Sample records for paramagnetic nmr spectroscopy

  1. Structural studies of proteins by paramagnetic solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaroniec, Christopher P

    2015-04-01

    Paramagnetism-based nuclear pseudocontact shifts and spin relaxation enhancements contain a wealth of information in solid-state NMR spectra about electron-nucleus distances on the ?20Å length scale, far beyond that normally probed through measurements of nuclear dipolar couplings. Such data are especially vital in the context of structural studies of proteins and other biological molecules that suffer from a sparse number of experimentally-accessible atomic distances constraining their three-dimensional fold or intermolecular interactions. This perspective provides a brief overview of the recent developments and applications of paramagnetic magic-angle spinning NMR to biological systems, with primary focus on the investigations of metalloproteins and natively diamagnetic proteins modified with covalent paramagnetic tags. PMID:25797004

  2. Solid-state (17) o NMR spectroscopy of paramagnetic coordination compounds.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xianqi; Terskikh, Victor V; Khade, Rahul L; Yang, Liu; Rorick, Amber; Zhang, Yong; He, Peng; Huang, Yining; Wu, Gang

    2015-04-13

    High-quality solid-state (17) O (I=5/2) NMR spectra can be successfully obtained for paramagnetic coordination compounds in which oxygen atoms are directly bonded to the paramagnetic metal centers. For complexes containing V(III) (S=1), Cu(II) (S=1/2), and Mn(III) (S=2) metal centers, the (17) O isotropic paramagnetic shifts were found to span a range of more than 10?000?ppm. In several cases, high-resolution (17) O NMR spectra were recorded under very fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions at 21.1?T. Quantum-chemical computations using density functional theory (DFT) qualitatively reproduced the experimental (17) O hyperfine shift tensors. PMID:25694203

  3. ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    E-print Network

    Crofts, Antony R.

    CHAPTER 3 ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY 1 Sergei A. Dikanov and 2 Antony R. Crofts 1 for the investigation of unpaired electron spins. Two terms are used in the literature: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We will use the first term in this chapter. During the sixty

  4. NMR Spectroscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Reich, Ieva

    Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts. These questions pertain to Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and include topics such as: Chemical Shift, Proton NMR, and Carbon NMR.

  5. Interactions between a humic acid and a paramagnetic cation as assessed by CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, P.; van Lagen, B.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances (HSs) are natural organic materials playing a very important role in environment due to their ability in interacting with organic and inorganic compounds. From the one side, HSs can reduce the toxic effects of organic and inorganic contaminants, while, from the other side, they can enhance availability of nutrients, such as cations, to living organisms including plants. For this reason it is very crucial to understand the mechanisms of the interactions between humic substances and the environmentally relevant chemical components. In the present work, we have investigated the mechanisms of interaction between a HS and iron (III) by using cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) 13C NMR spectroscopy. For that, complexes between HS and different amounts of Fe(III) were prepared. All the HS-Fe(III) complexes were analysed by variable contact time (VCT) NMR experiments in order to obtain estimations of the values of the cross-polarization time (TCH) and the proton longitudinal relaxation time in the rotating frame (T1rho(H)). Results confirmed literature findings by which carboxyl groups are the most important humic fraction endowing with the ability to chelate Fe(III). However, our results also demonstrated that direct bondages between HS and Fe(III) involve the remaining polar systems such as carbohydrates and peptides. Conversely, alkyls and aromatics appeared not to be directly bound to the paramagnetic iron (III). We also evaluated the distances between Fe(III) and the different functional groups in the HS through the analysis of the proton spin diffusion into the HS-Fe(III) complexes.

  6. NMR Spectroscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shattuck, Thomas W.

    This site contains web-based programs that allow the user to predict chemical shifts, spin-spin coupling patterns and NMR line shapes affected by dynamic chemical exchange. This site will be most useful for students with a good background in the fundamentals of NMR theory.

  7. Broadband solid-state MAS NMR of paramagnetic systems.

    PubMed

    Pell, Andrew J; Pintacuda, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The combination of new magnet and probe technology with increasingly sophisticated pulse sequences has resulted in an increase in the number of applications of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to paramagnetic materials and biomolecules. The interaction between the paramagnetic metal ions and the NMR-active nuclei often yields crucial structural or electronic information about the system. In particular the application of magic-angle spinning (MAS) has been shown to be crucial to obtaining resolution that is sufficiently high for studying complex systems. However such systems are generally extremely difficult to study as the shifts and shift anisotropies resulting from the same paramagnetic interaction broaden the spectrum beyond excitation and detection, and the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) shortens the lifetimes of the excited signals considerably. One specific area that has therefore been receiving significant attention in recent years, and for which great improvements have been seen, is the development of broadband NMR sequences. The development of new excitation and inversion sequences for paramagnetic systems under MAS has often made the difference between the spectrum being unobtainable, and a complete NMR study being possible. However the development of the new sequences must explicitly take account of the modulation of the anisotropic shift interactions due to the sample rotation, with the resulting spin dynamics often being complicated considerably. The NMR sequences can either be helped or hindered by MAS, with the efficiency of some pulse schemes being destroyed, and others being greatly enhanced. This review describes the pulse sequences that have recently been proposed for broadband excitation, inversion, and refocussing of the signal components of paramagnetic systems. In doing so we define exactly what is meant by "broadband" under spinning conditions, and what the perfect pulse scheme should deliver. We also give a unified description of the spin dynamics under MAS which highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the various schemes, and which can be used as guidance for future research in this area. All the reviewed pulse schemes are evaluated both with simulations and experimental data obtained on the battery material LiFe0.5Mn0.5PO4 which is typical of the complexity of the paramagnetic systems that are currently under study. PMID:25669740

  8. 1,3-Alternate calix[4]arene nitronyl nitroxide tetraradical and diradical: synthesis, X-ray crystallography, paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy, EPR spectroscopy, and magnetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Rajca, Andrzej; Pink, Maren; Mukherjee, Sumit; Rajca, Suchada; Das, Kausik

    2009-01-01

    Calix[4]arenes constrained to 1,3-alternate conformation and functionalized at the upper rim with four and two nitronyl nitroxides have been synthesized, and characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic resonance (EPR and 1H NMR) spectroscopy, and magnetic studies. Such calix[4]arene tetraradicals and diradicals provide scaffolds for through-bond and through-space intramolecular exchange couplings. PMID:19568320

  9. Paramagnetic relaxation of long-lived coherences in solution NMR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Maninder; Srinivas, Chinthalapalli; Deb, Mayukh; Kurur, Narayanan D

    2013-12-01

    Long-lived coherences (LLCs) are known to have lifetimes much longer than transverse magnetization or single quantum coherences (SQCs). The effect of paramagnetic ions on the relaxation of LLCs is not known. This is particularly important, as LLCs have potential applications in various fields like analytical NMR, in vivo NMR and MR imaging methods. We study here the behaviour of LLCs in the presence of paramagnetic relaxation agents. The stepwise increase in the concentration of the metal ion is followed by measuring various relaxation rates. The effect of paramagnetic ions is analysed in terms of the external random field's contribution to the relaxation of two coupled protons in 2,3,6-trichlorobenzaldehyde. The LLCs relax faster than ordinary SQCs in the presence of paramagnetic ions of varying character. This is explained on the basis of an increase in the contribution of the external random field to relaxation due to a paramagnetic relaxation mechanism. Comparison is also made with ordinary Zeeman relaxation rates like R1, R2, R1? and also with rate of relaxation of long-lived states RLLS which are known to be less sensitive to paramagnetically induced relaxation. Also, the extent of correlation of random fields at two proton sites is studied and is found to be strongly correlated with each other. The obtained correlation constant is found to be independent of the nature of added paramagnetic impurities. PMID:24151221

  10. Broadband solid-state MAS NMR of paramagnetic systems

    E-print Network

    Pell, Andrew J.; Pintacuda, Guido

    2014-12-26

    paramagnetic benchmark material The chosen paramagnetic system to illustrate the various concepts and properties of the broadband NMR sequences is the olivine LiFe0.5Mn0.5PO4, which is a cathode ma- terial [40, 41], comprising TMO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra... .5Mn0.5PO4. The olivine crystal structure is shown in (a) showing the TMO6 octahedra, PO4 tetrahedra, and one-dimensional channels occupied by Li. In (b) is shown the local structure of the P site, which is coordinating to five transition-metal ion...

  11. NMR Spectroscopy of Azo Dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L A Fedorov

    1988-01-01

    The known NMR spectroscopy data on different types of synthetic azo and polyazo dyes, including metal complexes, are correlated. The fundamentally new opportunities in the NMR spectroscopy of 1H, 13C, and 15N nuclei in solving problems of structural chemistry in this field of industrial chemistry are demonstrated. The bibliography includes 124 references.

  12. NMR Spectroscopy of Azo Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, L. A.

    1988-10-01

    The known NMR spectroscopy data on different types of synthetic azo and polyazo dyes, including metal complexes, are correlated. The fundamentally new opportunities in the NMR spectroscopy of 1H, 13C, and 15N nuclei in solving problems of structural chemistry in this field of industrial chemistry are demonstrated. The bibliography includes 124 references.

  13. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Croasmun, W.R.; Carlson, R.M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Written for chemists and biochemists who are not NMR spectroscopists, but who wish to use the new techniques of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, this book brings together for the first time much of the practical and experimental data needed. It also serves as information source for industrial, academic, and graduate student researchers who already use NMR spectroscopy, but not yet in two dimensions. The authors describe the use of 2-D NMR in a wide variety of chemical and biochemical fields, among them peptides, steroids, oligo- and poly-saccharides, nucleic acids, natural products (including terpenoids, alkaloids, and coal-derived heterocyclics), and organic synthetic intermediates. They consider throughout the book both the advantages and limitations of using 2-D NMR.

  14. Understanding NMR Spectroscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Keeler, James

    This site provides links to a series of PDF files that represent chapters of an e-text on the basics of NMR. While many other textbooks on NMR are available, the chief merit of this one is that it has a nice chapter on the NMR instrumentation (ch. 5) which should be accessible to undergraduates. The text also provides a relatively mathematics-free or maybe more accurately Dirac bracket notation-free introduction to 1-D and 2-D (COSY and NOESY) experiments that would be appreciated by advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students involved in undergraduate research experiences using NMR.

  15. NMR Spectroscopy - Theory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lord, J.R.

    This web site begins with a simple quantum description of NMR and proceeds to introduce resonance absorption, relaxation, chemical shifts, and scalar couplings. This site will be useful for advanced undergraduate students needing a description of NMR that is more detailed than that given in most introductory Organic texts.

  16. Modern NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinski, Lynn W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses direct chemical information that can be obtained from modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods, concentrating on the types of problems that can be solved. Shows how selected methods provide information about polymers, bipolymers, biochemistry, small organic molecules, inorganic compounds, and compounds oriented in a magnetic…

  17. Introduction to Spin Label Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanson, Michelle; Sood, Abha; Torok, Fanni; Torok, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory exercise is described to demonstrate the biochemical applications of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The beta93 cysteine residue of hemoglobin is labeled by the covalent binding of 3-maleimido-proxyl (5-MSL) and 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-3-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSL), respectively. The excess…

  18. Understanding the NMR shifts in paramagnetic transition metal oxides using density functional theory calculations

    E-print Network

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Understanding the NMR shifts in paramagnetic transition metal oxides using density functional of the lithium local environment and electronic configuration of the transition metal ions. We focus structure. In order to understand the spin-density transfer mechanism from the transition metal ion

  19. Hyperpolarized 131Xe NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stupic, Karl F.; Cleveland, Zackary I.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 131Xe with up to 2.2% spin polarization (i.e., 5000-fold signal enhancement at 9.4 T) was obtained after separation from the rubidium vapor of the spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process. The SEOP was applied for several minutes in a stopped-flow mode, and the fast, quadrupolar-driven T1 relaxation of this spin I = 3/2 noble gas isotope required a rapid subsequent rubidium removal and swift transfer into the high magnetic field region for NMR detection. Because of the xenon density dependent 131Xe quadrupolar relaxation in the gas phase, the SEOP polarization build-up exhibits an even more pronounced dependence on xenon partial pressure than that observed in 129Xe SEOP. 131Xe is the only stable noble gas isotope with a positive gyromagnetic ratio and shows therefore a different relative phase between hp signal and thermal signal compared to all other noble gases. The gas phase 131Xe NMR spectrum displays a surface and magnetic field dependent quadrupolar splitting that was found to have additional gas pressure and gas composition dependence. The splitting was reduced by the presence of water vapor that presumably influences xenon-surface interactions. The hp 131Xe spectrum shows differential line broadening, suggesting the presence of strong adsorption sites. Beyond hp 131Xe NMR spectroscopy studies, a general equation for the high temperature, thermal spin polarization, P, for spin I?1/2 nuclei is presented. PMID:21051249

  20. Microcoil NMR spectroscopy: a novel tool for biological high throughput NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hopson, Russell E; Peti, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Microcoil NMR spectroscopy is based on the increase of coil sensitivity for smaller coil diameters (approximately 1/d). Microcoil NMR probes deliver a remarkable mass-based sensitivity increase (8- to 12-fold) when compared with commonly used 5-mm NMR probes. Although microcoil NMR probes are a well established analytical tool for small molecule liquid-state NMR spectroscopy, after spectroscopy only recently have microcoil NMR probes become available for biomolecular NMR spectroscopy. This chapter highlights differences between commercially available microcoil NMR probes suitable for biomolecular NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, it provides practical guidance for the use of microcoil probes and shows direct applications for structural biology and structural genomics, such as optimal target screening and structure determination, among others. PMID:18542883

  1. NMR Spectroscopy and Its Value: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeraraghavan, Sudha

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is widely used by chemists. Furthermore, the use of NMR spectroscopy to solve structures of macromolecules or to examine protein-ligand interactions is popular. Yet, few students entering graduate education in biological sciences have been introduced to this method or its utility. Over the last six…

  2. Water exchange in plant tissue studied by proton NMR in the presence of paramagnetic centers.

    PubMed Central

    Baci?, G; Ratkovi?, S

    1984-01-01

    The proton NMR relaxation of water in maize roots in the presence of paramagnetic centers, Mn2+, Mn- EDTA2 -, and dextran-magnetite was measured. It was shown that the NMR method of Conlon and Outhred (1972, Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 288:354-361) can be applied to a heterogenous multicellular system, and the water exchange time between cortical cells and the extracellular space can be calculated. The water exchange is presumably controlled by the intracellular unstirred layers. The Mn- EDTA2 - complex is a suitable paramagnetic compound for complex tissue, while the application of dextran-magnetite is probably restricted to studies of water exchange in cell suspensions. The water free space of the root and viscosity of the cells cytoplasm was estimated with the use of Mn- EDTA2 -. The convenience of proton NMR for studying the multiphase uptake of paramagnetic ions by plant root as well as their transport to leaves is demonstrated. A simple and rapid NMR technique (spin-echo recovery) for continuous measurement of the uptake process is presented. PMID:6426539

