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Sample records for parallel-group double-blind double-dummy

  1. Tramadol/paracetamol combination tablet for postoperative pain following ambulatory hand surgery: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Narinder; Macquaire, Valery; Catalá, Elena; Berti, Marco; Costa, Rui; Wietlisbach, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial compared efficacy and safety of tramadol HCL 37.5 mg/paracetamol 325 mg combination tablet with tramadol HCL 50 mg capsule in the treatment of postoperative pain following ambulatory hand surgery with iv regional anesthesia. Patients received trial medication at admission, immediately after surgery, and every 6 hours after discharge until midnight of the first postoperative day. Analgesic efficacy was assessed by patients (n = 128 in each group, full analysis set) and recorded in a diary on the evening of surgery day and of the first postoperative day. They also documented the occurrence of adverse events. By the end of the first postoperative day, the proportion of treatment responders based on treatment satisfaction (primary efficacy variable) was comparable between the groups (78.1% combination, 71.9% tramadol; P = 0.24) and mean pain intensity (rated on a numerical scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = worst imaginable pain) had been reduced to 1.7 ± 2.0 for both groups. Under both treatments, twice as many patients experienced no pain (score = 0) on the first postoperative day compared to the day of surgery (35.9% vs 16.4% for tramadol/paracetamol and 36.7% vs 18% for tramadol treatment). Rescue medication leading to withdrawal (diclofenac 50 mg) was required by 17.2% patients with tramadol/paracetamol and 13.3% with tramadol. Adverse events (mainly nausea, dizziness, somnolence, vomiting, and increased sweating) occurred less frequently in patients under combination treatment (P = 0.004). Tramadol/paracetamol combination tablets provided comparable analgesic efficacy with a better safety profile to tramadol capsules in patients experiencing postoperative pain following ambulatory hand surgery. PMID:21559356

  2. Ketoprofen versus paracetamol (acetaminophen) or ibuprofen in the management of fever: results of two randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, repeated-dose, multicentre, phase III studies in children.

    PubMed

    Kokki, Hannu; Kokki, Merja

    2010-01-01

    Fever is a common symptom in children and one of the major concerns of parents of younger and preschool-age children. To compare the efficacy and safety of ketoprofen with that of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen in the treatment of febrile conditions in children. Two prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, repeated-dose, multicentre, phase III studies with two parallel groups in each study were conducted in primary-care outpatient clinics. Children aged 6 months to 6 years presenting with a febrile condition and an oral body temperature of > or =38.8 degrees C or rectal temperature of > or =39 degrees C were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomized to receive either ketoprofen syrup 0.5 mg/kg, ibuprofen suspension 5 mg/kg or paracetamol suspension 15 mg/kg every 6 hours by the oral route. The primary outcome measure was the change in temperature at 3 hours (H3), compared with baseline (H0). All three treatments provided similar mean maximum decreases of 1.4-1.5 degrees C in body temperature at H3 compared with H0. Use of ketoprofen was not associated with any increased risk of adverse events compared with the two reference compounds. Ketoprofen 0.5 mg/kg appeared to be equivalent to the standard antipyretic doses of the reference products ibuprofen 5 mg/kg and paracetamol 15 mg/kg. Ketoprofen at the 0.5 mg/kg dose should be an effective and safe option for symptomatic management of fever in children. PMID:20380479

  3. Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Randomised Phase III Study Comparing Secnidazole and Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Jean-Marc; Vicaut, Eric; Fagnen, Didier; Brauman, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Multiple-dose metronidazole oral therapy is currently the reference treatment for bacterial vaginosis (BV). This double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority study compared the efficacy of secnidazole, another nitroimidazole with pharmacokinetics allowing a single dose regimen, to this standard treatment. Methods. A total of 577 patients were randomized to receive metronidazole (500 mg, b.i.d for seven days) or secnidazole (2 g, once). Therapeutic cure at D28 was defined as the resolution of vaginal discharge, positive KOH whiff test, vaginal pH >4.5 and Nugent score >7 on Gram-stained vaginal fluid. Results. According to this primary endpoint, the single-dose secnidazole regimen was shown to be at least as effective as the multiple-dose metronidazole regimen (60.1 % cured women vs 59.5% , 95% confidence interval with a noninferiority margin of 10%: [−0.082; 0.0094]). Safety profiles were comparable in both groups. Conclusion. The secnidazole regimen studied represents an effective, convenient therapeutic alternative that clinicians should consider in routine practice. PMID:20885970

  4. Compound Danshen Dripping Pill for Treating Early Diabetic Retinopathy: A Randomized, Double-Dummy, Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dan; Qin, Yali; Yuan, Wei; Deng, Hui; Zhang, Youhua; Jin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-dummy, double-blind study was to observe the therapeutic effects of compound Danshen dripping pill (CDDP) in treating early diabetic retinopathy (DR). All the 57 type 2 diabetes cases in nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) stage were divided into two groups randomly: 28 cases treated with CDDP as the treated group and 29 cases treated with calcium dobesilate as the control group. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the treated group was significantly improved after treatment when compared to that before treatment (P < 0.05). Mean defect (MD) of visual field, hemorrhage area of the fundus, microaneurysm number, fluorescent leakage area, and capillary nonperfusion area evaluated by visual field, fundus photography, and fundus fluorescein angiography in the treated group had the same results as BCVA. However, there was no statistical difference in each index between the two groups. No obvious adverse events with clinical significance occurred. Our present study showed that CDDP has a similar improvement and safety to calcium dobesilate for NPDR. In future DR treatments, CDDP may function as the auxiliary drug. PMID:26457110

  5. Once daily versus three times daily mesalazine granules in active ulcerative colitis: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Kruis, W; Kiudelis, G; Rácz, I; Gorelov, I A; Pokrotnieks, J; Horynski, M; Batovsky, M; Kykal, J; Boehm, S; Greinwald, R; Mueller, R

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the therapeutic equivalence and safety of once daily (OD) versus three times daily (TID) dosing of a total daily dose of 3 g Salofalk (mesalazine) granules in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Design: A randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group, multicentre, international, phase III non-inferiority study. Setting: 54 centres in 13 countries. Patients: 380 patients with confirmed diagnosis of established or first attack of ulcerative colitis (clinical activity index (CAI)>4 and endoscopic index ⩾4 at baseline) were randomised and treated. Interventions: 8-week treatment with either 3 g OD or 1 g TID mesalazine granules. Main outcome measures: Clinical remission (CAI⩽4) at study end. Results: 380 patients were evaluable for efficacy and safety by intention-to-treat (ITT); 345 for per protocol (PP) analysis. In the ITT population, 79.1% in the OD group (n = 191) and 75.7% in the TID group (n = 189) achieved clinical remission (p<0.0001 for non-inferiority). Significantly more patients with proctosigmoiditis achieved clinical remission in the OD group (86%; n = 97) versus the TID group (73%; n = 100; p = 0.0298). About 70% of patients in both treatment groups achieved endoscopic remission, and 35% in the OD group and 41% in the TID group achieved histological remission. About 80% of all patients preferred OD dosing. Similar numbers of adverse events occurred in 55 patients (28.8%) in the OD group and in 61 patients (32.3%) in the TID group, indicating that the two dosing regimens were equally safe and well tolerated. Conclusions: OD 3 g mesalazine granules are as effective and safe as a TID 1 g schedule. With respect to the best possible adherence of patients to the treatment, OD dosing of mesalazine should be the preferred application mode in active ulcerative colitis. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00449722 PMID:18832520

  6. Early analgesic effects of intravenous parecoxib and rectal diclofenac following laparoscopic sterilization: a double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alexander; Swami, Ajay; Smith, Graham; Emembolu, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this double-blind double-dummy randomized controlled trial was to investigate if there was any difference in analgesia between the maximum recommended doses of rectal diclofenac and iv parecoxib after laparoscopic sterilization. The authors studied 55 ASA I-II patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopy; each patient received either preoperative rectal diclofenac 100 mg and 2 mL of normal saline at induction of anesthesia, or preoperative placebo suppository and 2 mL of parecoxib 40 mg at induction. Pain intensity, sedation, and nausea were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale on awakening and at 1, 2, and 3 hour postoperatively. Median (interquartile range) pain intensity at rest on awakening and at 1, 2, and 3 hour postoperatively were 15 (0-40), 37 (10-56), 16 (6-29), and 13 (2-32) mm, respectively, in the parecoxib group, and 3 (0-34), 22 (5-45), 24 (6-37), and 10 (4-21) mm, respectively, in the diclofenac group. There was no significant difference in these scores. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the two groups in sedation, nausea, rescue analgesia, or rescue antiemetic consumption. Preoperative rectal diclofenac 100 mg and parecoxib 40 mg iv at induction of anesthesia were found to have equianalgesic effects after laparoscopic sterilization. Both drugs appear to be useful after short anaesthetics. PMID:18444448

  7. Oral antihistamine or nasal steroid in hay fever: a double-blind double-dummy comparative study of once daily oral astemizole vs twice daily nasal beclomethasone dipropionate.

    PubMed

    Wood, S F

    1986-05-01

    Seventy-four patients with a well documented history of seasonal allergic rhinitis were randomly allocated to receive either astemizole 10 mg orally per day or beclomethasone 100 micrograms in each nostril twice daily on a double-blind double-dummy basis. The patients were studied in a general practice setting and were seen at entry, during the study and at the end of the study by a single observer, the author. Assessment was by diary card incorporating five 10 cm visual analogue scales related to the four symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhoea, blocked nose and itchy eyes and an overall assessment of hay fever symptoms. Patients were asked if the medication had upset them in any way at each observer assessment. Symptom severity, as recorded by the visual analogue scales, was not significantly different for sneezing, rhinorrhoea, blocked nose or overall between the two groups but the symptom scores for itchy eyes were significantly better for the astemizole group. Adverse effects were minimal and of a minor nature only. There was no real difference between the two groups regarding adverse effects. The study suggests that oral astemizole is at least as good as nasal beclomethasone in the maintenance treatment of hay fever and that it offers the additional advantage of improved control of eye symptoms. PMID:3087656

  8. Double-blind, randomized, double-dummy clinical trial comparing the efficacy of ketorolac trometamol and naproxen for acute low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Plapler, Pérola Grinberg; Scheinberg, Morton Aaron; Ecclissato, Christina da Cunha; Bocchi de Oliveira, Monalisa Fernanda; Amazonas, Roberto Bleuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most common type of medication used in the treatment of acute pain. Ketorolac trometamol (KT) is a nonnarcotic, peripherally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic effects comparable to certain opioids. Objective The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of KT and naproxen (NA) in the treatment of acute low back pain (LBP) of moderate-to-severe intensity. Patients and methods In this 10-day, Phase III, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial, participants with acute LBP of moderate-to-severe intensity as determined through a visual analog scale (VAS) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive sublingual KT 10 mg three times daily or oral NA 250 mg three times daily. From the second to the fifth day of treatment, if patient had VAS >40 mm, increased dosage to four times per day was allowed. The primary end point was the reduction in LBP as measured by VAS. We also performed a post hoc superiority analysis. Results KT was not inferior to NA for the reduction in LBP over 5 days of use as measured by VAS scores (P=0.608 for equality of variance; P=0.321 for equality of means) and by the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire (P=0.180 for equality of variance test; P=0.446 for equality of means) using 95% confidence intervals. The percentage of participants with improved pain relief 60 minutes after receiving the first dose was higher in the KT group (24.2%) than in the NA group (6.5%; P=0.049). The most common adverse effects were heartburn, nausea, and vomiting. Conclusion KT is not inferior in efficacy and delivers faster pain relief than NA. PMID:27382251

  9. A prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy comparison of recombinant and urinary HCG for inducing oocyte maturation and follicular luteinization in ovarian stimulation.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, G L; Tyler, J P; Hangan, J T; Fisher, P R; Birdsall, M A; Knight, D C

    2000-06-01

    A randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, phase III clinical trial was conducted in 84 women to compare the efficacy of a s.c. injection of 250 microg recombinant human chorionic gonadotrophin (rHCG; Ovidrel) to an i.m. injection of 5000 IU urinary HCG (uHCG; Profasi) in inducing folliculogenesis, resumption of oocyte meiosis and luteinization after ovulation induction with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (Gonal-F). The study primary endpoint was comparison of the number of oocytes retrieved per patient receiving either compound. Secondary comparisons included the number of oocytes retrieved per follicles aspirated; the number of mature oocytes; normally fertilized oocytes; and cleaved embryos. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for the primary endpoint (mean +/- SD oocytes retrieved 10.8 +/- 4.5 for rHCG versus 10.3 +/- 5.1 for uHCG) or each of the secondary endpoints except for increased concentrations of progesterone 6-7 days after rHCG administration (353.2 +/- 215.1 versus 234.1 +/- 129.4 nmol/l; P < 0. 004) and for HCG during the luteal phase following rHCG (P < 0.02). There were also no significant side-effects for either drug. Since the confidence intervals for the difference of the number of oocytes retrieved between the two treatment groups were within the bounds defined by the multi-trial protocol equivalence between rHCG and uHCG could be declared. PMID:10831560

  10. Chinese herbal medicine (Ma Zi Ren Wan) for functional constipation: study protocol for a prospective, double-blinded, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional constipation is a common clinical complaint. Although the effectiveness of Ma Zi Ren Wan for alleviating functional constipation symptoms has been proven in a previous randomized placebo-controlled study, further evidence is needed to make clinical recommendations about Chinese herbal medicine. In particular, a comparison with conventional western medicine for functional constipation patients is needed. Methods/Design This is a prospective, double-blinded, double dummy, randomized, controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, eligible patients (Rome III) with excessive traditional Chinese medicine syndrome will randomly be assigned to the Chinese medicine arm (Ma Zi Ren Wan and western medicine placebo), western medicine arm (senna and Chinese medicine placebo) or placebo arm (Chinese medicine placebo and western medicine placebo). Patients will undergo an 8-week treatment and an 8-week follow-up. The primary outcome is the responder rate for complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM) during treatment. Patients with a mean increase of CSBM ≧1/week in comparison with their baselines are defined as responders. The secondary outcomes include responder rate during follow-up, changes of colonic transit as measured with radio-opaque markers, individual and global symptom assessments, and reported adverse effects. Discussion This study is the first study to compare a Chinese Herbal Medicine (Ma Zi Ren Wan) with a laxative that is commonly used in the clinical practice of western medicine, and with a placebo. This study will complete the investigation of Ma Zi Ren Wan for functional constipation, and should, therefore, suggest recommendations for clinical practice. Furthermore, the process of first conducting a systematic review, then implementing a dose determination study followed by a placebo-control trial, and finally, comparing traditional Chinese medicine with an active conventional medicine in a controlled trial can be a reference to other

  11. Menatetrenone versus alfacalcidol in the treatment of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, positive drug-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Zhu, Han-Min; Wu, Yi-Yong; Cheng, Qun; Wu, Feng-Li; Xing, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Li; Yu, Wei; Meng, Xun-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the efficacy and safety of menatetrenone for the treatment of osteoporosis is noninferior to alfacalcidol in Chinese postmenopausal women. Method This multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, noninferiority, positive drug-controlled clinical trial was conducted in five Chinese sites. Eligible Chinese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (N=236) were randomized to Group M or Group A and received menatetrenone 45 mg/day or alfacalcidol 0.5 μg/day, respectively, for 1 year. Additionally, all patients received calcium 500 mg/day. Posttreatment bone mineral density (BMD), new fracture onsets, and serum osteocalcin (OC) and undercarboxylated OC (ucOC) levels were compared with the baseline value in patients of both groups. Results A total of 213 patients (90.3%) completed the study. After 1 year of treatment, BMD among patients in Group M significantly increased from baseline by 1.2% and 2.7% at the lumbar spine and trochanter, respectively (P<0.001); and the percentage increase of BMD in Group A was 2.2% and 1.8%, respectively (P<0.001). No difference was observed between groups. There were no changes in femoral neck BMD in both groups. Two patients (1.9%, 2/108) in Group M and four patients (3.8%, 4/105) in Group A had new fracture onsets (P>0.05). In Group M, OC and ucOC decreased from baseline by 38.7% and 82.3%, respectively (P<0.001). In Group A, OC and ucOC decreased by 25.8% and 34.8%, respectively (P<0.001). Decreases in serum OC and ucOC were more obvious in Group M than in Group A (P<0.001). The safety profile of menatetrenone was similar to alfacalcidol. Conclusion Menatetrenone is an effective and safe choice in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese women. PMID:24426779

  12. Chuanhu Anti-Gout Mixture versus Colchicine for Acute Gouty Arthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YanGang; Wang, Luan; Li, EnZe; Li, Yang; Wang, ZhongChao; Sun, XiaoFang; Yu, XiaoLong; Ma, Lin; Wang, YunLong; Wang, YouXin

    2014-01-01

    Background The Chuanhu anti-gout mixture has been used for many years in the treatment of gout in Chinese Traditional Medicine, and current methods for treatments for acute gouty arthritis have been either less effective or have had serious side effects. Methods In this 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority study, outpatient individuals with newly diagnosed acute gouty arthritis were randomly assigned to receive Chuanhu anti-gout mixture or colchicine. Both the study investigators and the participants were masked to the treatment assignments. The primary outcome was the recurrence rate of acute gouty arthritis, and the secondary outcomes were changes in white blood cells (WHC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). This trial is registered at ISRCTN.org as trial ISRCTN65219941. Results A total of 176 patients were randomly assigned to receive either the Chuanhu anti-gout mixture or Colchicine. The overall recurrence rates in the Chuanhu anti-gout mixture group (CH group) and the Colchicine group (Col group) were 12.50% vs 14.77% (difference -2.22%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -10.78%~6.23%), meeting the predefined non-inferiority criterion of 15%, as did the data for WHC and CRP. The incidence of adverse events (mainly diarrhea) was less in the Col group than in the CH group (2.27% vs 28.41%, 95% CI 0.01~0.26). In addition, changes in blood uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine in the CH group were significantly larger compared to those in the Col group (P<0.05). Conclusions The Chuanhu anti-gout mixture was non-inferior to colchicine for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis. The study suggested that the Chuanhu anti-gout mixture can be considered an alternative choice for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis because of its lower incidence of adverse events and its protection of kidney and renal function. PMID:25013367

  13. A Randomized Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Multicenter Trial of Azasetron versus Ondansetron to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety in the Prevention of Delayed Nausea and Vomiting Induced by Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Yeon; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Bong-Seog; Song, Hong Suk; Yang, Sung Hyun; Kim, Joon Hee; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kim, Sang-We; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kim, Si-Young; Park, Hee Sook

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azasetron compared to ondansetron in the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Materials and Methods This study was a multi-center, prospective, randomized, double-dummy, double-blind and parallel-group trial involving 12 institutions in Korea between May 2005 and December 2005. A total of 265 patients with moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy were included and randomly assigned to either the azasetron or ondansetron group. All patients received azasetron (10 mg intravenously) and dexamethasone (20 mg intravenously) on day 1 and dexamethasone (4 mg orally every 12 hours) on days 2-4. The azasetron group received azasetron (10 mg orally) with placebo of ondansetron (orally every 12 hours), and the ondansetron group received ondansetron (8 mg orally every 12 hours) with placebo of azasetron (orally) on days 2-6. Results Over days 2-6, the effective ratio of complete response in the azasetron and ondansetron groups was 45% and 54.5%, respectively (95% confidence interval, -21.4 to 2.5%). Thus, the non-inferiority of azasetron compared with ondansetron in delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting was not proven in the present study. All treatments were well tolerated and no unexpected drug-related adverse events were reported. The most common adverse events related to the treatment were constipation and hiccups, and there were no differences in the overall incidence of adverse events. Conclusion In the present study, azasetron showed inferiority in the control of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting compared with ondansetron whereas safety profiles were similar between the two groups. PMID:24520219

  14. Effect of an Echinacea-Based Hot Drink Versus Oseltamivir in Influenza Treatment: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Multicenter, Noninferiority Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rauš, Karel; Pleschka, Stephan; Klein, Peter; Schoop, Roland; Fisher, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Echinacea has antiviral activity against influenza viruses in vitro and has traditionally been used for treatment of colds and flu. Objectives This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, controlled clinical trial compared a new echinacea formulation with the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, the gold standard treatment for influenza. Methods Following informed consent, 473 patients with early influenza symptoms (≤48 hours) were recruited in primary care in the Czech Republic and randomized to either 5 days of oseltamivir followed by 5 days of placebo, or 10 days of an Echinacea purpurea-based formulation called Echinaforce Hotdrink (A. Vogel Bioforce AG, Roggwil, Switzerland). The proportion of recovered patients (influenza symptoms rated as absent or mild in the evening) was analyzed for noninferiority between treatment groups using a generalized Wilcoxon test with significance level α = 0.05 (2-sided) and using a CI approach in the per-protocol sample. Results Recovery from illness was comparable in the 2 treatment groups at 1.5% versus 4.1% after 1 day, 50.2% versus 48.8% after 5 days, and 90.1% versus 84.8% after 10 days of treatment with Echinaforce Hotdrink and oseltamivir, respectively. Noninferiority was demonstrated for each day and overall (95% CI, 0.487–0.5265 by generalized Wilcoxon test). Very similar results were obtained in the group with virologically confirmed influenza virus infections and in a retrospective analysis during the peak influenza period. The incidence of complications was lower with Echinaforce Hotdrink than with oseltamivir (2.46% vs 6.45%; P = 0.076) and fewer adverse events (particularly nausea and vomiting) were observed with Echinaforce Hotdrink. Conclusions Echinaforce Hotdrink is as effective as oseltamivir in the early treatment of clinically diagnosed and virologically confirmed influenza virus infections with a reduced risk of complications and adverse events. It appears to be an attractive

  15. Treatment of major depressive disorders with generic duloxetine and paroxetine: a multi-centered, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Zhiyang; XU, Xiufeng; TAN, Qingrong; LI, Keqing; MA, Cui; XIE, Shiping; GAO, Chengge; WANG, Gang; LI, Huafang

    2015-01-01

    Background This study is a pre-registration trial of generic duloxetine that was approved by the China Food and Drug Administration (approval number: 2006L01603). Aims Compare the treatment efficacy and safety of generic duloxetine to that of paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). Methods This was a double-dummy, double-blind, multicenter, positive drug (paroxetine), parallel randomized controlled clinical trial. The 299 patients with MDD recruited for the study were randomly assigned to use duloxetine (n=149; 40–60 mg/d) or paroxetine (n=150; 20 mg/d) for 8 weeks. The Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD-17) was administered at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after starting treatment. Remission was defined as a HAMD-17 score below 8 at the end of the trial, and treatment effectiveness was defined as a decrease in baseline HAMD-17 score of at least 50% by the end of the trial. Safety was assessed based on the reported prevalence and severity of side effects and changes in laboratory and electrocardiographic findings. Three patients in the duloxetine group dropped out before starting medication, so results were analyzed using a modified intention-to-treat (ITT) method with 146 in the experimental group and 150 in the control group. Results Both groups experienced 29 dropouts during the 8-week trial. HAMD-17 scores decreased significantly from baseline throughout the trial in both groups. Based on the ITT analysis, at the end of the trial there was no significant difference between the duloxetine group and the paroxetine group in effectiveness (67.1% v. 71.3%, X2=0.62 p=0.433), remission rate (41.1% v. 51.3%, X2=3.12, p=0.077), or in the incidence of side effects (56.8% v. 54.7%, X2=0.14, p=0.705). Conclusions Generic duloxetine is as effective and safe as paroxetine in the acute treatment of patients with MDD who seek care at psychiatric outpatient departments in China. PMID:26549959

  16. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study to Evaluate the Intranasal Human Abuse Potential and Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Extended-Release Abuse-Deterrent Formulation of Oxycodone

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Ernest A.; Smith, Michael D.; Fleming, Alison B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the human abuse potential (HAP) of an experimental, microsphere-in-capsule formulation of extended-release oxycodone (oxycodone DETERx®) (herein “DETERx”). Design. Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, positive- and placebo-controlled, single-dose, four-phase, four-treatment, crossover study. Setting. Clinical research site. Subjects. There were 39 qualifying subjects (72% male, 85% white, mean age of 27 years) with 36 completing all four Double-blind Treatment Periods. Methods. The four phases encompassed: 1) Screening; 2) Drug Discrimination; 3) Double-blind Treatment; and 4) Follow-up. Drug Discrimination tests ensured that subjects could distinguish placebo from opioid. The four Double-blind Treatments compared DETERx—administered as either a crushed intranasal (IN) or an intact oral (PO) preparation—with immediate-release oxycodone IN (OXY-IR IN) and with an intact IN and PO placebo DETERx control. Results. For primary pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments, abuse quotient (Cmax/Tmax) was lower with DETERx IN than DETERx PO; both treatments were substantially lower than OXY-IR IN (6.24, 8.60, and 69.6 ng/mL/h, respectively). For drug liking, the primary subjective pharmacodynamic (PD) endpoint, both DETERx IN and DETERx PO produced significantly lower scores than OXY-IR IN (P ≤ 0.0001 for each); DETERx IN was less liked than DETERx PO (P ≤ 0.05), mirroring the PK relationships. Objectively assessed pupillometry corroborated the more rapid and significantly greater effect of OXY-IR IN than either DETERx IN or DETERx PO (P ≤ 0.007 for each). Overall safety profiles of DETERx and OXY-IR were comparable and both were well tolerated. Conclusions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcomes suggest that DETERx IN has relatively low HAP; continued research in larger populations is suggested. PMID:26814256

  17. A 6-week, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, clinical safety study of lumiracoxib and rofecoxib in osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, Kirstin; Yu, Sue; Krammer, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Lumiracoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with a superior gastrointestinal (GI) safety profile as compared to traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, ibuprofen and naproxen). This safety study compared the GI tolerability, the blood pressure (BP) profile and the incidence of oedema with lumiracoxib and rofecoxib in the treatment of OA. Rofecoxib was withdrawn worldwide due to an associated increased risk of CV events and lumiracoxib has been withdrawn from Australia, Canada, Europe and a few other countries following reports of suspected adverse liver reactions. Methods This randomised, double-blind study enrolled 309 patients (aged greater than or equal to 50 years) with primary OA across 51 centres in Europe. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either lumiracoxib 400 mg od (four times the recommended dose in OA) (n = 154) or rofecoxib 25 mg od (n = 155). The study was conducted for 6 weeks and assessments were performed at Weeks 3 and 6. The primary safety measures were the incidence of predefined GI adverse events (AEs) and peripheral oedema. The secondary safety measures included effect of treatment on the mean sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (msSBP and msDBP). Tolerability of lumiracoxib 400 mg was assessed by the incidence of AEs. Results Lumiracoxib and rofecoxib displayed similar GI safety profiles with no statistically significant difference in predefined GI AEs between the two groups (43.5% vs. 37.4%, respectively). The incidence and severity of individual predefined GI AEs was comparable between the two groups. The incidence of peripheral oedema was low and identical in both the groups (n = 9, 5.8%). Only one patient in the lumiracoxib group and three patients in the rofecoxib group had a moderate or severe event. At Week 6 there was a significantly lower msSBP and msDBP in the lumiracoxib group compared to the rofecoxib group (p < 0.05). A

  18. A Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Flexible-Design Randomized Multicenter Trial: Early Safety of Single- Versus Divided-Dose Rabbit Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Induction in Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R B; Wrenshall, L E; Miles, C D; Farney, A C; Jie, T; Sandoz, J P; Rigley, T H; Osama Gaber, A

    2016-06-01

    A previous nonblinded, randomized, single-center renal transplantation trial of single-dose rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin induction (SD-rATG) showed improved efficacy compared with conventional divided-dose (DD-rATG) administration. The present multicenter, double-blind/double-dummy STAT trial (Single dose vs. Traditional Administration of Thymoglobulin) evaluated SD-rATG versus DD-rATG induction for noninferiority in early (7-day) safety and tolerability. Ninety-five patients (randomized 1:1) received 6 mg/kg SD-rATG or 1.5 mg/kg/dose DD-rATG, with tacrolimus-mycophenolate maintenance immunosuppression. The primary end point was a composite of fever, hypoxia, hypotension, cardiac complications, and delayed graft function. Secondary end points included 12-month patient survival, graft survival, and rejection. Target enrollment was 165 patients with an interim analysis scheduled after 80 patients. Interim analysis showed primary end point noninferiority of SD-rATG induction (p = 0.6), and a conditional probability of <1.73% of continued enrollment producing a significant difference (futility analysis), leading to early trial termination. Final analysis (95 patients) showed no differences in occurrence of primary end point events (p = 0.58) or patients with no, one, or more than one event (p = 0.81), or rejection, graft, or patient survival (p = 0.78, 0.47, and 0.35, respectively). In this rigorously blinded trial in adult renal transplantation, we have shown SD-rATG induction to be noninferior to DD-rATG induction in early tolerability and equivalent in 12-month safety. (Clinical Trials.gov #NCT00906204.). PMID:26696251

  19. Efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP): study protocol for a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women’s menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. Previous trials suggest that individualized homeopathic treatments improve depression. In classical homeopathy, an individually selected homeopathic remedy is prescribed after a complete case history of the patient. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the homeopathic individualized treatment versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial with a six-week follow-up study was designed. The study will be conducted in a public research hospital in Mexico City (Juárez de México Hospital) in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred eighty nine peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (moderate to severe intensity) will be included. The primary outcome is change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after the fourth and sixth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes are: Beck Depression Inventory change in mean score, Greene’s Scale change in mean score, response and remission rates and safety. Efficacy data will be analyzed in the intention-to-treat population. To determine differences in the primary and secondary outcomes among groups at baseline and weeks four and six, data will be analyzed by analysis of variance for independent measures with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Discussion This study is the first trial of classical homeopathy that will evaluate the efficacy of homeopathic individualized treatment

  20. Individualized Homeopathic Treatment and Fluoxetine for Moderate to Severe Depression in Peri- and Postmenopausal Women (HOMDEP-MENOP Study): A Randomized, Double-Dummy, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Cortés, Emma del Carmen; Llanes-González, Lidia; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background Perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women's menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depression. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of individualized homeopathic treatment versus placebo and fluoxetine versus placebo in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. Methods/Design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, superiority, three-arm trial with a 6 week follow-up study was conducted. The study was performed in a public research hospital in Mexico City in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred thirty-three peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to DSM-IV (moderate to severe intensity) were included. The outcomes were: change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Beck Depression Inventory and Greene Scale, after 6 weeks of treatment, response and remission rates, and safety. Efficacy data were analyzed in the intention-to-treat population (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test). Results After a 6-week treatment, homeopathic group was more effective than placebo by 5 points in Hamilton Scale. Response rate was 54.5% and remission rate, 15.9%. There was a significant difference among groups in response rate definition only, but not in remission rate. Fluoxetine-placebo difference was 3.2 points. No differences were observed among groups in the Beck Depression Inventory. Homeopathic group was superior to placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale (8.6 points). Fluoxetine was not different from placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale. Conclusion Homeopathy and fluoxetine are effective and safe antidepressants for climacteric women. Homeopathy and fluoxetine were significantly different from placebo

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Zhuanggu Joint Capsules in Combination with Celecoxib in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Double-dummy, and Parallel Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian-Long; Yang, Jing; Yang, Liu; Liu, Jian-Guo; Cai, Xin-Yu; Fan, Wei-Ming; Yun, Xue-Qing; Ma, Jin-Zhong; Weng, Xi-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a chronic joint disease that manifests as knee pain as well as different degrees of lower limb swelling, stiffness, and movement disorders. The therapeutic goal is to alleviate or eliminate pain, correct deformities, improve or restore joint functions, and improve the quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Zhuanggu joint capsules combined with celecoxib and the benefit of treatment with Zhuanggu alone for KOA. Methods: This multi-center, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel controlled trial, started from December 2011 to May 2014, was carried out in 6 cities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Changchun, Chengdu, and Nanjing. A total of 432 patients with KOA were divided into three groups (144 cases in each group). The groups were treated, respectively, with Zhuanggu joint capsules combined with celecoxib capsule simulants, Zhuanggu joint capsules combined with celecoxib capsules, and celecoxib capsules combined with Zhuanggu joint capsule simulants for 4 weeks consecutively. The improvement of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index and the decreased rates in each dimension of WOMAC were evaluated before and after the treatment. Intergroup and intragroup comparisons of quantitative indices were performed. Statistically significant differences were evaluated with pairwise comparisons using Chi-square test (or Fisher's exact test) and an inspection level of α = 0.0167. Results: Four weeks after treatment, the total efficacies of Zhuanggu group, combination group, and celecoxib group were 65%, 80%, and 64%, respectively, with statistically significant differences among the three groups (P = 0.005). Intergroup pairwise comparisons showed that the total efficacy of the combination group was significantly higher than that of the Zhuanggu (P = 0.005) and celecoxib (P = 0.003) groups. The difference between the latter two groups was not statistically

  2. Efficacy and Tolerability of Conventional Nimesulide Versus Beta-Cyclodextrin Nimesulide in Patients with Pain After Surgical Dental Extraction: A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Mildred; Seijas, Alberto; Yibirín, Maria González

    2003-01-01

    Background: Pain following extraction of an impacted third molar is widely used to assess analgesic efficacy, especially that of a single dose of a drug. The analgesic activity of conventional nimesulide (CN) has been documented in a variety of types of acute and chronic pain. Beta-cyclodextrin nimesulide (BN) is a new formulation in which nimesulide is included in a cyclodextrin molecule, which increases its solubility in water and its dilution rate, allowing extended, rapid absorption of the drug. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of BN compared with CN in patients with pain following extraction of an impacted third molar. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study conducted at 3 dentistry centers in Venezuela. The patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. One group received a single dose of BN (400-mg tablet, equivalent to 100 mg of nimesulide); the other group received a single dose of CN (100-mg tablet). Both groups also received a placebo. The efficacy variables were (1) pain intensity (PI), assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) at the following times: 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after drug administration; (2) time to first measurable difference in PI from baseline (PID) (PID ≥1 cm on the VAS; ie, the beginning of analgesic action); (3) maximum PID (max PID); (4) sum of PIDs in the 12-hour observation period; (5) pain relief (PR), as rated on a 5-point scale; (6) maximum PR; and (7) sum of the PR scores in the 12-hour observation period (ie, total PR). For the tolerability analysis, all adverse events (AEs) were to be recorded, and the investigators were to assess whether each AE was drug related. Results: Seventy-two patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, 62 patients (40 women, 22 men; mean [SD] age, 20.1 [5.9] years) were assessed; 35 were treated with BN and 27 with CN. PI reduction was more rapid and greater

  3. Effects of a Topical Saffron (Crocus sativus L) Gel on Erectile Dysfunction in Diabetics: A Randomized, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Nazari, Seyed Mohammad; Shamsa, Ali; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Esmaeeli, Habibollah; Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Khajavi, Abdoljavad

    2015-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a man's persistent or recurrent inability to achieve and maintain erection for a satisfactory sexual relationship. As diabetes is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men has been reported as 35% to 90%. This randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a topical saffron (Crocus sativus L) gel on erectile dysfunction in diabetic men. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 equal groups (with 25 patients each). The intervention group was treated with topical saffron, and the control received a similar treatment with placebo. The 2 groups were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire before the intervention and 1 month after the intervention. Compared to placebo, the prepared saffron gel could significantly improve erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients (P < .001). This preliminary evidence suggests that saffron can be considered as a treatment option for diabetic men with erectile dysfunction. PMID:25948674

  4. Safety evaluation of the consumption of high dose milk fat globule membrane in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial with parallel group design.

    PubMed

    Hari, Sayaka; Ochiai, Ryuji; Shioya, Yasushi; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) in combination with habitual exercise suppresses age-associated muscle loss. The effects of high dose MFGM, however, are not known. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial with parallel group design was conducted to evaluate the safety of consuming high dose MFGM tablets. The subjects were 32 healthy adult men and women. Subjects were given 5 times the recommended daily intake of the tablets containing 6.5 g of MFGM or whole milk powder for 4 weeks. Stomach discomfort and diarrhea were observed; however, these symptoms were transitory and slight and were not related to consumption of the test tablets. In addition, there were no clinically significant changes in anthropometric measurements or blood tests. Total degree of safety assessed by the physicians of all subjects was "safe." These findings suggest that consumption of the tablets containing 6.5 g MFGM for 4 weeks is safe for healthy adults. PMID:25704503

  5. Efficacy and tolerability of borage oil in adults and children with atopic eczema: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group trial

    PubMed Central

    Takwale, A; Tan, E; Agarwal, S; Barclay, G; Ahmed, I; Hotchkiss, K; Thompson, J R; Chapman, T; Berth-Jones, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy and tolerability of borage oil, which contains a high concentration of γ linolenic acid, in children and adults with atopic eczema. Design Single centre, randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group trial. Setting Acute district general hospital in Nuneaton, England. Participants 151 patients, of whom 11 failed to return for assessment, leaving an evaluable population of 140 (including 69 children). Intervention Adults received four capsules of borage oil twice daily (920 mg γ linolenic acid), and children received two capsules twice daily, for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures Change in total sign score at 12 weeks measured with the six area, six sign, atopic dermatitis (SASSAD) score (primary endpoint); symptom scores, assessed on visual analogue scales; topical corticosteroid requirement, assessed on a five point scale; global assessment of response by participants; adverse events and tolerability. Results The mean SASSAD score fell from 30 to 27 in the borage oil group and from 28 to 23 in the placebo group. The difference between the mean improvements in the two groups was 1.4 (95% confidence interval -2.2 to 5.0) points in favour of placebo (P = 0.45). No significant differences occurred between treatment groups in the other assessments. Subset analysis of adults and children did not indicate any difference in response. The treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion γ linolenic acid is not beneficial in atopic dermatitis. PMID:14670885

  6. Comparison of Efficacy, Safety and Cost-effectiveness of Rupatadine and Olopatadine in Patients of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A Randomized, Double-blind, Comparative, Parallel Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dakhale, Ganesh N; Wankhede, Sumit S; Mahatme, Mohini S; Hiware, Sachin K; Mishra, Dharmendra B; Dudhgaonkar, Sujata S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of chronic spontaneous urticaria. Materials and Methods: A 6-week, single-centered, randomized, double blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 60 patients were recruited and were randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 6 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were mean total symptom score (MTSS) calculated by adding the mean number of wheals (MNW) and the mean pruritus score (MPS), number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep (SIWS). Results: Both the drugs significantly reduced the MTSS, number of wheals, size of wheal, scale for interference of wheals with sleep, but olopatadine was found to be superior. In olopatadine group, there was significantly higher reduction in MTSS (p = 0.01), Number of wheals (P < 0.05), Size of wheals (p < 0.05), Scale for intensity of erythema (p < 0.05) and change in eosinopils count (p = 0.015) than that of rupatadine. Incidence of adverse effects was found to be less in olopatadine group when compared with rupatadine group. Cost effectiveness ratio was less in olopatadine group as compared to rupatadine group throughout the treatment. Conclusions: Olopatadine is a better choice in chronic spontaneous urticaria in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness profile. PMID:26955097

  7. P3MC: A double blind parallel group randomised placebo controlled trial of Propranolol and Pizotifen in preventing migraine in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent Cochrane Review demonstrated the remarkable lack of reliable clinical trials of migraine treatments for children, especially for the two most prescribed preventative treatments in the UK, Propranolol and Pizotifen. Migraine trials in both children and adults have high placebo responder rates, e.g. of 23%, but for a trial's results to be generalisable "placebo responders" should not be excluded and for a drug to be worthwhile it should be clearly superior, both clinically and statistically, to placebo. Methods/Design Two multicentre, two arm double blind parallel group randomised controlled trials, with allocation ratio of 2:1 for each comparison, Propranolol versus placebo and Pizotifen versus placebo. The trial is designed to test whether Propranolol is superior to placebo and whether Pizotifen is superior to placebo for the prevention of migraine attacks in children aged 5 - 16 years referred to secondary care out-patient settings with frequent migraine (2-6/4 weeks). The primary outcome measure is the number of migraine attacks during trial weeks 11 to 14. Discussion A strength of this trial is the participation of clinically well defined migraine patients who will also be approached to help with future longer-term follow-up studies. Trial Registration ISRCTN97360154 PMID:20553601

  8. Budesonide/formoterol as effective as prednisolone plus formoterol in acute exacerbations of COPD A double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority, parallel-group, multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Ställberg, Björn; Selroos, Olof; Vogelmeier, Claus; Andersson, Eva; Ekström, Tommy; Larsson, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    Background Oral corticosteroids and inhaled bronchodilators with or without antibiotics represent standard treatment of COPD exacerbations of moderate severity. Frequent courses of oral steroids may be a safety issue. We wanted to evaluate in an out-patient setting whether a 2-week course of inhaled budesonide/formoterol would be equally effective for treatment of acute COPD exacerbations as standard therapy in patients judged by the investigator not to require hospitalisation. Methods This was a double-blind, randomised, non-inferiority, parallel-group, multicentre study comparing two treatment strategies; two weeks' treatment with inhaled budesonide/formoterol (320/9 μg, qid) was compared with prednisolone (30 mg once daily) plus inhaled formoterol (9 μg bid) in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD attending a primary health care centre. Inclusion criteria were progressive dyspnoea for less than one week, FEV1 30–60% of predicted normal after acute treatment with a single dose of oral corticosteroid plus nebulised salbutamol/ipratropium bromide and no requirement for subsequent immediate hospitalisation, i.e the clinical status after the acute treatment allowed for sending the patient home. A total of 109 patients (mean age 67 years, 33 pack-years, mean FEV1 45% of predicted) were randomized to two weeks' double-blind treatment with budesonide/formoterol or prednisolone plus formoterol and subsequent open-label budesonide/formoterol (320/9 μg bid) for another 12 weeks. Change in FEV1 was the primary efficacy variable. Non-inferiority was predefined. Results Non-inferiority of budesonide/formoterol was proven because the lower limit of FEV1-change (97.5% CI) was above 90% of the efficacy of the alternative treatment. Symptoms, quality of life, treatment failures, need for reliever medication (and exacerbations during follow-up) did not differ between the groups. No safety concerns were identified. Conclusion High dose budesonide/formoterol was as

  9. Mechanisms Regulating Insulin Response to Intragastric Glucose in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Cajacob, Lucian; Riva, Daniele; Herzog, Raphael; Drewe, Juergen; Beglinger, Christoph; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives The changes in blood glucose concentrations that result from an oral glucose challenge are dependent on the rate of gastric emptying, the rate of glucose absorption and the rate of insulin-driven metabolism that include the incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The rate of insulin-driven metabolism is clearly altered in obese subjects, but it is controversial which of these factors is predominant. We aimed to quantify gastric emptying, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon and glucose responses, as well as incretin hormone secretions in obese subjects and healthy controls during increasing glucose loads. Subjects/Methods The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial in a hospital research unit. A total of 12 normal weight (6 men and 6 women) and 12 non-diabetic obese (BMI > 30, 6 men and 6 women) participants took part in the study. Subjects received intragastric loads of 10 g, 25 g and 75 g glucose dissolved in 300 ml tap water. Results Main outcome measures were plasma GLP-1 and GIP, plasma glucagon, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and gastric emptying. The primary findings are: i) insulin resistance (P < 0.001) and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001); ii) decreased insulin disposal (P < 0.001); iii) trend for reduced GLP-1 responses at 75 g glucose; and iv) increased fasting glucagon levels (P < 0.001) in obese subjects. Conclusions It seems that, rather than changes in incretin secretion, fasting hyperglucagonemia and consequent hyperglycemia play a role in reduced disposal of insulin, contributing to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01875575 PMID:26942445

  10. Iodixanol Has a Favourable Fibrinolytic Profile Compared to Iohexol in Cardiac Patients Undergoing Elective Angiography: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Treweeke, Andrew T.; Maskrey, Benjamin H.; Hickson, Kirsty; Miller, John H.; Leslie, Stephen J.; Megson, Ian L.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no consensus and a limited evidence base for choice of contrast agents (CA) in angiography. This study evaluated the impact of iohexol and iodixanol CA on fibrinolytic factors (tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA] and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]), as well as platelet-monocyte conjugates in cardiac patients undergoing elective angiography in a double-blind, randomised parallel group study. Methods Patients (men, 50–70 years old; n = 12) were randomised to receive either iohexol (Omnipaque; n = 6) or iodixanol (Visipaque; n = 6) during elective angiography at Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK. Arterial and venous blood samples were drawn prior to CA delivery and following angiography. Assessment of platelet-monocyte conjugation, t-PA and PAI-1 antigen and activity was conducted in samples pre- and post-angiography. Outcome Plasma t-PA antigen was depressed equally in the study groups after angiography, but there was a greater reduction in PAI-1 antigen in the group receiving iodixanol. These findings corresponded to a substantial reduction in t-PA activity in patients receiving iohexol, with no change in those receiving iodixanol (P = 0.023 between the CA groups). Both CAs caused a reduction in platelet-monocyte conjugation, with no difference between the groups. No adverse events were reported during the trial. Conclusion Avoiding reduced plasma t-PA activity might be an important consideration in choosing iodixanol over iohexol in patients at risk of thrombosis following angiography. The trial is registered on the ISRCTN register (ISRCTN51509735) and funded by the Coronary Thrombosis Trust and National Health Service (Highland) R&D Endowments. The funders had no influence over study design or reporting. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN51509735 PMID:26784323

  11. Twice weekly fluticasone propionate added to emollient maintenance treatment to reduce risk of relapse in atopic dermatitis: randomised, double blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Berth-Jones, John; Damstra, Robert J; Golsch, Stefan; Livden, John K; Van Hooteghem, Oliver; Allegra, Fulvio; Parker, Christine A

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate, cream and ointment, applied twice weekly in addition to maintenance treatment with emollients, in reducing the risk of relapse of chronic recurrent atopic dermatitis. Design Randomised, double blind, parallel group study of 20 weeks' duration. Setting Dermatology outpatient clinics (6 countries, 39 centres). Participants Adult (aged 12-65) patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis who were experiencing a flare. Methods Participants applied fluticasone propionate (0.05% cream or 0.005% ointment; once or twice daily) regularly for four weeks to stabilise their condition. The patients whose disease was brought under control then continued into a 16 week maintenance phase, applying emollient on a daily basis with a bath oil as needed and either the same formulation of fluticasone propionate or its placebo base (emollient alone) twice weekly to the areas that were usually affected. Main outcome measure Time to relapse of atopic dermatitis during maintenance phase. Results 376 patients entered the stabilisation phase, and 295 continued into the maintenance phase. After 16 weeks in the maintenance phase, the disease remained under control in 133 patients (87 using fluticasone propionate twice weekly, 46 using emollient alone), 135 (40 fluticasone propionate, 95 emollient) had experienced a relapse, and 27 had discontinued. Median time to relapse was six weeks for emollient alone compared with more than 16 weeks for additional fluticasone propionate. Patients who applied fluticasone propionate cream twice weekly were 5.8 times less likely (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 10.8, P < 0.001) and patients using fluticasone propionate ointment 1.9 times less likely (1.2 to 3.2, P=0.010) to have a relapse than patients applying emollient alone. The groups showed no differences in adverse events. Conclusion After atopic dermatitis had been stabilised the addition of fluticasone propionate twice weekly

  12. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Pilot Study of Milnacipran for Chronic Radicular Pain (Sciatica) Associated With Lumbosacral Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Chi-Un; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigates whether milnacipran, an equipotent serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is effective in reducing chronic radicular pain in patients (N = 11) with lumbosacral disc disease. Method: This study is a 10-week randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of milnacipran (100–200 mg/d, dosed twice a day). Subjects (enrolled from October 2010 to September 2011 through the Duke University Pain and Palliative Care Clinic, Durham, North Carolina) included patients with radiologically confirmed disc disease with nerve root compression. The primary outcome measure was radicular pain measured by visual analog scale score (VAS-Rad); patients were asked to specifically rate radicular pain (“shooting or electrical or prickly pain in 1 or both legs”). Secondary outcome measures included nociceptive low back pain by visual analog scale (VAS-Noc), Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire, Neuropathic Pain Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Between-group changes in outcome measures between baseline and endpoint were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U nonparametric measure of central tendency. Results: Milnacipran treatment yielded statistically significant reduction in radicular pain (VAS-Rad, P = .01) and nociceptive low back pain (VAS-Noc, P = .04) compared to placebo. No statistically significant between-group differences were observed in the other secondary outcome measures. Conclusions: In this small pilot study, milnacipran treatment was associated with reduction in radicular and nociceptive low back pain in patients with lumbosacral disc disease. Larger studies of milnacipran in this population are warranted. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01777581. PMID:25664215

  13. Intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic enhances salivary release of secretory IgA: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    NAKASONE, YASUSHI; SATO, NORIMASA; AZUMA, TAKAYUKI; HASUMI, KEIJI

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have provided evidence that suggests the beneficial effects of garlic and black vinegar on human health, including benefits to immune function. The preliminary study indicated that the intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food, created from aged garlic pickled in the mash of black vinegar, enhanced the release of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in the saliva. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the food in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The trial was conducted in subjects aged between 30 and 60 years whose rate of salivary sIgA release was moderately low. Subjects consumed 2.49 g of placebo or black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food (active food) daily for 8 weeks. The data obtained with 54 eligible subjects (n=28 and 26 for placebo and active, respectively) were analyzed for efficacy. The rates of salivary sIgA release in the active food group (35.9±84.6 and 47.9±123.4 µg/min at weeks 4 and 8 of intake; changes from pretrial value) were higher compared to the respective rates in the placebo food group (−12.3±72.1 and −3.2±85.9 µg/min, P=0.028 and 0.082, respectively). These findings indicate that intake of black-vinegar-mash-garlic-containing food enhanced the intraoral immune response. There was no adverse event associated with the intake of active food. PMID:27347407

  14. The Efficacy and Safety of Wenxin Keli in Patients with Frequent Premature Ventricular Contractions: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Wei; Gao, Run-Lin; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xu-Hua; Cai, Chi; Zhang, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are common in the general population, and frequent PVCs may result in the poor quality of life or even the damage of cardiac function. We examined the efficacy and safety of a traditional Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli for the treatment of frequent PVCs among a relatively large Chinese cohort. Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter trial. A total of 1200 eligible participants were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1 to receive Wenxin Keli or the placebo for 4 weeks. The primary and secondary endpoint was the change of PVC numbers and PVC-related symptoms after a 4-week treatment compared with baseline, respectively. In addition, vital signs, laboratory values, and electrocardiographic parameters were assessed in a safety analysis. Results: At the initial evaluation, no significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between the Wenxin Keli group and the placebo group. A smaller number of PVCs was observed after the 4-week treatment than at baseline, in both the Wenxin Keli group (5686 ± 5940 vs. 15,138 ± 7597 beats/d, P < 0.001) and the placebo group (10,592 ± 8009 vs. 14,529 ± 5929 beats/d, P < 0.001); moreover, the Wenxin Keli group demonstrated a significantli greater reduction in the frequency of PVCs than the placebo group (P < 0.001). In a full analysis set, patients in the Wenxin Keli group exhibited significantly higher total effective responses in the reduction of PVCs compared to those in the placebo group (83.8% vs. 43.5%, P < 0.001). The per-protocol analysis yielded similar results (83.0% vs. 39.3%, P < 0.001). Treatment with Wenxin Keli also demonstrated superior performance compared to the placebo with respect to PVC-related symptoms. No severe adverse effects attributable to Wenxin Keli were reported. Conclusions: Wenxin Keli treatment effectively reduced the overall number of PVCs and alleviated PVC

  15. The effect of umeclidinium added to inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist in patients with symptomatic COPD: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana R; Riley, John H; Church, Alison; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Punekar, Yogesh S; Fahy, William A

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of triple therapy with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), added to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), have been demonstrated. Limited data assessing the efficacy of the LAMA umeclidinium (UMEC) added to ICS/LABA are available. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of UMEC added to ICS/LABAs in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study. Patients were symptomatic (modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale score ⩾2), despite receiving ICS/LABA (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL, branded) 500/50 mcg, budesonide/formoterol (BD/FOR, branded) 200/6 mcg or 400/12 mcg, or other ICS/LABAs) ⩾30 days before the run-in (7±2 days). Patients were randomised 1:1 to once-daily UMEC 62.5 mcg or placebo (PBO), added to twice-daily open-label ICS/LABA for 12 weeks. Primary end point was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at Day 85; secondary end point was weighted mean (WM) 0-6 h FEV1 at Day 84; other end points included COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score and Transition Dyspnoea Index (TDI) score. Adverse events (AEs) were investigated. In the UMEC+ICS/LABA and PBO+ICS/LABA groups, 119 and 117 patients were randomised, respectively. Patients received FP/SAL (40%), BD/FOR (43%) and other ICS/LABAs (17%). UMEC+ICS/LABA resulted in significant improvements in trough FEV1 (Day 85) and in WM 0-6 h FEV1 (Day 84) versus PBO+ICS/LABA (difference: 123 and 148 ml, respectively, both P<0.001). Change from baseline for UMEC+ICS/LABA versus PBO+ICS/LABA was significantly different for CAT score at Day 84 (-1.31, P<0.05), but not for TDI score (0.40, P=0.152). AE incidence was similar with UMEC+ICS/LABA (38%) and PBO+ICS/LABA (42%). UMEC+ICS/LABA improved lung function and CAT score in patients with symptomatic COPD versus PBO+ICS/LABA (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257372). PMID:27334739

  16. The effect of umeclidinium added to inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist in patients with symptomatic COPD: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana R; Riley, John H; Church, Alison; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Punekar, Yogesh S; Fahy, William A

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of triple therapy with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), added to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA), have been demonstrated. Limited data assessing the efficacy of the LAMA umeclidinium (UMEC) added to ICS/LABA are available. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of UMEC added to ICS/LABAs in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD. This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study. Patients were symptomatic (modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale score ⩾2), despite receiving ICS/LABA (fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL, branded) 500/50 mcg, budesonide/formoterol (BD/FOR, branded) 200/6 mcg or 400/12 mcg, or other ICS/LABAs) ⩾30 days before the run-in (7±2 days). Patients were randomised 1:1 to once-daily UMEC 62.5 mcg or placebo (PBO), added to twice-daily open-label ICS/LABA for 12 weeks. Primary end point was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at Day 85; secondary end point was weighted mean (WM) 0–6 h FEV1 at Day 84; other end points included COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score and Transition Dyspnoea Index (TDI) score. Adverse events (AEs) were investigated. In the UMEC+ICS/LABA and PBO+ICS/LABA groups, 119 and 117 patients were randomised, respectively. Patients received FP/SAL (40%), BD/FOR (43%) and other ICS/LABAs (17%). UMEC+ICS/LABA resulted in significant improvements in trough FEV1 (Day 85) and in WM 0–6 h FEV1 (Day 84) versus PBO+ICS/LABA (difference: 123 and 148 ml, respectively, both P<0.001). Change from baseline for UMEC+ICS/LABA versus PBO+ICS/LABA was significantly different for CAT score at Day 84 (−1.31, P<0.05), but not for TDI score (0.40, P=0.152). AE incidence was similar with UMEC+ICS/LABA (38%) and PBO+ICS/LABA (42%). UMEC+ICS/LABA improved lung function and CAT score in patients with symptomatic COPD versus PBO+ICS/LABA (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02257372). PMID:27334739

  17. Effect of amiloride, or amiloride plus hydrochlorothiazide, versus hydrochlorothiazide on glucose tolerance and blood pressure (PATHWAY-3): a parallel-group, double-blind randomised phase 4 trial

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; Morant, Steve V; Webb, David J; Caulfield, Mark J; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Ford, Ian; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Salsbury, Jackie; Mackenzie, Isla S; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Potassium depletion by thiazide diuretics is associated with a rise in blood glucose. We assessed whether addition or substitution of a potassium-sparing diuretic, amiloride, to treatment with a thiazide can prevent glucose intolerance and improve blood pressure control. Methods We did a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind trial in 11 secondary and two primary care sites in the UK. Eligible patients were aged 18–80 years; had clinic systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and home systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher on permitted background drugs of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, β blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or direct renin inhibitors (previously untreated patients were also eligible in specific circumstances); and had at least one component of the metabolic syndrome in addition to hypertension. Patients with known diabetes were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 24 weeks of daily oral treatment with starting doses of 10 mg amiloride, 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide, or 5 mg amiloride plus 12·5 mg hydrochlorothiazide; all doses were doubled after 12 weeks. Random assignment was done via a central computer system. Both participants and investigators were masked to assignment. Our hierarchical primary endpoints, assessed on a modified intention-to-treat basis at 12 and 24 weeks, were the differences from baseline in blood glucose measured 2 h after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), compared first between the hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride groups, and then between the hydrochlorothiazide and combination groups. A key secondary endpoint was change in home systolic blood pressure at 12 and 24 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00797862, and the MHRA, Eudract number 2009-010068-41, and is now complete. Findings Between Nov 18, 2009, and Dec 15, 2014, 145 patients were randomly assigned to amiloride, 146 to

  18. Efficacy and Safety of FospropofolFD Compared to Propofol When Given During the Induction of General Anaesthesia: A Phase II, Multi-centre, Randomized, Parallel-Group, Active-Controlled, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Luo, Chaozhi; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng; Li, Yan; Xu, Jing

    2016-07-01

    The present phase II study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of fospropofol disodium for injection (FospropofolFD ) and propofol when given during the induction of general anaesthesia in patients scheduled for elective surgery. FospropofolFD is a water-soluble prodrug of propofol. Approved by the Ethical Committee, 240 participants aged 18-65 years were equally randomly allocated to receive an intravenous bolus of FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg or propofol 2 mg/kg without any anaesthetic pre-treatment. The primary efficacy end-point was the sedation success rate within 5 min. after administering investigational drugs (the sedation success is defined as obtaining Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale score of 1). All the participants completed the induction and intubation within 25 min. after administration. The sedation success rates within 5 min. after administration of FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg and propofol 2 mg/kg were 94.50% versus 100% in the intention-to-treat population and 95.10% versus 100% in the per-protocol population, respectively. The non-inferiority test obtained a p-value less than 0.025, and the lower limits of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval were more than -0.09. This meant that FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg was considered non-inferior to propofol 2 mg/kg for the primary efficacy end-point. Compared with propofol 2 mg/kg, FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg had a slower sedation efficacy. No serious adverse events were observed in the two groups. The sedation success rate within 5 min. after administration of FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg was non-inferior to propofol 2 mg/kg, and FospropofolFD 20 mg/kg can be used for the induction of general anaesthesia safely. PMID:26781338

  19. A double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group trial with 0.05% halobetasol propionate ointment versus 0.1% diflucortolone valerate ointment in patients with severe, chronic atopic dermatitis or lichen simplex chronicus.

    PubMed

    Brunner, N; Yawalkar, S

    1991-12-01

    In a double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, comparative trial in 120 evaluable patients with chronic, localized atopic dermatitis or lichen simplex chronicus, the success rate (described as "healed" and "marked improvement") was 91.5% in patients treated with halobetasol propionate ointment and 83.6% in those in the diflucortolone valerate treatment group. Of patients treated with halobetasol propionate ointment, 40.7% reported healing within 17 days, whereas of those in the diflucortolone valerate treatment group, 32.8% reported healing within that time. Early onset of therapeutic effect, that is, within 3 days of the start of treatment, was reported in a higher percentage of patients treated with halobetasol propionate ointment than in those treated with diflucortolone valerate ointment (70% versus 59%). Adverse effects at the site of application were less frequently reported in patients belonging to the halobetasol propionate treatment group than in those treated with diflucortolone valerate ointment (3% versus 8%). PMID:1757609

  20. Blood Pressure Response to Zofenopril or Irbesartan Each Combined with Hydrochlorothiazide in High-Risk Hypertensives Uncontrolled by Monotherapy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled, Parallel Group, Noninferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Malacco, Ettore; Omboni, Stefano; Parati, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel group study (ZENITH), 434 essential hypertensives with additional cardiovascular risk factors, uncontrolled by a previous monotherapy, were treated for 18 weeks with zofenopril 30 or 60 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg or irbesartan 150 or 300 mg plus HCTZ. Rate of office blood pressure (BP) response (zofenopril: 68% versus irbesartan: 70%; p = 0.778) and 24-hour BP response (zofenopril: 85% versus irbesartan: 84%; p = 0.781) was similar between the two treatment groups. Cardiac and renal damage was equally reduced by both treatments, whereas the rate of carotid plaque regression was significantly larger with zofenopril. In conclusion, uncontrolled monotherapy treated hypertensives effectively respond to a combination of zofenopril or irbesartan plus a thiazide diuretic, in terms of either BP response or target organ damage progression. PMID:26347187

  1. Efficacy and safety of two pH-dependent-release mesalamine doses in moderately active ulcerative colitis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yasuo; Iida, Mitsuo; Ito, Hiroaki; Saida, Isamu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The therapeutic effect of mesalamine is considered to be dose-dependent; however, no consensus has been reached regarding the optimal doses for individual patients. This study aimed to provide new insight for dose optimization using two doses of pH-dependent release mesalamine for induction of remission of moderately active ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study, 110 patients with moderately active UC were assigned to two groups after treatment with a constant dose of mesalamine. Fifty-five patients were treated with a pH-dependent release formulation of 3.6 or 4.8 g/day for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was a decrease in the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) adjusted by covariates. Results In the full analysis set (n=110), the mean decrease in UCDAI was 3.1 in the 3.6 g/day group and 3.4 in the 4.8 g/day group (P>0.05). In a subgroup analysis, the effectiveness of the 4.8 g/day dose was greater in particular populations, such as those who had been previously treated with a lower dose of mesalamine and those with more severe disease. The safety was comparable between the two groups. Conclusions The results suggest that treatment with pH-dependent release mesalamine at either 3.6 or 4.8 g/day was effective and safe for the induction of remission in patients with moderately active UC. However, the patients receiving mesalamine at 2.4 g/day but in whom the therapeutic effect is not sufficient and having more severe symptoms (UCDAI 9-10), benefit from higher doses of mesalamine compared to others. PMID:26884735

  2. The effect of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: A parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Menne, Dieter; Schütze, Kurt; Vieth, Michael; Goergens, Reiner; Malfertheiner, Peter; Leodolter, Andreas; Fried, Michael; Fox, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to resolve controversy regarding the effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and H. pylori infection in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Design A randomized, double-blind, multicentre trial was performed in patients presenting with reflux symptoms. H. pylori-positive patients were randomized to receive either antibiotics or placebo for 7 days. H. pylori-negative patient controls received placebo. All received esomeprazole 20 mg b.d. for 7 days, followed by 40 mg o.d. to complete an 8-week course, and were followed up for 32 weeks by telephone. Results In this study, 198/589 (34%) patients were H. pylori-positive and 113 H. pylori-negative patients served as controls. Baseline endoscopy revealed 63% Los Angeles grade 0A and 37% Los Angeles grade BCD oesophagitis with no difference between patient groups. Symptom improvement on esomeprazole was seen in 89%. H. pylori eradication was successful in 82%. H. pylori eradication had no effect on symptomatic relapse (hazard ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.74–1.8; p = 0.5). Overall, H. pylori-positive patients had a lower probability of relapse compared to H. pylori-negative controls (hazard ratio 0.6, 95% CI 0.43–0.85; p = 0.004). Relapse hazard was modulated also by oesophagitis grade (BCD vs. 0A, hazard ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.5–3.0). Conclusion Relapse of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms after a course of high dose acid suppression took longer for H. pylori-positive patients than H. pylori-negative controls; however eradication therapy had no effect on the risk of relapse; ClincialTrials.gov number, NCT00574925. PMID:24917966

  3. Fixed combination of cinnarizine and dimenhydrinate versus betahistine dimesylate in the treatment of Ménière's disease: a randomized, double-blind, parallel group clinical study.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Miroslav; Kostrica, Rom

    2002-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind clinical study, we evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of the fixed combination of cinnarizine, 20 mg, and dimenhydrinate, 40 mg (Arlevert [ARL]) in comparison to betahistine dimesylate (12 mg) in 82 patients suffering from Ménière's disease for at least 3 months and showing the characteristic triad of symptoms (paroxysmal vertigo attacks, cochlear hearing loss, and tinnitus). The treatment (one tablet three times daily) extended to 12 weeks, with control visits at 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks after drug intake. The study demonstrated for both the fixed-combination ARL and for betahistine a highly efficient reduction of vertigo symptoms in the course of the 12 weeks of treatment; however, no statistically significant difference between the two treatment groups could be established. Similar results were found for tinnitus (approximately 60% reduction) and for the associated vegetative symptoms (almost complete disappearance). Vestibulospinal reactions, recorded by means of craniocorpography, also improved distinctly, with a statistically significant superiority of ARL versus betahistine (p < .042) for the parameter of lateral sway (Unterberger's test). The caloric tests (electronystagmography) showed only minor changes for both treatment groups in the course of the study. A statistically significant improvement of hearing function of the affected ear (p = .042) was found for the combination preparation after 12 weeks of treatment. The tolerability was judged by the vast majority of patients (97.5%) in both groups to be very good. Only one patient (betahistine group) reported a nonserious adverse event, and two betahistine patients did not complete the study. In conclusion, the combination preparation proved to be a highly efficient and safe treatment option for Ménière's disease and may be used both in the management of acute episodes and in long-term treatment. Efficacy and safety were found to be similar to the widely used standard

  4. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Langford, R M; Mares, J; Novotna, A; Vachova, M; Novakova, I; Notcutt, W; Ratcliffe, S

    2013-04-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) occurs in many multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The provision of adequate pain relief to these patients can very difficult. Here we report the first phase III placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of the endocannabinoid system modulator delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (USAN name, nabiximols; Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK), to alleviate CNP. Patients who had failed to gain adequate analgesia from existing medication were treated with THC/CBD spray or placebo as an add-on treatment, in a double-blind manner, for 14 weeks to investigate the efficacy of the medication in MS-induced neuropathic pain. This parallel-group phase of the study was then followed by an 18-week randomized-withdrawal study (14-week open-label treatment period plus a double-blind 4-week randomized-withdrawal phase) to investigate time to treatment failure and show maintenance of efficacy. A total of 339 patients were randomized to phase A (167 received THC/CBD spray and 172 received placebo). Of those who completed phase A, 58 entered the randomized-withdrawal phase. The primary endpoint of responder analysis at the 30 % level at week 14 of phase A of the study was not met, with 50 % of patients on THC/CBD spray classed as responders at the 30 % level compared to 45 % of patients on placebo (p = 0.234). However, an interim analysis at week 10 showed a statistically significant treatment difference in favor of THC/CBD spray at this time point (p = 0.046). During the randomized-withdrawal phase, the primary endpoint of time to treatment failure was statistically significant in favor of THC/CBD spray, with 57 % of patients receiving placebo failing treatment versus 24 % of patients from the THC/CBD spray group (p = 0.04). The mean change from baseline in Pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) (p = 0.028) and sleep quality NRS (p = 0.015) scores, both secondary endpoints in phase B, were also statistically

  5. The combination of oligo- and polysaccharides and reticulated protein for the control of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: Results of a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, multicentre clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Alexea, Octavian; Bacarea, Vlad

    2015-01-01

    Background A medical device containing the film-forming agent reticulated protein and a prebiotic mixture of vegetable oligo- and polysaccharides has been developed, recently receiving European approval as MED class III for the treatment of chronic/functional or recidivant diarrhoea due to different causes including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In the present paper, we evaluate a protein preparation containing these components in comparison with placebo in adult patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS. Methods In a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, multicentre clinical trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive the combination of oligo- and polysaccharides and reticulated protein and placebo (four oral tablets/day for 56 days). Demographic, clinical and quality of life characteristics and presence and intensity of abdominal pain and flatulence (seven-point Likert scale) were assessed at three study visits (baseline and at 28 and 56 days). Stool emissions were recorded on the diary card using the seven-point Bristol Stool Scale. Results A total of 128 patients were randomised to receive either tablets containing the combination (n = 63) or placebo (n = 65). Treatment with oligo- and polysaccharides and reticulated protein was safe and well tolerated. A significant improvement in symptoms across the study was observed in patients treated with oligo- and polysaccharides and reticulated protein between visit 2 and visit 3 in abdominal pain (p = 0.0167) and flatulence (p = 0.0373). We also detected a statistically significant increase in the quality of life of patients receiving the active treatment from baseline to visit 3 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Treatment with oligo- and polysaccharides and reticulated protein is safe, improving IBS symptoms and quality of life of patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS. PMID:27403313

  6. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, parallel-group clinical trial to assess the effects of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teduglutide, a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2, is a novel therapy recently approved for the treatment of adult patients with short bowel syndrome who are dependent on parenteral support. Previous studies assessing the effect of GLP-2 on gastric emptying in humans have yielded inconsistent results, with some studies showing no effect and others documenting a GLP-2–dependent delay in gastric emptying. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects, as measured by the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen. Methods This double-blind, parallel-group, single-center study enrolled and randomized 36 healthy subjects (22 men, 14 women) to receive subcutaneous doses of teduglutide 4 mg or placebo (2:1 ratio; 23:13) once daily on Days 1 through 10 in the morning. Gastric emptying of a mixed nutrient liquid meal was assessed by measuring acetaminophen levels predose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours after administration of 1000 mg acetaminophen on Days 0 and 10. The primary study endpoint was a pharmacokinetic analysis of acetaminophen absorption in subjects receiving teduglutide or placebo. Results No significant differences in gastric emptying of liquids (acetaminophen area under the concentration [AUC] vs time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, AUC extrapolated to infinity, maximum concentration [Cmax], and time to Cmax) were observed on Day 10 in subjects receiving teduglutide 4 mg versus subjects receiving placebo. There were no serious adverse events (AEs), deaths, or discontinuations due to an AE reported during the study. Conclusions Teduglutide 4 mg/day for 10 days does not affect gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects as measured by acetaminophen pharmacokinetics. No unexpected safety signals were observed. Trial registration This study was registered at Clinical

  7. A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study to demonstrate equivalence in efficacy and safety of CT-P13 compared with innovator infliximab when coadministered with methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: the PLANETRA study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae Hyun; Hrycaj, Pawel; Miranda, Pedro; Ramiterre, Edgar; Piotrowski, Mariusz; Shevchuk, Sergii; Kovalenko, Volodymyr; Prodanovic, Nenad; Abello-Banfi, Mauricio; Gutierrez-Ureña, Sergio; Morales-Olazabal, Luis; Tee, Michael; Jimenez, Renato; Zamani, Omid; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, HoUng; Park, Won; Müller-Ladner, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of innovator infliximab (INX) and CT-P13, an INX biosimilar, in active rheumatoid arthritis patients with inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Methods Phase III randomised, double-blind, multicentre, multinational, parallel-group study. Patients with active disease despite MTX (12.5–25 mg/week) were randomised to receive 3 mg/kg of CT-P13 (n=302) or INX (n=304) with MTX and folic acid. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 30. Therapeutic equivalence of clinical response according to ACR20 criteria was concluded if the 95% CI for the treatment difference was within ±15%. Secondary endpoints included ACR response criteria, European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria, change in Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Simplified Disease Activity Index, Clinical Disease Activity Index, as well as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters, safety and immunogenicity. Results At week 30, ACR20 responses were 60.9% for CT-P13 and 58.6% for INX (95% CI −6% to 10%) in the intention-to-treat population. The proportions in CT-P13 and INX groups achieving good or moderate EULAR responses (C reactive protein (CRP)) at week 30 were 85.8% and 87.1%, respectively. Low disease activity or remission according to DAS28–CRP, ACR–EULAR remission rates, ACR50/ACR70 responses and all other PK and PD endpoints were highly similar at week 30. Incidence of drug-related adverse events (35.2% vs 35.9%) and detection of antidrug antibodies (48.4% vs 48.2%) were highly similar for CT-P13 and INX, respectively. Conclusions CT-P13 demonstrated equivalent efficacy to INX at week 30, with a comparable PK profile and immunogenicity. CT-P13 was well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable with that of INX. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01217086 PMID:23687260

