancement factors for the CN violet and N2(+) first negative band systems caused by nonequilibrium thermochemistry in the shock layer of a blunt-nosed vehicle during earth entry are reported. The results are based on radiometric measurements obtained with the aid of a combustion-driven shock tube. The technique of converting the shock-tube measurements into predictions of the enhancement factors for the blunt-body case is described, showing it to be useful for similar applications of other shock-tube measurements.
Giotto magnetic field observations at the outbound quasi-parallel bow shock of Comet Halley
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neubauer, F. M.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Acuna, M. H.; Mariani, F.; Musmann, G.
1990-01-01
The investigation of the outbound bow shock of Comet Halley using Giotto magnetometer data leads to the following results: the shock is characterized by strong magnetic turbulence associated with an increasing background magnetic field and a change in direction by 60 deg as one goes inward. In HSE-coordinates, the observed normal turned out to be (0.544, - 0.801, 0.249). The thickness of the quasi-parallel shock was 120,000 km. The shock is shown to be a new type of shock transition called a 'draping shock'. In a draping shock with high beta in the transonic transition region, the transonic region is characterized by strong directional variations of the magnetic field. The magnetic turbulence ahead of the shock is characterized by k-vectors parallel or antiparallel to the average field (and, therefore, also to the normal of the quasi-parallel shock) and almost isotropic magnetic turbulence in the shock transition region. A model of the draping shock is proposed which also includes a hypothetical subshock in which the supersonic-subsonic transition is accomplished.
Plasma and energetic particle structure upstream of a quasi-parallel interplanetary shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Russell, C. T.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Sanderson, T. R.; Van Nes, P.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Scudder, J. D.
1984-01-01
ISEE 1, 2 and 3 data from 1978 on interplanetary magnetic fields, shock waves and particle energetics are examined to characterize a quasi-parallel shock. The intense shock studied exhibited a 640 km/sec velocity. The data covered 1-147 keV protons and electrons and ions with energies exceeding 30 keV in regions both upstream and downstream of the shock, and also the magnitudes of ion-acoustic and MHD waves. The energetic particles and MHD waves began being detected 5 hr before the shock. Intense halo electron fluxes appeared ahead of the shock. A closed magnetic field structure was produced with a front end 700 earth radii from the shock. The energetic protons were cut off from the interior of the magnetic bubble, which contained a markedly increased density of 2-6 keV protons as well as the shock itself.
Ion Dynamics at a Rippled Quasi-parallel Shock: 2D Hybrid Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Yufei; Lu, Quanming; Gao, Xinliang; Wang, Shui
2016-05-01
In this paper, two-dimensional hybrid simulations are performed to investigate ion dynamics at a rippled quasi-parallel shock. The results show that the ripples around the shock front are inherent structures of a quasi-parallel shock, and the re-formation of the shock is not synchronous along the surface of the shock front. By following the trajectories of the upstream ions, we find that these ions behave differently when they interact with the shock front at different positions along the shock surface. The upstream particles are transmitted more easily through the upper part of a ripple, and the corresponding bulk velocity downstream is larger, where a high-speed jet is formed. In the lower part of the ripple, the upstream particles tend to be reflected by the shock. Ions reflected by the shock may suffer multiple-stage acceleration when moving along the shock surface or trapped between the upstream waves and the shock front. Finally, these ions may escape further upstream or move downstream; therefore, superthermal ions can be found both upstream and downstream.
Monte Carlo Simulations of Nonlinear Particle Acceleration in Parallel Trans-relativistic Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellison, Donald C.; Warren, Donald C.; Bykov, Andrei M.
2013-10-01
We present results from a Monte Carlo simulation of a parallel collisionless shock undergoing particle acceleration. Our simulation, which contains parameterized scattering and a particular thermal leakage injection model, calculates the feedback between accelerated particles ahead of the shock, which influence the shock precursor and "smooth" the shock, and thermal particle injection. We show that there is a transition between nonrelativistic shocks, where the acceleration efficiency can be extremely high and the nonlinear compression ratio can be substantially greater than the Rankine-Hugoniot value, and fully relativistic shocks, where diffusive shock acceleration is less efficient and the compression ratio remains at the Rankine-Hugoniot value. This transition occurs in the trans-relativistic regime and, for the particular parameters we use, occurs around a shock Lorentz factor γ0 = 1.5. We also find that nonlinear shock smoothing dramatically reduces the acceleration efficiency presumed to occur with large-angle scattering in ultra-relativistic shocks. Our ability to seamlessly treat the transition from ultra-relativistic to trans-relativistic to nonrelativistic shocks may be important for evolving relativistic systems, such as gamma-ray bursts and Type Ibc supernovae. We expect a substantial evolution of shock accelerated spectra during this transition from soft early on to much harder when the blast-wave shock becomes nonrelativistic.
MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS OF NONLINEAR PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN PARALLEL TRANS-RELATIVISTIC SHOCKS
Ellison, Donald C.; Warren, Donald C.; Bykov, Andrei M. E-mail: ambykov@yahoo.com
2013-10-10
We present results from a Monte Carlo simulation of a parallel collisionless shock undergoing particle acceleration. Our simulation, which contains parameterized scattering and a particular thermal leakage injection model, calculates the feedback between accelerated particles ahead of the shock, which influence the shock precursor and 'smooth' the shock, and thermal particle injection. We show that there is a transition between nonrelativistic shocks, where the acceleration efficiency can be extremely high and the nonlinear compression ratio can be substantially greater than the Rankine-Hugoniot value, and fully relativistic shocks, where diffusive shock acceleration is less efficient and the compression ratio remains at the Rankine-Hugoniot value. This transition occurs in the trans-relativistic regime and, for the particular parameters we use, occurs around a shock Lorentz factor γ{sub 0} = 1.5. We also find that nonlinear shock smoothing dramatically reduces the acceleration efficiency presumed to occur with large-angle scattering in ultra-relativistic shocks. Our ability to seamlessly treat the transition from ultra-relativistic to trans-relativistic to nonrelativistic shocks may be important for evolving relativistic systems, such as gamma-ray bursts and Type Ibc supernovae. We expect a substantial evolution of shock accelerated spectra during this transition from soft early on to much harder when the blast-wave shock becomes nonrelativistic.
Hypersonic flow separation in shock wave boundary layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamed, A.; Kumar, Ajay
1992-01-01
An assessment is presented for the experimental data on separated flow in shock wave turbulent boundary layer interactions at hypersonic and supersonic speeds. The data base consists mainly of two dimensional and axisymmetric interactions in compression corners or cylinder-flares, and externally generated oblique shock interactions with boundary layers over flat plates or cylindrical surfaces. The conditions leading to flow separation and the subsequent changes in the flow empirical correlations for incipient separation are reviewed. The effects of the Mach number, Reynolds number, surface cooling and the methods of detecting separation are discussed. The pertinent experimental data for the separated flow characteristics in separated turbulent boundary layer shock interaction are also presented and discussed.
Simulation of glancing shock wave and boundary layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, Ching-Mao
1989-01-01
Shock waves generated by sharp fins, glancing across a laminar boundary layer growing over a flat plate, are simulated numerically. Several basic issues concerning the resultant three-dimensional flow separation are studied. Using the same number of grid points, different grid spacings are employed to investigate the effects of grid resolution on the origin of the line of separation. Various shock strengths (generated by different fin angles) are used to study the so-called separated and unseparated boundary layer and to establish the existence or absence of the secondary separation. The usual interpretations of the flow field from previous studies and new interpretations arising from the present simulation are discussed.
Turbulence at quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular bow shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitna, Alexander; Zastenker, Georgy; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana
2016-07-01
A solar wind is a highly turbulent medium carrying various modes of magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities. During its supersonic expansion, it meets obstacles like planetary magnetospheres and bow shocks are formed. Depending on the orientation of the ambient magnetic field with respect to the local shock normal, either quasi-parallel or quasi-perpendicular shocks can be formed. Particles reflected at the ramp of the quasi-parallel shock are streaming far upstream along the magnetic field lines, giving rise to all sorts of instabilities like SLAMS and ULF waves. In the case of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock, the reflected particles influence only a narrow upstream region of the order of the proton gyroradius but the downstream plasma becomes highly turbulent regardless of the shock type. We analyze the high cadence (31 ms) data from the BMSW instrument onboard the Spektr-R spacecraft and compare the frequency spectra of observed turbulence in MHD and kinetic ranges in upstream and downstream regions of the supercritical quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular bow shocks. We found that the change in the fluctuation level (from upstream to downstream) as well as the spectral indices differ substantially in the MHD and kinetic ranges for both types of bow shock.