  3. Enzyme dynamics from NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Arthur G

    2015-02-17

    Conspectus Biological activities of enzymes, including regulation or coordination of mechanistic stages preceding or following the chemical step, may depend upon kinetic or equilibrium changes in protein conformations. Exchange of more open or flexible conformational states with more closed or constrained states can influence inhibition, allosteric regulation, substrate recognition, formation of the Michaelis complex, side reactions, and product release. NMR spectroscopy has long been applied to the study of conformational dynamic processes in enzymes because these phenomena can be characterized over multiple time scales with atomic site resolution. Laboratory-frame spin-relaxation measurements, sensitive to reorientational motions on picosecond-nanosecond time scales, and rotating-frame relaxation-dispersion measurements, sensitive to chemical exchange processes on microsecond-millisecond time scales, provide information on both conformational distributions and kinetics. This Account reviews NMR spin relaxation studies of the enzymes ribonuclease HI from mesophilic (Escherichia coli) and thermophilic (Thermus thermophilus) bacteria, E. coli AlkB, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae triosephosphate isomerase to illustrate the contributions of conformational flexibility and dynamics to diverse steps in enzyme mechanism. Spin relaxation measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the bacterial ribonuclease H enzymes show that the handle region, one of three loop regions that interact with substrates, interconverts between two conformations. Comparison of these conformations with the structure of the complex between Homo sapiens ribonuclease H and a DNA:RNA substrate suggests that the more closed state is inhibitory to binding. The large population of the closed conformation in T. thermophilus ribonuclease H contributes to the increased Michaelis constant compared with the E. coli enzyme. NMR spin relaxation and fluorescence spectroscopy have characterized a conformational transition in AlkB between an open state, in which the side chains of methionine residues in the active site are disordered, and a closed state, in which these residues are ordered. The open state is highly populated in the AlkB/Zn(II) complex, and the closed state is highly populated in the AlkB/Zn(II)/2OG/substrate complex, in which 2OG is the 2-oxoglutarate cosubstrate and the substrate is a methylated DNA oligonucleotide. The equilibrium is shifted to approximately equal populations of the two conformations in the AlkB/Zn(II)/2OG complex. The conformational shift induced by 2OG ensures that 2OG binds to AlkB/Zn(II) prior to the substrate. In addition, the opening rate of the closed conformation limits premature release of substrate, preventing generation of toxic side products by reaction with water. Closure of active site loop 6 in triosephosphate isomerase is critical for forming the Michaelis complex, but reopening of the loop after the reaction is (partially) rate limiting. NMR spin relaxation and MD simulations of triosephosphate isomerase in complex with glycerol 3-phosphate demonstrate that closure of loop 6 is a highly correlated rigid-body motion. The MD simulations also indicate that motions of Gly173 in the most flexible region of loop 6 contribute to opening of the active site loop for product release. Considered together, these three enzyme systems illustrate the power of NMR spin relaxation investigations in providing global insights into the role of conformational dynamic processes in the mechanisms of enzymes from initial activation to final product release. PMID:25574774

  4. Scalable NMR spectroscopy with semiconductor chips

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Dongwan; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Sun, Nan; Song, Yi-Qiao; Ham, Donhee

    2014-01-01

    State-of-the-art NMR spectrometers using superconducting magnets have enabled, with their ultrafine spectral resolution, the determination of the structure of large molecules such as proteins, which is one of the most profound applications of modern NMR spectroscopy. Many chemical and biotechnological applications, however, involve only small-to-medium size molecules, for which the ultrafine resolution of the bulky, expensive, and high-maintenance NMR spectrometers is not required. For these applications, there is a critical need for portable, affordable, and low-maintenance NMR spectrometers to enable in-field, on-demand, or online applications (e.g., quality control, chemical reaction monitoring) and co-use of NMR with other analytical methods (e.g., chromatography, electrophoresis). As a critical step toward NMR spectrometer miniaturization, small permanent magnets with high field homogeneity have been developed. In contrast, NMR spectrometer electronics capable of modern multidimensional spectroscopy have thus far remained bulky. Complementing the magnet miniaturization, here we integrate the NMR spectrometer electronics into 4-mm2 silicon chips. Furthermore, we perform various multidimensional NMR spectroscopies by operating these spectrometer electronics chips together with a compact permanent magnet. This combination of the spectrometer-electronics-on-a-chip with a permanent magnet represents a useful step toward miniaturization of the overall NMR spectrometer into a portable platform. PMID:25092330

  5. Scalable NMR spectroscopy with semiconductor chips.

    PubMed

    Ha, Dongwan; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Sun, Nan; Song, Yi-Qiao; Ham, Donhee

    2014-08-19

    State-of-the-art NMR spectrometers using superconducting magnets have enabled, with their ultrafine spectral resolution, the determination of the structure of large molecules such as proteins, which is one of the most profound applications of modern NMR spectroscopy. Many chemical and biotechnological applications, however, involve only small-to-medium size molecules, for which the ultrafine resolution of the bulky, expensive, and high-maintenance NMR spectrometers is not required. For these applications, there is a critical need for portable, affordable, and low-maintenance NMR spectrometers to enable in-field, on-demand, or online applications (e.g., quality control, chemical reaction monitoring) and co-use of NMR with other analytical methods (e.g., chromatography, electrophoresis). As a critical step toward NMR spectrometer miniaturization, small permanent magnets with high field homogeneity have been developed. In contrast, NMR spectrometer electronics capable of modern multidimensional spectroscopy have thus far remained bulky. Complementing the magnet miniaturization, here we integrate the NMR spectrometer electronics into 4-mm(2) silicon chips. Furthermore, we perform various multidimensional NMR spectroscopies by operating these spectrometer electronics chips together with a compact permanent magnet. This combination of the spectrometer-electronics-on-a-chip with a permanent magnet represents a useful step toward miniaturization of the overall NMR spectrometer into a portable platform. PMID:25092330

  6. Paramagnetic NMR investigations of Co(II) and Ni(II) amicyanin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús Salgado; Arnout P. Kalverda; Rutger E. M. Diederix; Gerard W. Canters; José M. Moratal; A. T. Lawler; C. Dennison

    1999-01-01

    The paramagnetic 1H NMR spectra of the Co(II) and Ni(II) substituted forms of the type 1 blue copper protein (cupredoxin) amicyanin have been\\u000a assigned. This is the first such analysis of a cupredoxin, which has a distorted tetrahedral active site with the ligands\\u000a provided by two histidines, a cysteine and a methionine. The isotropic shifts of the resonances in these

  7. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement solid-state NMR studies of heterogeneous catalytic reaction over HY zeolite using natural abundance reactant.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Li, Shenhui; Su, Yongchao; Li, Bojie; Deng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement solid-state NMR (PRE ssNMR) technique was used to investigate catalytic reaction over zeolite HY. After introducing paramagnetic Cu(II) ions into the zeolite, the enhancement of longitudinal relaxation rates of nearby nuclei, i.e.(29)Si of the framework and (13)C of the absorbents, was measured. It was demonstrated that the PRE ssNMR technique facilitated the fast acquisition of NMR signals to monitor the heterogeneous catalytic reaction (such as acetone to hydrocarbon) using natural abundance reactants. PMID:25616847

  8. Asymmetric Insertion of Membrane Proteins in Lipid Bilayers by Solid-State NMR Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement: A

    E-print Network

    Hong, Mei

    Asymmetric Insertion of Membrane Proteins in Lipid Bilayers by Solid-State NMR Paramagnetic@iastate.edu Abstract: A novel solid-state NMR technique for identifying the asymmetric insertion depths of membrane to a cell-penetrating peptide, penetratin, we found that at low peptide concentrations, penetratin

  9. NMR spectroscopy for atomistic views of biomembranes and cell surfaces NMR spectroscopy is an important analytical tool for probing

    E-print Network

    Weliky, David

    and Cell Surfaces" highlight the power of NMR spectroscopy in problem-solving efforts of biological review the NMR methodology involved in the determination of mem- brane protein structures fromPreface NMR spectroscopy for atomistic views of biomembranes and cell surfaces NMR spectroscopy

  10. Medical applications of NMR imaging and NMR spectroscopy with stable isotopes. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Matwiyoff, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of NMR imaging and NMR spectroscopy are summarized. For the most part examples from the March 1983 Puerto Rico symposium are used to illustrate the utility of NMR in medicine. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  11. QUANTITATIVE 15N NMR SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Line intensities in 15N NMR spectra are strongly influenced by spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times, relaxation mechanisms and experimental conditions. Special care has to be taken in using 15N spectra for quantitative purposes. Quantitative aspects are discussed for the 1...

  12. Paramagnetic effects on the NMR spectra of "diamagnetic" ruthenium(bis-phosphine)(bis-semiquinone) complexes.

    PubMed

    Le Guennic, Boris; Floyd, Tavon; Galan, Brandon R; Autschbach, Jochen; Keister, Jerome B

    2009-06-15

    Ligand substitution on cis-Ru(PPh(3))(2)(1,2-O(2)C(6)H(4))(2) gives cis-RuL(1)L(2)(1,2-O(2)C(6)H(4))(2) (L(1) = PPh(3), L(2) = P(OPh)(3), PBu(3); L(1) = L(2) = PBu(3), P(OMe)(3)). Syntheses of cis-Ru(PPh(3))(2)(3,4-O(2)C(6)H(2)(5-OH)CO(2)Me)(2) and cis-Ru(PPh(3))(2)(AGSQ)(2) (AGSQ = the semiquinone derived from 1,2,3-trihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione) are also reported. The upfield chemical shifts and line broadening of the semiquinone 4,5-proton resonances in the NMR spectra indicate that these complexes, while having no detectable magnetic moments, have a weak, temperature-, ligand- and solvent-variable residual paramagnetism, not previously recognized in this series. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict a low-lying triplet state, about 14 kJ/mol (0.15 eV) above the singlet ground state. The paramagnetic effects on the NMR spectra are attributed to singlet-triplet equilibria. Temperature dependence of the proton resonances of the semiquinone rings of cis-Ru(PPh(3))(2)(1,2-O(2)C(6)H(4))(2) was used to calculate the singlet-triplet free energy difference as 17.5-18.0 kJ/mol in toluene. PMID:19400557

  13. Rapid 3D MAS NMR Spectroscopy at Critical Sensitivity

    E-print Network

    Matsuki, Yoh

    Sensitive SIFTing: Multidimensional non-uniform sampling (NUS) NMR spectroscopy is extended to the severely sensitivity-limited regime typical of MAS NMR of biomacromolecules by the use of spectroscopy by the integration ...

  14. Molecular Structure and Dynamics by NMR Spectroscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edison, Arthur S.

    This site provides PowerPoint slides for a lecture for a graduate-level course in NMR spectroscopy. The slides include useful animations which help to demonstrate the concepts described. While the casual student may find it hard to follow everything on the slides without an accompanying lecture, the files should be very useful for advanced students or educators putting together similar courses.

  15. An introduction to biological NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Marion, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for biologists interested in the structure, dynamics, and interactions of biological macromolecules. This review aims at presenting in an accessible manner the requirements and limitations of this technique. As an introduction, the history of NMR will highlight how the method evolved from physics to chemistry and finally to biology over several decades. We then introduce the NMR spectral parameters used in structural biology, namely the chemical shift, the J-coupling, nuclear Overhauser effects, and residual dipolar couplings. Resonance assignment, the required step for any further NMR study, bears a resemblance to jigsaw puzzle strategy. The NMR spectral parameters are then converted into angle and distances and used as input using restrained molecular dynamics to compute a bundle of structures. When interpreting a NMR-derived structure, the biologist has to judge its quality on the basis of the statistics provided. When the 3D structure is a priori known by other means, the molecular interaction with a partner can be mapped by NMR: information on the binding interface as well as on kinetic and thermodynamic constants can be gathered. NMR is suitable to monitor, over a wide range of frequencies, protein fluctuations that play a crucial role in their biological function. In the last section of this review, intrinsically disordered proteins, which have escaped the attention of classical structural biology, are discussed in the perspective of NMR, one of the rare available techniques able to describe structural ensembles. This Tutorial is part of the International Proteomics Tutorial Programme (IPTP 16 MCP). PMID:23831612

  16. An Introduction to Biological NMR Spectroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Marion, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for biologists interested in the structure, dynamics, and interactions of biological macromolecules. This review aims at presenting in an accessible manner the requirements and limitations of this technique. As an introduction, the history of NMR will highlight how the method evolved from physics to chemistry and finally to biology over several decades. We then introduce the NMR spectral parameters used in structural biology, namely the chemical shift, the J-coupling, nuclear Overhauser effects, and residual dipolar couplings. Resonance assignment, the required step for any further NMR study, bears a resemblance to jigsaw puzzle strategy. The NMR spectral parameters are then converted into angle and distances and used as input using restrained molecular dynamics to compute a bundle of structures. When interpreting a NMR-derived structure, the biologist has to judge its quality on the basis of the statistics provided. When the 3D structure is a priori known by other means, the molecular interaction with a partner can be mapped by NMR: information on the binding interface as well as on kinetic and thermodynamic constants can be gathered. NMR is suitable to monitor, over a wide range of frequencies, protein fluctuations that play a crucial role in their biological function. In the last section of this review, intrinsically disordered proteins, which have escaped the attention of classical structural biology, are discussed in the perspective of NMR, one of the rare available techniques able to describe structural ensembles. This Tutorial is part of the International Proteomics Tutorial Programme (IPTP 16 MCP). PMID:23831612

  17. Temperature dependence of contact and dipolar NMR chemical shifts in paramagnetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Bob; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-02-01

    Using a recently proposed equation for NMR nuclear magnetic shielding for molecules with unpaired electrons [A. Soncini and W. Van den Heuvel, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 021103 (2013)], equations for the temperature (T) dependent isotropic shielding for multiplets with an effective spin S equal to 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2, and 5/2 in terms of electron paramagnetic resonance spin Hamiltonian parameters are derived and then expanded in powers of 1/T. One simplifying assumption used is that a matrix derived from the zero-field splitting (ZFS) tensor and the Zeeman coupling matrix (g-tensor) share the same principal axis system. The influence of the rhombic ZFS parameter E is only investigated for S = 1. Expressions for paramagnetic contact shielding (from the isotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) and pseudo-contact or dipolar shielding (from the anisotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) are considered separately. The leading order is always 1/T. A temperature dependence of the contact shielding as 1/T and of the dipolar shielding as 1/T2, which is sometimes assumed in the assignment of paramagnetic chemical shifts, is shown to arise only if S ? 1 and zero-field splitting is appreciable, and only if the Zeeman coupling matrix is nearly isotropic (?g = 0). In such situations, an assignment of contact versus dipolar shifts may be possible based only on linear and quadratic fits of measured variable-temperature chemical shifts versus 1/T. Numerical data are provided for nickelocene (S = 1). Even under the assumption of ?g = 0, a different leading order of contact and dipolar shifts in powers of 1/T is not obtained for S = 3/2. When ?g is not very small, dipolar and contact shifts both depend in leading order in 1/T in all cases, with sizable contributions in order 1/Tn with n = 2 and higher.

  18. Temperature dependence of contact and dipolar NMR chemical shifts in paramagnetic molecules.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bob; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-02-01

    Using a recently proposed equation for NMR nuclear magnetic shielding for molecules with unpaired electrons [A. Soncini and W. Van den Heuvel, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 021103 (2013)], equations for the temperature (T) dependent isotropic shielding for multiplets with an effective spin S equal to 1/2, 1, 3/2, 2, and 5/2 in terms of electron paramagnetic resonance spin Hamiltonian parameters are derived and then expanded in powers of 1/T. One simplifying assumption used is that a matrix derived from the zero-field splitting (ZFS) tensor and the Zeeman coupling matrix (g-tensor) share the same principal axis system. The influence of the rhombic ZFS parameter E is only investigated for S = 1. Expressions for paramagnetic contact shielding (from the isotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) and pseudo-contact or dipolar shielding (from the anisotropic part of the hyperfine coupling matrix) are considered separately. The leading order is always 1/T. A temperature dependence of the contact shielding as 1/T and of the dipolar shielding as 1/T(2), which is sometimes assumed in the assignment of paramagnetic chemical shifts, is shown to arise only if S ? 1 and zero-field splitting is appreciable, and only if the Zeeman coupling matrix is nearly isotropic (?g = 0). In such situations, an assignment of contact versus dipolar shifts may be possible based only on linear and quadratic fits of measured variable-temperature chemical shifts versus 1/T. Numerical data are provided for nickelocene (S = 1). Even under the assumption of ?g = 0, a different leading order of contact and dipolar shifts in powers of 1/T is not obtained for S = 3/2. When ?g is not very small, dipolar and contact shifts both depend in leading order in 1/T in all cases, with sizable contributions in order 1/T(n) with n = 2 and higher. PMID:25662637

  19. Probing the surface of a sweet protein: NMR study of MNEI with a paramagnetic probe

    PubMed Central

    Niccolai, Neri; Spadaccini, Roberta; Scarselli, Maria; Bernini, Andrea; Crescenzi, Orlando; Spiga, Ottavia; Ciutti, Arianna; Di Maro, Daniela; Bracci, Luisa; Dalvit, Claudio; Temussi, Piero A.