  8. A randomised, double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group, prospective study comparing the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of CT-P13 and innovator infliximab in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: the PLANETAS study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Won; Hrycaj, Pawel; Jeka, Slawomir; Kovalenko, Volodymyr; Lysenko, Grygorii; Miranda, Pedro; Mikazane, Helena; Gutierrez-Ureña, Sergio; Lim, MieJin; Lee, Yeon-Ah; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, HoUng; Yoo, Dae Hyun; Braun, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy of innovator infliximab (INX) and CT-P13, a biosimilar to INX, in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods Phase 1 randomised, double-blind, multicentre, multinational, parallel-group study. Patients were randomised to receive 5 mg/kg of CT-P13 (n=125) or INX (n=125). Primary endpoints were area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) at steady state and observed maximum steady state serum concentration (Cmax,ss) between weeks 22 and 30. Additional PK, efficacy endpoints, including 20% and 40% improvement response according to Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis International Working Group criteria (ASAS20 and ASAS40), and safety outcomes were also assessed. Results Geometric mean AUC was 32 765.8 μgh/ml for CT-P13 and 31 359.3 μgh/ml for INX. Geometric mean Cmax,ss was 147.0  μg/ml for CT-P13 and 144.8 μg/ml for INX. The ratio of geometric means was 104.5% (90% CI 94% to 116%) for AUC and 101.5% (90% CI 95% to 109%) for Cmax,ss. ASAS20 and ASAS40 responses at week 30 were 70.5% and 51.8% for CT-P13 and 72.4% and 47.4% for INX, respectively. In the CT-P13 and INX groups more than one adverse event occurred in 64.8% and 63.9% of patients, infusion reactions occurred in 3.9% and 4.9%, active tuberculosis occurred in 1.6% and 0.8%, and 27.4% and 22.5% of patients tested positive for anti-drug antibodies, respectively. Conclusions The PK profiles of CT-P13 and INX were equivalent in patients with active AS. CT-P13 was well tolerated, with an efficacy and safety profile comparable to that of INX up to week 30. PMID:23687259

  9. Comparative study of the efficacy and safety between blonanserin and risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: A double-blind, parallel-group multicenter randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Huafang; Yao, Chen; Shi, Jianguo; Yang, Fude; Qi, Shuguang; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Honggeng; Li, Jie; Wang, Chuanyue; Wang, Chuansheng; Liu, Cui; Li, Lehua; Wang, Qiang; Li, Keqing; Luo, Xiaoyan; Gu, Niufan

    2015-10-01

    This randomized, double-blind study compared the efficacy and safety of blonanserin and risperidone to treat Chinese schizophrenia patients aged ≥18 and < 65 years. Patients with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores ≥70 and ≤ 120 were randomized to receive blonanserin or risperidone using a gradual dose-titration method (blonanserin tablets: 8-24 mg/day; risperidone tablets: 2-6 mg/day), twice daily. Treatment populations consisted of 128 blonanserin-treated patients and 133 risperidone-treated patients. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using the last observation carried forward method. Reductions of PANSS total scores by blonanserin and risperidone treatment were -30.59 and -33.56, respectively. Risperidone treatment was associated with elevated levels of serum prolactin (67.16% risperidone versus 52.31% blonanserin) and cardiac-related abnormalities (22.39% risperidone versus 12.31% blonanserin), and blonanserin patients were more prone to extrapyramidal side effects (48.46% blonanserin versus 29.10% risperidone). In conclusion, blonanserin was as effective as risperidone for the treatment of Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The overall safety profiles of these drugs are comparable, although blonanserin was associated with a higher incidence of EPS and risperidone was associated with a higher incidence of prolactin elevation and weight gain. Thus, blonanserin is useful for the treatment of Chinese schizophrenia patients. PMID:26343601

  10. Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Eskesen, Dorte; Jespersen, Lillian; Michelsen, Birgit; Whorwell, Peter J; Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Morberg, Cathrine M

    2015-11-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on two primary end points - defecation frequency and gastrointestinal (GI) well-being - in healthy adults with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort. A total of 1248 subjects were included in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomised to 1 or 10 billion colony-forming units/d of the probiotic strain BB-12® or a matching placebo capsule once daily for 4 weeks. Subjects completed a diary on bowel habits, relief of abdominal discomfort and symptoms. GI well-being, defined as global relief of abdominal discomfort, did not show significant differences. The OR for having a defecation frequency above baseline for ≥50% of the time was 1·31 (95% CI 0·98, 1·75), P=0·071, for probiotic treatment overall. Tightening the criteria for being a responder to an increase of ≥1 d/week for ≥50 % of the time resulted in an OR of 1·55 (95% CI 1·22, 1·96), P=0·0003, for treatment overall. A treatment effect on average defecation frequency was found (P=0·0065), with the frequency being significantly higher compared with placebo at all weeks for probiotic treatment overall (all P<0·05). Effects on defecation frequency were similar for the two doses tested, suggesting that a ceiling effect was reached with the one billion dose. Overall, 4 weeks' supplementation with the probiotic strain BB-12® resulted in a clinically relevant benefit on defecation frequency. The results suggest that consumption of BB-12® improves the GI health of individuals whose symptoms are not sufficiently severe to consult a doctor (ISRCTN18128385). PMID:26382580

  11. The first double-blind, randomised, parallel-group certolizumab pegol study in methotrexate-naive early rheumatoid arthritis patients with poor prognostic factors, C-OPERA, shows inhibition of radiographic progression

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Yamanishi, Yuji; Kita, Yasuhiko; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Shoji, Toshiharu; Okada, Toshiyuki; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of combination therapy using certolizumab pegol (CZP) and methotrexate (MTX) as first-line treatment for MTX-naive, early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with poor prognostic factors, compared with MTX alone. Methods MTX-naive, early RA patients with ≤12 months persistent disease, high anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, and either rheumatoid factor positive and/or presence of bone erosions were enrolled in this multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo (PBO)-controlled study. Patients were randomised 1:1 to CZP+MTX or PBO+MTX for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was inhibition of radiographic progression (change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS CFB)) at week 52. Secondary endpoints were mTSS CFB at week 24, and clinical remission rates at weeks 24 and 52. Results 316 patients randomised to CZP+MTX (n=159) or PBO+MTX (n=157) had comparable baseline characteristics reflecting features of early RA (mean disease duration: 4.0 vs 4.3 months; Disease Activity Score 28-joint assessment (DAS28)) (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)): 5.4 vs 5.5; mTSS: 5.2 vs 6.0). CZP+MTX group showed significantly greater inhibition of radiographic progression relative to PBO+MTX at week 52 (mTSS CFB=0.36 vs 1.58; p<0.001) and week 24 (mTSS CFB=0.26 vs 0.86; p=0.003). Clinical remission rates (Simple Disease Activity Index, Boolean and DAS28 (ESR)) of the CZP+MTX group were significantly higher compared with those of the PBO+MTX group, at weeks 24 and 52. Safety results in both groups were similar, with no new safety signals observed with addition of CZP to MTX. Conclusions In MTX-naive early RA patients with poor prognostic factors, CZP+MTX significantly inhibited structural damage and reduced RA signs and symptoms, demonstrating the efficacy of CZP in these patients. Trial registration number (NCT01451203). PMID:26139005

  12. The effect of addition of low dose fentanyl to epidural bupivacaine (0.5%) in patients undergoing elective caesarean section: A randomized, parallel group, double blind, placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Parate, LH; Manjrekar, SP; Anandaswamy, TC; Manjunath, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Opioids have synergistic action with local anesthetics which may alter characteristics of epidural block. Giving opioids to mother before delivery of baby is still fully not accepted with some fearing risk of neonatal depression. Aims: Our primary aim was to evaluate the analgesic effect of addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine in patients undergoing elective caesarean section using visual analog scale. The secondary aim was to assess onset of analgesia, volume of drug required to achieve T6 level, grade and duration of motor block and Apgar score. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study 64 patients scheduled for elective caesarean section under epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups of 32 each. The fentanyl group received 1ml of 50 μg fentanyl and the saline group received 1ml of normal saline mixed with 10ml of 0.5% bupivacaine for epidural anesthesia. VAS score, time to achieve T6 level, dose of bupivacaine, intraoperative analgesic consumption and duration of analgesia, grade and duration of motor block and any adverse maternal and neonatal effects were noted. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using Students t test, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Fentanyl improved the VAS score significantly (1.6 ± 1.32) compared to the saline group (3.77 ± 1.0, P < 0.0001). It also reduced the intraoperaitve analgesic supplementation compared to the saline group. (P = 0.031). The postoperative duration of analgesia was prolonged in the fentanyl group (275.80 ± 13.61 min) compared to the saline group (191.47 ± 12.16 min, P < 0.0001). The other characteristics of epidural block were unaltered. Conclusion: Addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine significantly reduces the VAS score. It also reduces intra-operative analgesia supplementation and prolongs the duration

  13. Early (≤ 1-h) vs. late (>1-h) administration of frovatriptan plus dexketoprofen combination vs. frovatriptan monotherapy in the acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without aura: a post hoc analysis of a double-blind, randomized, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Bussone, Gennaro; Tullo, Vincenzo; Cortelli, Pietro; Valguarnera, Fabio; Barbanti, Piero; Sette, Giuliano; Frediani, Fabio; D'Arrigo, Giacomo; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Comi, Giancarlo; Curone, Marcella; Colombo, Bruno; Omboni, Stefano; Benedetto, Chiara

    2015-05-01

    The early use of triptan in combination with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug after headache onset may improve the efficacy of acute migraine treatment. In this retrospective analysis of a randomized, double-blind, parallel group study, we assessed the efficacy of early or late intake of frovatriptan 2.5 mg + dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg (FroDex 25 and FroDex 37.5) vs. frovatriptan 2.5 mg alone (Frova) in the acute treatment of migraine attacks. In this double-blind, randomized parallel group study 314 subjects with acute migraine with or without aura were randomly assigned to Frova, FroDex 25, or FroDex 37.5. Pain free (PF) at 2-h (primary endpoint), PF at 4-h and pain relief (PR) at 2 and 4-h, speed of onset at 60, 90, 120 and 240-min, and sustained pain free (SPF) at 24-h were compared across study groups according to early (≤1-h; n = 220) or late (>1-h; n = 59) intake. PF rates at 2 and 4-h were significantly larger with FroDex 37.5 vs. Frova (early intake, n = 71 FroDex 37.5 and n = 75 Frova: 49 vs. 32 % and 68 vs. 52 %, p < 0.05; late intake, n = 20 Frodex 37.5, and n = 18 Frova: 55 vs. 17 %, p < 0.05 and 85 vs. 28 %, p < 0.01). Also with FroDex 25, in the early intake group (n = 74) PF episodes were significantly higher than Frova. PR at 2 and 4-h was significantly better under FroDex 37.5 than Frova (95 % vs. 50 %, p < 0.001, 100 % vs. 72 %, p < 0.05) in the late intake group (n = 21). SPF episodes at 24-h after early dosing were 25 % (Frova), 45 % (FroDex 25) and 41 % (FroDex 37.5, p < 0.05 combinations vs. monotherapy), whereas they were not significantly different with late intake. All treatments were equally well tolerated. FroDex was similarly effective regardless of intake timing from headache onset. PMID:26017535

  14. Efficacy and safety of monotherapy with the novel sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor tofogliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a combined Phase 2 and 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, several oral antidiabetic drugs with new mechanisms of action have become available, expanding the number of treatment options. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs with an insulin-independent mechanism promoting urinary glucose excretion. We report the results of a combined Phase 2 and 3 clinical study (Japic CTI-101349) of the SGLT2 inhibitor tofogliflozin (CSG452, RG7201) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods The efficacy and safety of tofogliflozin were assessed in this multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind parallel-group study involving 230 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on diet/exercise therapy. Between 30 October 2010 and 28 February 2012, patients at 33 centers were randomized to either placebo (n = 56) or tofogliflozin (10, 20, or 40 mg; n = 58 each) orally, once daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24. Results Overall, 229 patients were included in the full analysis set (placebo: n = 56; tofogliflozin 10 mg: n = 57; tofogliflozin 20 and 40 mg: n = 58 each). The least squares (LS) mean change (95% confidence interval) from baseline in HbA1c at week 24 was −0.028% (−0.192 to 0.137) in the placebo group, compared with −0.797% (−0.960 to −0.634) in the tofogliflozin 10 mg group, −1.017% (−1.178 to −0.856) in the tofogliflozin 20 mg group, and −0.870% (−1.031 to −0.709) in the tofogliflozin 40 mg group (p < 0.0001 for the LS mean differences in all tofogliflozin groups vs placebo). There were also prominent decreases in fasting blood glucose, 2-h postprandial glucose, and body weight in all tofogliflozin groups compared with the placebo group. The main adverse events were hyperketonemia, ketonuria, and pollakiuria. The incidence of hypoglycemia was low. Furthermore, most adverse events were

  15. Double blind, randomised study of continuous terbinafine compared with intermittent itraconazole in treatment of toenail onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, E Glyn V; Sigurgeirsson, Bárdur

    1999-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of continuous terbinafine with intermittent itraconazole in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. Design Prospective, randomised, double blind, double dummy, multicentre, parallel group study lasting 72 weeks. Setting 35 centres in six European countries. Subjects 496 patients aged 18 to 75 years with a clinical and mycological diagnosis of dermatophyte onychomycosis of the toenail. Interventions Study patients were randomly divided into four parallel groups to receive either terbinafine 250 mg a day for 12 or 16 weeks (groups T12 and T16) or itraconazole 400 mg a day for 1 week in every 4 weeks for 12 or 16 weeks (groups I3 and I4). Main outcome measures Assessment of primary efficacy at week 72 was mycological cure, defined as negative results on microscopy and culture of samples from the target toenail. Results At week 72 the mycological cure rates were 75.7% (81/107) in the T12 group and 80.8% (80/99) in the T16 group compared with 38.3% (41/107) in the I3 group and 49.1 % (53/108) in the I4 group. All comparisons (T12 v I3, T12 v I4, T16 v I3, T16 v I4) showed significantly higher cure rates in the terbinafine groups (all P<0.0001). Also, all secondary clinical outcome measures were significantly in favour of terbinafine at week 72. There were no differences in the number or type of adverse events recorded in the terbinafine or itraconazole groups. Conclusion Continuous terbinafine is significantly more effective than intermittent itraconazole in the treatment of patients with toenail onychomycosis. Key messagesGiven a correct diagnosis, fungal nail disease (onychomycosis) is curableTerbinafine is an allylamine antifungal with a primarily fungicidal mode of actionContinuous terbinafine treatment over 12 or 16 weeks achieves higher rates of clinical and mycological cure than intermittent itraconazole given over the same periodsTerbinafine is safe and well tolerated over 12 or 16 weeks of continuous treatment

  16. Study protocol of Prednisone in episodic Cluster Headache (PredCH): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy in the prophylactic treatment of episodic cluster headache with verapamil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Episodic cluster headache (ECH) is a primary headache disorder that severely impairs patient’s quality of life. First-line therapy in the initiation of a prophylactic treatment is verapamil. Due to its delayed onset of efficacy and the necessary slow titration of dosage for tolerability reasons prednisone is frequently added by clinicians to the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. This treatment strategy is thought to effectively reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode (before verapamil is effective). This study will assess the efficacy and safety of oral prednisone as an add-on therapy to verapamil and compare it to a monotherapy with verapamil in the initial prophylactic treatment of a cluster episode. Methods and design PredCH is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel study arms. Eligible patients with episodic cluster headache will be randomized to a treatment intervention with prednisone or a placebo arm. The multi-center trial will be conducted in eight German headache clinics that specialize in the treatment of ECH. Discussion PredCH is designed to assess whether oral prednisone added to first-line agent verapamil helps reduce the number and intensity of cluster attacks in the beginning of a cluster episode as compared to monotherapy with verapamil. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004716 PMID:23889923

  17. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy and safety of a combination of formoterol and ciclesonide with ciclesonide alone in asthma subjects with moderate-to-severe airflow limitation

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Sundeep S; Vaidya, Abhijit J; Kodgule, Rahul R; Gogtay, Jaideep A

    2016-01-01

    Context: The combination of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) is widely used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe asthma uncontrolled by ICS alone. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new ICS-LABA combination inhaler containing Formoterol (F) and Ciclesonide (C). Settings and Design: A double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group fashion, multi-centric study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 169 asthma patients received Ciclesonide 80 μg once daily during a 4-week run-in period, after which, they were randomized to receive either C (80 μg) or a combination of F (4.5 μg) and C (80 μg) (FC) both delivered through a hydro-fluro-alkane pressurized-metered-dose inhaler as 1 puff twice daily, for 6 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: Inter-group differences were compared using t-test for independent samples at a significance level of 5%. Results: From baseline, the improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s at 1, 3, and 6 weeks was significantly higher in the FC group compared to Group C (110 ml vs. 40 ml, 140 ml vs. 20 ml, and 110 ml vs. 40 ml, respectively, all P < 0.05). From baseline, the improvements in mean morning peak expiratory flow at 1, 3, and 6 weeks was significantly higher in the FC group compared to Group C (17 L/min vs.−3 L/min, 22 L/min vs. 3 L/min, and 30 ml vs. 8 L/min respectively, all P < 0.05). The changes in symptom scores were similar in both the groups. The adverse events in the FC group were not significantly different from those in the C group. Conclusions: FC provides better improvement than C alone in terms of lung function and symptoms without increased risk of adverse events in asthma patients. PMID:27185990

  18. Double-blind study of the actively transported levodopa prodrug XP21279 in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    LeWitt, Peter A; Huff, F Jacob; Hauser, Robert A; Chen, Dan; Lissin, Dmitri; Zomorodi, Katie; Cundy, Kenneth C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of XP21279-carbidopa in patients with Parkinson's disease who experience motor fluctuations compared with immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa tablets. XP21279 is a levodopa prodrug that is actively absorbed by high-capacity nutrient transporters expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and then rapidly converted to levodopa by carboxylesterases. XP21279-carbidopa sustained-release bilayer tablets were developed to overcome pharmacokinetic limitations of levodopa by providing more continuous exposure. Patients with motor fluctuations who required carbidopa-levodopa four or five times daily were optimized for 2 weeks each on carbidopa-levodopa four or five times daily and XP21279-carbidopa three times daily in a randomized sequence. Next, they received each optimized treatment for 2 weeks in a double-blind/double-dummy, randomized sequence. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in daily off time at the end of each double-blind treatment period. All patients at 2 sites underwent pharmacokinetic analyses. Twenty-eight of 35 enrolled patients completed both double-blind treatments. The mean total daily off time was reduced from baseline by a mean (± standard error) of 2.7 hours (± 0.48 hours) for immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa and 3.0 hours (± 0.57 hours) for XP21279-carbidopa (P = 0.49). Among 11 patients who completed pharmacokinetic sampling on each optimized treatment, the percentage deviation from the mean levodopa concentration was lower (P < 0.05) for XP21279-carbidopa than carbidopa-levodopa. Both treatments had a similar incidence of new or worsening dyskinesias. XP21279-carbidopa administered three times daily produced a reduction in off time similar to that of carbidopa-levodopa administered four or five times daily, and the difference was not statistically significant. XP21279-carbidopa significantly reduced variability in levodopa

  19. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Melmed, Raun D.; Hansen, Robin L.; Aman, Michael G.; Burnham, David L.; Bruss, Jon B.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the extent and possible causal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and autism. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, dose-ranging study of oral, human immunoglobulin (IGOH 140, 420, or 840 mg/day) was utilized with 125 children (ages 2-17 years) with autism and persistent GI…

  20. How "Blind" Are Double-Blind Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margraf, Jurgen; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Compared alprazolam, imipramine, and placebo in the treatment of panic disorder patients (n=59) to investigate concerns about the internal validity of the double-blind design. Found that the great majority of patients and physicians were able to rate accurately whether active drug or placebo had been given and physicians could distinguish between…

  1. Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-center trial. J Infect Dis 2004; ... only by loading the software on a single computer (i.e., within a single CPU) at a ...

  2. Clobetasone treatment of allergic conjunctivitis: a comparative double blind study.

    PubMed

    Cerqueti, P M; Prosio, P E; Bosia, S; Buscaglia, S; Ciprandi, G

    1993-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are often included in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. The present study compares the efficacy on clinical and cytological parameters and safety of topical clobetasone butyrate compared to placebo. The trial, designed as double blind, randomized and parallel group treatment, was carried out in 30 patients, suffering from seasonal allergic conjunctivitis due to Grass pollen, during the pollen season (June 1992). Patients received clobetasone butyrate 0.1% eye drops or placebo eye drops, two drops each eye, t.i.d. for 10 days. The clinical and cytological evidences were investigated on admission and at the end of treatment by clinicians and by patients on a dairy card. The steroid group showed a rapid and significant clinical improvement and at the end of the trial a statistically significant difference was evidenced between the active drug treated group and placebo treated group. No serious side effects were observed. The results show the clinical efficacy of clobetasone butyrate in the treatment of pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:8337991

  3. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this trial was to assess the relative efficacy of a sage/echinacea spray and a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray in the treatment of acute sore throats. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy controlled trial carried out in eleven general practices in Switzerland. A total of 154 patients (133 analyzed in per protocol collective) at least 12 years old with acute sore throat present for not more than 72 hours prior to inclusion and with a throat score ≥6 participated in the study. They used either an echinacea/sage spray or a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray with two puffs every 2 hours, in a double-dummy blinded manner, up to 10 times daily until they were symptom-free, for a maximum of 5 days. The main outcome measures was the comparison of response rates during the first three days. A response was defined as a decrease of at least 50% of the total symptoms compared to baseline. Results The echinacea/sage treatment exhibited similar efficacy to the chlorhexidine/lidocaine treatment in reducing sore throat symptoms during the first 3 days (P(x < Y) = .5083). Response rates after 3 days were 63.8% in the echinacea/sage group and 57.8% in the chlorhexidine/lidocaine group. For all secondary parameters, such as time to becoming symptom free, throat pain, and global assessments of efficacy by the physician and patient, no difference between the two treatments was seen. They were both very well tolerated. Conclusion An echinacea/sage preparation is as efficacious and well tolerated as a chlorhexidine/lidocaine spray in the treatment of acute sore throats. PMID:19748859

  4. Randomized double-blind comparison of cognitive and EEG effects of lacosamide and carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Meador, Kimford J; Loring, David W; Boyd, Alan; Echauz, Javier; LaRoche, Suzette; Velez-Ruiz, Naymee; Korb, Pearce; Byrnes, William; Dilley, Deanne; Borghs, Simon; De Backer, Marc; Story, Tyler; Dedeken, Peter; Webster, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    Differential effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is more commonly determined by tolerability than efficacy. Cognitive effects of AEDs can adversely affect tolerability and quality of life. This study evaluated cognitive and EEG effects of lacosamide (LCM) compared with carbamazepine immediate-release (CBZ-IR). A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, two-period crossover, fixed-dose study in healthy subjects compared neuropsychological and EEG effects of LCM (150mg, b.i.d.) and CBZ-IR (200mg, t.i.d.). Testing was conducted at screening, predrug baseline, the end of each treatment period (3-week titration; 3-week maintenance), and the end of each washout period (4weeks after treatment). A composite Z-score was derived for the primary outcome variable (computerized cognitive tests and traditional neuropsychological measures) and separately for the EEG measures. Other variables included individual computer, neuropsychological, and EEG scores and adverse events (AEs). Subjects included 60 healthy adults (57% female; mean age: 34.4years [SD: 10.5]); 44 completed both treatments; 41 were per protocol subjects. Carbamazepine immediate-release had worse scores compared with LCM for the primary composite neuropsychological outcome (mean difference=0.33 [SD: 1.36], p=0.011) and for the composite EEG score (mean difference=0.92 [SD: 1.77], p=0.003). Secondary analyses across the individual variables revealed that CBZ-IR was statistically worse than LCM on 36% (4/11) of the neuropsychological tests (computerized and noncomputerized) and 0% of the four EEG measures; none favored CBZ-IR. Drug-related AEs occurred more with CBZ-IR (49%) than LCM (22%). Lacosamide had fewer untoward neuropsychological and EEG effects and fewer AEs and AE-related discontinuations than CBZ-IR in healthy subjects. Lacosamide exhibits a favorable cognitive profile. PMID:27517350

  5. Double-blind versus deceptive administration of a placebo.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, I; Weixel, L J

    1988-04-01

    Subjects were given varying doses of a placebo, consisting of decaffeinated coffee, with double-blind or deceptive instructions. Deceptive administration simulated clinical situations in that subjects were led to believe that they were receiving an active drug. In contrast, subjects in double-blind conditions were aware that they might receive a placebo. Double-blind and deceptive administration of the placebo produced different, and in some instances, opposite effects on pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, and subjective mood. Deceptive administration produced an increase in pulse rate, whereas double-blind administration did not. A theoretically predicted curvilinear effect on systolic blood pressure, alertness, tension, and certainty of having consumed caffeine was confirmed with deceptive administration, but not with double-blind administration. Double-blind administration produced curves in the opposite direction on each of these variables. The effects of the placebo on motor performance varied as a function of subject's beliefs about the effects of caffeine. These data challenge the validity of double-blind experimental designs and suggest that this common method of drug assessment may lead to spurious conclusions. PMID:3365327

  6. Hydroxychloroquine sulphate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind comparison of two dose regimens.

    PubMed Central

    Pavelka, K; Sen, K P; Pelísková, Z; Vácha, J; Trnavský, K

    1989-01-01

    A controlled, double blind, parallel group, long term study of hydroxychloroquine sulphate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, comparing daily doses of 200 mg and 400 mg, is described. The trial involved 54 patients with moderate disease activity who had not previously received antimalarial drugs. Forty three patients completed the one year treatment. The groups receiving different doses were homogeneous and did not differ in any of the 25 monitored indicators. Both dose regimens were effective, and a significant reduction of disease activity was observed after one year's treatment. Of the nine laboratory and 11 clinical indices of efficacy monitored, no statistically significant differences were reported, but in the group of patients treated with the 400 mg daily dose the number of side effects was three times greater. As there have been no reports of retinopathy with hydroxychloroquine at daily doses of 200 mg the effectiveness of this dose is of practical importance. PMID:2673079

  7. Learning without human expertise: a case study of the double dummy bridge problem.

    PubMed

    Mossakowski, Krzysztof; Mańdziuk, Jacek

    2009-02-01

    Artificial neural networks, trained only on sample deals, without presentation of any human knowledge or even rules of the game, are used to estimate the number of tricks to be taken by one pair of bridge players in the so-called double dummy bridge problem (DDBP). Four representations of a deal in the input layer were tested leading to significant differences in achieved results. In order to test networks' abilities to extract knowledge from sample deals, experiments with additional inputs representing estimators of hand's strength used by humans were also performed. The superior network trained solely on sample deals outperformed all other architectures, including those using explicit human knowledge of the game of bridge. Considering the suit contracts, this network, in a sample of 100,000 testing deals, output a perfect answer in 53.11% of the cases and only in 3.52% of them was mistaken by more than one trick. The respective figures for notrump contracts were equal to 37.80% and 16.36%. The above results were compared with the ones obtained by 24 professional human bridge players--members of The Polish Bridge Union--on test sets of sizes between 27 and 864 deals per player (depending on player's time availability). In case of suit contracts, the perfect answer was obtained in 53.06% of the testing deals for ten upper-classified players and in 48.66% of them, for the remaining 14 participants of the experiment. For the notrump contracts, the respective figures were equal to 73.68% and 60.78%. Except for checking the ability of neural networks in solving the DDBP, the other goal of this research was to analyze connection weights in trained networks in a quest for weights' patterns that are explainable by experienced human bridge players. Quite surprisingly, several such patterns were discovered (e.g., preference for groups of honors, drawing special attention to Aces, favoring cards from a trump suit, gradual importance of cards in one suit--from two to the Ace

  8. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. Setting A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Participants Chinese women aged 14–25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. Interventions A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Results Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (−0.71, CI −1.37 to −0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Conclusions Acupuncture point injection of

  9. Can Acupuncture Treatment Be Double-Blinded? An Evaluation of Double-Blind Acupuncture Treatment of Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Takayama, Miho; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Kawase, Akiko; Schuster, Lars; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Blinding protects against bias but the success of blinding is seldom assessed and reported in clinical trials including studies of acupuncture where blinding represents a major challenge. Recently, needles with the potential for double-blinding were developed, so we tested if acupuncture can be double-blinded in a randomized study of sixty-seven patients with acute pain ≥ 3 (0-10 scale following third molar removal) who received active acupuncture with a penetrating needle or placebo acupuncture with a non-penetrating needle. To test if acupuncture was administered double-blind, patients and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed “de qi” in East Asian medicine), and patients’ pain levels were assessed. Perceived treatment allocation depended on actual group allocation (p < 0.015) for both patients and acupuncturists, indicating that the needles were not successful in double-blinding. Up to 68% of patients and 83% of acupuncturists correctly identified the treatment, but for patients the distribution was not far from 50/50. Also, there was a significant interaction between actual or perceived treatment and the experience of de qi (p = 0.027), suggesting that the experience of de qi and possible non-verbal clues contributed to correct identification of the treatment. Yet, of the patients who perceived the treatment as active or placebo, 50% and 23%, respectively, reported de qi. Patients’ acute pain levels did not influence the perceived treatment. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment was not fully double-blinded which is similar to observations in pharmacological studies. Still, the non-penetrating needle is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in

  10. A randomised, double-blind trial comparing budesonide formulations and dosages for short-term treatment of eosinophilic oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Miehlke, Stephan; Hruz, Petr; Vieth, Michael; Bussmann, Christian; von Arnim, Ulrike; Bajbouj, Monther; Schlag, Christoph; Madisch, Ahmed; Fibbe, Christiane; Wittenburg, Henning; Allescher, Hans Dieter; Reinshagen, Max; Schubert, Stefan; Tack, Jan; Müller, Michaela; Krummenerl, Patrick; Arts, Joris; Mueller, Ralph; Dilger, Karin; Greinwald, Roland; Straumann, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of two different budesonide formulations (effervescent tablet for orodispersible use (BET) and viscous suspension (BVS)) with different daily dosages for short-term treatment of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). Design Adults with active EoE (n=76) randomly received 14 days’ treatment with either BET 2×1 mg/day (BET1, n=19) or BET 2×2 mg/day (BET2, n=19), or BVS 2×5 mL (0.4 mg/mL)/day (BVS, n=19) or placebo (n=19) in a double-blind, double-dummy fashion, with a 2-week follow-up. Primary end point was histological remission (mean of <16 eosinophils/mm2 hpf). Secondary end points included endoscopy score, dysphagia score, drug safety and patient's preference for drug formulation. Results Histological remission occurred in 100%, 94.7% and 94.7% of budesonide (BET1, BET2, BVS, respectively) and in 0% of placebo recipients (p<0.0001). The improvement in total endoscopic intensity score was significantly higher in the three budesonide groups compared with placebo. Dysphagia improved in all groups at the end of treatment; however, improvement of dysphagia persisted only in those treated with BET1 (p=0.0196 vs placebo). There were no serious adverse events. Local fungal infection (stained fungi) occurred in two patients of each budesonide group (10.5%). The effervescent tablet was preferred by 80% of patients. Conclusions BET or BVS was highly effective and safe for short-term treatment of EoE. The 1 mg (twice daily) dosage was equally effective as the 2 mg twice daily dosage. The majority of patients preferred the effervescent tablet formulation. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02280616; EudraCT number, 2009-016692-29. PMID:25792708

  11. A double-blind randomized control trial of diazepam

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    A double-blind randomized controlled trial of diazepam against placebo in the management of minor conditions seen in general practice demonstrated that administration of either diazepam or placebo was associated with a substantial reduction in symptomatology three weeks later. There was no demonstrable difference between diazepam and placebo. PMID:6358487

  12. Homeopathic Individualized Q-Potencies versus Fluoxetine for Moderate to Severe Depression: Double-Blind, Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Adler, U. C.; Paiva, N. M. P.; Cesar, A. T.; Adler, M. S.; Molina, A.; Padula, A. E.; Calil, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Homeopathy is a complementary and integrative medicine used in depression, The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority and tolerability of individualized homeopathic medicines [Quinquagintamillesmial (Q-potencies)] in acute depression, using fluoxetine as active control. Ninety-one outpatients with moderate to severe depression were assigned to receive an individualized homeopathic medicine or fluoxetine 20 mg day−1 (up to 40 mg day−1) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind double-dummy 8-week, single-center trial. Primary efficacy measure was the analysis of the mean change in the Montgomery & Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) depression scores, using a non-inferiority test with margin of 1.45. Secondary efficacy outcomes were response and remission rates. Tolerability was assessed with the side effect rating scale of the Scandinavian Society of Psychopharmacology. Mean MADRS scores differences were not significant at the 4th (P = .654) and 8th weeks (P = .965) of treatment. Non-inferiority of homeopathy was indicated because the upper limit of the confidence interval (CI) for mean difference in MADRS change was less than the non-inferiority margin: mean differences (homeopathy-fluoxetine) were −3.04 (95% CI −6.95, 0.86) and −2.4 (95% CI −6.05, 0.77) at 4th and 8th week, respectively. There were no significant differences between the percentages of response or remission rates in both groups. Tolerability: there were no significant differences between the side effects rates, although a higher percentage of patients treated with fluoxetine reported troublesome side effects and there was a trend toward greater treatment interruption for adverse effects in the fluoxetine group. This study illustrates the feasibility of randomized controlled double-blind trials of homeopathy in depression and indicates the non-inferiority of individualized homeopathic Q-potencies as compared to fluoxetine in acute treatment of outpatients

  13. A randomised, double-blind study comparing the efficacy and tolerability of controlled-release doxazosin and tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    POMPEO, A C L; ROSENBLATT, C; BERTERO, E; DA ROS, C T; CAIROLI, C E D; DAMIÃO, R; WROCLAWSKI, E R; KOFF, W J; MESQUITA, F; PINHEIRO, G E

    2006-01-01

    Brazilian patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomised in a 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy study to receive doxazosin gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) 4 mg q.i.d. (n = 82) or tamsulosin 0.4 q.i.d. (n = 83). Primary endpoints were the absolute and percentage change from baseline in symptoms measured by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Secondary endpoints included IPSS, quality-of-life (QOL) question from the IPSS, and questions 6 and 7 of the Sexual Function Abbreviated Questionnaire (SFAQ) at weeks 4 and 12. Doxazosin GITS and tamsulosin improved IPSS with no significant differences between groups at week 12. During weeks 4–8, tamsulosin-treated patients demonstrated a slower improvement (p < 0.001) in IPSS than doxazosin GITS-treated patients. The proportion of satisfied patients was observed earlier with doxazosin GITS (p = 0.006) vs. tamsulosin. At week 12, the proportion of patients with little or no difficulty at ejaculation (Q6 of SFAQ) was higher in the doxazosin GITS group (p = 0.019). Both treatments were well tolerated. PMID:16942589

  14. A randomized, double-blind comparison between parecoxib sodium and propacetamol for parenteral postoperative analgesia after inguinal hernia repair in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Beaussier, M; Weickmans, H; Paugam, C; Lavazais, S; Baechle, J P; Goater, P; Buffin, A; Loriferne, J F; Perier, J F; Didelot, J P; Mosbah, A; Said, R; Lienhart, A

    2005-05-01

    The newly injectable cyclooxygenase-2 selective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, parecoxib, has never been compared with propacetamol, a parenteral formulation of acetaminophen. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study, we randomly assigned 182 patients scheduled for initial inguinal hernia repair under general anesthesia to receive a single injection of 40 mg parecoxib or 2 injections of 2 g propacetamol within the first 12 h after surgery. The study variables were morphine consumption, pain at rest and while coughing, and patient satisfaction throughout the first 12 h postoperatively. For statistical analysis, we used the Student's t-test, chi(2), and covariance analysis. Total morphine consumption did not differ between the two groups. Pain was less intense in the parecoxib group at rest (P = 0.035) but did not differ for pain while coughing. The incidence of side effects was similar. Significantly more patients in the parecoxib group rated their pain management as good or excellent (87% versus 70% in the propacetamol group, P = 0.001). Within the first 12 h after inguinal hernia repair in adult patients, a single injection of parecoxib 40 mg compares favorably with 2 injections of propacetamol 2 g. PMID:15845675

  15. 100 positive double-blind studies: enough or too little?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuner, Jan; Hode, Lars

    2000-06-01

    A major argument among the opponents of laser therapy has been the absence of scientific documentation. This was a valid position in the 80s and partly in the 90s. But today, is this still a sound argument. There are more than 2,000 published studies in the field, including meeting abstracts and anecdotal reports. The vast majority of these papers reports positive effects of LLLT in vitro and in vivo. It is fair to argue that negative results are less prone to be published, but certainly more than 80 percent of the published studies are positive. In the field of dentistry, for instance, the positive percentage is well above 90 percent. The present literature study will look at the heart of the positive documentation: the positive double blind studies. It may come as a surprise to many critics that there are more than 100 positive double blind studies in the field laser therapy. This is a god base for a further understanding of the effects of low level laser in the clinical setting. We must, however, be as critical as the sceptics themselves in order to obtain a constructive dialogue between 'attorneys' and sceptics. In this paper, a critical review of 100 positive double blind studies will be presented.

  16. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Double-Dummy, Active-Controlled, and Multiple-Dose Clinical Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Mulberry Twig (Ramulus Mori, Sangzhi) Alkaloid Tablet and Acarbose in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mulberry twig alkaloid (SZ-A) tablet compared with acarbose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. This clinical trial enrolled 38 patients who were randomized into two groups (SZ-A: 23; acarbose: 15) and were treated for 24 weeks. Patients and clinical trial staffs were masked to treatment assignment throughout the study. The primary outcome measures were glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and 1-hour and 2-hour postprandial and fasting plasma glucose levels from baseline to the end of treatment. Analysis included all patients who completed this study. Results. By the end of this study, HbA1c level in SZ-A group was decreased from baseline significantly (P < 0.001). No significant difference was found when compared with acarbose group (P = 0.652). Similarly, 1-hour and 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels in SZ-A group were decreased from baseline statistically (P < 0.05), without any significant differences compared with acarbose group (P = 0.748 and 0.558, resp.). The fasting plasma glucose levels were not significantly changed in both groups. One of 23 patients in SZ-A group (4.76%) and 5 of 15 patients in acarbose group (33.33%) suffered from gastrointestinal adverse events. Conclusions. Compared with acarbose, SZ-A tablet was effective and safe in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27547230

  17. A Wearable Proprioceptive Stabilizer (Equistasi®) for Rehabilitation of Postural Instability in Parkinson’s Disease: A Phase II Randomized Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Daniele; Giantin, Maria Giulia; Fasano, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle spindles endings are extremely sensitive to externally applied vibrations, and under such circumstances they convey proprioceptive inflows to the central nervous system that modulate the spinal reflexes excitability or the muscle responses elicited by postural perturbations. The aim of this pilot study is to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a balance training program in association with a wearable proprioceptive stabilizer (Equistasi) that emits focal mechanical vibrations in patients with PD. Methods Forty patients with PD were randomly divided in two groups wearing an active or inactive device. All the patients received a 2-month intensive program of balance training. Assessments were performed at baseline, after the rehabilitation period (T1), and two more months after (T2). Posturographic measures were used as primary endpoint; secondary measures of outcome included the number of falls and several clinical scales for balance and quality of life. Results Both groups improved at the end of the rehabilitation period and we did not find significant between-group differences in any of the principal posturographic measures with the exception of higher sway area and limit of stability on the instrumental functional reach test during visual deprivation at T1 in the Equistasi group. As for the secondary outcome, we found an overall better outcome in patients enrolled in the Equistasi group: 1) significant improvement at T1 on Berg Balance Scale (+45.0%, p = .026), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (+83.7, p = .004), Falls Efficacy Scale (−33.3%, p = .026) and PDQ-39 (−48.8%, p = .004); 2) sustained improvement at T2 in terms of UPDRS-III, Berg Balance Scales, Time Up and Go and PDQ-39; 3) significant and sustained reduction of the falls rate. Conclusions This pilot trial shows that a physiotherapy program for training balance in association with focal mechanical vibration exerted by a wearable proprioceptive stabilizer might be superior than rehabilitation alone in improving patients’ balance. Trial Registration EudraCT 2013-003020-36 and ClinicalTrials.gov (number not assigned) PMID:25401967

  18. Double-blind comparison of moclobemide, imipramine and placebo in depressive patients.

    PubMed

    Ucha Udabe, R; Márquez, C A; Traballi, C A; Portes, N

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective, randomized double-blind study, moclobemide was compared with imipramine and placebo in the treatment of depressed outpatients. Three parallel groups of 24 patients each received capsules containing 100 mg moclobemide, 33 mg imipramine or placebo for 6 weeks; the maximum daily dose was 6 capsules. The only concomitant psychotropic medication allowed was diazepam for severe agitation or insomnia, and continuation of established lithium prophylaxis; no tyramine restrictions were imposed. Both moclobemide and imipramine were clearly superior to placebo in reducing depressive symptoms, moclobemide showing a somewhat faster response on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression than imipramine; the mean final improvement in total score compared with baseline was 48.3% for moclobemide, 50.2% for imipramine and 18.6% for placebo. The difference between moclobemide and imipramine was not significant. Placebo was clearly better tolerated than either active drug, and moclobemide slightly but not significantly better than imipramine. A 52-week assessment in 22 of the patients receiving moclobemide showed that the clinical response was maintained and the long-term treatment was well tolerated. It is concluded that both moclobemide and imipramine were superior to placebo in treatment of major depressive episodes in outpatients. There was a slight tendency to earlier response with moclobemide, probably because it can be given in the full dose from the start of treatment. PMID:2123367

  19. Baclofen for stroke patients with persistent hiccups: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The results of preclinical studies suggest that baclofen may be useful in the treatment of stroke patients with persistent hiccups. This study was aimed to assess the possible efficacy of baclofen for the treatment of persistent hiccups after stroke. Methods In total, 30 stroke patients with persistent hiccups were randomly assigned to receive baclofen (n = 15) or a placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Participants in the baclofen group received 10 mg baclofen 3 times daily for 5 days. Participants assigned to the placebo group received 10 mg placebo 3 times daily for 5 days. The primary outcome measure was cessation of hiccups. Secondary outcome measures included efficacy in the two groups and adverse events. Results All 30 patients completed the study. The number of patients in whom the hiccups completely stopped was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (relative risk, 7.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–25.62; P = 0.003). Furthermore, efficacy was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (P < 0.01). No serious adverse events were documented in either group. One case each of mild transient drowsiness and dizziness was present in the baclofen group. Conclusions Baclofen was more effective than a placebo for the treatment of persistent hiccups in stroke patients. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Register: ChiCTR-TRC-13004554 PMID:25052238

  20. Weight gain during a double-blind multidosage clozapine study.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose; Diaz, Francisco J; Josiassen, Richard C; Cooper, Thomas B; Simpson, George M

    2007-02-01

    Possible variables associated with weight gain during clozapine treatment include dosing, treatment duration, baseline body mass index (BMI), sex, and plasma norclozapine concentrations. Weight gains during a double-blind, randomized clozapine study using 100-, 300-, and 600-mg/d doses were analyzed. It was hypothesized that weight gain was associated with baseline BMI, clozapine dosing, and demographic factors. The possible contribution of plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations was explored. Fifty treatment-refractory schizophrenia patients were randomized to 100-, 300-, or 600-mg/d doses of clozapine for a 16-week, double-blind treatment in a research ward. Nonresponsive patients went onto a second and/or a third 16-week, double-blind treatment at the other doses. Weights of patients were measured every week. During the first clozapine treatment, weight gain varied across 3 baseline BMI categories (normal-weight patients [4.1 kg, P < 0.001], overweight patients [2.6 kg, P = 0.05], and obese patients [0.36 kg, not significant]) and according to dosing (600 mg/d [4.4 kg], 300 mg/d [2.6 kg], and 100 mg/d [1.3 kg]). Sex had no effect after controlling for baseline BMI and dose, but the African-American race had a strong significant effect despite the small number of African Americans (n = 6). At the end of the first clozapine treatment, plasma norclozapine concentration was not significantly correlated with weight gain in the total sample (r = 0.16, P = 0.32, n = 43), but seems to be strongly correlated in nonsmokers. Despite its limitations, this study indicates that baseline BMI, dosing, and, possibly, the African-American race may be major determinants of clozapine-induced weight gain. PMID:17224708

  1. Meige syndrome: double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate.

    PubMed Central

    Snoek, J W; van Weerden, T W; Teelken, A W; van den Burg, W; Lakke, J P

    1987-01-01

    A double-blind crossover study of sodium valproate and placebo was conducted in five patients with Meige syndrome. CSF neurotransmitter studies were performed at the end of each treatment period. GABA levels were not influenced by the administration of sodium valproate. An increase in HVA levels was observed in every patient, which may reflect an increase in central dopaminergic activity. This finding may explain the trend towards clinical deterioration which was observed during treatment with sodium valproate. Sodium valproate appears to be ineffective in Meige syndrome. PMID:3121795

  2. Effect of chocolate in migraine: a double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, A. M.; Swash, M.; Scott, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of chocolate on a group of volunteer migrainous subjects, who had observed that headache regularly occurred after the ingestion of small amounts of cocoa products, was investigated. Two separate studies were carried out in a double-blind placebo controlled manner. Only 13 headaches occurred to chocolate alone in 80 subject sessions, and only two subjects responded consistently to chocolate in the two studies. This suggests that chocolate on its own is rarely a precipitant of migraine. Other possible implications of the results are also discussed. PMID:4838915

  3. Progesterone and the premenstrual syndrome: a double blind crossover trial.

    PubMed Central

    Dennerstein, L; Spencer-Gardner, C; Gotts, G; Brown, J B; Smith, M A; Burrows, G D

    1985-01-01

    A double blind, randomised, crossover trial of oral micronised progesterone (two months) and placebo (two months) was conducted to determine whether progesterone alleviated premenstrual complaints. Twenty three women were interviewed premenstrually before treatment and in each month of treatment. They completed Moos's menstrual distress questionnaire, Beck et al's depression inventory, Spielberger et al's state anxiety inventory, the mood adjective checklist, and a daily symptom record. Analyses of data found an overall beneficial effect of being treated for all variables except restlessness, positive moods, and interest in sex. Maximum improvement occurred in the first month of treatment with progesterone. Nevertheless, an appreciably beneficial effect of progesterone over placebo for mood and some physical symptoms was identifiable after both one and two months of treatment. Further studies are needed to determine the optimum duration of treatment. PMID:3924191

  4. Double blind study of ispaghula in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prior, A; Whorwell, P J

    1987-11-01

    A double blind placebo controlled trial of ispaghula husk in 80 patients with irritable bowel syndrome is reported. Global assessment judged treatment to be satisfactory in 82% of patients receiving ispaghula and 53% of the placebo group (p less than 0.02). Bowel habit was unchanged in the placebo group, while constipation significantly improved in patients taking ispaghula (p = 0.026). Transit time decreased significantly in those taking ispaghula compared with placebo (p = 0.001), especially in patients with initially high transit times. Abdominal pain and bloating improved in both groups, with no significant differences between ispaghula and placebo. Four of the eight withdrawals on ispaghula and 10 of the 15 withdrawals on placebo were because of treatment failure. Ispaghula significantly improves overall well being in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and in those with constipation favourably affects bowel habit and transit time. PMID:3322956

  5. Efficacy and safety of a combination of sabal and urtica extract in lower urinary tract symptoms. A randomized, double-blind study versus tamsulosin.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Udo; Walther, Carola; Bondarenko, Boris; Funk, Petra; Schläfke, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter clinical trial was to investigate the efficacy and safety of PRO 160/120 (Prostagutt forte), a fixed combination preparation of 160 mg Sabal fruit extract WS 1473 and 120 mg Urtica root extract WS 1031 per capsule, in comparison to the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist tamsulosin (CAS 106463-17-6) in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). 140 elderly out-patients suffering from LUTS caused by BPH, with an initial score > or = 13 points in the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS), received 2 x 1 capsule/d PRO 160/120 or 1 x 0.4 mg/d tamsulosin and were treated for 60 weeks with interim visits at weeks 8, 16, 24, 36, and 48. The primary outcome measure for efficacy was the change in I-PSS total score, the percentage of patients with an I-PSS score < or = 7 points at endpoint ('responders') was analyzed as well. During 60 weeks of randomized treatment the I-PSS total score was reduced by a median of 9 points in both groups. In total, 32.4 % of the patients in the PRO 160/120 group and 27.9% in the tamsulosin group were responders (test for non-inferiority of PRO 160/120: p = 0.034; non-inferiority margin 10%). Both drugs were well tolerated, with one adverse event in 1514 treatment days for PRO 160/120 and one event in 1164 days for tamsulosin. The study supports non-inferiority of PRO 160/120 in comparison to tamsulosin in the treatment of LUTS caused by BPH. PMID:16618015

  6. Effects of Two Chinese Herbal Formulae for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuxue; Du, Yijie; Zhang, Hongying; Luo, Qingli; Li, Bei; Wu, Jinfeng; Lv, Yubao; Sun, Jing; Jin, Hualiang; Wei, Kai; Zhao, Zhengxiao; Kong, Lingwen; Zhou, Xianmei; Miao, Qing; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Qingwei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of stable COPD. Methods A multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, and randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. All groups were treated with additional conventional medicines. There were a 6-month treatment and a 12-month follow-up for 5 times. Primary outcomes included lung function test, exacerbation frequency, score of SGRQ. Second outcomes consisted of 6MWD, BODE index, psychological field score, inflammatory factors and cortisol. Results A total of 331 patients were randomly divided into two active treatment groups (Bushen Yiqi (BY) granule group, n = 109; Bushen Fangchuan (BF) tablet group, n = 109) and a placebo group (n = 113). Finally 262 patients completed the study. BY granule & BF tablet increased the values of VC, FEV1 (%) and FEV1/FVC (%), compared with placebo. BY granule improved PEF. Both treatments reduced acute exacerbation frequency (P = 0.067), BODE index and psychological field score, while improved 6MWD. In terms of descent rang of SGRQ score, both treatments increased (P = 0.01). Both treatments decreased inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-8, and IL-17(P = 0.0219). BY granule obviously descended IL-17(P<0.05), IL-1β (P = 0.05), IL-6, compared with placebo. They improved the level of IL-10 and cortisol. BY granule raised cortisol (P = 0.07) and decreased TNF-α. Both treatments slightly descended TGF-β1. In terms of safety, subject compliance and drug combination, there were no differences (P>0.05) among three groups. Conclusions BY granule and BF tablet were positively effective for the treatment of COPD, and the former performed better in general. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Register center ChiCTR-TRC-09000530 PMID:25118962

  7. Canakinumab reduces the risk of acute gouty arthritis flares during initiation of allopurinol treatment: results of a double-blind, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, Naomi; Mysler, Eduardo; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; De Meulemeester, Marc; Rovensky, Jozef; Arulmani, Udayasankar; Balfour, Alison; Krammer, Gerhard; Sallstig, Peter; So, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the efficacy and safety of canakinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin 1β monoclonal antibody, for prophylaxis against acute gouty arthritis flares in patients initiating urate-lowering treatment. Methods In this double-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging study, 432 patients with gouty arthritis initiating allopurinol treatment were randomised 1:1:1:1:1:1:2 to receive: a single dose of canakinumab, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg subcutaneously; 4×4-weekly doses of canakinumab (50+50+25+25 mg subcutaneously); or daily colchicine 0.5 mg orally for 16 weeks. Patients recorded details of flares in diaries. The study aimed to determine the canakinumab dose having equivalent efficacy to colchicine 0.5 mg at 16 weeks. Results A dose-response for canakinumab was not apparent with any of the four predefined dose-response models. The estimated canakinumab dose with equivalent efficacy to colchicine was below the range of doses tested. At 16 weeks, there was a 62% to 72% reduction in the mean number of flares per patient for canakinumab doses ≥50 mg versus colchicine based on a negative binomial model (rate ratio: 0.28–0.38, p≤0.0083), and the percentage of patients experiencing ≥1 flare was significantly lower for all canakinumab doses (15% to 27%) versus colchicine (44%, p<0.05). There was a 64% to 72% reduction in the risk of experiencing ≥1 flare for canakinumab doses ≥50 mg versus colchicine at 16 weeks (hazard ratio (HR): 0.28–0.36, p≤0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar across treatment groups. Conclusions Single canakinumab doses ≥50 mg or four 4-weekly doses provided superior prophylaxis against flares compared with daily colchicine 0.5 mg. PMID:21540198

  8. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting by metoclopramide combined with dexamethasone: randomised double blind multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Wallenborn, Jan; Gelbrich, Götz; Bulst, Detlef; Behrends, Katrin; Wallenborn, Hasso; Rohrbach, Andrea; Krause, Uwe; Kühnast, Thomas; Wiegel, Martin; Olthoff, Derk

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether 10 mg, 25 mg, or 50 mg metoclopramide combined with 8 mg dexamethasone, given intraoperatively, is more effective in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting than 8 mg dexamethasone alone, and to assess benefit in relation to adverse drug reactions. Design Four-armed, parallel group, double blind, randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting Four clinics of a university hospital and four district hospitals in Germany. Participants 3140 patients who received balanced or regional anaesthesia during surgery. Main outcome measures Postoperative nausea and vomiting within 24 hours of surgery (primary end point); occurrence of adverse reactions. Results Cumulative incidences (95% confidence intervals) of postoperative nausea and vomiting were 23.1% (20.2% to 26.0%), 20.6% (17.8% to 23.4%), 17.2% (14.6% to 19.8%), and 14.5% (12.0% to 17.0%) for 0 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg metoclopramide. In the secondary analysis, 25 mg and 50 mg metoclopramide were equally effective at preventing early nausea (0-12 hours), but only 50 mg reduced late nausea and vomiting (> 12 hours). The most frequent adverse drug reactions were hypotension and tachycardia, with cumulative incidences of 8.8% (6.8% to 10.8%), 11.2% (9.0% to 13.4%), 12.9% (10.5% to 15.3%), and 17.9% (15.2% to 20.6%) for 0 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg, and 50 mg metoclopramide. Conclusion The addition of 50 mg metoclopramide to 8 mg dexamethasone (given intraoperatively) is an effective, safe, and cheap way to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting. A reduced dose of 25 mg metoclopramide intraoperatively, with additional postoperative prophylaxis in high risk patients, may be equally effective and cause fewer adverse drug reactions. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31625370. PMID:16861255

  9. Effect of a Prebiotic Formulation on Frailty Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buigues, Cristina; Fernández-Garrido, Julio; Pruimboom, Leo; Hoogland, Aldert J.; Navarro-Martínez, Rut; Martínez-Martínez, Mary; Verdejo, Yolanda; Mascarós, Mari Carmen; Peris, Carlos; Cauli, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Aging can result in major changes in the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal system and result in impaired function of the immune system. We assessed the efficacy of prebiotic Darmocare Pre® (Bonusan Besloten Vennootschap (BV), Numansdorp, The Netherlands) to evaluate whether the regular intake of this product can improve frailty criteria, functional status and response of the immune system in elderly people affected by the frailty syndrome. The study was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind design in sixty older participants aged 65 and over. The prebiotic product was composed of a mixture of inulin plus fructooligosaccharides and was compared with placebo (maltodextrin). Participants were randomized to a parallel group intervention of 13 weeks’ duration with a daily intake of Darmocare Pre® or placebo. Either prebiotic or placebo were administered after breakfast (between 9–10 a.m.) dissolved in a glass of water carefully stirred just before drinking. The primary outcome was to study the effect on frailty syndrome. The secondary outcomes were effect on functional and cognitive behavior and sleep quality. Moreover, we evaluated whether prebiotic administration alters blood parameters (haemogram and biochemical analysis). The overall rate of frailty was not significantly modified by Darmocare Pre® administration. Nevertheless, prebiotic administration compared with placebo significantly improved two frailty criteria, e.g., exhaustion and handgrip strength (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). No significant effects were observed in functional and cognitive behavior or sleep quality. The use of novel therapeutic approaches influencing the gut microbiota–muscle–brain axis could be considered for treatment of the frailty syndrome. PMID:27314331

  10. Mavoglurant in fragile X syndrome: Results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Des Portes, Vincent; Hagerman, Randi; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Charles, Perrine; Visootsak, Jeannie; Brinkman, Marc; Rerat, Karin; Koumaras, Barbara; Zhu, Liansheng; Barth, Gottfried Maria; Jaecklin, Thomas; Apostol, George; von Raison, Florian

    2016-01-13

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autistic spectrum disorder, is typically caused by transcriptional silencing of the X-linked FMR1 gene. Work in animal models has described altered synaptic plasticity, a result of the up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling, as a putative downstream effect. Post hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover phase 2 trial suggested that the selective mGluR5 antagonist mavoglurant improved behavioral symptoms in FXS patients with completely methylated FMR1 genes. We present the results of two phase 2b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of mavoglurant in FXS, designed to confirm this result in adults (n = 175, aged 18 to 45 years) and adolescents (n = 139, aged 12 to 17 years). In both trials, participants were stratified by methylation status and randomized to receive mavoglurant (25, 50, or 100 mg twice daily) or placebo over 12 weeks. Neither of the studies achieved the primary efficacy end point of improvement on behavioral symptoms measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition using the FXS-specific algorithm (ABC-C(FX)) after 12 weeks of treatment with mavoglurant. The safety and tolerability profile of mavoglurant was as previously described, with few adverse events. Therefore, under the conditions of our study, we could not confirm the mGluR theory of FXS nor the ability of the methylation state of the FMR1 promoter to predict mavoglurant efficacy. Preclinical results suggest that future clinical trials might profitably explore initiating treatment in a younger population with longer treatment duration and longer placebo run-ins and identifying new markers to better assess behavioral and cognitive benefits. PMID:26764156

  11. Curcuminoid treatment for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Rahimnia, Ali-Reza; Sharafi, Mojtaba; Alishiri, Gholamhossein; Saburi, Amin; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) is challenging owing to the inefficacy and long-term adverse events of currently available medications including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Curcuminoids are polyphenolic phytochemicals with established anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects on chondrocytes. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of curcuminoids in patients suffering from knee OA. A pilot randomized double-blind placebo-control parallel-group clinical trial was conducted among patients with mild-to-moderate knee OA. Patients were assigned to curcuminoids (1500 mg/day in 3 divided doses; n = 19) or matched placebo (n = 21) for 6 weeks. Efficacy measures were changes in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), visual analogue scale (VAS) and Lequesne's pain functional index (LPFI) scores during the study. There was no significant difference in age, gender, body mass index, and VAS, WOMAC and LPFI scores between the study groups at baseline (p > 0.05). Treatment with curcuminoids was associated with significantly greater reductions in WOMAC (p = 0.001), VAS (p < 0.001) and LPFI (p = 0.013) scores compared with placebo. With respect to WOMAC subscales, there were significant improvements in the pain and physical function scores (p < 0.001) but not stiffness score (p > 0.05). There was no considerable adverse effect in both groups. To conclude, curcuminoids represent an effective and safe alternative treatment for OA. PMID:24853120

  12. Effect of a Prebiotic Formulation on Frailty Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Buigues, Cristina; Fernández-Garrido, Julio; Pruimboom, Leo; Hoogland, Aldert J; Navarro-Martínez, Rut; Martínez-Martínez, Mary; Verdejo, Yolanda; Mascarós, Mari Carmen; Peris, Carlos; Cauli, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Aging can result in major changes in the composition and metabolic activities of bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal system and result in impaired function of the immune system. We assessed the efficacy of prebiotic Darmocare Pre(®) (Bonusan Besloten Vennootschap (BV), Numansdorp, The Netherlands) to evaluate whether the regular intake of this product can improve frailty criteria, functional status and response of the immune system in elderly people affected by the frailty syndrome. The study was a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind design in sixty older participants aged 65 and over. The prebiotic product was composed of a mixture of inulin plus fructooligosaccharides and was compared with placebo (maltodextrin). Participants were randomized to a parallel group intervention of 13 weeks' duration with a daily intake of Darmocare Pre(®) or placebo. Either prebiotic or placebo were administered after breakfast (between 9-10 a.m.) dissolved in a glass of water carefully stirred just before drinking. The primary outcome was to study the effect on frailty syndrome. The secondary outcomes were effect on functional and cognitive behavior and sleep quality. Moreover, we evaluated whether prebiotic administration alters blood parameters (haemogram and biochemical analysis). The overall rate of frailty was not significantly modified by Darmocare Pre(®) administration. Nevertheless, prebiotic administration compared with placebo significantly improved two frailty criteria, e.g., exhaustion and handgrip strength (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). No significant effects were observed in functional and cognitive behavior or sleep quality. The use of novel therapeutic approaches influencing the gut microbiota-muscle-brain axis could be considered for treatment of the frailty syndrome. PMID:27314331

  13. Double-blind, multicenter comparison of sertraline and amitriptyline in elderly depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Cohn, C K; Shrivastava, R; Mendels, J; Cohn, J B; Fabre, L F; Claghorn, J L; Dessain, E C; Itil, T M; Lautin, A

    1990-12-01

    Two hundred forty-one elderly depressed patients entered the 8-week, double-blind phase of this parallel-group, multicenter study; 161 patients were randomized to receive sertraline (50-200 mg/day) and 80 were randomized to receive amitriptyline (50-150 mg/day). Among evaluable patients, there were no statistically significant differences between treatments in any of the primary efficacy variables: change in total Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score (17 items), percentage change in HAM-D score, change in HAM-D Item 1, change in Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Severity score, change in the Depression Factor of the 56-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and the CGI Improvement score at the last visit. Similar results were obtained using data from all patients (intention-to-treat analysis), except that amitriptyline was superior in HAM-D Total score (p = .044). The two drugs produced a similar degree of response: on the basis of the HAM-D criterion, 69.4% of sertraline patients and 62.5% of amitriptyline patients responded, and, on the basis of CGI criterion, 79.5% of sertraline and 73.4% of amitriptyline patients responded. Twenty-eight percent of the sertraline patients withdrew from the study because of a treatment-related side effect and 2.5% (4) because of a laboratory abnormality. In comparison, 35% of the amitriptyline patients withdrew because of treatment-related side effects. Sertraline was associated with a statistically lower frequency of somnolence, dry mouth, constipation, ataxia, and pain and a higher frequency of nausea, anorexia, diarrhea/loose stools, and insomnia; thus, anticholinergic effects were less common and gastrointestinal effects were more common with sertraline than with amitriptyline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2258379

  14. Ozone treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a double blinded study

    PubMed Central

    AL-Omiri, Mahmoud K.; Alhijawi, Mohannad; AlZarea, Bader K.; Abul Hassan, Ra’ed S.; Lynch, Edward

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of ozone to treat recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Consecutive sixty-nine participants with RAS were recruited into this non-randomized double blind, controlled cohort observational study (test group). A control group of 69 RAS patients who matched test group with age and gender was recruited. RAS lesions in test group were exposed to ozone in air for 60 seconds while controls received only air. Ulcer size and pain were recorded for each participant at baseline and daily for 15 days. Ulcer duration was determined by recording the time taken for ulcers to disappear. The main outcome measures were pain due to the ulcer, ulcer size and ulcer duration. 138 RAS participants (69 participants and 69 controls) were analyzed. Ulcer size was reduced starting from the second day in test group and from the fourth day in controls (p ≤ 0.004). Pain levels were reduced starting from the first day in the test group and from the third day in controls (p ≤ 0.001). Ulcer duration, ulcer size after day 2 and pain levels were more reduced in the test group. In conclusion, application of ozone on RAS lesions for 60 seconds reduced pain levels and enhanced ulcers’ healing by reducing ulcers’ size and duration. PMID:27301301

  15. Treatment of nickel dermatitis with Antabuse; a double blind study.

    PubMed

    Kaaber, K; Menné, T; Veien, N; Hougaard, P

    1983-07-01

    A double blind, placebo-controlled treatment with Antabuse was carried out in 24 patients with hand eczema and nickel allergy. The amount of Antabuse given was gradually increased from 50 to 200 mg daily. The maximum dose was given for 6 weeks. During the treatment period, the dermatitis of 5 out of 11 patients in the group treated with Antabuse healed, compared with 2 out of 13 in the group receiving the placebo. A statistical analysis was made of changes observed during the study, through the parameters: scaling, frequency of flares, erythema, area involved and number of vesicles. Differences in results obtained with Antabuse and the placebo were statistically significant only for the parameters scaling and frequency of flares (p less than 0.05). The difference between the sums of parameters following the 2 forms of treatment was not statistically significant (p = 0.11). 2 patients treated with Antabuse showed signs of hepatic toxicity; 1 of them had toxic hepatitis. No other significant side effects were seen. PMID:6352169

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Paliperidone Palmitate 3-Month Formulation for Patients with Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Noninferiority Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Gopal, Srihari; Nuamah, Isaac; Ravenstijn, Paulien; Janik, Adam; Schotte, Alain; Hough, David; Fleischhacker, Wolfgang W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, phase-3 study was designed to test the noninferiority of paliperidone palmitate 3-month formulation (PP3M) to the currently marketed 1-month formulation (PP1M) in patients (age 18–70 years) with schizophrenia, previously stabilized on PP1M. Methods: After screening (≤3 weeks) and a 17-week, flexible-dosed, open-label phase (PP1M: day 1 [150mg eq. deltoid], day 8 [100mg eq. deltoid.], weeks 5, 9, and 13 [50, 75, 100, or 150mg eq., deltoid/gluteal]), clinically stable patients were randomized (1:1) to PP3M (fixed-dose, 175, 263, 350, or 525mg eq. deltoid/gluteal) or PP1M (fixed-dose, 50, 75, 100, or 150mg eq. deltoid/gluteal) for a 48-week double-blind phase. Results: Overall, 1016/1429 open-label patients entered the double-blind phase (PP3M: n=504; PP1M: n=512) and 842 completed it (including patients with relapse). PP3M was noninferior to PP1M: relapse rates were similar in both groups (PP3M: n=37, 8%; PP1M: n=45, 9%; difference in relapse-free rate: 1.2% [95% CI:-2.7%; 5.1%]) based on Kaplan-Meier estimates (primary efficacy). Secondary endpoint results (changes from double-blind baseline in positive and negative symptom score total and subscale scores, Clinical Global Impression-Severity, and Personal and Social Performance scores) were consistent with primary endpoint results. No clinically relevant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic exposures between PP3M and PP1M. Both groups had similar tolerability profiles; increased weight was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event (double-blind phase; 21% each). No new safety signals were detected. Conclusion: Taken together, PP3M with its 3-month dosing interval is a unique option for relapse prevention in schizophrenia. PMID:26902950

  17. Randomised, double-blind controlled trial by dose reduction of implanted intrathecal morphine delivery in chronic non-cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Jon H; Duarte, Rui V; Southall, Jane L; Nightingale, Peter; Kitas, George D

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intrathecal morphine in the long term by hypothesising that a reduction of the intrathecal opioid dose following long-term administration would increase the level of pain intensity. Design Randomised, double-blind, controlled, parallel group trial. Setting Department of Pain Management, Russells Hall Hospital, Dudley, UK. Participants 24 patients with non-cancer pain implanted with morphine reservoirs were assessed for eligibility. Interventions Participants were randomly allocated to one of two parallel groups in which one of the groups had no change in morphine dose and the other group had a small reduction (20%) in dosage every week during a 10-week follow-up. Outcome Primary outcomes were visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score change and withdrawal from the study due to lack of efficacy. Results 9 of the patients assessed for eligibility declined to participate in the study. 15 patients were randomised to control (n=5) or intervention (n=10) and included in an intention-to-treat analysis. Owing to worsening of pain, seven patients withdrew from the study prematurely. None knew prior to withdrawal which arm of the study they were in, but all turned out to be in the dose-reduction arm. The calculation of dropout rates between groups indicated a significant statistical difference (p=0.026) and recruitment was ceased. The VAS change between baseline and the last observation was smaller in the control group (median, Mdn=11) than in the intervention group (Mdn=30.5), although not statistically significant, Z=−1.839, p=0.070; r=−0.47. Within groups, VAS was significantly lower at baseline (Mdn=49.5) than at the last observation (Mdn=77.5) for the reduction group, Z=−2.805, p=0.002; r=−0.627 but not for the control group (p=0.188). Conclusions This double-blind randomised controlled trial of chronic intrathecal morphine administration suggests the effectiveness of this therapy for the management of

  18. Efficacy of Diosmectite (Smecta)® in the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhoea in Adults: A Multicentre, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Khediri, Faouzi; Mrad, Abdennebi Ilhem; Azzouz, Moussadek; Doughi, Hedi; Najjar, Taoufik; Mathiex-Fortunet, Hélène; Garnier, Philippe; Cortot, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Background. Although diosmectite has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in children, its efficacy in adults still needs to be assessed. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the efficacy of diosmectite on the time to recovery in adults with acute diarrhoea. Methods. A total of 346 adults with at least three watery stools per day over a period of less than 48 hours were prospectively randomized to diosmectite (6 g tid) or placebo during four days. The primary endpoint was time to diarrhoea recovery. Results. In the intention-to-treat population, median time to recovery was 53.8 hours (range [3.7–167.3]) with diosmectite (n = 166) versus 69.0 hours [2.2–165.2] with placebo, (n = 163; P = .029), which corresponds to a difference of 15.2 hours. Diosmectite was well tolerated. Conclusion. Diosmectite at 6 g tid was well tolerated and reduced the time to recovery of acute watery diarrhoea episode in a clinically relevant manner. PMID:21760777

  19. Linagliptin and pioglitazone combination therapy versus monotherapy with linagliptin or pioglitazone: A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multinational clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nauck, Michael Albrecht; di Domenico, Maximiliano; Patel, Sanjay; Kobe, Maureen; Toorawa, Robert; Woerle, Hans-Juergen

    2016-07-01

    Linagliptin plus pioglitazone single-pill combinations were evaluated. Patients (n = 936) with insufficient glycaemic control, despite lifestyle interventions, were randomised for 30 weeks to either monotherapy with linagliptin 5 mg; pioglitazone 15, 30 or 45 mg; or single-pill combination with linagliptin 5 mg plus pioglitazone 15, 30 or 45 mg. An extension (⩽54 weeks) planned to evaluate linagliptin plus pioglitazone 30 or 45 mg single-pill combinations was not completed due to a protocol amendment. Adjusted mean (95% confidence interval) differences in HbA1c change from baseline at week 30 for linagliptin plus pioglitazone 15, 30 and 45 mg were -0.17% (-0.41, 0.07), -0.37% (-0.60, -0.14) and -0.41% (-0.64, -0.18) versus pioglitazone monotherapies, respectively, and -0.44% (-0.67, -0.20), -0.68% (-0.91, -0.44) and -0.89% (-1.12, -0.66) versus linagliptin monotherapy, respectively. Single-pill combinations were generally well tolerated. Hypoglycaemia frequency was ⩽1.5% per group. Linagliptin plus pioglitazone combinations were efficacious, with safety profiles comparable to the individual monotherapies. PMID:27190087

  20. Confirmatory double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety of edaravone (MCI-186) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Itoyama, Yasuto; Sobue, Gen; Tsuji, Shoji; Aoki, Masashi; Doyu, Manabu; Hamada, Chikuma; Kondo, Kazuoki; Yoneoka, Takatomo; Akimoto, Makoto; Yoshino, Hiide

    2014-01-01

    n Our objective was to confirm the efficacy and safety of edaravone in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We conducted a 36-week confirmatory study, consisting of 12-week pre-observation period followed by 24-week treatment period. Patients received placebo or edaravone i.v. infusion over 60 min for the first 14 days in cycle 1, and for 10 of the first 14 days during cycles 2 to 6. The efficacy primary endpoint was changed in the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) scores during the 24-week treatment. Patients were treated with placebo (n = 104) and edaravone (n = 102). Changes in ALSFRS-R during the 24-week treatment were −6.35 ± 0.84 in the placebo group (n = 99) and −5.70 ± 0.85 in the edaravone group (n = 100), with a difference of 0.65 ± 0.78 (p = 0.411). Adverse events amounted to 88.5% (92/104) in the placebo group and 89.2% (91/102) in the edaravone group. In conclusion, the reduction of ALSFRS-R was smaller in the edaravone group than in the placebo group, but efficacy of edaravone for treatment of ALS was not demonstrated. Levels and frequencies of reported adverse events were similar in the two groups. PMID:25286015

  1. Aspartame Sensitivity? A Double Blind Randomised Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J.; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S.; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W.; Atkin, Stephen L.; Courts, Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. Methods This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight individual who has self reported sensitivity to aspartame were compared to 48 age and gender matched aspartame non-sensitive individuals. They were given aspartame (100mg)-containing or control snack bars randomly at least 7 days apart. The main outcome measures were acute effects of aspartame measured using repeated ratings of 14 symptoms, biochemistry and metabonomics. Results Aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive participants differed psychologically at baseline in handling feelings and perceived stress. Sensitive participants had higher triglycerides (2.05 ± 1.44 vs. 1.26 ± 0.84mmol/L; p value 0.008) and lower HDL-C (1.16 ± 0.34 vs. 1.35 ± 0.54 mmol/L; p value 0.04), reflected in 1H NMR serum analysis that showed differences in the baseline lipid content between the two groups. Urine metabonomic studies showed no significant differences. None of the rated symptoms differed between aspartame and control bars, or between sensitive and control participants. However, aspartame sensitive participants rated more symptoms particularly in the first test session, whether this was placebo or control. Aspartame and control bars affected GLP-1, GIP, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels equally in both aspartame sensitive and non-sensitive subjects. Conclusion Using a comprehensive battery of psychological tests, biochemistry and state of the art metabonomics there was no evidence of any acute adverse responses to aspartame. This independent study gives reassurance to both regulatory bodies

  2. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Selegiline Transdermal System in Depressed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hochadel, Thomas J.; Portland, Kimberly Blanchard; Azzaro, Albert J.; Katic, Alain; Khan, Arif; Emslie, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled flexible-dose, parallel group trial was conducted at 26 clinical investigational sites in the United States to examine the safety and efficacy of the selegiline transdermal system (STS) (EMSAM®) in adolescents (ages 12–17 years) meeting American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria for moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) without psychotic features. Methods: Adolescents (n=308) with moderate to severe MDD were randomized to either STS (n=152) or placebo (n=156). Two hundred and fifteen (69.8%) subjects completed the study and 17 (5.5%) reported discontinuation because of adverse events (AEs). The primary efficacy outcome measure was the mean change from baseline to end of study (week 12 last observation carried forward [LOCF]) in the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) total score. Secondary outcome measures included end-point Clinical Global Impressions – Severity (CGI-S) and Clinical Global Impressions – Improvement (CGI-I). Results: Patients on STS or placebo had a significant decline from baseline (p<0.001) on their CDRS-R total score with mean reductions±SD as follows: STS 21.4±16.6; placebo 21.5±16.5. Both groups had similar response rates (58.6% vs. 59.3%) defined as CGI-I of 1 or 2 at study end. However, these between-group efficacy findings were without statistical significance. The overall incidence of reported AEs was 62.5% for STS-treated patients and 57.7% for placebo-treated patients. Most commonly reported AEs in STS or placebo groups were application site reactions (STS=24.3%; placebo=21.8%), headache (STS=17.1%; placebo=16.7%), and nausea (STS=7.2%; placebo=7.7%). Treatment groups did not differ on any laboratory parameters, vital signs, or electrocardiogram (ECG) findings. No suspected hypertensive crises were reported in the trial. Conclusions: These data demonstrated that

  3. Davunetide for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Boxer, Adam L.; Lang, Anthony E.; Grossman, Murray; Knopman, David S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Schneider, Lon S.; Doody, Rachelle S.; Lees, Andrew; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Williams, David R.; Corvol, Jean-Cristophe; Ludolph, Albert; Burn, David; Lorenzl, Stefan; Litvan, Irene; Roberson, Erik D.; Höglinger, Günter U.; Koestler, Mary; Jack, Clifford R.; Van Deerlin, Viviana; Randolph, Christopher; Lobach, Iryna V.; Heuer, Hilary W.; Gozes, Illana; Parker, Lesley; Whitaker, Steve; Hirman, Joe; Stewart, Alistair J.; Gold, Michael; Morimoto, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Davunetide (AL-108, NAP) is an eightamino acid peptide that promotes microtubule stability and decreases tau phosphorylation in pre-clinical studies. Since PSP is tightly linked to tau pathology, davunetide could be an effective treatment for PSP.The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of davunetide in PSP. Methods A phase 2/3 double-blind, parallel group, clinical trial of davunetide 30 mg or placebo (randomized 1:1) administered intranasally twice daily for 52 weeks was conducted at 48centers. Participants met modifiedNNIPPS criteria for possible or probable PSP. Co-primary endpointswere the change from baseline in PSP Rating Scale (PSPRS) and Schwab and England ADL(SEADL) scale at up to 52 weeks. Data from all individuals who received at least one dose of medication and had a post-baseline efficacy assessment were compared using a rank-based method.Secondary outcomes included the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) and the change in regional brain volumeon MRI. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01110720. Findings 360 participants were screened, 313 were randomized and 243 (77.6%) completed the study. There were no group differences in PSPRS (mean difference: 0.49 [95% CI: −1.5, 2.5], p = 0.72) or SEADL (1% [−2, 4%], p = 0.76) change from baseline (CFB) and mean 52 week CFB PSPRS scores were similar between the davunetide (11.3 [9.8,12.8]) and placebo groups (10.9 [9.1, 13.0]). There wereno differences in any of the secondary or exploratory endpoints. There were 11deaths in the davunetide group and tenin the placebo group. There were more nasal adverse events in the davunetide group. Interpretation Davunetide is well tolerated but is not an effective treatment for PSP. Clinical trials of disease modifying therapy are feasible in PSP and should be pursued with other promising tau-directed therapies. Funding Allon Therapeutics PMID:24873720

  4. Once-daily rupatadine improves the symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Dubertret, Louis; Zalupca, Lavinia; Cristodoulo, Tania; Benea, Vasile; Medina, Iris; Fantin, Sara; Lahfa, Morad; Pérez, Iñaki; Izquierdo, Iñaki; Arnaiz, Eva

    2007-01-01

    This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, international, dose-ranging study investigated the effect of treatment with rupatadine 5, 10 and 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks on symptoms and interference with daily activities and sleep in 12-65 years-old patients with moderate-to-severe chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Rupatadine 10 and 20 mg significantly reduced pruritus severity by 62.05% and 71.87% respectively, from baseline, over a period of 4 weeks compared to reduction with placebo by 46.59% (p < 0.05). Linear trends were noted for reductions in mean number of wheals and interference with daily activities and sleep with rupatadine 10 and 20 mg over the 4-week treatment period. The two most frequently reported AEs were somnolence (2.90% for placebo, 4.29% for 5 mg-, 5.41% for 10 mg- and 21.43% for 20 mg-rupatadine-treated group) and headache (4.35% for placebo, 2.86% for 5 mg-, 4.05% for 10 mg- and 4.29% for 20 mg-rupatadine-treated group). These findings suggest that rupatadine 10 and 20 mg is a fast-acting, efficacious and safe treatment for the management of patients with moderate-to-severe CIU. Rupatadine decreased pruritus severity, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PMID:17478385

  5. Randomised double blind comparison of terbinafine and itraconazole for treatment of toenail tinea infection. Seventh Lamisil German Onychomycosis Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Bräutigam, M.; Nolting, S.; Schopf, R. E.; Weidinger, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and tolerability of terbinafine and itraconazole in the treatment of toenail tinea unguium. DESIGN--Multicentre, double blind, parallel group study. SETTING--17 university hospitals, one army hospital, and five dermatology practices. PATIENTS--195 patients with clinically suspected toenail tinea and growth of dermatophytes in baseline culture; data on 86 patients in the terbinafine group and 84 patients in the itraconazole group were fully evaluated for efficacy. INTERVENTIONS--Daily dose of 250 mg terbinafine or 200 mg itraconazole for 12 weeks, with follow up for a further 40 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mycological cure (negative results on microscopy and culture) and clinical improvement (length and area of unaffected nail) at week 52 or at discontinuation of treatment. RESULTS--At the end of the study mycological cure rates were 81% (70 out of 86) for terbinafine and 63% (53 out of 84) for itraconazole (2P < 0.01). Negative culture was achieved in 92% (79 out of 86) in the terbinafine group and 67% (56 out of 84) in the itraconazole group (2P < 0.0001). Length of unaffected nail was 9.44 mm in the terbinafine group and 7.85 mm in the itraconazole group (2P < 0.05). CONCLUSION--Terbinafine is more effective than itraconazole in the treatment of toenail tinea infection. PMID:7580551

  6. Pilot Study of the Effects of Lisdexamfetamine on Cocaine Use: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Marc E.; Herin, David V.; Specker, Sheila; Babb, David; Levin, Frances R.; Grabowski, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Amphetamine analogues have been demonstrated to have some efficacy in reducing use in cocaine dependent individuals. However, these agents also have potential for abuse. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX), a lysine+dextroamphetamine formulation, has been approved for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and as a prodrug, has less abuse potential. Objective This pilot study sought to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of LDX as a candidate treatment for cocaine dependence. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study served to evaluate LDX in 43 cocaine-dependent individuals: (1) Placebo (PBO; 0 mg, n = 21), (2) LDX (70 mg, n = 22). Participants received medication for 14 weeks. Cocaine use was determined based on urine analysis for benzoylecgonine (BE; a cocaine metabolite). Results Retention rates were higher though not significantly different in the PBO (71.4%) than the LDX condition (57.1%). Compared to those in the PBO condition, those receiving LDX were more likely to report experiencing (ps < .05) diarrhea (45.5% vs. 14.3%), headaches (45.5% vs. 9.5%), and anxiety (31.8% vs. 4.8%). No differences in medication conditions were observed for blood pressure, heart rate, or body weight. In the randomized sample, no differences in cocaine use were seen. Those receiving LDX reported significantly less craving for cocaine than participants receiving PBO. Conclusions LDX did not significantly reduce cocaine use compared to PBO in the randomized sample. PMID:26116930

  7. Double-blind controlled randomised study of lactulose and lignin hydrolysed combination in complex therapy of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Perlamutrov, Yuri N.; Olhovskaya, Kira B.; Zakirova, Svetlana A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an immune mediated disease with complex pathogenesis characterised by persistency, frequent exacerbations, and inefficacy of existing therapies. Damaged or weakened intestinal microbiocenosis is considered as an important aetiological factor of AD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of medical preparation Lactofiltrum (lactulose and sorbent (lignin hydrolysed)) in comparison with placebo in complex with standard therapy of AD. Methods Double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised comparative study of effectiveness and safety of 400 mg lactulose and 120 mg lignin hydrolysed combination as a part of standard combined AD treatment, conducted in parallel groups of patients aged 18–60. Results Comparison of clinical efficacy of Lactofiltrum in combination with the standard treatment has been demonstrated by measuring the following parameters: administration of Lactofiltrum results in 1) distinct clinical improvement in 56.75% of patients, 2) decrease of the mean values of scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index in 71.94% of patients, 3) elimination of itching in 50% of patients, and 4) life quality improvement for 76.41%. In the placebo group, 1) distinct clinical improvement was observed in 20% of patients, 2) decrease in SCORAD index values observed by 56.98%, 3) itching relief in 15.56%, and 4) life quality improvement by 36.38%. Conclusions Clinical improvement and persistent termination of clinical symptoms provide evidence of effectiveness in use of Lactofiltrum combined with the standard treatment of AD. PMID:27341938

  8. Double-blind parallel comparison of single oral doses of ketoprofen, codeine, and placebo in patients with moderate to severe dental pain.