Numerical calculations of shock-wave/boundary-layer flow interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, P. G.; Liou, W. W.
1994-08-01
The paper presents results of calculations for 2-D supersonic turbulent compression corner flows. The results seem to indicate that the newer, improved kappa-epsilon models offer limited advantages over the standard kappa-epsilon model in predicting the shock-wave/boundary-layer flows in the 2-D compression corner over a wide range of corner angles and flow conditions.
Aleksandrov, P.E.
1993-11-01
Using the numerical solution as the base the conditions of propagating a parallel MGD shock wave in the presence of a heated layer are analyzed, a new {open_quotes}raking regime{open_quotes} of interaction not observed with no magnetic field is revealed. A flow steadiness criterion is obtained, and conditions for the onset of a similarity precursor are estimated.
Search for shock-metamorphosed grains in Precambrian spherule layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Frank C.
2014-10-01
There is minimal physical evidence in only a few of the ˜17 Precambrian spherule layers to support an impact origin. A search was done for shock-metamorphosed grains in the following spherule layers: Carawine, Jeerinah, and Bee Gorge (formerly Wittenoom) in Western Australia, Monteville in South Africa, and Graenseso in South-West Greenland. Samples went through acid digestion, and the residues were wet sieved. The 63-125 mum (+/- 125-250 mum) size fractions went through heavy liquid separation. For most samples, the heavy mineral assemblages consist predominantly of anatase, rutile, tourmaline, and zircon (+/- chrome spinel) grains. Using micro-Raman spectroscopy, the high-pressure, alpha-PbO2 -structured polymorph of TiO2 (TiO2 II) was identified in 27 buff rutile grains from the Carawine, Jeerinah, Bee Gorge, and Monteville spherule layers. For three of the layers, rutile + TiO2 II grains were found only in their upper parts. For a sample or stratigraphic subdivision within a sample, rutile + TiO2 II grains comprise ˜1-5% of the rutile population. The TiO2 II polymorph is interpreted as a shock-induced phase that is syngenetic with respect to its host spherule layer. The rutile + TiO2 II grains provide physical evidence to support an impact origin for these four spherule layers. Using a universal stage microscope, measurements of the crystallographic orientations of planar microstructures in three quartz grains from the Carawine spherule layer support the interpretation that the microstructures are shock-induced planar deformation features. No unequivocal evidence of shock metamorphism was found in the white opaque zircon grains; instead, these grains appear to have varying degrees of metamictization. The physical properties of the chrome spinel, rutile, and zircon grains support the previously proposed hypothesis that the Carawine, Jeerinah, and Monteville spherule layers are parts of a single spherule layer that is older than the Bee Gorge spherule layer
Direct simulation of shock-induced mixing layer
Greenough, J.A.; Bell, J.B.
1993-03-01
The interaction of a shock wave with a dense fluid layer in three dimensions is investigated using direct numerical simulations. The underlying numerical method is a second-order Godunov scheme. This is coupled to an implementation of Adaptive Mesh Refinement which is used to manage the hierarchical grid structure. An anomalous shock refraction is formed as the initiating shock wave impinges on a quiescent thin dense gas layer. One of the two resulting centered waves from the refraction, the contact surface, serves as the site for initial deposition of primarily spanwise vorticity and represents the primary mixing layer instability. The other wave, the transmitted shock wave, through repeated interactions with the free-surface, forms a cellular structure within the dense layer. The initial interaction introduces three dimensional perturbations onto the slip surface. These perturbations are selectively enhanced, due to favorable velocity gradients over part of the cellular structures, and form large-scale counter-rotating streamwise vertical structures. The structures characterize the secondary instability of this mixing layer. These vortices are quite unstable and transition to small-scales within a distance spanned by two of the cellular structures behind the initiating shock. The transition location has been verified in physical experiments. The fine-scale structure contains evidence of hairpin vortices. The evolution of a conserved scalar is used to monitor mixing progress. Increases in the rate of mixing are directly tied to intensification events associated with the streamwise vortices. Overall the large-scale streamwise structures provide an efficient mechanism for mixing the light and dense fluids. Analysis of time-series data from the calculation shows evidence of what are termed energetic smallscales. This is the characteristic signature of the hairpin vortices undergoing intensification.