    2001-01-01

    The design of safe sweeteners is very important for people who are affected by diabetes, hyperlipemia, and caries and other diseases that are linked to the consumption of sugars. Sweet proteins, which are found in several tropical plants, are many times sweeter than sucrose on a molar basis. A good understanding of their structure–function relationship can complement traditional SAR studies on small molecular weight sweeteners and thus help in the design of safe sweeteners. However, there is virtually no sequence homology and very little structural similarity among known sweet proteins. Studies on mutants of monellin, the best characterized of sweet proteins, proved not decisive in the localization of the main interaction points of monellin with its receptor. Accordingly, we resorted to an unbiased approach to restrict the search of likely areas of interaction on the surface of a typical sweet protein. It has been recently shown that an accurate survey of the surface of proteins by appropriate paramagnetic probes may locate interaction points on protein surface. Here we report the survey of the surface of MNEI, a single chain monellin, by means of a paramagnetic probe, and a direct assessment of bound water based on an application of ePHOGSY, an NMR experiment that is ideally suited to detect interactions of small ligands to a protein. Detailed surface mapping reveals the presence, on the surface of MNEI, of interaction points that include residues previously predicted by ELISA tests and by mutagenesis. PMID:11468346

  20. Paramagnetic shifts in solid-state NMR of proteins to elicit structural information.

    PubMed

    Balayssac, Stéphane; Bertini, Ivano; Bhaumik, Anusarka; Lelli, Moreno; Luchinat, Claudio

    2008-11-11

    The recent observation of pseudocontact shifts (pcs) in (13)C high-resolution solid-state NMR of paramagnetic proteins opens the way to their application as structural restraints. Here, by investigating a microcrystalline sample of cobalt(II)-substituted matrix metalloproteinase 12 [CoMMP-12 (159 AA, 17.5 kDa)], it is shown that a combined strategy of protein labeling and dilution of the paramagnetic species (i.e., (13)C-,(15)N-labeled CoMMP-12 diluted in unlabeled ZnMMP-12, and (13)C-,(15)N-labeled ZnMMP-12 diluted in unlabeled CoMMP-12) allows one to easily separate the pcs contributions originated from the protein internal metal (intramolecular pcs) from those due to the metals in neighboring proteins in the crystal lattice (intermolecular pcs) and that both can be used for structural purposes. It is demonstrated that intramolecular pcs are significant structural restraints helpful in increasing both precision and accuracy of the structure, which is a need in solid-state structural biology nowadays. Furthermore, intermolecular pcs provide unique information on positions and orientations of neighboring protein molecules in the solid phase. PMID:18988744

  1. Gamma-irradiated ExtraVit M nutritive supplement studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri?or, Dina; Damian, Grigore; Simon, Simion

    2008-04-01

    An unirradiated and ?-irradiated nutritive supplement named ExtraVit M was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in order to detect stable paramagnetic species following improvement of hygienic quality by ?-radiation. Free radicals were induced by ?-radiation in the studied samples from low absorbed doses, showing a certain sensibility of these samples to the radiation treatment. The EPR spectrum of irradiated ExtraVit M is typical for drugs or nutritive supplements containing high levels of sugars, vitamin C and cellulose.

  2. Ensemble quantum computing by NMR?spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cory, David G.; Fahmy, Amr F.; Havel, Timothy F.

    1997-01-01

    A quantum computer (QC) can operate in parallel on all its possible inputs at once, but the amount of information that can be extracted from the result is limited by the phenomenon of wave function collapse. We present a new computational model, which differs from a QC only in that the result of a measurement is the expectation value of the observable, rather than a random eigenvalue thereof. Such an expectation value QC can solve nondeterministic polynomial-time complete problems in polynomial time. This observation is significant precisely because the computational model can be realized, to a certain extent, by NMR spectroscopy on macroscopic ensembles of quantum spins, namely molecules in a test tube. This is made possible by identifying a manifold of statistical spin states, called pseudo-pure states, the mathematical description of which is isomorphic to that of an isolated spin system. The result is a novel NMR computer that can be programmed much like a QC, but in other respects more closely resembles a DNA computer. Most notably, when applied to intractable combinatorial problems, an NMR computer can use an amount of sample, rather than time, which grows exponentially with the size of the problem. Although NMR computers will be limited by current technology to exhaustive searches over only 15 to 20 bits, searches over as much as 50 bits are in principle possible, and more advanced algorithms could greatly extend the range of applicability of such machines. PMID:9050830

  3. Ensemble quantum computing by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cory, D G; Fahmy, A F; Havel, T F

    1997-03-01

    A quantum computer (QC) can operate in parallel on all its possible inputs at once, but the amount of information that can be extracted from the result is limited by the phenomenon of wave function collapse. We present a new computational model, which differs from a QC only in that the result of a measurement is the expectation value of the observable, rather than a random eigenvalue thereof. Such an expectation value QC can solve nondeterministic polynomial-time complete problems in polynomial time. This observation is significant precisely because the computational model can be realized, to a certain extent, by NMR spectroscopy on macroscopic ensembles of quantum spins, namely molecules in a test tube. This is made possible by identifying a manifold of statistical spin states, called pseudo-pure states, the mathematical description of which is isomorphic to that of an isolated spin system. The result is a novel NMR computer that can be programmed much like a QC, but in other respects more closely resembles a DNA computer. Most notably, when applied to intractable combinatorial problems, an NMR computer can use an amount of sample, rather than time, which grows exponentially with the size of the problem. Although NMR computers will be limited by current technology to exhaustive searches over only 15 to 20 bits, searches over as much as 50 bits are in principle possible, and more advanced algorithms could greatly extend the range of applicability of such machines. PMID:9050830

  4. Magnetism, optical absorbance, and 19F NMR spectra of nafion films with self-assembling paramagnetic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, E. M.; Chen, Q.; Bud'ko, S. L.

    2012-01-15

    Magnetization, optical absorbance, and {sup 19}F NMR spectra of Nafion transparent films as received and doped with Mn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, and Fe{sup 3+} ions with and without treatment in 1H-1,2,4-triazole (trz) have been studied. Doping of Nafion with Fe{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} and their bridging to nitrogen of triazole yields a hybrid self-assembling paramagnetic system that exhibits interesting magnetic and optical properties. These include spin crossover phenomena between high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) states in Nafion-Fe{sup 2+}-trz and Nafion-Co{sup 2+}-trz accompanied by thermochromic effects in the visible range induced by temperature. A large shift of the magnetization curve induced by a magnetic field in the vicinity of the HS {leftrightarrow} LS, {approx}220 K, observed for Nafion-Fe{sup 2+}-trz has a rate of {approx}6 K/kOe, which is about three orders of magnitude larger than that in bulk spin crossover Fe{sup 2+} materials. Selective response of {sup 19}F NMR signals on doping with paramagnetic ions demonstrates that NMR can be used as spatially resolved method to study Nafion film with paramagnetic network. Both chemical shift and width of {sup 19}F NMR signals show that SO groups of Nafion, Fe or Co ions, and nitrogen of triazole are bonded whereas they form a spin crossover system. Based on a model of nanosize cylinders proposed for Nafion [K. Schmidt-Rohr and Q. Chen, Nat Mater (2008), 75], we suggest that paramagnetic ions are located inside these cylinders, forming self-assembling magnetically and optically active nanoscale networks.

  5. Access to NMR Spectroscopy for Two-Year College Students: The NMR Site at Trinity University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Nancy S.; Shanklin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Students at two-year colleges and small four-year colleges have often obtained their exposure to NMR spectroscopy through "canned" spectra because the cost of an NMR spectrometer, particularly a high-field spectrometer, is prohibitive in these environments. This article describes the design of a NMR site at Trinity University in which spectral…

  6. Web Spectra: Problems in NMR and IR spectroscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Merlic, Craig A.

    This site was established to provide chemistry students with a library of spectroscopy problems. Interpretation of spectra is a technique that requires practice - this site provides 1H NMR and 13 C NMR, DEPT, COSY and IR spectra of various compounds for students to interpret. Hopefully, these problems will provide a useful resource to better understand spectroscopy.

  7. WebSpectra: Problems in NMR and IR Spectroscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the University of California at Los Angeles's Chemistry Department, WebSpectra provides chemistry students with a searchable library of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Infrared (IR) spectroscopy problems. According to the makers of this innovative site, "Interpretation of spectra is a technique that requires practice - this site provides 1H NMR and 13C NMR, DEPT, COSY and IR spectra of various compounds for students to interpret." A set of instructional documents are entitled Solving Spectral Problems, Overview of NMR Spectroscopy, Notes on NMR Solvents, Types of NMR Spectra, Introduction to IR Spectra, and a Table of IR Absorptions. A wide variety of compounds and their spectra are available for interpretation and have been organized in categories from Beginning to Advanced. Spectrum for each compound may be magnified 16X by clicking on peaks. This is an outstanding learning tool for students coming to grips with interpreting NMR and IR spectra.

  8. Measuring Protein Concentrations by NMR Spectroscopy Gerhard Wider* and Lars Dreier

    E-print Network

    Wider, Gerhard

    Measuring Protein Concentrations by NMR Spectroscopy Gerhard Wider* and Lars Dreier Contribution concentrations directly in the NMR tube. In principle, NMR spectroscopy would be very well suited to measure

  9. NMR Analysis of Unknowns: An Introduction to 2D NMR Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso, David E.; Warren, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    A study combined 1D (one-dimensional) and 2D (two-dimensional) NMR spectroscopy to solve structural organic problems of three unknowns, which include 2-, 3-, and 4-heptanone. Results showed [to the first power]H NMR and [to the thirteenth power]C NMR signal assignments for 2- and 3-heptanone were more challenging than for 4-heptanone owing to the…

  10. WebSpectra: Problems in NMR and IR Spectroscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site was established to provide chemistry students with a library of spectroscopy problems. Interpretation of spectra is a technique that requires practice - this site provides 1H NMR and 13C NMR, DEPT, COSY and IR spectra of various compounds for students to interpret.

  11. Investigation of Zeolite Nucleation and Growth Using NMR Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Rivas Cardona, Alejandra

    2012-02-14

    and control of the zeolite properties. The primary objective of this dissertation is to determine the strength of organicinorganic interactions (i.e., the adsorption Gibbs energy) in transparent synthesis mixtures using PFG NMR spectroscopy, in order...

  12. Fragment-Based Drug Discovery Using NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Harner, Mary J.; Frank, Andreas O.; Fesik, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has evolved into a powerful tool for fragment-based drug discovery over the last two decades. While NMR has been traditionally used to elucidate the three-dimensional structures and dynamics of biomacromolecules and their interactions, it can also be a very valuable tool for the reliable identification of small molecules that bind to proteins and for hit-to-lead optimization. Here, we describe the use of NMR spectroscopy as a method for fragment-based drug discovery and how to most effectively utilize this approach for discovering novel therapeutics based on our experience. PMID:23686385

  13. An Integrated Laboratory Project in NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Pendley, Bradford D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes an advanced NMR project that can be done with a 60-MHz continuous-wave proton spectrometer. Points out the main purposes are to give students experience in second-order NMR analysis, the simplification of spectra by raising the frequency, and the effect of non-hydrogen nuclei on proton resonances. (MVL)

  14. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  15. High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions--a multipurpose machine to study paramagnetic species on well defined single crystal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rocker, J; Cornu, D; Kieseritzky, E; Seiler, A; Bondarchuk, O; Hänsel-Ziegler, W; Risse, T; Freund, H-J

    2014-08-01

    A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic species, which are typically minority species in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic species with a density of approximately 5 × 10(11) spins/cm(2), which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic species, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology. PMID:25173280

  16. High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions—A multipurpose machine to study paramagnetic species on well defined single crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocker, J.; Cornu, D.; Kieseritzky, E.; Seiler, A.; Bondarchuk, O.; Hänsel-Ziegler, W.; Risse, T.; Freund, H.-J.

    2014-08-01

    A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic species, which are typically minority species in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic species with a density of approximately 5 × 1011 spins/cm2, which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic species, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology.

  17. High field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum conditions—A multipurpose machine to study paramagnetic species on well defined single crystal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rocker, J.; Cornu, D.; Kieseritzky, E.; Hänsel-Ziegler, W.; Freund, H.-J. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Seiler, A. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Laboratorium für Applikationen der Synchrotronstrahlung, KIT Campus Süd, Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bondarchuk, O. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); CIC energiGUNE, Parque Tecnologico, C/Albert Einstein 48, CP 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain); Risse, T., E-mail: risse@chemie.fu-berlin.de [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    A new ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer operating at 94 GHz to investigate paramagnetic centers on single crystal surfaces is described. It is particularly designed to study paramagnetic centers on well-defined model catalysts using epitaxial thin oxide films grown on metal single crystals. The EPR setup is based on a commercial Bruker E600 spectrometer, which is adapted to ultrahigh vacuum conditions using a home made Fabry Perot resonator. The key idea of the resonator is to use the planar metal single crystal required to grow the single crystalline oxide films as one of the mirrors of the resonator. EPR spectroscopy is solely sensitive to paramagnetic species, which are typically minority species in such a system. Hence, additional experimental characterization tools are required to allow for a comprehensive investigation of the surface. The apparatus includes a preparation chamber hosting equipment, which is required to prepare supported model catalysts. In addition, surface characterization tools such as low energy electron diffraction (LEED)/Auger spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) are available to characterize the surfaces. A second chamber used to perform EPR spectroscopy at 94 GHz has a room temperature scanning tunneling microscope attached to it, which allows for real space structural characterization. The heart of the UHV adaptation of the EPR experiment is the sealing of the Fabry-Perot resonator against atmosphere. To this end it is possible to use a thin sapphire window glued to the backside of the coupling orifice of the Fabry Perot resonator. With the help of a variety of stabilization measures reducing vibrations as well as thermal drift it is possible to accumulate data for a time span, which is for low temperature measurements only limited by the amount of liquid helium. Test measurements show that the system can detect paramagnetic species with a density of approximately 5 × 10{sup 11} spins/cm{sup 2}, which is comparable to the limit obtained for the presently available UHV-EPR spectrometer operating at 10 GHz (X-band). Investigation of electron trapped centers in MgO(001) films shows that the increased resolution offered by the experiments at W-band allows to identify new paramagnetic species, that cannot be differentiated with the currently available methodology.

  18. Characterisation of ?-tricalcium phosphate-based bone substitute materials by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkovi?, Ivo; Maltar-Strme?ki, Nadica; Babi?-Ivan?i?, Vesna; Dutour Sikiri?, Maja; Noethig-Laslo, Vesna

    2012-10-01

    ?-TCP based materials are frequently used as dental implants. Due to their resorption in the body and direct contact with tissues, in order to inactivate bacteria, fungal spores and viruses, they are usually sterilized by ?-irradiation. However, the current literature provides little information about effects of the ?-irradiation on the formation and stability of the free radicals in the bone graft materials during and after sterilization procedure. In this work five different bone graft substitution materials, composed of synthetic beta tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) present in the market were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Paramagnetic species Mn2+, Fe3+, trapped H-atoms and CO2- radicals were detected in the biphasic material (60% HAP, 40% ?-TCP), while in ?-TCP materials only Mn2+ andor trapped hydrogen atoms were detected. EPR analysis revealed the details of the structure of these materials at the atomic level. The results have shown that EPR spectroscopy is a method which can be used to improve the quality control of bone graft materials after syntering, processing and sterilization procedure.