    PubMed

    Mehlisch, D; Frakes, L; Cavaliere, M B; Gelman, M

    1984-01-01

    Ketoprofen, 25, 50, and 100 mg, was compared with 90 mg codeine and placebo for relief of pain due to removal of impacted third molar teeth. Treatment was self-administered as a single oral dose under double-blind conditions in five parallel groups established by a random code in healthy young adults. Based on 129 patient evaluations of pain experience and pain relief, ketoprofen was shown to have a more rapid onset and longer duration of action than codeine. In the derived variables of SPID (Sum of Pain Intensity Differences) and TOPAR (Total Pain Relief), all three doses of ketoprofen, with no dose-related differences among them, were found to provide statistically superior analgesia to codeine and placebo. All five treatments were associated with some adverse reactions. PMID:6392354

  9. Evaluation of meloxicam (A cox-2 inhibitor) for management of postoperative endodontic pain: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Nekoofar, Mohammad Hosein; Sadeghipanah, Marzieh; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2003-10-01

    Successful management of endodontic pain represents a continuing challenge. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial was to compare the pain reducing effect of oral preparations of meloxicam, piroxicam, and placebo in endodontic emergency patients. A total of 51 patients who presented to the Tehran University endodontic clinic and one private dental clinic were invited to participate. Patients were asked to evaluate their pretreatment pain with a visual-analog scale. After root canal therapy they were randomly assigned to one of three groups: meloxicam, piroxicam, or placebo. Each patient was sent home with a visual-analog scale to fill out at 8 and 24 h after completion of therapy. The results of this study showed no significant differences between efficacy of meloxicam, piroxicam, and placebo, but a significant effect of the time factor in reducing postoperative pain in all treatment groups was observed. PMID:14606784

  10. Myorelaxant Effect of Bee Venom Topical Skin Application in Patients with RDC/TMD Ia and RDC/TMD Ib: A Randomized, Double Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of myorelaxant action of bee venom (BV) ointment compared to placebo. Parallel group, randomized double blinded trial was performed. Experimental group patients were applying BV for 14 days, locally over masseter muscles, during 3-minute massage. Placebo group patients used vaseline for massage. Muscle tension was measured twice (TON1 and TON2) in rest muscle tonus (RMT) and maximal muscle contraction (MMC) on both sides, right and left, with Easy Train Myo EMG (Schwa-medico, Version 3.1). Reduction of muscle tonus was statistically relevant in BV group and irrelevant in placebo group. VAS scale reduction was statistically relevant in both groups: BV and placebo. Physiotherapy is an effective method for myofascial pain treatment, but 0,0005% BV ointment gets better relief in muscle tension reduction and analgesic effect. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02101632. PMID:25050337

  11. A phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study of levomilnacipran extended-release in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sambunaris, Angelo; Bose, Anjana; Gommoll, Carl P; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M; Sheehan, David V

    2014-02-01

    Levomilnacipran (1S, 2R-milnacipran) is a potent and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; an extended-release (ER) formulation allows for once-daily dosing. This phase III study (NCT01034462) evaluated the efficacy, the safety, and the tolerability of 40 to 120 mg/d of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in the treatment of patients (18-80 y) with major depressive disorder. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, flexible-dose study comprised a 1-week single-blind, placebo run-in period; an 8-week double-blind treatment; and a 2-week double-blind down-taper period. The primary efficacy parameter was total score change from baseline to week 8 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); the secondary efficacy was the Sheehan Disability Scale. Analysis was performed using the mixed-effects model for repeated measures on a modified intent-to-treat population. A total of 434 patients received at least 1 dose of double-blind treatment (safety population); 429 patients also had 1 or more postbaseline MADRS assessments (modified intent-to-treat population). The least squares mean differences and 95% confidence interval were statistically significant in favor of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo for the MADRS total score (-3.095 [-5.256, -0.935]; P = 0.0051) and the SDS total score (-2.632 [-4.193, -1.070]; P = 0.0010) change from baseline to week 8. Adverse events were reported in 61.8% of the placebo patients and in 81.6% of the levomilnacipran ER patients. Frequently reported adverse events (≥ 5% in levomilnacipran ER and twice the rate of placebo) were nausea, dizziness, constipation, tachycardia, urinary hesitation, hyperhidrosis, insomnia, vomiting, hypertension, and ejaculation disorder. In conclusion, there was a statistically significant difference in the score change from baseline to week 8 between levomilnacipran ER and placebo on several depression rating scales, reflecting symptomatic

  12. A Phase III, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Flexible-Dose Study of Levomilnacipran Extended-Release in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Anjana; Gommoll, Carl P.; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M.; Sheehan, David V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Levomilnacipran (1S, 2R-milnacipran) is a potent and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; an extended-release (ER) formulation allows for once-daily dosing. This phase III study (NCT01034462) evaluated the efficacy, the safety, and the tolerability of 40 to 120 mg/d of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in the treatment of patients (18-80 y) with major depressive disorder. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, flexible-dose study comprised a 1-week single-blind, placebo run-in period; an 8-week double-blind treatment; and a 2-week double-blind down-taper period. The primary efficacy parameter was total score change from baseline to week 8 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); the secondary efficacy was the Sheehan Disability Scale. Analysis was performed using the mixed-effects model for repeated measures on a modified intent-to-treat population. A total of 434 patients received at least 1 dose of double-blind treatment (safety population); 429 patients also had 1 or more postbaseline MADRS assessments (modified intent-to-treat population). The least squares mean differences and 95% confidence interval were statistically significant in favor of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo for the MADRS total score (−3.095 [−5.256, −0.935]; P = 0.0051) and the SDS total score (−2.632 [−4.193, −1.070]; P = 0.0010) change from baseline to week 8. Adverse events were reported in 61.8% of the placebo patients and in 81.6% of the levomilnacipran ER patients. Frequently reported adverse events (≥5% in levomilnacipran ER and twice the rate of placebo) were nausea, dizziness, constipation, tachycardia, urinary hesitation, hyperhidrosis, insomnia, vomiting, hypertension, and ejaculation disorder. In conclusion, there was a statistically significant difference in the score change from baseline to week 8 between levomilnacipran ER and placebo on several depression rating scales

  13. Pharmacokinetic profile and clinical efficacy of a once-daily ondansetron suppository in cyclophosphamide-induced emesis: a double blind comparative study with ondansetron tablets.

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, R.; Beijnen, J. H.; van Tellingen, O.; Schellens, J. H.; de Boer-Dennert, M.; Verweij, J.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the pharmacokinetic profile and the efficacy of ondansetron (day 1) given as 16 mg suppository once a day, as compared with ondansetron 8 mg tablets twice daily, in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. The study was primarily aimed at investigating the pharmacokinetics and was part of a large multinational, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy efficacy trial. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained in a total of 20 patients, 11 of whom had received a suppository containing ondansetron, and nine patients had received the oral formulation. The median area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) obtained with the oral formulation was 226 ng ml-1h-1 (range 91-750), and the median maximum plasma level (Cmax) was 50.5 ng ml-1 (range 24.7-199.6) after a dose of 8 mg. For the ondansetron suppository the median AUC was 140 ng ml-1h-1 range (77-405) and the median Cmax was 17.1 ng ml-1 (range 13-48.3) after a dose of 16 mg. The systemic exposure after correction for the dose difference after the suppository was on average 70% lower than after the tablet. The median time to reach the maximum level (Tmax) was 60 min (range 28-120) with the oral formulation and 209 min (range 90-420) with the suppository. For both the tablet and suppository, there was no apparent relationship between either Cmax or AUC, and efficacy. Although the patient numbers were too small for a formal exposure-response relationship to be derived, the slightly poorer pharmacokinetic performance of the suppository did not appear to be associated with a lessening of control of emesis following chemotherapy. The study demonstrates that the pharmacokinetic analysis of a once-daily 16 mg ondansetron suppository results in appropriate plasma concentrations and AUC, and that this rectal formulation is effective in the protection against nausea and vomiting associated with cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. This formulation will provide a useful alternative to the currently available

  14. Influence of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor or Influenza Vaccination on HLA-DR, Infection and Delirium Days in Immunosuppressed Surgical Patients: Double Blind, Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Gunnar; Renius, Markus; von Haefen, Clarissa; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Bahra, Marcus; Schiemann, Alexander; Paupers, Marco; Meisel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Surgical patients are at high risk for developing infectious complications and postoperative delirium. Prolonged infections and delirium result in worse outcome. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and influenza vaccination are known to increase HLA-DR on monocytes and improve immune reactivity. This study aimed to investigate whether GM-CSF or vaccination reverses monocyte deactivation. Secondary aims were whether it decreases infection and delirium days after esophageal or pancreatic resection over time. Methods In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double dummy trial setting on an interdisciplinary ICU of a university hospital 61 patients with immunosuppression (monocytic HLA-DR [mHLA-DR] <10,000 monoclonal antibodies [mAb] per cell) on the first day after esophageal or pancreatic resection were treated with either GM-CSF (250 μg/m2/d), influenza vaccination (Mutagrip 0.5 ml/d) or placebo for a maximum of 3 consecutive days if mHLA-DR remained below 10,000 mAb per cell. HLA-DR on monocytes was measured daily until day 5 after surgery. Infections and delirium were followed up for 9 days after surgery. Primary outcome was HLA-DR on monocytes, and secondary outcomes were duration of infection and delirium. Results mHLA-DR was significantly increased compared to placebo (p < 0.001) and influenza vaccination (p < 0.001) on the second postoperative day. Compared with placebo, GM-CSF-treated patients revealed shorter duration of infection (p < 0.001); the duration of delirium was increased after vaccination (p = 0.003). Conclusion Treatment with GM-CSF in patients with postoperative immune suppression was safe and effective in restoring monocytic immune competence. Furthermore, therapy with GM-CSF reduced duration of infection in immune compromised patients. However, influenza vaccination increased duration of delirium after major surgery. Trial Registration www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN27114642 PMID

  15. Digestive Enzyme Supplementation for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munasinghe, Sujeeva A.; Oliff, Carolyn; Finn, Judith; Wray, John A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of a digestive enzyme supplement in improving expressive language, behaviour and other symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial using crossover design over 6 months for 43 children, aged 3-8 years. Outcome measurement tools included monthly Global Behaviour Rating…

  16. Human norovirus inactivation in oysters by high hydrostatic pressure processing: A randomized double-blinded study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial assessed the effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on genogroup I.1 human norovirus (HuNoV) inactivation in virus-seeded oysters when ingested by subjects. The safety and efficacy of HPP treatments were assessed in three study phases wi...

  17. Tic Reduction with Risperidone Versus Pimozide in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Donald L.; Batterson, J. Robert; Sethuraman, Gopalan; Sallee, Floyd R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the tic suppression, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, weight gain, and side effect profiles of pimozide versus risperidone in children and adolescents with tic disorders. Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover (evaluable patient analysis) study. Nineteen children aged 7 to 17 years with Tourette's or chronic…

  18. [Double-blind-study on treatment with clobetasol-17-propionate and other topical corticoids (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Beck, M; Berger, C; Filipp, N; Hundertmark, U; Loewel, R

    1981-08-15

    90 patients suffering from chronic skin diseases-mainly psoriasis vulgaris-were treated in a double-blind-study for two weeks with topical Clobetasol-17-propionate compared with other topical corticoids. In 81% was seen a better therapeutical effect on the Clobetasol-17-propionate treated skin area. PMID:7027655

  19. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  20. Diclofenac versus dipyrone in acute renal colic: a double-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Miralles, R; Camí, J; Gutiérrez, J; Torné, J; Garcés, J M; Badenas, J M

    1987-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind clinical trial in 50 patients was done to compare the efficacy and tolerance of single doses of intramuscular diclofenac 75 mg and dipyrone 2 g in acute renal colic. Both drugs were equally effective, but diclofenac was better in terms of complete relief of pain. Vital signs were affected according to the stress and pain. PMID:3322848

  1. Efficacy of sodium butyrate adjunct therapy in shigellosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment of shigellosis in rabbits with butyrate reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18) in the large intestinal epithelia. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether butyrate can be used as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of shigellosis in patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group designed clinical trial was conducted. Eighty adult patients with shigellosis were randomized to either the Intervention group (butyrate, n = 40) or the Placebo group (normal saline, n = 40). The Intervention group was given an enema containing sodium butyrate (80 mM), twice daily for 3 days, while the Placebo group received the same dose of normal saline. The primary endpoint of the trial was to assess the efficacy of butyrate in improving clinical, endoscopic and histological features of shigellosis. The secondary endpoint was to study the effect of butyrate on the induction of antimicrobial peptides in the rectum. Clinical outcomes were assessed and concentrations of antimicrobial peptides (LL-37, human beta defensin1 [HBD-1] and human beta defensin 3 [HBD-3]) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β [IL-1β] and interleukin-8 [IL-8]) were measured in the stool. Sigmoidoscopic and histopathological analyses, and immunostaining of LL-37 in the rectal mucosa were performed in a subgroup of patients. Results Compared with placebo, butyrate therapy led to the early reduction of macrophages, pus cells, IL-8 and IL-1β in the stool and improvement in rectal histopathology. Butyrate treatment induced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia. Stool concentration of LL-37 remained significantly higher in the Intervention group on days 4 and 7. Conclusion Adjunct therapy with butyrate during shigellosis led to early reduction of inflammation and enhanced LL-37 expression in the rectal epithelia with prolonged release of LL-37 in the stool. Trial Registration Clinical

  2. [Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting with ondansetron: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study in 90 patients].

    PubMed

    Polati, E; Finco, G; Bartoloni, A; Gottin, L; Pinaroli, A M; Zanoni, L; Mazzetti, C; Fontanive, P

    1995-09-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are among the most common complications in surgical patients. In this prospective, double blind, parallel group study we compare the prophylactic antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron versus placebo in 90 patients undergoing general balanced anaesthesia. The patients were stratified according to the kind of surgery and randomly allocated to three treatment groups: 30 patients (Group A) received ondansetron 4 mg i.v. 1 hour before the induction of anaesthesia and placebo 1 hour before the end of surgery; 30 patients (Group B) received placebo 1 hour before the end of anaesthesia and ondansetron 4 mg i.v. 1 hour before the end of surgery; 30 patients (Group C-control group) received placebo in both the administrations. Data were analyzed by Student t test and chi 2 test; significance was taken at p < 0.05. The three groups proved comparable with respect to demographic characteristics, duration of anaesthesia and fentanyl consumption. Analysis of the results showed that PONV had a significantly lower incidence in treated patients (Groups A and B) than in the control group patients (Group C): postoperative nausea occurred in 13%, 30% and 67% of patients in Group A, B and C respectively and it was associated with vomiting in 3%, 7% and 57% of patients in Group A, B and C respectively. Although the patients in Group A showed a lower incidence of PONV in comparison to the patients in Group B, such differences proved to be not statistically significant. No adverse effects in relation to drug administration were observed. We conclude that ondansetron 4 mg i.v. is safe and effective in preventing PONV in the surgical patients, particularly when administered before the induction of anaesthesia. PMID:8919833

  3. Effect of rosuvastatin on diabetic polyneuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IIa study

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ojeda, Jaime; Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Rodríguez-Carrízalez, Adolfo Daniel; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán; Alatorre-Carranza, María del Pilar; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic neuropathy affects 50%–66% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress generates nerve dysfunction by causing segmental demyelinization and axonal degeneration. Antioxidants are considered to be the only etiologic management for diabetic polyneuropathy, and statins such as rosuvastatin increase nitric oxide bioavailability and reduce lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of rosuvastatin in diabetic polyneuropathy. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase IIa clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) stage ≥1b. We allocated subjects to two parallel groups (1:1) that received rosuvastatin 20 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were neuropathic symptom score, disability score, and nerve conduction studies, and secondary outcomes were glycemic control, lipid and hepatic profile, lipid peroxidation, and nerve growth factor beta (NGF-β) levels. Results Both groups were of similar age and duration since diagnosis of diabetes and DPN. We observed improvement of DPN in the rosuvastatin group from stage 2a (88.2%) to stage 1b (41.2%), improvement of neuropathic symptom score from 4.5±2 to 2.4±1.8, and significant (P=0.001) reductions of peroneal nerve conduction velocity (from 40.8±2.2 to 42.1±1.6 seconds) and lipid peroxidation (from 25.4±2 to 12.2±4.0 nmol/mL), with no significant change in glycemic control or β-NGF. Conclusion The severity, symptoms, and nerve conduction parameters of DPN improved after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin. These beneficial effects appear to be attributable to reductions in lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. PMID:25214797

  4. IQP-GC-101 Reduces Body Weight and Body Fat Mass: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-01-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability. © 2014 InQpharm Group Sdn Bhd. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24797657

  5. Rupatadine 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg in seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomised, double-blind parallel study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cócera, C; De Molina, M; Martí-Guadaño, E; Pola, J; Conde, J; Borja, J; Pérez, I; Arnaiz, E; Izquierdo, I

    2005-01-01

    This randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre clinical trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of rupatadine, a new antihistamine with antiplatelet-activating factor (PAF) activity, and cetirizine in the treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). A total 249 patients were randomised to receive rupatadine 10 mg once daily (127 patients) or cetirizine 10 mg (122 patients) for two weeks. The main efficacy variable was the mean total daily symptom score (mTDSS) and was based on the daily subjective assessment of the severity of each rhinitis symptom--nasal (runny nose, sneezing, nasal itching and nasal obstruction) and non-nasal (conjunctival itching, tearing, and pharyngeal itching)--recorded by patients in their diaries. The mTDSS was 0.7 for both treatment groups (intention to treat analysis). In the investigator's global evaluation of efficacy at the seventh day, 93.3% and 83.7% patients in the rupatadine and cetirizine groups, respectively, showed some or great improvement (p = 0.022). In the per protocol analysis (n = 181), runny nose at the seventh day of treatment was absent or mild in 81.1% of patients in the rupatadine group and in 68.6% of patients in the cetirizine group (p = 0.029). In any case statistical significance was not maintained at the second week. Overall, all treatments were well tolerated. Adverse events (AEs) were similar in both treatment groups, i.e. headache, somnolence and fatigue/asthenia as the most often reported. Somnolence was reported in 9.6% and 8.5% of patients treated with rupatadine or cetirizine, respectively. The most reported AEs (67%) were mild in intensity. Our results suggest that rupatadine 10 mg may be a valuable and safe alternative for the symptomatic treatment of SAR. PMID:15864879

  6. Evaluation of the PPAR-γ Agonist Pioglitazone in Mild Asthma: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. R.; Pang, L.; Smith, K. M; Bailey, H.; Hodgson, D. B.; Shaw, D. E.; Knox, A. J.; Harrison, T. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is a nuclear receptor that modulates inflammation in models of asthma. To determine whether pioglitazone improves measures of asthma control and airway inflammation, we performed a single-center randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Methods Sixty-eight participants with mild asthma were randomized to 12 weeks pioglitazone (30 mg for 4 weeks, then 45 mg for 8 weeks) or placebo. The primary outcome was the adjusted mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) at 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes were mean peak expiratory flow (PEF), scores on the Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (PD20), induced sputum counts, and sputum supernatant interferon gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels. Study recruitment was closed early after considering the European Medicines Agency’s reports of a potential increased risk of bladder cancer with pioglitazone treatment. Fifty-five cases were included in the full analysis (FA) and 52 in the per-protocol (PP) analysis. Results There was no difference in the adjusted FEV1 at 12 weeks (-0.014 L, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.15 to 0.12, p = 0.84) or in any of the secondary outcomes in the FA. The PP analysis replicated the FA, with the exception of a lower evening PEF in the pioglitazone group (-21 L/min, 95% CI -39 to -4, p = 0.02). Conclusions We found no evidence that treatment with 12 weeks of pioglitazone improved asthma control or airway inflammation in mild asthma. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01134835 PMID:27560168

  7. A Randomized, Double-blind, Vehicle-controlled Trial of Luliconazole Cream 1% in the Treatment of Interdigital Tinea Pedis

    PubMed Central

    Vlahovic, Tracey C.; Gold, Michael H.; Parish, Lawrence Charles; Korotzer, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of luliconazole cream 1% applied once daily for 14 days in patients with interdigital tinea pedis. Design: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle-controlled study. Setting: Private dermatology clinics and clinical research centers in the United States and Central America. Participants: Three hundred twenty-two male and female patients ≥12 years of age diagnosed with interdigital tinea pedis. Measurements: Complete clearance (i.e., clinical and mycological cure), effective treatment, and fungal culture and susceptibility. Results: At study Day 42, complete clearance was obtained by a larger percentage (14.0% [15/107] vs. 2.8% [3/107]; p<0.001) of patients treated with luliconazole cream 1% compared with vehicle. Also at Day 42, more luliconazole-treated patients compared with vehicle-treated patients obtained effective treatment (32.7% vs. 15.0%), clinical cure (15.0% vs. 3.7%), and mycologic cure (56.1% vs. 27.1%). Erythema, scaling, and pruritus scores were lower for the luliconazole cream 1% group compared with vehicle on Day 14, Day 28, and Day 42. For all species and the same isolates, the MIC50/90 for luliconazole cream 1% was 6- to 12-fold lower than for other agents tested. No patients discontinued treatment because of a treatment-emergent adverse event. Conclusion: Luliconazole cream 1% was safe and well-tolerated and demonstrated significantly greater efficacy than vehicle cream in patients with interdigital tinea pedis. PMID:25371767

  8. The Nightly Use of Sodium Oxybate Is Associated with a Reduction in Nocturnal Sleep Disruption: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Patients with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jed; Pardi, Daniel; Hornfeldt, Carl S.; Inhaber, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To further explore the effects of sodium oxybate (SXB) administration on nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy patients during a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study conducted with 228 adult patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Method: Patients were withdrawn from antidepressants and sedative/hypnotics, and then randomized to receive 4.5, 6, or 9 g SXB or placebo nightly for 8 weeks. Patients receiving 6 and 9 g/night doses were titrated to their final dose in weekly 1.5 g increments, while patients receiving placebo were randomized to undergo a similar mock dose titration. The use of stimulant therapy continued unchanged. Changes in sleep architecture were measured using centrally scored nocturnal polysomnograms. Daily diaries were used to record changes in narcolepsy symptoms and adverse events. Results: Following 8 weeks of SXB treatment, study patients demonstrated significant dose-related increases in the duration of stage 3 and 4 sleep, reaching a median increase of 52.5 minutes in patients receiving 9 g nightly. Compared to placebo-treated patients, delta power was significantly increased in all dose groups. Stage 1 sleep and the frequency of nocturnal awakenings were each significantly decreased at the 6 and 9 g/night doses. The changes in nocturnal sleep coincided with significant decreases in the severity and frequency of narcolepsy symptoms. Conclusions: The nightly administration of SXB to narcolepsy patients significantly impacts measures of slow wave sleep, wake after sleep onset, awakenings, total sleep time, and stage 1 sleep in a dose-related manner. The frequency and severity of narcolepsy symptoms decreased with treatment. Citation: Black J; Pardi D; Hornfeldt CS; Inhaber N. The nightly use of sodium oxybate is associated with a reduction in nocturnal sleep disruption: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):596-602. PMID:21206549

  9. Label-free, single molecule resonant cavity detection: a double-blind experimental study.

    PubMed

    Chistiakova, Maria V; Shi, Ce; Armani, Andrea M

    2015-01-01

    Optical resonant cavity sensors are gaining increasing interest as a potential diagnostic method for a range of applications, including medical prognostics and environmental monitoring. However, the majority of detection demonstrations to date have involved identifying a "known" analyte, and the more rigorous double-blind experiment, in which the experimenter must identify unknown solutions, has yet to be performed. This scenario is more representative of a real-world situation. Therefore, before these devices can truly transition, it is necessary to demonstrate this level of robustness. By combining a recently developed surface chemistry with integrated silica optical sensors, we have performed a double-blind experiment to identify four unknown solutions. The four unknown solutions represented a subset or complete set of four known solutions; as such, there were 256 possible combinations. Based on the single molecule detection signal, we correctly identified all solutions. In addition, as part of this work, we developed noise reduction algorithms. PMID:25785307

  10. Label-Free, Single Molecule Resonant Cavity Detection: A Double-Blind Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakova, Maria V.; Shi, Ce; Armani, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Optical resonant cavity sensors are gaining increasing interest as a potential diagnostic method for a range of applications, including medical prognostics and environmental monitoring. However, the majority of detection demonstrations to date have involved identifying a “known” analyte, and the more rigorous double-blind experiment, in which the experimenter must identify unknown solutions, has yet to be performed. This scenario is more representative of a real-world situation. Therefore, before these devices can truly transition, it is necessary to demonstrate this level of robustness. By combining a recently developed surface chemistry with integrated silica optical sensors, we have performed a double-blind experiment to identify four unknown solutions. The four unknown solutions represented a subset or complete set of four known solutions; as such, there were 256 possible combinations. Based on the single molecule detection signal, we correctly identified all solutions. In addition, as part of this work, we developed noise reduction algorithms. PMID:25785307

  11. A double-blind trial of chronic cerebellar stimulation in twelve patients with severe epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, G D; McLellan, D L; Brice, J G

    1984-01-01

    Twelve patients with severe intractable epilepsy were treated by chronic cerebellar stimulation under double-blind conditions for six months. No reduction in seizure frequency occurred that could be attributed to stimulation, though eleven of the patients considered that the trial had helped them. One patient experienced fewer episodes of incontinence during stimulation. Cerebellar stimulation in its present form cannot be recommended for the treatment of severe intractable epilepsy. PMID:6381652

  12. A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Quetiapine and Divalproex for Adolescent Mania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbello, Melissa P.; Kowatch, Robert A.; Adler, Caleb M.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Barzman, Drew H.; Nelson, Erik; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the comparative efficacy of quetiapine and divalproex for the treatment of adolescent mania. Method: Fifty adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode, were randomized to quetiapine (400-600 mg/day) or divalproex (serum level 80-120 [micro]g/mL) for 28 days for this double-blind study,…

  13. ["Sham Needle"--Design and Application of A Double-blind Placebo Needle Assembly].

    PubMed

    Yan, Liu; Ma, Li-hong

    2016-02-01

    The blind study design, particularly the double-blind study design is a very important method for diminishing placebo effect and reducing bias in clinical medical trial. Enlightened by Streitberger's and Park's sham needle design, the authors of the present paper introduce a newly designed sham needle device (Yan's sham-needle) for controlled double-blind trials of acupuncture. This sham needle device consists of needle, tube and base. The bottom of the tube is completely sealed and it can never arouse any invasive stimulation on the subject's skin when the sham needle is downward pressed on the body surface. Meanwhile, this sham device is filled with sponge which is able to simulate soft tissues of the acupoint area. By combining words suggestions or hints before trials and the same shape as verum device, this sham-needle device reduces the risk of blind-breaking and makes it possible to conduct controlled double-blind trials. Primary practice showed that this device may provide a new and practical tool for researching the placebo effect of acupuncture therapy. PMID:27141628

  14. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Arabinogalactan from Larch tree (Larix spp.) bark has previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ingestion of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract, ResistAid™, would selectively enhance the antibody response to the pneumococcal (pneumonia) vaccine in healthy adults. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study included 45 healthy adults who had not previously been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The volunteers began taking the study product or placebo (daily dosage 4.5 g) at the screening visit (V1-Day 0) and continued over the entire 72 day study period. After 30 days the subjects received the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (V2). They were monitored the following day (V3-Day 31), as well as 21 days (V4-Day 51) and 42 days (V5-Day 72) after vaccination. Responses by the adaptive immune system (antigen specific) were measured via pneumococcal IgG antibodies (subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) and salivary IgA levels. Responses by the innate immune system (non-specific) were measured via white blood cell counts, inflammatory cytokines and the complement system. Results Vaccination significantly increased pneumococcal IgG levels as expected. The arabinogalactan group demonstrated a statistically significant greater IgG antibody response than the placebo group in two antibodies subtypes (18C and 23F) at both Day 51 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002) and at Day 72 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041). These same subtypes (18C and 23F) also demonstrated change scores from baseline which were significant, in favor of the arabinogalactan group, at Day 51 (p = 0.033 and 0.001) and at Day 72 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003). Change scores from baseline and mean values were greater in the arabinogalactan group than placebo for most time points in antibody subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 19F, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There was no

  15. Double-Blinding and Bias in Medication and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Trials for Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    While double-blinding is a crucial aspect of study design in an interventional clinical trial of medication for a disorder with subjective endpoints such as major depressive disorder, psychotherapy clinical trials, particularly cognitive-behavioral therapy trials, cannot be double-blinded. This paper highlights the evidence-based medicine problem of double-blinding in the outcome research of a psychotherapy and opines that psychotherapy clinical trials should be called, “partially-controlled clinical data” because they are not double-blinded. The implications for practice are, 1. For practitioners to be clear with patients the level of rigor to which interventions have been studied, 2. For authors of psychotherapy outcome studies to be clear that the problem in the inability to blind a psychotherapy trial severely restricts the validity of any conclusions that can be drawn, and 3. To petition National Health Insurance plans to use caution in approving interventions studied without double-blinded confirmatory trials as they may lead patients to avoid other treatments shown to be effective in double-blinded trials. PMID:26870318

  16. Otilonium bromide in irritable bowel syndrome: A dose-ranging randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska-Wilkoń, Danuta; Reggiardo, Giorgio; Egan, Colin Gerard

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficacy and safety of otilonium bromide (OB) in treatment-sensitive functional irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) clinical parameters. METHODS: Ninety-three patients (44.8 ± 12.6 years, 69% female) with IBS symptoms complying with Rome II criteria participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, dose-ranging phase I/II study. Patients were administered OB 20 mg (n = 24), 40mg (n = 23) and 80 mg (n = 23) tid or placebo (n = 23) in 4 parallel groups for 4 wk. Primary efficacy variables included abdominal discomfort, intestinal habits, number of daily evacuations and stool consistency. Secondary efficacy measures included return to regular intestinal habits and global discomfort. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS: Baseline clinical characteristics were similar among the 4 groups. Although individual parameters such as intensity and frequency of abdominal discomfort, bloating or pain were reduced by OB over the 4 wk, no significant differences were observed between groups. Similarly, no difference was observed between OB treatment or placebo for mucus in stool and incomplete or difficulty of evacuation. However, evacuation frequency was significantly reduced after 4 wk by 80 mg OB compared to placebo (-8.36% for placebo vs -41.9% for 80 mg OB, P < 0.01). While 21.7% of patients in the placebo group experienced regular intestinal habits after 4 wk, this improvement was greater for patients treated with 40 mg OB (P < 0.01 vs placebo). Furthermore, a dose-dependent reduction in frequency of diarrhoea (χ2-test for trend = 11.5, P < 0.001) and an increase in normal stool frequency was observed. Combining individual variables into a global discomfort index revealed significant improvement among increasing OB doses, favouring 40 mg (P = 0.013) and 80mg OB (P = 0.001) over placebo. No difference was observed between frequency of adverse events for placebo vs OB. CONCLUSION: This dose-ranging study demonstrates that OB at 40 and 80 mg can

  17. Echocardiographic Evidence for Valvular Toxicity of Benfluorex: A Double-Blind Randomised Trial in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Derumeaux, Geneviève; Ernande, Laura; Serusclat, André; Servan, Evelyne; Bruckert, Eric; Rousset, Hugues; Senn, Stephen; Van Gaal, Luc; Picandet, Brigitte; Gavini, François; Moulin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Objectives REGULATE trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of benfluorex versus pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Methods Double-blind, parallel-group, international, randomised, non-inferiority trial. More than half of the 196 participating centres were primary care centres. Patients eligible had type 2 DM uncontrolled on sulfonylurea. 846 were randomised. They received study treatment for 1 year. 423 patients were allocated to benfluorex (150 to 450 mg/day) and 423 were allocated to pioglitazone (30 to 45 mg/day). Primary efficacy criterion was HbA1c. Safety assessment included blinded echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac and valvular status. Results At baseline, patients were 59.1±10.5 years old with HbA1c 8.3±0.8%, and DM duration 7.1±6.0 years. During the study, mean HbA1c significantly decreased in both groups (benfluorex: from 8.30±0.80 to 7.77±1.31 versus pioglitazone: from 8.30±0.80 to 7.45±1.30%). The last HbA1c value was significantly lower with pioglitazone than with benfluorex (p<0.001) and non-inferiority of benfluorex was not confirmed (p = 0.19). Among the 615 patients with assessable paired echocardiography (310 benfluorex, 305 pioglitazone), 314 (51%) had at least one morphological valvular abnormality and 515 (84%) at least one functional valvular abnormality at baseline. Emergent morphological abnormalities occurred in 8 patients with benfluorex versus 4 with pioglitazone (OR 1.99), 95% CI (0.59 to 6.69). Emergent regurgitation (new or increased by one grade or more) occurred more frequently with benfluorex (82 patients, 27%) than with pioglitazone (33 patients, 11%) (OR 2.97), 95% CI (1.91 to 4.63) and were mainly rated grade 1; grade 2 (mild) was detected in 2 patients with benfluorex and 3 with pioglitazone. There was no moderate or severe regurgitation. Conclusion After 1 year of exposure, our results show a 2.97 fold increase in the incidence of valvular regurgitation with benfluorex and

  18. Monotherapy versus dual therapy for the initial treatment of hypertension (PATHWAY-1): a randomised double-blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Thomas M; Williams, Bryan; Caulfield, Mark; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Webb, David J; Mackenzie, Isla S; Salsbury, Jackie; Morant, Steve; Ford, Ian; Brown, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that more intensive initial therapy for hypertension results in better long-term blood pressure (BP) control. We test this hypothesis comparing initial monotherapy with dual therapy in the management of essential hypertension. Methods and analysis The study is a prospective, multicentre, double-blind, active-controlled trial in patients with essential hypertension. Around 50% of patients studied will be newly diagnosed and the others will be known hypertensives who previously received only monotherapy. The trial is divided into three phases as follows: Phase 1 (Week 0–Week 16): Randomised, parallel-group, masked assignation to either combination or monotherapy. Phase 2 (Week 17–Week 32): Open-label combination therapy. Phase 3 (Week 33–Week 52): Open-label combination therapy plus open-label add-on (if BP is above 140/90 mm Hg). Hierarchical primary end points are: a comparison of home BP (home systolic blood pressure (HSBP)) averaged over the duration of phase 1 and 2 in the combination versus monotherapy arms. If combination is superior in this analysis, then the averaged mean HSBP between initial monotherapy and initial combination therapy at the end of phase 2 will be compared. Secondary end points include: BP control at 1 year; the role of age, baseline renin, sodium status, plasma volume, haemodynamic compensation and peripheral resistance on BP control; validation of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence/British Hypertension Society joint guideline algorithm; safety and tolerability of combination therapy; and the impact of combination versus monotherapy on left ventricular mass and aortic pulse wave velocity. A sample size of 536 (268 in each group) will have 90% power to detect a difference in means of 4 mm Hg. Ethics and dissemination PATHWAY 1 was approved by UK ethics (REC Reference 09/H0308/132). Trial results will be published and all participating subjects will be informed of the

  19. Effect of two dietary fibers on satiety and glycemic parameters: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary carbohydrates may affect metabolic and physiologic parameters. The present study evaluated whether a combination of two dietary fibers, oligofructose (OFS) and pectin (P), altered satiety and glycemic parameters. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation for 3 weeks with OFS + P would produce a greater reduction in energy intake of an ad libitum test meal compared to control. Methods This was a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in overweight and obese, otherwise healthy, subjects (N = 96). There were two OFS + P treatment groups: high-dose (30 g/d), low-dose (15 g/d), and a control group (maltodextrin 15 g/d). Energy intake, appetite measures based on Satiety Labeled Intensity Magnitude (SLIM) scale, fasting and post-prandial glucose, and insulin levels and body weight were measured at baseline and at the end of 3 weeks. Adverse events and gastrointestinal tolerability of the treatments were also assessed. Results An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) performed on the primary endpoint change from baseline in energy intake, showed no statistically significant difference in energy intake among the three treatment groups (p = 0.5387). The LS mean changes (SE) in energy intake from baseline to week 3 were −58.3 (42.4) kilocalories (kcal) for the high dose group, −74.2 (43.6) kcal for the low dose group, and −9.0 (42.9) kcal for the control group. For the pairwise comparisons of OFS + P doses and control, confidence intervals were constructed around the difference in LS mean changes. All study products were generally well tolerated. Conclusion There was a directional benefit in ad libitum energy intake for both OFS + P doses compared to control, with a greater reduction in kilocalories in the low dose comparison, but the reductions were not significant. Further studies are warranted. Clinical trial registration GSK Clinical Study

  20. Sublingual Misoprostol versus Intramuscular Oxytocin for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Uganda: A Double-Blind Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Atukunda, Esther C.; Siedner, Mark J.; Obua, Celestino; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R.; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Agaba, Amon G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the World Health Organization recommends use of oxytocin for prevention of PPH, misoprostol use is increasingly common owing to advantages in shelf life and potential for sublingual administration. There is a lack of data about the comparative efficacy of oxytocin and sublingual misoprostol, particularly at the recommended dose of 600 µg, for prevention of PPH during active management of labor. Methods and Findings We performed a double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled non-inferiority trial between 23 September 2012 and 9 September 2013 at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. We randomized 1,140 women to receive 600 µg of misoprostol sublingually or 10 IU of oxytocin intramuscularly, along with matching placebos for the treatment they did not receive. Our primary outcome of interest was PPH, defined as measured blood loss ≥500 ml within 24 h of delivery. Secondary outcomes included measured blood loss ≥1,000 ml; mean measured blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 h after delivery; death; requirement for blood transfusion; hemoglobin changes; and use of additional uterotonics. At 24 h postpartum, primary PPH occurred in 163 (28.6%) participants in the misoprostol group and 99 (17.4%) participants in the oxytocin group (relative risk [RR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.05, p<0.001; absolute risk difference 11.2%, 95% CI 6.44 to 16.1). Severe PPH occurred in 20 (3.6%) and 15 (2.7%) participants in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.58, p = 0.391; absolute risk difference 0.9%, 95% CI −1.12 to 2.88). Mean measured blood loss was 341.5 ml (standard deviation [SD] 206.2) and 304.2 ml (SD 190.8, p = 0.002) at 2 h and 484.7 ml (SD 213.3) and 432.8 ml (SD 203.5, p<0.001) at 24 h in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any other

  1. A pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone as adjunctive treatment to risperidone: Effects on aberrant behavior in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Rasa, Soudeh Mohebbi; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2015-09-30

    To assess the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone added to risperidone in the treatment of irritability in autistic disorder (AD), we conducted this study. In a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 44 outpatients of both genders aged 4-12 years with a diagnosis of AD and a score of ≥12 on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) irritability subscale were included. Mean change of ABC-C irritability subscale score as primary outcome, change in other ABC-C subscale scores and partial and complete responses were compared between two groups. Twenty patients completed the trial in each group. Level of reduction and effect of time×treatment interaction in the treatment group were significant for irritability (P=0.03), lethargy/social withdrawal (P=0.04) and hyperactivity/non-compliance (P=0.03) but not for stereotypic behavior and inappropriate speech subscales compared with the placebo group. Vomiting and headache were the most frequent reported side-effects. Results of this preliminary study indicate positive effects of pioglitazone compared with placebo in improving the behavioral symptoms of AD. PMID:26208985

  2. Efficacy of Levofloxacin and Rifaximin based Quadruple Therapy in Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastroduodenal Disease: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kang Hyun; Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang Nyol; Kim, Eun Jung; Kang, Bong Koo; Oak, Ju Hyun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin and rifaximin based quadruple regimen as first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. A prospectively randomized, double-blinded, parallel group, comparative study was performed. Three hundred consecutive H. pylori positive patients were randomized to receive: omeprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin (OAC); omeprazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin (OAL); and omeprazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, rifaximin (OAL-R). The eradication rates in the intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses were: OAC, 77.8% and 85.6%; OAL, 65.3% and 73.6%; and OAL-R, 74.5% and 80.2%. The eradication rate achieved with OAC was higher than with OAL on the ITT (P = 0.05) and PP analysis (P = 0.04). OAL-R regimen was not inferior to OAC. The frequency of moderate to severe adverse effects was significantly higher in OAC treatment group. Especially, diarrhea was most common complaint, and there was a significantly low rate of moderate to severe diarrhea with the rifaximin containing regimen. In conclusion, the levofloxacin and rifaximin based regimen comes up to the standard triple therapy, but has a limited efficacy in a Korean cohort. The rifaximin containing regimen has a very high safety profile for H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:21655065

  3. Efficacy of levofloxacin and rifaximin based quadruple therapy in Helicobacter pylori associated gastroduodenal disease: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang Hyun; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Kang-Moon; Paik, Chang Nyol; Kim, Eun Jung; Kang, Bong Koo; Oak, Ju Hyun; Jung, Sung Hoon

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin and rifaximin based quadruple regimen as first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. A prospectively randomized, double-blinded, parallel group, comparative study was performed. Three hundred consecutive H. pylori positive patients were randomized to receive: omeprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin (OAC); omeprazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin (OAL); and omeprazole, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, rifaximin (OAL-R). The eradication rates in the intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses were: OAC, 77.8% and 85.6%; OAL, 65.3% and 73.6%; and OAL-R, 74.5% and 80.2%. The eradication rate achieved with OAC was higher than with OAL on the ITT (P = 0.05) and PP analysis (P = 0.04). OAL-R regimen was not inferior to OAC. The frequency of moderate to severe adverse effects was significantly higher in OAC treatment group. Especially, diarrhea was most common complaint, and there was a significantly low rate of moderate to severe diarrhea with the rifaximin containing regimen. In conclusion, the levofloxacin and rifaximin based regimen comes up to the standard triple therapy, but has a limited efficacy in a Korean cohort. The rifaximin containing regimen has a very high safety profile for H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:21655065

  4. Armodafinil versus Modafinil in Patients of Excessive Sleepiness Associated with Shift Work Sleep Disorder: A Randomized Double Blind Multicentric Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tembe, D. V.; Dhavale, A.; Desai, H.; Mane, D. N.; Raut, S. K.; Dhingra, G.; Sardesai, U.; Saoji, S.; Rohra, M.; Shinde, V. G.; Padsalge, M.; Paliwal, A.; Abbasi, K.; Devnani, P.; Papinwar, S.; Phadke, S.; Mehta, H.; Bhailume, V.

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To compare the efficacy and safety of armodafinil, the R-enantiomer of modafinil, with modafinil in patients of shift work sleep disorder (SWSD). Material and Methods. This was a 12-week, randomized, comparative, double-blind, multicentric, parallel-group study in 211 patients of SWSD, receiving armodafinil (150 mg) or modafinil (200 mg) one hour prior to the night shift. Outcome Measures. Efficacy was assessed by change in stanford sleepiness score (SSS) by at least 2 grades (responder) and global assessment for efficacy. Safety was assessed by incidence of adverse events, change in laboratory parameters, ECG, and global assessment of tolerability. Results. Both modafinil and armodafinil significantly improved sleepiness mean grades as compared to baseline (P < .0001). Responder rates with armodafinil (72.12%) and modafinil (74.29%) were comparable (P = .76). Adverse event incidences were comparable. Conclusion. Armodafinil was found to be safe and effective in the treatment of SWSD in Indian patients. The study did not demonstrate any difference in efficacy and safety of armodafinil 150 mg and modafinil 200 mg. PMID:21766023

  5. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: The Efficacy of Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation in Alleviating Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated with Constipation.

    PubMed

    Mezzasalma, Valerio; Manfrini, Enrico; Ferri, Emanuele; Sandionigi, Anna; La Ferla, Barbara; Schiano, Irene; Michelotti, Angela; Nobile, Vincenzo; Labra, Massimo; Di Gennaro, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The efficacy of supplementation treatment with two multispecies probiotic formulates on subjects diagnosed with IBS-C and the assessment of their gut microbiota were investigated. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, three-arm parallel group trial was carried out on 150 IBS-C subjects divided into three groups (F_1, F_2, and F_3). Each group received a daily oral administration of probiotic mixtures (for 60 days) F_1 or F_2 or placebo F_3, respectively. Fecal microbiological analyses were performed by species-specific qPCR to assess the different amount of probiotics. Results. The percentage of responders for each symptom was higher in the probiotic groups when compared to placebo group during the treatment period (t60) and was maintained quite similar during the follow-up period (t90). Fecal analysis demonstrated that probiotics of the formulations increased during the times of treatment only in fecal DNA from subjects treated with F_1 and F_2 and not with F_3, and the same level was maintained during the follow-up period. Conclusions. Multispecies probiotic supplementations are effective in IBS-C subjects and induce a different assessment in the composition of intestinal microbiota. This clinical study is registered with the clinical study registration number ISRCTN15032219. PMID:27595104

  6. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients.

    PubMed

    Wade, Derick T; Makela, Petra; Robson, Philip; House, Heather; Bateman, Cynthia

    2004-08-01

    The objective was to determine whether a cannabis-based medicinal extract (CBME) benefits a range of symptoms due to multiple sclerosis (MS). A parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken in three centres, recruiting 160 outpatients with MS experiencing significant problems from at least one of the following: spasticity, spasms, bladder problems, tremor or pain. The interventions were oromucosal sprays of matched placebo, or whole plant CBME containing equal amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) at a dose of 2.5-120 mg of each daily, in divided doses. The primary outcome measure was a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for each patient's most troublesome symptom. Additional measures included VAS scores of other symptoms, and measures of disability, cognition, mood, sleep and fatigue. Following CBME the primary symptom score reduced from mean (SE) 74.36 (11.1) to 48.89 (22.0) following CBME and from 74.31 (12.5) to 54.79 (26.3) following placebo [ns]. Spasticity VAS scores were significantly reduced by CBME (Sativex) in comparison with placebo (P =0.001). There were no significant adverse effects on cognition or mood and intoxication was generally mild. PMID:15327042

  7. Dietary nitrate modulates cerebral blood flow parameters and cognitive performance in humans: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation.

    PubMed

    Wightman, Emma L; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F; Thompson, Kevin G; Blackwell, Jamie R; Winyard, Paul G; Forster, Joanne; Jones, Andrew M; Kennedy, David O

    2015-10-01

    Nitrate derived from vegetables is consumed as part of a normal diet and is reduced endogenously via nitrite to nitric oxide. It has been shown to improve endothelial function, reduce blood pressure and the oxygen cost of sub-maximal exercise, and increase regional perfusion in the brain. The current study assessed the effects of dietary nitrate on cognitive performance and prefrontal cortex cerebral blood-flow (CBF) parameters in healthy adults. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups study, 40 healthy adults received either placebo or 450 ml beetroot juice (~5.5 mmol nitrate). Following a 90 minute drink/absorption period, participants performed a selection of cognitive tasks that activate the frontal cortex for 54 min. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor CBF and hemodynamics, as indexed by concentration changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated-haemoglobin, in the frontal cortex throughout. The bioconversion of nitrate to nitrite was confirmed in plasma by ozone-based chemi-luminescence. Dietary nitrate modulated the hemodynamic response to task performance, with an initial increase in CBF at the start of the task period, followed by consistent reductions during the least demanding of the three tasks utilised. Cognitive performance was improved on the serial 3s subtraction task. These results show that single doses of dietary nitrate can modulate the CBF response to task performance and potentially improve cognitive performance, and suggest one possible mechanism by which vegetable consumption may have beneficial effects on brain function. PMID:26037632

  8. Supplementation of xylitol-containing chewing gum with probiotics: a double blind, randomised pilot study focusing on saliva flow and saliva properties.

    PubMed

    Gueimonde, Laura; Vesterlund, Satu; García-Pola, María J; Gueimonde, Miguel; Söderling, Eva; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily chewing, for 12 weeks, of 2 different probiotic gums compared with placebo on saliva flow rate, saliva IgA levels and saliva pH. The intervention study included 54 adult volunteers with hyposalivation in a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled design with three parallel groups. Volunteers were randomly assigned to 3 different groups: subjects in group A (n = 19) were given placebo chewing gum, group B (n = 17) received Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12 (ATCC 27536) and group C (n = 18) received Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (ATCC 53103), Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583) and Bifidobacterium longum 2C (DSM 14579) gums, during 3 months. Two volunteers from group B left the study for personal reasons leaving 19, 15 and 18 volunteers, respectively, for analyses. Clinical examinations, personal interviews, sialometries and saliva sampling were conducted at baseline and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. No statistically significant differences were found between probiotic and placebo groups for any of the parameters analysed. No side effects of probiotic or placebo chewing gums were observed. Chewing gum, with and without probiotics, had a positive impact on salivary flow rate and saliva pH and IgA levels. PMID:26913493

  9. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: The Efficacy of Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation in Alleviating Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated with Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Manfrini, Enrico; Ferri, Emanuele; La Ferla, Barbara; Schiano, Irene; Michelotti, Angela; Nobile, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The efficacy of supplementation treatment with two multispecies probiotic formulates on subjects diagnosed with IBS-C and the assessment of their gut microbiota were investigated. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, three-arm parallel group trial was carried out on 150 IBS-C subjects divided into three groups (F_1, F_2, and F_3). Each group received a daily oral administration of probiotic mixtures (for 60 days) F_1 or F_2 or placebo F_3, respectively. Fecal microbiological analyses were performed by species-specific qPCR to assess the different amount of probiotics. Results. The percentage of responders for each symptom was higher in the probiotic groups when compared to placebo group during the treatment period (t60) and was maintained quite similar during the follow-up period (t90). Fecal analysis demonstrated that probiotics of the formulations increased during the times of treatment only in fecal DNA from subjects treated with F_1 and F_2 and not with F_3, and the same level was maintained during the follow-up period. Conclusions. Multispecies probiotic supplementations are effective in IBS-C subjects and induce a different assessment in the composition of intestinal microbiota. This clinical study is registered with the clinical study registration number ISRCTN15032219. PMID:27595104

  10. The TRACTISS Protocol: a randomised double blind placebo controlled clinical TRial of Anti-B-Cell Therapy In patients with primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (PSS) mainly affects women (9:1 female:male ratio) and is one of the commonest autoimmune diseases with a prevalence of 0.1 – 0.6% of adult women. For patients with PSS there is currently no effective therapy that can alter the progression of the disease. The aim of the TRACTISS study is to establish whether in patients with PSS, treatment with rituximab improves clinical outcomes. Methods/design TRACTISS is a UK multi-centre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial of 110 patients with PSS. Patients will be randomised on a 1:1 basis to receive two courses of either rituximab or placebo infusion in addition to standard therapy, and will be followed up for up to 48 weeks. The primary objective is to assess the extent to which rituximab improves symptoms of fatigue and oral dryness. Secondary outcomes include ocular dryness, salivary flow rates, lacrimal flow, patient quality of life, measures of disease damage and disease activity, serological and peripheral blood biomarkers, and glandular histology and composition. Discussion The TRACTISS trial will provide direct evidence as to whether rituximab in patients with PSS leads to an improvement in patient symptoms and a reduction in disease damage and activity. Trial registration UKCRN Portfolio ID: 9809 ISRCTN65360827. PMID:24438039

  11. A double-blind comparison of 0.25% and 0.05% desoxymethasone, 0.1% betamethasone valerate and 1% hydrocortisone creams in the treatment of eczema.

    PubMed

    Ashton, R E; Catterall, M; Morley, N; Fairris, G; Joseph, D N

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy and acceptability of 0.25% and 0.05% desoxymethasone, 0.1% betamethasone valerate and 1% hydrocortisone creams were compared in patients with eczema. A double-blind parallel group multi-centre design was employed in which 96 patients were recruited by four centres. Patients used one cream for a 3-week period and follow-up assessment visits were made at weekly intervals. Efficacy variables were: erythema/redness, scaling, itching and extent of area affected. These variables were assessed by both the investigator and the patient. The 0.25% desoxymethasone was the most effective treatment, producing the greatest degree of improvement in all clinical parameters, hydrocortisone was the least effective and 0.05% desoxymethasone was of intermediate effectiveness. The 0.1% betamethasone produced similar results to 0.25% desoxymethasone for half the assessments; for the other half the results were similar to 0.05% desoxymethasone. No adverse effects were reported during the study. The results are discussed in terms of physical properties of the vehicles and corticosteroid potency. PMID:3301455

  12. Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge Study in Children Sensitised to Cashew Nut

    PubMed Central

    van der Valk, Johanna P. M.; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; de Groot, Hans; Reitsma, Marit; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wichers, Harry J.; de Jong, Nicolette W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies with a limited number of patients have provided indications that cashew-allergic patients may experience severe allergic reactions to minimal amounts of cashew nut. The objectives of this multicentre study were to assess the clinical relevance of cashew nut sensitisation, to study the clinical reaction patterns in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge tests and to establish the amount of cashew nuts that can elicit an allergic reaction. Methods and Findings A total of 179 children were included (median age 9.0 years; range 2–17 years) with cashew nut sensitisation and a clinical history of reactions to cashew nuts or unknown exposure. Sensitised children who could tolerate cashew nuts were excluded. The study included three clinical visits and a telephone consultation. During the first visit, the medical history was evaluated, physical examinations were conducted, blood samples were drawn and skin prick tests were performed. The children underwent a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test with cashew nut during the second and third visits. The study showed that 137 (76.5%) of the sensitised children suspected of allergy to cashew nut had a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test, with 46% (63) manifesting subjective symptoms to the lowest dose of 1 mg cashew nut protein and 11% (15) developing objective symptoms to the lowest dose. Children most frequently had gastro-intestinal symptoms, followed by oral allergy and skin symptoms. A total of 36% (49/137) of the children experienced an anaphylactic reaction and 6% (8/137) of the children were treated with epinephrine. Conclusion This prospective study demonstrated a strikingly high percentage of clinical reactions to cashew nut in this third line population. Severe allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis requiring epinephrine, were observed. These reactions were to minimal amounts of cashew nut, demonstrated the high potency of this allergens

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of hyaluronic acid, tea tree oil and methyl-sulfonyl-methane in a new gel medical device for treatment of haemorrhoids in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Joksimovic, N; Spasovski, G; Joksimovic, V; Andreevski, V; Zuccari, C; Omini, C F

    2012-09-01

    Topical formulations are widely used in anti-haemorrhoidal treatment, but often lacking controlled clinical trials. Here, we report the results from a controlled clinical trial performed with a new gel medical device (Proctoial) containing hyaluronic acid with tea tree oil and methyl-sulfonyl-methane as major components. The total number of 36 haemorrhoidal patients (grade 1-3) was enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial and divided into 2 equal parallel groups. The anal pain, pain during defecation, visible bleeding, pruritus and irritation/inflammation were recorded before and after 14-day treatment using a visual analogue scale both by the investigators and by the patients. Safety and tolerability of the treatments were also recorded. The new gel medical device statistically significantly reduced all the symptoms after the treatment compared to placebo. The results indicated also a very good tolerability and safety of the treatments. PMID:22492249

  14. Improvement of erectile function with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Stanislavov, R; Nikolova, V; Rohdewald, P

    2008-01-01

    In a randomly allocated, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 50 patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED) were treated for 1 month with placebo or a combination of L-arginine aspartate and Pycnogenol (Prelox). Patients reported sexual function from diaries. Testosterone levels and endothelial NO synthase (e-NOS) were monitored along with routine clinical chemistry. Intake of Pycnogenol for 1 month restored erectile function to normal. Intercourse frequency doubled. e-NOS in spermatozoa and testosterone levels in blood increased significantly. Cholesterol levels and blood pressure were lowered. No unwanted effects were reported. Prelox is a promising alternative to treat mild to moderate ED. PMID:17703218

  15. A double blind multicentre study of OM-8980 and auranofin in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Vischer, T L

    1988-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of the immunomodulator OM-8980 in rheumatoid arthritis was compared with that of auranofin, an oral gold salt, in a double blind, randomised multicentre study lasting six months. Seventy patients were treated with auranofin and 75 with OM-8980. The patients of both groups improved significantly at three and six months for all the clinical parameters observed: Ritchie index, number of swollen joints, morning stiffness, pain, grip strength, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. No serious side effects were observed in either group. The patients receiving auranofin had more adverse reactions, mainly affecting the gastrointestinal system. PMID:3041924

  16. [Parallel double-blind comparison of bazalin and desoximetasone 0.25 in neurodermatitis].

    PubMed

    Gratacos, R

    1981-01-01

    In a double-blind study on 22 patients affected by neurodermitis the action of two ointmes was studied. Both possess an activity in controlling the clinical and histological manifestations of the disease. Desoximethasone (red labelled tubes) is very usefull in controlling pruritus and, histologically, the epidermal component of the lesions. Bazalin (yellow labeled tubes containing fluocinolone acetonide 0.025%, leucobitupal 5% an salicylic acid 3%), has a higher antiscaling action a more intense activity on the dermal component of the lesions. PMID:7038354

  17. A double blind trial of a new topical steroid formulation containing desoximetasone against fluocinolonacetonid cream.

    PubMed

    Lundell, E

    1975-01-01

    A randomized double-blind left-right comparative trial was carried out between a new steroid Desoximetason 0,25% (Ibaril) and fluocinolone acetonide 0,025% cream. Evaluation of symptoms on 50 patients suffering from endogenous eczema was recorded after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. There was a significantly better effect of Ibaril compared to Fluocinolone-acetonide as judged by the observer during the 1st, 3rd and 4th week of treatment. After the 2nd week treatment Ibaril showed a better effect, however, a significancy could not be established. PMID:132779

  18. Hydroxyurea: a radiation potentiator in carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A randomized double-blind study

    SciTech Connect

    Piver, M.S.; Barlow, J.J.; Vongtama, V.; Blumenson, L.

    1983-12-01

    From June, 1972, to December, 1976, 40 patients with FIGO (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics) Stage IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix were entered into a prospective, double-blind, randomized study to evaluate the possible radiation-potentiating properties (i.e., improved survival) of the S-phase cell cycle-specific inhibitor of DNA synthesis, hydroxyurea. All patients were documented to be without aortic lymph node metastasis by pretherapy staging para-aortic lymphadenectomy. All 40 patients were followed up for longer than 5 years (5.2 to 9.2 years) or until death. The double-blind code was not broken until all patients had been followed up for a minimum of 2 to 5 years. Leukopenia (white blood cell count less than 2,500 mm3) was significantly increased in the patients given hydroxyurea as compared to those given placebo (P less than 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference relative to anemia, thrombocytopenia, radiation-induced skin reaction, and radiation-induced intestinal reaction between the patients given placebo or those given hydroxyurea. Life-table survival for the patients given hydroxyurea was 94% as compared to 53% for the patients given placebo (P . 0.006). Only one (5%) patient given hydroxyurea died of cervical cancer. Of the other patients who died in the group given hydroxyurea, all were confirmed by postmortem examination to have been without recurrent cervical cancer. In contrast, 45% (nine) of the patients given placebo died of cervical cancer.

  19. Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review.

    PubMed

    Tarasoff, L; Kelly, M F

    1993-12-01

    71 healthy subjects were treated with placebos and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) doses of 1.5, 3.0 and 3.15 g/person, which represented a body mass-adjusted dose range of 0.015-0.07 g/kg body weight before a standardized breakfast over 5 days. The study used a rigorous randomized double-blind crossover design that controlled for subjects who had MSG after-tastes. Capsules and specially formulated drinks were used as vehicles for placebo and MSG treatments. Subjects mostly had no responses to placebo (86%) and MSG (85%) treatments. Sensations, previously attributed to MSG, did not occur at a significantly higher rate than did those elicited by placebo treatment. A significant (P < 0.05) negative correlation between MSG dose and after-effects was found. The profound effect of food in negating the effects of large MSG doses was demonstrated. The common practice of extrapolating food-free experimental results to 'in use' situations was called into question. An exhaustive review of previous methodologies identified the strong taste of MSG as the factor invalidating most 'blind' and 'double-blind' claims by previous researchers. The present study led to the conclusion that 'Chinese Restaurant Syndrome' is an anecdote applied to a variety of postprandial illnesses; rigorous and realistic scientific evidence linking the syndrome to MSG could not be found. PMID:8282275

  20. Suicidal Thoughts and Reasons for Living in Hospitalized Patients With Severe Depression: Post-Hoc Analyses of a Double-Blind Randomized Trial of Duloxetine

    PubMed Central

    Desaiah, Durisala; Raskin, Joel; Cairns, Victoria; Brecht, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate suicidal thoughts in relationship to depressive symptom severity and reasons for living in patients hospitalized for major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted of a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial involving hospitalized patients with MDD (DSM-IV criteria) who received duloxetine 60 mg once daily or duloxetine 60 mg twice daily for 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, the dose for nonresponders receiving 60 mg once daily could be increased to 60 mg twice daily (double-blind). The study was conducted between February 9, 2007, and August 26, 2008 at 43 centers in 4 countries across Europe and South Africa. Suicidal thoughts were assessed with Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) item 10, depression severity was assessed with the 6-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impressions–Severity of Illness scale, and protective factors were assessed with the patient-rated Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) assessing 6 domains. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and linear regression analysis were performed. Results: At baseline, patients (N = 336) had varying severity of suicidal thoughts: 18% had a score ≥ 4. The proportion of patients with a score ≥ 4 decreased to 7% at week 1 and 1% at week 8 of treatment. The RFL scores at baseline were lower in patients with higher baseline suicidal thoughts and increased significantly during treatment (P < .0001). A regression model revealed that only 16% of variance in baseline total RFL score is explained by the different MADRS items. Eight patients had suicidal behavior or ideation recorded as an adverse event during the study; no consistent pattern was found in the different psychometric scores either at baseline or at the visit preceding the suicidal behavior/ideation. Conclusions: Suicidality rapidly decreased in hospitalized patients with severe depression treated with duloxetine. The RFL scores were low at baseline but

  1. Ionization with diclofenac sodium in rheumatic disorders: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vecchini, L; Grossi, E

    1984-01-01

    A double-blind randomized study was performed to compare ionization with diclofenac sodium (150 mg) and ionization with saline solution in two groups of patients with scapulo-humeral periarthritis or elbow epicondylitis. The subjects of both groups were treated with 20 ionization sessions each lasting 30 minutes during a 1-month period. There was a significantly greater improvement in pain at rest, pain on pressure, pain on movement and joint swelling in the eleven patients treated with diclofenac compared with the thirteen placebo-treated patients, but no significant differences between the two treatments as regards functional impairment. However, placebo treatment produced a slight but significant improvement in pain on pressure, pain on movement and functional impairment. Further studies are needed to assess the relative role of the current and of autosuggestion in saline ionization response since both have well-known therapeutic effects on chronic rheumatic pain. PMID:6394405

  2. Anabolic steroids in athelics: crossover double-blind trial on weightlifters.

    PubMed Central

    Freed, D L; Banks, A J; Longson, D; Burley, D M

    1975-01-01

    Thirteen experienced male weightlifters taking high-protein diets and regular exercise took part in a double-blind crossover trial of methandienone 10 or 25 mg/day to seeif the drug improved athletic performance. Their improvemments were significantly greater on methandienone than on placebo; their body weights rose (though this seemed to be associated with water retention); and systolic blood pressure rose significantly. Methandienone caused many side effects, and three men had to withdraw because of them. All side effects disappeared after the drug was stopped. Anabolic steroids are effective only when given combination with exercise and high-protein diet.We deprecate their use in athletics but can suggest no way of stopping it. PMID:125133

  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pseudoephedrine in coryza.