Interferometric data for a shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunagan, Stephen E.; Brown, James L.; Miles, John B.
1986-01-01
An experimental study of the axisymmetric shock-wave / boundary-layer strong interaction flow generated in the vicinity of a cylinder-cone intersection was conducted. The study data are useful in the documentation and understanding of compressible turbulent strong interaction flows, and are part of a more general effort to improve turbulence modeling for compressible two- and three-dimensional strong viscous/inviscid interactions. The nominal free stream Mach number was 2.85. Tunnel total pressures of 1.7 and 3.4 atm provided Reynolds number values of 18 x 10(6) and 36 x 10(6) based on model length. Three cone angles were studied giving negligible, incipient, and large scale flow separation. The initial cylinder boundary layer upstream of the interaction had a thickness of 1.0 cm. The subsonic layer of the cylinder boundary layer was quite thin, and in all cases, the shock wave penetrated a significant portion of the boundary layer. Owing to the thickness of the cylinder boundary layer, considerable structural detail was resolved for the three shock-wave / boundary-layer interaction cases considered. The primary emphasis was on the application of the holographic interferometry technique. The density field was deduced from an interferometric analysis based on the Able transform. Supporting data were obtained using a 2-D laser velocimeter, as well as mean wall pressure and oil flow measurements. The attached flow case was observed to be steady, while the separated cases exhibited shock unsteadiness. Comparisons with Navier-Stokes computations using a two-equation turbulence model are presented.
Shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interactions in transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Messiter, A. F.
1976-01-01
The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used in analyzing the structure of the interaction region formed when a shock wave impinges on a turbulent flat plate boundary layer in transonic flow. Solutions in outer regions, governed by inviscid flow equations, lead to relations for the wall pressure distribution. Solutions in the inner regions, governed by equations in which Reynolds and/or viscous stresses are included, lead to a relation for the wall shear stress. Solutions for the wall pressure distribution are reviewed for both oblique and normal incoming shock waves. Solutions for the wall shear stress are discussed.
Unsteady Phenomena in Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolling, D. S.
1993-01-01
A brief review is given of the unsteadiness of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction. The focus is on interactions generated by swept and unswept compression ramps, by flares, steps and incident shock waves, by cylinders and blunt fins, and by glancing shock waves. The effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and separated flow scale are discussed as are the physical causes of the unsteadiness. The implications that the unsteadiness has for interpreting time-average surface and flowfield data, and for comparisons of such experimental data with computation, is also briefly discussed. Finally, some suggestions for future work are given. It is clear that there are large gaps in the data base and that many aspects of such phenomena are poorly understood. Much work remains to be done.
NUCLEOSYNTHETIC LAYERS IN THE SHOCKED EJECTA OF CASSIOPEIA A
Isensee, Karl; Olmschenk, Greg; Rudnick, Lawrence; DeLaney, Tracey; Rho, Jeonghee; Smith, J. D.; Reach, William T.; Kozasa, Takashi; Gomez, Haley E-mail: larry@astro.umn.edu E-mail: jrho@sofia.usra.edu E-mail: reach@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: haley.morgan@astro.cf.ac.uk
2012-10-01
We present a three-dimensional analysis of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A using high-resolution spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We observe supernova ejecta both immediately before and during the shock-ejecta interaction. We determine that the reverse shock of the remnant is spherical to within 7%, although the center of this sphere is offset from the geometric center of the remnant by 810 km s{sup -1}. We determine that the velocity width of the nucleosynthetic layers is {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} over 4000 arcsec{sup 2} regions, although the velocity width of a layer along any individual line of sight is <250 km s{sup -1}. Si and O, which come from different nucleosynthetic layers in the progenitor star, are observed to be coincident in velocity space in some directions, but segregated by up to {approx}500 km s{sup -1} in other directions. We compare these observations of the nucleosynthetic layers to predictions from supernova explosion models in an attempt to constrain such models. Finally, we observe small-scale, corrugated velocity structures that are likely caused during the supernova explosion itself, rather than hundreds of years later by dynamical instabilities at the remnant's reverse shock.