  19. A review of blind source separation in NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Ichrak; Caldarelli, Stefano; Torrésani, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    Fourier transform is the data processing naturally associated to most NMR experiments. Notable exceptions are Pulse Field Gradient and relaxation analysis, the structure of which is only partially suitable for FT. With the revamp of NMR of complex mixtures, fueled by analytical challenges such as metabolomics, alternative and more apt mathematical methods for data processing have been sought, with the aim of decomposing the NMR signal into simpler bits. Blind source separation is a very broad definition regrouping several classes of mathematical methods for complex signal decomposition that use no hypothesis on the form of the data. Developed outside NMR, these algorithms have been increasingly tested on spectra of mixtures. In this review, we shall provide an historical overview of the application of blind source separation methodologies to NMR, including methods specifically designed for the specificity of this spectroscopy. PMID:25142734

  20. Membrane Protein Structure and Dynamics from NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Mei; Zhang, Yuan; Hu, Fanghao

    2012-05-01

    We review the current state of membrane protein structure determination using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Multidimensional magic-angle-spinning correlation NMR combined with oriented-sample experiments has made it possible to measure a full panel of structural constraints of membrane proteins directly in lipid bilayers. These constraints include torsion angles, interatomic distances, oligomeric structure, protein dynamics, ligand structure and dynamics, and protein orientation and depth of insertion in the lipid bilayer. Using solid-state NMR, researchers have studied potassium channels, proton channels, Ca2+ pumps, G protein-coupled receptors, bacterial outer membrane proteins, and viral fusion proteins to elucidate their mechanisms of action. Many of these membrane proteins have also been investigated in detergent micelles using solution NMR. Comparison of the solid-state and solution NMR structures provides important insights into the effects of the solubilizing environment on membrane protein structure and dynamics.

  1. Exposing the Moving Parts of Proteins with NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for investigating the dynamics of biomolecules since it provides a description of motion that is comprehensive, site-specific, and relatively non-invasive. In particular, the study of protein dynamics has benefited from sustained methodological advances in NMR that have expanded the scope and time scales of accessible motion. Yet, many of these advances may not be well known to the more general physical chemistry community. Accordingly, this Perspective provides a glimpse of some of the more powerful methods in liquid state NMR that are helping reshape our understanding of functional motions of proteins. PMID:22545175

  2. Nanoscale NMR spectroscopy and imaging of multiple nuclear species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devience, Stephen J.; Pham, Linh M.; Lovchinsky, Igor; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Bar-Gill, Nir; Belthangady, Chinmay; Casola, Francesco; Corbett, Madeleine; Zhang, Huiliang; Lukin, Mikhail; Park, Hongkun; Yacoby, Amir; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide non-invasive information about multiple nuclear species in bulk matter, with wide-ranging applications from basic physics and chemistry to biomedical imaging. However, the spatial resolution of conventional NMR and MRI is limited to several micrometres even at large magnetic fields (>1?T), which is inadequate for many frontier scientific applications such as single-molecule NMR spectroscopy and in vivo MRI of individual biological cells. A promising approach for nanoscale NMR and MRI exploits optical measurements of nitrogen–vacancy (NV) colour centres in diamond, which provide a combination of magnetic field sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution unmatched by any existing technology, while operating under ambient conditions in a robust, solid-state system. Recently, single, shallow NV centres were used to demonstrate NMR of nanoscale ensembles of proton spins, consisting of a statistical polarization equivalent to ?100–1,000 spins in uniform samples covering the surface of a bulk diamond chip. Here, we realize nanoscale NMR spectroscopy and MRI of multiple nuclear species (1H, 19F, 31P) in non-uniform (spatially structured) samples under ambient conditions and at moderate magnetic fields (?20?mT) using two complementary sensor modalities.

  3. Nanoscale NMR Spectroscopy and Imaging of Multiple Nuclear Species

    E-print Network

    Stephen J. DeVience; Linh M. Pham; Igor Lovchinsky; Alexander O. Sushkov; Nir Bar-Gill; Chinmay Belthangady; Francesco Casola; Madeleine Corbett; Huiliang Zhang; Mikhail Lukin; Hongkun Park; Amir Yacoby; Ronald L. Walsworth

    2014-06-12

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are well-established techniques that provide valuable information in a diverse set of disciplines but are currently limited to macroscopic sample volumes. Here we demonstrate nanoscale NMR spectroscopy and imaging under ambient conditions of samples containing multiple nuclear species, using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colour centres in diamond as sensors. With single, shallow NV centres in a diamond chip and samples placed on the diamond surface, we perform NMR spectroscopy and one-dimensional MRI on few-nanometre-sized samples containing $^1$H and $^{19}$F nuclei. Alternatively, we employ a high-density NV layer near the surface of a diamond chip to demonstrate wide-field optical NMR spectroscopy of nanoscale samples containing $^1$H, $^{19}$F, and $^{31}$P nuclei, as well as multi-species two-dimensional optical MRI with sub-micron resolution. For all diamond samples exposed to air, we identify a ubiquitous $^1$H NMR signal, consistent with a $\\sim 1$ nm layer of adsorbed hydrocarbons or water on the diamond surface and below any sample placed on the diamond. This work lays the foundation for nanoscale NMR and MRI applications such as studies of single proteins and functional biological imaging with subcellular resolution, as well as characterization of thin films with sub-nanometre resolution.

  4. Nanoscale NMR spectroscopy and imaging of multiple nuclear species.

    PubMed

    DeVience, Stephen J; Pham, Linh M; Lovchinsky, Igor; Sushkov, Alexander O; Bar-Gill, Nir; Belthangady, Chinmay; Casola, Francesco; Corbett, Madeleine; Zhang, Huiliang; Lukin, Mikhail; Park, Hongkun; Yacoby, Amir; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide non-invasive information about multiple nuclear species in bulk matter, with wide-ranging applications from basic physics and chemistry to biomedical imaging. However, the spatial resolution of conventional NMR and MRI is limited to several micrometres even at large magnetic fields (>1?T), which is inadequate for many frontier scientific applications such as single-molecule NMR spectroscopy and in vivo MRI of individual biological cells. A promising approach for nanoscale NMR and MRI exploits optical measurements of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) colour centres in diamond, which provide a combination of magnetic field sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution unmatched by any existing technology, while operating under ambient conditions in a robust, solid-state system. Recently, single, shallow NV centres were used to demonstrate NMR of nanoscale ensembles of proton spins, consisting of a statistical polarization equivalent to ?100-1,000 spins in uniform samples covering the surface of a bulk diamond chip. Here, we realize nanoscale NMR spectroscopy and MRI of multiple nuclear species ((1)H, (19)F, (31)P) in non-uniform (spatially structured) samples under ambient conditions and at moderate magnetic fields (?20?mT) using two complementary sensor modalities. PMID:25559712

  5. "In-plant" NMR: Analysis of the Intact Plant Vesicularia dubyana by High Resolution NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kutyshenko, Viktor P; Beskaravayny, Peter; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    We present here the concept of "in-plant" NMR and show that high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is suitable for the analysis of intact plants and can be used to follow the changes in the intraorganismal molecular composition over long time periods. The NMR-based analysis of the effect of different concentrations of heavy water on the aquatic plant Vesicularia dubyana revealed that due to the presence of specific adaptive mechanisms this plant can sustain the presence of up to 85% of D2O. However, it dies in 100% heavy water. PMID:25759953

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF METABOLITES IN SMALL FISH BIOFLUIDS AND TISSUES BY NMR SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized for assessing ecotoxicity in small fish models by means of metabolomics. Two fundamental challenges of NMR-based metabolomics are the detection limit and characterization of metabolites (or NMR resonance assignments...

  7. Protein NMR spectroscopy: Hydrogen bonds under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Gerd; Schwalbe, Harald

    2012-09-01

    Hydrogen bonds play a key role in defining the folding of proteins and the maintenance of their structure. A high-pressure NMR study of ubiquitin now provides unprecedented detail on the temperature and pressure dependence of its hydrogen-bond network.

  8. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in radiation research: Current status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sudha; Chawla, Raman; Kumar, Raj; Singh, Shefali; Zheleva, Antoaneta; Dimitrova, Yanka; Gadjeva, Veselina; Arora, Rajesh; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to radiation leads to a number of health-related malfunctions. Ionizing radiation is more harmful than non-ionizing radiation, as it causes both direct and indirect effects. Irradiation with ionizing radiation results in free radical-induced oxidative stress. Free radical-mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in a plethora of diseased states, including cancer, arthritis, aging, Parkinson's disease, and so on. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has various applications to measure free radicals, in radiation research. Free radicals disintegrate immediately in aqueous environment. Free radicals can be detected indirectly by the EPR spin trapping technique in which these forms stabilize the radical adduct and produce characteristic EPR spectra for specific radicals. Ionizing radiation-induced free radicals in calcified tissues, for example, teeth, bone, and fingernail, can be detected directly by EPR spectroscopy, due to their extended stability. Various applications of EPR in radiation research studies are discussed in this review. PMID:21814437

  9. Paramagnetic cobalt and nickel derivatives of Alcaligenes denitrificans azurin and its M121Q mutant. A 1H NMR study.

    PubMed

    Salgado, J; Jiménez, H R; Moratal, J M; Kroes, S; Warmerdam, G C; Canters, G W

    1996-02-13

    Using cobalt or nickel to replace copper in native azurin allows one to fingerprint the metal coordination site of the protein. The metal sites of wild type Alcaligenes denitrificans azurin and its M121Q mutant are clearly distinguishable through the paramagnetic 1H NMR spectra of the Ni(II) and Co(II) derivatives. In the wild type azurin, Gly45 coordinates to nickel or cobalt, while Met121 appears as a weak metal ligand. On the contrary, in the M121Q azurin mutant, the metal exhibits a clear preference for the Gln121, which coordinates through the side chain carbonyl oxygen, and Gly45 is not a ligand. Changes in the isotropic shifts and relaxation properties of signals from the Cys112, His46, and His117 metal ligands suggest a movement of the metal ion out of the equatorial plane, indicating that the metal site is tetrahedral. These effects are less pronounced in the Ni(II) M121Q azurin than in the Co(II) metalloderivative. The similarity between the NMR spectra of the Co(II) derivatives of stellacyanin and the M121Q azurin is in agreement with a very similar metal site in both proteins and supports the existence of a coordinated Gln in stellacyanin. PMID:8639662

  10. Protein folding on the ribosome studied using NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Launay, Hélène; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2013-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of protein folding and misfolding, providing a characterization of molecular structure, dynamics and exchange processes, across a very wide range of timescales and with near atomic resolution. In recent years NMR methods have also been developed to study protein folding as it might occur within the cell, in a de novo manner, by observing the folding of nascent polypeptides in the process of emerging from the ribosome during synthesis. Despite the 2.3 MDa molecular weight of the bacterial 70S ribosome, many nascent polypeptides, and some ribosomal proteins, have sufficient local flexibility that sharp resonances may be observed in solution-state NMR spectra. In providing information on dynamic regions of the structure, NMR spectroscopy is therefore highly complementary to alternative methods such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, which have successfully characterized the rigid core of the ribosome particle. However, the low working concentrations and limited sample stability associated with ribosome–nascent chain complexes means that such studies still present significant technical challenges to the NMR spectroscopist. This review will discuss the progress that has been made in this area, surveying all NMR studies that have been published to date, and with a particular focus on strategies for improving experimental sensitivity. PMID:24083462

  11. Hsp90 structure and function studied by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Didenko, Tatiana; Duarte, Afonso M S; Karagöz, G Elif; Rüdiger, Stefan G D

    2012-03-01

    The molecular chaperone Hsp90 plays a crucial role in folding and maturation of regulatory proteins. Key aspects of Hsp90's molecular mechanism and its adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-controlled active cycle remain elusive. In particular the role of conformational changes during the ATPase cycle and the molecular basis of the interactions with substrate proteins are poorly understood. The dynamic nature of the Hsp90 machine designates nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as an attractive method to unravel both the chaperoning mechanism and interaction with partner proteins. NMR is particularly suitable to provide a dynamic picture of protein-protein interactions at atomic resolution. Hsp90 is rather a challenging protein for NMR studies, due to its high molecular weight and its structural flexibility. The recent technologic advances allowed overcoming many of the traditional obstacles. Here, we describe the different approaches that allowed the investigation of Hsp90 using state-of-the-art NMR methods and the results that were obtained. NMR spectroscopy contributed to understanding Hsp90's interaction with the co-chaperones p23, Aha1 and Cdc37. A particular exciting prospect of NMR, however, is the analysis of Hsp90 interaction with substrate proteins. Here, the ability of this method to contribute to the structural characterization of not fully folded proteins becomes crucial. Especially the interaction of Hsp90 with one of its natural clients, the tumour suppressor p53, has been intensively studied by NMR spectroscopy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90). PMID:22155720

  12. Ceramic cells for high pressure NMR spectroscopy of proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Beck Erlach; Claudia E. Munte; Werner Kremer; Rainer Hartl; Dörte Rochelt; Dieter Niesner; Hans Robert Kalbitzer

    2010-01-01

    Application of high pressure to biological macromolecules can be used to find new structural states with a smaller specific volume of the system. High pressure NMR spectroscopy is a most promising analytical tool for the study of these states at atomic resolution. High pressure quartz cells are difficult to handle, high quality sapphire high pressure cells are difficult to obtain

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER NMR spectroscopy as a screening tool to validate

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of food surveillance to validate the "lactose-free" claims labeled on these beverages. Using softORIGINAL PAPER NMR spectroscopy as a screening tool to validate nutrition labeling of milk, lactose. Furthermore, quantitative data regarding nutrition labeling parameters were predicted from the same spectra

  14. MULTIVARIATE CURVE RESOLUTION OF NMR SPECTROSCOPY METABONOMIC DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sandia National Laboratories is working with the EPA to evaluate and develop mathematical tools for analysis of the collected NMR spectroscopy data. Initially, we have focused on the use of Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) also known as molecular factor analysis (MFA), a tech...

  15. SOLID-STATE 3'P NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF BACTERIOPHAGE MI3 AND

    E-print Network

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    SOLID-STATE 3'P NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF BACTERIOPHAGE MI3 AND TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS Pieter Magusin #12;#12;SOLID-STATE 31P NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF BACTERIOPHAGE MI3 AND TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS #12;Promotor: dr. T vakgroep Moleculaire Fysica #12;Pieter Magusin SOLID-STATE 31P NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF BACTERIOPHAGE MI3

  16. Quantitative detection of plasma-generated radicals in liquids by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresp, H.; Hammer, M. U.; Winter, J.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the qualitative and quantitative detection of oxygen radicals in liquids after plasma treatment with an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is investigated. Absolute values for ·OH and O_{2}^{\\cdot -} radical concentration and their net production rate in plasma-treated liquids are determined without the use of additional scavenging chemicals such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) or mannitol (D-MAN). The main oxygen-centred radical generation in PBS was found to originate from the superoxide radical. It is shown that hidden parameters such as the manufacturer of chemical components could have a big influence on the comparability and reproducibility of the results. Finally, the effect of a shielding gas device for the investigated plasma jet with a shielding gas composition of varying oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio on radical generation after plasma treatment of phosphate-buffered saline solution was investigated.

  17. Electron-spin relaxation phenomena in irradiated saccharides detected by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kameya, Hiromi; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2012-10-01

    We measured the relaxation times of radicals in saccharides upon ?-irradiation by means of X-band pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. We found that the field-swept signal of irradiated fructose by pulsed EPR showed three to four peaks depending on the dose. The relaxation times (T1 and T2) of the side peaks were longer than those of the main peak(s) from each irradiation, indicating that the radicals showing side peaks interact less with the surrounding environment. From relaxation time measurements of several irradiated saccharides, we conclude that T2 relaxation times decrease with the increasing irradiation dose. In contrast, T1 relaxation times show no correlation with the irradiation dose.