    PubMed

    Latte, Jenny; Taverner, David; Slobodian, Peter; Shakib, Sepehr

    2004-07-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of pseudoephedrine in coryza. 2. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, 48 adults with acute coryza received a single oral dose of 60 mg pseudoephedrine (Sudafed; Pfizer Consumer HealthCare Group, Caringbah, NSW, Australia) or matching placebo. Before and after dosing, nasal airway resistance (NAR), nasal volume, the minimum intranasal cross-sectional area (MCA) and the symptom of nasal congestion were measured. 3. Pseudoephedrine produced a significant decrease in NAR (P = 0.005; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.073, 0.383). Nasal volume increased, but this did not reach significance (P = 0.07; 95% CI -0.842, 0.034). There was no change in MCA and symptoms. 4. In conclusion, pseudoephedrine has a moderate effect in decreasing objective measures of nasal congestion in coryza. PMID:15236629

  4. Treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria with levamisole: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Shan, C; Hua, Z; Zhao, P; Zhang, H

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treating chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) with levamisole in combination with levocetirizine. This was a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial that included 132 patients with active CIU who were treated for 6 weeks with either levocetirizine alone (control group; n = 65) or levamisole plus levocetirizine (treatment group; n = 67). Response to therapy was evaluated by measuring the efficacy rate. After 2 weeks of treatment, there was no significant difference in the efficacy rate between the treatment and control groups (54.84% and 42.37%, respectively). After 6 weeks of treatment, a statistically significant difference in the efficacy rate was observed between the groups (76.27% and 54.39% for the treatment and control groups, respectively). This study demonstrated that a combination of levamisole plus levocetirizine is more effective than levocetirizine alone and potentially provides a new, promising approach to the treatment of CIU. PMID:19761700

  5. [Homeopathic treatment of adenoid vegetations. Results of a prospective, randomized double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Friese, K H; Feuchter, U; Moeller, H

    1997-08-01

    In a monocenter prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial the efficacy of homeopathic treatment was investigated on children with adenoid vegetations justifying an operation. Patients were treated with either homeopathic remedies such as Nux vomica D200, Okoubaka D3, Tuberculinum D200, Barium jodatum D4 and Barium jodatum D6 or with placebo. The duration of the study for each patient was 3 months. Examination of the ears using a microscope, rhinoscopy, stomatoscopy and pharyngoscopy, as well as tympanometry and audiometry were performed after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Out of a total of 97 children studied between the ages of 4 to 10 years 82 could be analyzed. At the end of the study no operation was required in 70.7% of the placebo-treated children and in 78.1% of the children treated with homeopathic preparations. These results show no statistical significance. PMID:9378668

  6. Antihypertensive effect of Iranian Crataegus curvisepala Lind.: a randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Asgary, S; Naderi, G H; Sadeghi, M; Kelishadi, R; Amiri, M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential antihypertensive effects of extracts of the flavonoid-rich Iranian flower, Crataegus curvisepala Lind., a member of the Rosaceae family. The hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves and flowers were studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine its effects. A total of 92 men and women with primary mild hypertension, aged 40-60 years, were selected and divided randomly into two groups, receiving either hydroalcoholic extract of C. curvisepala Lind. or placebo three times daily for more than 4 months. Blood pressure (BP) was measured each month. Statistical analysis was carried out using Student's t-test. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic BP after 3 months (p < 0.05). C. curvisepala has a time-dependent antihypertensive effect. PMID:15700749

  7. Randomised, double blind, crossover challenge study of allergenicity of peanut oils in subjects allergic to peanuts.

    PubMed Central

    Hourihane, J. O.; Bedwani, S. J.; Dean, T. P.; Warner, J. O.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo allergenicity of two grades of peanut oil for a large group of subjects with proved allergy to peanuts. DESIGN: Double blind, crossover food challenge with crude peanut oil and refined peanut oil. SETTING: Dedicated clinical investigation unit in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: 60 subjects allergic to peanuts; allergy was confirmed by challenge tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Allergic reaction to the tested peanut oils. RESULTS: None of the 60 subjects reacted to the refined oil; six (10%) reacted to the crude oil. Supervised peanut challenge caused considerably less severe reactions than subjects had reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Crude peanut oil caused allergic reactions in 10% of allergic subjects studied and should continue to be avoided. Refined peanut oil did not pose a risk to any of the subjects. It would be reasonable to recommend a change in labelling to distinguish refined from crude peanut oil. PMID:9133891

  8. Terbutaline depot tablets in childhood asthma. A double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Foged, N; Høst, A; Ljungholm, K

    1985-10-01

    Thirty children 8-13 years old, with perennial asthma and with a reversibility of greater than or equal to 20% in lung function (FEV1) were given a sustained-release preparation of terbutaline sulphate 5 mg twice a day and ordinary tablets 2.5 mg three times a day; each treatment lasted 1 week. The design of the study was double-blind, cross-over, with a randomized allocation of the drugs. Both drugs improved the lung function significantly. The children had significantly less coughing during the night when they took depot tablets than when they took ordinary tablets. The side effects were few with both treatments. Most of the patients preferred the depot tablets. PMID:3907394

  9. Effects of Atorvastatin on Negative Sign in Chronic Schizophrenia: a Double Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, Mehdi; Boostani, Hatam; Ashrafpoori, Mitra; Pakseresht, Siroos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Atorvastatin on negative symptoms in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The study was a prospective, double-blind, 6-week trial. Forty patients participated in the study; 19 patients were assigned to the Atorvastatin group as well as 21 patients to the placebo group. For assessing negative signs, we used Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) in weeks 1st, 3nd, 4th, and 6th. Moreover, patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups with Risperidone (6 mg/day) plus 20 mg Atorvastatin or with Risperidone (6 mg/day) plus placebo. Mean scores of Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) decreased during the treatment but there was no significant difference between the mean scores of two groups. The result of this trial suggested that Atorvastatin can be effective in reducing negative sign in schizophrenia although further studies seem to be needed. PMID:26664396

  10. Double-blind comparison of survival analysis models using a bespoke web system.

    PubMed

    Taktak, A F G; Setzkorn, C; Damato, B E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a comparison of different linear and non-linear models from different centres on a common dataset in a double-blind manner to eliminate bias. The dataset was shared over the Internet using a secure bespoke environment called geoconda. Models evaluated included: (1) Cox model, (2) Log Normal model, (3) Partial Logistic Spline, (4) Partial Logistic Artificial Neural Network and (5) Radial Basis Function Networks. Graphical analysis of the various models with the Kaplan-Meier values were carried out in 3 survival groups in the test set classified according to the TNM staging system. The discrimination value for each model was determined using the area under the ROC curve. Results showed that the Cox model tended towards optimism whereas the partial logistic Neural Networks showed slight pessimism. PMID:17945716

  11. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of Org 3770 in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Claghorn, J L; Lesem, M D

    1995-06-01

    90 patients between 18 and 65 years, with a DSM-III diagnosis of moderate or severe major depressive episode, were randomized to 6 weeks of treatment with Org 3770 or placebo in a double-blind trial. On main efficacy parameters, the 17-item HAMD, MADRS and CGI, Org 3770 was significantly superior to placebo (P < or = 0.05) in weeks 1-4 and at endpoint and recommended as continuation treatment to significantly more patients. The tolerability of Org 3770 was good: the only significant differences as compared with placebo were in the incidences of somnolence and increased appetite. The results show that Org 3770 is an effective and well-tolerated drug for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:7560544

  12. Double-blind evaluation of two commercial hypoallergenic diets in cats with adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Leistra, M; Willemse, T

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two commercially available selected-protein-source diets as maintenance diets in cats with dermatological manifestations of adverse food reactions. Twenty cats with a confirmed adverse food reaction were tested in a double-blind manner. An adverse food reaction was diagnosed when, after recovery with a home-cooked elimination diet, the signs relapsed after a challenge with their previous dietary components, and re-disappeared on a second elimination diet period. Hereafter the cats were blind and randomly challenged with two commercial hypoallergenic diets. Relapse of the clinical signs was seen in eight cats (40%) on a lamb and rice diet and in 13 cats (65%) on a chicken and rice diet (P>0.05). Neither one of the commercial diets was as effective in controlling the skin problems as the home-cooked elimination diet. The study confirms that commercial hypoallergenic diets are adequate for maintenance. PMID:12468310

  13. Flunarizine-pizotifen single-dose double-blind cross-over trial in migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Cerbo, R; Casacchia, M; Formisano, R; Feliciani, M; Cusimano, G; Buzzi, M G; Agnoli, A

    1986-03-01

    The results of a double-blind cross-over clinical trial involving 27 patients with classical or common migraine are described to compare the prophylactic effect of the calcium entry blocker flunarizine with that of pizotifen. Duration of the treatment was two months, with an evening single-dose administration of both drugs. For most parameters, there was no definite difference between flunarizine and pizotifen in migraine prophylaxis. It has been demonstrated previously that pizotifen is an effective drug in migraine prophylaxis, and these results suggest that flunarizine is effective, too. Weight gain as a side effect was less frequent and less severe with flunarizine than with pizotifen; other side effects showed the same incidence with both drugs. PMID:3516406

  14. Etizolam versus placebo in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia: a double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Savoldi, F; Somenzini, G; Ecari, U

    1990-01-01

    Thirty out-patients suffering from panic disorders associated with agoraphobia were enrolled in a double-blind, controlled trial to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of etizolam and placebo. After a 1-week washout period on placebo, patients were allocated at random to receive twice daily doses of either 0.5 mg etizolam or placebo over a period of 4 weeks. Assessments, made at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, used the Hamilton Rating Scales for Anxiety and for Depression, the Covi Anxiety Scale, and determination of the weekly panic crises frequency. The results showed that etizolam produced significant improvements in chronic anxiety, phobic ideas, associated depressive symptoms and episodic anxiety, and was significantly more effective than placebo. Etizolam treatment was generally well tolerated and was not significantly different from placebo in this respect. PMID:2272192

  15. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-04-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  16. The effects of mesterolone, a male sex hormone in depressed patients (a double blind controlled study).

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Michael, S T; Shapiro, D M; Itil, K Z

    1984-06-01

    Based on computer EEG (CEEG) profiles, in high doses, antidepressant properties of mesterolone, a synthetic androgen, were predicted. In a double-blind placebo controlled study, the clinical effects of 300-450 mg daily mesterolone were investigated in 52 relatively young (age range 26-53 years, mean 42.7 years) male depressed outpatients. During 6 weeks of mesterolone treatment, there was a significant improvement of depressive symptomatology. However, since an improvement was also established during the placebo treatment, no statistically appreciable difference in the therapeutic effects of mesterolone was established compared to placebo. Mesterolone treatment significantly decreased both plasma testosterone and protein bound testosterone levels. Patients with high testosterone levels prior to treatment seem to have had more benefit from mesterolone treatment than patients with low testosterone levels. The degree of improvement weakly correlated to the decrease of testosterone levels during mesterolone treatment. PMID:6431212

  17. [Optimized interval treatment of eczema with fluprednidene. A multicenter double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Mahrle, G; Wemmer, U; Matthies, C

    1989-09-15

    In a multicenter double-blind study, 44 patients suffering from eczema were bilaterally treated with 0.1% fluprednidene-21-acetate over 21 days. Continuous application twice a day was compared with intermittent therapy, i.e. 1 day intermission (15 patients), 2 days intermission (16 patients) and 3 days intermission (13 patients) using the cream base. Final evaluation was based on 11 criteria. All regimens, continuous and intermittent, proved effective (at least 90% reduction of the lesions). Treatment with 3 days intermission showed the same favorable results as continuous application, although the amount of glucocorticoids applied was 75% less. Measurements of the skin fold thickness (SFT) in healthy controls did not indicate any atrophy after treatment with fluprednidene under the same conditions as the eczema patients or under occlusion for up to 21 days. Clobetasol-17-propionate, in contrast, significantly reduced the SFT already after application of only 1 week. PMID:2683439

  18. Prospective randomized double-blind comparison of nephrotoxicity and auditory toxicity of tobramycin and netilmicin.

    PubMed Central

    Gatell, J M; SanMiguel, J G; Araujo, V; Zamora, L; Maña, J; Ferrer, M; Bonet, M; Bohe, M; Jimenez de Anta, M T

    1984-01-01

    Netilmicin or tobramycin was administered to 197 patients in a prospective randomized double-blind trial. Of these patients, 140 recipients of nine or more doses of netilmicin or tobramycin could be evaluated for nephrotoxicity. Fifty-five patients were able to cooperate in the administration of serial audiograms. Nephrotoxicity of similar severity developed in 7 of 73 (9.6%) recipients of tobramycin and in 7 of 67 (10.4%) recipients of netilmicin (P greater than 0.05). Mild or slight auditory toxicity developed in 5 of 28 (17.8%) recipients of tobramycin and in 2 of 27 (7.4%) recipients of netilmicin (P greater than 0.05). PMID:6393868

  19. Laser acupuncture for adolescent smokers--a randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yiming, C; Changxin, Z; Ung, W S; Lei, Z; Kean, L S

    2000-01-01

    A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of laser acupuncture treatment in adolescent smokers. Three hundred and thirty adolescent smokers at the Smoking Cessation Clinic of Child Guidance Clinic, Institute of Health, Singapore, were randomly assigned in equal numbers to laser acupuncture treatment and sham acupuncture (control) groups. The proportions of patients with complete smoking cessation after completing treatment for four weeks were 21.9% in the treatment group and 21.4% in the control group. At three months post-treatment, the rates for complete cessation were 24.8% and 26.2%, respectively. Thus, there was no significant difference in the rates of smoking cessation in the treatment and control groups. PMID:11154059

  20. Double-blind clinical trial of topical steroids in anterior uveitis.

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, J A; Travers, J P

    1979-01-01

    We present the results of a double-blind trial comparing the efficacy of betamethasone phosphate 0.1%, clobetasone butyrate 0.1%, and placebo in the treatment of acute unilateral nongranulomatous uveitis. The 2 steroids were equally comparable in improvement of the patients' symptoms, though betamethasone phosphate was significantly more effective than clobetasone butyrate in improving the ocular signs of uveitis. However, clobetasone butyrate had significantly less effect on raising intraocular pressure in known steroid responders and ocular hypertensives than did dexamethasone. The use of a bolometer as an objective measure in uveitis was significant only in the more severe cases of uveitis. In comparing the placebo group of patients with those on topical steroids, the former group, though improving, appeared to lag behind by approximately one week. Four cases on placebo, however, had to be withdrawn because of worsening of the condition. Mild cases of anterior uveitis would probably resolve without using topical steroids. PMID:389282

  1. Statistical examination of laser therapy effects in controlled double-blind clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boerner, Ewa; Podbielska, Halina

    2001-10-01

    For the evaluation of the therapy effects the double-blind clinical trial followed by statistical analysis was performed. After statistical calculations it was stated that laser therapy with IR radiation has a significant influence on the decrease of the level of pain in the examined group of patients suffering from various locomotive diseases. The level of pain of patients undergoing laser therapy was statistically lower than the level of pain of patients undergoing placebo therapy. It means that laser therapy had statistically significant influence on the decrease of the level of pain. The same tests were performed for evaluation of movement range. Although placebo therapy contributes to the increase of the range of movement, the statistically significant influence was stated in case of the therapeutic group treated by laser.

  2. Exclusively breastfed infants at risk for false negative double blind placebo controlled milk challenge.

    PubMed

    Petrus, N C M; Kole, E A; Schoemaker, A A; van Aalderen, W M C; Sprikkelman, A B

    2014-01-01

    The double blind placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is the gold standard for diagnosing cow's milk allergy (CMA). However, false-negative DBPCFC have been reported. We present 2 cases with a false negative DBPCFC in exclusively breastfed infants suspected of CMA. These cases highlight the occurrence of severe allergic reactions of infants who were exclusively breastfed. Several reported causes of a false negative DBPCFC will be discussed. However, there is currently no clear understanding of the cause of a false negative DBPCFC. This paper highlights that a negative outcome of a DBFCFC must be interpreted with caution, because a severe allergic reaction might occur upon re-introduction of cow's milk. Therefore, an additional open food challenge under medical supervision is recommended in exclusively breastfed infants with a negative DBPCFC. PMID:24702875

  3. Can homeopaths detect homeopathic medicines by dowsing? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McCarney, R; Fisher, P; Spink, F; Flint, G; van Haselen, R

    2002-01-01

    Dowsing is a method of problem-solving that uses a motor automatism, amplified through a pendulum or similar device. In a homeopathic context, it is used as an aid to prescribing and as a tool to identify miasm or toxin load. A randomized double-blind trial was conducted to determine whether six dowsing homeopaths were able to distinguish between Bryonia in a 12c potency and placebo by use of dowsing alone. The homeopathic medicine Bryonia was correctly identified in 48.1% of bottle pairs (n=156; 95% confidence interval 40.2%, 56.0%; P=0.689). These results, wholly negative, add to doubts whether dowsing in this context can yield objective information. PMID:11934908

  4. Double-blind placebo-controlled evaluation of the PROMETA™ protocol for methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Walter; Shoptaw, Steven; Hillhouse, Maureen; Bholat, Michelle A.; Charuvastra, Charles; Heinzerling, Keith; Chim, David; Annon, Jeffrey; Dowling, Patrick T.; Doraimani, Geetha

    2014-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the PROMETA™ Protocol for treating methamphetamine dependence. Design A double-blind, placebo-controlled 108-day study with random assignment to one of two study conditions: active medication with flumazenil (2 mg infusions on days 1, 2, 3, 22, 23), gabapentin (1200 mg to day 40) and hydroxazine (50 mg to day 10) versus placebo medication (with active hydroxazine only). Setting Three substance abuse treatment clinics: two in-patient, one out-patient. Participants Treatment-seeking, methamphetamine-dependent adults (n = 120). Measurements Primary outcome was percentage of urine samples testing negative for methamphetamine during the trial. Findings No statistically significant between-group differences were detected in urine drug test results, craving, treatment retention or adverse events. Conclusions The PROMETA protocol, consisting of flumazenil, gabapentin and hydroxyzine, appears to be no more effective than placebo in reducing methamphetamine use, retaining patients in treatment or reducing methamphetamine craving. PMID:22082089

  5. Temporary sympathectomy in chronic refractory angina: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Denby, Christine; Eleuteri, Antonio; Tsang, Hoo kee; Leach, Austin; Hammond, Clare; Bridson, John D; Fisher, Michael; Elt, Matthew; Laflin, Robert; Fisher, Anthony C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Temporary sympathectomy by injection of bupivacaine at the site of the left stellate ganglion is used in the management of refractory angina at several UK centres. Although patients frequently report significant reduction in symptoms, efficacy has not been established by double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial (RCT). Objective: To investigate the efficacy of the procedure for the first time by a double-blind RCT. Methods: Consecutive patients referred to the authors’ National Health Service (NHS) angina centre who were candidates for temporary sympathectomy were invited to participate in a trial. A total of 65 patients were randomised to receive either bupivacaine or saline injections. Identical syringes were prepared remotely, blinding patients and staff from randomisation. Cardiac autonomic function was measured 3 hours pre- and post-injection using new heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. Angina episodes were recorded contemporaneously by patients in study diaries in the 7-day periods pre- and post-injection. Results: In 51 patients suitable for analysis, no significant differences between the active and placebo groups were found in patient-recorded frequency or intensity of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. However, across both groups combined, a significant difference was found in the frequency of angina episodes pre- and post-injection. Conclusion: The reduction in frequency of angina episodes produced by this procedure may not be due to drug pharmacology. It may be a placebo response or due to the mechanical effects of the injection of fluid. There is a need for further work using a larger patient cohort considering both mechanical and psychological factors. PMID:26516570

  6. Safety and efficacy of rivastigmine in children with Down syndrome: A double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Spiridigliozzi, Gail A; Hart, Sarah J; Heller, James H; Schneider, Heather E; Baker, Jane Ann; Weadon, Cathleen; Capone, George T; Kishnani, Priya S

    2016-06-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have decreased cholinergic function and an uneven profile of cognitive abilities, with more pronounced deficits in learning, memory, and expressive language. Cholinesterase inhibitors may improve cognitive function in adults and adolescents with DS, but studies in children with DS have been limited. This study aimed to: (i) investigate the safety and efficacy of rivastigmine treatment; (ii) build upon our open-label studies in children with DS in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial; and (iii) investigate specific cognitive domains that may respond to rivastigmine treatment. We conducted a 20-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of rivastigmine in 22 children and adolescents with DS aged 10-17 years. Safety measures included reports of adverse events, laboratory parameters, and electrocardiograms. Efficacy measures included parental assessments of adaptive behavior and executive function, and direct measures of language and memory. No group differences were found on safety measures and 22 of 24 participants that passed study screening completed the study. The results did not demonstrate evidence for significant improvement in aspects of cognition, language, or overall function in the children receiving rivastigmine. Our results suggest that rivastigmine is safe and well-tolerated for children and adolescents with DS, but may not be effective for improving performance on the selected measures in this study. However, larger samples and/or alternate measures could possibly reveal improvements in cognitive function with rivastigmine treatment. Further research is needed to define a battery of cognitive measures that is sensitive to treatment effects in DS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061338

  7. Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study of Losartan in Children with Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun; Loeys, Tom; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Strehlau, Juergen; Wells, Thomas G.; Santoro, Emanuela; Manas, Denise; Gleim, Gilbert W.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: No large, randomized, double-blind trials in children with proteinuria treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers have previously been reported. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This 12-week, double-blind, multinational study investigated the effects of losartan 0.7 to 1.4 mg/kg per day compared with placebo (normotensive stratum) or amlodipine 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg per day up to 5 mg/d (hypertensive stratum) on proteinuria (morning-void urinary protein-creatinine ratio, baseline ≥0.3 g/g) in 306 children up to 17 years of age. Results: Twelve weeks of treatment with losartan significantly reduced proteinuria compared with amlodipine/placebo: losartan −35.8% (95% confidence interval: −27.6% to −43.1%) versus amlodipine/placebo 1.4% (95% confidence interval: −10.3% to 14.5%), P ≤ 0.001. Significance remained after adjustment for differences across treatment groups in change in BP (losartan produced incremental systolic and diastolic BP reductions versus amlodipine of 5.4 and 4.6 mmHg, respectively; and versus placebo of 3.8 and 4.0 mmHg, respectively). Proteinuria reduction was consistently observed in the normotensive (−34.4% losartan; 2.6% placebo) and hypertensive (−41.5% losartan; 2.4% amlodipine) strata, and in all prespecified subgroups, including age, gender, race, Tanner stage, weight, prior therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, as well as among the most common etiologies of proteinuria. Adverse event incidence was low and comparable in all groups. Conclusions: Losartan significantly lowered proteinuria and was well tolerated after 12 weeks in children aged 1 to 17 years with proteinuria with or without hypertension, a population that has not previously been rigorously studied. PMID:20089489

  8. Rizatriptan in migraineurs with unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms: a double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Barbanti, Piero; Fofi, Luisa; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Aurilia, Cinzia; Egeo, Gabriella; Vanacore, Nicola; Bonassi, Stefano

    2012-07-01

    The objective and background is to confirm in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the high triptan response rates we had previously reported in an open study in migraine patients with unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 80 migraineurs with unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms were assigned to receive rizatriptan 10 mg wafer or placebo (ratio 1:1) and treated for a single moderate or severe migraine attack. The primary endpoints were pain freedom at 2 h and total migraine freedom at 2 h. Secondary endpoints included pain relief, no associated symptoms and sustained pain freedom or relief. Significantly more patients reported pain freedom at 2 h after taking rizatriptan (54 %) than after placebo (8 %) (therapeutic gain 46 % [28 %; 64 %]; P < 0.001). Similarly, significantly more patients reported total migraine freedom at 2 h after rizatriptan (51 %) than after placebo (8 %) (therapeutic gain 43 % [26 %; 61 %]; P < 0.001). Rizatriptan was also more effective than placebo on most secondary endpoints. We confirm in a placebo-controlled study our previous data suggesting that the presence of unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms in migraineurs predicts a positive response to triptans, probably owing to intense trigeminal peripheral afferent activation which strongly recruits peripheral neurovascular 5-HT1B/1D receptors. Acute and preventive pharmacological trials in migraine should focus also on this subset of migraine patients. PMID:22460943

  9. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with midodrine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovic, J.; Gilden, J. L.; Hiner, B. C.; Kaufmann, H.; Brown, D. C.; Coghlan, C. H.; Rubin, M.; Fouad-Tarazi, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of midodrine for treatment of patients with orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. PATIENTS: Ninety-seven patients with orthostatic hypotension were randomized in a 4-week, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with a 1-week placebo run-in period. Patients ranged in age from 22 to 86 years (mean: 61 years). METHODS: After a 1-week run-in phase, either placebo or midodrine at a dose of 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg was administered three times a day for 4 weeks. Both the placebo group and the 2.5-mg midodrine group received constant doses throughout the double-blind phase. The patients receiving 5 mg or 10 mg of midodrine were given doses that were increased at weekly intervals by 2.5-mg increments until the designated dose was reached. Efficacy evaluations were based on an improvement at 1-hour postdose in standing systolic blood pressure and in symptoms of orthostatic hypotension (syncope, dizziness/lightheadedness, weakness/fatigue, and low energy level). RESULTS: Midodrine (10 mg) increased standing systolic blood pressure by 22 mm Hg (28%, p < 0.001 versus placebo). Midodrine improved (p < 0.05) the following symptoms of orthostatic hypotension compared to placebo: dizziness/lightheadedness, weakness/fatigue, syncope, low energy level, impaired ability to stand, and feelings of depression. The overall side effects were mainly mild to moderate. One or more side effects were reported by 22% of the placebo group compared with 27% of the midodrine-treated group. Scalp pruritus/tingling, which was reported by 10 of 74 (13.5%) of the midodrine-treated patients, was most frequent. Other reported side effects included supine hypertension (8%) and feelings of urinary urgency (4%). CONCLUSION: We conclude that midodrine is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for moderate-to-severe orthostatic hypotension associated with autonomic failure.

  10. From Gaia to NEAT (Theia): synergies and results of the NEAT double-blind experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antiche, E.; Voss, H.; Luri, X.; Anglada Escudé, G.; Jordi, C.

    2015-05-01

    The Near-Earth Astrometric Telescope (NEAT, recently renamed into Theia) is a new mission concept to achieve sub-microarcsecond precision astrometry using pointed observations. This mission will be proposed as a candidate for the M4 call of ESA later this year. It will be a natural continuation of ESA's leadership in space astrometry by continuing and extending the work of the very successful HIPPARCOS and the recently launched Gaia missions. The science top-level requirements for NEAT are set by the ability to detect potentially habitable Earth-mass planets around all G and K dwarfs within 10 pc. Given the versatility of the concept, many other science cases can be addressed by obtaining ultra-precise pointed astrometric observations of exotic objects detected by Gaia and other on-going projects. Although Gaia is a mission that is not designed to search for exoplanets per se, it will make a major contribution to the field and to the NEAT mission in several aspects. The Gaia mission will produce an enormous wealth of data to mine and explore, so experience must be acquired to identify the simple traps of the analysis methods, design validation strategies and prepare scientists across the ESA community and beyond to exploit such wealth of data. In fact, the experience in astrometry precision and simulations acquired for Gaia, laid the foundation for the creation of the NEAT simulator. This simulator has been created in order to build a double-blind test program for astrometric planet detection, with the goal to demonstrate the exo-Earth planet finding capabilities of a pointed astrometric mission. Results are presented from our participation in this double-blind test showing our capabilities in the detection of Earth-like planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars based on the MLE method.

  11. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of MK-0929 and Placebo in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivkin, Anna; Alexander, Robert C.; Knighton, Jennifer; Hutson, Pete H.; Wang, Xiaojing J.; Snavely, Duane B.; Rosah, Thomas; Watt, Alan P.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Adler, Lenard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Preclinical models, receptor localization, and genetic linkage data support the role of D4 receptors in the etiology of ADHD. This proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate MK-0929, a selective D4 receptor antagonist as treatment for adult ADHD. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted…

  12. Double-blind randomised clinical trial of a pepsin-inhibitory pentapeptide (pepstatin) in the treatment of duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnevie, O; Svendsen, L B; Holst-Christensen, J; Johansen, T S; Søltoft, J; Christiansen, P M

    1979-01-01

    In a double-blind randomised clinical trial a specific inhibition of peptic activity with a pentapeptide, pepstatin, had no significant advantage over placebo in the ulcer healing and symptomatology of duodenal ulcer. Thus, the inhibition of pepsin in human gastric juice does not appear to have a major influence on the healing of duodenal ulcer. PMID:385457

  13. Effects of Naloxone and Naltrexone on Self-Injury: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Rowland P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Double blind study compared effects of two drug treatments, naloxone hydrochloride and naltrexone hydrochloride, on self-injurious behavior of a 12-year-old mentally retarded and autistic girl. Self-injury increased with naloxone treatment but decreased to near zero with naltrexone, a change which persisted at follow-up 22 months after treatment.…

  14. Syrup formulations for post-tonsillectomy analgesia: a double-blind study comparing ibuprofen, aspirin and placebo.

    PubMed

    Parker, D A; Gibbin, K P; Noyelle, R M

    1986-09-01

    Post-tonsillectomy analgesia from ibuprofen, aspirin and placebo is compared in a double-blind study. The results are reported showing ibuprofen to have greater therapeutic benefit than placebo whereas aspirin did not. Methods of providing pain relief after tonsillectomy and the relative clinical merits of ibuprofen and aspirin are discussed. PMID:3531373

  15. The Gluten-Free, Casein-Free Diet in Autism: Results of a Preliminary Double Blind Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Jennifer Harrison; Shankar, Meena; Shuster, Jonathan; Theriaque, Douglas; Burns, Sylvia; Sherrill, Lindsay

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a gluten-free and casein-free (GFCF) diet in treating autism using a randomized, double blind repeated measures crossover design. The sample included 15 children aged 2-16 years with autism spectrum disorder. Data on autistic symptoms and urinary peptide levels were collected in the subjects' homes over the 12…

  16. Double-Blind Maintenance Safety and Effectiveness Findings from the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum (TEOSS) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Johnson, Jacqueline L.; McClellan, Jon; Frazier, Jean A.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hamer, Robert M.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Ritz, Louise; McNamara, Nora K.; Lingler, Jacqui; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E.; Kaufman, Emily Michael; Noyes, Nancy; Sikich, Linmarie

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of three antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Method: Patients (8 to 19 years old) who had improved during an 8-week, randomized, double-blind acute trial of olanzapine, risperidone, or molindone (plus benztropine) were eligible to continue on the same medication…

  17. Risperidone Improves Behavioral Symptoms in Children with Autism in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandina, Gahan J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Youssef, Eriene; Zhu, Young; Dunbar, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Subgroup analysis of children (5-12 years) with autism enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for pervasive developmental disorders. The primary efficacy measure was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale. Data were available for 55 children given risperidone (n = 27) or placebo (n =…

  18. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  19. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Escitalopram in the Treatment of Pediatric Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; Jonas, Jeffrey; Findling, Robert L.; Ventura, Daniel; Saikali, Khalil

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Escitalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant indicated for use in adults. This trial examined the efficacy and safety of escitalopram in pediatric depression. Method: Patients (6-17 years old) with major depressive disorder were randomized to receive 8 weeks of double-blind flexibly dosed treatment with…

  20. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Attilio; Guido, Davide; Grassi, Mario; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena A; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner) to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61). Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG) showed a significant amelioration (SG: α S = +1.195 MCA score units (u), P = 0.017; placebo: α P = +0.347 u, P = 0.513). The intercept (α) resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (α S - α P = +0.848 u, P < 0.001). At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (β S - β P = +0.077 u, P = 0.542). In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (β S - β P = -0.398 u, P < 0.001), epigastric fullness (β S - β P = -0.241, P < 0.001), epigastric pain (β S - β P = -0.173 u, P = 0.002), and bloating (β S - β P = -0.167 u, P = 0.017). Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease. PMID:25954317

  1. XG-102 administered to healthy male volunteers as a single intravenous infusion: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study

    PubMed Central

    Deloche, Catherine; Lopez-Lazaro, Luis; Mouz, Sébastien; Perino, Julien; Abadie, Claire; Combette, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of the JNK inhibitor XG-102 in a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, sequential ascending dose parallel group Phase 1 Study. Three groups of male subjects received as randomly assigned ascending single XG-102 doses (10, 40, and 80 μg/kg; 6 subjects per dose) or placebo (2 subjects per dose) as an intravenous (IV) infusion over 60 min. Safety and tolerability were assessed by physical examination, vital signs, electrocardiography, eye examination, clinical laboratory tests and adverse events (AEs). PK was analyzed using noncompartmental methods. All reported AEs were mild to moderate and neither their number nor their distribution by System Organ Class suggest a dose relationship. Only headache and fatigue were considered probably or possibly study drug related. Headache frequency was similar for active and placebo, consequently this was not considered to be drug related but probably to study conditions. The other examinations did not show clinically relevant deviations or trends suggesting a XG-102 relationship. Geometric mean half-life was similar among doses, ranging from 0.36 to 0.65 h. Geometric mean XG-102 AUC0–last increased more than linearly with dose, 90% confidence intervals (CIs) did not overlap for the two highest doses. Geometric mean dose normalized Cmax values suggest a more than linear increase with dose but 90% CIs overlap. It may be concluded that XG-102 single IV doses of 10–80 μg/kg administered over 1 h to healthy male subjects were safe and well tolerated. PMID:25505576

  2. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Active-Reference, Double-Blind, Flexible-Dose Study of the Efficacy of Vortioxetine on Cognitive Function in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Zajecka, John; Jacobson, William; Chen, Yinzhong; Keefe, Richard SE

    2015-01-01

    This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-referenced (duloxetine 60 mg), parallel-group study evaluated the short-term efficacy and safety of vortioxetine (10–20 mg) on cognitive function in adults (aged 18–65 years) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) who self-reported cognitive dysfunction. Efficacy was evaluated using ANCOVA for the change from baseline to week 8 in the digit symbol substitution test (DSST)–number of correct symbols as the prespecified primary end point. The patient-reported perceived deficits questionnaire (PDQ) and physician-assessed clinical global impression (CGI) were analyzed in a prespecified hierarchical testing sequence as key secondary end points. Additional predefined end points included the objective performance-based University of San Diego performance-based skills assessment (UPSA) (ANCOVA) to measure functionality, MADRS (MMRM) to assess efficacy in depression, and a prespecified multiple regression analysis (path analysis) to calculate direct vs indirect effects of vortioxetine on cognitive function. Safety and tolerability were assessed at all visits. Vortioxetine was statistically superior to placebo on the DSST (P<0.05), PDQ (P<0.01), CGI-I (P<0.001), MADRS (P<0.05), and UPSA (P<0.001). Path analysis indicated that vortioxetine's cognitive benefit was primarily a direct treatment effect rather than due to alleviation of depressive symptoms. Duloxetine was not significantly different from placebo on the DSST or UPSA, but was superior to placebo on the PDQ, CGI-I, and MADRS. Common adverse events (incidence ⩾5%) for vortioxetine were nausea, headache, and diarrhea. In this study of MDD adults who self-reported cognitive dysfunction, vortioxetine significantly improved cognitive function, depression, and functionality and was generally well tolerated. PMID:25687662

  3. A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dording, Christina M; Fisher, Lauren; Papakostas, George; Farabaugh, Amy; Sonawalla, Shamsah; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2008-01-01

    We sought to determine whether maca, a Peruvian plant, is effective for selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced sexual dysfunction. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, parallel group dose-finding pilot study comparing a low-dose (1.5 g/day) to a high-dose (3.0 g/day) maca regimen in 20 remitted depressed outpatients (mean age 36+/-13 years; 17 women) with SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ) were used to measure sexual dysfunction. Ten subjects completed the study, and 16 subjects (9 on 3.0 g/day; 7 on 1.5 g/day) were eligible for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses on the basis of having had at least one postbaseline visit. ITT subjects on 3.0 g/day maca had a significant improvement in ASEX (from 22.8+/-3.8 to 16.9+/-6.2; z=-2.20, P=0.028) and in MGH-SFQ scores (from 24.1+/-1.9 to 17.0+/-5.7; z=-2.39, P=0.017), but subjects on 1.5 g/day maca did not. Libido improved significantly (P<0.05) for the ITT and completer groups based on ASEX item #1, but not by dosing groups. Maca was well tolerated. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction, and there may be a dose-related effect. Maca may also have a beneficial effect on libido. PMID:18801111

  4. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Giacosa, Attilio; Guido, Davide; Grassi, Mario; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Faliva, Milena A.; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner) to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61). Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG) showed a significant amelioration (SG: αS = +1.195 MCA score units (u), P = 0.017; placebo: αP = +0.347 u, P = 0.513). The intercept (α) resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (αS − αP = +0.848 u, P < 0.001). At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (βS − βP = +0.077 u, P = 0.542). In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (βS − βP = −0.398 u, P < 0.001), epigastric fullness (βS − βP = −0.241, P < 0.001), epigastric pain (βS − βP = −0.173 u, P = 0.002), and bloating (βS − βP = −0.167 u, P = 0.017). Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease. PMID:25954317

  5. Efficacy of Generic Granisetron vs Kytril® for PONV in Major Gynecological Operations: A Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Aleyasin, Ashraf; Hanafi, Somayeh; Saffarieh, Elham; Torkamandi, Hassan; Allahyari, Sara; Sadeghi, Fariborz; Javadi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Background Granisetron is a first-generation 5-HT3-receptor antagonist that has shown efficacy in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). In this randomized double-blind parallel-group clinical trial, we assessed the efficacy of generic granisetron versus Kytril®, in the prevention of PONV in patients undergoing general anesthesia for gynaecological surgeries. Method One hundred and twenty patients who were supposed to undergo major gynaecological surgeries (myomectomy and hysterectomy) in Dr. Shariati Teaching Hospital, Tehran, Iran were randomly assigned to either single dose generic granisetron (40 mcg/kg), or Kytril® (40 mcg/kg) at the end of the surgery. Two episodes of emetic symptoms (nausea and vomiting) were recorded by a gynaecologist who had no knowledge of which treatment each patient had received. This gynaecologist observed the patients at three different intervals: 6, 12 and 18 h post surgery. At the end of the observation period each patient evaluated the satisfaction with the study drug, and the gynaecologist evaluated sedation of the patients. Results In the generic granisetron group 47 and 13 patients, and in the Kytril® group 45 and 15 patients underwent hysterectomy and myomectomy respectively. No difference was observed between two treatment groups regarding postoperative nausea and vomiting control during 18 hours after the drugs administration. Also there were no differences in the satisfaction with the study drug between the generic granisetron and Kytril®. No difference in sedation scores was observed between two groups. Conclusion Generic granisetron exerts efficacy against PONV after gynaecological surgeries which is non-inferior to that of Kytril®. PMID:24250537

  6. Improving lactose digestion and symptoms of lactose intolerance with a novel galacto-oligosaccharide (RP-G28): a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactose intolerance (LI) is a common medical problem with limited treatment options. The primary symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Limiting dairy foods to reduce symptoms contributes to low calcium intake and the risk for chronic disease. Adaptation of the colon bacteria to effectively metabolize lactose is a novel and potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. RP-G28 is novel galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) being investigated to improve lactose digestion and the symptoms of lactose intolerance in affected patients. Methods A randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 2 sites in the United States. RP-G28 or placebo was administered to 85 patients with LI for 35 days. Post-treatment, subjects reintroduced dairy into their daily diets and were followed for 30 additional days to evaluate lactose digestion as measured by hydrogen production and symptom improvements via a patient-reported symptom assessment instrument. Results Lactose digestion and symptoms of LI trended toward improvement on RP-G28 at the end of treatment and 30 days post-treatment. A reduction in abdominal pain was also demonstrated in the study results. Fifty percent of RP-G28 subjects with abdominal pain at baseline reported no abdominal pain at the end of treatment and 30 days post treatment (p = 0.0190). RP-G28 subjects were also six times more likely to claim lactose tolerance post-treatment once dairy foods had been re-introduced into their diets (p = 0.0389). Conclusions Efficacy trends and favorable safety/tolerability findings suggest that RP-G28 appears to be a potentially useful approach for improving lactose digestion and LI symptoms. The concurrent reduction in abdominal pain and improved overall tolerance could be a meaningful benefit to lactose intolerant individuals. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01113619. PMID:24330605

  7. A DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED, FIXED-DOSE PHASE III STUDY OF VILAZODONE IN PATIENTS WITH GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Gommoll, Carl; Durgam, Suresh; Mathews, Maju; Forero, Giovanna; Nunez, Rene; Tang, Xiongwen; Thase, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Background Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist, is approved for treating major depressive disorder in adults. This study (NCT01629966 ClinicalTrials.gov) evaluated the efficacy and safety of vilazodone in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods A multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in patients with GAD randomized (1:1:1) to placebo (n = 223), or vilazodone 20 mg/day (n = 230) or 40 mg/day (n = 227). Primary and secondary efficacy parameters were total score change from baseline to week 8 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), respectively, analyzed using a predefined mixed-effect model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety outcomes were presented by descriptive statistics. Results The least squares mean difference (95% confidence interval) in HAMA total score change from baseline (MMRM) was statistically significant for vilazodone 40 mg/day versus placebo (–1.80 [–3.26, –0.34]; P = .0312 [adjusted for multiple comparisons]), but not for vilazodone 20 mg/day versus placebo. Mean change from baseline in SDS total score was not significantly different for either dose of vilazodone versus placebo when adjusted for multiplicity; significant improvement versus placebo was noted for vilazodone 40 mg/day without adjustment for multiplicity (P = .0349). The incidence of adverse events was similar for vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day (∼71%) and slightly lower for placebo (62%). Nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, vomiting, and fatigue were reported in ≥5% of patients in either vilazodone group and at least twice the rate of placebo. Conclusions Vilazodone was effective in treating anxiety symptoms of GAD. No new safety concerns were identified. PMID:25891440

  8. Treatment with Modafinil and Escitalopram, Alone and in Combination, on Cocaine-Induced Effects: a Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Human Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Verrico, Christopher D.; Haile, Colin N.; Mahoney, James J.; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G. Y.; Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Concurrent administration of dopamine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduces cocaine self-administration in monkeys. Consonant with this, clinical trials assessing modafinil and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors alone show some efficacy as potential pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence. We hypothesized that combining modafinil with escitalopram would attenuate the euphoric effects of cocaine to a greater degree than modafinil alone. Methods In a randomized, double blind, parallel groups design participants received either placebo (0 mg/day; n = 16), modafinil (200 mg/day; n = 16), escitalopram (20 mg/day; n = 17), or modafinil+escitalopram (200+20 mg/day; n = 15) for 5 days. On day 5, during separate sessions participants received an intravenous sample of cocaine (0 or 20mg; randomized) and five $1 bills. Participants rated the subjective effects of the infusions and subsequently made choices to either return $1 and receive another infusion or keep $1 and receive no infusion. Results Compared to saline, cocaine (20mg) significantly (p ≤ 0.008) increased most ratings, including “Good Effects”, “Stimulated”, and “High”. Relative to placebo, modafinil significantly (p ≤ 0.007) attenuated subject-rated increases of “Any Drug Effect”, “High”, “Good Effects”, and “Stimulated” produced by cocaine. Compared to saline, participants chose cocaine infusions significantly more; however, no treatment significantly reduced choices for cocaine infusions. Escitalopram did not enhance the efficacy of modafinil to reduce any measure. Conclusions Modafinil attenuated many positive subjective effects produced by cocaine; however, escitalopram combined with modafinil did not enhance the efficacy of modafinil to reduce cocaine effects. PMID:24928479

  9. Effect of vitamin D on musculoskeletal pain and headache: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among adult ethnic minorities in Norway.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Kirsten V; Madar, Ahmed A; Brekke, Mette; Meyer, Haakon E; Natvig, Bård; Mdala, Ibrahimu; Lagerløv, Per

    2014-12-01

    Immigrants from South Asia, the Middle East, and Africa living in Northern Europe frequently have low vitamin D levels and more pain compared to the native Western population. The aim of this study was to examine whether daily vitamin D3 (25 μg/d or 10 μg/d) supplementation for 16 weeks would improve musculoskeletal pain or headache compared to placebo. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial recruited 251 participants aged 18 to 50 years, and 215 (86%) attended the follow-up visit. The pain measures were occurrence, anatomical localization, and degree of musculoskeletal pain, as measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) score during the past 2 weeks. Headache was measured with VAS and the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) questionnaire. At baseline, females reported more pain sites (4.7) than males (3.4), and only 7% reported no pain in the past 2 weeks. During the past 4 weeks, 63% reported headache with a high mean HIT-6 score of 60 (SD 7). At follow-up, vitamin D level, measured as serum 25(OH)D3, increased from 27 nmol/L to 52 nmol/L and from 27 nmol/L to 43 nmol/L in the 25-μg and 10-μg supplementation groups, respectively, whereas serum 25(OH)D3 did not change in the placebo group. Pain scores and headache scores were improved at follow-up compared with baseline. The use of vitamin D supplements, however, showed no significant effect on the occurrence, anatomical localization, and degree of pain or headache compared to placebo. PMID:25261164

  10. Efficacy of mirtazapine for the treatment of fibromyalgia without concomitant depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Kenji; Murakami, Masato; Oka, Hiroshi; Onozawa, Kaname; Yoshida, Sadahiro; Osada, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia (FM), a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa study was conducted at 57 sites between November 2012 and February 2014. Patients aged 20 to 64 years who met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 diagnostic FM criteria and had stably high pain scores during a placebo run-in period were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block size 4) to receive mirtazapine orally (15 mg/d for 1 week and then 30 mg/d) or matching placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score from baseline to endpoint (week 12 or early discontinuation). Of the 430 patients randomized (n = 215 each group), 422 (n = 211 each group) were analyzed for the primary endpoint. At the study endpoint, mirtazapine caused a significantly greater reduction in the mean NRS pain score compared with placebo (difference, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, −0.72 to −0.17; P = 0.0018). The reduction by mirtazapine remained significantly greater compared with placebo from week 6 onward. More patients treated with mirtazapine had their NRS pain score reduced by ≥30% from baseline (45.5% vs 30.8%). Mirtazapine also improved pain-related quality of life assessed by the Japanese version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire. Adverse events were more common with mirtazapine than placebo (68.8% vs 56.7%), including somnolence (32.1% vs 7.4%), weight gain (17.7% vs 0.9%), and increased appetite (11.6% vs 3.3%). In conclusion, mirtazapine was an effective and safe treatment for Japanese patients with FM. PMID:27218868

  11. Preventive effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on conversion of optic neuritis to clinically definite multiple sclerosis: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Derakhshandi, Hajar; Etemadifar, Masoud; Feizi, Awat; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein; Minagar, Alireza; Abtahi, Mohammad-Ali; Abtahi, Zahra-Alsadat; Dehghani, Alireza; Sajjadi, Sepideh; Tabrizi, Nasim

    2013-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) presents with optic neuritis (ON) in 20 % of cases and 50 % of ON patients develop MS within 15 years. In this study, we evaluated the preventive effects of vitamin D3 administration on the conversion of ON to MS (primary outcome) and on the MRI lesions (secondary outcome) of ON patients with low serum 25 (OH) D levels. Thirty ON patients (15 in each of 2 groups, aged 20-40 years) with serum 25 (OH) D levels of less than 30 ng/ml were enrolled in a double blind, randomized, parallel-group trial. The treatment group (cases) received 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 weekly for 12 months and the control group (controls) received a placebo weekly for 12 months. Finally, the subsequent relapse rate and changes in MRI plaques were compared between the two groups. Risk reduction was 68.4 % for the primary outcome in the treatment group (relative risk = 0.316, p = 0.007). After 12 months, patients in the treatment group had a significantly lower incidence rate of cortical, juxtacortical, corpus callosal, new T2, new gadolinium-enhancing lesions and black holes. The mean number of total plaques showed a marginally significant decrease in the group receiving vitamin D3 supplementation as compared with the placebo group (p = 0.092). Administration of vitamin D3 supplements to ON patients with low serum vitamin 25 (OH) D levels may delay the onset of a second clinical attack and the subsequent conversion to MS. PMID:23250818

  12. A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia.

    PubMed

    Le Bars, P L; Kieser, M; Itil, K Z

    2000-01-01

    This intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed to provide a realistic image of the efficacy that could be expected after 26 weeks treatment with a 120-mg dose (40 mg t.i.d.) of EGb 761 (EGb). The data were collected during a 52-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed dose, parallel-group, multicenter study. Patients were mildly to severely impaired and diagnosed with uncomplicated Alzheimer's disease or multi-infarct dementia according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R criteria. The primary outcome measures included the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), Geriatric Evaluation by Relative's Rating Instrument (GERRI) and Clinical Global Impression of Change. From 309 patients included in the ITT analysis, 244 patients (76% for placebo and 73% for EGb) actually reached the 26th week visit. In comparison to the baseline values, the placebo group showed a statistically significant worsening in all domains of assessment, while the group receiving EGb was considered slightly improved on the cognitive assessment and the daily living and social behavior. Mean treatment differences favored EGb with 1.3 and 0.12 points, respectively, on the ADAS-Cog (p = 0.04) and the GERRI (p = 0.007). In the group receiving EGb, 26% of the patients achieved at least a 4-point improvement on the ADAS-Cog, compared to 17% with placebo (p = 0.04). On the GERRI, 30% of the EGb group improved and 17% worsened, while the placebo group showed an opposite trend with 37% of patients worsening for 25% improved (p = 0.006). Regarding safety, no differences between EGb and placebo were observed. PMID:10867450

  13. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Active-Reference, Double-Blind, Flexible-Dose Study of the Efficacy of Vortioxetine on Cognitive Function in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahableshwarkar, Atul R; Zajecka, John; Jacobson, William; Chen, Yinzhong; Keefe, Richard S E

    2015-07-01

    This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-referenced (duloxetine 60 mg), parallel-group study evaluated the short-term efficacy and safety of vortioxetine (10-20 mg) on cognitive function in adults (aged 18-65 years) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) who self-reported cognitive dysfunction. Efficacy was evaluated using ANCOVA for the change from baseline to week 8 in the digit symbol substitution test (DSST)-number of correct symbols as the prespecified primary end point. The patient-reported perceived deficits questionnaire (PDQ) and physician-assessed clinical global impression (CGI) were analyzed in a prespecified hierarchical testing sequence as key secondary end points. Additional predefined end points included the objective performance-based University of San Diego performance-based skills assessment (UPSA) (ANCOVA) to measure functionality, MADRS (MMRM) to assess efficacy in depression, and a prespecified multiple regression analysis (path analysis) to calculate direct vs indirect effects of vortioxetine on cognitive function. Safety and tolerability were assessed at all visits. Vortioxetine was statistically superior to placebo on the DSST (P < 0.05), PDQ (P < 0.01), CGI-I (P < 0.001), MADRS (P < 0.05), and UPSA (P < 0.001). Path analysis indicated that vortioxetine's cognitive benefit was primarily a direct treatment effect rather than due to alleviation of depressive symptoms. Duloxetine was not significantly different from placebo on the DSST or UPSA, but was superior to placebo on the PDQ, CGI-I, and MADRS. Common adverse events (incidence ⩾ 5%) for vortioxetine were nausea, headache, and diarrhea. In this study of MDD adults who self-reported cognitive dysfunction, vortioxetine significantly improved cognitive function, depression, and functionality and was generally well tolerated. PMID:25687662

  14. Efficacy of mirtazapine for the treatment of fibromyalgia without concomitant depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miki, Kenji; Murakami, Masato; Oka, Hiroshi; Onozawa, Kaname; Yoshida, Sadahiro; Osada, Kenichi

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia (FM), a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa study was conducted at 57 sites between November 2012 and February 2014. Patients aged 20 to 64 years who met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 diagnostic FM criteria and had stably high pain scores during a placebo run-in period were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block size 4) to receive mirtazapine orally (15 mg/d for 1 week and then 30 mg/d) or matching placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score from baseline to endpoint (week 12 or early discontinuation). Of the 430 patients randomized (n = 215 each group), 422 (n = 211 each group) were analyzed for the primary endpoint. At the study endpoint, mirtazapine caused a significantly greater reduction in the mean NRS pain score compared with placebo (difference, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, -0.72 to -0.17; P = 0.0018). The reduction by mirtazapine remained significantly greater compared with placebo from week 6 onward. More patients treated with mirtazapine had their NRS pain score reduced by ≥30% from baseline (45.5% vs 30.8%). Mirtazapine also improved pain-related quality of life assessed by the Japanese version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire. Adverse events were more common with mirtazapine than placebo (68.8% vs 56.7%), including somnolence (32.1% vs 7.4%), weight gain (17.7% vs 0.9%), and increased appetite (11.6% vs 3.3%). In conclusion, mirtazapine was an effective and safe treatment for Japanese patients with FM. PMID:27218868

  15. Randomized, Double-Blind, Dose-Ranging Study of TAK-875, a Novel GPR40 Agonist, in Japanese Patients With Inadequately Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kaku, Kohei; Araki, Takahiro; Yoshinaka, Ryoji

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assessment of the efficacy and safety of TAK-875 (a novel GPR40 agonist) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet/exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 12-week dose-ranging evaluation of TAK-875 (6.25–200 mg once daily) with the primary end point of change in A1C at week 12. A nonblinded group received 1 mg glimepiride once daily as an active control. RESULTS A total of 396 patients were randomized to receive TAK-875 (n = 299), placebo (n = 48), or glimepiride (n = 49). The least square mean changes in A1C at week 12 from baseline were as follows: 0.09% in the placebo group; −0.54, −0.67, −0.88, −1.27, −1.29, and −1.40% in the 6.25-, 12.5-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 200-mg TAK-875 groups, respectively; and −1.32% in the 1-mg glimepiride group. All TAK-875 groups had statistically significant reductions in A1C compared with placebo (P < 0.0001), and those receiving ≥50 mg TAK-875 achieved reductions in A1C equivalent to those with glimepiride. Results for other glycemic parameters, including improvements during a meal tolerance test, mirrored these positive findings with TAK-875. There were no significant differences in incidence of adverse events among the groups and no dose-dependent changes in tolerability. Hypoglycemic episodes were reported in 0.7% of patients in the TAK-875 groups and in 4.1% of the glimepiride group. CONCLUSIONS TAK-875 produced clinically and statistically significant improvements in glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet and exercise, and it was well tolerated with a lower propensity to cause hypoglycemia. PMID:23086138

  16. Therapeutic value of a Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium longum fixed bacterium combination in acute diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Margreiter, M; Ludl, K; Phleps, W; Kaehler, S T

    2006-05-01

    A multicenter, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial, involving 169 outpatients at 9 centers, was conducted to assess the efficacy of a fixed bacterium combination of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium longum in the therapy of acute diarrhea. In particular, this clinical trial was designed to prove equivalent therapeutic efficacy of a fixed bacterium combination versus an exhaustive investigated mono-bacterium medicinal product. All patients, free to carry on usual daily activities, received 1 capsule 3 times a day of either a fixed bacterium combination of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium longum or Enterococcus faecium mono-bacterium. All treatments were continued for a maximum of 6 days in line with the normal course of acute diarrhea. Primary efficacy criterion was the severity and duration of diarrhea assessed by the ensemble of stool frequency as change from baseline and stool consistency at trial Day 2, 3 and 4, and time in days until normal bowel function (recovery). The median duration of diarrhea was 2.70 days versus 2.67 days (fixed bacterium combination of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium longum versus mono-bacterium Enterococcus feacium). The total mean difference of duration of diarrhea was 0.072 days. This result can be considered equivalent. However, the proportion of patients with complete recovery tended to be higher in the fixed bacterium combination group (92.6% versus 87.1%) resulting in a number needed to treat (NNT) of 18.1. The fixed bacterium combination reduced the number of unformed stools by 80% and the mono-bacterium by 75% during the first 2 days of treatment. Both treatments were well tolerated. Oral therapy with a fixed combination of Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium longum shortens the duration and decreases the severity of acute self-limiting diarrhea in adults comparable to an effective mono-bacterium medicinal product. It therefore appears to be a useful and

  17. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is ineffective at preventing otitis media in children with presumed viral upper respiratory infection: a randomized, double-blind equivalence, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Autret-Leca, Elisabeth; Giraudeau, Bruno; Ployet, Marie Joseph; Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Aims To assess the equivalence of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and placebo in the prevention of acute otitis media in children at high risk of acute otitis media who develop upper respiratory tract infection. Methods This was a multicentre, equivalence, randomized, double-blind trial of two parallel groups comparing 5 days of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 75 mg kg−1 day−1 (i.e. 25 mg kg−1 every 8 h) and placebo. The main outcome measure was acute otitis media occurring within 8–12 days of initiating treatment. Results Two hundred and three infants, aged 3 months−3 years with upper respiratory tract infection over 36 h and a history of recurrent acute otitis media were included over 8.5 months. Two children were lost to follow-up. Patient characteristics were similar in both groups. In the intention to treat analysis the frequency of acute otitis media was 16.2% (16/99) in the placebo group and 9.6% (10/104) in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid group (P= 0.288). The difference between acute otitis media rates was 6.6% (one-sided 95% confidence interval of 14.3%). The occurrence of side-effects was similar in the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and placebo groups. Conclusions The difference in effectiveness between antibiotic and placebo was not greater than 14.3%, and we calculated that 94 children would need to be exposed to antibiotics to avoid six cases of acute otitis media. In view of the risk of development of resistance due to frequent exposure to antibiotics, our study supports the need for reduction in the administration of antibiotics in upper respiratory tract infection even in children at high risk of acute otitis media. PMID:12492614

  18. Creatine Supplementation Associated or Not with Strength Training upon Emotional and Cognitive Measures in Older Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Merege Filho, Carlos Alberto Abujabra; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Brucki, Sonia; Pereira, Rosa Maria R.; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effects of creatine supplementation, associated or not with strength training, upon emotional and cognitive measures in older woman. Methods This is a 24-week, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The individuals were randomly allocated into one of the following groups (n=14 each): 1) placebo, 2) creatine supplementation, 3) placebo associated with strength training or 4) creatine supplementation associated with strength training. According to their allocation, the participants were given creatine (4 x 5 g/d for 5 days followed by 5 g/d) or placebo (dextrose at the same dosage) and were strength trained or not. Cognitive function, assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests involving memory, selective attention, and inhibitory control, and emotional measures, assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale, were evaluated at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks of the intervention. Muscle strength and food intake were evaluated at baseline and after 24 weeks. Results After the 24-week intervention, both training groups (ingesting creatine supplementation and placebo) had significant reductions on the Geriatric Depression Scale scores when compared with the non-trained placebo group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) and the non-trained creatine group (p < 0.001 for both comparison). However, no significant differences were observed between the non-trained placebo and creatine (p = 0.60) groups, or between the trained placebo and creatine groups (p = 0.83). Both trained groups, irrespective of creatine supplementation, had better muscle strength performance than the non-trained groups. Neither strength training nor creatine supplementation altered any parameter of cognitive performance. Food intake remained unchanged. Conclusion Creatine supplementation did not promote any significant change in cognitive function and emotional parameters in apparently healthy older individuals. In addition, strength training per se

  19. Acute effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking: a double-blind, placebo-control study

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Kilgalen, Barbara; Austin, Janet; Weaver, Michael F.; Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking usually involves heating flavored tobacco with charcoal and inhaling the resulting smoke after it has passed through water. Waterpipe tobacco smoking increases heart rate and produces subjective effects similar to those reported by cigarette smokers. These responses are thought to be nicotine-mediated, though no placebo-control studies exist. Accordingly, this double-blind, placebo-control study compared the acute physiological and subjective effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking to those produced when participants used a waterpipe to smoke a flavor-matched, tobacco-free preparation. Methods Occasional waterpipe tobacco smokers (N=37; 2–5 monthly smoking episodes for ≥ 6 months) completed two double-blind, counterbalanced sessions that differed by product: preferred brand/flavor of waterpipe tobacco or flavor-matched, tobacco-free preparation. For each 45-minute, ad lib smoking episode blood and expired air CO were sampled, cardiovascular and respiratory response were measured, and subjective response was assessed. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking significantly increased mean (±SEM) plasma nicotine concentration (3.6±0.7 ng/ml) and heart rate (8.6±1.4 bpm) while placebo did not (0.1±0.0 ng/ml; 1.3±0.9 bpm). For carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and expired air CO, significant increases were observed for tobacco (3.8±0.4%; 27.9±2.6 ppm) and for placebo (3.9±0.4%; 27.7±3.3 ppm) with no differences across condition. Independent of condition, symptoms of nicotine/tobacco abstinence (e.g., “urges to smoke”, “anxious”) were reduced and direct effects (e.g., “dizzy”, “satisfy”) increased. Discussion These results from the first placebo-control study of waterpipe tobacco smoking demonstrate that waterpipe-induced heart rate increases are almost certainly mediated by nicotine though the subjective effects observed in these occasional smokers were not. PMID:21277706

  20. A double-blind atropine trial for active learning of autonomic function.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jeffrey R; Burr, Steven A

    2011-12-01

    Here, we describe a human physiology laboratory class measuring changes in autonomic function over time in response to atropine. Students use themselves as subjects, generating ownership and self-interest in the learning as well as directly experiencing the active link between physiology and pharmacology in people. The class is designed to concomitantly convey the importance of bias in experimentation by adopting a double-blind placebo-controlled approach. We have used this class effectively in various forms with ∼600 students receiving atropine over the last 16 yr. This class has received favorable feedback from staff and students of medicine, pharmacy, and neuroscience, and we recommend it for such undergraduates. The learning objectives that students are expected to achieve are to be able to 1) know the ethical, safety, and hygiene requirements for using human volunteers as subjects; 2) implement and explain a double-blind placebo-controlled trial; 3) design, agree, and execute a protocol for making (and accurately recording) precise reproducible measurements of pulse rate, pupil diameter, and salivary flow; 4) evaluate the importance of predose periods and measurement consistency to detect effects (including any reversibility) after an intervention; 5) experience direct cause-and-effect relationships integrating physiology with pharmacology in people; 6) calculate appropriate summary statistics to describe the data and determine the data's statistical significance; 7) recognize normal variability both within and between subjects in baseline physiological parameters and also recognize normal variability in response to pharmacological treatment; 8) infer the distribution and role of muscarinic receptors in the autonomic nervous system with respect to the heart, eye, and mouth; 9) identify and explain the clinical significance of differences in effect due to the route and formulation of atropine; 10) produce and deliver a concise oral presentation of

  1. A Phase III Randomized, Double-blind, Parallel-group Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Acarmet (Metformin HCl 500 mg Plus Acarbose 50 mg Tablets) Versus Acarbose Alone in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-11-19

    The Objectives of the Study is to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Acarmet (Metformin HCl 500 mg; Plus Acarbose 50 mg Tablets) Thrice Daily Versus Acarbose 50 mg Thrice Daily Over 16 Weeks in; Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

  2. The effect of Neuragen PN® on Neuropathic pain: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the naturally derived topical oil, "Neuragen PN®" for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Methods Sixty participants with plantar cutaneous (foot sole) pain due to all cause peripheral neuropathy were recruited from the community. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive one of two treatments (Neuragen PN® or placebo) per week in a crossover design. The primary outcome measure was acute spontaneous pain level as reported on a visual analog scale. Results There was an overall pain reduction for both treatments from pre to post application. As compared to the placebo, Neuragen PN® led to significantly (p < .05) greater pain reduction. Fifty six of sixty subjects (93.3%) receiving Neuragen PN® reported pain reduction within 30 minutes. This reduction within 30 minutes occurred in only twenty one of sixty (35.0%) subjects receiving the placebo. In a break out analysis of the diabetic only subgroup, 94% of subjects in the Neuragen PN® group achieved pain reduction within 30 minutes vs 11.0% of the placebo group. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions This randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial with crossover design revealed that the naturally derived oil, Neuragen PN®, provided significant relief from neuropathic pain in an all cause neuropathy group. Participants with diabetes within this group experienced similar pain relief. Trial registration ISRCTN registered: ISRCTN13226601 PMID:20487567

  3. Baclofen reduces binge eating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Rebecca L; Boan, Jarol; Peters, Kathryn F; Ulbrecht, Jan S

    2012-09-01

    Baclofen has shown promise in treating substance use disorders and also reduced binge frequency in an open-label trial. This placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study further assessed the effects of baclofen on binge eating. Twelve individuals who self-reported binge eating completed the study. Data were collected during a run-in period (no drug or placebo), placebo phase (48 days), and baclofen phase (titrated up to 60 mg daily or the maximum tolerated dose, 48 days). All the participants were exposed to all conditions. Participants completed a binge diary daily, and the Binge Eating Scale (BES), Food Craving Inventory-II (FCI-II), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at regular intervals throughout the study. Baclofen significantly reduced binge frequency relative to placebo and run-in (P<0.05). This confirms results from the previous open-label trial. Baclofen also produced slight, but significant, increases in depression symptomatology as assessed by the HADS. Binge severity (BES scores) and craving (FCI-II scores) were significantly reduced during placebo and baclofen phases, that is both measures exhibited significant placebo effects. Tiredness, fatigue, and upset stomach were the most commonly reported side-effects. These results indicate that baclofen may be a useful treatment for binge eating in some patients. PMID:22854310

  4. Efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation in intractable rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, randomized trial

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Tanay, A.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Calin, A.; Engleman, E.G.; Kotzin, B.; Brown, B.W.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1985-04-01

    Twenty-six patients participated in a randomized, double-blind study of the efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis. All 26 patients, for whom therapy with gold compounds and penicillamine had failed, would ordinarily have been considered candidates for cytotoxic or antimetabolite drug therapy. Thirteen patients randomly assigned to receive full-dose total lymphoid irradiation (2000 rad) and 11 patients assigned to receive control low-dose total lymphoid irradiation (200 rad) completed radiotherapy. Alleviation of joint disease activity was significantly greater in the high-dose group as judged by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, and functional assessment (global composite score) at 3 and 6 months after radiotherapy. The high-dose group had a marked reduction in both T-lymphocyte function and numbers, but this finding was not observed in the low-dose group. Complications seen in the high-dose but not low-dose group included transient neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, pericarditis, and pleurisy.

  5. Efficacy of a nicotine mouth spray in smoking cessation: a randomised, double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Tønnesen, Philip; Lauri, Hans; Perfekt, Roland; Mann, Karl; Batra, Anil

    2012-01-01

    A nicotine mouth spray has advantages over other acute forms of nicotine replacement therapy, such as a faster uptake of nicotine and faster relief of craving. This multicentre, randomised (2:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study evaluated self-reported, carbon monoxide-verified continuous abstinence from smoking from week 2 until weeks 6, 24, and 52 in 479 smokers (≥1 cigarette per day) who were treated with either active (n=318) or placebo (n=161) spray for 12 weeks and low-intensity counselling at three smoking cessation clinics in Denmark and Germany. Active treatment yielded significantly higher continuous abstinence rates than placebo from week 2 until week 6 (26.1% versus 16.1%; relative success rate (RR) 1.62, 95% CI 1.09–2.41), week 24 (15.7% versus 6.8%; RR 2.30, 95% CI 1.23–4.30), and week 52 (13.8% versus 5.6%; RR 2.48, 95% CI 1.24–4.94). Most adverse events were mild to moderate, and 9.1% of subjects on active spray withdrew due to adverse events, compared to 7.5% on placebo. The overall rate of treatment-related adverse events was 87.4% with active spray versus 71.4% with placebo spray. Nicotine mouth spray delivered significantly higher 6-, 24- and 52-week continuous abstinence rates than placebo. PMID:22323576

  6. Carbohydrate craving: a double-blind, placebo-controlled test of the self-medication hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Corsica, Joyce A; Spring, Bonnie J

    2008-12-01

    Carbohydrate craving, the overwhelming desire to consume carbohydrate-rich foods in an attempt to improve mood, remains a scientifically controversial construct. We tested whether carbohydrate preference and mood enhancement could be demonstrated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled self-administration trial. Overweight females who met strict operational criteria for carbohydrate craving participated in two 3-day discrete choice trials over a 2-week period. Participants reported their mood before and at several time points after undergoing a dysphoric mood induction and ingesting, either a carbohydrate beverage or a taste and calorie-matched protein-rich balanced nutrient beverage. Every third testing day, participants were asked to self-administer the beverage they preferred based on its previous mood effect. Results showed that, when rendered mildly dysphoric, carbohydrate cravers chose the carbohydrate beverage significantly more often than the protein-rich beverage and reported that carbohydrate produced greater mood improvement. The carbohydrate beverage was perceived as being more palatable by the carbohydrate cravers, although not by independent taste testers who performed the pre-trial taste matching. This study, performed under rigorous study conditions, supports the existence of a carbohydrate craving syndrome in which carbohydrate self-administration improves mildly dysphoric mood. PMID:18928908

  7. Antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of kwashiorkor in Malawian children: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ciliberto, Heather; Ciliberto, Michael; Briend, Andreé; Ashorn, Per; Bier, Dennis; Manary, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in preventing kwashiorkor in a population of Malawian children at high risk of developing kwashiorkor. Design Prospective, double blind, placebo controlled trial randomised by household. Setting 8 villages in rural southern Malawi. Participants 2372 children in 2156 households aged 1-4 years were enrolled; 2332 completed the trial. Intervention Daily supplementation with an antioxidant powder containing riboflavin, vitamin E, selenium, and N-acetylcysteine in a dose that provided about three times the recommended dietary allowance of each nutrient or placebo for 20 weeks. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the incidence of oedema. Secondary outcomes were the rates of change for weight and length and the number of days of infectious symptoms. Results 62 children developed kwashiorkor (defined by the presence of oedema); 39/1184 (3.3%) were in the antioxidant group and 23/1188 (1.9%) were in the placebo group (relative risk 1.70, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 2.42). The two groups did not differ in rates of weight or height gain. Children who received antioxidant supplementation did not experience less fever, cough, or diarrhoea. Conclusions Antioxidant supplementation at the dose provided did not prevent the onset of kwashiorkor. This finding does not support the hypothesis that depletion of vitamin E, selenium, cysteine, or riboflavin has a role in the development of kwashiorkor. PMID:15851401

  8. Effect of prophylactic antibiotics in acute nonperforated appendicitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study.