Uncertainty Analysis of Air Radiation for Lunar Return Shock Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kleb, Bil; Johnston, Christopher O.
2008-01-01
By leveraging a new uncertainty markup technique, two risk analysis methods are used to compute the uncertainty of lunar-return shock layer radiation predicted by the High temperature Aerothermodynamic Radiation Algorithm (HARA). The effects of epistemic uncertainty, or uncertainty due to a lack of knowledge, is considered for the following modeling parameters: atomic line oscillator strengths, atomic line Stark broadening widths, atomic photoionization cross sections, negative ion photodetachment cross sections, molecular bands oscillator strengths, and electron impact excitation rates. First, a simplified shock layer problem consisting of two constant-property equilibrium layers is considered. The results of this simplified problem show that the atomic nitrogen oscillator strengths and Stark broadening widths in both the vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectral regions, along with the negative ion continuum, are the dominant uncertainty contributors. Next, three variable property stagnation-line shock layer cases are analyzed: a typical lunar return case and two Fire II cases. For the near-equilibrium lunar return and Fire 1643-second cases, the resulting uncertainties are very similar to the simplified case. Conversely, the relatively nonequilibrium 1636-second case shows significantly larger influence from electron impact excitation rates of both atoms and molecules. For all cases, the total uncertainty in radiative heat flux to the wall due to epistemic uncertainty in modeling parameters is 30% as opposed to the erroneously-small uncertainty levels (plus or minus 6%) found when treating model parameter uncertainties as aleatory (due to chance) instead of epistemic (due to lack of knowledge).
Subgrid-scale turbulence in shock-boundary layer flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jammalamadaka, Avinash; Jaberi, Farhad
2015-04-01
Data generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) for a Mach 2.75 zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer interacting with shocks of different intensities are used for a priori analysis of subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence and various terms in the compressible filtered Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical method used for DNS is based on a hybrid scheme that uses a non-dissipative central scheme in the shock-free turbulent regions and a robust monotonicity-preserving scheme in the shock regions. The behavior of SGS stresses and their components, namely Leonard, Cross and Reynolds components, is examined in various regions of the flow for different shock intensities and filter widths. The backscatter in various regions of the flow is found to be significant only instantaneously, while the ensemble-averaged statistics indicate no significant backscatter. The budgets for the SGS kinetic energy equation are examined for a better understanding of shock-tubulence interactions at the subgrid level and also with the aim of providing useful information for one-equation LES models. A term-by-term analysis of SGS terms in the filtered total energy equation indicate that while each term in this equation is significant by itself, the net contribution by all of them is relatively small. This observation is consistent with our a posteriori analysis.
Experimental studies on two dimensional shock boundary layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skebe, S. A.; Greber, I.; Hingst, W. R.
1984-01-01
Experiments have been performed on the interaction of oblique shock waves with flat plate boundary layers in the 30.48 cm x 30.48 cm (1 ft. x 1 ft.) supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Lewis Research Center. High accuracy measurements of the plate surface static pressure and shear stress distributions as well as boundary layer velocity profiles were obtained through the interaction region. Documentation was also performed of the tunnel test section flow field and of the two-dimensionality of the interaction regions. The findings provide detailed description of two-dimensional interaction with initially laminar boundary layers over the Mach number range 2.0 to 4.0. Additional information with regard to interactions involving initially transitional boundary layers is presented over the Mach number range 2.0 to 3.0 and those for initially turbulent boundary layers at Mach 2.0. These experiments were directed toward providing well documented information of high accuracy useful as test cases for analytic and numerical calculations. Flow conditions encompassed a Reynolds number range of 4.72E6 to 2.95E7 per meter. The shock boundary layer interaction results were found to be generally in good agreement with the experimental work of previous authors both in terms of direct numerical comparison and in support of correlations establishing laminar separation characteristics.
Magnetosheath Filamentary Structures Formed by Ion Acceleration at the Quasi-Parallel Bow Shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D.; Gutynska, O.; Trattner, K. J.