  18. Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Mroue, Kamal H; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H; Morris, Michael D; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-07-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA=Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the (1)H T1 values were calculated from data collected by (1)H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the (1)H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the (13)C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from (13)C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using (1)H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans. PMID:24881032

  19. Acceleration of natural-abundance solid-state MAS NMR measurements on bone by paramagnetic relaxation from gadolinium-DTPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroue, Kamal H.; Zhang, Rongchun; Zhu, Peizhi; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-07-01

    Reducing the data collection time without affecting the signal intensity and spectral resolution is one of the major challenges for the widespread application of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, especially in experiments conducted on complex heterogeneous biological systems such as bone. In most of these experiments, the NMR data collection time is ultimately governed by the proton spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). For over two decades, gadolinium(III)-DTPA (Gd-DTPA, DTPA = Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) has been one of the most widely used contrast-enhancement agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we demonstrate that Gd-DTPA can also be effectively used to enhance the longitudinal relaxation rates of protons in solid-state NMR experiments conducted on bone without significant line-broadening and chemical-shift-perturbation side effects. Using bovine cortical bone samples incubated in different concentrations of Gd-DTPA complex, the 1H T1 values were calculated from data collected by 1H spin-inversion recovery method detected in natural-abundance 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR experiments. Our results reveal that the 1H T1 values can be successfully reduced by a factor of 3.5 using as low as 10 mM Gd-DTPA without reducing the spectral resolution and thus enabling faster data acquisition of the 13C CPMAS spectra. These results obtained from 13C-detected CPMAS experiments were further confirmed using 1H-detected ultrafast MAS experiments on Gd-DTPA doped bone samples. This approach considerably improves the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of NMR experiments applied to bone samples by reducing the experimental time required to acquire the same number of scans.

  20. Free radicals generated during oxidation of green tea polyphenols: Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with density functional theory calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce Ferreira Severino; Bernard A. Goodman; Christopher W. M. Kay; Klaus Stolze; Daniel Tunega; Thomas G. Reichenauer; Katharina F. Pirker

    2009-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the redox properties of the green tea polyphenols (GTPs) (?)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (?)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (?)-epicatechin gallate (ECG). Aqueous extracts of green tea and these individual phenols were autoxidized at alkaline pH and oxidized by superoxide anion (O2?) radicals in dimethyl sulfoxide. Several new aspects of

  1. Observation of (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(1)H proximities in a paramagnetic solid by NMR at high magnetic field under ultra-fast MAS.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenhui; Trébosc, Julien; Lafon, Olivier; Zhou, Lei; Shen, Ming; Pourpoint, Frédérique; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Deng, Feng

    2015-02-01

    The assignment of NMR signals in paramagnetic solids is often challenging since: (i) the large paramagnetic shifts often mask the diamagnetic shifts specific to the local chemical environment, and (ii) the hyperfine interactions with unpaired electrons broaden the NMR spectra and decrease the coherence lifetime, thus reducing the efficiency of usual homo- and hetero-nuclear NMR correlation experiments. Here we show that the assignment of (1)H and (13)C signals in isotopically unmodified paramagnetic compounds with moderate hyperfine interactions can be facilitated by the use of two two-dimensional (2D) experiments: (i) (1)H-(13)C correlations with (1)H detection and (ii) (1)H-(1)H double-quantum?single-quantum correlations. These methods are experimentally demonstrated on isotopically unmodified copper (II) complex of l-alanine at high magnetic field (18.8T) and ultra-fast Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) frequency of 62.5kHz. Compared to (13)C detection, we show that (1)H detection leads to a 3-fold enhancement in sensitivity for (1)H-(13)C 2D correlation experiments. By combining (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(1)H 2D correlation experiments with the analysis of (13)C longitudinal relaxation times, we have been able to assign the (1)H and (13)C signals of each l-alanine ligand. PMID:25557861

  2. Mobile sensor for high resolution NMR spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danieli, Ernesto; Mauler, Jörg; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2009-05-01

    In this work we describe the construction of a mobile NMR tomograph with a highly homogeneous magnetic field. Fast MRI techniques as well as NMR spectroscopy measurements were carried out. The magnet is based on a Halbach array built from identical permanent magnet blocks generating a magnetic field of 0.22 T. To shim the field inhomogeneities inherent to magnet arrays constructed from these materials, a shim strategy based on the use of movable magnet blocks is employed. With this approach a reduction of the line-width from ˜20 kHz to less than 0.1 kHz was achieved, that is by more than two orders of magnitude, in a volume of 21 cm 3. Implementing a RARE sequence, 3D images of different objects placed in this volume were obtained in short experimental times. Moreover, by reducing the sample size to 1 cm 3, sub ppm resolution is obtained in 1H NMR spectra.

  3. Molecular structure by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, R.

    Two examples are presented of the use of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy to solve molecular structure problems. The first is called correlation spectroscopy (COSY) and it allows us to disentangle a complex network of spin-spin couplings. By dispersing the NMR information in two frequency dimensions, it facilitates the analysis of very complex spectra of organic and biochemical molecules, normally too crowded to be tractable. The second application exploits the special properties of multiple-quantum coherence to explore the molecular framework one C?C linkage at a time. The natural product panamine is used as a test example; with some supplementary evidence, the structure of this six-ringed heterocyclic molecule is elucidated from the double-quantum filtered two-dimensional spectrum.

  4. NMR spectroscopy for chemical analysis at low magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Glöggler, Stefan; Blümich, Bernhard; Appelt, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This chapter addresses the limits of low-field NMR spectroscopy for chemical analysis and will answer the question of whether high-resolution NMR spectroscopy for chemical analysis of solutions can be achieved with magnetic fields much lower than 0.1 T without losing the chemical information which at high field is derived from the chemical shift and the indirect spin-spin or J-coupling. The focus is on two major issues. First, the thermal spin population differences given by the Boltzmann distribution are small at low field and so is the signal-to-noise-ratio when starting measurements from thermal equilibrium. Second, the possibility of identifying chemical groups is explored at low magnetic fields where the chemical shift can usually no longer be resolved. PMID:22167575

  5. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Mett, Richard R.; Swarts, Steven G.; Swartz, Harold M.; Hyde, James S.

    2014-01-01

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 ?M of Mg2+ doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 ? coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown. PMID:25362434

  6. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Hyde, James S. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Mett, Richard R. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Department of Physics and Chemistry, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 (United States); Swarts, Steven G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32610 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Department of Radiology, Geisel Medical School at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 ?M of Mg{sup 2+} doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 ? coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.

  7. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  8. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  9. Characterization of radiation-induced damage in high performance polymers by electron paramagnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suleman, Naushadalli K.

    1992-01-01

    The potential for long-term human activity beyond the Earth's protective magnetosphere is limited in part by the lack of detailed information on the effectiveness and performance of existing structural materials to shield the crew and spacecraft from highly penetrating space radiations. The two radiations of greatest concern are high energy protons emitted during solar flares and galactic cosmic rays which are energetic ions ranging from protons to highly oxidized iron. Although the interactions of such high-energy radiations with matter are not completely understood at this time, the effects of the incident radiation are clearly expected to include the formation of paramagnetic spin centers via ionization and bond-scission reactions in the molecular matrices of structural materials. Since this type of radiation damage is readily characterized by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the NASA Langley Research Center EPR system was repaired and brought on-line during the 1991 ASEE term. A major goal of the 1992 ASEE term was to adapt the existing core of the LaRC EPR system to meet the requirements for EPR Imaging--a powerful new technique which provides detailed information on the internal structure of materials by mapping the spatial distribution of unpaired spin density in bulk media. Major impetus for this adaptation arises from the fact that information derived from EPRI complements other methods such as scanning electron microscopy which primarily characterize surface phenomena. The modification of the EPR system has been initiated by the construction of specially designed, counterwound Helmholtz coils which will be mounted on the main EPR electromagnet. The specifications of the coils have been set to achieve a static linear magnetic field gradient of 10 gauss/mm/amp along the principal (Z) axis of the Zeeman field. Construction is also in progress of a paramagnetic standard in which the spin distribution is known in all three dimensions. This sample will be used to assess the linearity of the magnetic field gradient and to ensure authentic image reconstruction. A second major task was to secure the computer capability to enable image reconstruction from projection data generated by the magnetic field gradients. To this end, commercially available and public domain software packages which perform inverse Fourier Transform and convoluted (filtered) back projection functions are being integrated into the existing EPR data processing system.

  10. Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy powered by a free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Brunel, L-C; Edwards, D T; van Tol, J; Ramian, G; Han, S; Sherwin, M S

    2012-09-20

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy interrogates unpaired electron spins in solids and liquids to reveal local structure and dynamics; for example, EPR has elucidated parts of the structure of protein complexes that other techniques in structural biology have not been able to reveal. EPR can also probe the interplay of light and electricity in organic solar cells and light-emitting diodes, and the origin of decoherence in condensed matter, which is of fundamental importance to the development of quantum information processors. Like nuclear magnetic resonance, EPR spectroscopy becomes more powerful at high magnetic fields and frequencies, and with excitation by coherent pulses rather than continuous waves. However, the difficulty of generating sequences of powerful pulses at frequencies above 100 gigahertz has, until now, confined high-power pulsed EPR to magnetic fields of 3.5 teslas and below. Here we demonstrate that one-kilowatt pulses from a free-electron laser can power a pulsed EPR spectrometer at 240 gigahertz (8.5 teslas), providing transformative enhancements over the alternative, a state-of-the-art ?30-milliwatt solid-state source. Our spectrometer can rotate spin-1/2 electrons through ?/2 in only 6 nanoseconds (compared to 300 nanoseconds with the solid-state source). Fourier-transform EPR on nitrogen impurities in diamond demonstrates excitation and detection of EPR lines separated by about 200 megahertz. We measured decoherence times as short as 63 nanoseconds, in a frozen solution of nitroxide free-radicals at temperatures as high as 190 kelvin. Both free-electron lasers and the quasi-optical technology developed for the spectrometer are scalable to frequencies well in excess of one terahertz, opening the way to high-power pulsed EPR spectroscopy up to the highest static magnetic fields currently available. PMID:22996555

  11. Optimization of THz Wave Coupling into Samples in DNP/NMR Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Alexander

    High power millimeter wave and terahertz sources are used in DNP/NMR spectroscopy to greatly enhance the NMR signal. A key issue is the efficient coupling of the source power to the sample. We present HFSS calculations ...

  12. Advancements in waste water characterization through NMR spectroscopy: review.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Alexandre E Silva, Lorena M; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2014-10-01

    There are numerous organic pollutants that lead to several types of ecosystem damage and threaten human health. Wastewater treatment plants are responsible for the removal of natural and anthropogenic pollutants from the sewage, and because of this function, they play an important role in the protection of human health and the environment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has proven to be a valuable analytical tool as a result of its versatility in characterizing both overall chemical composition as well as individual species in a wide range of mixtures. In addition, NMR can provide physical information (rigidity, dynamics, etc.) as well as permit in depth quantification. Hyphenation with other techniques such as liquid chromatography, solid phase extraction and mass spectrometry creates unprecedented capabilities for the identification of novel and unknown chemical species. Thus, NMR is widely used in the study of different components of wastewater, such as complex organic matter (fulvic and humic acids), sludge and wastewater. This review article summarizes the NMR spectroscopy methods applied in studies of organic pollutants from wastewater to provide an exhaustive review of the literature as well as a guide for readers interested in this topic. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25280056

  13. New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella thermoaceticum metabolic profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Junfeng; Isern, Nancy G.; Ewing, R James; Liyu, Andrey V.; Sears, Jesse A.; Knapp, Harlan; Iversen, Jens; Sisk, Daniel R.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Majors, Paul D.

    2014-06-20

    An in-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bioreactor was developed and employed to monitor microbial metabolism under batch-growth conditions in real time. We selected Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 49707 as a test case. M. thermoacetica (formerly Clostridium thermoaceticum) is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, acetogenic, gram-positive bacterium with potential for industrial production of chemicals. The metabolic profiles of M. thermoacetica were characterized during growth in batch mode on xylose (a component of lignocellulosic biomass) using the new generation NMR bioreactor in combination with high-resolution, high sensitivity NMR (HR-NMR) spectroscopy. In-situ NMR measurements were performed using water-suppressed H-1 NMR spectroscopy at an NMR frequency of 500 MHz, and aliquots of the bioreactor contents were taken for 600 MHz HR-NMR spectroscopy at specific intervals to confirm metabolite identifications and expand metabolite coverage. M. thermoacetica demonstrated the metabolic potential to produce formate, ethanol and methanol from xylose, in addition to its known capability of producing acetic acid. Real-time monitoring of bioreactor conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet showed that the strong magnetic field employed for NMR detection did not significantly affect cell metabolism. Use of the in-situ NMR bioreactor facilitated monitoring of the fermentation process in real time, enabling identification of intermediate and end-point metabolites and their correlation with pH and biomass produced during culture growth. Real-time monitoring of culture metabolism using the NMR bioreactor in combination with the HR-NMR spectroscopy will allow optimization of the metabolism of microorganisms producing valuable bioproducts.

  14. Novel antioxidant capacity assay for lipophilic compounds using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yushi; Ichimori, Kohji; Okano, Masahito; Goto, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    A novel antioxidant capacity assay for lipophilic compounds was developed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The assay is based on antioxidant’s scavenging ability against the tert-butoxyl radical generated photolytically from di-tert-butyl peroxide in ethyl acetate, and named the tert-butoxyl-based antioxidant capacity (BAC) assay. The radical was trapped by spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide, and EPR signal intensity of the spin adduct was used as a quantitative marker of radical levels. Signal intensity decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of an antioxidant that competitively reacts with the radical, which was utilized to evaluate BAC values. The BAC method enabled the accurate estimation of antioxidant capacity for lipophilic materials that may counteract lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. The BAC values for quercetin and caffeic acid are 0.639 ± 0.020 and 0.118 ± 0.012 trolox equivalents, respectively, which are much smaller than values obtained by other aqueous methods such as H-ORAC and ORAC-EPR. Thus, antioxidants present in a non-aqueous environment should be evaluated using a non-aqueous system. In combination with in situ ascorbate reduction, the BAC method was capable of accurately determining the antioxidant capacity of water-insoluble materials that may be reduced in living cells. PMID:25759515

  15. Pulsed Orotron - A new microwave source for submillimeter pulse high-field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Grishin, Yu.A.; Fuchs, M.R.; Schnegg, A.; Dubinskii, A.A.; Dumesh, B.S.; Rusin, F.S.; Bratman, V.L.; Moebius, K. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin, (Germany); Institute of Chemical Physics, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, 142092 Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Institute of Metrology for Time and Space, 141570 Mendeleevo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 603155 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    A vacuum-tube device for the generation of pulsed microwave radiation in the submillimeter range (up to 380 GHz) is presented, designed for use as a source in a 360 GHz high-field/high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer - the pulsed Orotron. Analogous to the known continuous wave (cw) version, in the pulsed Orotron microwave radiation is generated by the interaction of a nonrelativistic electron beam with a diffraction grating (stimulated Smith-Purcell radiation) in feedback with an open Fabry-Perot resonator construction. The presented design extends the cw Orotron by a gate electrode and a high-voltage pulsing unit to control the electron beam current. The generated pulses at 360 GHz have pulse lengths from 100 ns-10 {mu}s and a pulse power of (22{+-}5) mW. The output in a broader frequency band between 320 and 380 GHz ranges from 20 up to 60 mW. Within a 10 {mu}s time slot, incoherent pulse trains of arbitrary duration can be generated. The pulsed Orotron has been incorporated in the quasioptical microwave bridge of a heterodyne induction mode EPR spectrometer. The first free induction decay measurements at a microwave frequency of 360 GHz and a magnetic field of 12.8 T on a polycrystalline perylenyl-ion sample are presented and future applications and extensions of Orotron-EPR spectroscopy are discussed.