    PubMed Central

    Busuttil, R W; Davidson, R K; Fine, M; Tompkins, R K

    1981-01-01

    A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study was performed to determined the efficacy of short-term (24 hr) perioperative antibiotics in preventing septic complications after emergency appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis. The patients were stratified into three clinical arms: Group I (placebo, n = 45), Group II (cefamandole, n = 46) and Group III (cefamandole plus carbenicillin, n = 45). The three groups of patients were similar in regard to age, sex, duration of operation and pathologic classification of the appendix. The overall incidence of infection in the study was 5.1%. The infection rates in Groups II (2.2%) and III (0%) were significantly lower than Group I (placebo) (13.3%), (p less than 0.05). No difference was observed between cefamandole alone and cefamandole plus carbenicillin. Average postoperative hospital days per patient for each group was: Group I - 3.8 days; Group II - 2.9 days; Group III - 3.1 days. Cost analysis of hospitalization including cost of prophylactic antibiotics revealed a $247.99 per patient saving for Group II versus Group I and $95.53 for Group III versus Group I. Systemic prophylactic antibiotics can successfully reduce septic complications after appendectomy for nonperforated appendicitis, and a single drug (cefamandole) directed at the facultative pathogens is as effective as double drug therapy, which includes specific anaerobic coverage. PMID:7025769

  9. A double-blind study of the effect on hemostasis of nabumetone (Relafen) compared to placebo.

    PubMed

    Jennings, M B; Alfieri, D M; Jules, K T; Lesczczynski, C

    2000-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing the effect on hemostasis of nabumetone (Relafen) to placebo in patients who were about to undergo forefoot surgery was performed. Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are reported to inhibit platelet cyclooxygenase activity, resulting in altered platelet function and thus potentially enhanced bleeding. Nabumetone has been reported to have no effect on platelet aggregation and bleeding time in normal volunteers and in patients who have undergone knee arthroscopy. After fulfilling the inclusion criteria and after a 1-week washout period (acetaminophen controlled), 15 patients were enrolled in the nabumetone group and 15 patients were randomized in the placebo group. Hemostatic parameters [prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and Ivy bleeding time (IBT)] were assessed at baseline, visit 2, visit 3, and final visit. No meaningful differences were observed between treatment groups in any of the measured hemostatic parameters. No significant adverse events were reported. There was no significant change from baseline for PT, PTT, and IBT in the nabumetone group (PT, p < .06; PTT, p < .64; IBT, p < .17) versus the placebo group (PT, p < .61; PTT, p < .63; IBT, p < .25). The lack of bleeding diathesis and significant prolongation of PT, PTT, or IBT in this study suggests that nabumetone in dosages up to 1000 mg/day can be administered safely in the immediate preoperative period to patients undergoing forefoot surgery. PMID:10862388

  10. Local Infiltration Analgesia reduces pain and hospital stay after primary TKA: randomized controlled double blind trial.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Wani, Ajaz Majeed; Vijay, Vipul

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative analgesia following Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) with the use of parenteral opioids or epidural analgesia can be associated with important side effects. Good perioperative analgesia facilitates faster rehabilitation, improves patient satisfaction, and may reduce the hospital stay. We investigated the analgesic effect of a locally injected mixture of drugs, in a double blinded RCT in 80 primary TKA. They were randomized either to receive a periarticular mixture of drugs containing bupivacaine, ketorolac, morphine, and adrenalline or to receive normal saline. Visual analog scores (VAS) for pain (at rest and during activity) and for patient satisfaction and range of motion were recorded postoperatively. The patients who had received the periarticular injection used significantly less the Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) after the surgery as compared to the control group. In addition, they had lower VAS for pain during rest and activity and higher visual analog scores for patient satisfaction 72 hours postoperatively. No major complication related to the drugs was observed. Intraoperative periarticular injection with multimodal drugs following TKA can significantly reduce the postoperative pain and hence the requirements for PCA and hospital stay, with no apparent risks. PMID:26790796

  11. Proton pump inhibition prevents gastrointestinal bleeding in ultramarathon runners: a randomised, double blinded, placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Thalmann, M; Sodeck, G H; Kavouras, S; Matalas, A; Skenderi, K; Yannikouris, N; Domanovits, H

    2006-01-01

    Background Ultra‐endurance running is emerging as a popular sport in Western industrialised countries. Gastrointestinal bleeding has been reported to be an adverse effect in these runners. Objective To see if the oral administration of a proton pump inhibitor would reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in an ultramarathon. Methods In a randomised, double blinded, placebo controlled study, a prophylactic regimen of three days of an oral proton pump inhibitor (pantoprazole 20 mg) was tested in healthy athletes participating in the Spartathlon ultramarathon. The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was assessed by a stool guaiac test. Results Results were obtained for 70 healthy volunteers. The data for 20 of 35 runners in the intervention group and 17 of 35 runners in the placebo group were entered into the final analysis. At the end of the ultramarathon, two subjects in the intervention group and 12 in the placebo group had positive stool guaiac tests (risk difference 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.96; p  =  0.001). Conclusion A short prophylactic regimen of oral proton pump inhibition can successfully decrease the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in participants in an ultramarathon. PMID:16556794

  12. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a double-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Bozzetti, F; Biganzoli, L; Gavazzi, C; Cappuzzo, F; Carnaghi, C; Buzzoni, R; Dibartolomeo, M; Baietta, E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glutamine in preventing doxifluridine-induced diarrhea and the potential impact of glutamine on the tumor growth. We investigated 65 patients with advanced breast cancer receiving doxifluridine in a double-blind randomized fashion: 33 patients took glutamine (30 g/d, divided in 3 doses of 10 g each) for 8 consecutive days (5-12h) during each interval between chemotherapy, which was administered from day 1 to 4. Thirty-two patients took an equal dose of placebo (maltodextrine). The incidence of diarrhea was registered after each cycle of chemotherapy and severity was scored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, Maryland, classification. The tumor response was evaluated by the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. A total of 278 and 259 cycles (median 10 cycles), respectively, were delivered in glutamine and placebo groups. There were 34 and 32 episodes of diarrhea in glutamine and placebo groups, with no statistical difference overall, in the severity and duration of tumor growth, there was no difference in the response rate (21% and 28% of complete or partial response, respectively), in median time to response (2 mo), or in median duration of response. In conclusion, glutamine did not prevent the occurrence of the doxifluridine-induced diarrhea and did not have any impact on tumor response to chemotherapy. PMID:9263281

  13. [Auriculo-electropuncture in rheumatoid arthritis (a double-blind study)].

    PubMed

    Ruchkin, I N; Burdeĭnyĭ, A P

    1987-01-01

    A study of the efficacy of auriculo-electropuncture (AEP) by a double blind method was conducted in 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Points on the auricle were looked for by means of an device of individual use. After that during true AEP (the study group of 10 patients) the device was switched on to the stimulation mode, during false AEP (the control group of 6 patients) it was switched off. Each patient was given 10 procedures except one patient of the study group in whom treatment had to be discontinued after the 3rd procedure because of the development of phlebitis of the left crural veins. Subjective assessment showed improvement in all the patients of the study group (considerable improvement in 2 patients), in the control group improvement was noted in one patient only, no effect--in 3 patients, deterioration--in 2 patients; objective assessment showed improvement in 6 (considerable improvement in one patient) and in one patient, no effect--in 2 and 2, deterioration in one and 3, respectively. In the study group a positive time course of all 8 indices characterizing a degree of pain and inflammatory activity was noted (it was statistically significant for 7 of them), in the control group a positive time course of 3 indices was noted, 5 indices grew worse. A statistically significant decrease in the initially elevated level of blood alpha (2)-globulin was noted against a background of true AEP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3328905

  14. Randomised double-blind comparative study of dexmedetomidine and tramadol for post-spinal anaesthesia shivering

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Geeta; Gupta, Kanchan; Katyal, Sunil; Kaushal, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Dexmedetomidine (α2 adrenergic agonist) has been used for prevention of post anaesthesia shivering. Its use for the treatment of post-spinal anaesthesia shivering has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy, haemodynamic and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine with those of tramadol, when used for control of post-spinal anaesthesia shivering. Methods: A prospective, randomised, and double-blind study was conducted in 50 American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grade I and II patients of either gender, aged between 18 and 65 years, scheduled for various surgical procedures under spinal anaesthesia. The patients were randomised in two groups of 25 patients each to receive either dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg or tramadol 0.5 mg/kg as a slow intravenous bolus. Grade of shivering, onset of shivering, time for cessation of shivering, recurrence, response rate, and adverse effects were observed at scheduled intervals. Unpaired t-test was used for analysing the data. Results: Time taken for cessation of shivering was significantly less with dexmedetomidine when compared to tramadol. Nausea and vomiting was observed only in tramadol group (28% and; 20% respectively). There was not much difference in the sedation profile of both the drugs. Conclusion: We conclude that although both drugs are effective, the time taken for cessation of shivering is less with dexmedetomidine when compared to tramadol. Moreover, dexmedetomidine has negligible adverse effects, whereas tramadol is associated with significant nausea and vomiting. PMID:25024466

  15. ANTIPLAQUE AND ANTIGINGIVITIS EFFECT OF LIPPIA SIDOIDES. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ítalo Sarto Carvalho; Tavares, Vinícius Nascimento; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The antiplaque and antigingivitis effect of Lippia Sidoides (LS) was evaluated in this in vivo investigation. Material and Methods: Twenty-three subjects participated in a cross-over, double-blind clinical study, using 21-day partial-mouth experimental model of gingivitis. A toothshield was constructed for each volunteer, avoiding the brushing of the 4 experimental posterior teeth in the lower left quadrant. The subjects were randomly assigned initially to use either the placebo gel (control group) or the test gel, containing 10% LS (test group). Results: The clinical results showed statistically significant differences for plaque index (PLI) (p<0.01) between days 0 and 21 in both groups, however only the control group showed statistically significant difference (p<0.01) for the bleeding (IB) and gingival (GI) index within the experimental period of 21 days. On day 21, the test group presented significantly better results than the control group with regard to the GI (p<0.05). Conclusions: The test gel containing 10% LS was effective in the control of gingivitis. PMID:19936516

  16. Multicentre, double-blind comparison of terfenadine and cetirizine in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, C I; Renton, R; Fidler, C; Rosenberg, R M

    1990-03-01

    This double-blind, multicentre study was designed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of terfenadine 120 mg with cetirizine 10 mg, each taken once daily, in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Two hundred and eighty-five patients were recruited to the study by nine general practice centres in the south of England during the 1989 hay-fever season. Symptom severity was assessed daily by the patient and before and after the one-week treatment period by the investigator. At the second clinic visit both patient and investigator assessed the overall response to treatment. The two treatment groups were well matched for all demographic variables and baseline symptom scores. Improvement in all seven symptoms (nasal congestion, sneezing, rhinorrhoea, itching nose, itching eyes, watery eyes and red eyes) and overall response to treatment were similar in both treatment groups. Adverse events were mainly of mild to moderate severity and were reported by 14 patients on terfenadine and 21 patients treated with cetirizine (p = 0.317). This study confirmed terfenadine's role as the treatment of choice in hayfever. A single 120 mg dose in the morning effectively reduced symptoms by 43 to 70 per cent of baseline values, with an acceptably low incidence of side effects. Cetirizine at a single dose of 10 mg displayed equal efficacy in controlling hayfever symptoms but, in common with other studies, had a significantly greater incidence of drowsiness (p = 0.046). PMID:1971516

  17. [Value of hydroxyzine in generalized anxiety disorder: controlled double-blind study versus placebo].

    PubMed

    Ferreri, M; Hantouche, E G; Billardon, M

    1994-01-01

    A multi-centre study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxyzine in the treatment of patients presenting a generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). One hundred and thirty three patients, suffering from a GAD (according to DSM III-R criteria with 6 months duration criteria), were enrolled in a randomised, double-blind, hydroxyzine (50 mg/day) versus placebo, over a 4-week trial period. By the end of the first week, the decrease of anxiety scores was significant for the hydroxyzine group, as compared to placebo (in respect of all rating criteria of anxiety). The statistical superiority for hydroxyzine continued to the end of the 4-weeks study period, and persisted at a further evaluation a week after abrupt discontinuation of active treatment. The tolerance evaluation showed that side effects were reported in 52% of hydroxyzine group versus 35% of placebo group. The most commun side effects were sleepiness (28% vs 14% with placebo), weight gain (12% vs 10%), dry mouth (14% vs 5%), loss of concentration (9% vs 8%) and insomnia (9% vs 6%). Sleepiness in the hydroxyzine group appeared during the first week and progressively disappeared later during treatment. We concluded that hydroxyzine at 50 mg/day produces a statistically and clinically significant anxiolytic effect, commencing during the first week of treatment and maintained throughout the 4-week period and after abrupt discontinuation without rebound of anxiety or withdrawal symptoms. The most commun side effect with hydroxyzine is transient sleepiness. PMID:7875114

  18. Mifepristone 5 mg versus 10 mg for emergency contraception: double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Josep Lluis; Garcia, Ramon; Gonzalez, Adriana; Breto, Andres; Sanchez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the efficacy and safety of 5 mg and 10 mg mifepristone for emergency contraception up to 144 hours after unprotected coitus. Methods This double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out at Eusebio Hernandez Hospital (Havana, Cuba). A total of 2,418 women who requested emergency contraception after unprotected coitus received either 5 mg or 10 mg mifepristone. The variables for assessing efficacy were the pregnancies that occurred and the fraction of pregnancies that were prevented. Other variables assessed were the side effects of mifepristone, vaginal bleeding, and changes in the date of the following menstruation. Results There were 15/1,206 (1.2%) and 9/1,212 (0.7%) pregnancies in the 5 mg and 10 mg group, respectively (P=0.107). There were 88% and 93% prevented pregnancies in the 5 mg and un ≥7 days was experienced by 4.9% and 11.0% of subjects in the 5 mg and 10 mg group, respectively (P=0.001). There was a significant high failure rate for women weighing >75 kg in the 5 mg group. Conclusion It would be advisable to use the 10 mg dose of mifepristone for emergency contraception as there was a trend suggesting that the failure rate of the larger dose was lower. PMID:25624773

  19. Randomised, double blind trial of two loading dose regimens of diamorphine in ventilated newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Pawula, M.; Barrett, D. A.; Shaw, P. N.; Rutter, N.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To compare the safety and efficacy of two loading doses of diamorphine in 27 ventilated newborn infants in a randomised double blind trial. METHODS--Fifty or 200 mcg/kg were infused intravenously over 30 minutes, followed by a 15 mcg/kg/hour continuous infusion. Serial measurements were made of physiology, behaviour, and stress hormones. RESULTS--Both loading doses produced small but significant falls in blood pressure. The 200 mcg/kg dose produced greater respiratory depression, and two infants deteriorated clinically, requiring resuscitation. Loading reduced respiratory effort in most of the infants, but had little effect on behavioural activity. Stress hormone concentrations were reduced at six hours in both dosage groups; differences between loading doses were not significant. Morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, and morphine-6-glucuronide were detected in the plasma of all patients. No significant differences in concentrations between loading doses were found. CONCLUSIONS--Diamorphine reduces the stress response in ventilated newborn infants. A high loading dose confers no benefit, and may produce undesirable physiological effects. A 50 mcg/kg loading dose seems to be safe and effective. PMID:7552591

  20. Randomised, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Echinacea Supplementation in Air Travellers

    PubMed Central

    Tiralongo, E.; Lea, R. A.; Wee, S. S.; Hanna, M. M.; Griffiths, L. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To identify whether a standardised Echinacea formulation is effective in the prevention of respiratory and other symptoms associated with long-haul flights. Methods. 175 adults participated in a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial travelling back from Australia to America, Europe, or Africa for a period of 1–5 weeks on commercial flights via economy class. Participants took Echinacea (root extract, standardised to 4.4 mg alkylamides) or placebo tablets. Participants were surveyed before, immediately after travel, and at 4 weeks after travel regarding upper respiratory symptoms and travel-related quality of life. Results. Respiratory symptoms for both groups increased significantly during travel (P < 0.0005). However, the Echinacea group had borderline significantly lower respiratory symptom scores compared to placebo (P = 0.05) during travel. Conclusions. Supplementation with standardised Echinacea tablets, if taken before and during travel, may have preventive effects against the development of respiratory symptoms during travel involving long-haul flights. PMID:22229040

  1. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study.

    PubMed

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M; Thakar, Anup B; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-07-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

  2. Cibenzoline versus flecainide in the prevention of paroxysmal atrial arrhythmias: a double-blind randomized study.

    PubMed

    Babuty, D; D'Hautefeuille, B; Scheck, F; Mycinsky, C; Pruvost, P; Peraudeau, P

    1995-05-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, parallel clinical trial, the authors tested and compared flecainide and cibenzoline, a new antiarrhythmic drug, on atrial arrhythmias. Sixty-eight patients (36 men, 32 women, mean age 62.5 +/- 1.6 years) with documented symptomatic paroxysmal atrial arrhythmias (fibrillation in 56, flutter in 12) were recruited and received either cibenzoline 260 mg/day (n = 33) or flecainide 200 mg/day (n = 35). Patients were assessed with physical examination, resting ECG, 24-hour ambulatory ECG recording, two-dimensional echocardiography, and standard biologic titrations before the inclusion day, and 3 months and 6 months after the randomization day. Sixteen patients were withdrawn (7 were lost to follow-up, 7 had side effects, 2 had another medical event). Seventeen patients had documented recurrence of atrial arrhythmia (9 in the cibenzoline group, 8 in the flecainide group) during the study. The efficacy of cibenzoline and flecainide for preventing recurrence of atrial arrhythmias was not significantly different (62.5% versus 71.4%). Eleven patients complained of one or more side effects (cibenzoline, n = 6; flecainide, n = 5), justifying leaving the trial in 6 cases (cibenzoline, n = 3; flecainide, n = 3). Two ventricular proarrhythmic effects were observed. No atrial proarrhythmic effects were reported. The efficacy of cibenzoline and flecainide for preventing atrial arrhythmia is good and similar during a follow-up period of 6 months. In view of these results, cibenzoline may be administered first to prevent atrial arrhythmia. PMID:7657846

  3. Perioperative Continuous Ropivacaine Wound Infusion in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Randomized Controlled Double-blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Fassoulaki, Argyro; Vassi, Emilia; Korkolis, Dimitrios; Zotou, Marianna

    2016-02-01

    Wound infusion with local anesthetics has been used for postoperative pain relief with variable results. This randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial examines the effect of ropivacaine infusion on pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 110 patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. After induction of anesthesia a 75-mm catheter was inserted subcutaneously and connected to an elastomeric pump containing either 0.75% ropivacaine (ropivacaine group) or normal saline (control group) for 24 hours postoperatively. Before skin closure, each hole was infiltrated with 2 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine or normal saline according to randomization. Pain at rest, pain during cough, and analgesic consumption were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit and at 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Analgesic requirements and pain scores were recorded 1 and 3 months after surgery. The ropivacaine group reported less pain during cough (P=0.044) in the postanesthesia care unit (P=0.017) and 4 hours postoperatively (P=0.038). Ropivacaine wound infusion had no effect on late and chronic pain. PMID:26679680

  4. The Effect of Intravenous Lidocaine on Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Argyra, Erifili

    2014-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is the most common neuralgia. Its therapeutic approach is challenging as the first line treatment often does not help, or even causes intolerable side effects. The aim of our randomized double blind, placebo controlled, crossover study was to investigate in a prospective way the effect of lidocaine in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Twenty patients met our inclusion criteria and completed the study. Each patient underwent four weekly sessions, two of which were with lidocaine (5 mgs/kg) and two with placebo infusions administered over 60 minutes. Intravenous lidocaine was superior regarding the reduction of the intensity of pain, the allodynia, and the hyperalgesia compared to placebo. Moreover, contrary to placebo, lidocaine managed to maintain its therapeutic results for the first 24 hours after intravenous infusion. Although, intravenous lidocaine is not a first line treatment, when first line medications fail to help, pain specialists may try it as an add-on treatment. This trial is registered with NCT01955967. PMID:27335883

  5. A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of the use of fibrin sealant for face lifts.

    PubMed

    Oliver, D W; Hamilton, S A; Figle, A A; Wood, S H; Lamberty, B G

    2001-12-01

    Fibrin sealant imitates the final phase of the blood coagulation process. Fibrinogen is converted into fibrin on a tissue surface by the action of thrombin, which is then cross-linked by factor XIIIa, creating a mechanically stable fibrin network. This fibrin network is thought to reduce the amount of postoperative bleeding by sealing capillary vessels and allowing raw operative surfaces to adhere. The authors conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial on the use of fibrin sealant in 20 consecutive patients undergoing bilateral face lifts by the same surgeon. Each patient was randomized for the use of fibrin sealant on either the right or the left side with the contralateral side acting as the control. Total drainage was recorded on each side for 24 hours before drains were removed. The age range of the patients in the trial (all of whom were women) was 44 to 70 years (mean, 55). The side treated with fibrin glue had a median drainage of 10 ml and the control side 30 ml. The Wilcoxon signed rank test shows a significant difference in drainage between sides (p = 0.002). The reduction in postoperative drainage could also reduce pain and bruising, increasing patient satisfaction with this procedure. The need for drains may also be obviated. PMID:11743409

  6. Efficacy of Trimetazidine Dihydrochloride for Relieving Chronic Tinnitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Berkiten, Güler; Saltürk, Ziya; Ataç, Enes; Atar, Yavuz; Uyar, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of trimetazidine dihydrochloride as a treatment for chronic tinnitus. Methods: A total of 97 chronic tinnitus patients were evaluated in this randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After assessing for eligibility, 82 patients were randomly assigned into placebo or trimetazidine groups according to the medication. The trimetazidine group received 20×3 mg/day per oral trimetazidine dihydrochloride and the placebo group received 20×3 mg/day per oral placebo for 3 months. Tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires and audiometric results were used to determine the effectiveness of trimetazidine treatment. Results: The study group comprised 82 tinnitus subjects, 42 (51%) of whom received trimetazidine dihydrochloride and 40 (49%) who received placebo. There was no significant difference between placebo and trimetazidine groups in THI grade and VAS (both pre- and posttreatment scores) (P>0.05) and no significant improvement was observed in subjective loudness score in either group (P>0.05). Additionally there was no significant difference between groups in pre- and posttreatment pure tone hearing thresholds at all measured frequencies (P>0.05). Conclusion: Trimetazidine dihydrochloride therapy was ineffective for relieving chronic tinnitus. PMID:27230273

  7. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation for Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Mahsa; Vahedi, Homayoon; Janani, Leila; Poustchi, Hossein; Malekzadeh, Reza; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the common gastrointestinal disorders with unknown etiology. In experimental models, it is proposed that soy isoflavones may suppress the clinical and psychological symptoms of IBS by alteration of gut barrier tight junctions. METHODS We conducted this study to evaluate the effects of soy isoflavones on IBS symptoms and patients’ quality of life. In a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 67 patients with IBS were allocated to consume either soy isoflavones capsules or a placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was a significant reduction in symptoms severity score and the secondary outcome was a significant improvement in quality of life. RESULTS 45 participants completed the study. There was no significant changes in mean differences of symptoms severity score between the two groups; however soy isoflavone supplementation could significantly improve the quality of life scores (p=0.009). CONCLUSION Soy isoflavones supplementation could improve the quality of life in patients with IBS; however it did not suppress the symptoms severity in 6 weeks. Further research with a longer duration is needed to determine the sustained clinical efficacy. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02026518 PMID:26396720

  8. Etizolam in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a double-blind study versus placebo.

    PubMed

    Casacchia, M; Bolino, F; Ecari, U

    1990-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out in 36 patients diagnosed as suffering from Generalized Anxiety Disorder with associated depressive symptoms to assess the efficacy and tolerability of two unitary doses of etizolam. After a 1-week wash-out period on placebo, patients were assigned at random to receive 1 tablet twice daily of either 0.50 mg or 0.25 mg etizolam or placebo for 5 weeks. Assessments were made at entry, on Day 21 and Day 35 of the patients' condition and symptoms using a battery of four psychometric tests (the Hamilton rating scales for anxiety and for depression, the Covi scale for anxiety and the Raskin scale for depression). Ten patients were withdrawn before the end of the study, 8 because of inadequate response (4 on placebo, 3 on 0.25 mg etizolam and 1 on 0.50 mg etizolam) in spite of dosage increase to 1 tablet 3-times daily, and 2 because of side-effects (both on 0.50 mg etizolam). Analysis of the results from the remaining 26 patients showed that, at the 0.50 mg dosage level, etizolam produced significant improvement in anxiety and depressive symptoms, particularly somatic manifestations, and was significantly more effective than placebo or the 0.25 dosage regimen. Etizolam was generally well tolerated and the few side-effects reported, mainly daytime drowsiness, were of mild to moderate severity. PMID:1981698

  9. A double blind randomized controlled trial of Maharishi Vedic vibration technology in subjects with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nader, T A; Smith, D E; Dillbeck, M C; Schanbacher, V; Dillbeck, S L; Gallois, P; Beall-Rougerie, S; Schneider, R H; Nidich, S I; Kaplan, G P; Belok, S

    2001-04-01

    To explore ancient Vedic medical techniques, one hundred and seventy-six subjects with arthritis participated in a controlled study through the non-pharmacologic approach known as the Maharishi Vedic Vibration Technology (MVVT). Using a double-blinded and randomized experimental design, the findings showed significant reductions of pain and stiffness, and improvement in range of motion in the study sample. One hundred percent relief of symptoms was the most commonly reported category of improvement due to treatment. For the group as a whole, differences in mean response of treatment and control conditions with respect to relief of pain, limitation of motion, and reduction in stiffness were highly significant: t values ranged from a low of 5.609 in stiffness to a high of 20.950 in pain, p = 0.000009 to <10-49 respectively. Analysis by sub-categories of peripheral arthritis, painful conditions of the spine, and rheumatoid arthritis likewise produced significant results. Mechanisms of action were proposed, drawing on Maharishi Vedic Science, developments in quantum field theory, and specifically the theories of chaos and self-organizing systems as they relate to physiological functioning. The instantaneous relief of pain and improvement in function in such a high proportion of subjects with chronic arthritis is unparalleled in modern medical science PMID:11282569

  10. Prophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea in Egypt: results of a double blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Raedsch, R; Walter-Sack, I; Galle, P R; Kommerell, B

    1991-11-26

    Diarrhea represents the most frequent health problem of Western tourists visiting subtropical and tropical areas. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been suggested by some authors but may not be generally advisable because of adverse drug effects. In the present study we investigated the prophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea using a combination of tannalbuminate and ethacridin-lactate. During a 16-day cruise in Egypt, 77 tourists were assigned to either placebo or prophylactic doses of tannalbuminate (500 mg) and ethacridin-lactate (50 mg), 1 tbl. b.i.d., in a randomized double-blind fashion. The number of bowel movements, consistency of stools, and clinical symptoms like nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and fever were monitored daily. In the placebo group (n = 43) 35 tourists developed diarrhea (81.4%), whereas in the verum group (n = 34) only 18 tourists (52.9%) had diarrhea (p less than 0.0125). In the travelers receiving verum and developing diarrhea the clinical symptoms were less pronounced than in the placebo group. These results demonstrate that the events of traveler's diarrhea may be reduced; moreover, symptoms are attenuated by medical prophylaxis with tannalbuminate and ethacridin-lactate. PMID:1812314

  11. Metoprolol and propranolol in essential tremor: a double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Calzetti, S; Findley, L J; Gresty, M A; Perucca, E; Richens, A

    1981-01-01

    Single oral doses of propranolol (120 mg), metoprolol (150 mg) and placebo were given in a randomised, double-blind fashion to 23 patients with essential tremor. Both beta blockers were significantly more effective than placebo in reducing the magnitude of tremor. The decrease in tremor produced by metoprolol (47, sem 9%, n = 23) was not significantly different from that observed propranolol (55, sem 5%, n = 23). Tachycardia on standing was antagonised by both drugs to a similar extent. These findings suggest that metoprolol may represent a valuable alternative to propranolol in the treatment of essential tremor. The data is consistent with the hypothesis that the tremorolytic effect of beta blockers in these patients may be unrelated to peripheral beta-2 adreno-receptor blockade, being possibly mediated by other central or peripheral modes of action of these drugs. However, it cannot be excluded that at the dose used, metoprolol had lost its relative cardio-selectivity and that the reduction in tremor was mediated by competitive antagonism at beta-2 receptor sites in skeletal muscle. PMID:7031187

  12. Rhus Coriaria L. (Sumac) in Patients with Hyperlipidemia; A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hajmohammadi, Zahra; Shams, Mesbah; Zibainejad, Mohammad Javad; Nimrouzi, Majid; Fardidi, Pouya; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipid lowering effect of sumac is investigated in multiple animal studies with promising results. However, its clinical efficacy is not investigated adequately. This study is aimed to evaluate the lipid lowering effect of sumac in patients with Hyperlipidemia in a double blind randomized controlled trial. Methods: Eighty patients with Hyperlipidemia according to NCEP-ATP III criteria were randomly allocated to receive the Rhus Coriaria L. (1000 mg/day) or placebo for two months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the serum triglyceride, total LDL, and HDL cholesterol. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures along with serum biochemistry profile including fasting blood sugar, liver and kidney function tests and complete blood count were evaluated before the enrolment of patients and after the intervention. Results: No significant difference was observed between the sumac and placebo groups in term of mean reductions in total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. A significant increase in mean serum HDL cholesterol level was observed in the sumac group (41.18±8.2 vs. 44.65±8.4, P=0.001) after 2 months of intervention. Conclusion: The study showed significant HDL cholesterol increasing effect of sumac supplementation in patients with Hyperlipidemia.

  13. Randomized double-blind trial of prednisone versus radiotherapy in Graves' ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Prummel, M.F.; Mourits, M.; Blank, L.; Berghout, A.; Koornneef, L.; Wiersinga, W.M. )

    1993-10-16

    Corticosteriods are usually given for management of Graves' ophthalmopathy, but they have many and serious side-effects. By comparison, retrobulbar irradiation is well tolerated, although its efficacy has been evaluated only in uncontrolled studies. Therefore, the authors did a double-blind randomized trial, in which 28 patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with a 3-month course of oral prednisone and sham irradiation, and 28 received retrobulbar irradiation (20 Gy) and placebo capsules. Therapeutic outcome, assessed twenty-four weeks after the start of treatment, was determined by the change in the highest NOSPECS class. A successful outcome was observed in 14 prednisone-treated and in 13 irradiated patients. Responders to treatment (but not nonresponders) in both groups showed improvements in total and subjective eye score and a decrease in eye-muscle volume. Response to either treatment was due largely to changes in soft-tissue involvement and eye-muscle motility. Radiotherapy and oral prednisone appear to be equally effective as initial treatment in patients with moderately severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. In view of its better tolerability, radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of first choice.

  14. The brain signature of paracetamol in healthy volunteers: a double-blind randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Kastler, Adrian; Macian, Nicolas; Pereira, Bruno; Valabrègue, Romain; Lehericy, Stéphane; Boyer, Louis; Dubray, Claude; Jean, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Background Paracetamol’s (APAP) mechanism of action suggests the implication of supraspinal structures but no neuroimaging study has been performed in humans. Methods and results This randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial in 17 healthy volunteers (NCT01562704) aimed to evaluate how APAP modulates pain-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. We used behavioral measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the response to experimental thermal stimuli with APAP or placebo administration. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that activity in response to noxious stimulation diminished with APAP compared to placebo in prefrontal cortices, insula, thalami, anterior cingulate cortex, and periaqueductal gray matter. Conclusion These findings suggest an inhibitory effect of APAP on spinothalamic tracts leading to a decreased activation of higher structures, and a top-down influence on descending inhibition. Further binding and connectivity studies are needed to evaluate how APAP modulates pain, especially in the context of repeated administration to patients with pain. PMID:26229445

  15. Lansoprazole for long-term maintenance therapy of erosive esophagitis: double-blind comparison with ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Peura, David A; Freston, James W; Haber, Marian M; Kovacs, Thomas O; Hunt, Barbara; Atkinson, Stuart

    2009-05-01

    In a study evaluating the efficacy and safety of lansoprazole to prevent the relapse of erosive esophagitis (EE), 206 of 241 patients (85%) healed after open-label treatment with lansoprazole 30 mg once daily for 8 weeks and received double-blind maintenance treatment with lansoprazole 15 mg once daily or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily for up to 1 year. At 1 year, 67% of lansoprazole-treated and 13% of ranitidine-treated patients remained healed (P<0.001). Lansoprazole-treated patients experienced significantly greater symptom relief (P<0.001), and, if asymptomatic at entry into the maintenance phase, remained asymptomatic for significantly longer than ranitidine-treated patients (P<0.001). Symptom status correlated with healing (P=0.001), supporting the symptom-directed management of EE. Both treatments were well tolerated and no unexpected events occurred. Daily therapy with lansoprazole to prevent the relapse of EE is effective, well tolerated, and superior to ranitidine in the maintenance of healing and symptom relief. PMID:18726153

  16. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation during stressful military training: a randomized, controlled, double-blind field study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Padilla, Genieleah A; Stanfill, Katherine E; Markham, Amanda E; Khosravi, Jasmine Y; Ward, Michael D Dial; Koehler, Matthew M

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) are anabolic prehormones involved in the synthesis of testosterone. Both have been shown to exert neuroprotective effects during stress. In this randomized, controlled, double-blind field study, we examined the effects of a 12-day DHEA regimen on stress indices in military men undergoing survival training. Forty-eight men were randomized to either a DHEA treatment group or placebo control group. The treatment group received 50 mg of oral DHEA supplementation daily for 5 days during classroom training followed by 7 days of 75 mg during stressful field operations. Control subjects received identical placebo pills. Salivary assays (DHEA[S], testosterone, and cortisol) were conducted at four time points: distal pre-stress (T1), proximal pre-stress (T2), mock-captivity stress (T3), and 24 h recovery (T4). Subjective distress was also assessed at T1, T3, and T4. As expected, DHEA treatment resulted in higher salivary concentrations of DHEA and DHEAS during daily living, mock-captivity stress, and recovery. Similar patterns were observed for salivary markers of anabolic balance: DHEA/cortisol, DHEAS/cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol concentration ratios. Despite notable time effects, no group differences emerged for subjective distress. A brief, low dose DHEA regimen yielded large increases in salivary DHEA(S) concentrations and enhanced anabolic balance throughout sustained military stress. These physiological changes did not extrapolate to subjective distress. PMID:21790446

  17. Treatment of croup with nebulised steroid (budesonide): a double blind, placebo controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Husby, S; Agertoft, L; Mortensen, S; Pedersen, S

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomised, double blind study was to evaluate whether nebulised local steroid treatment is effective in the treatment of croup. Thirty six infants and children (0.4-4.9 years of age) admitted to hospital with moderate to severe croup were allocated to receive either 2 mg nebulised budesonide (20 children) or saline (16 children). Disease severity was assessed by a clinical total croup score based on stridor, cough, retractions, dyspnoea, and cyanosis. In addition the overall clinical impression was evaluated (0-100). Two hours after treatment there was a significant improvement in the total croup score in the group treated with budesonide (8 to 4.5), but not in the group treated with saline (8 to 8). Furthermore, the overall clinical impression assessment score decreased significantly (50 to 25) in the group treated with budesonide, whereas it remained constant in the placebo group (60 to 62). The total croup score and overall clinical severity were significantly better in the group treated with budesonide than in the placebo group. No side effects were observed. The results indicate that nebulised budesonide can be used as a safe and effective alternative treatment in children and infants with moderate to severe croup. PMID:8466237

  18. Efficacy of transforaminal versus interspinous corticosteroid injectionin discal radiculalgia - a prospective, randomised, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Cyteval, C; Abiad, L; Picot, M C; Taourel, P; Blotman, F

    2003-10-01

    A prospective, randomised, double-blind study was carried out to compare the respective efficacies of transforaminal and interspinous epidural corticosteroid injections in discal radiculalgia. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males) with discal radicular pain of less than 3 months' duration were consecutively randomised to receive either radio-guided transforaminal or blindly performed interspinous epidural corticosteroid injections. Post-treatment outcome was evaluated clinically at 6 and 30 days, and then at 6 months, but only by mailed questionnaire. At day 6, the between-group difference was significantly in favour of the transforaminal group with respect to Schober's index, finger-to-floor distance, daily activities, and work and leisure activities on the Dallas pain scale. At day 30, pain relief was significantly better in the transforaminal group. At month 6, answers to the mailed questionnaire still showed significantly better results for transforaminal injection concerning pain, daily activities, work and leisure activities and anxiety and depression, with a decline in the Roland-Morris score. In recent discal radiculalgia, the efficacy of radio-guided transforaminal epidural corticosteroid injections was higher than that obtained with blindly-performed interspinous injections. PMID:14579160

  19. Intra-articular sodium hyaluronate in osteoarthritis of the knee: a multicenter, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Puhl, W; Bernau, A; Greiling, H; Köpcke, W; Pförringer, W; Steck, K J; Zacher, J; Scharf, H P

    1993-10-01

    The efficacy and the safety of intra-articular injections of sodium hyaluronate were studied in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in a randomized multicenter double-blind study. Two hundred and nine patients received five injections of either 25 mg hyaluronate/2.5 ml (verum, N = 102) or 0.25 mg hyaluronate/2.5 ml (control, N = 107) at weekly intervals. Seven patients in each group were excluded from the protocol-correct efficacy analysis. The Lequesne Index, the first main criterion, showed a significant superiority of the verum-treated patients after the third injection up to the final follow-up examination 9 weeks after the last injection (MANOVA, P < 0.025). The consumption of paracetamol was defined as a complementary main criterion that did not reveal significant differences between the treatment groups. Most of the individual secondary endpoints demonstrated a much better response to the active treatment without reaching the significance level in the intergroup comparisons for the single time-points. Side-effects were confined to local reactions of minor severity and short duration in four patients (six events) of the verum group and in five patients of the control group. Clinical chemistry and hematology remained essentially unchanged. PMID:15449510

  20. Managing tissue heating in laser therapy to enable double-blind clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Brian; de Taboada, Luis; Streeter, Jackson

    2006-02-01

    Laser devices in clinical applications must eventually be tested via clinical trials. An essential component in clinical trials is the double-blind study whereby the patient and the treating physician have no knowledge as to whether a given treatment is active or placebo. In pharmaceuticals, the problem is easily addressed. With laser therapy this can be very challenging. For some optical therapies, laser heating of tissue, by even as little as a few degrees can indicate to the patient and/or the physician that the device is active, un-blinding the study. This problem has been analyzed for a specific laser therapy using a combination of clinical data, analytical methods, finite element modeling, and laboratory testing. The methods used arrived at a solution, but not necessarily one that could have been predicted easily. This paper will present a model of tissue heating and the methods used to mask the effects from the laser in an effort to make active treatment and placebo indistinguishable.

  1. Static magnetic therapy does not decrease pain or opioid requirements: a randomized double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, M Soledad; Carr, Daniel B; Sarquis, Tony; Miranda, Nelcy; Garcia, Ricardo J; Zarate, Camilo

    2007-02-01

    A growing multibillion dollar industry markets magnetic necklaces, bracelets, bands, insoles, back braces, mattresses, etc., for pain relief, although there is little evidence for their efficacy. We sought to evaluate the effect of magnetic therapy on pain intensity and opioid requirements in patients with postoperative pain. We designed a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. One-hundred-sixty-five patients older than 12 yr of age were randomized to magnetic (n = 81) or sham therapy (n = 84) upon reporting moderate-to-severe pain in the postanesthesia care unit. Devices were placed over the surgical incision and left in place for 2 h. Patients rated their pain intensity on a 0-10 scale every 10 min and received incremental doses of morphine until pain intensity was < or =4 of 10. Pain intensity levels were similar in both groups. The magnet group had on average 0.04 U more pain intensity (95% confidence interval, -0.4 to 0.5) than the sham group. Opioid requirements also were similar in both groups. The active magnet group required 1.5 mg more morphine (95% confidence interval, -1.8 to 4.0) than the sham magnet group. Magnetic therapy lacks efficacy in controlling acute postoperative pain intensity levels or opioid requirements and should not be recommended for pain relief in this setting. PMID:17242082

  2. The Explorer study: the first double-blind RCT to assess the efficacy of TLC-NOSF on DFUs.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, D R

    2013-02-01

    Urgo Medical recently announced the launch of the Explorer study, a large, Europe-wide, clinical study on the efficacy and tolerability of UrgoStart Contact, a lipidocolloid technology dressing impregnated with nano-oligosaccharide factor, in the treatment of diabetic foot ulceration. The number of patients, investigating centres and countries involved, as well as the length of treatment and patient follow-up, make this an ambitious, double-blind, randomised controlled trial. PMID:23665662

  3. The Gluten-Free/Casein-Free Diet: A Double-Blind Challenge Trial in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Susan L.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Foley, Jennifer; Cain, Usa; Peck, Robin; Morris, Danielle D.; Wang, Hongyue; Smith, Tristram

    2016-01-01

    To obtain information on the safety and efficacy of the gluten-free/casein-free (GFCF) diet, we placed 14 children with autism, age 3-5 years, on the diet for 4-6 weeks and then conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge study for 12 weeks while continuing the diet, with a 12-week follow-up. Dietary challenges were delivered via weekly…

  4. Dexmedetomidine as an adjunct in postoperative analgesia following cardiac surgery: A randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Priye, Shio; Jagannath, Sathyanarayan; Singh, Dipali; Shivaprakash, S.; Reddy, Durga Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine analgesic efficacy of dexmedetomidine used as a continuous infusion without loading dose in postcardiac surgery patients. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study in a single tertiary care hospital on patients posted for elective cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. Interventions: Sixty-four patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery under general anesthesia were shifted to intensive care unit (ICU) and randomly divided into two groups. Group A (n = 32) received a 12 h infusion of normal saline and group B (n = 32) received a 12 h infusion of dexmedetomidine 0.4 μg/kg/h. Postoperative pain was managed with bolus intravenous fentanyl. Total fentanyl consumption, hemodynamic monitoring, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) pain ratings, Ramsay Sedation Scale were charted every 6th hourly for 24 h postoperatively and followed-up till recovery from ICU. Student's t-test, Chi-square/Fisher's exact test has been used to find the significance of study parameters between the groups. Results: Dexmedetomidine treated patients had significantly less VAS score at each level (P < 0.001). Total fentanyl consumption in dexmedetomidine group was 128.13 ± 35.78 μg versus 201.56 ± 36.99 μg in saline group (P < 0.001). A statistically significant but clinically unimportant sedation was noted at 6 and 12 h (P < 0.001, and P = 0.046 respectively). Incidence of delirium was less in dexmedetomidine group (P = 0.086+). Hemodynamic parameters were statistically insignificant. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine infusion even without loading dose provides safe, effective adjunct analgesia, reduces narcotic consumption, and showed a reduced trend of delirium incidence without undesirable hemodynamic effects in the cardiac surgery patients. PMID:26543448

  5. Varenicline Effects on Smoking, Cognition, and Psychiatric Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Double-Blind Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Si, Tian-Mei; Maayan, Lawrence; Jin, Hua; Boules, Sylvia; Sershen, Henry; Li, Chunbo; Ren, Juanjuan; Liu, Yanhong; Youseff, Mary; Lajtha, Abel; Guidotti, Alessandro; Weiser, Mark; Davis, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenic patients have a high rate of smoking and cognitive deficits which may be related to a decreased number or responsiveness of nicotinic receptors in their brains. Varenicline is a partial nicotinic agonist which is effective as an antismoking drug in cigarette smokers, although concerns have been raised about potential psychiatric side-effects. We conducted a double-blind placebo controlled study in 87 schizophrenic smokers to evaluate the effects of varenicline (2 mg/day) on measures of smoking, cognition, psychiatric symptoms, and side-effects in schizophrenic patients who were cigarette smokers. Varenicline significantly decreased cotinine levels (P<0.001), and other objective and subjective measures of smoking (P < .01), and responses on a smoking urges scale (P = .02), more than placebo. Varenicline did not improve scores on a cognitive battery designed to test the effect of drugs on cognitive performance in schizophrenia (the MATRICS battery), either in overall MATRICS battery Composite or individual Domain scores, more than placebo. There were no significant differences between varenicline vs. placebo effects on total symptom scores on psychiatric rating scales, PANSS, SANS, or Calgary Depression scales, and there were no significant drug effects in any of these scales sub-scores when we used Benjamin-Hochberg corrected significance levels (α = .05). Varenicline patients did not show greater side-effects than placebo treated patients at any time point when controlled for baseline side-effect scores. Our study supports the use of varenicline as a safe drug for smoking reduction in schizophrenia but not as a cognitive enhancer. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov 00802919 PMID:26730716

  6. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of oxytocin nasal spray in Prader Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Einfeld, Stewart L; Smith, Ellie; McGregor, Iain S; Steinbeck, Kate; Taffe, John; Rice, Lauren J; Horstead, Siân K; Rogers, Naomi; Hodge, M Antoinette; Guastella, Adam J

    2014-09-01

    Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have a significant reduction in the number of oxytocin-producing neurons (42%) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. A number of animal studies and observations of humans show that lesions in this region can produce PWS-like symptoms. Given the evidence for potential oxytocin deficiency, we tested the effects of a course of intranasal oxytocin on PWS symptoms. Thirty individuals with PWS aged 12-30 years participated in an 18-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants received 8 weeks of oxytocin and 8 weeks of placebo with a minimum 2-week washout period. The first 11 participants received the following oxytocin doses: 24 IU (twice daily) B.I.D for participants 16 years and over and 18 IU B.I.D for participants 13-15 years. The dose was increased for the remaining 18 participants to 40 IU B.I.D for participants 16 years and over and 32 IU B.I.D for 13-15 years. Measures used to assess changes were standardized well-accepted measures, including the Developmental Behavior Checklist-Monitor, Parent, Teacher, and Adult; The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale; The Dykens Hyperphagia questionnaire; Reading The Mind in the Eyes Test; Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Movie Stills. Oxytocin had little impact on any measure. The only significant difference found between the baseline, oxytocin, and placebo measures was an increase in temper outbursts (P = 0.023) with higher dose oxytocin. The lack of effect of oxytocin nasal spray may reflect the importance of endogenous release of oxytocin in response to exogenous oxytocin. PMID:24980612

  7. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of resveratrol for Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ronald G.; Craft, Suzanne; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Reynolds, Brigid A.; Brewer, James B.; Rissman, Robert A.; Raman, Rema; Aisen, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter 52-week phase 2 trial of resveratrol in individuals with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) examined its safety and tolerability and effects on biomarker (plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42, CSF Aβ40, Aβ42, tau, and phospho-tau 181) and volumetric MRI outcomes (primary outcomes) and clinical outcomes (secondary outcomes). Methods: Participants (n = 119) were randomized to placebo or resveratrol 500 mg orally once daily (with dose escalation by 500-mg increments every 13 weeks, ending with 1,000 mg twice daily). Brain MRI and CSF collection were performed at baseline and after completion of treatment. Detailed pharmacokinetics were performed on a subset (n = 15) at baseline and weeks 13, 26, 39, and 52. Results: Resveratrol and its major metabolites were measurable in plasma and CSF. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss. CSF Aβ40 and plasma Aβ40 levels declined more in the placebo group than the resveratrol-treated group, resulting in a significant difference at week 52. Brain volume loss was increased by resveratrol treatment compared to placebo. Conclusions: Resveratrol was safe and well-tolerated. Resveratrol and its major metabolites penetrated the blood–brain barrier to have CNS effects. Further studies are required to interpret the biomarker changes associated with resveratrol treatment. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with AD resveratrol is safe, well-tolerated, and alters some AD biomarker trajectories. The study is rated Class II because more than 2 primary outcomes were designated. PMID:26362286

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin to treat Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, K.L.; Galasko, D.; Galvin, J.E.; Thomas, R.G.; van Dyck, C.H.; Aisen, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lowering cholesterol is associated with reduced CNS amyloid deposition and increased dietary cholesterol increases amyloid accumulation in animal studies. Epidemiologic data suggest that use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) may decrease the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and a single-site trial suggested possible benefit in cognition with statin treatment in AD, supporting the hypothesis that statin therapy is useful in the treatment of AD. Objective: To determine if the lipid-lowering agent simvastatin slows the progression of symptoms in AD. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of simvastatin was conducted in individuals with mild to moderate AD and normal lipid levels. Participants were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin, 20 mg/day, for 6 weeks then 40 mg per day for the remainder of 18 months or identical placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive portion (ADAS-Cog). Secondary outcomes measured clinical global change, cognition, function, and behavior. Results: A total of 406 individuals were randomized: 204 to simvastatin and 202 to placebo. Simvastatin lowered lipid levels but had no effect on change in ADAS-Cog score or the secondary outcome measures. There was no evidence of increased adverse events with simvastatin treatment. Conclusion: Simvastatin had no benefit on the progression of symptoms in individuals with mild to moderate AD despite significant lowering of cholesterol. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that simvastatin 40 mg/day does not slow decline on the ADAS-Cog. PMID:21795660

  9. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  10. Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Metoclopramide for Hypersalivation Associated With Clozapine.

    PubMed

    Kreinin, Anatoly; Miodownik, Chanoch; Mirkin, Vitaly; Gaiduk, Yulia; Yankovsky, Yan; Bersudsky, Yuly; Lerner, Paul P; Bergman, Joseph; Lerner, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Hypersalivation is a frequent, disturbing, and uncomfortable adverse effect of clozapine therapy that frequently leads to noncompliance. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of metoclopramide (dopamine D2 antagonist, antiemetic medication) as an option for management of hypersalivation associated with clozapine (HAC). A 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in university-based research clinics from January 2012 to May 2014, on 58 inpatients treated with clozapine who were experiencing hypersalivation. The subjects were randomly divided into placebo and metoclopramide groups. The starting dose was 10 mg/d. Participants who did not respond were up-titrated 10 mg/d weekly to a total of 30 mg/d during the third week. The number of placebo capsules was increased accordingly up to 3 capsules per day. Primary outcome was the change from baseline to the end of study in the severity of hypersalivation as measured with the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale and the Drooling Severity Scale. Secondary outcomes included Clinical Global Impression of Improvement scale and adverse effect scales. Significant improvement on the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale was demonstrated in the metoclopramide group from the end of the second week (P < 0.004), and on the Drooling Severity Scale (P < 0.02) in the third week. Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale scores revealed major improvement. Twenty subjects (66.7%) treated with metoclopramide reported significant decline or total disappearance of HAC in comparison to 8 patients (28.6%) who received placebo (P = 0.031). No adverse effects to metoclopramide were reported. Metoclopramide was found to be safe and effective for the treatment of HAC. PMID:27028980

  11. Efficacy of Bosentan in patients after Fontan procedures: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiao-Ke; Lu, Rong; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Chang-Dong; Xiao, Shu-Na; Liu, Mei; Wang, Bin; Dong, Nian-Guo

    2016-08-01

    Fontan surgery is a widely used palliative procedure that significantly improves the survival period of patients with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). However, it does not decrease postoperative complication rate. Previous studies suggested that elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and vascular resistance lead to decreased exercise tolerance and myocardial dysfunction. Therapy with endothelial receptor antagonists (Bosentan) has been demonstrated to improve the patients' prognosis. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was performed to explore the efficacy of Bosentan in treating patients who underwent the Fontan procedure. Eligible participants were randomly divided into Bosentan group and control group. Liver function was tested at a local hospital and the results were reported to the phone inspector every month. If the results suggested abnormal liver function, treatment would be adjusted or terminated. All the participants finished the follow-up study, with no patients lost to follow-up. Unblinding after 2-year follow-up, no mortality was observed in either group. However, secondary end-points were found to be significantly different in the comparable groups. The cardiac function and 6-min walking distance in the Bosentan group were significantly superior to those in the control group (P=0.018 and P=0.027). Bosentan could improve New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional status and improve the results of the 6-min walking test (6MWT) in Fontan patients post-surgery, and no other benefits were observed. Furthermore, a primary meta-analysis study systematically reviewed all the similar clinical trails worldwide and concluded an overall NYHA class improvement in Fontan patients who received Bosentan treatments. PMID:27465329

  12. Recruitment and retention of urban schoolchildren into a randomized double-blind vitamin D supplementation trial

    PubMed Central

    Sacheck, Jennifer M.; Van Rompay, Maria I.; Olson, Elizabeth M.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Gordon, Catherine M.; Eliasziw, Misha; Holick, Michael F.; Economos, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    Background While rarely used for supplementation trials in the U.S., schools present a practical alternative to a clinical setting. Purpose We describe the successful recruitment and retention of urban schoolchildren into a 6-month randomized, double-blind vitamin D3 supplementation trial. Methods Boston-area urban schoolchildren, aged 8-15 years, were recruited in 2011-2012 through classroom and auditorium presentations. Informed consent forms in five languages were sent home to parents. Retention methods included regular telephone calls and gift cards for completed study visits. Results In total, 691 schoolchildren enrolled. Their mean (SD) age was 11.7 (1.4) years; 59% were from racial/ethnic minorities and 68% qualified for free or reduced-price school meals. Multi-level, culturally-sensitive, creative approaches contributed to success in recruitment and retention. Of 691 participants, 81% completed the 6-month intervention period. Reasons for attrition included missed appointments and fear of a blood draw. More children from households with higher incomes were retained than those from households with lower incomes (85% vs. 79%, respectively, P=0.04). Limitations The need for three fasting blood draws over the 6-month supplementation period was a limiting factor in the recruitment and retention of children in this study. Conclusions Recruitment of urban children into a school-based randomized controlled trial represents a feasible approach for a supplementation study. Particular attention to children of lower socioeconomic status may enhance participation and retention when conducting intervention studies among diverse populations. PMID:25349179

  13. Double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial of pregabalin for neurogenic claudication

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Maria E.; Rast, Shirley A.; McDermott, Michael P.; Gewandter, Jennifer S.; Chowdhry, Amit K.; Czerniecka, Kate; Pilcher, Webster H.; Simon, Lee S.; Dworkin, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To test the effects of pregabalin on the induction of neurogenic claudication. Methods: This study was a randomized, double-blind, active placebo-controlled, 2-period, crossover trial. Twenty-nine subjects were randomized to receive pregabalin followed by active placebo (i.e., diphenhydramine) or active placebo followed by pregabalin. Each treatment period lasted 10 days, including a 2-step titration. Periods were separated by a 10-day washout period, including a 3-day taper phase after the first period. The primary outcome variable was the time to first moderate pain symptom (Numeric Rating Scale score ≥4) during a 15-minute treadmill test (Tfirst). Secondary outcome measures included pain intensity at rest, pain intensity at the end of the treadmill test, distance walked, and validated self-report measures of pain and functional limitation including the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, modified Brief Pain Inventory–Short Form, Oswestry Disability Index, and Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire. Results: No significant difference was found between pregabalin and active placebo for the time to first moderate pain symptom (difference in median Tfirst = −1.08 [95% confidence interval −2.25 to 0.08], p = 0.61). In addition, none of the secondary outcome measures of pain or functional limitation were significantly improved by pregabalin compared with active placebo. Conclusions: Pregabalin was not more effective than active placebo in reducing painful symptoms or functional limitations in patients with neurogenic claudication associated with lumbar spinal stenosis. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with neurogenic claudication, compared with diphenhydramine, pregabalin does not increase the time to moderate pain during a treadmill test. PMID:25503625

  14. Bifidobacterium lactis in Treatment of Children with Acute Diarrhea. A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Said, Reem Nabil; Mosallam, Dalia Sayed; Barakat, Nahla Abdel Moniem; Sabry, Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular treatment for children diarrhea. Although there are several probiotic strains potentially useful, researches were often limited to certain strains. AIM: To test Bifidobacterium lactis on morbidity of acute diarrhea in children less than 2 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 children (1 - 23 months) admitted with acute diarrhea to the Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University and were randomly assigned to receive in addition to usual treatment of diarrhea according to WHO guidelines; one of two treatments either milk formula non-supplemented (n = 25) or supplemented (n = 25) with Bifidobacterium lactis 14.5 × 106 CFU/100 ml daily for one week. Primary outcomes were frequency and duration of diarrhea and hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were duration of fever and vomiting episodes. Safety and tolerance were also recorded. RESULTS: On admission, patients’ characteristics of both groups (50 cases) were similar. For children who received the probiotics for one week; mean duration of diarrhoea was shorter than in controls (3.12 ± 0.92 vs. 4.10 ± 0.94 days) (P = 0.02), number of motions per day was less than in controls (3.96 ± 0.62 vs. 4.46 ± 0.85) (P = 0.04) and discharge from hospital <2 days was more frequent than in controls (72% vs. 44%) (P = 0.048). There was no effect on fever (P = 0.63) or vomiting (P = 0.54). CONCLUSION: Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics in supplemented milk formula decreased significantly frequency, duration of diarrhea, and hospital stay than usual treatment alone in children with acute diarrhea. Additional researches on other uncommon local probiotic species should be encouraged. PMID:27275258

  15. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of HGF gene therapy in diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, John A; Smith, A Gordon; Cha, Bong-Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Wymer, James; Shaibani, Aziz; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Vinik, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a plasmid (VM202) containing two human hepatocyte growth factor isoforms given by intramuscular injections in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were randomized to receive injections of 8 or 16 mg VM202 per leg or placebo. Divided doses were administered on Day 0 and Day 14. The prospective primary outcome was change in the mean pain score measured by a 7 day pain diary. Secondary outcomes included a responder analysis, quality of life and pain measures, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density. Results There were no significant adverse events attributable to VM202. Eighty-four patients completed the study. Patients receiving 8 mg VM202 per leg improved the most in all efficacy measures including a significant (P = 0.03) reduction at 3 months in the mean pain score and continued but not statistically significant reductions in pain at 6 and 9 months. Of these patients, 48.4% experienced a ≥50% reduction in pain compared to 17.6% of placebo patients. There were also significant improvements in the brief pain inventory for patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and the questionnaire portion of the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. Patients not on pregabalin or gabapentin had the largest reductions in pain. Interpretation VM202 was safe, well tolerated and effective indicating the feasibility of a nonviral gene therapy approach to painful diabetic neuropathy. Two days of treatment were sufficient to provide symptomatic relief with improvement in quality of life for 3 months. VM202 may be particularly beneficial for patients not taking gabapentin or pregabalin. PMID:26000320

  16. Lidocaine for systemic sclerosis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma; SSc) is an orphan disease with the highest case-specific mortality of any connective-tissue disease. Excessive collagen deposit in affected tissues is a key for the disease's pathogenesis and comprises most of the clinical manifestations. Lidocaine seems to be an alternative treatment for scleroderma considering that: a) the patient's having excessive collagen deposits in tissues affected by scleroderma; b) the patient's demonstrating increased activity of the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase, an essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of collagen; and c) lidocaine's reducing the activity of prolyl hydroxylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lidocaine in treating scleroderma. Methods A randomized double-blind clinical trial included 24 patients with scleroderma randomized to receive lidocaine or placebo intravenously in three cycles of ten days each, with a one-month interval between them. Outcomes: cutaneous (modified Rodnan skin score), oesophageal (manometry) and microvascular improvement (nailfold capillaroscopy); improvement in subjective self-assessment and in quality of life (HAQ). Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for any outcome after the treatment and after 6-months follow-up. Improvement in modified Rodnan skin score occurred in 66.7% and 50% of placebo and lidocaine group, respectively (p = 0.408). Both groups showed an improvement in subjective self-assessment, with no difference between them. Conclusions Despite the findings of a previous cohort study favouring the use of lidocaine, this study demonstrated that lidocaine at this dosage and means of administration showed a lack of efficacy for treating scleroderma despite the absence of significant adverse effects. However, further similar clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine when administered in different dosages and by other means. PMID:21299861

  17. Intraoperative Fluid Restriction in Pancreatic Surgery: A Double Blinded Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Samkar, Ganapathy; Eshuis, Wietse J.; Bennink, Roelof J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Preckel, Benedikt; de Hert, Stefan; Gouma, Dirk J.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Busch, Olivier R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Perioperative fluid restriction in a variety of operations has shown improvement of: complications, recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS). We investigated effects of crystalloid fluid restriction in pancreatic surgery. Our hypothesis: enhanced recovery of gastrointestinal function. Methods In this double-blinded randomized trial, patients scheduled to undergo pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) were randomized: standard (S:10ml/kg/hr) or restricted (R:5ml/kg/hr) fluid protocols. Primary endpoint: gastric emptying scintigraphically assessed on postoperative day 7. Results In 66 randomized patients, complications and 6-year survival were analyzed. 54 patients were analyzed in intention to treat: 24 S-group and 30 R-group. 32 patients actually underwent a PD and 16 patients had a palliative gastrojejunostomy bypass operation in the full protocol analysis. The median gastric emptying time (T½) was 104 minutes (S-group, 95% confidence interval: 74–369) versus 159 minutes (R-group, 95% confidence interval: 61–204) (P = 0.893, NS). Delayed gastric emptying occurred in 10 patients in the S-group and in 13 patients in the R-group (45% and 50%, P = 0.779, NS). The primary outcome parameter, gastric emptying time, did not show a statistically significant difference between groups. Conclusion A fluid regimen of 10ml/kg/hr or 5ml/kg/hr during pancreatic surgery did not lead to statistically significant differences in gastric emptying. A larger study would be needed to draw definite conclusions about fluid restriction in pancreatic surgery. Trial registration ISRCTN62621488 PMID:26465290

  18. Risperidone in children with autism: randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Ravishankar; Singhi, Pratibha; Malhi, Prahbhjot

    2006-06-01

    Some open-label studies suggest that risperidone can be useful in the treatment of certain target symptoms in children with autism. We aimed to study whether the use of risperidone in comparison with placebo improved functioning in children with autism with regard to behavior (aggressiveness, hyperactivity, irritability), social and emotional responsiveness, and communication skills. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 40 consecutive children with autism, whose ages ranged from 2 to 9 years, who were receiving either risperidone or placebo given orally at a dose of 1 mg/day for 6 months. Autism symptoms were monitored periodically. The outcome variables were total scores on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) after 6 months. Of the 40 children enrolled, 39 completed the trial over a period of 18 months; 19 received risperidone, and 20 received placebo. In the risperidone group, 12 of 19 children showed improvement in the total Childhood Autism Rating Scale score and 17 of 19 children in the Children's Global Assessment Scale score compared with 0 of 20 children for the Childhood Autism Rating Scale score and 2 of 20 children for the Children's Global Assessment Scale score in the placebo group (P < .001 and P = .035, respectively). Risperidone also improved social responsiveness and nonverbal communication and reduced the symptoms of hyperactivity and aggression. Risperidone was associated with increased appetite and a mild weight gain, mild sedation in 20%, and transient dyskinesias in three children. Risperidone improved global functioning and social responsiveness while reducing hyperactivity and aggression in children with autism and was well tolerated. PMID:16948927

  19. Pimpinella anisum in the treatment of functional dyspepsia: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshegir, S. Ashraffodin; Mazaheri, Mohammad; Ghannadi, Alireza; Feizi, Awat; Babaeian, Mahmoud; Tanhaee, Maryam; Karimi, Mehrdad; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the effects of Pimpinella anisum (anise) from Apiaceae family on relieving the symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Totally, 107 patients attending the gastroenterology clinic, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with PDS according to ROME III criteria and signed a written consent form were enrolled. They were randomized to receive either anise or placebo, blindly, for 4 weeks. Anise group included 47 patients and received anise powders, 3 g after each meal (3 times/day). Control group involved 60 patients and received placebo powders (corn starch), 3 gafter each meal (3 times/day). The severity of Functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms was assessed by FD severity scale. Assessments were done at baseline and by the end of weeks 2, 4 and 12. Mean scores of severity of FD symptoms and the frequency distribution of patients across the study period were compared. Results: The age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, and coffee drinking pattern of the intervention and control groups were not significantly different. Mean (standard deviation) total scores of FD severity scale before intervention in the anise and control groups were 10.6 (4.1) and 10.96 (4.1), respectively (P = 0.6). They were 7.04 (4.1) and 12.30 (4.3) by week 2, respectively (P = 0.0001), 2.44 (4.2) and 13.05 (5.2) by week 4, respectively (P = 0.0001), and 1.08 (3.8) and 13.30 (6.2) by week 12, respectively (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of anise in relieving the symptoms of postpartum depression. The findings were consistent across the study period at weeks 2, 4 and 12. PMID:25767516

  20. [Double-blind study of mianserin and fluoxetine in ambulatory therapy of depressed patients].