2014-01-01
Results from 2.5-D electromagnetic hybrid simulations show the formation of field-aligned, filamentary plasma structures in the magnetosheath. They begin at the quasi-parallel bow shock and extend far into the magnetosheath. These structures exhibit anticorrelated, spatial oscillations in plasma density and ion temperature. Closer to the bow shock, magnetic field variations associated with density and temperature oscillations may also be present. Magnetosheath filamentary structures (MFS) form primarily in the quasi-parallel sheath; however, they may extend to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. They occur over a wide range of solar wind Alfvénic Mach numbers and interplanetary magnetic field directions. At lower Mach numbers with lower levels of magnetosheath turbulence, MFS remain highly coherent over large distances. At higher Mach numbers, magnetosheath turbulence decreases the level of coherence. Magnetosheath filamentary structures result from localized ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock and the injection of energetic ions into the magnetosheath. The localized nature of ion acceleration is tied to the generation of fast magnetosonic waves at and upstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The increased pressure in flux tubes containing the shock accelerated ions results in the depletion of the thermal plasma in these flux tubes and the enhancement of density in flux tubes void of energetic ions. This results in the observed anticorrelation between ion temperature and plasma density.
Magnetosheath filamentary structures formed by ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D.; Gutynska, O.; Trattner, K. J.
2014-04-01
Results from 2.5-D electromagnetic hybrid simulations show the formation of field-aligned, filamentary plasma structures in the magnetosheath. They begin at the quasi-parallel bow shock and extend far into the magnetosheath. These structures exhibit anticorrelated, spatial oscillations in plasma density and ion temperature. Closer to the bow shock, magnetic field variations associated with density and temperature oscillations may also be present. Magnetosheath filamentary structures (MFS) form primarily in the quasi-parallel sheath; however, they may extend to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. They occur over a wide range of solar wind Alfvénic Mach numbers and interplanetary magnetic field directions. At lower Mach numbers with lower levels of magnetosheath turbulence, MFS remain highly coherent over large distances. At higher Mach numbers, magnetosheath turbulence decreases the level of coherence. Magnetosheath filamentary structures result from localized ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock and the injection of energetic ions into the magnetosheath. The localized nature of ion acceleration is tied to the generation of fast magnetosonic waves at and upstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The increased pressure in flux tubes containing the shock accelerated ions results in the depletion of the thermal plasma in these flux tubes and the enhancement of density in flux tubes void of energetic ions. This results in the observed anticorrelation between ion temperature and plasma density.
Structure of medium Mach number quasi-parallel shocks - Upstream and downstream waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krauss-Varban, D.; Omidi, N.
1991-01-01
The transition from steady low-Mach-number to unsteady high-Mach-number quasi-parallel shocks was investigated by performing large-scale 1D hybrid code simulations at increasing Mach numbers. It was found that only at very low Mach number shocks the steepening is limited by upstream phase-standing whistlers, as predicted by the classical theory (Tidman and Northrop, 1968). In the intermediate region of Mach numbers between 1.5 and 3.5, a very diverse behavior is observed. Backstreaming ions generate fast magnetosonic waves which dominate the upstream, with wavelengths longer than phase-standing whistlers. At increasing Mach numbers, the phase and group velocities of the dominant waves are reduced until they point back toward the shock; when there is sufficient energy flux in these waves, they lead to unsteady shock behavior and eventually to shock reformation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petruk, O.; Kuzyo, T.; Beshley, V.
2016-03-01
Gamma-rays from hadronic collisions are expected from supernova remnants (SNRs) located near molecular clouds. The temperature of the shock interacting with the dense environment quickly reaches 105 K. Radiative losses of plasma become essential in the evolution of SNRs. They decrease the thermal pressure and essentially increase the density behind the shock. The presence of an ambient magnetic field may alter the behaviour of the post-adiabatic SNRs considerably compared with the hydrodynamic scenario. In the present article, magnetohydrodynamic simulations of radiative shocks in a magnetic field are performed. High plasma compression due to radiative losses also results in a prominent increase in the strength of the tangential component of magnetic field behind the shock and a decrease of the parallel one. If the strength of the tangential field before the shock is higher than about 3 μG, it prevents formation of a very dense thin shell. The higher the strength of the tangential magnetic field, the larger the thickness and the lower the maximum density in the radiative shell. The parallel magnetic field does not affect the distribution of the hydrodynamic parameters behind the shock. There are almost independent channels of energy transformations: radiative losses are due to thermal energy, magnetic energy increases come from reducing the kinetic energy. The large density and high strength of the perpendicular magnetic field in the radiative shells of SNRs should result in a considerable increase of the hadronic gamma-ray flux compared with the leptonic one.