  16. Novel antioxidant capacity assay for lipophilic compounds using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yushi; Ichimori, Kohji; Okano, Masahito; Goto, Hirofumi

    2015-03-01

    A novel antioxidant capacity assay for lipophilic compounds was developed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The assay is based on antioxidant's scavenging ability against the tert-butoxyl radical generated photolytically from di-tert-butyl peroxide in ethyl acetate, and named the tert-butoxyl-based antioxidant capacity (BAC) assay. The radical was trapped by spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide, and EPR signal intensity of the spin adduct was used as a quantitative marker of radical levels. Signal intensity decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of an antioxidant that competitively reacts with the radical, which was utilized to evaluate BAC values. The BAC method enabled the accurate estimation of antioxidant capacity for lipophilic materials that may counteract lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. The BAC values for quercetin and caffeic acid are 0.639 ± 0.020 and 0.118 ± 0.012 trolox equivalents, respectively, which are much smaller than values obtained by other aqueous methods such as H-ORAC and ORAC-EPR. Thus, antioxidants present in a non-aqueous environment should be evaluated using a non-aqueous system. In combination with in situ ascorbate reduction, the BAC method was capable of accurately determining the antioxidant capacity of water-insoluble materials that may be reduced in living cells. PMID:25759515

  17. Accelerated NMR spectroscopy with low-rank reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaobo; Mayzel, Maxim; Cai, Jian-Feng; Chen, Zhong; Orekhov, Vladislav

    2015-01-12

    Accelerated multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy is a prerequisite for high-throughput applications, studying short-lived molecular systems and monitoring chemical reactions in real time. Non-uniform sampling is a common approach to reduce the measurement time. Here, a new method for high-quality spectra reconstruction from non-uniformly sampled data is introduced, which is based on recent developments in the field of signal processing theory and uses the so far unexploited general property of the NMR signal, its low rank. Using experimental and simulated data, we demonstrate that the low-rank reconstruction is a viable alternative to the current state-of-the-art technique compressed sensing. In particular, the low-rank approach is good in preserving of low-intensity broad peaks, and thus increases the effective sensitivity in the reconstructed spectra. PMID:25389060

  18. NMR spectroscopy of saccharide-doped PAGAT dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skyt, P. S.; Berndt, B.; Holloway, L.; Hill, R.; De Deene, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemistry of the PAGAT dosimeters when doped with saccharides and irradiated' using NMR spectroscopy. Three batches of PAGAT gel dosimeters were manufactured. Two of them were doped with 20 % glucose and sucrose' respectively. For each batch' one sample was left unirradiated while the remaining samples were irradiated to different doses. After irradiation' NMR spectra were obtained which clearly showed the composition of the dosimeter and the change in monomer concentration caused by irradiation. In addition' it revealed that the saccharides did not directly participate in the chemical process before and during irradiation but the addition of saccharides resulted in a higher consumption rate of the monomers.

  19. Drug solubilization mechanism of ?-glucosyl stevia by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junying; Higashi, Kenjirou; Ueda, Keisuke; Kadota, Kazunori; Tozuka, Yuichi; Limwikrant, Waree; Yamamoto, Keiji; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2014-04-25

    We investigated the drug solubilization mechanism of ?-glucosyl stevia (Stevia-G) which was synthesized from stevia (rebaudioside-A) by transglycosylation. (1)H and (13)C NMR peaks of Stevia-G in water were assigned by two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments including (1)H-(1)H correlation, (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, and (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence spectroscopies. The (1)H and (13)C peaks clearly showed the incorporation of two glucose units into rebaudioside-A to produce Stevia-G, supported by steviol glycoside and glucosyl residue assays. The concentration-dependent chemical shifts of Stevia-G protons correlated well with a mass-action law model, indicating the self-association of Stevia-G molecules in water. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was 12.0 mg/mL at 37°C. The aggregation number was 2 below the CMC and 12 above the CMC. Dynamic light scattering and 2D (1)H-(1)H nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) NMR experiments demonstrated that Stevia-G self-associated into micelles of a few nanometers in size with a core-shell structure, containing a kaurane diterpenoid-based hydrophobic core and a glucose-based shell. 2D (1)H-(1)H NOESY NMR measurements also revealed that a poorly water-soluble drug, naringenin, was incorporated into the hydrophobic core of the Stevia-G micelle. The Stevia-G self-assembly behavior and micellar drug inclusion capacity can achieve significant enhancement in drug solubility. PMID:24508331

  20. NMR assignments of PI3-SH3 domain aided by protonless NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny

    2014-10-01

    We report here the near complete assignments of native bovine PI3-SH3 domain, which has been a model system for protein folding, misfolding and amyloid fibril formation. The use of (13)C-detected protonless NMR spectroscopy is instrumental in assigning the spin system of the proline residue at the C-terminus in addition to the missing resonances in proton-based NMR spectra due to rapid solvent exchange. It also helps assign the resonances of all three proline amine nitrogen nuclei, which are underrepresented in the database. Comparison of the backbone (13)C resonances of PI3-SH3 in its native and amyloid fibril states shows that the aggregation of PI3-SH3 is accompanied by major conformational rearrangements. PMID:23832674

  1. The mechanism of paramagnetic NMR relaxation produced by Mn(II): role of orthorhombic and fourth-order zero field splitting terms.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Robert

    2008-10-14

    Mn(II) is a spin-5/2 paramagnetic ion that mediates a characteristically large NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (NMR-PRE) of nuclear spins in solution. In the range of high magnetic field strengths (above about 0.3 T), where the electronic Zeeman interaction provides the largest term of the electron spin Hamiltonian, NMR relaxation mechanism is well understood. In the lower field range, the physical picture is more complex because of the presence in the spin Hamiltonian of zero field splitting (ZFS) terms that are comparable to or greater than the Zeeman term. This work describes a systematic study of the relaxation mechanism in the low field range, particularly aspects involving the dependence of NMR-PRE on the orthorhombic (E) and fourth-order (a(q)(4), q=0,2,4) ZFS tensor components. It is shown that the fourfold (a(4)(4)) and twofold (a(2)(4)) fourth-order components exert large orientation-dependent influences on the NMR-PRE. Thus, fourth-order terms with magnitudes equal to only a few percent of the quadratic ZFS terms (D,E) produce large changes in the shape of the magnetic field profile of the PRE. Effects arising from the orthorhombic quadratic ZFS term (E) are much smaller than those of the fourth-order terms and can in most cases be neglected. However, effects due to a(4)(4) and a(2)(4) need to be included in simulations of low field data. PMID:19045147

  2. Applications of NMR-based PRE and EPR-based DEER Spectroscopy to Homodimer Chain Exchange Characterization and Structure Determination

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Ni, Shuisong; McCarrick, Robert M.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The success of homodimer structure determination by conventional solution NMR spectroscopy relies greatly on interchain distance restraints (less than 6 Å) derived from nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) obtained from 13C-edited, 12C-filtered NOESY experiments. However, these experiments may fail when the mixed 13C-/12C-homodimer is never significantly populated due to slow homodimer chain exchange. Thus, knowledge of the homodimer chain exchange kinetics can be put to practical use in preparing samples using the traditional NMR method. Here, we described detailed procedures for using paramagnetic resonance enhancements (PREs) and EPR spectroscopy to measure homodimer chain exchange kinetics. In addition, PRE and EPR methods can be combined to provide mid-range (< 30 Å) and long-range (17- 80 Å) interchain distance restraints for homodimer structure determination as a supplement to short-range intrachain and interchain distance restraints (less than 6 Å) typically obtained from 1H-1H NOESY experiments. We present a summary of how to measure these distances using NMR-based PREs and EPR-based double electron electron resonance (DEER) measurements, and how to include them in homodimer structure calculations. PMID:24203336

  3. Structure and dynamics in B12 enzyme catalysis revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warncke, Kurt

    2009-03-01

    Challenges to the understanding of how protein structure and dynamics contribute to catalysis in enzymes, and the use of time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic techniques to address the challenges, are examined in the context of the coenzyme B12-dependent enzyme, ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL), from Salmonella typhimurium. EAL conducts the homolytic cleavage of the coenzyme cobalt-carbon bond, intraprotein radical migration (5-6 å), and hydrogen atom transfers, which enable the core radical-mediated rearrangement reaction. Thermodynamic and activation parameters are measured in two experimental systems, which were developed to isolate sub-sequences from the multi-step catalytic cycle, as follows: (1) A dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)/water cryosolvent system is used to prepare the kinetically-arrested enzyme/coenzyme/substrate ternary complex in fluid solution at 230 K.[1] Temperature-step initiated cobalt-carbon bond cleavage and radical pair separation to form the Co(II)-substrate radical pair are monitored by using time-resolved, full-spectrum EPR spectroscopy (234<=T<=250 K).[1] (2) The Co(II)-substrate radical pair is cryotrapped in frozen aqueous solution at T<150 K, and then promoted to react by a temperature step. The reaction of the substrate radical along the native pathway to form the diamagnetic bound products is monitored by using time-resolved, full-spectrum EPR spectroscopy (187<=T<=217 K).[2] High temporal resolution is achieved, because the reactions are dramatically slowed at the low temperatures, relative to the initiation and spectrum acquistion times. The results are combined with high resolution structures of the reactant centers, obtained by pulsed-EPR spectroscopies,[3] and the protein, obtained by structural proteomics[4] and EPR and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) in combination with site directed mutagenesis,[5] to approach a molecular level description of protein contributions to catalysis in EAL. [4pt] [1] Wang, M. & Warncke, K. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 4846. [0pt] [2] Chen, Z. and Warncke, K. Biophys. J. 2008, 95 (December) [0pt] [3] Canfield, J. M. and Warncke, K. J. Phys. Chem. B 2002, 106, 8831. [0pt] [4] Sun, L. and Warncke, K. Proteins 2006, 64, 308. [0pt] [5] Sun, L., Groover, O., Canfield, J. M., and Warncke, K. Biochemistry 2008, 47, 5523.

  4. Mobile sensor for high resolution NMR spectroscopy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Ernesto; Mauler, Jörg; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2009-05-01

    In this work we describe the construction of a mobile NMR tomograph with a highly homogeneous magnetic field. Fast MRI techniques as well as NMR spectroscopy measurements were carried out. The magnet is based on a Halbach array built from identical permanent magnet blocks generating a magnetic field of 0.22T. To shim the field inhomogeneities inherent to magnet arrays constructed from these materials, a shim strategy based on the use of movable magnet blocks is employed. With this approach a reduction of the line-width from approximately 20kHz to less than 0.1kHz was achieved, that is by more than two orders of magnitude, in a volume of 21cm(3). Implementing a RARE sequence, 3D images of different objects placed in this volume were obtained in short experimental times. Moreover, by reducing the sample size to 1cm(3), sub ppm resolution is obtained in (1)H NMR spectra. PMID:19217330

  5. Solid-State Dipolar INADEQUATE NMR Spectroscopy with a Large Double-Quantum Spectral Width

    E-print Network

    Hong, Mei

    Solid-State Dipolar INADEQUATE NMR Spectroscopy with a Large Double-Quantum Spectral Width Mei Hong Academic Press Key Words: solid-state NMR; INADEQUATE; double-quan- tum; C7; dipolar recoupling. Recently, solid-state homonuclear double-quantum NMR spec- troscopy has been increasingly employed to obtain

  6. Characterization of iron, manganese, and copper synthetic hydroxyapatites by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Wasowicz, T.; Howard, T.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    The incorporation of micronutrients (e.g., Fe, Mn, Cu) into synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) is proposed for slow release of these nutrients to crops in NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) program for long-duration space missions. Separate Fe3+ (Fe-SHA), Mn2+ (Mn-SHA), and Cu2+ (Cu-SHA) containing SHA materials were synthesized by a precipitation method. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to determine the location of Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ ions in the SHA structure and to identify other Fe(3+)-, Mn(2+)-, and Cu(2+)-containing phases that formed during precipitation. The EPR parameters for Fe3+ (g=4.20 and 8.93) and for Mn2+ (g=2.01, A=9.4 mT, D=39.0 mT and E=10.5 mT) indicated that Fe3+ and Mn2+ possessed rhombic ion crystal fields within the SHA structure. The Cu2+ EPR parameters (g(z)=2.488, A(z)=5.2 mT) indicated that Cu2+ was coordinated to more than six oxygens. The rhombic environments of Fe3+ and Mn2+ along with the unique Cu2+ environment suggested that these metals substituted for the 7 or 9 coordinate Ca2+ in SHA. The EPR analyses also detected poorly crystalline metal oxyhydroxides or metal-phosphates associated with SHA. The Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials are potential slow release sources of Fe, Mn, and Cu for ALS and terrestrial cropping systems.

  7. Free radical-scavenging activity of sulfurous water investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Braga, Pier Carlo; Dal Sasso, Monica; Culici, Maria; Falchi, Mario; Spallino, Alessandra; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the antiradical activity of sulfurous water, used for inhalatory therapy (characterized by the presence of sulfhydryl [HS]) by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The effects of sulfurous water corresponding to the concentrations from 16 down to 0.25 ?g/mL of HS were tested by means of Fenton reaction (HO•), KO2-crown ether system (O2-•), and EPR of Tempol and of Fremy's salt radical. All of these assays were made using natural sulfurous water or degassed sulfurous water (no detectable HS) or reconstituted sulfurous water (degassed plus NaHS). The free radicals were significantly inhibited by natural water with HS concentrations ranging from 16 to 1 ?g/mL for HO•, Tempol, and Fremy's salt, and O2-• was significantly inhibited from 16 and 2 ?g/mL. The tests of degassed water did not reveal any significant differences from baseline values. The tests of reconstituted water led to significant results overlapping those obtained using natural water, thus confirming the importance of the presence of HS group (reductive activity). The positive effects of the activity of sulfurous thermal water is partially based on the patients' subjective sense of well-being and partially on symptomatic (or general) clinical improvements that are sometimes difficult to quantify. These findings indicate that, in addition to their known mucolytic activity and trophic effects on respiratory mucosa, the HS groups in sulfurous water also have antioxidant activity that contributes to the water's therapeutic effects on upper and lower airway inflammatory diseases. PMID:22185392

  8. Report on neptunium speciation by NMR and optical spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Tait, C.D.; Palmer, P.D.; Ekberg, S.A.; Clark, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    Hydrolysis and carbonate complexation reactions were examined for NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and NpO{sub 2}{sup +} ions by a variety of techniques including potentiometric titration, UV-Vis-NIR and NMR spectroscopy. The equilibrium constant for the reaction 3NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} + 3H{sup +} {rightleftharpoons} (NpO{sub 2}){sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup 6{minus}} + 3HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} was determined to be logK = 19.7 ({plus_minus} 0.8) (I = 2.5 m). {sup 17}O NMR spectroscopy of NpO{sub 2}{sup n+} ions (n = 1,2) reveals a readily observable {sup 17}O resonance for n = 2, but not for n = 1. The first hydrolysis constant for NpO{sub 2}{sup +} was studied as a function of temperature, and the functional form for the temperature-dependent equilibrium constant for the reaction written as NpO{sub 2}{sup +} + H{sub 2}O {rightleftharpoons} NpO{sub 2}OH + H{sup +} was found to be logK = 2.28 {minus} 3780/T, where T is in {degree}K. Finally, the temperature dependence of neptunium(V) carbonate complexation constants was studied. For the first carbonate complexation constant, the appropriate functional form was found to be log{beta}{sub 01} = 1.47 + 786/T.