    PubMed

    Besançon, G; Cousin, R; Guitton, B; Lavergne, F

    1993-01-01

    A double blind controlled trial was carried out in 65 depressed out-patients to compare the efficacy and tolerance of mianserin with fluoxetine. The two compounds present very different pharmacological activities. Mianserin is an antagonist of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, while fluoxetine is an inhibitor of recapture specific to serotonin. Requirements for inclusion were: depressive episode of less than 2 months duration, meeting the criteria for one of the sub-types of depression described in DSM III, with a minimum score of 25 on the Montgomery Asberg Depressive Rating Scale (MADRS). The patient's ages ranged from 18 to 65. The only psychotropic medication allowed in association to the treatment was prazepam (up to 40 mg/day). Patients gave their written consent to the study. Assessment, using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the HARD diagram, the check list for somatic symptoms and side-effects was carried out before treatment and at the end of weeks 2, 4, 8. Assessment of anxiety using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS) and of sleep disturbances using a sleep questionnaire was carried out before treatment and at week 4. The 8 items of the sleep questionnaire covers the complaints listed in criteria for insomnia disorders (307.42 DSM III-R). Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Therapeutic Index (TI), Tolerance Global Impression were assessed at end-point. The 2 groups were strictly comparable in respect to the clinical status at base line (diagnosis, history and duration of the depressive illness, MADRS and HARD diagram scores).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8275922

  1. Generic inhaled salbutamol versus branded salbutamol. A randomised double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Williamson, I J; Reid, A; Monie, R D; Fennerty, A G; Rimmer, E M

    1997-03-01

    Generic substitution of salbutamol lags behind that of other drugs in Scotland and a negative perception by both patients and doctors may explain this. The aim of this study was to assess whether, in clinical practice, there was any difference in efficacy between branded salbutamol (Ventolin) and a generic preparation. Asthmatic patients using a Ventolin metered-dose inhaler at least twice a day for symptom relief were entered into a double-blind cross-over study, comparing Ventolin, blinded Ventolin and a generic salbutamol in random order for two weeks each. Daily peak flows, inhaler use and bronchodilator response were recorded. At the end of each treatment period patients rated their inhaler against their usual Ventolin on a 5-point scale. Forty patients were entered into the study; 90% received 1000 micrograms or more of inhaled steroids per day. Eleven patients dropped out during the run-in phase. In the remaining 29 patients, no significant difference between treatments could be found in any of the objective parameters measured. Fifty-five per cent of patients said they could detect a difference between the inhalers, and 45% noted a difference between their usual Ventolin and the open or blinded Ventolin. This study showed clinical equivalence between a generic and branded salbutamol. Patients' own assessment of their relief inhaler seems to be influenced by factors other than efficacy. The study highlights that careful encouragement is required when changing to a generic product and has particular implications for the forthcoming conversion to CFC-free products. PMID:9135831

  2. Generic inhaled salbutamol versus branded salbutamol. A randomised double-blind study.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, I. J.; Reid, A.; Monie, R. D.; Fennerty, A. G.; Rimmer, E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Generic substitution of salbutamol lags behind that of other drugs in Scotland and a negative perception by both patients and doctors may explain this. The aim of this study was to assess whether, in clinical practice, there was any difference in efficacy between branded salbutamol (Ventolin) and a generic preparation. Asthmatic patients using a Ventolin metered-dose inhaler at least twice a day for symptom relief were entered into a double-blind cross-over study, comparing Ventolin, blinded Ventolin and a generic salbutamol in random order for two weeks each. Daily peak flows, inhaler use and bronchodilator response were recorded. At the end of each treatment period patients rated their inhaler against their usual Ventolin on a 5-point scale. Forty patients were entered into the study; 90% received 1000 micrograms or more of inhaled steroids per day. Eleven patients dropped out during the run-in phase. In the remaining 29 patients, no significant difference between treatments could be found in any of the objective parameters measured. Fifty-five per cent of patients said they could detect a difference between the inhalers, and 45% noted a difference between their usual Ventolin and the open or blinded Ventolin. This study showed clinical equivalence between a generic and branded salbutamol. Patients' own assessment of their relief inhaler seems to be influenced by factors other than efficacy. The study highlights that careful encouragement is required when changing to a generic product and has particular implications for the forthcoming conversion to CFC-free products. PMID:9135831

  3. Evaluation of Oral Ginger Efficacy against Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: A Randomized, Double - Blinded Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Montazeri, Akram Sadat; Hamidzadeh, Azam; Raei, Mehdi; Mohammadiun, Malihe; Montazeri, Azam Sadat; Mirshahi, Reza; Rohani, Hosein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting is one of the most common side effects associated with surgical procedures. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ginger on intensity of nausea and vomiting after surgical procedures. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized, double blinded, clinical trial. 160 eligible patients were randomly assigned into experimental or placebo groups. The experimental group received 4 capsules containing 250 mg ginger and placebo group received 4 placebo capsules 1 hour before surgery. The severity of nausea and vomiting was measured at 2, 4, 6 hours post operation using visual analogue scale and a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed by independent t - test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi –square and GEE using SPSS 16 and STATA version 11. Results: Mean nausea score at 2 hours post operation was significantly lower in the experimental group (P= 0.04). Mean nausea score at 4 and 6 hours post operation was lower in the experimental group; however, there was no significant difference between the groups at any time post operation. The frequencies of nausea in the experimental group at 2 and 6 hours post operation were lower than that in the placebo group, however, at 2 hours post operation, it was borderline significant (P = 0.05) There was no significant differences between two group in the intensity of vomiting at any time. Conclusions: Use of ginger was effective at decreasing postoperative nausea. Ginger could be used as a safe antiemetic drug at post operation. PMID:24693389

  4. Metabolic and hormonal effects of caffeine: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Todd; Comi, Richard; Sluss, Patrick; Keisari, Ronit; Manwar, Simone; Kim, Janice; Larson, Robin; Baron, John A

    2007-12-01

    In short-term studies, caffeine has been shown to increase insulin levels, reduce insulin sensitivity, and increase cortisol levels. However, epidemiological studies have indicated that long-term consumption of beverages containing caffeine such as coffee and green tea is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a paucity of randomized studies addressing the metabolic and hormonal effects of consuming caffeine over periods of more than 1 day. We evaluated the effect of oral intake of 200 mg of caffeine taken twice a day for 7 days on glucose metabolism, as well as on serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione, and on nighttime salivary melatonin. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study with periods of 7 days and washouts of 5 days comparing caffeine with placebo capsules was conducted. Participants were 16 healthy adults aged 18 to 22 years with a history of caffeine consumption. Blood samples from each subject were assayed for glucose, insulin, serum cortisol, DHEA, and androstenedione on the eighth day of each period after an overnight fast. Nighttime salivary melatonin was also measured. Insulin levels were significantly higher (by 1.80 microU/mL; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-3.28) after caffeine intake than after placebo. The homeostasis model assessment index of insulin sensitivity was reduced by 35% (95% confidence interval, 7%-62%) by caffeine. There were no differences in glucose, DHEA, androstenedione, and melatonin between treatment periods. This study provides evidence that daily caffeine intake reduces insulin sensitivity; the effect persists for at least a week and is evident up to 12 hours after administration. PMID:17998023

  5. Vaccine for Cocaine Dependence: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kosten, Thomas R.; Domingo, Coreen B.; Shorter, Daryl; Orson, Frank; Green, Charles; Somoza, Eugene; Sekerka, Rachelle; Levin, Frances R.; Mariani, John J.; Stitzer, Maxine; Tompkins, D. Andrew; Rotrosen, John; Thakkar, Vatsal; Smoak, Benjamin; Kampman, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Aims We evaluated the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of succinylnorcocaine conjugated to cholera toxin B protein as a vaccine for cocaine dependence. Methods This 6-site, 24 week Phase III randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial assessed efficacy during weeks 8 to 16. We measured urine cocaine metabolites thrice weekly as the main outcome. Results The 300 subjects (76% male, 72% African-American, mean age 46 years) had smoked cocaine on average for 13 days monthly at baseline. We hypothesized that retention might be better and positive urines lower for subjects with anti-cocaine IgG levels of ≥ 42 μg/mL (high IgG), which was attained by 67% of the 130 vaccine subjects receiving five vaccinations. Almost 3-times fewer high than low IgG subjects dropped out (7% vs 20%). Although for the full 16 weeks cocaine positive urine rates showed no significant difference between the three groups (placebo, high, low IgG), after week 8, more vaccinated than placebo subjects attained abstinence for at least two weeks of the trial (24% vs 18%), and the high IgG group had the most cocaine-free urines for the last 2 weeks of treatment (OR=3.02), but neither were significant. Injection site reactions of induration and tenderness differed between placebo and active vaccine, and the 29 serious adverse events did not lead to treatment related withdrawals, or deaths. Conclusions The vaccine was safe, but it only partially replicated the efficacy found in the previous study based on retention and attaining abstinence. PMID:24793366

  6. Prevention of COPD exacerbation by lysozyme: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Inoue, Hiromasa; Sakata, Yukinori; Shibata, Kai; Miyagishi, Hideaki; Marukawa, Yasuhiro; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Lysozyme (mucopeptide N-acetyl-muramyl hydrolase) is widely used as a mucolytic and anti-inflammatory agent in Japan. We evaluated the effects of long-term lysozyme administration on COPD exacerbation. Methods In a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial, patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and one or more episodes of COPD exacerbation in the previous year before enrollment were selected. Lysozyme (270 mg) or placebo was administered orally for 52 weeks as an add-on to the standard therapies such as bronchodilators. COPD exacerbation, pulmonary function, and COPD assessment test scores were analyzed. An exacerbation was defined as worsening of more than one symptom of COPD (cough, sputum volume, purulent sputum, or breathlessness) leading to a change in medication. The primary endpoint was exacerbation rate. Results A total of 408 patients were randomly assigned to the lysozyme and placebo groups. The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. The exacerbation rate was not significantly different between the two groups (1.4 vs 1.2; P=0.292, Poisson regression). However, a subgroup analysis showed that lysozyme might reduce exacerbation rate in patients with airway-dominant phenotype (1.2 vs 1.6). Moreover, the median time to first exacerbation was longer in patients with airway-dominant phenotype in the lysozyme group than that in the placebo group. The levels of improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and COPD assessment test scores were not statistically different between the groups, but were always greater in the lysozyme group than in the placebo group over the 52 weeks of the study. Conclusion The effects of using lysozyme as an add-on to standard COPD therapy were not significantly different compared with placebo and were insufficient to prevent COPD exacerbation. PMID:27143873

  7. Pulsed electromagnetic fields in knee osteoarthritis: a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Giovanni; Marino, Natale; Sciortino, Davide; Bagnato, Gian Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness of a wearable pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) device in the management of pain in knee OA patients. Methods. In this randomized [with equal randomization (1:1)], double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, patients with radiographic evidence of knee OA and persistent pain higher than 40 mm on the visual analog scale (VAS) were recruited. The trial consisted of 12 h daily treatment for 1 month in 60 knee OA patients. The primary outcome measure was the reduction in pain intensity, assessed through VAS and WOMAC scores. Secondary outcomes included quality of life assessment through the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form version 2 (SF-36 v2), pressure pain threshold (PPT) and changes in intake of NSAIDs/analgesics. Results. Sixty-six patients were included, and 60 completed the study. After 1 month, PEMF induced a significant reduction in VAS pain and WOMAC scores compared with placebo. Additionally, pain tolerance, as expressed by PPT changes, and physical health improved in PEMF-treated patients. A mean treatment effect of −0.73 (95% CI − 1.24 to − 0.19) was seen in VAS score, while the effect size was −0.34 (95% CI − 0.85 to 0.17) for WOMAC score. Twenty-six per cent of patients in the PEMF group stopped NSAID/analgesic therapy. No adverse events were detected. Conclusion. These results suggest that PEMF therapy is effective for pain management in knee OA patients and also affects pain threshold and physical functioning. Future larger studies, including head-to-head studies comparing PEMF therapy with standard pharmacological approaches in OA, are warranted. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01877278 PMID:26705327

  8. Randomised, double blind, placebo‐controlled trial of selenium supplementation in adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Seif O; Newson, Roger B; Rayman, Margaret P; Wong, Angela P‐L; Tumilty, Michael K; Phillips, Joanna M; Potts, James F; Kelly, Frank J; White, Patrick T; Burney, Peter G J

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence from observational studies has suggested that blood levels and dietary intake of selenium of adults with asthma are lower than those of controls. The only previous trial of selenium supplementation in adults with asthma found no objective evidence of benefit but involved only 24 participants. Methods A randomised, double blind, placebo‐controlled trial of selenium supplementation was performed in adults with asthma in London, UK, the majority of whom (75%) reported inhaled steroid use at baseline. 197 participants were randomised to receive either a high‐selenium yeast preparation (100 µg daily, n = 99) or placebo (yeast only, n = 98) for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was asthma‐related quality of life (QoL) score. Secondary outcomes included lung function, asthma symptom scores, peak flow and bronchodilator usage. Linear regression was used to analyse the change in outcome between the two treatment arms by “intention to treat”. Results There was a 48% increase in plasma selenium between baseline and end of trial in the active treatment group but no change in the placebo group. While the QoL score improved more in the active treatment group than in the placebo group, the difference in change in score between the two groups was not significant (−0.05 (95% CI −0.19 to 0.09); p = 0.47). Selenium supplementation was not associated with any significant improvement in secondary outcomes compared with placebo. Conclusions Selenium supplementation had no clinical benefit in adults with asthma, the majority of whom were taking inhaled steroids. PMID:17234657

  9. Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Dapsone in Antihistamine Refractory Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Matt; Cooke, Andrew; Rogers, Laura; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Khan, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Management of antihistamine refractory CIU has poorly defined therapeutic options. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of dapsone in antihistamine refractory CIU compared to placebo. Methods Twenty-two patients with antihistamine refractory CIU were randomly assigned to 100 mg of dapsone daily or placebo for 6 weeks in a 14 week double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Endpoints were measured from a daily diary reflecting weekly hive score (WHS) and weekly itch score (WIS) and a visual analog score. Secondary to a carryover effect, the first period results were analyzed as a parallel design comparing placebo to dapsone directly using repeated measures analysis. Results After 6 weeks patients in the dapsone arm showed mean improvement over baseline in VAS (+2.3 [0.6,4.1], p=0.01), urticaria score (-3.5 [-6.2, -0.9], p=0.01), and itch score (-4.8 [-7.6, -2.1], p=0.001), whereas the placebo arm showed no improvement over baseline for VAS, urticaria or itch scores. Dapsone showed greater improvement compared to placebo for itch (p=0.047) and VAS (p=0.04). Of the 22 patients, 3 showed complete resolution of hives and itch with dapsone, while 31% and 41% had ≥ 50% resolution of hives and itch respectively. No serious adverse effects were observed from dapsone. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first DBPC study of dapsone in CIU and suggests dapsone has efficacy in antihistamine refractory CIU patients. PMID:25213055

  10. Double-blind, multicentre analysis of the efficacy of borage oil in patients with atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Henz, B M; Jablonska, S; van de Kerkhof, P C; Stingl, G; Blaszczyk, M; Vandervalk, P G; Veenhuizen, R; Muggli, R; Raederstorff, D

    1999-04-01

    Although gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has been shown to correct deficiencies in skin lipids associated with reduced delta-6-desaturase activity which should result in improvement of dysregulation of inflammation and immunity in atopic eczema, clinical studies with evening primrose oil containing 10% GLA have yielded contradictory results. We have therefore examined the effect of a higher percentage (at least 23%) GLA-containing borage oil in adults with stable atopic eczema of moderate severity in a double-blind, multicentre study. One hundred and sixty patients were randomized to take daily either 500 mg of borage oil-containing capsules or the bland lipid miglyol as a placebo over a 24-week period. Use of topical diflucortolone-21-valerate cream was allowed as rescue medication, with the amount used until response being defined as primary, and clinical improvement as secondary efficacy criteria. Although several clinical symptoms improved compared with placebo, the overall response to borage oil did not reach statistical significance. Significant differences in favour of borage oil were, however, observed in a subgroup excluding patients who failed to show increased erythrocyte dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid levels and in whom adherence to inclusion criteria and the study protocol were questionable. GLA metabolites increased in borage oil-treated patients only, and serum IgE showed a trend to decrease on overall and subgroup analysis. No substance-related adverse effects were observed. This study shows no overall efficacy of GLA-containing borage oil in atopic eczema, with steroid use being the primary response parameter, although it suggests that a subgroup of patients may benefit from this well-tolerated treatment. PMID:10233322

  11. Fluoxetine and premature ejaculation: a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Haensel, S M; Klem, T M; Hop, W C; Slob, A K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on sexual function in men with premature ejaculation and/or erectile dysfunction and control subjects in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. There were four groups: (1) premature ejaculation (PE, N = 9); (2) premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction (PE/ED, N = 9); (3) erectile dysfunction (ED, N = 7); and (4) healthy, sexually functional control subjects (N = 15). The study consisted of three 4-week periods: fluoxetine, washout, and placebo (or vice versa). Fluoxetine began at 5 mg/day for 2 weeks, followed by 10 mg/day for 2 weeks. At weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12, subjects visited the laboratory for evaluation of sexual function and assessment of erectile response, ejaculation, and sexual arousal to visual erotic stimulation without and with concomitant vibrotactile stimulation to the penis. At home, daily logs for sexual activities and feelings of well-being were maintained, and nocturnal penile tumescence was measured. The latency to ejaculation increased significantly in the PE/ED group (p = 0.03) and in the PE and the PE/ED group taken together (p = 0.007) but not in the PE group alone. Fluoxetine stimulated objectively but not subjectively measured erectile response during laboratory assessment in all groups. No major side effects were reported. In conclusion, fluoxetine (5-10 mg/day) was effective in increasing latency to ejaculation in patients with PE (PE and PE/ED groups combined). PMID:9472846

  12. Oral clonidine and gabapentin suppress pressor response: A prospective, randomized, double blind study

    PubMed Central

    Kapse, Upendra Kumar S.; Bhalerao, Pradnya Milind

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pressor response is a part of stress response caused by reflex sympathetic discharge due to direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation resulting in tachycardia, hypertension and arrhythmias. Both clonidine, and gabapentin administered orally can effectively blunt this detrimental hemodynamic response. Aim: To study the effect of oral clonidine to blunt the pressor response to direct laryngoscopy and to compare it with oral gabapentin. To observe for postoperative sedation and side effects if any. Settings and Design: Sixty patients of American Society of Anaesthesiologist Grade I and II scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia were considered in this prospective randomized double-blind study. They were randomly allocated into two groups of 30 each using computerized randomization. Materials and Methods: Group A was given oral clonidine 5 μg/kg and Group B was given oral gabapentin 800 mg. Both the drugs were given 90 min prior to surgery. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were monitored at baseline, 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30th min of laryngoscopy. Sedation was monitored by Ramsay Sedation Scale score and side effects were noted. Results: HR decreased in both groups at 0 and 1 min, increased at 3rd min and gradually decreased by 30th min. Statistically, significant difference was found between two groups at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15th min (P < 0.05). Though there was no significant difference in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure between the two groups, there was no rise in these parameters. Gabapentin produced more sedation than clonidine postoperatively, and few side effects were noted. Conclusion: Both oral clonidine and gabapentin are effective in obtunding pressor response to direct laryngoscopy, clonidine being better in terms of controlling HR. Gabapentin produces more postoperative sedation than clonidine. PMID:26957684

  13. Double blind randomised controlled trial of two different breathing techniques in the management of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Slader, C A; Reddel, H K; Spencer, L M; Belousova, E G; Armour, C L; Bosnic‐Anticevich, S Z; Thien, F C K; Jenkins, C R

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that breathing techniques reduce short acting β2 agonist use and improve quality of life (QoL) in asthma. The primary aim of this double blind study was to compare the effects of breathing exercises focusing on shallow nasal breathing with those of non‐specific upper body exercises on asthma symptoms, QoL, other measures of disease control, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. This study also assessed the effect of peak flow monitoring on outcomes in patients using breathing techniques. Methods After a 2 week run in period, 57 subjects were randomised to one of two breathing techniques learned from instructional videos. During the following 30 weeks subjects practised their exercises twice daily and as needed for relief of symptoms. After week 16, two successive ICS downtitration steps were attempted. The primary outcome variables were QoL score and daily symptom score at week 12. Results Overall there were no clinically important differences between the groups in primary or secondary outcomes at weeks 12 or 28. The QoL score remained unchanged (0.7 at baseline v 0.5 at week 28, p = 0.11 both groups combined), as did lung function and airway responsiveness. However, across both groups, reliever use decreased by 86% (p<0.0001) and ICS dose was reduced by 50% (p<0.0001; p>0.10 between groups). Peak flow monitoring did not have a detrimental effect on asthma outcomes. Conclusion Breathing techniques may be useful in the management of patients with mild asthma symptoms who use a reliever frequently, but there is no evidence to favour shallow nasal breathing over non‐specific upper body exercises. PMID:16517572

  14. Randomized double-blind controlled trial of bovine lactoferrin for prevention of diarrhea in children

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Theresa J.; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Baiocchi, Nelly; Pecho, Iris; Campos, Miguel; Prada, Ana; Valdiviezo, Gladys; Lluque, Angela; Lai, Dejian; Cleary, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of bovine lactoferrin on prevention of diarrhea in children. Study design We conducted a community-based randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial comparing supplementation with bovine lactoferrin versus placebo. Previously weaned children were enrolled at 12–18 months and followed for 6 months with daily home visits for data collection and supplement administration. Anthropometric measures were done monthly. Results 555 children were randomized: 277 to lactoferrin and 278 to placebo; 65 dropped out; 147,894 doses were administered (92% compliance). Overall there were 91,446 child-days of observation and 1,235 diarrhea episodes lasting 6,219 days. The main pathogens isolated during diarrheal episodes were norovirus (35.0%), enteropathogenic E. coli (11.4%), Campylobacter (10.6%), enteroaggregative E. coli (8.4%), enterotoxigenic E. coli (6.9%) and Shigella (6.6%). The diarrhea incidence was not different between groups: 5.4 vs. 5.2 episodes/child/year for lactoferrin and placebo, respectively (p=0.375). However, the diarrhea longitudinal prevalence was lower in the lactoferrin group (6.6% vs. 7.0%, p=0.017) as well as the median duration of episodes (4.8 vs. 5.3 days, p=0.046), proportion of episodes with moderate or severe dehydration (1.0% vs. 2.6%, p=0.045) and liquid stools load (95.0 vs. 98.6) liquid stools/child/year, p<0.001). There were no adverse events related to the intervention. Conclusions Although there was no decrease in diarrhea incidence, longitudinal prevalence and severity were decreased with lactoferrin. PMID:22939927

  15. Randomized, Double-blind Study with Glycerol and Paraffin in Uremic Xerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balaskas, Elias; Szepietowski, Jacek C.; Bessis, Didier; Ioannides, Dimitrios; Ponticelli, Claudio; Ghienne, Corinne; Taberly, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Uremic xerosis is a bothersome condition that is poorly responsive to moisturizing and emollient therapy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A randomized, double-blind, intraindividual (left versus right comparison), multicentric clinical study was performed on 100 patients with moderate to severe uremic xerosis for 7 days, during which the patients applied twice daily an emulsion combining glycerol and paraffin (test product) on one allocated lower leg, and the emulsion alone (comparator) on the other lower leg. This was followed by an open-labeled use of the test product on all of the xerotic areas for 49 days. The main efficacy parameter was treatment response on each lower leg, as defined by a reduction from baseline of at least two grades in a five-point clinical score on day 7. Results Among the 99 patients analyzed, the test product was highly effective with a treatment response in 72 patients (73%), whereas 44 patients (44%) responded to the comparator (P < 0.0001, intergroup analysis). This was associated with an objective reduction in the density and thickness of the scales on day 7 (P < 0.0001 compared with the comparator) and a substantial improvement of the uremic pruritus (75%) and quality of life of the patients at study end (P < 0.001, intragroup analysis). The test product was very well tolerated, with product-related local intolerance (exacerbated pruritus, local burning, or erythema) occurring in only five patients (5%). Conclusions Uremic xerosis can be managed successfully when an appropriate emollient therapy is used. PMID:21258039

  16. A Double Blind, within Subject Comparison of Spontaneous Opioid Withdrawal from Buprenorphine versus Morphine

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael T.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Campbell, Claudia M.; Strain, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that there is minimal withdrawal after the cessation of chronically administered buprenorphine and that opioid withdrawal symptoms are delayed compared with those of other opioids. The present study compared the time course and magnitude of buprenorphine withdrawal with a prototypical μ-opioid agonist, morphine. Healthy, out-of-treatment opioid-dependent residential volunteers (N = 7) were stabilized on either buprenorphine (32 mg/day i.m.) or morphine (120 mg/day i.m.) administered in four divided doses for 9 days. They then underwent an 18-day period of spontaneous withdrawal, during which four double-blind i.m. placebo injections were administered daily. Stabilization and spontaneous withdrawal were assessed for the second opioid using the same time course. Opioid withdrawal measures were collected eight times daily. Morphine withdrawal symptoms were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those of buprenorphine withdrawal as measured by mean peak ratings of Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS), Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS), all subscales of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), sick and pain (0–100) Visual Analog Scales, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and pupil dilation. Peak ratings on COWS and SOWS occurred on day 2 of morphine withdrawal and were significantly greater than on day 2 of buprenorphine withdrawal. Subjective reports of morphine withdrawal resolved on average by day 7. There was minimal evidence of buprenorphine withdrawal on any measure. In conclusion, spontaneous withdrawal from high-dose buprenorphine appears subjectively and objectively milder compared with that of morphine for at least 18 days after drug cessation. PMID:24227768

  17. The Effect of Nefopam on Postoperative Fentanyl Consumption: A Randomized, Double-blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jee Youn; Lee, Shin Young; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, So Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Nefopam is a non-opioid, non-steroidal, centrally acting analgesic drug. The concomitant use of opioids and nefopam is believed to have many advantages over the administration of opioids alone for postoperative pain management. We conducted a randomized, double-blind study to determine the fentanyl-sparing effect of co-administration of nefopam with fentanyl for postoperative pain management via patient controlled analgesia (PCA). Methods Ninety female patients who underwent laparoscopic total hysterectomy under general anesthesia were randomized into 3 groups, Group A, fentanyl 1,000 µg; Group B, fentanyl 500 µg + nefopam 200 mg; and Group C, fentanyl 500 µg + nefopam 400 mg, in a total volume of 100 ml PCA to be administered over the first 48 h postoperatively without basal infusion. The primary outcome was total fentanyl consumption during 48 h; secondary outcomes included pain scores and incidence of side effects. Results Eighty-one patients were included in the analysis. The overall fentanyl-sparing effects of PCA with concomitant administration of nefopam during the first 48 h postoperatively were 54.5% in Group B and 48.9% group C. Fentanyl use was not significantly different between Groups B and C despite the difference in the nefopam dose. There were no differences among the three groups in terms of PCA-related side effects, although the overall sedation score of Group B was significantly lower than that of Group A. Conclusions The concomitant administration of nefopam with fentanyl for postoperative pain management may allow reduction of fentanyl dose, thereby reducing the risk of opioid-related adverse effects. PMID:27103966

  18. Double-blind parallel comparison of ketoprofen (Orudis), acetaminophen plus codeine, and placebo in postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Turek, M D; Baird, W M

    1988-12-01

    One hundred sixty-one patients with postoperative pain were treated at a single center in a double-blind, randomized, parallel study designed to compare the efficacy and safety of single oral doses of ketoprofen (50 and 150 mg), an acetaminophen (650 mg) plus codeine (60 mg) combination, and placebo. From 1 through 4 hours after administration of the study drugs, the mean summed pain intensity difference (SPID) and time-weighted total pain relief (TOPAR) scores for the three active treatments generally were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher than those for placebo but not significantly different from each other. At the 6-hour evaluation, the ketoprofen groups, but not the acetaminophen-codeine group, had higher (P less than 0.05) mean SPID and TOPAR scores than the placebo group, as a result of a shorter duration of pain relief in the acetaminophen-codeine group. The 6-hour TOPAR scores were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher for both ketoprofen groups than for the acetaminophen-codeine group; the ketoprofen 150 mg group also had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher mean 6-hour SPID and global subjective assessment scores. As a result of a higher frequency of somnolence, there was a significantly (P less than 0.05) greater incidence of central nervous system adverse drug reactions among patients treated with acetaminophen plus codeine than among those treated with 150 mg of ketoprofen. These results indicate that the analgesic efficacy of both 50 and 150 mg doses of ketoprofen equals that of acetaminophen 650 mg plus codeine 60 mg and the duration of the analgesic effect of ketoprofen is significantly longer. PMID:3072354

  19. Effect of xylitol on cariogenic and beneficial oral streptococci: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Bahador, A; Lesan, S; Kashi, N

    2012-01-01

    Background/purpose Although habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels, its effect on beneficial oral streptococci is less clear. The main aim of the study is to investigate the effect of short-term xylitol consumption on the oral beneficial streptococci level of saliva, Streptococcus sanguinis and S. mitis. Material and Methods Twenty four volunteers with a median age of 23.7 years (range: 20-28) harboring Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, S. sanguinis and S. mitis participated in the randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. The experimental chewing gum (1.5 g/pellet) contained 70% xylitol w/w while the control gum contained 63% sorbitol w/w. Saliva samples were collected before and after two three-week test periods with a four-week washout interval. Colony-forming units (CFU)/ml were enumerated for the estimation of S. mutans levels on Mitis Salivarius-Mutans valinomycin (MS-MUTV), S. sobrinus on Mitis Salivarius-Sobrinus (MS-SOB), S. sanguinis on Modified Medium 10-Sucrose (MM10-S) and S. mitis on Mitis Salivarius Agar with Tellurite (MSAT) media. Results The S. mutans and S. sobrinus counts of the saliva samples decreased significantly (p = 0.01 and p = 0.011, respectively) in the xylitol gum group but not in the sorbitol gum group. The salivary S. sanguinis and S. mitis counts did not decrease in both xylitol and sorbitol gum groups. Conclusions Based on the findings of this study, xylitol consumption reduced S. mutans and S. sobrinus counts in saliva but appeared not to effect numbers of S. sanguinis and S. mitis in saliva. So, habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels without any effect on beneficial sterptococci for the oral cavity. PMID:22973473

  20. Use of probiotics in HIV-infected children: a randomized double-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Trois, Lívia; Cardoso, Edmundo Machado; Miura, Ernani

    2008-02-01

    HIV/AIDS is an infection characterized by immune cell dysfunction and subsequent immunodeficiency, as well as intestinal disorder. Probiotics are live microbial feed supplements that beneficially affect the host animal by improving intestinal microbial balance and promoting health benefits. The goals of this study were to determine whether the use of probiotics could improve the immune response determined by CD4 cells mm(-3) counts and reduce liquid stool episodes. A randomized double-blind controlled trial with 77 HIV-infected children (2-12 years), divided into two groups: one receiving probiotics (formula containing Bifidobacterium bifidum with Streptococcus thermophilus -2.5 x 10(10) colony forming units) and the other, a standard formula (control group), for 2 months. The CD4 counts (cells mm(-3)) were collected at the beginning and end of the study. The quality and number of stools were assessed by a questionnaire (watery to normal stool consistency). There was an increase in the mean CD4 count in the probiotics group (791 cells mm(-3)) and a small decrease in the control group (538 cells mm(-3)). The change from baseline in mean CD4 cell count was +118 cells mm(-3) vs. -42 cells mm(-3) for children receiving the probiotic formula and control formula, respectively (p = 0.049). A similar reduction in liquid stool consistency in both the groups (p < 0.06), with a slight enhancement in the probiotics group, was observed, but without significant difference (p < 0.522). The incidence of loose-soft stools showed a small decrease in both groups (p < 0.955) and there was an increase in the incidence of normal stool consistency in both the groups (p < 0.01). Our study showed that probiotics have immunostimulatory properties and might be helpful in the treatment of HIV-infected children. PMID:17878180

  1. Perioperative synbiotics decrease postoperative complications in periampullary neoplasms: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sommacal, Heloisa Martins; Bersch, Vivian Pierri; Vitola, Santo Pascoal; Osvaldt, Alessandro Bersch

    2015-01-01

    Periampullary neoplasms are rapidly progressive tumors with a poor prognosis and high morbidity and mortality rates, which have a negative influence on patient outcomes. Some probiotics and prebiotics have the ability to protect the intestinal barrier and prevent bacterial translocation, infection, and postoperative complications. We evaluated the use of synbiotics in a prospective, double-blind study of patients undergoing surgery for periampullary neoplasms (PNs) and assessed the effect of these agents on nutritional status, postoperative complications, antibiotic use, length of hospital stay, and mortality. Patients were randomized to receive probiotics and prebiotics-synbiotics--group S [Lactobacillus acidophilus 10, 1 × 10(9)CFU, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HS 111, 1 × 10(9) CFU, Lactobacillus casei 10, 1 × 10(9) CFU, Bifidobacterium bifidum, 1 × 10(9)CFU, and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) 100 mg]--or placebo-controls--group C, twice daily, for a total of 14 days. Risk, clinical status, and postoperative complication rates were assessed. Twenty-three patients were allocated to each group. The incidence of postoperative infection was significantly lower in group S (6 of 23 patients, 26.1%) than in group C (16 of 23 patients, 69.6%) (P = 0.00). Duration of antibiotic therapy was also shorter in group S (mean = 9 days vs. 15 days in group C; P = 0.01). Noninfectious complications were less common in group S (6 of 23 vs. 14 of 23 patients in group C; P = 0.03). Mean length of hospital stay was 12 ± 5 days in group S vs. 23 ± 14 days in group C (P = 0.00). No deaths occurred in group S, whereas 6 deaths occurred in group C (P = 0.02). Perioperative administration of synbiotics reduces postoperative mortality and complication rates in patients undergoing surgery for PNs. PMID:25803626

  2. Lysine clonixinate in minor dental surgery: double-blind randomized parallel study versus paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Martí, M L; De los Santos, A R; Di Girolamo, G; Gil, M; Manero, E O; Fraga, C

    1993-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC), an effective and well tolerated non-morphinic analgesic whose mechanism of action is basically due to the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase, was assessed with a double-blind randomized dummy design versus paracetamol (P) on 200 patients suffering from pain after minor dental surgery. Patients received according to their needs 1 or 2 tablets of 125 mg lysine clonixinate or 500 mg paracetamol every 8 h during 48 h or until pain relief. Both groups, each composed of 100 patients, were comparable in terms of demographic conditions (t test), initial symptoms (chi-square test), characteristics of the extracted dental pieces, surgical complications and wound treatment (chi-square test). Pain intensity scores and daily average intake of tablets (3.4/day) documented in the patients' diary revealed no statistically significant differences between the two treatments (chi-square test). It was found that spontaneous pain measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) decreased significantly in both treatment groups at the 24-h control examination. The following values were observed in the LC group: baseline 4.38 +/- 1.7; 24-h * 1.20 +/- 1.4; 48-h * 0.36 +/- 1.2. In the P group the values were: baseline 4.28 +/- 1.6; 24-h * 1.11 +/- 1.4; 48-h * 0.30 +/- 0.7 (*p < 0.05). Other variables like facial swelling and night pain, evaluated on a score from 0 to 4 and symptom presence or absence respectively, showed a similar response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8077090

  3. Antispasmodic/analgesic associations in primary dysmenorrhea double-blind crossover placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    de los Santos, A R; Zmijanovich, R; Pérez Macri, S; Martí, M L; Di Girolamo, G

    2001-01-01

    We studied 125 patients with primary dysmenorrhea in a prospective randomized double-blind crossover study. After an admission pretreatment period without medication, the patients completed three consecutive randomized treatment phases with lysine clonixinate 125 mg plus propinox 10 mg or paracetamol 500 mg plus hyoscine N-butylbromide 10 mg or placebo, according to a fixed-dose schedule of 1 tablet every 6 h, 3 days before onset of menses and for 5 days thereafter. Changes in menstrual pain intensity and duration, amount of bleeding measured according to the number of daily pads used and concomitant symptoms were assessed on the fifth day of each cycle. Every night, the patients recorded the average intensity of menstrual pain during the first 4 days of menstruation in a diary The follow-up visit carried out at day 5 showed significant reduction in pain intensity with both active treatments vs. the other two phases: baseline: 2.72 +/- 0.61; placebo: 1.85 +/- 0.87; lysine clonixinate plus propinox 1.36 +/- 0.81, and paracetamol plus hyosine N-butylbromide: 1.45 +/- 0.87. The patients' diaries showed increasingly lower pain intensities starting from day 1 with the three treatments. Active treatments revealed significantly higher analgesic efficacy from the outset compared with baseline and placebo; however, only the lysine clonixinate plus propinox combination reached a statistically significant difference by days 3 and 4. No changes in duration or intensity of menstrual bleeding or in the incidence of adverse effects were observed during the four study periods. PMID:11708572

  4. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Ruxolitinib for Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Verstovsek, Srdan; Mesa, Ruben A.; Gotlib, Jason; Levy, Richard S.; Gupta, Vikas; DiPersio, John F.; Catalano, John V.; Deininger, Michael; Miller, Carole; Silver, Richard T.; Talpaz, Moshe; Winton, Elliott F.; Harvey, Jimmie H.; Arcasoy, Murat O.; Hexner, Elizabeth; Lyons, Roger M.; Paquette, Ronald; Raza, Azra; Vaddi, Kris; Erickson-Viitanen, Susan; Koumenis, Iphigenia L.; Sun, William; Sandor, Victor; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ruxolitinib, a selective JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, has clinically significant activity in myelofibrosis. METHODS In a double-blind trial, patients with intermediate-2 or high-risk myelofibrosis were randomized to twice-daily oral ruxolitinib (n=155) or placebo (n=154). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with ≥35% spleen volume reduction at 24 weeks assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary endpoints included durability of response, changes in symptom burden (assessed by Total Symptom Score [TSS]), and overall survival. RESULTS In the ruxolitinib group, 41.9% achieved the primary endpoint versus 0.7% in the placebo group (P<0.001). Spleen response was maintained while taking ruxolitinib: 67% of responding patients maintained response for ≥48 weeks. A ≥50% improvement in TSS at 24 weeks was achieved by 45.9% of ruxolitinib-treated versus 5.3% of placebo-treated patients (P<0.001). Thirteen deaths occurred in the ruxolitinib and 24 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.25–0.98; P=0.04). Discontinuations for adverse events were similar between groups (11% each). Among ruxolitinib-treated patients, anemia and thrombocytopenia were the most common adverse events, but rarely led to discontinuation (1 patient for each event). Two patients underwent transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), both in the ruxolitinib group. CONCLUSIONS Ruxolitinib provided significant clinical benefits in patients with myelofibrosis by reducing spleen size, improving debilitating myelofibrosis-related symptoms, and improving overall survival. Improvement came at a cost of more frequent anemia and thrombocytopenia in the early part of the treatment period. The imbalance in AML transformation requires attention in further studies. (Funded by Incyte Corporation; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00952289) PMID:22375971

  5. Oral iloprost as a treatment for Raynaud's syndrome: a double blind multicentre placebo controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Belch, J J; Capell, H A; Cooke, E D; Kirby, J D; Lau, C S; Madhok, R; Murphy, E; Steinberg, M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy, tolerance and safety of 50-150 micrograms orally administered iloprost given twice a day versus placebo in patients with Raynaud's syndrome. METHODS--The study was multicentre (n = 3), double blind and placebo controlled. Sixty three patients who had eight or more vasospastic attacks per week were enrolled. After a one week run-in period, all patients received either iloprost or placebo treatment to a maximum tolerated dose of 150 micrograms twice a day for 10 days. Diary cards assessed the duration and severity of the vasospastic attacks. Side effects were monitored by direct questioning. A global assessment of treatment efficacy was made by the patient at the end of treatment and two weeks later. RESULTS--Patient opinion tended to favour iloprost at the end of the 10 day treatment phase (p = 0.09) and this was significant at day 24 (the follow up visit) (p = 0.011). Although the duration and severity of attacks tended to decrease in the iloprost treated group, these results tended not to reach statistical significance (for severity p = 0.06 at end of treatment, p = 0.09 on day 24). CONCLUSION--Iloprost administered intravenously has been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of the Raynaud's syndrome associated with systemic sclerosis, but this route of administration is inconvenient. This study evaluated the use of iloprost administered orally to patients with Raynaud's syndrome. Patient documented improvement was significantly improved by iloprost. Diary card analysis showed a trend in favour of iloprost, but these results did not reach statistical significance. PMID:7538285

  6. The effect of gabapentin on muscle cramps during hemodialysis: A double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Beladi Mousavi, Seyed Seifollah; Zeraati, Abbasali; Moradi, Sajad; Mousavi, Marzieh Beladi

    2015-11-01

    Hemodialysis-associated muscle cramps (HAMC) are a common complication during hemodialysis (HD) sessions. A number of pharmacologic agents have been evaluated to prevent and or diminish HAMC; however, none of them has an established role. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the possible effect of gabapentin on HAMC. In a double-blinded clinical trial, we compared the possible effect of gabapentin with a placebo in prevention and or diminishing episodes of HAMC in HD patients who had experienced frequent intradialytic muscle cramps. At first, placebo was given before each dialysis session for four weeks and then, after a two-week washout period, 300 mg of gabapentin was given before each dialysis session for four weeks to verify the effect of gabapentin on HAMC. Overall, 15 patients (seven men and eight women; mean age, 52.02 years) with frequent intradialytic muscle cramps were enrolled in the study. The incidence of symptomatic muscle cramp decreased in the gabapentin group compared with the placebo group, with a significant difference between them (P = 0.001). The intensity of muscle cramps also decreased in the gabapentin group (P = 0.001). There was no significant association between HAMC in male and female patients (P = 0. 397), mean age of HD patients (P = 0.226) and cause of end-stage renal disease (P = 0.551). According to the results of our study, gabapentin prescription before each HD session significantly reduced the frequency and the intensity of muscle cramps during HD without any major side-effects. PMID:26586051

  7. Crossover, double-blind clinical trial comparing almotriptan and ergotamine plus caffeine for acute migraine therapy.

    PubMed

    Láinez, M J A; Galván, J; Heras, J; Vila, C

    2007-03-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial, adult patients treated two migraine attacks: one with almotriptan 12.5 mg and the other with ergotamine 2 mg plus caffeine 200 mg. Treatment with almotriptan was associated with a significantly greater proportion of patients achieving 2-h pain free (20.9% vs. 13.7%; P < 0.05) and 2-h pain relief (57.7% vs. 44.5%; P < 0.01) compared with ergotamine plus caffeine therapy; significant differences were not seen at 1 h. Rates for sustained pain free and sustained pain free plus no adverse events (AEs) also were significantly greater after almotriptan treatment than after the use of ergotamine plus caffeine (P < 0.05). Almotriptan was associated with a significantly lower rate of photophobia at 90 min (P < 0.05), phonophobia at 60, 90, and 120 min (P < 0.05 to <0.01), and nausea and vomiting at 90 and 120 min (P < 0.01) compared with ergotamine plus caffeine. A significantly greater proportion of patients were more satisfied with almotriptan than with ergotamine plus caffeine (P < 0.05). Sixteen patients reported adverse events during almotriptan treatment and 27 patients reported AEs during the ergotamine plus caffeine therapy. Most AEs were mild-to-moderate and did not result in treatment-related discontinuations. In conclusion, almotriptan was associated with significantly greater efficacy for treating migraine compared with ergotamine plus caffeine, was generally well tolerated and was associated with greater rate of treatment satisfaction. PMID:17355546

  8. Treatment of herpes simplex gingivostomatitis with aciclovir in children: a randomised double blind placebo controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Amir, J.; Harel, L.; Smetana, Z.; Varsano, I.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of aciclovir suspension for treating herpetic gingivostomatitis in young children. DESIGN: Randomised double blind placebo controlled study. SETTING: Day care unit of a tertiary paediatric hospital. SUBJECTS: 72 children aged 1-6 years with clinical manifestations of gingivostomatitis lasting less than 72 hours; 61 children with cultures positive for herpes simplex virus finished the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of oral lesions, fever, eating and drinking difficulties, and viral shedding. INTERVENTION: Aciclovir suspension 15 mg/kg five times a day for seven days, or placebo. RESULTS: Children receiving aciclovir had oral lesions for a shorter period than children receiving placebo (median 4 v 10 days (difference 6 days, 95% confidence interval 4.0 to 8.0)) and earlier disappearance of the following signs and symptoms: fever (1 v 3 days (2 days, 0.8 to 3.2)); extraoral lesions (lesions around the mouth but outside the oral cavity) (0 v 5.5 days (5.5 days, 1.3 to 4.7)); eating difficulties (4 v 7 days (3 days, 1.31 to 4.69)); and drinking difficulties (3 v 6 days (3 days, 1.1 to 4.9)). Viral shedding was significantly shorter in the group treated with aciclovir (1 v 5 days (4 days, 2.9 to 5.1)). CONCLUSIONS: Oral aciclovir treatment for herpetic gingivostomatitis, started within the first three days of onset, shortens the duration of all clinical manifestations and the infectivity of affected children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the ideal dose and length of treatment. PMID:9224082

  9. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day) for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks), the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no) of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001). The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001). No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. PMID

  10. Chocolate flavanols and skin photoprotection: a parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has deleterious effects on the skin, including sunburn, photoaging and cancer. Chocolate flavanols are naturally-occurring antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules that could play a role in preventing cutaneous UV damage. We investigated the influence of 12-week high-flavanol chocolate (HFC) consumption on skin sensitivity to UV radiation, measured by minimal erythema dose (MED). We also evaluated skin elasticity and hydration. Methods In this 2-group, parallel, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 74 women aged 20–65 years and Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I or II were recruited from the general community in Quebec City, for randomization to either HFC (n = 33) or low-flavanol chocolate (LFC) (n = 41). A blocked randomisation (4), considering date of entry, skin type and age as factors, generated a sequentially-numbered allocation list. Study participants and research assistants were blinded. Totally, 30 g of chocolate were consumed daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 3-week washout period. MED was assessed at baseline and at 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks. Main outcome was changes in MED at week 12. Results 33 participants in the HFC group and 41 in the LFC group were analyzed with 15 weeks of follow-up. Both groups showed similarly-increased MED at 12 weeks (HFC: 0.0252 ± 0.1099 J/cm2 [mean ± standard deviation (SD)]; LFC: 0.0151 ± 0.1118; mean difference (MD): 0.0100 J/cm2; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.0417 to 0.0618). However, after 3-week washout, the HFC group presented decreased MED (-0.0248 ± 0.1145) whereas no effect was seen in the LFC group (0.0168 ± 0.1698) (MD: -0.0417; 95% CI: -0.1106 to 0.0272). Net temple elasticity increased slightly but significantly by 0.09 ± 0.12 mm in the HFC group at 12 weeks compared to 0.02 ± 0.12 mm in the LFC group (MD: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.12 ). No significant adverse events were reported. Conclusion Our study failed to

  11. Immunomodulatory Effects of ResistAid™: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multidose Study

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jay K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract from the larch tree (ResistAid, Lonza Ltd., Basel, Switzerland) to change the immune response in healthy adults to a standardized antigenic challenge (tetanus and influenza vaccines) in a dose-dependent manner compared to placebo. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 75 healthy adults (18–61 years old). Subjects were randomized to receive either 1.5 or 4.5 g/day of ResistAid or placebo for 60 days. At day 30, subjects were administered both tetanus and influenza vaccines. Serum antigenic response (tetanus immunoglobulin G [IgG], influenza A and B IgG and immunoglobulin M [IgM]) was measured at days 45 (15 days after vaccination) and 60 (30 days after vaccination) of the study and compared to baseline antibody levels. Frequency and intensity of adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Results As expected, all 3 groups demonstrated an expected rise in tetanus IgG levels 15 and 30 days following the vaccine. There was a strongly significant difference in the rise in IgG levels at day 60 in the 1.5 g/day group compared to placebo (p = 0.008). In the 4.5 g/day group, there was significant rise in tetanus IgG at days 45 and 60 compared to baseline (p < 0.01) but these values were not significant compared to placebo. Neither group demonstrated any significant elevations in IgM or IgG antibodies compared to placebo following the influenza vaccine. There were no clinically or statistically significant or serious adverse events. Conclusions ResistAid at a dose of 1.5 g/day significantly increased the IgG antibody response to tetanus vaccine compared to placebo. In conjunction with earlier studies, this validates the effect of ResistAid on the augmentation of the response to bacterial antigens (in the form of vaccine). PMID:24219376

  12. Perilla Extract improves gastrointestinal discomfort in a randomized placebo controlled double blind human pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort, e.g. bloating or rumbling, is a common symptom in otherwise healthy adults. Approximately 20% of the population, particularly women suffer from gastrointestinal discomfort and this affects quality of life. Recent studies discovered a link between the body and mind, called the gut-brain axis. Psychosocial factors, such as e.g. daily stress may cause altered gut physiology leading to ileum contractions and consequently gastrointestinal symptoms. In vitro and ex vivo studies clearly showed that a Perilla frutescens extract combines prokinetic, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the intervention was to investigate the effects of the proprietary Perilla extract on GI discomfort in healthy subjects with gastrointestinal discomfort and reduced bowel movements in comparison to a placebo product. Methods The pilot study was performed according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel design. Fifty healthy subjects with gastrointestinal discomfort and reduced bowel movements, 30-70 years, documented their GI symptoms, stool frequency and consistency daily during a 2-week run-in phase and a 4-week intervention phase with Perilla frutescens extract or placebo. GI symptoms were assessed on a 5-point scale daily and average scores over 14 days intervals were calculated. Results All GI symptoms were significantly improved over time by Perilla frutescens extract during the intervention phase (bloating: -0.44 ± 0.56, p = 0.0003; passage of gas: -0.30 ± 0.66, p = 0.0264; GI rumbling: -0.55 ± 0.87, p = 0.0014; feeling of fullness: -0.36 ± 0.72, p = 0.0152; abdominal discomfort: -0.54 ± 0.75, p = 0.004), whereas in the placebo group only abdominal discomfort was significantly improved (-0.31 ± 0.55, p = 0.0345). In the subgroup of women results were strengthened and a subscore out of bloating and abdominal discomfort was significantly improved

  13. Amiloride Clinical Trial In Optic Neuritis (ACTION) protocol: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Justin B; Elston, John; Evangelou, Nikos; Gerry, Stephen; Fugger, Lars; Kennard, Christopher; Kong, Yazhuo; Palace, Jacqueline; Craner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neurodegeneration is a widely accepted contributor to the development of long-term disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). While current therapies in MS predominantly target inflammation and reduce relapse rate they have been less effective at preventing long-term disability. The identification and evaluation of effective neuroprotective therapies within a trial paradigm are key unmet needs. Emerging evidence supports amiloride, a licenced diuretic, as a neuroprotective agent in MS through acid sensing ion channel blockade. Optic neuritis (ON) is a common manifestation of MS with correlates of inflammation and neurodegeneration measurable within the visual pathways. Amiloride Clinical Trial In Optic Neuritis (ACTION) will utilise a multimodal approach to assess the neuroprotective efficacy of amiloride in acute ON. Methods and analysis 46 patients will be recruited within 28 days from onset of ON visual symptoms and randomised on a 1:1 basis to placebo or amiloride 10 mg daily. Double-blinded treatment groups will be balanced for age, sex and visual loss severity by a random-deterministic minimisation algorithm. The primary objective is to demonstrate that amiloride is neuroprotective in ON as assessed by scanning laser polarimetry of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness at 6 months in the affected eye compared to the unaffected eye at baseline. RNFL in combination with further retinal measures will also be assessed by optical coherence tomography. Secondary outcome measures on brain MRI will include cortical volume, diffusion-weighted imaging, resting state functional MRI, MR spectroscopy and magnetisation transfer ratio. In addition, high and low contrast visual acuity, visual fields, colour vision and electrophysiology will be assessed alongside quality of life measures. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was given by the south central Oxford B research ethics committee (REC reference: 13/SC/0022). The findings

  14. Hyperbaric treatment for children with autism: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Daniel A; Rossignol, Lanier W; Smith, Scott; Schneider, Cindy; Logerquist, Sally; Usman, Anju; Neubrander, Jim; Madren, Eric M; Hintz, Gregg; Grushkin, Barry; Mumper, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Background Several uncontrolled studies of hyperbaric treatment in children with autism have reported clinical improvements; however, this treatment has not been evaluated to date with a controlled study. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial to assess the efficacy of hyperbaric treatment in children with autism. Methods 62 children with autism recruited from 6 centers, ages 2–7 years (mean 4.92 ± 1.21), were randomly assigned to 40 hourly treatments of either hyperbaric treatment at 1.3 atmosphere (atm) and 24% oxygen ("treatment group", n = 33) or slightly pressurized room air at 1.03 atm and 21% oxygen ("control group", n = 29). Outcome measures included Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Results After 40 sessions, mean physician CGI scores significantly improved in the treatment group compared to controls in overall functioning (p = 0.0008), receptive language (p < 0.0001), social interaction (p = 0.0473), and eye contact (p = 0.0102); 9/30 children (30%) in the treatment group were rated as "very much improved" or "much improved" compared to 2/26 (8%) of controls (p = 0.0471); 24/30 (80%) in the treatment group improved compared to 10/26 (38%) of controls (p = 0.0024). Mean parental CGI scores significantly improved in the treatment group compared to controls in overall functioning (p = 0.0336), receptive language (p = 0.0168), and eye contact (p = 0.0322). On the ABC, significant improvements were observed in the treatment group in total score, irritability, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and speech (p < 0.03 for each), but not in the control group. In the treatment group compared to the control group, mean changes on the ABC total score and subscales were similar except a greater number of children improved in irritability (p = 0.0311). On the ATEC, sensory/cognitive awareness significantly improved (p = 0.0367) in the treatment group

  15. Double-blind randomized study of lonidamine and radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Magno, L.; Terraneo, F.; Bertoni, F.; Tordiglione, M.; Bardelli, D.; Rosignoli, M.T.; Ciottoli, G.B. )

    1994-04-30

    This Phase III double blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate whether lonidamine can increase the tumor control of radiotherapy in the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer without any synergistic toxic effects on the exposed normal tissues. Ninety-seven patients with Stages II-IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were enrolled. Separate analyses were done on the 96 eligible patients and the 90 patients who completed the prescribed treatment regimen. Patients received radiotherapy up to a planned total of 60-66 Gy, in 2 daily fractions of 1.5 Gy each and either lonidamine (450 mg p.o. in three divided daily doses) or placebo, given continuously for 3 months or up to 1 month after the end of radiotherapy. The rate of tumor clearance was 66% in the lonidamine group and 65% in the placebo group, while the subsequent failure rate was 50% and 77%, respectively. The 3 and 5 year locoregional control rates in the adequately treated patients achieving complete tumor clearance were 66% and 63% for lonidamine vs. 41% and 37% for placebo. The disease-free survival in adequately treated patients was significantly better in the lonidamine group, with 3 and 5 year rates of 44% and 40%, respectively, vs. 23% and 19% in the placebo group. The overall survival rate for all eligible patients at both 3 and 5 years was 44% in the lonidamine group and 44% and 31%, respectively, in the placebo group. Both acute and late radiation reactions were similar in the two groups. Myalgia and testicular pain were the most frequent side effects of lonidamine with an incidence of 8.5% and 4.2%, respectively. The addition of lonidamine to hyperfractionated radiotherapy was correlated with a statistically and clinically significant proportion of long-term disease-free patients. The toxicity of radiotherapy was not aggravated by the drug and the overall tolerance of the combined regimen was acceptable. 54 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Mucolytic Effectiveness of Tyloxapol in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Koppitz, Martin; Eschenburg, Charlotte; Salzmann, Emilia; Rosewich, Martin; Schubert, Ralf; Zielen, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mucoactive drugs should increase the ability to expectorate sputum and, ideally, have anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucolytic activity of Tyloxapol compared to saline (0.9%) in COPD. Design A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded crossover, clinical trial was carried out. Patients were randomly assigned to either inhale 5 ml Tyloxapol 1% or saline 0.9% solution three times daily for 3 weeks and vice versa for another 3 weeks. 28 patients (18 male, 10 female, 47 to 73 years old, median age 63.50) were screened, 21 were treated and 19 patients completed the study per protocol. Results A comparison of the two treatment phases showed that the primary endpoint sputum weight was statistically significant higher when patients inhaled Tyloxapol (mean 4.03 g, 95% CI: 2.34–5.73 g at week 3) compared to saline (mean 2.63 g, 95% CI: 1.73–3.53 g at week 3). The p-value at three weeks of treatment was 0.041 between treatment arms. Sputum cells decreased during the Tyloxapol treatment after 3 weeks, indicating that Tyloxapol might have some anti-neutrophilic properties. Lung function parameters (FVC, FEV1, RV, and RV/TLC) remained stable during the study, and no treatment effect was shown. Interestingly, there was a mean increase in all inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) during the saline treatment from day 1 to week 3, whereas during the Tyloxapol treatment, all cytokines decreased. Due to the small sample size and the large individual variation in sputum cytokines, these differences were not significant. However, analyses confirmed that Tyloxapol has significant anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. Despite the high number of inhalations (more than 1000), only 27 adverse events (20 during the Tyloxapol and seven during saline) were recorded. Eleven patients experienced AEs under Tyloxapol and six under saline treatment, which indicates that inhalation of saline or Tyloxapol is a very safe procedure

  17. Isoniazid plus antiretroviral therapy to prevent tuberculosis: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rangaka, Molebogeng X; Wilkinson, Robert J; Boulle, Andrew; Glynn, Judith R; Fielding, Katherine; van Cutsem, Gilles; Wilkinson, Katalin A; Goliath, Rene; Mathee, Shaheed; Goemaere, Eric; Maartens, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of tuberculosis, but the incidence still exceeds that in HIV-uninfected people. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), which decreases the risk of tuberculosis in people not on ART, may offer additional protection. Methods Pragmatic randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of 12 months IPT among participants established on or newly starting ART, in Khayelitsha, South Africa (NCT00463086, Lancet D-09-02885). Tuberculosis was excluded at screening by sputum culture. Incident tuberculosis was the primary endpoint. Findings 1,329 participants contributed 3,227 person-years (PY) of follow up in the modified intention-to-treat analysis; 662 on IPT and 667 on placebo. There were 95 incident tuberculosis cases: 2.3 (95%CI 1.6-3.1) versus 3.6 (95%CI 2.8-4.7) per 100 PY in the IPT and placebo arms respectively (hazard ratio 0.63, 95%CI 0.41-0.94). Study drug was discontinued due to grade 3 or 4 raised ALT in 19/662 in the IPT and 10/667 in the placebo arm, risk ratio=1.9 (95%CI 0.90-4.09). In secondary analyses, there was no evidence that the effect of IPT was restricted to those who were positive on tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon gamma release assay (IGRA): adjusted hazard ratio for those with negative tests 0.43 (95%CI 0.21-0.86) and 0.43 (95%CI 0.20-0.96); for positive tests 0.86 (95%CI 0.37-2.00) and 0.55 (95%CI 0.26-1.24) respectively. No all cause mortality benefit of IPT was demonstrated Interpretation IPT reduced the incidence of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals on ART. In this high incidence setting, individuals on ART who have TST or IGRA negative results may also benefit from IPT. IPT can easily be implemented in ART clinics. PMID:24835842

  18. A double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of a novel formulation of intravenous diclofenac and ketorolac for postoperative third molar extraction pain.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kyle; Daniels, Stephen; Bandy, Donald; Ernst, Cynthia C; Hamilton, Douglas A; Mermelstein, Fred H; Wang, Jianyuan; Carr, Daniel B

    2011-01-01

    Dyloject is a novel formulation of diclofenac intended for intravenous (IV) administration. This formulation employs the solubilizing agent hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin to permit bolus IV administration. The efficacy and safety of 5 dose levels of IV diclofenac were compared with IV ketorolac and placebo following third molar extraction. This was a single-dose, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and comparator-controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 353 subjects with moderate to severe pain received placebo; ketorolac 30 mg; or IV diclofenac 3.75, 9.4, 18.75, 37.5, or 75 mg (N  =  51 for all groups, except N  =  47 for ketorolac). The primary endpoint was total pain relief over 6 hours (TOTPAR6) as measured by the visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary endpoints included multiple measures of pain intensity and relief; patient global evaluation; and times to pain relief and rescue medication. Dropouts and adverse effects (AEs) were also monitored. IV diclofenac was superior to placebo as measured by TOTPAR6 (P < .0001 for all doses except 3.75 mg, for which P  =  .0341). IV diclofenac 3.75 mg was statistically superior to placebo for TOTPAR2 and TOTPAR4. IV diclofenac at both 37.5 and 75 mg was superior to placebo (P < .05) at the earliest (5 minute) assessments of pain intensity and pain relief, but ketorolac was not. The proportion of patients reporting 30% or greater pain relief at 5 minutes was significantly greater after IV diclofenac 37.5 and 75 mg than after ketorolac 30 mg or placebo. Secondary endpoints confirmed the primary findings. Treatment-related AEs were generally mild to moderate and were typical for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The more rapid onset of action of IV diclofenac compared with the reference injectable NSAID ketorolac suggests additional clinical benefit. If confirmed in larger series, these findings may improve the safety and efficacy of postoperative NSAID analgesia. PMID:21679043

  19. Efficacy of Grintuss® pediatric syrup in treating cough in children: a randomized, multicenter, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cough is an extremely common problem in pediatrics, mostly triggered and perpetuated by inflammatory processes or mechanical irritation leading to viscous mucous production and increased sensitivity of the cough receptors. Protecting the mucosa might be very useful in limiting the contact with micro-organisms and irritants thus decreasing the inflammation and mucus production. Natural molecular complexes can act as a mechanical barrier limiting cough stimuli with a non pharmacological approach but with an indirect anti-inflammatory action. Objective Aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a medical device containing natural functional components in the treatment of cough persisting more than 7 days. Methods In this randomized, parallel groups, double-blind vs. placebo study, children with cough persisting more than 7 days were enrolled. The clinical efficacy of the study product was assessed evaluating changes in day- and night-time cough scores after 4 and 8 days (t4 and t8) of product administration. Results In the inter-group analysis, in the study product group compared with the placebo group, a significant difference (t4 study treatment vs. t4 placebo, p = 0.03) was observed at t4 in night-time cough score. Considering the intra-group analysis, only the study product group registered a significant improvement from t0 to t4 in both day-time (t0 vs. t4, p = 0.04) and night-time (t0 vs. t4, p = 0.003) cough scores. A significant difference, considering the study product, was also found in the following intra-group analyses: day-time scores at t4 vs. t8 (p =0.01) and at t0 vs. t8 (p = 0.001); night-time scores at t4 vs. t8 (p = 0.05), and at t0 vs. t8 (p = 0.005). Considering a subgroup of patients with higher cough (≥3) scores, 92.9% of them in the study product group improved at t0 vs. t4 day-time. Conclusions Grintuss® pediatric syrup showed to possess an interesting profile of efficacy and safety in the treatment

  20. High-dose albumin treatment for acute ischaemic stroke (ALIAS): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Myron D.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Hill, Michael D.; Martin, Renee H.; Moy, Claudia S.; Barsan, William G.; Waldman, Bonnie D.; Tamariz, Diego; Ryckborst, Karla J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In animal models of ischaemic stroke, 25% albumin reduced brain infarction and improved neurobehavioral outcome. In a pilot clinical trial, albumin doses as high as 2 g per kg were safely tolerated. Trial Design and Methods This was a randomised, parallel-group, double-blind trial to test the superiority of 25% albumin (dose 2 g [8 ml] per kg; maximum, 750 ml) over an equivalent volume of isotonic saline in improving the outcome of acute ischaemic stroke. Eligibility criteria were an ischaemic (i.e., non-haemorrhagic) stroke with baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 6 or above, ability to treat within 5 hours of onset, age 18 through 83 years, and written informed consent. The major exclusion criteria were cardiovascular. The objective was to test the hypothesis that the primary outcome (defined as either a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1, or a NIHSS score of 0 or 1, or both, at 90 days) with albumin treatment was superior to saline by an absolute margin of 10 percentage points. Centralised web-based randomisation was by a minimisation-plus-biased-coin algorithm. Thrombolytic therapies were permitted. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00235495. Findings The trial was stopped prematurely for futility after 841 participants were randomised (422 patients to albumin and 419 to saline). The primary outcome did not differ by treatment assignment (albumin, 44.1%; saline, 44.2%; relative benefit, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 – 1.10 adjusted for baseline NIHSS score and thrombolysis stratum). Secondary outcomes were also neutral. The chief adverse event was mild-to-moderate pulmonary edema, which was more common with albumin than saline (13.1% and 1.2%, respectively), as was symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage within 24 hours (albumin, 4.1%; saline, 1.7%). While the favourable outcome rate in albumin-treated subjects remained consistent at 44–45% over the course of the trial, the

  1. Reduction in behavior problems with omega-3 supplementation in children aged 8-16 years: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-grouptrial

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Adrian; Portnoy, Jill; Liu, Jianghong; Mahoomed, Tashneem; Hibbeln, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background While limited evidence suggests that omega-3 supplementation may reduceantisocial behavior in children, studies have not reported on post-treatment follow-up and most treatment periods have been of short duration. This study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation over six months will reduce behavior problems in children both at the end of treatment and at six months post-treatment. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel group trial, a community sample of 8-16 year old children were randomized into a treatment group (N = 100) and a placebo-control group (N = 100). The supplementation consisted of a fruit drink containing 1 gram/day of omega-3 or a placebo consisting of the same fruit drink without omega-3. Participants, care-givers, and research assistants were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome measures of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were reported by both caregivers and their children in a laboratory setting at 0 months (baseline), 6 months (end of treatment) and 12 months (6 months post-treatment), together with the secondary outcome measures of parental antisocial behavior. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis including all participants. Results Significant group × time interactions were observed with the treatment group showing long-term improvements in child behavior problems. The average post-treatment effect size was d = -.59. Effects were documented for parent-reports, but with theexception of proactive and reactive aggression,child-report data were non-significant.Parents whose children took omega-3showed significant post-treatment reductions in their own antisocial and aggressive behavior.Thisimprovementin caregiver behavior partly mediated the improvements observed in child behavior. Conclusions Findings provide initialevidence that omega-3 supplementation can produce sustained reductions in externalizing andinternalizing behavior problems

  2. High dose multiple micronutrient supplementation improves villous morphology in environmental enteropathy without HIV enteropathy: results from a double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial in Zambian adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental enteropathy (EE) is an asymptomatic abnormality of small bowel structure and function, which may underlie vaccine inefficacy in the developing world. HIV infection co-exists in many of these populations. There is currently no effective treatment. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial of high dose multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation on small bowel architecture in EE in participants with or without HIV infection. Methods In a double-blind parallel-group trial of the effect of MM on innate immune responses to oral vaccines, consenting Zambian adults were randomised to receive 6 weeks of 24 micronutrients as a daily capsule or placebo. HIV status was established after randomisation. Proximal jejunal biopsies were obtained after the supplementation period. Villous height, crypt depth, villous width, villous perimeter per 100 μm muscularis mucosa (a measure of epithelial surface area), and villous cross sectional area per 100 μm muscularis mucosa (a measure of villous compartment volume) were measured in orientated biopsy sections using semi-automated image analysis. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results 18 patients received MM and 20 placebo. 6/18 MM and 9/20 placebo patients had HIV. In HIV negative patients given MM compared to placebo, mean villous height was 24.0% greater (293.3 v. 236.6 μm; 95% CI of difference 17.7–95.9 μm; P = 0.006), mean villous area was 27.6% greater (27623 v. 21650 μm2/100 μm; 95% CI of difference 818–11130 μm2/100 μm; P = 0.03), and median villous perimeter was 29.7% greater (355.0 v. 273.7 μm/100 μm; 95% CI of difference 16.3–146.2 μm/100 μm; P = 0.003). There was no significant effect on crypt depth or villous width. No effect was observed in HIV positive patients. There were no adverse events attributable to MM. Conclusions MM improved small bowel villous height and absorptive area, but not crypt depth, in adults with EE without HIV. Nutritional

  3. A randomized, double-blind comparison of OROS® hydromorphone and controlled-release morphine for the control of chronic cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Magdi; Thipphawong, John

    2008-01-01

    Background Long-acting opioid formulations are advocated for maintaining pain control in chronic cancer pain. OROS® hydromorphone is a sustained-release formulation of hydromorphone that requires dosing once daily to maintain therapeutic concentrations. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the clinical equivalence of immediate-release and sustained-release formulations of hydromorphone and morphine for chronic cancer pain. Methods 200 patients with cancer pain (requiring ≤ 540 mg/d of oral morphine) participated in this double-blind, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomized to receive hydromorphone or morphine (immediate-release for 2–9 days, sustained-release for 10–15 days). Efficacy was assessed with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), investigator and patient global evaluations, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. The primary endpoint was the 'worst pain in the past 24 hours' item of the BPI, in both the immediate-release and sustained-release study phases, with treatments deemed equivalent if the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the between-group differences at endpoint were between -1.5 and 1.5. No equivalence limits were defined for secondary endpoints. Results Least-squares mean differences (95% CI) between groups were 0.2 (-0.4, 0.9) in the immediate-release phase and -0.8 (-1.6, -0.01) in the sustained-release phase (intent-to-treat population), indicating that the immediate-release formulations met the pre-specified equivalence criteria, but that the lower limit of the 95% CI (-1.6) was outside the boundary (-1.5) for the sustained-release formulations. BPI 'pain now PM' was significantly lower with OROS® hydromorphone compared with controlled-release morphine (least-squares mean difference [95% CI], -0.77 [-1.49, -0.05]; p = 0.0372). Scores for other secondary efficacy variables were similar between the two sustained-release treatments. At endpoint, > 70% of investigators and

  4. The effects of different levels of calcium supplementation on the bone mineral status of postpartum lactating Chinese women: a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe-Qing; Chen, Yu-Ming; Wang, Ruo-Qin; Huang, Zhen-Wu; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Yi-Xiang

    2016-01-14

    Increasing dietary Ca intake may prevent the excessive mobilisation of bone mineral in nursing mothers. We aimed to investigate whether higher Ca intake could positively modulate the bone mineral changes in Chinese postpartum lactating women. The study was a 12-month randomised, double-blinded, parallel group trial conducted over 12 months. A total of 150 postpartum women were randomly selected to receive either 40 g of milk powder containing 300 mg of Ca and 5 μg of vitamin D (Low-Ca group) or same milk powder additionally fortified with 300 mg of Ca (Mid-Ca group) or 600 mg of Ca (High-Ca group). Bone mineral density (BMD) for the whole body, the lumbar spine, the total left hip and its sub-regions was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 102 subjects completed the whole trial. The duration of total lactating time was 7·9 (SD 2·8) months on average. The intention-to-treat analysis yielded the following mean percentage changes in BMD for the whole body, the lumbar spine and the total left hip, respectively: -0·93 (SD 1·97), 2·11 (SD 4·90) and -1·60 (SD 2·65)% for the Low-Ca group; -0·56 (SD 1·89), 2·21 (SD 3·77) and -1·43 (SD 2·30)% for the Mid-Ca group; and -0·44 (SD 1·67), 2·32 (SD 4·66) and -0·95 (SD 4·08)% for the High-Ca group. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (P: 0·5-0·9). The results of the complete case analysis were similar. In sum, we found no significant differences in the bone mineral changes from baseline to 12 months in postpartum lactating women consuming milk powder fortified with different levels of Ca. PMID:26522081

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Umeclidinium Added to Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol in Patients with COPD: Results of Two Randomized, Double-Blind Studies

    PubMed Central

    Siler, Thomas M.; Kerwin, Edward; Singletary, Karen; Brooks, Jean; Church, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Combinations of drugs with distinct and complementary mechanisms of action may offer improved efficacy in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In two 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group studies, patients with COPD were randomized 1:1:1 to once-daily umeclidinium (UMEC; 62.5 μg and 125 μg) 
or placebo (PBO), added to twice-daily fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FP/SAL; 250/50 μg). In both studies, the primary efficacy measure was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at Day 85. Secondary endpoints were weighted-mean (WM) FEV1 over 0–6 hours post-dose (Day 84) and rescue albuterol use. Health-related quality of life outcomes (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] and COPD assessment test [CAT]) were also examined. Safety was assessed throughout. Both UMEC+FP/SAL doses provided statistically significant improvements in trough FEV1 (Day 85: 0.127–0.148 L) versus PBO+FP/SAL. Similarly, both UMEC+FP/SAL doses provided statistically-significant improvements in 0–6 hours post-dose WM FEV1 versus PBO+FP/SAL (Day 84: 0.144–0.165 L). Rescue use over Weeks 1–12 decreased with UMEC+FP/SAL in both studies versus PBO+FP/SAL (Study 1, 0.3 puffs/day [both doses]; Study 2, 0.5 puffs/day [UMEC 125+FP/SAL]). Decreases from baseline in CAT score were generally larger for both doses of UMEC+FP/SAL versus PBO+FP/SAL (except for Day 84 Study 2). In Study 1, no differences in SGRQ score were observed between UMEC+FP/SAL and PBO+FP/SAL; however, in Study 2, statistically significant improvements were observed with UMEC 62.5+FP/SAL (Day 28) and UMEC 125+FP/SAL (Days 28 and 84) versus PBO+FP/SAL. The incidence of on-treatment adverse events across all treatment groups was 37–41% in Study 1 and 36–38% in Study 2. Overall, these data indicate that the combination of UMEC+FP/SAL can provide additional benefits over FP/SAL alone in patients with COPD. PMID:26417965

  6. Adjuvant therapy with minocycline for schizophrenia (The MINOS Trial): study protocol for a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is understood to be a heterogeneous brain condition with overlapping symptom dimensions. The negative symptom dimension, with its protean cognitive manifestations, responds poorly to treatment, which can be a particular challenge in countries where clozapine therapy is not available. Preliminary data indicate that minocycline may be beneficial adjunct in the treatment of schizophrenia: positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. In this study we aim to assess the efficacy of adjunctive minocycline to alleviate symptoms of schizophrenia in patients who have failed to respond to a therapeutic trial of antipsychotic medications. Methods The study is a parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants will be adults (aged 18 years and above) with first episode or relapse episode of schizophrenia of under 5 years’ duration. Patients who failed to show adequate therapeutic response to at least one antipsychotic medication given for a minimum of 4 weeks will be recruited from a psychiatry hospital in Addis Ababa and a psychiatry clinic in Butajira, Ethiopia. A total of 150 participants (75 in each arm) will be required to detect a five-point mean difference between the intervention arms adjusting for baseline symptom severity, at 90% power and 95% confidence. Patients in the intervention arm will receive minocycline (200 mg/day orally) added on to the regular antipsychotic medications participants are already on. Those in the placebo arm will receive an inactive compound identical in physical appearance to minocycline. Intervention will be offered for 12 weeks. Diagnosis will be established using the operational criteria for research (OPCRIT). Primary outcome measure will be a change in symptom severity measured using the positive and the negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS). Secondary outcome measures will include changes in severity of negative symptoms, proportion achieving remission, and level

  7. Effect of Linum usitatissimum L. (linseed) oil on mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is known as the most common entrapment neuropathy. Conservative treatments cannot reduce the symptomatic severity satisfactorily; therefore, effectiveness of Linum usitatissimum L. (linseed) oil on carpal tunnel syndrome, as a complementary treatment, was evaluated in the current study. Linseed oil is a well-known preparation in Iranian traditional medicine and its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects have been shown in previous studies. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. One hundred patients (155 hands) with idiopathic mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome aged between 18 and 65 years old were randomized in two parallel groups. These two groups were treated during 4 weeks with topical placebo and linseed oil. In addition, a night wrist splint was prescribed for both groups. Symptomatic severity and functional status were measured using Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. In addition, median sensory nerve conduction velocity, motor distal latency, sensory distal latency and compound latency as electrodiagnostic parameters were measured at baseline and after the intervention period. Results After the intervention, significant improvement was observed regarding Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire symptomatic severity and functional status mean differences (p <0.001) in the linseed oil group compared with those in the placebo group. Also, regarding the mean differences of both groups, significant improvement of nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve was seen in the linseed oil group by a value of 2.38 m/sec (p < 0.05). However, motor distal latency and sensory distal latency of the median nerve showed no between-group significant changes (p = 0.14 for both items). Finally, compound latency was improved slightly in the case group, comparing mean differences between the groups (p <0.05). No significant adverse events were reported from using linseed

  8. Eslicarbazepine acetate as adjunctive therapy in patients with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures: Results of a phase III, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Michael R; Abou-Khalil, Bassel; Harvey, Jay; Rogin, Joanne B; Biraben, Arnaud; Galimberti, Carlo A; Kowacs, Pedro A; Hong, Seung Bong; Cheng, Hailong; Blum, David; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures. Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, phase III study was conducted at 173 centers in 19 countries, including the United States and Canada. Eligible patients were aged ≥16 years and had uncontrolled partial-onset seizures despite treatment with 1–2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). After an 8-week baseline period, patients were randomized to once-daily placebo (n = 226), ESL 800 mg (n = 216), or ESL 1,200 mg (n = 211). Following a 2-week titration period, patients received ESL 800 or 1,200 mg once-daily for 12 weeks. Seizure data were captured and documented using event-entry or daily entry diaries. Results Standardized seizure frequency (SSF) during the maintenance period (primary end point) was reduced with ESL 1,200 mg (p = 0.004), and there was a trend toward improvement with ESL 800 mg (p = 0.06), compared with placebo. When data for titration and maintenance periods were combined, ESL 800 mg (p = 0.001) and 1,200 mg (p < 0.001) both reduced SSF. There were no statistically significant interactions between treatment response and geographical region (p = 0.38) or diary version (p = 0.76). Responder rate (≥50% reduction in SSF) was significantly higher with ESL 1,200 mg (42.6%, p < 0.001) but not ESL 800 mg (30.5%, p = 0.07) than placebo (23.1%). Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and TEAEs leading to discontinuation increased with ESL dose. The most common TEAEs were dizziness, somnolence, nausea, headache, and diplopia. Significance Adjunctive ESL 1,200 mg once-daily was more efficacious than placebo in adult patients with refractory partial-onset seizures. The once-daily 800 mg dose showed a marginal effect on SSF, but did not reach statistical significance. Both doses were well tolerated. Efficacy assessment was not affected by

  9. Participant experiences from chronic administration of a multivitamin versus placebo on subjective health and wellbeing: a double-blind qualitative analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While many randomised controlled trials have been conducted on multivitamins, to our knowledge no qualitative research exploring the subjective experience of taking a multivitamin during a clinical trial has been reported. Methods Semi-structured and open-ended written questions were incorporated into a 16-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups trial of once-daily multivitamin administration. At the final study visit (week 16), three open-ended questions were posed to elucidate any positive, negative or unusual experiences from taking either the multivitamin or matched placebo. Qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken by researchers who were blind as to treatment condition of participants, and triangulation (independent analysis from three researchers) was employed to ensure methodological rigour. Participant’s experiences were categorised as “positive” or “negative” and a Chi Square analysis was then applied to each of the experiential themes, to compare experiences between the multivitamin and placebo groups, (subdividing the groups by gender). Usual experiences were categorised and discussed separately. Results Of the 182 participants enrolled, 116 completed the study and qualitative data were available from 114 participants. Thematic analysis revealed significant effects in favour of the multivitamin over placebo for participants experiencing increased energy levels (p=.022) and enhanced mood (p=.027). The beneficial effect on energy levels was particularly evident among female participants. A trend was found for participants reporting better sleep in the multivitamin over placebo. The multivitamin and placebo groups did not significantly differ in perceived positive or negative effects in areas relating to other aspects of mental function or physical health. No significant negative effects were revealed, although there was a non-significant trend for more people in the multivitamin group having minor

  10. Internet-based treatment for older adults with depression and co-morbid cardiovascular disease: protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and cognitive impairment are important causes of disability and poor health outcomes. In combination they lead to an even worse prognosis. Internet or web-based interventions have been shown to deliver efficacious psychological intervention programs for depression on a large scale, yet no published studies have evaluated their impact among patients with co-existing physical conditions. The aims of this randomised controlled trial are to determine the effects of an evidence-based internet intervention program for depression on depressive mood symptoms, cognitive function and treatment adherence in patients at risk of CVD. Methods/Design This study is an internet-based, double-blind, parallel group randomised controlled trial. The trial will compare the effectiveness of online cognitive behavioural therapy with an online attention control placebo. The trial will consist of a 12-week intervention phase with a 40-week follow-up. It will be conducted in urban and rural New South Wales, Australia and will recruit a community-based sample of adults aged 45 to 75 years. Recruitment, intervention, cognitive testing and follow-up data collection will all be internet-based and automated. The primary outcome is a change in severity of depressive symptoms from baseline to three-months. Secondary outcomes are changes in cognitive function and adherence to treatment for CVD from baseline to three, six and 12-months. Discussion Prior studies of depression amongst patients with CVD have targeted those with previous vascular events and major depression. The potential for intervening earlier in these disease states appears to have significant potential and has yet to be tested. Scalable psychological programs using web-based interventions could deliver care to large numbers in a cost effective way if efficacy were proved. This study will determine the effects of a web-based intervention on depressive symptoms and

  11. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial- study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition. This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. Methods/Designs This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. Discussion This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ

  12. High versus moderate energy use of bipolar fractional radiofrequency in the treatment of acne scars: a split-face double-blinded randomized control trial pilot study.