Energetic particle diffusion coefficients upstream of quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.
1989-01-01
The properties of about 30 to 130-keV/e protons and alpha particles upstream of six quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks that passed by the ISEE 3 spacecraft during 1978-1979 were analyzed, and the values for the upstream energegic particle diffusion coefficient, kappa, in these six events were deduced for a number of energies and upstream positions. These observations were compared with predictions of Lee's (1983) theory of shock acceleration. It was found that the observations verified the prediction of the A/Q dependence (where A and Q are the particle atomic mass and ionization state, respectively) of kappa for alpha and proton particles upstream of the quasi-parallel shocks.
Stability and modal analysis of shock/boundary layer interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichols, Joseph W.; Larsson, Johan; Bernardini, Matteo; Pirozzoli, Sergio
2016-06-01
The dynamics of oblique shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions is analyzed by mining a large-eddy simulation (LES) database for various strengths of the incoming shock. The flow dynamics is first analyzed by means of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), which highlights the simultaneous occurrence of two types of flow modes, namely a low-frequency type associated with breathing motion of the separation bubble, accompanied by flapping motion of the reflected shock, and a high-frequency type associated with the propagation of instability waves past the interaction zone. Global linear stability analysis performed on the mean LES flow fields yields a single unstable zero-frequency mode, plus a variety of marginally stable low-frequency modes whose stability margin decreases with the strength of the interaction. The least stable linear modes are grouped into two classes, one of which bears striking resemblance to the breathing mode recovered from DMD and another class associated with revolving motion within the separation bubble. The results of the modal and linear stability analysis support the notion that low-frequency dynamics is intrinsic to the interaction zone, but some continuous forcing from the upstream boundary layer may be required to keep the system near a limit cycle. This can be modeled as a weakly damped oscillator with forcing, as in the early empirical model by Plotkin (AIAA J 13:1036-1040, 1975).
DSMC Computations for Regions of Shock/Shock and Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moss, James N.
2001-01-01
This paper presents the results of a numerical study of hypersonic interacting flows at flow conditions that include those for which experiments have been conducted in the Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel and the ONERA R5Ch low-density wind tunnel. The computations are made with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird. The focus is on Mach 9.3 to 11.4 flows about flared axisymmetric configurations, both hollow cylinder flares and double cones. The results presented highlight the sensitivity of the calculations to grid resolution, provide results concerning the conditions for incipient separation, and provide information concerning the flow structure and surface results for the extent of separation, heating, pressure, and skin friction.
Spontaneous Hot Flow Anomalies at Quasi-Parallel Shocks: 2. Hybrid Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Omidi, N.; Zhang, H.; Sibeck, D.; Turner, D.
2013-01-01
Motivated by recent THEMIS observations, this paper uses 2.5-D electromagnetic hybrid simulations to investigate the formation of Spontaneous Hot Flow Anomalies (SHFA) upstream of quasi-parallel bow shocks during steady solar wind conditions and in the absence of discontinuities. The results show the formation of a large number of structures along and upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock. Their outer edges exhibit density and magnetic field enhancements, while their cores exhibit drops in density, magnetic field, solar wind velocity and enhancements in ion temperature. Using virtual spacecraft in the simulation, we show that the signatures of these structures in the time series data are very similar to those of SHFAs seen in THEMIS data and conclude that they correspond to SHFAs. Examination of the simulation data shows that SHFAs form as the result of foreshock cavitons interacting with the bow shock. Foreshock cavitons in turn form due to the nonlinear evolution of ULF waves generated by the interaction of the solar wind with the backstreaming ions. Because foreshock cavitons are an inherent part of the shock dissipation process, the formation of SHFAs is also an inherent part of the dissipation process leading to a highly non-uniform plasma in the quasi-parallel magnetosheath including large scale density and magnetic field cavities.
Spontaneous hot flow anomalies at quasi-parallel shocks: 2. Hybrid simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidi, N.; Zhang, H.; Sibeck, D.; Turner, D.
2013-01-01