  9. Measurement of Free Radicals Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy During Open Aorto-Iliac Arterial Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Wac?aw; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Stanisi?, Micha?; Iskra, Maria; Krasi?ski, Zbigniew; Nowak, Marek; Dobosz, Bernadeta

    2014-01-01

    Background Aortic cross-clamping during abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open repair leads to development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) spin-trapping is a valuable method of direct measurement of free radicals. The objective of the study was to evaluate the results of EPR as a direct method of free radical measurement and degree of inflammatory response in open operative treatment of patients with AAA and aorto-iliac occlusive disease (AIOD). Material/Methods The study was performed on a group of 32 patients with AAA and 25 patients with AIOD scheduled for open repair. Peripheral venous blood for EPR spectroscopy and for SOD, GPx, ox-LDL, Il-6, TNF-alfa, CRP, and HO-1 were harvested. Selected parameters were established accordingly to specified EPR and immunohistochemical methods and analyzed between groups by Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test with Bonferroni correction. Results Free radicals level was correlated with the time of the aortic cross-clamping after the reperfusion of he first and second leg in AAA (r=0.7; r=0.47). ox-LDL in AAA decreased 5 min after reperfusion of the first leg (32.99 U/L, range: 14.09–77.12) and 5 min after reperfusion of the second leg (26.75 U/L, range: 11.56–82.12) and 24 h after the operation (25.85 U/L, range: 14.29–49.70). HO-1concentration increased to above the level before intervention 24 h after surgery. The activities of GPx and SOD decreased 5 min after the first-leg reperfusion in AAA. Twenty-four hours after surgery, inflammatory markers increased in AAA to CRP was 14.76 ml/l (0.23–38.55), IL-6 was 141.22 pg/ml (84.3–591.03), TNF-alfa was 6.82 pg/ml (1.76–80.01) and AIOD: CRP was 18.44 mg/l (2.56–33.14), IL-6: 184.1 pg/ml (128.46–448.03), TNF-alfa was 7.74 pg/ml (1.74–74.74). Conclusions EPR spin-trapping demonstrates temporarily elevated level of free radicals in early phase of reperfusion, leading to decrease antioxidants in AAA. Elevated free radical levels decreased 24 h after surgery due to various endogenous antioxidants and therapies. PMID:25429420

  10. Spin-Noise-Detected Two-Dimensional Fourier-Transform NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We introduce two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy detected by recording and processing the noise originating from nuclei that have not been subjected to any radio frequency excitation. The method relies on cross-correlation of two noise blocks that bracket the evolution and mixing periods. While the sensitivity of the experiment is low in conventional NMR setups, spin-noise-detected NMR spectroscopy has great potential for use with extremely small numbers of spins, thereby opening a way to nanoscale multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24294412

  11. In vivo two-dimensional NMR correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Robert A.

    1999-10-01

    The poor resolution of in-vivo one- dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has limited its clinical potential. Currently, only the large singlet methyl resonances arising from N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine are quantitated in a clinical setting. Other metabolites such as myo- inositol, glutamine, glutamate, lactate, and ?- amino butyric acid (GABA) are of clinical interest but quantitation is difficult due to the overlapping resonances and limited spectral resolution. To improve the spectral resolution and distinguish between overlapping resonances, a series of two- dimensional chemical shift correlation spectroscopy experiments were developed for a 1.5 Tesla clinical imaging magnet. Two-dimensional methods are attractive for in vivo spectroscopy due to their ability to unravel overlapping resonances with the second dimension, simplifying the interpretation and quantitation of low field NMR spectra. Two-dimensional experiments acquired with mix-mode line shape negate the advantages of the second dimension. For this reason, a new experiment, REVOLT, was developed to achieve absorptive mode line shape in both dimensions. Absorptive mode experiments were compared to mixed mode experiments with respect to sensitivity, resolution, and water suppression. Detailed theoretical and experimental calculations of the optimum spin lock and radio frequency power deposition were performed. Two-dimensional spectra were acquired from human bone marrow and human brain tissue. The human brain tissue spectra clearly reveal correlations among the coupled spins of NAA, glutamine, glutamate, lactate, GABA, aspartate and myo-inositol obtained from a single experiment of 23 minutes from a volume of 59 mL. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

  12. Structural characterization of titania by X-ray diffraction, photoacoustic, Raman spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, R. M.; Rajeswari, B.; Sengupta, Arijit; Achary, S. N.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Natarajan, V.

    2015-02-01

    A titania mineral (obtained from East coast, Orissa, India) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), Raman and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies. XRD studies indicated the presence of rutile (91%) and anatase (9%) phases in the mineral. Raman investigation supported this information. Both rutile and anatase phases have tetragonal structure (rutile: space group P42/mnm, a = 4.5946(1) Å, c = 2.9597(1) Å, V = 62.48(1) (Å)3, Z = 2; anatase: space group I41/amd, 3.7848(2) Å, 9.5098(11) Å, V = 136.22(2) (Å)3, Z = 4). The deconvoluted PAS spectrum showed nine peaks around 335, 370, 415,485, 555, 605, 659, 690,730 and 785 nm and according to the ligand field theory, these peaks were attributed to the presence of V4+, Cr3+, Mn4+ and Fe3+ species. EPR studies revealed the presence of transition metal ions V4+(d1), Cr3+(d3), Mn4+(d3) and Fe3+(d5) at Ti4+ sites. The EPR spectra are characterized by very large crystal filed splitting (D term) and orthorhombic distortion term (E term) for multiple electron system (s > 1) suggesting that the transition metal ions substitute the Ti4+ in the lattice which is situated in distorted octahedral coordination of oxygen. The possible reasons for observation of unusually large D and E term in the EPR spectra of transition metal ions (S = 3/2 and 5/2) are discussed.

  13. Direct detection of (17)O in [Gd(DOTA)](-) by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Luca; Casella, Girolamo; Bagno, Alessandro

    2015-01-26

    The (17) O?NMR spectrum of the non-coordinated carboxyl oxygen in the Gd(III) -DOTA (DOTA=tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid) complex has been observed experimentally. Its line width is essentially unaffected by paramagnetic relaxation due to gadolinium, and is only affected by the quadrupole pathway. The results are supported by the relevant parameters (hyperfine and quadrupole coupling constants) calculated by relativistic DFT methods. This finding opens up new avenues for investigating the structure and reactivity of paramagnetic Gd(III) complexes used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25470235

  14. 'Shim pulses' for NMR spectroscopy in inhomogeneous magneticfields

    SciTech Connect

    Topgaard, Daniel; Martin, Rachel W.; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Meriles, Carlos; Pines, Alexander

    2004-05-19

    NMR spectroscopy conveys information about chemical structure through ppm-scale shifts of the resonance frequency depending on the chemical environment. In order to observe these small shifts, magnets with highly homogeneous magnetic field B{sub 0} are used. The high cost and large size of these magnets are a consequence of the requirement for high homogeneity. In this contribution we introduce a new method for recording high-resolution NMR spectra from samples in inhomogeneous B{sub 0}, opening up the possibility of exploiting magnets of lower homogeneity and cost. Instead of using the traditional B{sub 0} ''shim coils'', adiabatic radiofrequency (RF) pulse sequences and modulated B{sub 0} gradients generated by coils in the probe are used to produce ''shim pulses''. A great deal of work has been devoted to finding methods for retrieving chemical shift information even when B{sub 0} is inhomogeneous. One class of methods relies on zero- or multiple quantum coherences which evolve independently of B{sub 0}. These methods are inherently two-dimensional and the high-resolution information is obtained indirectly. In order to minimize experimental time it is desirable to acquire a high-resolution spectrum directly just as for traditional NMR in homogeneous fields. A further advantage with direct acquisition is that modification of already existing multidimensional NMR techniques is facilitated. A fundamentally different approach utilizes inhomogeneity of the RF magnetic field to periodically refocus the phase dispersion from the inhomogeneous B{sub 0}. With this technique a high-resolution spectrum can indeed be acquired in a single shot. The main drawback is the requirement for spatial matching between the RF and B{sub 0} inhomogeneities. Based on this latter technique we propose the use of ''shim pulses'', i.e. modulated, spatially constant, B{sub 0} gradient pulses together with spatially homogeneous adiabatic frequency sweeps to induce non-linear phase shifts in three dimensions. An intuitive understanding of the approach can be obtained from the following: An adiabatic full passage applied to transverse magnetization effectively rotates the magnetization in the transverse plane with an amount that depends on the frequency offset. In homogeneous B{sub 0} this gives rise to a ''phase roll'' across the NMR spectrum. If the adiabatic full passage is applied in the presence of a constant B{sub 0} gradient, a phase shift approximately linear in space will be the result. A second adiabatic passage reverses this phase shift and the adiabatic double passage constitutes effectively a 360{sup o} pulse. However, if the amplitude of the B{sub 0} gradient is changing during the adiabatic passages, phase shifts, which are non-linear in space, can be achieved. With a proper choice of the RF and gradient modulation functions, the phase dispersion from the inhomogeneous B{sub 0} can be canceled. Application of a shim pulse between each detected point in the time-domain NMR signal yields an NMR spectrum free from the broadening caused by the B{sub 0} inhomogeneity.

  15. Protein Motions and Folding Investigated by NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Arthur

    2002-03-01

    NMR spin relaxation spectroscopy is a powerful experimental approach for globally characterizing conformational dynamics of proteins in solution. Laboratory frame relaxation measurements are sensitive to overall rotational diffusion and internal motions on picosecond-nanosecond time scales, while rotating frame relaxation measurements are sensitive to chemical exchange processes on microsecond-millisecond time scales. The former approach is illustrated by ^15N laboratory-frame relaxation experiments as a function of temperature for the helical subdomain HP36 of the F-actin-binding headpiece domain of chicken villin. The data are analyzed using the model-free formalism to characterize order parameters and effective correlation times for intramolecular motions of individual ^15N sites. The latter approach is illustrated by ^13C Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation measurements for the de novo designed ?_2D protein and by ^15N rotating-frame relaxation measurements for the peripheral subunit-binding domain (PSBD) from the dihydrolopoamide acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex from Bacillus stearothermophilus. These experiments are used to determine the folding and unfolding kinetic rate constants for the two proteins. The results for HP36, ?_2D, and PSBD illustrate the capability of current NMR methods for characterizing dynamic processes on multiple time scales in proteins.

  16. Regularized Partial Least Squares with an Application to NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Genevera I.; Peterson, Christine; Vannucci, Marina; Maleti?-Savati?, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    High-dimensional data common in genomics, proteomics, and chemometrics often contains complicated correlation structures. Recently, partial least squares (PLS) and Sparse PLS methods have gained attention in these areas as dimension reduction techniques in the context of supervised data analysis. We introduce a framework for Regularized PLS by solving a relaxation of the SIMPLS optimization problem with penalties on the PLS loadings vectors. Our approach enjoys many advantages including flexibility, general penalties, easy interpretation of results, and fast computation in high-dimensional settings. We also outline extensions of our methods leading to novel methods for non-negative PLS and generalized PLS, an adoption of PLS for structured data. We demonstrate the utility of our methods through simulations and a case study on proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy data. PMID:24511361

  17. Detection of Taurine in Biological Tissues by 33S NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musio, Roberta; Sciacovelli, Oronzo

    2001-12-01

    The potential of 33S NMR spectroscopy for biochemical investigations on taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is explored. It is demonstrated that 33S NMR spectroscopy allows the selective and unequivocal identification of taurine in biological samples. 33S NMR spectra of homogenated and intact tissues are reported for the first time, together with the spectrum of a living mollusc. Emphasis is placed on the importance of choosing appropriate signal processing methods to improve the quality of the 33S NMR spectra of biological tissues.

  18. 2D zirconium fluorides: Synthesis, structure and NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Ali, A.; Body, M.; Leblanc, M.; Maisonneuve, V.

    2011-02-01

    Two new zirconium (IV) fluorides, [H 2dap]·(Zr 2F 10)·H 2O ( I) and [H meam] 2·(Zr 2F 10)·H 2O ( II), are synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal techniques and NMR spectroscopy. I is triclinic ( P1¯) with a = 6.805 (1) Å, b = 8.361(1) Å, and c = 11.853 (2) Å, ? = 94.54(1)°, ? = 105.44(1)°, ? = 108.75(1)°. II is monoclinic ( C2 /m) with a = 10.340(6) Å, b = 6.624(4) Å, c = 8.758(6) Å and ? = 110.57(3)°. The structure determinations, performed from single crystal X-ray diffraction data, lead to the R/R w reliability factors 0.041/0.113 for I and 0.057/0.177 for II. The structures are built up from ZrF 7 and ZrF 8 units in I and only ZrF 8 units in II. The polyhedra share common edges in order to form two different ZrF 5 layers that are also found in [H 2C2H10N2]·(Zr 2F 10)·H 2O and (H 3O) 2·(Zr 2F 10)·H 2O. On heating at 145 °C, [H 2dap]·(Zr 2F 10)·H 2O decomposes to give the anhydrous form [H 2dap]·(Zr 2F 10) that undergoes two successive phase transformations at 220 °C and 290 °C. 19F NMR spectroscopy confirms the structural features of [H 2dap]·(Zr 2F 10)·H 2O ( I): two sets of three lines with a relative intensity 1:2:2 are attributed to five bridging fluorine atoms and to five nonbridging fluorine atoms. This spectroscopy demonstrates that a noticeable substitution of F - anions by hydroxyl OH - groups is excluded, together with the eventual substitution of H 2O by HF molecules.

  19. Ultrafast MAS solid-state NMR permits extensive 13C and 1H detection in paramagnetic metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Ivano; Emsley, Lyndon; Lelli, Moreno; Luchinat, Claudio; Mao, Jiafei; Pintacuda, Guido

    2010-04-28

    We show here that by combining tailored approaches based on ultrafast (60 kHz) MAS on the Co(II)-replaced catalytic domain of matrix metalloproteinase 12 (CoMMP-12) we can observe and assign, in a highly paramagnetic protein in the solid state, (13)C and even (1)H resonances from the residues coordinating the metal center. In addition, by exploiting the enhanced relaxation caused by the paramagnetic center, and the low power irradiation enabled by the fast MAS, this can be achieved in remarkably short times and at very high field (21.2 T), with only less than 1 mg of sample. Furthermore, using the known crystal structure of the compound, we are able to distinguish and measure pseudocontact (PCS) contributions to the shifts up to the coordinating ligands and to unveil structural information. PMID:20356036

  20. Dynamic nuclear polarization enhanced NMR spectroscopy for pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Aaron J; Widdifield, Cory M; Zagdoun, Alexandre; Lelli, Moreno; Schwarzwälder, Martin; Copéret, Christophe; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2014-02-12

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy at 9.4 T is demonstrated for the detailed atomic-level characterization of commercial pharmaceutical formulations. To enable DNP experiments without major modifications of the formulations, the gently ground tablets are impregnated with solutions of biradical polarizing agents. The organic liquid used for impregnation (here 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane) is chosen so that the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is minimally perturbed. DNP enhancements (?) of between 40 and 90 at 105 K were obtained for the microparticulate API within four different commercial formulations of the over-the-counter antihistamine drug cetirizine dihydrochloride. The different formulations contain between 4.8 and 8.7 wt % API. DNP enables the rapid acquisition with natural isotopic abundances of one- and two-dimensional (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR spectra of the formulations while preserving the microstructure of the API particles. Here this allowed immediate identification of the amorphous form of the API in the tablet. API-excipient interactions were observed in high-sensitivity (1)H-(15)N correlation spectra, revealing direct contacts between povidone and the API. The API domain sizes within the formulations were determined by measuring the variation of ? as a function of the polarization time and numerically modeling nuclear spin diffusion. Here we measure an API particle radius of 0.3 ?m with a single particle model, while modeling with a Weibull distribution of particle sizes suggests most particles possess radii of around 0.07 ?m. PMID:24410528