    PubMed

    Phothong, Weeranut; Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Sathaworawong, Angkana; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2016-02-01

    Bipolar fractional radiofrequency (FRF) device was firstly FDA-approved for treating atrophic acne scar in 2008 through the process of dermal coagulation and minimal epidermal ablation. The average energy at 60 mJ/pin was widely used to treat atrophic acne scars. However, the higher energy was delivered, the deeper ablation and coagulation were found. At present, the new generation of a device with bipolar FRF technology with electrode-pin tip was developed to maximize ability to deliver energy up to 100 mJ/pin. The objective of the study was to explore and compare the efficacy of utilizing high energy (100 mJ/pin) and moderate energy (60 mJ/pin) of bipolar fractional radiofrequency in treatment of atrophic acne scar in Asians. This is a split-face, double-blinded, randomized control trial, pilot study by using parallel group design technique. Thirty healthy subjects with Fitzpatrick skin phototype III-IV diagnosed as atrophic acne scares were enrolled. All subjects received four monthly sessions of bipolar FRF treatment. Left and right facial sides of individual patients were randomly assigned for different energy (high energy at 100 mJ/pin versus moderate energy at 60 mJ/pin). Acne scars improvement was blinded graded by dermatologist using global acne scarring score (GASS) which was subjectively evaluated at baseline, 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Objective scar analysis was also done using UVA-light video camera to measure scar volume, skin smoothness, and wrinkle at baseline, 3-, and 6-month follow-up after the last treatment. Side effects including pain, erythema, swelling, and crusting were also recorded. Thirty subjects completed the study with full 4-treatment course. The mean GASS of high energy side and moderate energy side was significantly reduced at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up visits. At 1 month follow-visit, high energy side demonstrated significant improvement compared with moderate energy side (p = 0.03). Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation

  13. Comparison of single and combination diuretics on glucose tolerance (PATHWAY-3): protocol for a randomised double-blind trial in patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Morris J; Williams, Bryan; MacDonald, Thomas M; Caulfield, Mark; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; McInnes, Gordon; Sever, Peter; Webb, David J; Salsbury, Jackie; Morant, Steve; Ford, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thiazide diuretics are associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus. This risk may arise from K+-depletion. We hypothesised that a K+-sparing diuretic will improve glucose tolerance, and that combination of low-dose thiazide with K+-sparing diuretic will improve both blood pressure reduction and glucose tolerance, compared to a high-dose thiazide. Methods and analysis This is a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial, comparing hydrochlorothiazide 25–50 mg, amiloride 10–20 mg and combination of both diuretics at half these doses. A single-blind placebo run-in of 1 month is followed by 24 weeks of blinded active treatment. There is forced dose-doubling after 3 months. The Primary end point is the blood glucose 2 h after oral ingestion of a 75 g glucose drink (OGTT), following overnight fasting. The primary outcome is the difference between 2 h glucose at weeks 0, 12 and 24. Secondary outcomes include the changes in home systolic blood pressure (BP) and glycated haemoglobin and prediction of response by baseline plasma renin. Eligibility criteria are: age 18–79, systolic BP on permitted background treatment ≥140 mm Hg and home BP ≥130 mm Hg and one component of the metabolic syndrome additional to hypertension. Principal exclusions are diabetes, estimated-glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min, abnormal plasma K+, clinic SBP >200 mm Hg or DBP >120 mm Hg (box 2). The sample size calculation indicates that 486 patients will give 80% power at α=0.01 to detect a difference in means of 1 mmol/L (SD=2.2) between 2 h glucose on hydrochlorothiazide and comparators. Ethics and dissemination PATHWAY-3 was approved by Cambridge South Ethics Committee, number 09/H035/19. The trial results will be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Trial registration numbers Eudract number 2009-010068-41 and clinical trials registration number: NCT02351973. PMID:26253567

  14. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Ono, Yoshiko; Shibata, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a glucosamine-containing supplement to improve locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study was conducted for 16 weeks in 100 Japanese subjects (age, 51.8±0.8 years) with knee pain. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two supplements containing 1) 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, and 5 μg of vitamin D per day (GCQID group, n=50) or 2) a placebo (placebo group, n=50). Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure, visual analog scale score, normal walking speed, and knee-extensor strength were measured to evaluate the effects of the supplement on knee-joint functions and locomotor functions. Results In subjects eligible for efficacy assessment, there was no significant group × time interaction, and there were improvements in knee-joint functions and locomotor functions in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the groups. In subjects with mild-to-severe knee pain at baseline, knee-extensor strength at week 8 (104.6±5.0% body weight vs 92.3±5.5% body weight, P=0.030) and the change in normal walking speed at week 16 (0.11±0.03 m/s vs 0.05±0.02 m/s, P=0.038) were significantly greater in the GCQID group than in the placebo group. Further subgroup analysis based on Kellgren–Lawrence (K–L) grade showed that normal walking speed at week 16 (1.36±0.05 m/s vs 1.21±0.02 m/s, P<0.05) was significantly greater in the GCQID group than in the placebo group in subjects with K–L grade I. No adverse effect of treatment was identified in the safety assessment. Conclusion In subjects with knee pain, GCQID supplementation was effective for relieving knee pain and improving locomotor functions. PMID:26604721

  15. Frovatriptan 2.5 mg plus dexketoprofen (25 mg or 37.5 mg) in menstrually related migraine. Subanalysis from a double-blind, randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Bussone, G; Tullo, V; Cortelli, P; Valguarnera, F; Barbanti, P; Sette, G; D’Onofrio, F; Curone, M; Benedetto, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to investigate the efficacy and safety of frovatriptan plus dexketoprofen 25 or 37.5 mg (FroDex25 or FroDex37.5, respectively) compared to that of frovatriptan 2.5 mg (Frova) in menstrually related migraine (MRM). Aim The aim of this article is to analyze a subgroup of 76 women who treated an MRM attack in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Methods The primary end-point was the proportion of patients who were pain free (PF) at two hours. Secondary end-points included pain-relief (PR) at two hours and 48 hours sustained pain free (SPF). Results PF rates at two hours were 29% under Frova, 48% under FroDex25 and 64% under FroDex37.5 (p < 0.05). PR at two hours was Frova 52%, FroDex25 81% and FroDex37.5 88%, while 48 hours SPF was 18% under Frova, 30% under FroDex25 and 44% under FroDex37.5. Conclusion Combining frovatriptan+dexketoprofen produced higher PF rates at two hours compared to Frova while maintaining efficacy at 48 hours. Tolerability profiles were comparable. PMID:25053749

  16. The efficacy of the dopamine D2/D3 antagonist tiapride in maintaining abstinence: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 299 alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Bender, Stefan; Scherbaum, Norbert; Soyka, Michael; Rüther, Eckart; Mann, Karl; Gastpar, Markus

    2007-10-01

    In this investigation, the hypothesis was tested whether the selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist tiapride is effective in maintaining abstinence after detoxification in alcohol-dependent patients. The rationale of the study was based on the relevance of the dopaminergic system for addictive behaviour as well as some preliminary studies. A multi-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted. A total of 299 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients (ICD-10: F10.2) received either tiapride (300 mg/d) or placebo over a 24-wk study period. Subjects with severe comorbid psychiatric disorder such as schizophrenia or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome were excluded. Primary outcome variable was the time to first relapse with relapse defined as any alcohol consumption after detoxification. Data analysis was done with Kaplan-Meier estimates with log-rank test (one-sided, p<0.05). Tiapride was not superior to placebo in maintaining abstinence. The time to first relapse was 71 d in the tiapride group and 92 d in the placebo group (log-rank test, p=0.9895). Relapse rate was higher in the intervention group (54.4%) than in the control group (40.7%). Like the dopamine antagonist flupenthixol, tiapride was not effective in maintaining alcohol abstinence. Regarding the high success rate in the placebo group the influence of psychosocial treatment in studies investigating drug effects on the course of alcohol dependence has to be considered. PMID:17076934

  17. Anti-pruritic Effect of Sertaconazole 2% Cream in Atopic Dermatitis Subjects: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Vehicle-controlled, Multi-centre Clinical Trial of Efficacy, Safety and Local Tolerability.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja; Metz, Martin; Ramos F, Mac H; Maurer, Marcus; Schoepke, Nicole; Tsianakas, Athanasios; Zeidler, Claudia; Luger, Thomas A

    2016-08-23

    This study was a prospective, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multi-centre clinical trial to compare the efficacy of topical sertaconazole 2% cream with vehicle in reducing chronic pruritus in subjects with atopic dermatitis, and to assess its safety and local tolerability. A total of 70 subjects applied either of the 2 treatments twice daily for a period of 4 weeks on affected, itchy skin areas. Treatment efficacy was evaluated primarily considering the item itch intensity on a 5-point verbal rating scale. Insomnia, state of atopic dermatitis (Scoring Atopic Dermatitis; SCORAD), quality of life and therapy benefit were also assessed. No significant difference between active treatment and vehicle was found at any of the time-points for any of the investigated parameters. Under the experimental conditions of the study, sertaconazole 2% cream did not exert anti-pruritic effects that were better than vehicle in subjects with atopic dermatitis who had chronic pruritus. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01792713. PMID:26527564

  18. Efficacy and safety of a dieckol-rich extract (AG-dieckol) of brown algae, Ecklonia cava, in pre-diabetic individuals: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hong; Jeon, You-Jin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of 12 weeks of supplementation with a dieckol-rich extract (AG-dieckol) from brown algae, Ecklonia cava, on glycemic parameters, serum biochemistry, and hematology were investigated in this study. Eighty pre-diabetic male and female adults were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with parallel-group design. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups designated as placebo and AG-dieckol (1500 mg per day). Compared with the placebo group, the AG-dieckol group showed a significant decrease in postprandial glucose levels after 12 weeks. The AG-dieckol group also showed a significant decrease in insulin and C-peptide levels after 12 weeks, but there was no significant difference between the AG-dieckol and placebo groups. There were no significant adverse events related to the consumption of AG-dieckol, and biochemical and hematological parameters were maintained within the normal range during the intervention period. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that AG-dieckol supplementation significantly contributes to lowering postprandial hyperglycemia and in reducing insulin resistance. Furthermore, we believe that based on these results the consumption of phlorotannin-rich foods such as marine algae may be useful for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:25608849

  19. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jay K.; George, Annie A.; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N.; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:24550993

  20. Fenoverine: a two-step, double-blind and open clinical assessments of its smooth muscle synchronizing effects.

    PubMed

    Bader, F

    1986-01-01

    A clinical trial on fenoverine was performed in two parts, one double-blind and one open. In the double-blind segment, 69 patients with chronic gastro-intestinal spasmodic conditions were allocated, according to a pre-set randomization table, to receive orally 3 daily doses of fenoverine (100 mg; 35 patients), trimebutine (150 mg; 14 patients) or placebo (20 patients) during an average of 8 days. In the open assay, 60 similar patients were treated during an average of 10 days with 100 mg fenoverine, orally, 3-times daily. Clinical efficacy was evaluated on the grounds of complete or almost complete remission of all symptoms and signs associated with the spasmodic condition. In the double-blind segment, 66% of patients given fenoverine experienced remission, a significantly higher proportion than those who had placebo (40%). The results with trimebutine (71%) could not be statistically differentiated from those of either fenoverine or placebo. In the open segment, 72% of patients experienced remission with fenoverine, thus showing an overall effectiveness in 70% of the total 95 patients who had such treatment. In neither study could a significant influence of spasm localization be shown on the clinical efficacy of fenoverine. Fenoverine also exerted an unexpected, though clinically interesting, anti-emetic action: of the 14 patients reporting vomiting on entry, 12 (86%) responded positively to fenoverine, whereas none responded out of the 3 who had placebo. Possible side-reactions were limited with fenoverine: there were only 17 (18%) complaints, mainly dry mouth, of which 6 were very mild.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3515369

  1. Effects of 4-chlorotestosterone acetate on the phagocytic activity of human monocytes: results of double-blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Magliulo, E.; Giraldi, M.; Cattaneo, E.; Marchioni, E.

    1972-01-01

    A comparative trial on 4-chlorotestosterone acetate and placebo was conducted in humans by the double-blind technique. The effects of the drug were tested by measuring the phagocytic activity of blood monocytes in vitro for colloidal carbon. Monocytes from patients treated with 4-chlorotestosterone acetate displayed a phagocytic power significantly higher than that of monocytes from patients treated with the placebo. Such an increased phagocytic activity is discussed in relation to cell mechanisms and their role in anti-infective defence. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4556011

  2. Analgesic effect of ceruletide compared with pentazocine in biliary and renal colic: a prospective, controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Lishner, M; Lang, R; Jutrin, I; De-Paolis, C; Ravid, M

    1985-06-01

    The analgesic effect of ceruletide in biliary and renal colic was evaluated by a randomized, double-blind study in 82 patients. Ceruletide was compared with pentazocine, a well-established analgetic agent. Rapid and effective analgesia was obtained by intramuscular injection of ceruletide 0.5 micrograms/kg in 56 patients with biliary colic. The analgesic effect of ceruletide compared well with pentazocine 0.5 mg/kg im, and was associated with remarkably fewer side effects. In 26 patients with renal colic, ceruletide was significantly inferior to pentazocine. These data support the recommendation of ceruletide as a first-choice analgetic agent for biliary colic. PMID:3891284

  3. Ketoprofen vs etofenamate in a controlled double-blind study: evidence of topical effectiveness in soft tissue rheumatic pain.

    PubMed

    Matucci-Cerinic, M; Casini, A

    1988-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of topical application of ketoprofen gel and etofenamate gel were studied in a controlled double-blind clinical trial. Thirty-six patients affected by inflammation of tendons, sheaths and bursae entered the study, and were treated for seven days. The parameters studied were: pain scale, Ritchie index, stiffness, pain on active and passive movement and functional capacity. The results showed that ketoprofen gel and etofenamate gel were able to induce remission of the inflammatory symptoms in soft tissue rheumatic pain. No side-effects were detected in either group. PMID:3042643

  4. [A double blind comparison of naproxen and indomethacin on the after-midnight-pain of patients with morbus bechterew].

    PubMed

    Peter, E

    1975-02-01

    27 patients with ascertained ankylosing spondylitis experiencing constant after-midnight-pain received, following three medication-free days, in a double blind, randomized, cross-over fashion indometacin (100 g/day) and d-2-(6'-methoxy-2'-naphthyl)-propionic acid (naproxen) (500 mg/day), as suppositories, for a period of six days each. The intensity of the night-pain was recorded daily. Naproxen was shown to be equally effective as indometacin in alleviating the after-midnight backache of ankylosing spondylitis. Side effects occurred under indometacin in 5 cases, under naproxen in 3 cases. PMID:1096904

  5. [Clofibrate for the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates born at term: a double blind controlled study (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, A; Hernandorena, X; Vial, M; Benattar, C; Janaud, J C; Dehan, M; Foliot, A; Leluc, R; Gabilan, J C

    1981-12-01

    A double blind controlled study of the therapeutic effect of clofibrate, an inductor of bilirubin glucuronyl transferase, was performed in neonates born at term and presenting with physiologic jaundice. 47 children were treated with a single oral dose of clofibrate. 46 control children were given corn oil alone. Results show that mean plasma bilirubin levels are significantly lower in the treated group as compared with the control group, from the 16th hour of treatment, if there is no ABO incompatibility. Clofibrate treatment also resulted in a shorter duration of jaundice and a restricted use of phototherapy. No undesirable side-effect was observed. PMID:7036932

  6. A randomized double-blind prospective study of the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic fields for interbody lumbar fusions

    SciTech Connect

    Mooney, V. )

    1990-07-01

    A randomized double-blind prospective study of pulsed electromagnetic fields for lumbar interbody fusions was performed on 195 subjects. There were 98 subjects in the active group and 97 subjects in the placebo group. A brace containing equipment to induce an electromagnetic field was applied to patients undergoing interbody fusion in the active group, and a sham brace was used in the control group. In the active group there was a 92% success rate, while the control group had a 65% success rate (P greater than 0.005). The effectiveness of bone graft stimulation with the device is thus established.

  7. Intravenous indomethacin and oxycone-papaverine in the treatment of acute renal colic. A double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, P E; Olsson, A M; Petersson, B A; Johansson, K

    1987-05-01

    In a prospective double-blind, cross-over study, 61 patients with acute renal colic were treated with either indomethacin (50 mg) or oxycone-papaverine (5 mg + 50 mg) administered intravenously. For those patients requiring a second injection the drugs were reversed. The intensity of pain was evaluated before and 20 min after each injection according to an analogue visual scale 0 to 100. Both drug regimens provided comparable and significant pain relief; a pain score of less than 20 appeared to be satisfactory and was achieved in almost all cases. PMID:3297230

  8. Double-Blind Randomized Trial of Pirfenidone in Chinese Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Dai, Hua Ping; Kang, Jian; Chen, Bao Yuan; Sun, Tie Ying; Xu, Zuo Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lacks effective treatment. Pirfenidone has been used to treat IPF patients. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) exerts antioxidant and antifibrotic effects on IPF cases. This study is a double-blind, modified placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial of pirfenidone in Chinese IPF patients. We randomly assigned the enrolled Chinese IPF patients with mild to moderate impairment of pulmonary function to receive either oral pirfenidone (1800 mg per day) and NAC (1800 mg per day) or placebo and NAC (1800 mg per day) for 48 weeks. The primary endpoints were the changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and walking distance and the lowest SPO2 during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) at week 48. The key secondary endpoint was the progression-free survival time. This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as number NCT01504334. Eighty-six patients were screened, and 76 cases were enrolled (pirfenidone + NAC: 38; placebo + NAC: 38). The effect of pirfenidone treatment was significant at the 24th week, but this effect did not persist to the 48th week. At the 24th week, the mean decline in both FVC and ΔSPO2 (%) during the 6MWT in the pirfenidone group was lower than that in the control group (−0.08 ± 0.20 L vs −0.22 ± 0.29 L, P = 0.02 and −3.44% ± 4.51% vs −6.29% ± 6.06%, P = 0.03, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between these 2 groups at the 48th week (−0.15 ± 0.25 L vs −0.25 ± 0.28 L, P = 0.11 and −4.25% ± 7.27% vs −5.31% ± 5.49%, P = 0.51, respectively). The pirfenidone treatment group did not achieve the maximal distance difference on the 6MWT at either the 24th or the 48th week. But pirfenidone treatment prolonged the progression-free survival time in the IPF patients (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.092–3.242, P = 0.02). In the pirfenidone group, the adverse event (AE) rate (52.63%) was

  9. Pioglitazone in early Parkinson's disease: a phase 2, multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background A systematic assessment of potential disease-modifying compounds for Parkinson's disease concluded that pioglitazone could hold promise for the treatment of patients with this disease. We assessed the effect of pioglitazone on the progression of Parkinson's disease in a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, futility clinical trial. Methods Participants with the diagnosis of early Parkinson's disease on a stable regimen of 1 mg/day rasagiline or 10 mg/day selegiline were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to 15 mg/day pioglitazone, 45 mg/day pioglitazone, or placebo. Investigators were masked to the treatment assignment. Only the statistical centre and the central pharmacy knew the treatment name associated with the randomisation number. The primary outcome was the change in the total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score between the baseline and 44 weeks, analysed by intention to treat. The primary null hypothesis for each dose group was that the mean change in UPDRS was 3 points less than the mean change in the placebo group. The alternative hypothesis (of futility) was that pioglitazone is not meaningfully different from placebo. We rejected the null if there was significant evidence of futility at the one-sided alpha level of 0.10. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01280123. Findings 210 patients from 35 sites in the USA were enrolled between May 10, 2011, and July 31, 2013. The primary analysis included 72 patients in the 15 mg group, 67 in the 45 mg group, and 71 in the placebo group. The mean total UPDRS change at 44 weeks was 4.42 (95% CI 2.55–6.28) for 15 mg pioglitazone, 5.13 (95% CI 3.17–7.08) for 45 mg pioglitazone, and 6.25 (95% CI 4.35–8.15) for placebo (higher change scores are worse). The mean difference between the 15 mg and placebo groups was −1.83 (80% CI −3.56 to −0.10) and the null hypothesis could not be rejected (p=0.19). The mean difference between the 45 mg and placebo

  10. Anabolic steroids after total knee arthroplasty. A double blinded prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty is reported to improve the patient's quality of life and mobility. However loss of mobility and pain prior to surgery often results in disuse atrophy of muscle. As a consequence the baseline functional state prior to surgery may result in poorer outcome "post surgery" and extended rehabilitation may be required. The use of anabolic steroids for performance enhancement and to influence muscle mass is well established. The positive effects of such treatment on bone and muscle could therefore be beneficial in the rehabilitation of elderly patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of small doses of Nandrolone decanoate on recovery and muscle strength after total knee replacement and to establish the safety of this drug in multimorbid patients. Methods This study was designed as a prospective double blind randomized investigation. Five patients (treatment group) with a mean age of 66.2 (58-72), average BMI of 30.76 (24.3-35.3) received 50 mg nandrolone decanoate intramuscular bi-weekly for 6 months. The control group (five patients; mean age 65.2, range 59-72; average BMI 31.7, range 21.2-35.2) was injected with saline solution. "Pre-operatively" and "post-operatively" (6 weeks, 3,6,9 and 12 months) all patients were assessed using the knee society score (KSS), isokinetic strength testing and functional tests (a sit-to-stand and timed walking tests). In addition, a bone density scan was used preoperatively and 6 month postoperatively to assess bone mineral density. Results Whilst the steroid group generally performed better than the placebo group for all of the functional tests, ANOVA failed to reveal any significant differences. The steroid group demonstrated higher levels of quadriceps muscle strength across the postoperative period which reached significance at 3 (p = 0.02), 6 (p = 0.01), and 12 months (p = 0.02). There was a significant difference for the KSS at 6 weeks (p = 0.02), 6 (p = 0.02) and 12 month

  11. Double-blind maintenance safety and effectiveness findings from the Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Study (TEOSS)

    PubMed Central

    Findling, Robert L; Johnson, Jacqueline L; McClellan, Jon; Frazier, Jean A; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Ritz, Louise; McNamara, Nora K; Lingler, Jacqui; Hlastala, Stefanie; Pierson, Leslie; Puglia, Madeline; Maloney, Ann E; Kaufman, Emily Michael; Noyes, Nancy; Sikich, Linmarie

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the long-term safety and efficacy of three antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOSS). METHOD Patients (age 8–19 years) who had improved during an 8-week, randomized double-blind acute trial of olanzapine, risperidone, or molindone (plus benztropine) were eligible to continue on the same medication for up to 44 additional weeks under double-blind conditions. Adjunctive medications were allowed following defined algorithms. Standardized symptom, safety, and functional assessments were conducted every 4 weeks. RESULTS Of the 116 youth randomized in the acute trial, 54 entered maintenance treatment (molindone, N=20; olanzapine, N=13; risperidone, N=21). Fourteen (26%) completed 44 weeks of treatment. Adverse effects (N=15), inadequate efficacy (N=14), or study non-adherence (N=8) were the most common reasons for discontinuation. The three treatment arms did not significantly differ in symptom reduction or time to discontinuation. Akathisia was more common with molindone and elevated prolactin concentrations more common with risperidone. Although weight gain and metabolic adverse events had occurred more often with olanzapine and risperidone during the acute trial, no significant between-drug differences emerged in most of these parameters during maintenance treatment. CONCLUSIONS Only 12 % of youth with EOSS continued on their originally randomized treatment at 52 weeks. No agent demonstrated superior efficacy, and all were associated with side effects, including weight gain. Improved treatments are needed for EOSS. PMID:20494268

  12. Double-blind versus open evaluations of stimulant drug response in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sprafkin, J; Gadow, K D

    1996-01-01

    Although placebo controls and double-blind conditions are considered to be essential for the unbiased scientific assessment of drug effects, there is very little research on these procedures in the pediatric psychopharmacology literature. To examine the impact of controlled assessment procedures on the magnitude of observed drug effects, two groups of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated for response to methylphenidate under two different assessment procedures. One group (n = 33) was part of a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover research protocol, with randomized dose sequences, compliance checks, numerous dependent measures, written informed consent, and a considerable amount of staff involvement. The other group (n = 43) received pharmacotherapy at a community-based child psychiatry outpatient service where they were followed in a routine clinical manner, with "no treatment" as the only control condition, standard fixed-dose titration, parental responsibility for data collection, use of form letters, and minimal staff involvement. Each individual in both groups received divided doses of 0.3 and 0.5/0.6 mg/kg daily for a minimum of 1 week at each dose. Comparisons of teacher ratings obtained for the two assessment procedures revealed highly similar findings. The results of this study are discussed with regard to both their methodological and clinical implications. PMID:9231315

  13. Is ginger effective for the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome? A double blind randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    VAN TILBURG, Miranda A.L.; PALSSON, Olafur S.; RINGEL, Yehuda; WHITEHEAD, William E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Ginger is one of the most commonly used herbal medicine for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) but no data exists about its effectiveness. Design Double blind randomized controlled trial Setting University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill North Carolina, USA Intervention Forty-five IBS patients were randomly assigned to three groups: placebo, one gram of ginger, and two grams of ginger daily for 28 days. Main outcome measures The IBS severity scale (IBS-SS) was administered, as well as adequate relief of symptoms scale. A responder was defined as having at least 25% reduction in IBS-SS post-treatment. Results There were 57.1% responders to placebo, 46.7% to one gram and 33.3% to two grams of ginger. Adequate relief was reported by 53.3% on placebo and 53.3% in both ginger groups combined. Side effects were mild and reported by 35.7% in the placebo and 16.7% in the ginger groups. Conclusions This double blind randomized controlled pilot study suggests ginger is well tolerated but did not perform better than placebo. Larger trials are needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24559811

  14. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to evaluate an antipruritic shampoo for dogs with allergic pruritus.

    PubMed

    Schilling, J; Mueller, R S

    2012-07-28

    Shampoo therapy is frequently used on pruritic dogs. However, there are few double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies of this form of therapy. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial medicated shampoo (DermaTopic; Almapharm) containing chlorhexidine, lactoferrin, piroctone olamine, chitosan and essential fatty acids in 27 dogs with mild to moderate allergic pruritus without secondary skin infections. All dogs received shampoo therapy with either DermaTopic or a shampoo vehicle as placebo twice weekly for four weeks. The extent of pruritus was evaluated before the study and then on a daily basis by the owners using a visual analogue scale. Before beginning the treatment and after four weeks, the skin lesions were evaluated by an experienced clinician with a validated lesion score (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index - CADESI). The pruritus was reduced significantly by both DermaTopic and placebo. However, there was no significant difference between both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the CADESI scores pre- and post-treatment in either group or between the two types of treatment. This study provides further evidence of the benefit of shampoo therapy for pruritic dogs. PMID:22678620

  15. Clinical evaluation of a novel herbal dental cream in plaque formation: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Amrutesh, Sunita; Malini, J; Tandur, Prakash S; Patki, Pralhad S

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal dental cream in comparison to fluoride dental cream. Objectives Clinical evaluation of a novel herbal dental cream in plaque formation: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Methods One hundred and two patients with established dental plaque were randomly assigned to either herbal dental group or fluoride dental group for six weeks in a double-blind design. Improvement in plaque index, oral hygiene status, bleeding index, and gingival index was evaluated in these patients along with microbiological study. Results Results indicated a significant reduction in plaque index, gingival index, oral hygiene index, and microbial growth in both groups. Difference between the groups was not significant. There was no significant change in bleeding index. No adverse events were reported and both the dental creams were well tolerated. Conclusion The finding of this preliminary study indicates that herbal dental cream is as safe and effective as fluoride dental cream, but not superior to it. PMID:27186096

  16. Cinnarizine versus Topiramate in Prophylaxis of Migraines among Children and Adolescents: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    ASHRAFI, Mahmoud Reza; NAJAFI, Zeinab; SHAFIEI, Masih; HEIDARI, Kazem; TOGHA, Mansoureh

    2014-01-01

    Objective Migraines, a common health problem in children and adolescents, still do not have an FDA approved preventive treatment for patients under the age of 18 years. This study compares and contrasts the efficacy and safety of cinnarizine and topiramate in preventing pediatric migraines. Materials & Methods In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial 44 migrainous (from 4–15 years of age) were equally allocated to receive cinnarizine or topiramate. The primary efficacy measure was monthly migraine frequency. Secondary efficacy measures were monthly migraine intensity and ≥ 50% responder rate. Efficacy measures were recorded at the baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. Results During the double-blind phase of the study, monthly migraine frequency and intensity were significantly decreased in both the cinnarizine and topiramate groups when compared to the baseline. However, at the end of the study, the cinnarizine group exhibits a significant decrease from the baseline in the mean monthly migraine intensity when compared to the topiramate group (4.7 vs. 3, respectively; 95% CI = -0.8 to -3.2). Conclusion No significant difference between cinnarizine and topiramate was found for the prevention of pediatric migraines. Both treatments were well tolerated. PMID:25657766

  17. PONV in Ambulatory surgery: A comparison between Ramosetron and Ondansetron: a prospective, double-blinded, and randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Debasis; Das, Anjan; Majumdar, Saikat; Mandal, Rahul Deb; Dutta, Soumyadip; Mukherjee, Anindya; Chakraborty, Aparna; Chattopadhyay, Sandip

    2014-01-01

    Background: postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) frequently hampers implementation of ambulatory surgery in spite of so many antiemetic drugs and regimens. Aims: the study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Ramosetron and Ondansetron in preventing PONV after ambulatory surgery. Setting and Design: it was a prospective, double blinded, and randomized controlled study. Methods: 124 adult patients of either sex, aged 25-55, of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for day care surgery, were randomly allocated into Group A [(n=62) receiving (IV) Ondansetron (4 mg)] and Group B [(n=62) receiving IV Ramosetron (0.3 mg)] prior to the induction of general anesthesia in a double-blind manner. Episodes of PONV were noted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 h, 6, 12, and 18 h postoperatively. Statistical Analysis and Results: statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (P <0.05) was found showing that Ramosetron was superior to Ondansetron as antiemetic both regarding frequency and severity. Conclusion: it was evident that preoperative prophylactic administration of single dose IV Ramosetron (0.3 mg) has better efficacy than single dose IV Ondansetron (4 mg) in reducing the episodes of PONV over 18 h postoperatively in patients undergoing day-care surgery under general anesthesia. PMID:24665236

  18. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40-79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

  19. Acceptability and Efficacy of Commercial Oral Preparation of Midazolam for brief Painful Procedure: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Binita; Mittal, Neeti

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To compare the acceptability and efficacy of orally administered commercially available midazolam syrup and injection midazolam mixed in honey for performing venepuncture. Materials and methods: This double blind randomized controlled trial enrolled 40 anxious and healthy 2 to 6 years olds. All subjects received either syrup midazolam or injection midazolam mixed in honey (0.5 mg/kg) per orally, prior to venepuncture as per their group assignment. Primary outcome measures in this trial was acceptability of midazolam. Secondary outcome measures included sedation depth, success of venepuncture, observer and parental satisfaction and parental perception of child's pain. Results: Although the acceptability of syrup midazolam (95%) was higher than injection midazolam (80%), there was no significant difference among two groups with respect to any primary or secondary outcome (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Syrup midazolam can serve as a suitable alternative to injection midazolam; thus, eliminating the procedural steps of mixing injection midazolam with any vehicle. How to cite this article: Srivastava B, Mittal N, Mittal P. Acceptability and Efficacy of Commercial Oral Preparation of Midazolam for brief Painful Procedure: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):153-156. PMID:25709292

  20. Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40–79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

  1. Double-blind study with dipyrone versus tramadol and butylscopolamine in acute renal colic pain.

    PubMed

    Stankov, G; Schmieder, G; Zerle, G; Schinzel, S; Brune, K

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the combined analgesic and spasmolytic effect of dipyrone, 104 patients suffering from "severe" or "excruciating" colic pain due to a confirmed calculus in the upper urinary tract were randomized to receive i.v. either 2.5 g dipyrone (36 patients), 100 mg tramadol (35 patients), or 20 mg butylscopolamine (33 patients) in a multicentre, observer-blind, parallel-group study conducted in 8 German centres. The three treatment groups were homogeneous when analyzed by age, sex, height, and baseline pain intensity. Dipyrone was significantly more effective than tramadol in reducing pain for the primary endpoint, pain intensity differences (PID) at 20, 30, and 50 min after drug administration, and was significantly more effective than butylscopolamine at 30 and 50 min for the secondary efficacy endpoint, pain intensity differences on a categorical scale. Dipyrone had the highest SPID0-2 h of the three drugs (P < 0.05). Only 5 patients receiving dipyrone needed "rescue" medication as compared with 13 patients given tramadol and 11 patients receiving butylscopolamine. Adverse events were observed in 4 patients receiving butylscopolamine and in 1 patient each given dipyrone and tramadol. "Distinct" pain relief as assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS) is a reliable method of determining the onset of analgesic action in the colic pain model. PMID:7951343

  2. Efficacy and safety of AZD3199 vs formoterol in COPD: a randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the efficacy and safety of AZD3199, a novel inhaled ultra-LABA, with the main aim of establishing a dose that would maintain 24-hour bronchodilation in patients with COPD. Methods Patients (n = 329) were randomized to AZD3199 (200, 400 or 800 μg o.d.), formoterol (9 μg b.i.d.) or placebo via Turbuhaler® in a parallel group study. The primary objective of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy of three doses of AZD3199 inhaled once daily with 9 μg formoterol twice daily and placebo, over a 4-week treatment period in adults with moderate-to-severe COPD. After 4 weeks, peak (0–4 h) and trough (24–26 h) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were assessed as the primary efficacy outcome variables. Results All AZD3199 doses significantly increased mean peak and trough FEV1 versus placebo (106–171 ml and 97–110 ml increases, respectively), but with no clear dose–response; the level of bronchodilation was comparable to or greater than that achieved with formoterol. Forced vital capacity (FVC) at peak bronchodilation also significantly increased with AZD3199 versus placebo (153–204 ml). COPD symptom scores and reliever use were reduced with AZD3199, while FEV1 reversibility was unaltered. Adverse events were mild-to-moderate, with no safety concerns identified. Drug exposure was dose-proportional, but lower than predicted from healthy volunteers. Conclusions All three doses of AZD3199 produced 24-hour bronchodilation, but with no clear dose–response, suggesting that doses of 200 μg or less may be sufficient to maintain bronchodilation over 24 hours in patients with COPD. No safety concerns were identified. Further studies are required to determine the once-daily AZD3199 dose for COPD. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00929708 PMID:23731768

  3. Fluoxetine (SSRI) treatment of canine atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, M; Ishimaru, H; Nakatsuji, Y

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated effects of a fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; SSRI, 1 mg/kg) on pruritus in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). After 4-weeks of base-line observation, 8 dogs with CAD entered a 2-months randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial comparing fluoxetine with placebo. Clinical efficacy was evaluated using a Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and Pruritus Visual Analog Scale (PVAS). Six dogs completed the study [two out of eight dogs (both of them were Shiba Inu) dropped out from the study due to a depression]. CADESI-03 and PVAS between fluoxetine and placebo showed no significant difference statistically (P > 0.05 and P > 0.05 respectively). Fluoxetine showed no efficacy on pruritus in CAD. Further researches are needed for the treatment on pruritus of CAD. PMID:24988868

  4. Double-blind comparison of piroxicam and indomethacin in the treatment of cervicobrachial syndrome and periarthritis scapulohumeralis (stiff shoulder).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Sugano, T; Kashiwazaki, S; Kageyama, T; Mizushima, Y; Kameyama, M

    1983-01-01

    In a 14-day double-blind multicenter trial the efficacy and safety of piroxicam was compared with that of indomethacin among patients with extra-articular rheumatic conditions marked by cervicobrachial pain. The drugs were found to have comparable overall efficacy, with over 75% of the patients in both drug groups experiencing some improvement. Piroxicam appeared to provide somewhat better results in the subpopulation with cervicobrachial syndrome, while indomethacin was marginally better among patients with periarthritis scapulohumeralis. There was a trend toward better relief of nighttime pain with piroxicam in the cervicobrachial syndrome group at week 2. Fewer adverse reactions were observed with piroxicam, and the number of patients discontinued for side effects was also lower for piroxicam (4.1%) than for indomethacin (9.5%). PMID:6391931

  5. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation on indices of mental and physical fatigue in men.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Morgan; Hassinger, Lauren; Davis, Joshua; Devor, Steven T; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina may increase people's ability to resist mental and physical fatigue. This study tested that hypothesis in a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study in men. After 1 week, a 3 g/day dose of spirulina produced a small, but statistically significant increase in exercise output (Kcals consumed in 30 min exercise on a cross trainer machine). A mathematical based mental fatigue test showed improved performance 4 h after the first time of supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. Similarly, a subjective survey for a sense of physical and mental fatigue showed improvement within 4 h of the first supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. These results show that spirulina intake can affect fatigue in men. PMID:26888417

  6. A double-blind comparison between a new multidose powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) and metered dose inhaler in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, C; Ahlström, H; Kjellman, N I; Malmqvist, L A; Svenonius, E; Melin, S

    1989-09-01

    Turbuhaler is a ready-loaded multiple dose inhaler which does not require co-ordination between release of dose and inhalation. 57 children with asthma participated in this clinical trial to compare the clinical effect and acceptance of terbutaline sulphate via Turbuhaler with that of metered dose inhaler (MDI). The trial consisted of two parts. In the first part of the study, which made use of a double-blind cross-over design, the clinical effect and number of treatment occasions with Turbuhaler were compared with those of MDI. In the second part, which was open, all patients were treated with Turbuhaler for 2 weeks. At the end of this period the patients were asked to make a subjective assessment of effect and to state their preference. There was no difference in clinical effect and number of treatment occasions between Turbuhaler and MDI. A majority of the patients thought Turbuhaler had the best effect and was easy to use. PMID:2683835

  7. [Double-blind controlled study of the efficacy of nifuroxazide versus placebo in the treatment of acute diarrhea in adults].

    PubMed

    Bourée, P; Chaput, J C; Krainik, F; Michel, H; Trépo, C

    1989-05-01

    In a double-blind, controlled randomized trial, 88 adult patients with acute diarrhea (more than three watery stools per day) received either 400 mg of nifuroxazide twice daily or placebo for 5 days. The mean duration of diarrhea in the nifuroxazide group was 2.09 days versus 3.26 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.004). The number of bowel movements per day diminished and mucus disappeared more quickly in patients treated by nifuroxazide than in patients of the placebo group. Nifuroxazide was well tolerated and no side effects were observed. Nifuroxazide is an effective therapy for acute diarrhea and can be prescribed from the onset of diarrhea without waiting for stool culture results which can be late or negative. PMID:2666238

  8. Improvement of seminal parameters with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Stanislavov, R; Nikolova, V; Rohdewald, P

    2009-03-01

    In a randomly allocated, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 50 infertile patients were treated for 1 month with placebo or a combination of l-arginine aspartate and Pycnogenol (Prelox). Semen samples were examined at 4 week intervals according to WHO criteria. Treatment with Prelox increased significantly the semen volume, concentration of spermatozoa, percentage of motile spermatozoa and percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology compared with placebo. The placebo had no influence on the parameters of seminological analysis. Intake of Pycnogenol for 1 month improved the fertility index to normal values. After treatment, the fertility index decreased again to infertile status. No unwanted effects were reported. Prelox seems to be a promising alternative to treat patients with mild infertility. PMID:19142978

  9. EFFECT OF A DENTIFRICE CONTAINING ALOE VERA ON PLAQUE AND GINGIVITIS CONTROL. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Sílvia Morgana Araújo; Torres, Ticiana Carneiro; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima; Carlos, Márlio Ximenes

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was evaluated in a randomized, parallel and double-blind clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to the test group (n=15) – dentifrice containing Aloe vera - or the control group (n=15) – fluoridated dentifrice. Plaque index (PI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were assessed at days 0 and 30. Subjects were asked to brush their teeth with the control or test dentifrice, three times a day, during a 30-day period. There was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in both groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.01). The dentifrice containing Aloe vera did not show any additional effect on plaque and gingivitis control compared to the fluoridated dentifrice. PMID:19089263

  10. Late reactions in food-allergic children and adolescents after double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges.

    PubMed

    Saleh-Langenberg, J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; AlAgla, N; Kollen, B J; Dubois, A E J

    2016-07-01

    The time during which children are observed following a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) varies in clinical practice. There are little data on late reactions (LRs) following DBPCFCs. Therefore, we determined the prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics of late reactions in food-allergic children and adolescents after DBPCFC, and ascertained which factors are associated with, and may predict, LRs. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate which factors were associated with LRs and to develop the association and prediction models. A total of 1142 children underwent DBPCFCs (child-test combinations). Of these 1142 child-test combinations, 400 reported LRs following the DBPCFC. LRs in food-allergic children after DBPCFC are poorly predictable and are generally not severe. All LRs, including those on the placebo day, are more frequently reported in younger children. Children who do not experience severe immediate reactions may be safely discharged home 2 h after a DBPCFC. PMID:27121602

  11. A double-blind study comparing the efficacy and tolerability of mirtazapine and doxepin in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Marttila, M; Jääskeläinen, J; Järvi, R; Romanov, M; Miettinen, E; Sorri, P; Ahlfors, U; Zivkov, M

    1995-12-01

    One hundred and sixty-three patients with major depression were randomly assigned to treatment with mirtazapine or doxepin for 6 weeks in a double-blind clinical trial. Initially, patients received mirtazapine 20 mg/day or doxepin 75 mg/day; dosages were then titrated up to a maximum of 60 mg/day and 300 mg/day, respectively. Both drugs produced considerable improvement in depressive symptoms with no statistically significant differences between the two patient groups. In the mirtazapine group only two patients prematurely terminated the study due to adverse drug experiences, as compared to six in the doxepin-treated group. Moreover, doxepin-treated patients complained more frequently of dry mouth and movement disorders. In conclusion, mirtazapine is an effective treatment for major depression and appears to offer advantages in tolerability over doxepin. PMID:8998395

  12. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of garlic as a mosquito repellant: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rajan, T V; Hein, M; Porte, P; Wikel, S

    2005-03-01

    The hypothesis that the ingestion of garlic provides protection against bloodsucking pests such as mosquitoes was investigated using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. Subjects were asked to consume either garlic (one visit) or a placebo (the other visit). They were then exposed to laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae). The numbers of mosquitoes that did not feed on the subjects, the number of mosquito bites, the weights of the mosquitoes after feeding and the amounts of blood ingested were determined. The data did not provide evidence of significant systemic mosquito repellence. A limitation of the study is that more prolonged ingestion of garlic may be needed to accomplish repellence. PMID:15752181

  13. Double-blind comparison of the respiratory and sedative effects of codeine phosphate and (+/-)-glaucine phosphate in human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Redpath, J B; Pleuvry, B J

    1982-01-01

    1 Two antitussive agents (+/-)-glaucine phosphate and codeine phosphate have been compared with placebo with respect to ventilation, ventilatory response to carbon dioxide, pulse, blood pressure, digit symbol substitution, sedation score and the Zahlen-Verbindung test performance in ten healthy volunteers (22-36 years). The study was double-blind and the two doses of each antitussive agent and the placebo were administered as a syrup. 2 Both codeine phosphate and (+/-)-glaucine phosphate displaced the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide to the right. 3 The effect of codeine phosphate on the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide was not dose dependent: 30 mg produced greater effects than the 60 mg dose. 4 Only the highest dose of (+/-)-glaucine phosphate (60 mg) caused respiratory depression and this was associated with sedation and decreased performance in the digit symbol substitution test. 5 Neither antitussive agent had significant effects upon pulse or blood pressure and codeine phosphate had no detectable sedative activity. PMID:6814470

  14. Reiki therapy for postoperative oral pain in pediatric patients: Pilot data from a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Anjana; Lin, Yuting; Oron, Assaf P.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of Reiki as an adjuvant therapy to opioid therapy for postoperative pain control in pediatric patients. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized controlled study of children undergoing dental procedures. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either Reiki therapy or the control therapy (sham Reiki) preoperatively. Postoperative pain scores, opioid requirements, and side effects were assessed. Family members were also asked about perioperative care satisfaction. Multiple linear regressions were used for analysis. Results Thirty-eight children participated. The blinding procedure was successful. No statistically significant difference was observed between groups on all outcome measures. Implications Our study provides a successful example of a blinding procedure for Reiki therapy among children in the perioperative period. This study does not support the effectiveness of Reiki as an adjuvant therapy to opioid therapy for postoperative pain control in pediatric patients. PMID:24439640

  15. [Efficiency of homeopathic preparation combinations in sinusitis. Results of a randomized double blind study with general practitioners].

    PubMed

    Wiesenauer, M; Gaus, W; Bohnacker, U; Häussler, S

    1989-05-01

    In a controlled randomized double-blind trial carried out by 47 physicians in private practice with totally 152 patients with sinusitis the therapeutic success of the following homeopathic drug preparations was investigated: Group A: combination of luffa operculata D4, kalium bicromicum D4 and cinnabaris D3. Group B: combination of kalium bicromicum D4 and cinnabaris D3. Group C: luffa operculata D4. Group D: placebo. Criteria for the therapeutic result were headache, blocked nasal breathing, trigeminal tenderness, reddening and swelling of nasal mucosa and postnasal secretion. There was no remarkable difference in the therapeutic success among the investigated homeopathic drug combinations nor between the active drugs and placebo. Averaged over all four groups 81% of the patients with acute sinusitis and 67% of the patients with chronic sinusitis recovered. In the literature comparable therapeutic results are reported for antibiotic therapy, decongestant nose drops and for the drainage of nasal cavities. PMID:2667526

  16. [Study of analgesic efficacy of propacetamol in the postoperative period using a double blind placebo controlled method].

    PubMed

    Nikoda, V V; Maiachkin, R B

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency and safety of postoperative use of propacetamol was estimated in 30 patients by means of double blind placebo controlled method. The first group consisted of 15 patients to whom propacetamol was introduced intravenously in single dose of 2 g along with patient controlled anesthesia with promedol. Placebo in combination with patient control anesthesia were used in 15 patients from the 2nd group. Intravenous introducing of propacetamol in dose of 2 g in 15 minutes provides relief of pain intensity in postoperative period. So it permits to consider propacetamol as basic non-opioid analgesic. In early postoperative period combination of propacetamol and opioid analgesic (promedol) reduces demands in the latter by 44%. PMID:12462772

  17. Pain relief from nasal salmon calcitonin in osteoporotic vertebral crush fractures. A double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lyritis, G P; Paspati, I; Karachalios, T; Ioakimidis, D; Skarantavos, G; Lyritis, P G

    1997-10-01

    We examined the analgesic effect of nasal salmon calcitonin in patients with acute pain due to recent, nontraumatic osteoporotic vertebral crush fractures. 32 men and 68 postmenopausal women were studied using a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical design. Men and women taking 200 IU of nasal salmon calcitonin daily for a period of 28 days had a dramatic decrease of spinal pain. This analgesic effect was accompanied by early mobilization and gradual restoration of the locomotor functions, such as sitting, standing and walking. Patients receiving the placebo nasal spray remained in bed for almost the entire period of observation. The consumption of high doses of paracetamol did not help placebo patients to get out of bed during the 4 weeks of hospitalization. Nasal salmon calcitonin and early mobilization also reduced hydroxyproline excretion, thus preventing massive bone loss during the period of bedrest. PMID:9385283

  18. Randomized, prospective, and double-blind trial of new beta-lactams in the treatment of appendicitis.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, W Y; Fan, S T; Chu, K W; Suen, H C; Yiu, T F; Wong, K K

    1985-01-01

    A prospective, randomized, and double-blind study was conducted with 864 patients operated on for appendicitis. In early cases, including normal and acute appendicitis, one dose of antibiotic was given. The rate of postappendectomy septic complications in patients who received cefotaxime, cefoperazone, or moxalactam was very low (about 3%), and there was no statistical difference between the drugs. For late cases, including gangrenous and perforated appendicitis, the antibiotics were continued for 5 days. Moxalactam decreased significantly the septic complications in these patients when compared with the other two drugs. It is safe, free from serious toxic side effects, and more convenient and easier to administer than combination antibiotic therapy. The main disadvantage of moxalactam is its high cost, but this has to be balanced against the savings in nursing time, the cost of monitoring renal function and serum level when aminoglycosides are used, and the reduced usage and manipulation of infusion sets. PMID:3911877

  19. Usage of Calendula officinalis in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Franciane; Danski, Mitzy Tannia Reichembach; Vayego, Stela Adami

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. METHOD This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27) and experimental (24). RESULTS There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120) that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group is higher than Calendula group. Through the Kaplan-Meier survival curve we observed that Essential Fatty Acids group has always remained below the Calendula group survival curve, due to the lower risk of developing radiodermatitis grade 1, which makes the usage of Calendula more effective, with statistical significance (p-value = 0.00402). CONCLUSION Calendula showed better therapeutic response than the Essential Fatty Acids in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-237v4b. PMID:25992820

  20. A double-blind clinical trial of a combination of mefloquine, sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine in symptomatic falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ekue, J. M. Kofi; Simooya, O. O.; Sheth, U. K.; Wernsdorfer, W. H.; Njelesani, E. K.

    1985-01-01

    Fansimef is a combination of 250 mg of mefloquine, 500 mg of sulfadoxine, and 25 mg of pyrimethamine per tablet. A total of 150 adult male Zambian patients who had symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were treated in a double-blind randomized fashion with either one, two or three tablets of Fansimef. All patients in the three treatment groups showed an S-type response. The rates of clearance of parasitaemia and fever were similar in all treatment groups. Tolerance was good at all dose levels. The main side-effects were abdominal discomfort, weakness and lassitude, dizziness, and pruritus, but these were mild, transient and required no specific treatment. Vomiting occurred only in 4% of patients given the highest dose of three tablets. The results of various haematological and biochemical investigations and urinalysis were not adversely altered by the administration of Fansimef. PMID:3893778

  1. Opium tincture versus methadone syrup in management of acute raw opium withdrawal: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabassomi, Farzaneh; Zarghami, Mehran; Shiran, Mohammad-Reza; Farnia, Samaneh; Davoodi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of opium tincture versus methadone syrup in the management of acute withdrawal syndrome in opium dependent patients during the detoxification period. In this double-blind randomized controlled study, a total of 74 adult male raw opium dependent patients were treated with opium tincture or methadone syrup 2 times daily for 5 consecutive days. Detoxification was initiated by tapered dose reductions to reach abstinence. At the end of the 10th day, the medications were discontinued. The Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale was used to assess withdrawal symptoms every day. Significant decreases on the Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale were found for both treatment methods during the study period (p < .0001). However, there was no significant difference between groups on the total Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale, and adverse effects existed. Opium tincture can be considered as a potential substitute for methadone syrup for suppression of raw opium withdrawal symptoms, with minimal adverse effects. PMID:26566681

  2. The effect of oral nitroglycerin on portal blood velocity as measured by ultrasonic Doppler. A double blind, placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yang, S S; Ralls, P W; Korula, J

    1991-04-01

    We studied the effect of oral nitroglycerin on portal blood velocity (PBV) in 20 cirrhotic patients by a double blind, placebo controlled method using noninvasive Doppler sonography. After we obtained baseline Doppler in the fasting state, 0.6 mg nitroglycerin or placebo was given orally and the mean of 3 s averaged mean PBVs was repeated at 5 min intervals for 60 min. Ten patients each received nitroglycerin or placebo. Portal vein flows were antegrade in all. Of the 10 patients receiving nitroglycerin, seven (P = 0.002) showed a greater than 10% fall in the mean PBVs for at least 15 min. Of these seven "responders," five patients had a 10% decrease in mean systemic blood pressure for at least 15 min. None of the "nonresponders" had systemic hypotension. Our study suggests that the PBV-reducing effect of nitroglycerin in cirrhotics may be explained in part by systemic hypotension. PMID:1903409

  3. Effect of radiotherapy on moderate and severe thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: a double blind and self-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yujie; Tong, Boding; Luo, Yongheng; Xie, Guiyuan; Xiong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The effect of radiotherapy on moderate and severe Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) was evaluated by various objective and quantitative indexes including T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the degree of exophthalmos using clinical research with prospective, randomized, double blind, self controlled. Methods: The patients with TAO who in the moderate and severe active period and had similar double eyes condition in the Outpatient Department of Ophthalmology of Xiangya No. 2 Hospital of Central South University from 2011.2 to 2014.2 were selected as objects in this study. The related body check was finished after the research group was built. For the object, one eye of patient having random radiotherapy was chosen as the experimental eye. The other eye in the same patient with pseudo radiotherapy (merely known by operator, doctors in department of ophthalmology and patients were double blind) was selected as the control eye. The radiotherapy plan was made by the operator according to the CT results. The T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the exophthalmos degree was compared by MRI check to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy. Results: The T2 signal intensity ratios of orbital MRI inferior rectus and ipsilateral temporal muscle (T2SIR), extraocular muscles (EOM) volume, and the exophthalmos degree between both eyes (experimental and control eyes) had significant differences and these data had statistical significance. Conclusions: The treatment of radiotherapy is effective for the TAO in the moderate and severe active period. PMID:25932139

  4. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of depression: a study protocol for a double blinded randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Depressive disorders are the most common form of mental disorders in community and health care settings. Unfortunately, the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is far from satisfactory. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a relatively new and promising physical treatment for depressive disorders. One particularly appealing element of VNS is the long-term benefit in mood regulation. However, because this intervention involves surgery, perioperative risks, and potentially significant side effects, this treatment has been limited to those patients with treatment-resistant depression who have failed medication trials and exhausted established somatic treatments for major depression, due to intolerance or lack of response. This double-blinded randomized clinical trial aims to overcome these limitations by introducing a novel method of stimulating superficial branches of the vagus nerve on the ear to treat MDD. The rationale is that direct stimulation of the afferent nerve fibers on the ear area with afferent vagus nerve distribution should produce a similar effect as classic VNS in reducing depressive symptoms without the burden of surgical intervention. Design One hundred twenty cases (60 males) of volunteer patients with mild and moderate depression will be randomly divided into transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation group (tVNS) and sham tVNS group. The treatment period lasts 4 months and all clinical and physiological measurements are acquired at the beginning and the end of the treatment period. Discussion This study has the potential to significantly extend the application of VNS treatment for MDD and other disorders (including epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and morbid obesity), resulting in direct benefit to the patients suffering from these highly prevalent disorders. In addition, the results of this double-blinded clinical trial will shed new light on our understanding of acupuncture point specificity, and development of methodologies in clinical

  5. Modafinil Improves Real Driving Performance in Patients with Hypersomnia: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Crossover Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Pierre; Chaufton, Cyril; Taillard, Jacques; Capelli, Aurore; Coste, Olivier; Léger, Damien; Moore, Nicholas; Sagaspe, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are at high risk for driving accidents, and physicians are concerned by the effect of alerting drugs on driving skills of sleepy patients. No study has up to now investigated the effect of modafinil (a reference drug to treat EDS in patients with hypersomnia) on on-road driving performance of patients suffering from central hypersomnia. The objective is to evaluate in patients with central hypersomnia the effect of a wake-promoting drug on real driving performance and to assess the relationship between objective sleepiness and driving performance. Design and Participants: Randomized, crossover, double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted among 13 patients with narcolepsy and 14 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive modafinil (400 mg) or placebo for 5 days prior to the driving test. Each condition was separated by at least 3 weeks of washout. Measurements: Mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings, Standard Deviation of Lateral Position of the vehicle and mean sleep latency in the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test were assessed. Results: Modafinil reduced the mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings and Standard Deviation of Lateral Position of the vehicle compared to placebo (F(1,25) = 4.88, P < 0.05 and F(1,25) = 3.87, P = 0.06 tendency). Mean sleep latency at the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test significantly correlated with the mean number of Inappropriate Line Crossings (r = -0.41, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Modafinil improves driving performance in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test is a suitable clinical tool to assess fitness to drive in this population. Citation: Philip P; Chaufton C; Taillard J; Capelli A; Coste O; Léger D; Moore N; Sagaspe P. Modafinil improves real driving performance in patients with hypersomnia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. SLEEP

  6. Midodrine in patients with spinal cord injury and anejaculation: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Bernard E.; Fournier, Christine; Jacquemin, Géraldine; Lepage, Yves; Vinet, Bernard; Hétu, Pierre-Olivier; Chagnon, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of midodrine in the treatment of anejaculation in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Study design Prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Method Men with anejaculation associated with SCI (level of injury above T10) of more than 1 year in duration were approached. Those with no ejaculatory response to one penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) trial were assigned in a double-blind manner to one of the two following interventions once a week for a maximum of 3 weeks or until ejaculation occurred: oral administration of flexible midodrine (7.5–22.5 mg max) followed by PVS (group M), or oral administration of flexible sham-midodrine (placebo) followed by PVS (group P). Sociodemographic data, medical characteristics, and plasma desglymidodrine concentration were collected for all participants. Outcome measure Ejaculation success rate in each group. Results Among the 78 men approached, 23 participants (level of SCI: C4–T9) were randomized. Three participants abandoned the study and 20 completed the study; 10 were assigned to group M, 10 to group P. Ejaculation was reached for one participant of group M and for two participants of group P. Autonomic dysreflexia associated to PVS occurred in three patients. Conclusion In this small sample study, treatment of anejaculation after SCI with midodrine and PVS did not result in a better rate of antegrade ejaculation in 10 men than in 10 men treated with a placebo and PVS. PMID:24969635

  7. Effects of PEMF on patients with osteoarthritis: Results of a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Wuschech, Heinz; von Hehn, Ulrike; Mikus, Eberhard; Funk, Richard H

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in a double blind study on patients with knee joint osteoarthritis. The MAGCELL ARTHRO electrode-less therapy delivered a sinusoidal magnetic field, varying in frequency between 4 and 12 Hz. In 1 cm tissue depth, magnetic flux density was 105 mT. A total of n = 57 patients were randomly assigned to the verum, PEMF or placebo group (placebo device). Their average age was 61.6 ± 12.0 years. According to American College of Rheumatology criteria the osteoarthritis level was 2.8 ± 0.8. Treatment was performed twice a day for 5 min over a period of 18 days. Treatment with the MAGCELL device versus control (sham exposed) showed a highly significant reduction in pain (P < 0.001), a significant reduction in stiffness (P = 0.032) and a significant reduction in disability in daily activities (P = 0.005) according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scales-with a good overall treatment tolerance. In the placebo group there was no evidence of a significant change between the initial and final examination in any of the three above-mentioned WOMAC scales. Results of this partly randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study show clinically at any rate, that use of PEMF lead to highly significant better results in the treatment group compared to the placebo group with regard to the total WOMAC global score and especially for visual analogue scale. Patient assessment of the "effectiveness" was rated in 29.5% as very good and good in 27.3% compared to 0.0% and 15.4% in controls. This therapy is thus a useful complementary treatment option with no side effects. PMID:26562074

  8. Oxygen saturation targets in infants with bronchiolitis (BIDS): a double-blind, randomised, equivalence trial

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Steve; Rodriguez, Aryelly; Adams, Tim; Boyd, Kathleen A; Butcher, Isabella; Enderby, Beth; MacLean, Morag; McCormick, Jonathan; Paton, James Y; Wee, Fiona; Thomas, Huw; Riding, Kay; Turner, Steve W; Williams, Chris; McIntosh, Emma; Lewis, Steff C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a permissive hypoxaemic target for an oxygen saturation of 90% for children with bronchiolitis, which is consistent with the WHO recommendations for targets in children with lower respiratory tract infections. No evidence exists to support this threshold. We aimed to assess whether the 90% or higher target for management of oxygen supplementation was equivalent to a normoxic 94% or higher target for infants admitted to hospital with viral bronchiolitis. Methods We did a parallel-group, randomised, controlled, equivalence trial of infants aged 6 weeks to 12 months of age with physician-diagnosed bronchiolitis newly admitted into eight paediatric hospital units in the UK (the Bronchiolitis of Infancy Discharge Study [BIDS]). A central computer randomly allocated (1:1) infants, in varying length blocks of four and six and without stratification, to be clipped to standard oximeters (patients treated with oxygen if pulse oxygen saturation [SpO2] <94%) or modified oximeters (displayed a measured value of 90% as 94%, therefore oxygen not given until SpO2 <90%). All parents, clinical staff, and outcome assessors were masked to allocation. The primary outcome was time to resolution of cough (prespecified equivalence limits of plus or minus 2 days) in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN28405428. Findings Between Oct 3, and March 30, 2012, and Oct 1, and March 29, 2013, we randomly assigned 308 infants to standard oximeters and 307 infants to modified oximeters. Cough resolved by 15·0 days (median) in both groups (95% CI for difference −1 to 2) and so oxygen thresholds were equivalent. We recorded 35 serious adverse events in 32 infants in the standard care group and 25 serious adverse events in 24 infants in the modified care group. In the standard care group, eight infants transferred to a high-dependency unit, 23 were readmitted, and one had a prolonged

  9. High-Dose Pyridoxine and Magnesium Administration in Children with Autistic Disorder: An Absence of Salutary Effects in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findling, Robert L.; Maxwell, Kathleen; Scotese-Wojtila, Lynette; Huang, Jie; Yamashita, Toyoko; Wiznitzer, Max

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of high doses of pyridoxine and magnesium in a 10-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial with 10 patients (mean age 6 years) having autism concluded that the high doses used were ineffective in ameliorating autistic behaviors. (DB)

  10. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride and D,l-Threo-Methylphenidate Hydrochloride in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon; Swanson, James M.; Feifel, David; Sangal, R. Bart; Elia, Josephine; Casat, Charles D.; Zeldis, Jerome B.; Conners, C. Keith

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride (d-MPH, Focalin[TM]) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to test an a priori hypothesis that d-MPH would have a longer duration of action than d,l-threo-methylphenidate (d,l-MPH). Method: This was a randomized, double-blind study…

  11. Does EEG-Neurofeedback Improve Neurocognitive Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? A Systematic Review and a Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollebregt, Madelon A.; van Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The number of placebo-controlled randomized studies relating to EEG-neurofeedback and its effect on neurocognition in attention-deficient/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is limited. For this reason, a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the effects of EEG-neurofeedback on neurocognitive functioning…

  12. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Risperidone for the Treatment of Adolescents and Young Adults with Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagman, Jennifer; Gralla, Jane; Sigel, Eric; Ellert, Swan; Dodge, Mindy; Gardner, Rick; O'Lonergan, Teri; Frank, Guido; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Method: Forty female subjects 12 to 21 years of age (mean, 16 years) with primary anorexia nervosa in an eating disorders program were randomized to receive…

  13. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Divalproex Extended-Release in the Treatment of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; Redden, Laura; Kowatch, Robert A.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Segal, Scott; Chang, Kiki; Wozniak, Patricia; Vigna, Namita V.; Abi-Saab, Walid; Saltarelli, Mario

    2009-01-01

    A double-blind study that involves 150 patients aged 10-17 on the effect of divalproex extended-release in the treatment of bipolar disorder shows that the drug was similar to placebo based on adverse events and that no treatment effect was observed in the drug. The drug is not suitable for treatment of youths with bipolar I disorder, mixed or…

  14. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Modafinil Film-Coated Tablets in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Laurence L.; Biederman, Joseph; Boellner, Samuel W.; Rugino, Thomas A.; Sangal, R. Bart; Earl, Craig Q.; Jiang, John G.; Swanson, James M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of modafinil in children and adolescents, ages 7 to 17, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In this 9-week, double-blind, flexible-dose study, patients were randomized to once-daily modafinil (170-425 mg) or placebo. Assessments included ADHD Rating Scale-IV…

  15. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  16. A Randomized Double-Blind Study of Atomoxetine versus Placebo for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harfterkamp, Myriam; van de Loo-Neus, Gigi; Minderaa, Ruud B.; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Escobar, Rodrigo; Schacht, Alexander; Pamulapati, Sireesha; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy of atomoxetine as treatment of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been established. Method: In this study, 97 patients aged 6 to 17 years with ADHD and ASD were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with 1.2 mg/kg/day atomoxetine or…

  17. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Rossi, Joseph S.; Vilardo, Brigid A.; O'Dell, Sean M.; Carson, Kristen M.; Verdi, Genevieve; Swentosky, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate stimulant medication on symptoms and functioning for college students with ADHD using double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Method: Participants included 24 college students with ADHD and 26 college students without psychopathology. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) was examined for ADHD participants over five…

  18. Brief Report: Oxytocin Enhances Paternal Sensitivity to a Child with Autism--A Double-Blind Within-Subject Experiment with Intranasally Administered Oxytocin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Poslawsky, Irina E.; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; van Engeland, Herman; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin seems associated with parenting style, and experimental work showed positive effects of intranasally administered oxytocin on parenting style of fathers. Here, the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject experiment with intranasal oxytocin administration to fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is…

  19. Study of the ketogenic agent AC-1202 in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Samuel T; Vogel, Janet L; Barr, Linda J; Garvin, Fiona; Jones, Julie J; Costantini, Lauren C

    2009-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by early and region-specific declines in cerebral glucose metabolism. Ketone bodies are produced by the body during glucose deprivation and are metabolized by the brain. An oral ketogenic compound, AC-1202, was tested in subjects with probable AD to examine if ketosis could improve cognitive performance. Methods Daily administration of AC-1202 was evaluated in 152 subjects diagnosed with mild to moderate AD in a US-based, 90-day, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Subjects were on a normal diet and continued taking approved AD medications. Primary cognitive end points were mean change from Baseline in the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), and global scores in the AD Cooperative Study – Clinical Global Impression of Change (ADCS-CGIC). AC-1202 was compared to Placebo in several population groups, including: intention-to-treat (ITT), per protocol, and dosage compliant groups. Results were also stratified by APOE4 carriage status (a predefined analysis based on the epsilon 4 (E4) variant of the apolipoprotein E gene). This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, registry number NCT00142805, information available at Results AC-1202 significantly elevated a serum ketone body (β-hydroxybutyrate) 2 hours after administration when compared to Placebo. In each of the population groups, a significant difference was found between AC-1202 and Placebo in mean change from Baseline in ADAS-Cog score on Day 45: 1.9 point difference, p = 0.0235 in ITT; 2.53 point difference, p = 0.0324 in per protocol; 2.6 point difference, p = 0.0215 in dosage compliant. Among participants who did not carry the APOE4 allele (E4(-)), a significant difference was found between AC-1202 and Placebo in mean change from Baseline in ADAS-Cog score on Day 45 and Day 90. In the ITT population, E4(-) participants (N = 55) administered AC-1202 had a significant 4.77 point difference in mean change

  20. Effects of kivia powder on Gut health in patients with occasional constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Kivia powder on supporting overall gut health through the relief of the discomfort of occasional constipation. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Interventions The investigational product for this study was Kivia powder (Vital Food Processors Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand), containing the active ingredient Zyactinase™, 5.5 g taken daily for four weeks. Results One hundred thirty-eight subjects reporting occasional constipation were screened and 87 were randomized to placebo (n = 44) and product (n = 43). Bowel movement frequency, as measured by both average daily spontaneous bowel movements (SBM) and complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBM), were the same in both groups at baseline. There were significant increases in spontaneous bowel movements at week 1 (p = 0.001), week 2 (p = 0.001), week 3 (p = 0.000), and week 4 (p = 0.000) compared to baseline. SBM demonstrated significant differences between the treatment group and the placebo group at week 3 (p = 0.000), and week 4 (p = 0.020). The treatment group demonstrated a significantly higher rate of SBM at week 3 (p = 000) and from baseline to week 4 (p = 0.019). Significant increases in complete spontaneous bowel movements were observed at week 1 (p = 0.000), week 2 (p = 0.000), week 3 (p = 0.000), and week 4 (p = 0.000) compared to baseline. Moreover, CSBM was significantly higher for the treatment group compared to placebo at week 2 (p = 0.001). The change in average daily CSBM from baseline to week 2 was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the placebo group (p = 0.004). Abdominal discomfort or pain demonstrated significant differences between groups at week 1 (p = 0.044) and week 3 (p = 0.026). Flatulence was significantly lower for active group compared to placebo at week 2 (p = 0.047) and week 3 (p = 0.023). The number of bowel

  1. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Breath Powered Nasal Delivery of Sumatriptan Powder (AVP-825) in the Treatment of Acute Migraine (The TARGET Study)

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Roger K; McAllister, Peter J; Spierings, Egilius LH; Messina, John; Carothers, Jennifer; Djupesland, Per G; Mahmoud, Ramy A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of AVP-825, a drug–device combination of low-dose sumatriptan powder (22 mg loaded dose) delivered intranasally through a targeted Breath Powered device vs an identical device containing lactose powder (placebo device) in the treatment of migraine headache. Background Early treatment of migraine headaches is associated with improved outcome, but medication absorption after oral delivery may be delayed in migraineurs because of reduced gastric motility. Sumatriptan powder administered with an innovative, closed-palate, Bi-Directional, Breath Powered intranasal delivery mechanism is efficiently absorbed across the nasal mucosa and produces fast absorption into the circulation. Results from a previously conducted placebo-controlled study of AVP-825 showed a high degree of headache relief with an early onset of action (eg, 74% AVP-825 vs 38% placebo device at 1 hour, P < .01). Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in adults with a history of migraine with or without aura, participants were randomized via computer-generated lists to AVP-825 or placebo device to treat a single migraine headache of moderate or severe intensity. The primary endpoint was headache relief (defined as reduction of headache pain intensity from severe or moderate migraine headache to mild or none) at 2 hours post-dose. Results Two hundred and thirty patients (116 AVP-825 and 114 placebo device) were randomized, of whom 223 (112 and 111, respectively) experienced a qualifying migraine headache (their next migraine headache that reached moderate or severe intensity). A significantly greater proportion of AVP-825 patients reported headache relief at 2 hours post-dose compared with those using the placebo device (68% vs 45%, P = .002, odds ratio 2.53, 95% confidence interval [1.45, 4.42]). Between-group differences in headache relief were evident as early as 15 minutes, reached statistical significance at 30

  2. Efficacy and safety of combined prolonged-release oxycodone and naloxone in the management of moderate/severe chronic non-malignant pain: results of a prospectively designed pooled analysis of two randomised, double-blind clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Two randomised 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter studies comparing oxycodone PR/naloxone PR and oxycodone PR alone on symptoms of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction in patients with moderate/severe non-malignant pain have been conducted. Methods These studies were prospectively designed to be pooled and the primary outcome measure of the pooled data analysis was to demonstrate non-inferiority in 12-week analgesic efficacy of oxycodone PR/naloxone PR versus oxycodone PR alone. Patients with opioid-induced constipation were switched to oxycodone PR and then randomised to fixed doses of oxycodone PR/naloxone PR (n = 292) or oxycodone PR (n = 295) for 12 weeks (20-80 mg/day). Results No statistically significant differences in analgesic efficacy were observed for the two treatments (p = 0.3197; non-inferiority p < 0.0001; 95% CI -0.07, 0.23) and there was no statistically significant difference in frequency of analgesic rescue medication use. Improvements in Bowel Function Index score were observed for oxycodone PR/naloxone PR by Week 1 and at every subsequent time point (-15.1; p < 0.0001; 95% CI -17.3, -13.0). AE incidence was similar for both groups (61.0% and 57.3% of patients with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR and oxycodone PR alone, respectively). Conclusions Results of this pooled analysis confirm that oxycodone PR/naloxone PR provides effective analgesia and suggest that oxycodone PR/naloxone PR improves bowel function without compromising analgesic efficacy. Trial registration numbers ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00412100 and NCT00412152 PMID:20920236

  3. Protocol for German trial of Acyclovir and corticosteroids in Herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis (GACHE): a multicenter, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled German, Austrian and Dutch trial [ISRCTN45122933

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Torres, Francisco; Menon, Sanjay; Pritsch, Maria; Victor, Norbert; Jenetzky, Ekkehart; Jensen, Katrin; Schielke, Eva; Schmutzhard, Erich; de Gans, Jan; Chung, Chin-Hee; Luntz, Steffen; Hacke, Werner; Meyding-Lamadé, Uta

    2008-01-01

    Background The treatment of Herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis (HSVE) remains a major unsolved problem in Neurology. Current gold standard for therapy is acyclovir, a drug that inhibits viral replication. Despite antiviral treatment, mortality remains up to 15%, less than 20% of patients are able to go back to work, and the majority of patients suffer from severe disability. This is a discouraging, unsatisfactory situation for treating physicians, the disabled patients and their families, and constitutes an enormous burden to the public health services. The information obtained from experimental animal research and from recent retrospective clinical observations, indicates that a substantial benefit in outcome can be expected in patients with HSVE who are treated with adjuvant dexamethasone. But currently there is no available evidence to support the routine use of adjuvant corticosteroid treatment in HSVE. A randomized multicenter trial is the only useful instrument to address this question. Design GACHE is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial of treatment with acyclovir and adjuvant dexamethasone, as compared with acyclovir and placebo in adults with HSVE. The statistical design will be that of a 3-stage-group sequential trial with potential sample size adaptation in the last stage. Conclusion 372 patients with proven HSVE (positive HSV-DNA-PCR), aged 18 up to 85 years; with focal neurological signs no longer than 5 days prior to admission, and who give informed consent will be recruited from Departments of Neurology of academic medical centers in Germany, Austria and The Netherlands. Sample size will potentially be extended after the second interim analysis up to a maximum of 450 patients. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45122933 PMID:18959773

  4. Efficacy and tolerability of a gatifloxacin/prednisolone acetate fixed combination for topical prophylaxis and control of inflammation in phacoemulsification: a 20-day-double-blind comparison to its individual components

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Patrícia Abreu Ferreira; Shinzato, Flavio Araujo; Tecchio, Geraldine Trevisan; La Porta Weber, Sarah; Brasil, Alexandre; Avakian, Amaryllis

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of 0.3% gatifloxacin and 1% prednisolone (Zypred®) versus the individual components used separately (Zymar® and Predfort®) for infection prophylaxis and inflammation control after cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study of 108 patients who underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation was conducted. After random assignment, 47 eyes received the fixed combination of topical 0.3% gatifloxacin/1% prednisolone drops, and 61 eyes received the same doses of the individual components as separate solutions four times a day for 15 days. Baseline and postoperative assessments were made on postoperative days 1, 7, 15, and 20. RESULTS: All objective (best corrected visual acuity, sign of active ocular inflammation, central and incisional corneal edema, the number of cells per high-power field in the anterior chamber, and intraocular pressure) and subjective (eye pain, photophobia, burning sensation, itching, and foreign body sensation) criteria of efficacy were similar in both groups, with no significant differences. Group I included 47 eyes that received the fixed combination of gatifloxacin/prednisolone acetate eye drops and a placebo eye drop solution. Group II included 61 eyes that were treated with 0.3% gatifloxacin and 1% prednisolone acetate eye drops separately. The intraocular pressure was slightly higher in Group II (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Treatment with the fixed-dose combination of gatifloxacin/prednisolone eye drops was as effective as the non-fixed combination in preventing infection and controlling inflammation after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. PMID:23778476

  5. The efficacy of extended-release levomilnacipran in moderate to severe major depressive disorder: secondary and post-hoc analyses from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stuart A; Mansuy, Lucilla; Ruth, Adam C; Li, Dayong; Gommoll, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Levomilnacipran (1S, 2R-milnacipran) is a potent and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that is Food and Drug Administration approved for once-daily treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. Secondary and post-hoc analyses were carried out on data from a positive 10-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, proof-of-concept trial (EudraCT Number: 2006-002404-34) on 75 or 100 mg/day levomilnacipran extended release (ER). Included outpatients (18-70 years) met the criteria for a major depressive episode. There was a statistically significant difference in favor of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in change from baseline to week 10 on every Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) single item (mixed-effects model for repeated measures; P<0.05) and most Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) single items. Significantly more levomilnacipran ER versus placebo patients (P < 0.05) achieved 'complete' (MADRS ≤ 5; 24 vs. 10%) and 'sustained' (MADRS ≤ 10 in Weeks 4-10; 16 vs. 10%) remission, Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) response (total score ≤ 12 and each item score ≤ 4; 52 vs. 35%) and remission (total score ≤ 6 and each item score ≤ 2; 26 vs. 17%), and combined symptomatic (MADRS) and functional (SDS) remission (19 vs. 8%). Treatment effects of similar magnitude were observed in the severe depression subgroup (MADRS ≥ 30). These results demonstrate the benefit of levomilnacipran ER over placebo for patients with symptomatic and functional impairment associated with major depressive disorder. PMID:24172160

  6. Olmesartan vs ramipril in the treatment of hypertension and associated clinical conditions in the elderly: a reanalysis of two large double-blind, randomized studies at the light of the most recent blood pressure targets recommended by guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Omboni, Stefano; Malacco, Ettore; Mallion, Jean-Michel; Volpe, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a reanalysis of the data of two large randomized, double-blind, parallel group studies with a similar design, comparing the efficacy of an angiotensin-receptor blocker (olmesartan medoxomil) with that of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ramipril), by applying two different blood pressure targets recently recommended by hypertension guidelines for all patients, irrespective of the presence of diabetes (<140/90 mmHg), and for elderly hypertensive patients (<150/90 mmHg). The efficacy of olmesartan was not negatively affected by age, sex, hypertension type, diabetes status or other concomitant clinical conditions, or cardiovascular risk factors. In most cases, olmesartan provided better blood pressure control than ramipril. Olmesartan was significantly more effective than ramipril in male patients, in younger patients (aged 65–69 years), in those with metabolic syndrome, obesity, dyslipidemia, preserved renal function, diastolic ± systolic hypertension, and, in general, in patients with a high or very high cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, patients previously untreated or treated with two or more antihypertensive drugs showed a significantly larger response with olmesartan than with ramipril. Thus, our results confirm the good efficacy of olmesartan in elderly hypertensives even when new blood pressure targets for antihypertensive treatment are considered. Such results may be relevant for the clinical practice, providing some hint on the possible different response of elderly hypertensive patients to two different drugs acting on the renin–angiotensin system, when patients are targeted according to the blood pressure levels recommended by recent hypertension guidelines. PMID:26491273

  7. Effects of dietary milk- and soya-phospholipids on lipid-parameters and other risk indicators for cardiovascular diseases in overweight or obese men - two double-blind, randomised, controlled, clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Anne; Bub, Achim; Barth, Stephan W; Schrezenmeir, Juergen; Pfeuffer, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of milk phospholipids (milk-PL) on lipid metabolism and on other risk factors for CVD, in comparison with milk fat (control) or soya phospholipids (soya-PL), respectively. Two double-blind parallel-group intervention trials were conducted in overweight or obese male subjects. In the first trial (trial 1), sixty-two men consumed milk enriched with either 2 g milk-PL or 2 g milk fat (control) for 8 weeks. In trial 2, fifty-seven men consumed milk enriched with either 3 g milk-PL or 2·8 g soya-PL for 7 weeks. In trial 1, milk-PL as compared with control reduced waist circumference but did not affect plasma lipids (total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, TAG, phospholipids), apoB, apoA1, glucose, insulin, insulin sensitivity index, C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule and total homocysteine (tHcy). Serum activities of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase were not changed. Activity of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), a marker of fatty liver, increased in the control but not in the milk-PL group, with a significant intervention effect. In trial 2, milk-PL as compared with soya-PL did not affect the above-mentioned parameters, but decreased GGT. Subjects with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutations CT and TT had 11 % (P < 0·05) higher baseline tHcy concentrations than those with the wild-type CC. However, genotype did not modulate the phospholipid intervention effect on tHcy. In conclusion, supplementation with milk-PL as compared with control fat reduced waist circumference and, as compared with both control fat and soya-PL, GGT activity. PMID:27293558

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and open-label extension study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with human immunodeficiency virus neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, David M; Rice, Andrew S C; Emir, Birol; Landen, Jaren; Semel, David; Chew, Marci L; Sporn, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    The objective of these studies was to assess the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neuropathic pain. Patients with HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) were randomized to treatment with flexible-dose pregabalin (150-600 mg/day) or placebo for 17 weeks in a single-blind, placebo lead-in, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled multinational trial. The primary efficacy outcome was the change in mean pain score on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) from baseline to study endpoint. Participants who completed this trial were invited to participate in a 6-month open-label extension study with pregabalin. Of the 377 patients enrolled in the randomized controlled trial (pregabalin, n=183; placebo, n=194), 68.4% completed treatment. In the open-label extension, 217 patients were treated and 59.4% completed treatment. Both studies were terminated by the sponsor after a preplanned interim analysis indicated trial futility. At endpoint, the change from baseline in least-squares mean NRS pain scores in the intent-to-treat population was -2.04 for pregabalin versus -2.11 for placebo (P=.709). There were no significant differences between the pregabalin and placebo groups in the secondary efficacy measures. Incidence of adverse events was lower than seen in previous pregabalin studies. Overall, this trial did not show pregabalin to be more efficacious than placebo in treating HIV-associated DSP. Studies such as these, which fail to support their primary hypotheses, may be important in informing the methodology of future trials, especially when novel approaches to limit variability in the control group are included. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01049217 and NCT01145417. PMID:24907403

  9. A cosmetic ‘anti-ageing’ product improves photoaged skin: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Watson, REB; Ogden, S; Cotterell, LF; Bowden, JJ; Bastrilles, JY; Long, SP; Griffiths, CEM

    2009-01-01

    Background Very few over-the-counter cosmetic ‘anti-ageing’ products have been subjected to a rigorous double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial of efficacy. Previously we have shown that application of a cosmetic ‘anti-ageing’ product to photoaged skin under occlusion for 12 days can stimulate the deposition of fibrillin-1. This observation infers potential to repair and perhaps clinically improve photoaged skin. Objective We examined another similar over-the-counter cosmetic ‘anti-ageing’ product using both the patch test assay and a 6-month double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT), with a further 6-month open phase to assess clinical efficacy in photoaged skin. Methods For the patch test, a commercially available test product and its vehicle were applied occluded for 12 days to photoaged forearm skin (n=10) prior to biopsy and immunohistochemical assessment of fibrillin-1; all-trans retinoic acid (RA) was used as a positive control. Sixty photoaged subjects were recruited to the RCT (test product, n = 30 vs. vehicle, n = 30; once daily for 6 months, face and hands) with clinical assessments performed at recruitment and following 1, 3 and 6 months of use. Twenty-eight volunteers had skin biopsies (dorsal wrist) at baseline and at 6 months treatment for immunohistochemical assessment of fibrillin-1 (test product, n=15; vehicle, n=13). All volunteers received the test product for a further 6 months. Final clinical assessments were performed at the end of this open period. Results In the 12-day patch test assay, we observed significant immunohistological deposition of fibrillin-1 in skin treated with the test product and RA compared with the untreated baseline (P=0·005 and 0·015, respectively). In the clinical RCT, at 6 months, the test product produced statistically significant improvement in facial wrinkles as compared to baseline assessment (P = 0·013), whereas vehicle-treated skin was not significantly improved (P = 0·11). After 12 months

  10. Cerebrolysin enhances cognitive recovery of mild traumatic brain injury patients: double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chung; Wei, Sung-Tai; Tsaia, Shiu-Chiu; Chen, Xian-Xiu; Cho, Der-Yang

    2013-12-01

    In adults, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) frequently results in impairments of cognitive functions which would lead to psychological consequences in the future. Cerebrolysin is a nootropic drug, and can significantly improve cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Cerebrolysin therapy enhances cognitive recovery for mild traumatic brain injury patients using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized phase II pilot study. Patients having head injury within 24 h sent to our hospital were screened and recruited if patients were alert and conscious, and had intracranial contusion haemorrhage. From July 2009 to June 2010, totally, thirty-two patients were recruited in the double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and randomized study. Patients were randomized to receive Cerebrolysin (Group A, once daily intravenous infusion of 30 mL Cerebrolysin over a 60-min period for 5 days) or placebo (Group B, same dosage and administration of normal saline as Group A). The primary outcome measures were differences of cognitive function including Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) scores between baseline and week 1, between baseline and week 4, and between baseline and week 12. Thirty-two patients completed the trial. For Group A, the CASI score difference between baseline and week 12 was 21.0 ± 20.4, a significantly greater change than that of Group B (7.6 ± 12.1) (p = 0.0461). Besides, drawing function (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0066) on week 4 and both drawing function (p = 0.0472) and long-term memory (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0256) on week 12 were also found to be significantly improved in the patients receiving Cerebrolysin treatment. Our results suggest that Cerebrolysin improves the cognitive function of the MTBI in patients at 3rd month after injury, especially for long-term memory and drawing function. PMID:23656173

  11. Escitalopram in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Extension Trial

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Adelaide; Bose, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extended efficacy, safety, and tolerability of escitalopram relative to placebo in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Adolescents (12–17 years) who completed an 8-week randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled, lead-in study of escitalopram 10–20 mg versus placebo could enroll in a 16–24-week, multisite extension trial; patients maintained the same lead-in randomization (escitalopram or placebo) and dosage (escitalopram 10 or 20 mg/day, or placebo) during the extension. The primary efficacy was Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) change from the lead-in study baseline to treatment week 24 (8-week lead-in study plus 16-week extension); the secondary efficacy was Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) score at week 24. All efficacy analyses used the last observation carried forward (LOCF) approach; sensitivity analyses used observed cases (OC) and mixed-effects model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety was evaluated via adverse event (AE) reports and the clinician-rated Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Results Following lead-in, 165 patients enrolled in the double-blind extension (82 placebo; 83 escitalopram); 40 (48.8%) placebo and 37 (44.6%) escitalopram patients completed treatment. CDRS-R total score improvement was significantly greater for escitalopram than for placebo (p=0.005, LOCF; p=0.014; MMRM). Response rates (CDRS-R ≥40% reduction from baseline [adjusted and unadjusted] and CGI-I ≤2) were significantly higher for escitalopram than for placebo (LOCF); remission rates (CDRS-R ≤28) were 50.6% for escitalopram and 35.7% for placebo (p=0.002). OC analyses were not significantly different between groups. The most frequent escitalopram AEs (≥5% and more frequent than placebo) were headache, nausea, insomnia, vomiting, influenza-like symptoms, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection. Most AEs were

  12. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning). Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation

  13. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 8-weeks ingestion of a commercialized joint pain dietary supplement (InstaflexTM Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) compared to placebo on joint pain, stiffness, and function in adults with self-reported joint pain. InstaflexTM is a joint pain supplement containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane (MSM), white willow bark extract (15% salicin), ginger root concentrate, boswella serrata extract (65% boswellic acid), turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid. Methods Subjects included 100 men and women, ages 50-75 years, with a history (>3 months) of joint pain, and were randomized to Instaflex™ or placebo (3 colored gel capsules per day for 8 weeks, double-blind administration). Subjects agreed to avoid the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and all other medications and supplements targeted for joint pain. Primary outcome measures were obtained pre- and post-study and included joint pain severity, stiffness, and function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities [WOMAC]), and secondary outcome measures included health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 or SF-36), systemic inflammation (serum C-reactive protein and 9 plasma cytokines), and physical function (6-minute walk test). Joint pain symptom severity was assessed bi-weekly using a 12-point Likert visual scale (12-VS). Results Joint pain severity was significantly reduced in Instaflex™ compared to placebo (8-week WOMAC, ↓37% versus ↓16%, respectively, interaction effect P = 0.025), with group differences using the 12-VS emerging by week 4 of the study (interaction effect, P = 0.0125). Improvements in ability to perform daily activities and stiffness scores in Instaflex™ compared to placebo were most evident for the 74% of subjects reporting knee pain (8-week WOMAC function score, ↓39% versus ↓14%, respectively, interaction effect P = 0.027; stiffness score, ↓30

  14. Intravaginal Misoprostol for Cervical Ripening and Labor Induction in Nulliparous Women: A Double-blinded, Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Hao-Ping; Fan, Jian-Xia; Yu, Hong; Sun, Li-Zhou; Chen, Lian; Chang, Qing; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Di, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background: In China, no multicenter double-blinded prospective randomized controlled study on labor induction has been conducted till now. This study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravaginal accurate 25-μg misoprostol tablets for cervical ripening and labor induction in term pregnancy in nulliparous women. Methods: This was a double-blinded, prospective randomized controlled study including nulliparous women from 6 university hospitals across China. Subjects were randomized into misoprostol or placebo group with the sample size ratio set to 7:2. Intravaginal 25-μg misoprostol or placebo was applied at an interval of 4 h (repeated up to 3 times) for labor induction. Primary outcome measures were the incidence of cumulative Bishop score increases ≥3 within 12 h or vaginal delivery within 24 h. Safety assessments included the incidences of maternal morbidity and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes. Results: A total of 173 women for misoprostol group and 49 women for placebo were analyzed. The incidence of cumulative Bishop score increases ≥3 within 12 h or vaginal delivery within 24 h was higher in the misoprostol group than in the placebo (64.2% vs. 22.5%, relative risk [RR]: 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–6.0). The incidence of onset of labor within 24 h was significantly higher in the misoprostol group than in the placebo group (48.0% vs. 18.4%, RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2–5.7); and the induction-onset of labor interval was significantly shorter in the misoprostol group (P = 0.0003). However, there were no significant differences in the median process time of vaginal labor (6.4 vs. 6.8 h; P = 0.695), incidence (39.3% vs. 49.0%, RR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.5) and indications (P = 0.683) of cesarean section deliveries, and frequencies of maternal, fetal/neonatal adverse events between the groups. Conclusion: Intravaginal misoprostol 25 μg every 4 h is efficacious and safe in labor induction and cervical ripening. PMID:26481739

  15. Caffeine Intake, Short Bouts of Physical Activity, and Energy Expenditure: A Double-Blind Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Júdice, Pedro B.; Matias, Catarina N.; Santos, Diana A.; Magalhães, João P.; Hamilton, Marc T.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2013-01-01

    PA energy expenditure (PAEE) is the most variable component of Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) and largely due to the balance of sedentary time (SedT) and low intensity physical activity (LIPA). There has been an emergence for seeking an understanding of factors which determine variations in SedT, LIPA, and PAEE. Sedentary behavior and physical activity are relatively resistant to change by experimental dietary treatments and significant body weight changes. Although caffeine (Caf) is by far the most heavily used nutritional agent ingested to promote a sense of vigor/alertness, it is still unknown if Caf is effective in increasing PAEE and physical activity. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that 2 daily doses of Caf (as a capsule to blind the treatment and divided equally during breakfast and lunch) increase PAEE and TEE, and it would do so through increasing the frequent and brief bouts of physical activity (~1-5 min long) through the day as measured by accelerometry. In 21 low Caf users (<100 mg day-1), we used a double-blind crossover trial (ClinicalTrials.govID;NCT01477294) with two conditions (4-day each with a 3-day washout period) randomly ordered as 5 mg kg-1 day-1 of Caf and maltodextrin as placebo (Plc). Resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry, total energy expenditure (TEE) from doubly labeled water, PAEE calculated as TEE-(REE+0.1TEE), and accelerometry measurements of both LIPA and MVPA were not different between conditions. However, regardless of caffeine or placebo, there were several significant relationships between brief bouts of LIPA and MVPA with PAEE. In conclusion, this double-blind study found that low and moderate-vigorous activity as well as the total volume of PAEE in free-living conditions is resistant to dietary caffeine intake that was equivalent to 5 cups of espresso or 7 cups of tea. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01477294 PMID:23869233

  16. Pain modulation by intranasal oxytocin and emotional picture viewing — a randomized double-blind fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Zunhammer, Matthias; Geis, Sandra; Busch, Volker; Eichhammer, Peter; Greenlee, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    The hormone oxytocin has been hypothesized to influence the emotional dimension of pain. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study explored whether intranasal oxytocin and emotional context can affect heat pain perception in 30 healthy male volunteers. After receiving 36 IU oxytocin or placebo, participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during which noxious and non-noxious thermode heat stimuli were applied. Simultaneously, scenes from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) with positive, neutral, and negative emotional valence were shown. Heat intensity and unpleasantness ratings were obtained. The activity of whole-brain correlates of heat processing was quantified via multi-voxel pattern analysis. We observed no appreciable main effects of oxytocin on ratings or neural pain correlates. Effects of emotional picture valence on ratings were smaller than reported in previous studies. Nevertheless, oxytocin was found to significantly enhance the influence of picture valence on unpleasantness ratings at noxious heat levels. No corresponding changes in whole-brain correlates of heat intensity processing were found. Our study provides evidence that intranasal oxytocin increases the effects of emotional context on the subjective unpleasantness of experimental heat pain. Future studies are needed to determine whether this effect can be utilized in clinical settings. PMID:27546446

  17. Oxytocin Affects the Connectivity of the Precuneus and the Amygdala: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Neuroimaging Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jyothika; Völlm, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although oxytocin is one of the most widely studied neuropeptides in recent times, the mechanistic process by which it modulates social-affective behavior in the brain is not yet clearly understood. Thus, to understand the neurophysiological basis of oxytocin effects, we used resting-state functional MRI to examine the effects of intranasal oxytocin on brain connectivity in healthy males. Methods: Using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 15 healthy male volunteers received 24 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo prior to resting-state functional MRI acquisition at 3T. Results: We found that oxytocin significantly reduced the degree centrality of the right precuneus (P<.05). Oxytocin also reduced connectivity between the bilateral amygdalae and between the right precuneus and the right and left amygdala (P<.05). Although there were no significant changes in regional homogeneity at the whole brain level, posthoc results showed a reduction involving the right precuneus (P<.05). Conclusions: These results show that oxytocin affects one of the key centers in the brain for social cognition and introspective processing, the precuneus, and enhances our understanding of how oxytocin can modulate brain networks at rest. An improved understanding of the neurophysiological effects of oxytocin can be important in terms of evaluating the mechanisms that are likely to underlie the clinical responses observed upon long-term oxytocin administration. PMID:25522395

  18. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif

    2016-01-01

    The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14-65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood. PMID:26870678

  19. A Preliminary Trial: Double-Blind Comparison of Nefazodone, Bupropion-SR and Placebo in the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kenneth M.; McDowell, David; Brooks, Daniel J.; Cheng, Wendy; Levin, Frances R.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy of nefazodone and bupropion-sustained release for treating cannabis dependence. A double blind, placebo controlled, piggy back design was employed to assess if nefazodone and bupropion-sustained release increased the probability of abstinence from cannabis and reduced the severity of cannabis dependence and cannabis withdrawal symptoms during a 13-week outpatient treatment program. One-hundred and six participants (M=32 years; Females n=25) were randomized to one of three medication conditions (nefazodone, bupropion-sustained release, or placebo) and participated in a weekly individually based coping skills therapy program. Results indicated a an increased probability of achieving abstinence over the course of treatment and a decrease in the severity of cannabis dependence and the withdrawal symptom of irritability. There were no significant effects demonstrated for nefazodone and bupropion-sustained release on cannabis use or cannabis withdrawal symptoms. The results indicate nefazodone and bupropion-sustained release may have limited efficacy in treating cannabis dependence. PMID:19219666

  20. A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Lactobacillus reuteri for Chronic Functional Abdominal Pain in Children

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhari, Kambiz; Vahedi, Zahra; Kamali Aghdam, Mojtaba; Noemi Diaz, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is one of the most common diseases, and large percentages of children suffer from it. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri in treatment of children with functional abdominal pain. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Children aged 4 to 16 years with chronic functional abdominal pain (based on Rome III criteria) were enrolled in the study. They were randomly divided into two groups, one receiving probiotic and the other placebo. Results: Forty children received probiotic and forty others placebo. There were no significant differences in age, weight, sex, location of pain, associated symptoms, frequency and intensity of pain between the groups. The severity and frequency of abdominal pain in the first month compared to baseline was significantly less and at the end of the second month, there was no significant difference between both groups compared to the end of the first month. Conclusions: This study showed that the severity of pain was significantly reduced in both groups. There was no significant difference in pain scores between them. The effect of probiotic and placebo can probably be attributed to psychological effect of the drugs. PMID:26635937

  1. Increasing work-place healthiness with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Tubelius, Py; Stan, Vlaicu; Zachrisson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Background Short term illnesses, usually caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases are disruptive to productivity and there is relatively little focus on preventative measures. This study examined the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri protectis (ATCC55730) on its ability to improve work-place healthiness by reducing short term sick-leave caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal infections. Methods 262 employees at TetraPak in Sweden (day-workers and three-shift-workers) that were healthy at study start were randomised in a double-blind fashion to receive either a daily dose of 108 Colony Forming Units of L. reuteri or placebo for 80 days. The study products were administered with a drinking straw. 181 subjects complied with the study protocol, 94 were randomised to receive L. reuteri and 87 received placebo. Results In the placebo group 26.4% reported sick-leave for the defined causes during the study as compared with 10.6% in the L. reuteri group (p < 0.01). The frequency of sick-days was 0.9% in the placebo group and 0.4% in the L. reuteri group (p < 0.01). Among the 53 shift-workers, 33% in the placebo group reported sick during the study period as compared with none in the L. reuteri group(p < 0.005). PMID:16274475

  2. Ropivacaine 0.2% versus bupivacaine 0.1% with fentanyl: a double blind comparison for analgesia during labour.

    PubMed

    Dresner, M; Freeman, J; Calow, C; Quinn, A; Bamber, J

    2000-12-01

    We have performed a randomized, double-blind comparison of two epidural drug regimens for analgesia in labour. In the bupivacaine group (BUPIV), 101 healthy parturients received 0.1% bupivacaine with fentanyl 2 microg ml(-1). In the ropivacaine group (ROPIV), 102 women received 0.2% ropivacaine. Both groups received an initial loading dose of 15 ml, a continuous infusion of 8 ml h(-1), and top-ups of 10 ml. Breakthrough pain not responding to a routine top-up was treated with an 'escape' top-up of 10 ml 0.25% bupivacaine. The two groups were compared for complete analgesia at 30 min, routine and 'escape' top-up requirements, midwife assessment of analgesic efficacy, delivery mode, patient visual analogue scores (VAS) for first and second stage analgesia, overall satisfaction, and patient assessment of motor blockade. Patients receiving ropivacaine received fewer routine top-ups (median 1.0 vs. 2.0, P=0.001) and fewer escape top-ups (9.8% vs. 21.8%, P=0.02). The ropivacaine group was more likely to be pain free in the first stage (51% vs. 33.7%, P=0.01). There were no significant differences in patients' assessment of motor block or mode of delivery between the groups. Pain relief and satisfaction scores from midwives and patients were consistently better in the ropivacaine group, but did not reach statistical significance. PMID:11732513

  3. Effects of SuperUlam on Supporting Concentration and Mood: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jay K

    2013-01-01

    Background. SuperUlam is a proprietary blend of natural ingredients aimed at supporting brain health. We aimed to evaluate the effect of SuperUlam on attention and mood in healthy adults. Methods. Twenty healthy individuals aged 35–65 were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Study duration was 3 weeks and consisted of 3 visits. Measurement of cognitive function included computer-based testing of reaction time, complex attention, working memory, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Mood testing was performed via the profile of mood states (POMS) survey and the Chalder fatigue scale. Results. Cognitive function testing demonstrated a significant improvement from baseline in executive functioning, cognitive flexibility, reaction time, and working memory in the product group only (P < 0.05). When comparing the study product to placebo, the data demonstrated a significant decrease in tension, depression, and anger (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the product and placebo in the other measures of mood, including vigor, fatigue, confusion, and total mood disturbance. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. Supplementation with SuperUlam is safe to consume with potential benefits to cognitive function and mood. PMID:24371452

  4. Endoscopic versus transcranial procurement of allograft tympano-ossicular systems: a prospective double-blind randomized controlled audit.

    PubMed

    Caremans, Jeroen; Hamans, Evert; Muylle, Ludo; Van de Heyning, Paul; Van Rompaey, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Allograft tympano-ossicular systems (ATOS) have proven their use over many decades in tympanoplasty and reconstruction after resection of cholesteatoma. The transcranial bone plug technique has been used in the past 50 years to procure en bloc ATOS (tympanic membrane with malleus, incus and stapes attached). Recently, our group reported the feasibility of the endoscopic procurement technique. The aim of this study was to assess whether clinical outcome is equivalent in ATOS acquired by using the endoscopic procurement technique compared to ATOS acquired by using the transcranial technique. A double-blind randomized controlled audit was performed in a tertiary referral center in patients that underwent allograft tympanoplasty because of chronic otitis media with and without cholesteatoma. Allograft epithelialisation was evaluated at the short-term postoperative visit by microscopic examination. Failures were reported if reperforation was observed. Fifty patients underwent allograft tympanoplasty: 34 received endoscopically procured ATOS and 16 received transcranially procured ATOS. One failed case was observed, in the endoscopic procurement group. We did not observe a statistically significant difference between the two groups in failure rate. This study demonstrates equivalence of the clinical outcome of allograft tympanoplasty using either endoscopic or transcranial procured ATOS and therefore indicates that the endoscopic technique can be considered the new standard procurement technique. Especially because the endoscopic procurement technique has several advantages compared to the former transcranial procurement technique: it avoids risk of prion transmission and it is faster while lacking any noticeable incision. PMID:26342932

  5. Nandrolone decanoate (deca-durabolin) in primary Sjögren's syndrome: a double blind pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drosos, A A; van Vliet-Dascalopoulou, E; Andonopoulos, A P; Galanopoulou, V; Skopouli, F N; Moutsopoulos, H M

    1988-01-01

    The efficacy and side-effects of Deca-Durabolin (DD) were tested, in a double blind fashion, in twenty female primary Sjögren's syndrome (1 degree SS) patients. Ten randomly assigned patients received DD (100 mg IM bi-weekly) for six months, and ten others placebo, for the same period. Analysis of the results revealed that the DD-treated patients showed a moderate improvement of subjective xerostomia, a significant decrease of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and an overall improvement of their feeling of well-being, -judged by themselves and the investigator subjectively-, when compared with the placebo group. All the sicca objective parameters (results of Schirmer's I test, slit lamp eye examination after rose bengal staining, stimulated parotid flow rate measurements and labial minor salivary gland histopathology) were not significantly altered in either group. The clinical side-effects were the expected ones, i.e. hirsutism, hoarseness and an increase in libido, more pronounced in the DD-treated group. At the end of the study, one DD-treated patient, developed a diffuse well-differentiated B-lymphocytic lymphoma, which regressed spontaneously three months later. PMID:3396249

  6. Memantine for axial signs in Parkinson's disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Caroline; Delval, Arnaud; Tiffreau, Vincent; Defebvre, Luc; Dujardin, Kathy; Duhamel, Alain; Petyt, Gregory; Hossein-Foucher, Claude; Blum, David; Sablonnière, Bernard; Schraen, Susanna; Allorge, Delphine; Destée, Alain; Bordet, Régis; Devos, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that memantine is thought to decrease N-methyl-D-aspartic-acid-related (NMDA) glutamatergic hyperactivity and improve locomotion in rats, we sought to assess the drug's impact on axial symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods We performed a 90-day, randomised, double-blind, study with two parallel arms: 20 mg/day memantine versus placebo (ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01108029). The main inclusion criterion was the presence of a severe gait disorder and an abnormal, forward-leaning stance. The following parameters were analysed under standardised conditions before and after acute administration of L-dopa: gait (stride length as primary criterion), the United-Parkinson's-Disease-Rating-Scale (UPDRS) motor score and its axial subscore, the hypertonia and strength of the axial extensors and flexors (isokinetic dynamometer), the Dyskinesia Rating Scale score (DRS) and its axial subscore. Results Twenty-five patients were included. The memantine and placebo group did not differ significantly in terms of stride length. However, in the memantine group, we observed significantly better results (vs placebo) for the overall UPDRS score (F(1,21)=4.9; p=0.039(−1)) and its axial subscore (F(1,21)=7.2; p=0.014(−1.1)), axial hypertonia, the axial and overall DRS and axial strength. Conclusions Memantine treatment was associated with lower axial motor symptom and dyskinesia scores but did not improve gait. These benefits must be confirmed in a broader population of patients. PMID:23077087

  7. Comparison of Quetiapine and Risperidone in Treatment of Acute Psychosis: A Double-Blind, Randomized-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, S. Mohamad; Ahmadi, Mahshid; Mojtahedi, Dianoosh; Yazdani, Jamshid; Monajemi, Mani B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Quetiapine versus Risperidone in control of acute psychotic signs and symptoms in hospitalized patients during four weeks. Methods: In this double-blind, randomized controlled study, a total of 90 patients with a confirmed diagnosis acute psychosis and were hospitalized in Zare Hospital, Sari, Iran, and they were treated with Quetiapine (mean 500 mg/day) or Risperidone (mean 5.2 mg/day), in a 4 week period. The positive and negative symptoms scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-s) were used to assess psychotic symptoms and severity of illness in first and the last day of the study. Results: No significant difference found between two groups in decreasing positive and negative sub-scores in the PANSS. Risperidone was superior to Quetiapine in decreasing the PANSS general psychopathology sub-scores and total score (p< 0.05). No significant difference found between two groups in decreasing CGI-s score. PMID:26156901

  8. Safety and Efficacy of MLC601 in Iranian Patients after Stroke: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harandi, A. A.; Abolfazli, R.; Hatemian, A.; Ghragozlee, K.; Ghaffar-Pour, M.; Karimi, M.; Shahbegi, S.; Pakdaman, H.; Tabasi, M.; Tabatabae, A. L.; Nourian, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety and efficacy of MLC601 (NeuroAid) as a traditional Chinese medicine on motor recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 150 patients with a recent (less than 3 month) ischemic stroke. All patients were given either MLC601 (100 patients) or placebo (50 patients), 4 capsules 3 times a day, as an add-on to standard stroke treatment for 3 months. Results. Sex, age, elapsed time from stroke onset, and risk factors in the treatment group were not significantly different from placebo group at baseline (P > .05). Repeated measures analysis showed that Fugl-Meyer assessment was significantly higher in the treatment group during 12 weeks after stroke (P < .001). Good tolerability to treatment was shown, and adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusion. MLC601 showed better motor recovery than placebo and was safe on top of standard ischemic stroke medications especially in the severe and moderate cases. PMID:21776364

  9. Safety and Efficacy of MLC601 in Iranian Patients after Stroke: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Harandi, A A; Abolfazli, R; Hatemian, A; Ghragozlee, K; Ghaffar-Pour, M; Karimi, M; Shahbegi, S; Pakdaman, H; Tabasi, M; Tabatabae, A L; Nourian, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety and efficacy of MLC601 (NeuroAid) as a traditional Chinese medicine on motor recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 150 patients with a recent (less than 3 month) ischemic stroke. All patients were given either MLC601 (100 patients) or placebo (50 patients), 4 capsules 3 times a day, as an add-on to standard stroke treatment for 3 months. Results. Sex, age, elapsed time from stroke onset, and risk factors in the treatment group were not significantly different from placebo group at baseline (P > .05). Repeated measures analysis showed that Fugl-Meyer assessment was significantly higher in the treatment group during 12 weeks after stroke (P < .001). Good tolerability to treatment was shown, and adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusion. MLC601 showed better motor recovery than placebo and was safe on top of standard ischemic stroke medications especially in the severe and moderate cases. PMID:21776364

  10. Efficacy of dimetinden and hydroxyzine/chlorpheniramine in atopic dogs: a randomised, controlled, double-blinded trial

    PubMed Central

    Eichenseer, M.; Johansen, C.; Mueller, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Antihistaminic drugs are commonly used as symptomatic therapy of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Unfortunately, their clinical benefit is largely unsubstantiated. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, the influence of dimetinden and of a combination of chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine on pruritus and lesions was evaluated in 19 dogs. They were treated with either product or a placebo orally for 14 days, each time followed by a 14-day washout period. Before and after each period, the dogs were examined and the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI) determined by a clinician, and the pruritus and general condition by the owner. Dimetinden improved the pruritus significantly (P=0.014) but not the CADESI (P=0.087), the combination of hydroxyzine and chlorpheniramine improved the CADESI (P=0.049) and pruritus (P=0.05) significantly. Ten of 17 dogs improved by more than 25 per cent in pruritus with the combination of hydroxyzine and chlorpheniramine, 12 of 18 with dimetindenmaleate and only 2 of 19 with placebo. Antihistamines can help to reduce pruritus in atopic dogs, but in most cases, the improvement is limited and additional treatment may be needed. PMID:24114734

  11. Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial to Assess the Acute Diuretic Effect of Equisetum arvense (Field Horsetail) in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Danilo Maciel; Freire, Ramias Calixto; Honório, Tereza Cristina de Deus; Zoghaib, Iury; Cardoso, Fabiana Fernandes de S E Silva; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique F; de Paula, José Realino; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 36 healthy male volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 12) that underwent a three-step treatment. For four consecutive days, we alternately administered a standardized dried extract of Equisetum arvense (EADE, 900 mg/day), placebo (corn starch, 900 mg/day), or hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/day), separated by a 10-day washout period. Each volunteer served as his own control, and the groups' results were compared. We repeated the same evaluation after each stage of treatment to evaluate the safety of the drug. The diuretic effect of EADE was assessed by monitoring the volunteers' water balance over a 24 h period. The E. arvense extract produced a diuretic effect that was stronger than that of the negative control and was equivalent to that of hydrochlorothiazide without causing significant changes in the elimination of electrolytes. There was no significant increase in the urinary elimination of catabolites. Rare minor adverse events were reported. The clinical examinations and laboratory tests showed no changes before or after the experiment, suggesting that the drug is safe for acute use. Further research is needed to better clarify the mechanism of diuretic action and the other possible pharmacological actions of this phytomedicine. PMID:24723963

  12. Topical antimycotic treatment of atopic dermatitis in the head/neck area. A double-blind randomised study.

    PubMed

    Broberg, A; Faergemann, J

    1995-01-01

    In order for us to evaluate the effect of topical antimycotic treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis affecting the head and neck area, 60 patients (36 females and 24 males; median age 28 years; range 14-53 years) were included in a double-blind study during 6 weeks. Of the 53 evaluable patients, 55% had positive skin prick tests to Pityrosporum ovale. In addition to oral antibiotic treatment, patients in group A (n = 26) were given miconazole-hydrocortisone cream and ketoconazole shampoo, whereas patients in group B (n = 27) were given hydrocortisone cream and placebo shampoo. At the start of the study P. ovale cultures were positive in 83% of all patients (no significant difference between the groups). After 4 weeks of treatment, there was a decrease in P. ovale colonisation in group A (p < 0.001) but not in group B. Patients in both groups improved (p < 0.001). The decrease in eczema score did not differ between group A and group B after 4 weeks' treatment. A further decrease of the eczema score was seen in both groups at the end of the study, but no difference was found between the groups. PMID:7747534

  13. Double-blind photo lineups using actual eyewitnesses: an experimental test of a sequential versus simultaneous lineup procedure.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gary L; Steblay, Nancy K; Dysart, Jennifer E

    2015-02-01

    Eyewitnesses (494) to actual crimes in 4 police jurisdictions were randomly assigned to view simultaneous or sequential photo lineups using laptop computers and double-blind administration. The sequential procedure used in the field experiment mimicked how it is conducted in actual practice (e.g., using a continuation rule, witness does not know how many photos are to be viewed, witnesses resolve any multiple identifications), which is not how most lab experiments have tested the sequential lineup. No significant differences emerged in rates of identifying lineup suspects (25% overall) but the sequential procedure produced a significantly lower rate (11%) of identifying known-innocent lineup fillers than did the simultaneous procedure (18%). The simultaneous/sequential pattern did not significantly interact with estimator variables and no lineup-position effects were observed for either the simultaneous or sequential procedures. Rates of nonidentification were not significantly different for simultaneous and sequential but nonidentifiers from the sequential procedure were more likely to use the "not sure" response option than were nonidentifiers from the simultaneous procedure. Among witnesses who made an identification, 36% (41% of simultaneous and 32% of sequential) identified a known-innocent filler rather than a suspect, indicating that eyewitness performance overall was very poor. The results suggest that the sequential procedure that is used in the field reduces the identification of known-innocent fillers, but the differences are relatively small. PMID:24933175

  14. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Efficacy of Oral Acyclovir in the Treatment of Pityriasis Rosea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pityriasis rosea is an acute self-limiting skin disorder of unknown aetiology. Recently human herpes virus 6 and 7 has been hypothesized to be the cause of pityriasis rosea. Objective: To determine the efficacy of acyclovir, an anti-viral drug, in the treatment of pityriasis rosea. Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy of oral acyclovir in the treatment of pityriasis rosea was conducted on 73 patients. Thirty eight randomly selected patients were started on oral acyclovir. Thirty-five patients were prescribed placebo. The patients as well as the chief investigator were unaware of the therapeutic group to which patients belonged (acyclovir or placebo). Patients in both the groups were evaluated clinically after 7 and 14 days following the first visit and the data were analysed. Results: Follow up data of 60 patients was available and these were included in the statistical analysis. 53.33% and 86.66% of the patients belonging to the acyclovir group showed complete resolution on the 7th day and 14th day respectively following the first visit compared to 10% and 33.33% of patients from the placebo group. The findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: The study showed that high dose acyclovir is effective in the treatment of pityriasis rosea. PMID:24995231

  15. Efficacy of the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic urticaria. A placebo-controlled double blind study.

    PubMed

    Gaig, P; García-Ortega, P; Enrique, E; Papo, M; Quer, J C; Richard, C

    2002-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been involved in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) in patients suffering both CIU and H. pylori infection. We selected 49 patients with 13C urea breath test positive, long-lasting CIU and H. pylori infection; 20 remained symptomatic, had positive urease test or H. pylori histologic identification in gastric biopsy material and accepted to participate in a pacebo-controlled treatment trial. They were randomized for a 7-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled H. pylori eradication treatment with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazol or placebo. H. pylori eradication was assessed by a second 13C urea breath test six weeks after the end of treatment. We observed a significant improvement of more than 70 % of CIU; baseline clinical score was seen in 4 of the 9 (44 %) patients who eradicated H. pylori after active treatment and in 1 of the 7 (12,3 %) of those who did not (p = 0.19). No clinical differences in CIU characteristics were found between patients with and without improvement. No serious adverse effects were observed in either treatment group. We conclude that the eradication of H. pylori may be useful for patients suffering long-lasting CIU and H. pylori infection, although theses results did not reach statistical significance probably owing to the strict conditions of the recruitment. PMID:12396958

  16. Effervescent metoclopramide and aspirin (Migravess) versus effervescent aspirin or placebo for migraine attacks: a double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Tfelt-Hansen, P; Olesen, J

    1984-06-01

    Aspirin 650 mg and metoclopramide 10 mg in an effervescent preparation (Migravess) were compared with effervescent aspirin 650 mg (Alka-Seltzer) and placebo for common migraine attacks with a double-blind cross-over design. One hundred and eighteen patients with common migraine were entered. Eighty-five patients completed all three forms of treatment, eleven completed two, and six completed one. Medicine was taken when patients were sure they had a migraine attack and not just interval headache. After each form of treatment, they mailed a report form to the investigators. Additional medication was allowed after 2 h and was taken for 79/95 placebo treated attacks, 63/92 Migravess treated attacks, and 51/86 aspirin treated attacks (p less than 0.01). Aspirin was significantly better than placebo for pain but not quite significant for nausea. Migravess was significantly better than placebo for pain and for nausea. There was no significant difference between aspirin and Migravess with regard to analgesic effectiveness (p = 0.33) or to antinausea effect (p = 0.18). PMID:6375873

  17. Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Lee; Rowlands, David S.; Caldwell, Aaron R.; Sanders, Elizabeth; Kreutzer, Andreas; Mitchell, Joel B.; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0.7 to 5.3%, p = 0.032; benefit : harm odds ratio 546 : 1) with the 200 mg dose, relative to placebo. The 50 mg dose also increased FMD relative to placebo by 1.7% (−0.6 to 4.0%, p = 0.23; 25 : 1), but the outcome was not clinically decisive. In apparently healthy adults, 8 weeks of 200 mg oral curcumin supplementation resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in endothelial function as measured by FMD. Oral curcumin supplementation may present a simple lifestyle strategy for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This trial was registered at ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN90184217).

  18. Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetic Creams in Reducing Pain During Hysterosalpingography

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Mojgan; Zadeh Modares, Shahrzad; Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Hazari, Vajihe; Haghighi, Hadieh; Chehrazi, Mohammad; Razaghi, Melika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is considered as a primary test in infertility work up worldwide due to its reliability in evaluating abnormalities related to the uterus and fallopian tubes. Objectives: To assess the efficacy of applying eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (lidocaine-prilocaine cream) (EMLA) on the uterine cervix in reducing pain during HSG. Patients and Methods: Eighty patients undergoing HSG as part of infertility evaluation were randomly allocated to groups receiving either EMLA (N = 40) or placebo cream (N = 40) in a double-blinded prospective study. Fifteen minutes before HSG, 5 grams of 5% cream was applied to the uterine cervix using a cervical applicator. The degree of pain experienced by the patient was evaluated during and after HSG at five predefined steps on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: There was no significant difference in the efficacy between EMLA and placebo creams in pain perception during the entire procedure. There was no significant difference in long term pain perception half an hour after the HSG performance. Conclusions: This study does not support the use of EMLA for HSG. PMID:25780541

  19. Central mechanisms of controlled-release metoprolol in migraine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Siniatchkin, M; Andrasik, F; Kropp, P; Niederberger, U; Strenge, H; Averkina, N; Lindner, V; Stephani, U; Gerber, W-D

    2007-09-01

    beta-Blockers are widely used in the prophylaxis of migraine and have been described as very effective drugs in many studies. Some investigators have demonstrated that the clinical improvement of migraine corresponds to the normalization of the contingent negative variation (CNV), a slow cortical potential measuring cortical information processing. However, most of these studies have contained a variety of methodological pitfalls, which we attempted to address in the current study. Twenty patients suffering from migraine without aura were randomly divided into two groups. The groups were treated either with controlled-release metoprolol or placebo for 3 months, using a double-blind design. Twice before and once after each month of the treatment the CNV was recorded. After 3 months, a significant reduction of migraine frequency, duration and intensity was demonstrated for the metoprolol compared with the placebo group. The CNV was characterized by a marked reduction of the amplitude of the total CNV and postimperative negative variation and normalization of the eartly CNV habituation following treatment. Therefore, metoprolol may exert its prophylactic effect in migraine through the influence on cortical information processing and excitability represented by the CNV. PMID:17680819

  20. Stimulating somatosensory psychophysics: a double-blind, sham-controlled study of the neurobiological mechanisms of tDCS

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Claire J.; Tommerdahl, Mark; McGonigle, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The neuromodulation technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is thought to produce its effects on behavior by altering cortical excitability. Although the mechanisms underlying the observed effects are thought to rely on the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, the physiological principles of the technique are not completely understood. In this study, we examine the influence of tDCS on vibrotactile adaptation, using a simple amplitude discrimination paradigm that has been shown to exhibit modifications in performance due to changes in inhibitory neurotransmission. Double-blind tDCS (Anodal/Sham) of 1 mA was delivered for 600 s to electrodes positioned in a somatosensory/contralateral orbit montage. Stimulation was applied as part of a pre/post design, between blocks of the behavioral tasks. In accordance with previous work, results obtained before the application of tDCS indicated that amplitude discrimination thresholds were significantly worsened during adaptation trials, compared to those achieved at baseline. However, tDCS failed to modify amplitude discrimination performance. Using a Bayesian approach, this finding was revealed to constitute substantial evidence for the null hypothesis. The failure of DC stimulation to alter vibrotactile adaptation thresholds is discussed in the context of several factors that may have confounded the induction of changes in cortical plasticity. PMID:26500499

  1. BEMER Therapy Combined with Physiotherapy in Patients with Musculoskeletal Diseases: A Randomised, Controlled Double Blind Follow-Up Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Gyulai, Franciska; Rába, Katalin; Baranyai, Ildikó; Berkes, Enikő; Bender, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluates the effect of adjuvant BEMER therapy in patients with knee arthrosis and chronic low back pain in a randomized double blind design. Methods. A total of 50 patients with chronic low back pain and 50 patients with osteoarthritis of knee took part in this study and were randomized into 4 groups. Hospitalized patients received a standardized physiotherapy package for 3 weeks followed by BEMER therapy or placebo. Results. In patients with low back pain, the comparison of the results obtained at the first and second visit showed a significant improvement in resting VAS scores and Fatigue Scale scores. The Oswestry scores and Quality of Life Scale scores showed no change. In patients with knee arthrosis, the comparison of the first and second measurements showed no significant improvement in the abovementioned parameters, while the comparison of the first and third scores revealed a significant improvement in the Fatigue Scale scores and in the vitality test on the Quality of Life Scale. Conclusions. Our study showed that BEMER physical vascular therapy reduced pain and fatigue in the short term in patients with chronic low back pain, while long-term therapy appears to be beneficial in patients with osteoarthritis of knee. PMID:26078768

  2. BEMER Therapy Combined with Physiotherapy in Patients with Musculoskeletal Diseases: A Randomised, Controlled Double Blind Follow-Up Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gyulai, Franciska; Rába, Katalin; Baranyai, Ildikó; Berkes, Enikő; Bender, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluates the effect of adjuvant BEMER therapy in patients with knee arthrosis and chronic low back pain in a randomized double blind design. Methods. A total of 50 patients with chronic low back pain and 50 patients with osteoarthritis of knee took part in this study and were randomized into 4 groups. Hospitalized patients received a standardized physiotherapy package for 3 weeks followed by BEMER therapy or placebo. Results. In patients with low back pain, the comparison of the results obtained at the first and second visit showed a significant improvement in resting VAS scores and Fatigue Scale scores. The Oswestry scores and Quality of Life Scale scores showed no change. In patients with knee arthrosis, the comparison of the first and second measurements showed no significant improvement in the abovementioned parameters, while the comparison of the first and third scores revealed a significant improvement in the Fatigue Scale scores and in the vitality test on the Quality of Life Scale. Conclusions. Our study showed that BEMER physical vascular therapy reduced pain and fatigue in the short term in patients with chronic low back pain, while long-term therapy appears to be beneficial in patients with osteoarthritis of knee. PMID:26078768

  3. A randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial of oral dydrogesterone supplementation in the management of preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    Areeruk, Wilasinee; Phupong, Vorapong

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral dydrogesterone on the recurrent uterine contraction in preterm labor. The secondary aims were to evaluate latency period, gestational age at delivery, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal outcomes, compliance and side effects. A randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial was conducted. Forty-eight pregnant women at 24–34 weeks gestation with preterm labor were either randomized to study group receiving tocolytic treatment combined with oral dydrogesterone (20 mg daily) or to placebo group receiving tocolytic treatment combined with oral placebo. Recurrent rates of uterine contraction were comparable between groups (87.5% vs 91.7%, p = 0.64). Latency periods were not different between dydrogesterone and placebo group (32.7 ± 20.2 days vs 38.2 ± 24.2 days, p = 0.39). There were also no differences in gestational age at delivery, pregnancy outcomes, neonatal outcomes, compliance and side effects. Adjuvant treatment with oral dydrogesterone 20 mg/day could not decrease the rates of recurrent uterine contraction and prolong latency period in preterm labor management when compared to placebo. PMID:26856618

  4. Deep mineral water accelerates recovery after dehydrating aerobic exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of deep mineral water (DMW) with moderate mineralization on the recovery of physical performance after prolonged dehydrating aerobic exercise in the heat was studied in nine healthy, physically active (VO2max = 45.8 ± 8.4 mL kg−1 min−1) women aged 24.0 ± 3.7 years. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of ingestion of natural mineral water extracted from a depth of 689 m on recovery from prolonged fatiguing aerobic running conducted at 30°C. Results Mean body weight decreased by 2.6–2.8% following dehydrating exercise. VO2max was 9% higher after 4 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Leg muscle power recovered better during the slow phase of recovery and was significantly higher after 48 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Conclusions DMW with moderate mineralization was more effective in inducing recovery of aerobic capacity and leg muscle power compared with plain water following prolonged dehydrating aerobic running exercise. PMID:25002835

  5. A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of botulinum toxin in the treatment of spastic foot in hemiparetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Burbaud, P; Wiart, L; Dubos, J L; Gaujard, E; Debelleix, X; Joseph, P A; Mazaux, J M; Bioulac, B; Barat, M; Lagueny, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To confirm the apparent effectiveness of botulinum toxin (BTX) in hemiparetic patients with ankle plantar flexors and foot invertor spasticity. METHODS: Twenty three hemiparetic patients with spasticity of the ankle plantar flexors and foot invertors were included in a randomised double blind, placebo controlled study with BTX. Patients were examined on days 0, 30, 90, and 120 and received one injection of BTX and one of placebo in a random order at day 0 and day 90. RESULTS: Patients reported a clear subjective improvement in foot spasticity after BTX (P = 0.0014) but not after placebo. Significant changes were noted in Ashworth scale values for ankle extensors (P < 0.0001) and invertors (P = 0.0002), and for active ankle dorsiflexion (P = 0.0001). Gait velocity was slightly but not significantly (P = 0.0731) improved after BTX injections. The severity of spasticity did not modify treatment efficacy, but BTX was less effective in patients with longer duration of spasticity (P = 0.0081). CONCLUSION: The efficacy of BTX injections in the treatment of spastic foot suggests that BTX may be particularly useful during the first year after a stroke. PMID:8795597

  6. Evaluation of a crataegus-based multiherb formula for dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (-9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by -3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (-1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

  7. Is Skin-Touch Sham Needle Not Placebo? A Double-Blind Crossover Study on Pain Alleviation

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Ikuo; Izumizaki, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    It remains an open question whether placebo/sham acupuncture, in which the needle tip presses the skin, can be used as a placebo device for research on pain. We compare the analgesic effect of the skin-touch placebo needle with that of the no-touch placebo needle, in which the needle tip does not touch the skin, in a double-blind crossover manner including no-treatment control in 23 healthy volunteers. The subjects received painful electrical stimulation in the forearm before and during needle retention to the LI 4 acupoint and after the removal of the needle and rated pain intensity using a visual analogue scale. We found no significant difference in analgesic effects among the skin-touch placebo needle, no-touch placebo needle, and no-treatment control at every point before, during, and after the treatments (p > 0.05). The results indicate that the skin-touch placebo needle can be used as a placebo device in clinical studies on pain. PMID:26064153

  8. Clinical evaluation of diphenhydramine hydrochloride for the treatment of insomnia in psychiatric patients: a double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Y; Kurihara, M

    1990-11-01

    The usefulness of the antihistaminic agent diphenhydramine hydrochloride was evaluated using a double-blind procedure at sleeping doses of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg in 144 psychiatric patients with insomnia. The general condition of the patients with insomnia was at least "slightly improved" in 62.5% (12.5-mg group), 60% (25-mg group), and 67.4% (50-mg group) after treatment with the test drug for 2 weeks. Side effects were observed in a total of 11 patients (7.6%) but were not severe. No symptoms suggestive of drug dependence were evident. Global improvement was not influenced by patient background factors except for the presence or absence of previous treatment for insomnia. The hypnotic effect of diphenhydramine hydrochloride was significantly greater in patients who had not been treated previously. A dose-dependent increase in the hypnotic effect was also seen in patients who had not received any previous treatment. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride thus appears to be effective in the treatment of insomnia, but the appropriate dosage will depend on previous medical treatment of insomnia. PMID:2243152

  9. A 60day double-blind, placebo-controlled safety study involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract.

    PubMed

    Kaats, Gilbert R; Miller, Howard; Preuss, Harry G; Stohs, Sidney J

    2013-05-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in dietary supplements for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Bitter orange extract is commonly used in combination with multiple herbal ingredients. Most clinical studies conducted on bitter orange extract alone have involved single doses. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of bitter orange extract (approximately 49mg p-synephrine) alone or in combination with naringin and hesperidin twice daily given to 25 healthy subjects per group for 60days in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled protocol. No significant changes occurred in systolic or diastolic blood pressures, blood chemistries or blood cell counts in control or p-synephrine treated groups. Small, clinically insignificant differences in heart rates were observed between the p-synephrine plus naringin and hesperidin group and the p-synephrine alone as well as the placebo group. No adverse effects were reported in the three groups. Bitter orange extract and p-synephrine appear to be without adverse effects at a dose of up to 98mg daily for 60days based on the parameters measured. PMID:23354394

  10. Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial: Gluten versus Placebo Rechallenge in Patients with Lymphocytic Enteritis and Suspected Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Anna; Ibarra, Montserrat; Temiño, Rocío; Salas, Antonio; Esteve, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of gluten as a trigger of symptoms in non-coeliac gluten sensitivity has been questioned. Aim To demonstrate that gluten is the trigger of symptoms in a subgroup of patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), which presented with lymphocytic enteritis, positive celiac genetics and negative celiac serology. Methods Double-blind randomized clinical trial of gluten vs placebo rechallenge. Inclusion criteria: >18 years of age, HLA-DQ2/8+, negative coeliac serology and gluten-dependent lymphocytic enteritis, and GI symptoms, with clinical and histological remission at inclusion. Eighteen patients were randomised: 11 gluten (20 g/day) and 7 placebo. Clinical symptoms, quality of life (GIQLI), and presence of gamma/delta+ cells and transglutaminase deposits were evaluated. Results 91% of patients had clinical relapse during gluten challenge versus 28.5% after placebo (p = 0.01). Clinical scores and GIQLI worsened after gluten but not after placebo (p<0.01). The presence of coeliac tissue markers at baseline biopsy on a gluten-free diet allowed classifying 9 out of the 18 (50%) patients as having probable ‘coeliac lite’ disease. Conclusion This proof-of-concept study indicates that gluten is the trigger of symptoms in a subgroup of patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for NCGS. They were characterized by positive celiac genetics, lymphocytic enteritis, and clinical and histological remission after a gluten-free diet. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02472704 PMID:27392045

  11. Azithromycin therapy of papillomatosis in dogs: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Yağci, Buğrahan Bekir; Ural, Kerem; Ocal, Naci; Haydardedeoğlu, Ali Evren

    2008-08-01

    Azithromycin, an azalide subclass macrolide antibiotic, is an effective, well-tolerated and safe therapeutic option for treatment of papillomatosis in humans. This study reports the clinical and histopathological results from a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 17 dogs of various breeds with diagnosis of oral (n = 12) and cutaneous papillomatosis (n = 5) treated with azithromycin. Papillomas appeared as whitish, verrucous, hyperkeratotic papules 1-2.7 mm in size. The cases were randomly assigned to azithromycin (n = 10) and placebo treatment groups (n = 7). Both owners and investigators were blinded to the allocation to the groups. Azithromycin (10 mg/kg) was administered per os every 24 h for 10 days. Clinical evaluations were done by the same investigator throughout the trial. Azithromycin treatment significantly decreased clinical scores (P < 0.001), whereas there was no change seen in the placebo group. In the azithromycin treatment group, skin lesions disappeared in 10-15 days. One case in the placebo had spontaneous regression of its papillomas by day 41, but lesions were still evident at day 50 in the remaining six cases. There was no recurrence of papillomatosis in the azithromycin treated dogs (follow up 8 months). No adverse effects were seen in either group. In conclusion, azithromycin appears to be a safe and effective treatment for canine papillomatosis. PMID:18494759

  12. A double-blind randomised comparison of intravenous patient-controlled remifentanil with intramuscular pethidine for labour analgesia.

    PubMed

    Ng, T K T; Cheng, B C P; Chan, W S; Lam, K K; Chan, M T V

    2011-09-01

    In a prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled trial, we compared the efficacy of patient-controlled analgesia using remifentanil (25-30 μg per bolus) with intramuscular pethidine (50-75 mg) for labour analgesia in 69 parturients. Parturients receiving patient-controlled analgesia reported less pain than those receiving intramuscular pethidine throughout the study period (p < 0.001), with maximal reduction in visual analogue pain score at 2 h after commencement of analgesia (mean (SD) 20 (17) in the patient-controlled analgesia group and 36 (22) in the intramuscular pethidine group. The median (95% CI) time to the first request for rescue analgesics was significantly longer with patient-controlled analgesia (8.0 (6.8-9.2) h) compared with intramuscular pethidine (4.9 (3.8-5.4) h, p < 0.001). Maternal satisfaction scores were also higher with remifentanil compared with intramuscular pethidine (p= 0.001). There was no report of sedation, aponea or oxygen desaturation in either group, and Apgar scores were similar between groups. We conclude that patient-controlled analgesia with remifentanil provides better labour analgesia and maternal satisfaction than intramuscular pethidine. At this dose, maternal and fetal side effects were uncommon. PMID:21707564

  13. Treatment of primary perniosis with oral pentoxifylline (a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized therapeutic trial).

    PubMed

    Al-Sudany, Nameer K

    2016-07-01

    Primary perniosis is an annoying cold-induced dermatosis. Many therapeutic agents have been tried with either unsatisfactory or controversial results. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of oral pentoxyfylline in the treatment of primary perniosis. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized therapeutic study conducted in dermatology department of Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq during four winter seasons between 2010 and 2014. The patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups: group A patients were given oral pentoxyfylline 400 mg thrice daily whereas patients in group B were given an identical placebo tablet thrice daily for 3 weeks. Therapeutic response of both groups was clinically assessed weekly for 3 weeks and side-effects were recorded. A total of 110 patients with chilblains completed this therapeutic trial. The mean age was 24.98 ± 9.17 year. Male to female ratio was 1:2.4. All patients presented with erythematous papules, plaques or nodules. Very good therapeutic response was significantly better for group A than that of group B at 7th, 4th, and 21st days of the trial (p-value: 0.0148, 0.0000004, and 0.0000000, respectively). No side effects were encountered in both groups. Pentoxyfylline is an effective and safe drug for treatment of primary perniosis. PMID:26991468

  14. The use of green tea polyphenols for treating residual albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy: A double-blind randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Cynthia M.; Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Duarte, Diego A.; Lopes de Faria, Jacqueline M.; Lopes de Faria, José B.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that in experimental diabetes mellitus, green tea reduces albuminuria by decreasing podocyte apoptosis through activation of the WNT pathway. We investigated the effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on residual albuminuria of diabetic subjects with nephropathy. We conducted a randomised, double-blind study in 42 diabetic subjects with a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) >30 mg/g, despite administration of the maximum recommended dose of renin-angiotensin (RAS) inhibition. Patients were randomly assigned to two equal groups to receive either GTP (containing 800 mg of epigallocatechin gallate, 17 with type 2 diabetes and 4 with type 1 diabetes) or placebo (21 with type 2 diabetes) for 12 weeks. Treatment with GTP reduced UACR by 41%, while the placebo group saw a 2% increase in UACR (p = 0.019). Podocyte apoptosis (p = 0.001) and in vitro albumin permeability (p < 0.001) were higher in immortalized human podocytes exposed to plasma from diabetic subjects compared to podocytes treated with plasma from normal individuals. In conclusion, GTP administration reduces albuminuria in diabetic patients receiving the maximum recommended dose of RAS. Reduction in podocyte apoptosis by activation of the WNT pathway may have contributed to this effect. PMID:27320846

  15. Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nurmikko, Turo J; Serpell, Mick G; Hoggart, Barbara; Toomey, Peter J; Morlion, Bart J; Haines, Derek

    2007-12-15

    Cannabinoids are known to have analgesic properties. We evaluated the effect of oro-mucosal sativex, (THC: CBD), an endocannabinoid system modulator, on pain and allodynia, in 125 patients with neuropathic pain of peripheral origin in a five-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial. Patients remained on their existing stable analgesia. A self-titrating regimen was used to optimise drug administration. Sixty-three patients were randomised to receive sativex and 62 placebo. The mean reduction in pain intensity scores (primary outcome measure) was greater in patients receiving sativex than placebo (mean adjusted scores -1.48 points vs. -0.52 points on a 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale (p=0.004; 95% CI: -1.59, -0.32). Improvements in Neuropathic Pain Scale composite score (p=0.007), sleep NRS (p=0.001), dynamic allodynia (p=0.042), punctate allodynia (p=0.021), Pain Disability Index (p=0.003) and Patient's Global Impression of Change (p<0.001) were similarly greater on sativex vs. placebo. Sedative and gastrointestinal side effects were reported more commonly by patients on active medication. Of all participants, 18% on sativex and 3% on placebo withdrew during the study. An open-label extension study showed that the initial pain relief was maintained without dose escalation or toxicity for 52 weeks. PMID:17997224

  16. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Males following Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Hubble, Kelly; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of intranasal oxytocin (OT) in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo. This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately 108 minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations. The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration ‘wait-time’ prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups. PMID:26669935

  17. Effect of partial agonist activity in beta blockers in severe angina pectoris: a double blind comparison of pindolol and atenolol.

    PubMed

    Quyyumi, A A; Wright, C; Mockus, L; Fox, K M

    1984-10-13

    The use of beta adrenoceptor blockade in the treatment of rest angina is controversial, and the effects on severe angina of partial agonist activity in beta blockers are unknown. Eight patients with effort angina and seven with effort and nocturnal angina and severe coronary artery disease were studied initially when they were not taking any antianginal drugs. Pindolol 5 mg thrice daily (with partial agonist activity) and atenolol 100 mg daily (without partial agonist activity) were given for five days each in a double blind randomised manner. Diaries of angina were kept and treadmill exercise testing and ambulatory ST monitoring performed during the last 48 hours of each period of treatment. Daytime and nocturnal resting heart rates and the frequency of angina were significantly reduced by atenolol compared with pindolol (p less than 0.01). The duration of exercise was significantly increased and the frequency, duration, and magnitude of daytime and nocturnal episodes of ST segment depression on ambulatory monitoring were reduced by atenolol. Reduction in resting heart rate is important in the treatment of both effort and nocturnal angina. Partial agonist activity in beta adrenoceptor antagonists may be deleterious in patients with severe angina pectoris. PMID:6148991

  18. Oral zinc sulphate supplementation for six months in SCA2 patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez-Chanfrau, Jorge; García-Rodríguez, Julio Cesar; Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Rodríguez-Díaz, Julio Cesar; Canales-Ochoa, Nalia; Gotay, Dennis Almaguer; Almaguer Mederos, Luis E; Laffita Mesa, José M; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene; Triana, Consuelo González; Pupo, Noemí Rodríguez; Batista, Idania Hidalgo; López-Hernandez, Orestes D; Polanco, Iverlis Díaz; Novas, Arelis Jayme

    2011-10-01

    Cuban patients with Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 (SCA2) have reduced concentrations of zinc in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To assess the effect and safety of zinc supplementation, 36 Cuban SCA2 patients were randomly assigned to receive daily either 50 mg ZnSO(4) or placebo, together with neurorehabilitation therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial during 6 months. Outcome measures included the changes of zinc levels in CSF and serum, ataxia score, oxidative stress and saccadic eye movements. At the end of the study, the Zinc-treated group showed: (i) a significant increase of the Zn levels in the CSF, (ii) mild decrease in the ataxia scale subscores for gait, posture, stance and dysdiadochocinesia (iii) reduction of lipid's oxidative damage, and (iv) reduction of saccadic latency when compared with the placebo group. The treatment was safe and well tolerated by all subjects. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of Zn supplementation, combined with neurorehabilitation for SCA2 patients and therefore it may encourage further studies on the clinical effect of zinc supplementation in SCA2 based in the conduction of future clinical trials with higher number of subjects. PMID:21562746

  19. Effect of GutGard in the Management of Helicobacter pylori: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Puram, Sreenivasulu; Suh, Hyung Chae; Kim, Seung Un; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Agarwal, Amit; Kudiganti, Venkateswarlu

    2013-01-01

    A randomized, double blind placebo controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard (root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra) in the management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastric load. Participants diagnosed with H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to two groups to orally receive 150 mg of GutGard (n = 55) or placebo (n = 52) once daily for 60 days. H. pylori infection was assessed using 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) at days 0, 30, and 60. Stool Antigen test (HpSA) was also performed on days 0, 30, and 60. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RMANOVA), chi-square, and Fisher's exact probability tests were used to compare the treatment outcomes. A significant interaction effect between group and time (P = 0.00) and significant difference in mean Delta Over Baseline (DOB) values between GutGard (n = 50) and placebo (n = 50) treated groups after intervention period were observed. On day 60, the results of HpSA test were negative in 28 subjects (56%) in GutGard treated group whereas in placebo treated group only 2 subjects (4%) showed negative response; the difference between the groups was statistically significant. On day 60, the results of 13C-UBT were negative in 24 (48%) in GutGard treated group and the difference between the groups was statistically significant. The findings suggest GutGard is effective in the management of H. pylori. PMID:23606875

  20. A double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase 2 study of prasugrel versus placebo in adult patients with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Platelet activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD) suggesting antiplatelet agents may be therapeutic. To evaluate the safety of prasugrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, in adult patients with SCD, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Methods The primary endpoint, safety, was measured by hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention. Patients were randomized to prasugrel 5 mg daily (n = 41) or placebo (n = 21) for 30 days. Platelet function by VerifyNow® P2Y12 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein assays at days 10 and 30 were significantly inhibited in prasugrel- compared with placebo-treated SCD patients. Results There were no hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention in either study arm. Mean pain rate (percentage of days with pain) and intensity in the prasugrel arm were decreased compared with placebo. However, these decreases did not reach statistical significance. Platelet surface P-selectin and plasma soluble P-selectin, biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation, were significantly reduced in SCD patients receiving prasugrel compared with placebo. In sum, prasugrel was well tolerated and not associated with serious hemorrhagic events. Conclusions Despite the small size and short duration of this study, there was a decrease in platelet activation biomarkers and a trend toward decreased pain. PMID:23414938

  1. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae-Young; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jaeuk U.; Lee, Yu Jung; Kang, Jae Hui; Heo, Hyun; Choi, Hyo-Joon; Lee, Jun-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n = 28) or the sham laser acupuncture group (n = 28). Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version) were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain. PMID:26516333

  2. Enhanced efficacy of sequential administration of Albendazole for the clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti infection: Double blind RCT.

    PubMed

    De Britto, R L; Vanamail, P; Sankari, T; Vijayalakshmi, G; Das, L K; Pani, S P

    2015-06-01

    Till today, there is no effective treatment protocol for the complete clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) infection that causes secondary lymphoedema. In a double blind randomized control trial (RCT), 146 asymptomatic W. b infected individuals were randomly assigned to one of the four regimens for 12 days, DEC 300 mg + Doxycycline 100 mg coadministration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg co-administration or DEC 300 mg + Albendazole 400 mg sequential administration or control regimen DEC 300 mg and were followed up at 13, 26 and 52 weeks post-treatment for the clearance of infection. At intake, there was no significant variation in mf counts (F(3,137)=0.044; P=0.988) and antigen levels (F(3,137)=1.433; P=0.236) between the regimens. Primary outcome analysis showed that DEC + Albendazole sequential administration has an enhanced efficacy over DEC + Albendazole co-administration (80.6 Vs 64.7%), and this regimen is significantly different when compared to DEC + doxycycline co-administration and control (P<0.05), in clearing microfilaria in 13 weeks. Secondary outcome analysis showed that, all the trial regimens were comparable to control regimen in clearing antigen (F(3, 109)=0.405; P=0.750). Therefore, DEC + Albendazole sequential administration appears to be a better option for rapid clearance of W. b microfilariae in 13 weeks time. (Clinical trials.gov identifier - NCT02005653). PMID:26691247

  3. Adaptation of blood pressure to continuous heavy coffee drinking in young volunteers. A double-blind crossover study.

    PubMed Central

    Ammon, H P; Bieck, P R; Mandalaz, D; Verspohl, E J

    1983-01-01

    In a double-blind crossover trial, the effect of 4 week daily ingestion of eight cups of regular coffee (corresponding to 504 mg caffeine) vs eight cups of decaffeinated coffee was studied. Blood pressure, heart rate and urinary catecholamines were measured in eight healthy, young volunteers. In both groups, regular coffee immediately led to a significant increase in mean blood pressure (+ 3 and + 5 mm Hg respectively). The difference between both groups, however, existed only in the first 3 to 5 days of ingestion of regular coffee. On day 5 after ingestion of regular coffee, and thereafter in weekly intervals, no significant increase in catecholamine excretion was observed. The data suggest that long-term consumption of large amounts of coffee leads to only a small and transient rise in mean blood pressure. This may be due to an adaptation phenomenon. Therefore, continuous heavy coffee ingestion (eight cups/day for 4 weeks) by young persons does not appear to involve a risk of the development of hypertension. PMID:6871070

  4. Paroxetine Controlled Release for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: Remission Analysis Following a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pearlstein, Teri B.; Bellew, Kevin M.; Endicott, Jean; Steiner, Meir

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of paroxetine controlled release (CR) (12.5 mg/day or 25 mg/day) versus placebo in premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Method: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted over 3 menstrual cycles in women aged 18–45 years with confirmed DSM-IV PMDD in 47 outpatient centers across the United States and Canada from November 1999 to January 2002. The primary efficacy measure was the visual analog scale (VAS)-Mood, which is the mean of 4 core symptoms: irritability, tension, depressed mood, and affective lability. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in favor of paroxetine CR 25 mg versus placebo on the VAS-Mood (adjusted mean difference = −12.58 mm, 95% CI = −18.40 to −6.76; p < .001) and for paroxetine CR 12.5 mg versus placebo (adjusted mean difference = −7.51 mm, 95% CI = −13.40 to −1.62; p = .013). Paroxetine CR was generally well tolerated. Conclusion: Paroxetine CR doses of 12.5 mg/day and 25 mg/day are effective in treating PMDD and are well tolerated. PMID:15841196

  5. Comparison between dexmedetomidine and fentanyl on intubation conditions during awake fiberoptic bronchoscopy: A randomized double-blind prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Ghosh, Sarmila; Bhattacharya, Susmita; Choudhury, Brojen; Mallick, Suchismita; Prasad, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Various drugs are used for providing favorable intubation conditions during awake fiberoptic intubation (AFOI). However, most of them cause respiratory depression and airway obstruction leading to hypoxemia. The aim of this study was to compare intubation conditions, and incidence of desaturation between dexmedetomidine and fentanyl group during AFOI. Material and Methods: This randomized double-blind prospective study was conducted on a total of 60 patients scheduled for elective laparotomies who were randomly allocated into two groups: Group A received dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg and Group B received fentanyl 2 mcg/kg over 10 min. Patients in both groups received glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg intravenous, nebulization with 2% lidocaine 4 ml over 20 min and 10% lidocaine spray before undergoing AFOI. Adequacy of intubation condition was evaluated by cough score and post-intubation score. Incidence of desaturation, hemodynamic changes and sedation using Ramsay sedation scale (RSS) were noted and compared between two groups. Results: Cough Score (1-4), post-intubation Score (1-3) and RSS (1-6) were significantly favorable (P < 0.0001) along with minimum hemodynamic responses to intubation (P < 0.05) and less oxygen desaturation (P < 0.0001) in Group A than Group B. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine is more effective than fentanyl in producing better intubation conditions, sedation along with hemodynamic stability and less desaturation during AFOI. PMID:25948903

  6. Double-blind study of alprazolam, diazepam, clonidine, and placebo in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Adinoff, B

    1994-08-01

    Both a reduction in the inhibitory effects of GABA (disinhibition) and activation of the sympathetic nervous system are manifested during the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. This study was designed to explore the relative efficacy of medications that differentially affects these two biological systems: the benzodiazepines, which attenuate GABAergic disinhibition, and the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonists, which decrease sympathetic act