  1. Isotope Labeling for Solution and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verardi, Raffaello; Traaseth, Nathaniel J.; Masterson, Larry R.; Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize the isotopic labeling strategies used to obtain high-quality solution and solid-state NMR spectra of biological samples, with emphasis on integral membrane proteins (IMPs). While solution NMR is used to study IMPs under fast tumbling conditions, such as in the presence of detergent micelles or isotropic bicelles, solid-state NMR is used to study the structure and orientation of IMPs in lipid vesicles and bilayers. In spite of the tremendous progress in biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, the homogeneity and overall quality of the sample is still a substantial obstacle to overcome. Isotopic labeling is a major avenue to simplify overlapped spectra by either diluting the NMR active nuclei or allowing the resonances to be separated in multiple dimensions. In the following we will discuss isotopic labeling approaches that have been successfully used in the study of IMPs by solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. PMID:23076578

  2. Closed-form expressions for level-averaged electron spin relaxation times outside the Zeeman limit: application to paramagnetic NMR relaxation.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Robert

    2002-02-01

    Paramagnetic enhancement of NMR relaxation (NMR-PRE) depends on thermal relaxation of the electron spin system. Most previous analyses of experimental NMR-PRE data have relied on Bloembergen--Morgan (B--M) theory to describe the magnetic field dependence of electron spin relaxation in liquid samples. However, B--M theory assumes a Zeeman-limit situation and is not physically appropriate to the common case of S > or = 1 transition metal ions which possess a permanent zero-field splitting (zfs) that is comparable to or larger than the Zeeman splitting. Theory has been needed which (1) includes the effects of the zfs interaction, thus providing a realistic description of the magnetic field dependence of the NMR-PRE outside the Zeeman limit, and (2) describes electron spin relaxation phenomena at a comparable level of complexity to that of B--M theory, i.e., with two magnetic field-dependent electron spin relaxation times, tau(S1) and tau(S2), defined in the laboratory coordinate frame. Theory of this kind is developed. Expressions derived in a previous study (R. R. Sharp and L. L. Lohr, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 5005 (2001).) for level-specific relaxation rates have been averaged over spin eigenstates to give level-averaged quantities, tau(S1,2). This kind of averaging leads to a great simplification in the mathematical form of the results. Simple zfs-limit molecular-frame and laboratory-frame expressions are given for electron spin S=1, 3/2, 2, and 5/2. General expressions, valid for S > or = 1 and for arbitrary magnitudes of the Zeeman and zfs energies, are derived for level-averaged electron spin relaxation times defined in both the laboratory- and the molecule-fixed coordinate frames. The new theory coincides with B--M theory in the Zeeman limit. PMID:11846584

  3. Solution NMR spectroscopy beyond 25 kDa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis E Kay; Kevin H Gardner

    1997-01-01

    Improvements in NMR instrumentation, higher magnetic field strengths, novel NMR experiments and new deuterium-labeling strategies have significantly increased the scope of structural problems that can now be addressed by solution NMR methods. To date, a number of structures of proteins of 30 kDa have been solved using multidimensional 15N, 13C,2H NMR techniques, and this molecular weight limit will probably be

  4. NMR spectroscopy in drug discovery: Tools for combinatorial chemistry, natural products, and metabolism research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Keifer

    \\u000a NMR spectroscopy has enjoyed many advances recently, and the pace of development shows no signs of slowing. This article focuses\\u000a on advances that have affected solution-state NMR. These advances fall into three general categories: new experimental techniques\\u000a (new pulse sequence tools), improved hardware and more powerful software.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a These advances are allowing NMR to help solve important problems in the field

  5. Adsorption properties of porous silicon characterized by optically enhanced 129Xe NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrass, T.; Bifone, A.; Pines, A.

    1995-07-01

    Highly spin polarized xenon is used to study the adsorption properties of porous silicon surfaces by 129Xe NMR spectroscopy. The sensitivity enhancement through optical pumping allows the NMR characterization of small amounts of physisorbed xenon in a pressure regime typical for adsorption isotherms. Fully hydrogen terminated porous silicon, porous silicon with an increased number of dangling bonds and porous silicon after methanol adsorption are characterized by the adsorbed 129Xe NMR lineshape, chemical shift and relaxation behavior.

  6. Development of a micro flow-through cell for high field NMR spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; McIntyre, Sarah K.

    2011-05-01

    A highly transportable micro flow-through detection cell for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been designed, fabricated and tested. This flow-through cell allows for the direct coupling between liquid chromatography (LC) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) resulting in the possibility of hyphenated LC-NMR and GPC-NMR. The advantage of the present flow cell design is that it is independent and unconnected to the detection probe electronics, is compatible with existing commercial high resolution NMR probes, and as such can be easily implemented at any NMR facility. Two different volumes were fabricated corresponding to between {approx}3.8 and 10 {micro}L detection volume. Examples of the performance of the cell on different NMR instruments, and using different NMR detection probes were demonstrated.

  7. Efficient -Sheet Identification in Proteins by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Hong, Mei

    Efficient -Sheet Identification in Proteins by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy Daniel Huster, Satoru: An efficient two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR technique to selectively detect -sheet residues-helical and -sheet conformations give rise to distinctly different dipolar modulations. After one-half of a rotation

  8. High-sensitivity sapphire cells for high pressure NMR spectroscopy on proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Reinhard Arnold; Hans Robert Kalbitzer; Werner Kremer

    2003-01-01

    High pressure NMR spectroscopy is a most exciting method for studying the structural anisotropy and conformational dynamics of proteins. The restricted volume of the high pressure glass cells causes a poor signal to noise ratio which up to now renders the application of most of the multidimensional NMR experiments impossible. The method presented here using high strength single crystal sapphire

  9. Measurement of Solution Viscosity via Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weibin; Kagan, Gerald; Hopson, Russell; Williard, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, the undergraduate chemistry curriculum includes nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Advanced NMR techniques are often taught including two-dimensional gradient-based experiments. An investigation of intermolecular forces including viscosity, by a variety of methods, is often integrated in the undergraduate physical and…

  10. Higher Order Amyloid Fibril Structure by MAS NMR and DNP Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Debelouchina, Galia T.

    Protein magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy has generated structural models of several amyloid fibril systems, thus providing valuable information regarding the forces and interactions that confer the extraordinary ...

  11. Applications of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to study interactions of iron proteins in cells with nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammack, R.; Shergill, J. K.; Ananda Inalsingh, V.; Hughes, Martin N.

    1998-12-01

    Nitric oxide and species derived from it have a wide range of biological functions. Some applications of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy are reviewed, for observing nitrosyl species in biological systems. Nitrite has long been used as a food preservative owing to its bacteriostatic effect on spoilage bacteria. Nitrosyl complexes such as sodium nitroprusside, which are added experimentally as NO-generators, themselves produce paramagnetic nitrosyl species, which may be seen by EPR. We have used this to observe the effects of nitroprusside on clostridial cells. After growth in the presence of sublethal concentrations of nitroprusside, the cells show they have been converted into other, presumably less toxic, nitrosyl complexes such as (RS) 2Fe(NO) 2. Nitric oxide is cytotoxic, partly due to its effects on mitochondria. This is exploited in the destruction of cancer cells by the immune system. The targets include iron-sulfur proteins. It appears that species derived from nitric oxide such as peroxynitrite may be responsible. Addition of peroxynitrite to mitochondria led to depletion of the EPR-detectable iron-sulfur clusters. Paramagnetic complexes are formed in vivo from hemoglobin, in conditions such as experimental endotoxic shock. This has been used to follow the course of production of NO by macrophages. We have examined the effects of suppression of NO synthase using biopterin antagonists. Another method is to use an injected NO-trapping agent, Fe-diethyldithiocarbamate (Fe-DETC) to detect accumulated NO by EPR. In this way we have observed the effects of depletion of serum arginine by arginase. In brains from victims of Parkinson's disease, a nitrosyl species, identified as nitrosyl hemoglobin, has been observed in substantia nigra. This is an indication for the involvement of nitric oxide or a derived species in the damage to this organ.

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of Fe 3+ ions in amethyst: thermodynamic potentials and magnetic susceptibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gobburu Sivaramaiah; Jinru Lin; Yuanming Pan

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystal and powder electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies of natural amethyst quartz, before and\\u000a after isochronal annealing between 573 and 1,173 K, have been made from 90 to 294 K. Single-crystal EPR spectra confirm the\\u000a presence of two substitutional Fe3+ centers. Powder EPR spectra are characterized by two broad resonance signals at g = ~10.8 and 4.0 and a sharp signal at g = 2.002.

  13. Degradation of blue phosphorescent organic LEDs analyzed by solution NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Hajime; Ito, Hiroto; Ootsu, Shinya; Hiyama, Kunimasa; Kita, Hiroshi; Kaji, Hironori

    2014-10-01

    In organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), device degradation is one of the crucial problems to be solved. In this study, we have investigated material degradations in FIrpic-based phosphorescent OLEDs by solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR experiments clearly indicate that about 18% of TPhDB molecules, which is used as an electron-transporting material, are decomposed during driving the devices. The decomposition of the TPhDB molecules is considered to be related to the device degradation. This study demonstrates that solution NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool to investigate an origin of device degradation of multi-layered OLEDs in terms of decomposition of organic molecules.

  14. Structure Determination of Biological Macromolecules in Solution Using NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard Wider

    Abstract A detailed understanding of the function of a biological macromolecule,requires knowledge,of its three-dimensional structure. Most atomic-resolution structures of biological macromolecules have been solved either by x-ray diffraction in single crystals or by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in solution. This review surveys the method,of NMR structure determination. First a brief introduction to NMR and its basic concepts is presented. The

  15. Phosphoesterase activity of polyoxomolybdates: diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy as a tool for obtaining insights into the reactivity of polyoxometalate clusters.

    PubMed

    Lokeren, Luk Van; Cartuyvels, Els; Absillis, Gregory; Willem, Rudolph; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2008-06-28

    Diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY NMR) is shown to be an excellent tool for observing reactive transients in the hydrolysis of the phosphatase model substrate (p-nitrophenyl)phosphate (NPP) promoted by polyoxomolybdate. PMID:18688306

  16. Phosphorus speciation in a eutrophic lake by ³¹P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Read, Emily K; Ivancic, Monika; Hanson, Paul; Cade-Menun, Barbara J; McMahon, Katherine D

    2014-10-01

    For eutrophic lakes, patterns of phosphorus (P) measured by standard methods are well documented but provide little information about the components comprising standard operational definitions. Dissolved P (DP) and particulate P (PP) represents important but rarely characterized nutrient pools. Samples from Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, USA were characterized using 31-phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P NMR) during the open water season of 2011 in this unmatched temporal study of aquatic P dynamics. A suite of organic and inorganic P forms was detected in both dissolved and particulate fractions: orthophosphate, orthophosphate monoesters, orthophosphate diesters, pyrophosphate, polyphosphate, and phosphonates. Through time, phytoplankton biomass, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and water clarity were correlated with changes in the relative proportion of P fractions. Particulate P can be used as a proxy for phytoplankton-bound P, and in this study, a high proportion of polyphosphate within particulate samples suggested P should not be a limiting factor for the dominant primary producers, cyanobacteria. Hypolimnetic particulate P samples were more variable in composition than surface samples, potentially due to varying production and transport of sinking particles. Surface dissolved samples contained less P than particulate samples, and were typically dominated by orthophosphate, but also contained monoester, diester, polyphosphate, pyrophosphate, and phosphonate. Hydrologic inflows to the lake contained more orthophosphate and orthophosphate monoesters than in-lake samples, indicating transformation of P from inflowing waters. This time series explores trends of a highly regulated nutrient in the context of other water quality metrics (chlorophyll, mixing regime, and clarity), and gives insight on the variability of the structure and occurrence of P-containing compounds in light of the phosphorus-limited paradigm. PMID:24956605

  17. Functional groups identified by solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is generally high in organic matter intensity so it is well suitable for 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Solid-state 13C NMR techniques used in characterizing organic matter and its components include, but are not limited to, cross-polarization /magic angle spinning (CP...

  18. Cooperative binding of midazolam with testosterone and alpha-naphthoflavone within the CYP3A4 active site: a NMR T1 paramagnetic relaxation study.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Michael D; Wen, Bo; Allen, Kyle E; Roberts, Arthur G; Schuman, Jason T; Campbell, A Patricia; Kunze, Kent L; Nelson, Sidney D

    2005-11-01

    Recent studies have indicated that CYP3A4 exhibits non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics for numerous substrates. Both homo- and heterotropic activation have been reported, and kinetic models have suggested multiple substrates within the active site. We provide some of the first physicochemical data supporting the hypothesis of allosteric substrate binding within the CYP3A4 active site. Midazolam (MDZ) is metabolized by CYP3A4 to two hydroxylated metabolites, 1'- and 4-hydroxymidazolam. Incubations using purified CYP3A4 and MDZ showed that both alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha-NF) and testosterone affect the ratio of formation rates of 1'- and 4-hydroxymidazolam. Similar to previous reports, alpha-NF was found to promote formation of 1'-hydroxymidazolam, while testosterone stimulated formation of 4-hydroxymidazolam. NMR was used to measure the closest approach of individual MDZ protons to the paramagnetic heme iron of CYP3A4 using paramagnetic T(1) relaxation measurements. Solutions of 0.2 microM CYP3A4 with 500 microM MDZ resulted in calculated distances between 7.4 and 8.3 A for all monitored MDZ protons. The distances were statistically equivalent for all protons except C3-H and were consistent with the rotation within the active site or sliding parallel to the heme plane. When 50 microM alpha-NF was added, proton-heme iron distances ranged from 7.3 to 10.0 A. Consistent with kinetics of activation, the 1' position was situated closest to the heme, while the fluorophenyl 5-H proton was the furthest. Proton-heme iron distances for MDZ with CYP3A4 and 50 microM testosterone ranged from 7.7 to 9.0 A, with the flourophenyl 5-H proton furthest from the heme iron and the C4-H closest to the heme, also consistent with kinetic observations. When titrated with CYP3A4 in the presence of MDZ, testosterone and alpha-NF resonances themselves exhibited significant broadening and enhanced relaxation rates, indicating that these effector molecules were also bound within the CYP3A4 active site near the paramagnetic heme iron. These results suggest that the effector exerts its cooperative effects on MDZ metabolism through simultaneous binding of MDZ and effector near the CYP3A4 heme. PMID:16245930

  19. On the use of 2D correlation and exchange NMR spectroscopy in organic porous materials.

    PubMed

    Galvosas, Petrik; Qiao, Ying; Schönhoff, Monika; Callaghan, Paul T

    2007-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods for the investigation of correlation and exchange have been introduced in recent years and have been applied to a range of different systems. Here, we report on the use of 2D NMR diffusion-diffusion correlation spectroscopy for the investigation of diffusion anisotropy in cellular plant tissues and of diffusion-diffusion exchange spectroscopy for the study of the diffusive exchange of dextran in a dispersion of polyelectrolyte multilayer hollow capsules. Furthermore, diffusion-relaxation correlation spectroscopy was applied to both systems. PMID:17466772

  20. NMR Stark Spectroscopy: New Methods to Calibrate NMR Sensitivity to Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasek, Matthew R.

    The influence of electrostatics on NMR parameters is well accepted. Thus, NMR is a promising route to probe electrical features within molecules and materials. However, applications of NMR Stark effects (E-field induced changes in spin energy levels) have been elusive. I have developed new approaches to resolve NMR Stark effects from an applied E field. This calibrates nuclear probes whose spectral response might later be used to evaluate internal E fields that are critical to function, such as those due to local charge distributions or sample structure. I will present two novel experimental approaches for direct calibration of NMR quadrupolar Stark effects (QSEs). In the first, steady-state (few-second) excitation by an E field at twice the NMR frequency (2? 0) is used to saturate spin magnetization. The extent of saturation vs. E-field amplitude calibrates the QSE response rate, while measurements vs sample orientation determine tensorial character. The second method instead synchronizes short (few µs) pulses of the 2?0 E field with a multiple-pulse NMR sequence. This, “POWER” (Perturbations Observed With Enhanced Resolution) approach enables more accurate measure of small QSEs (i.e. few Hz spectral changes). A 2nd key advantage is the ability to define tensorial response without reorienting the sample, but instead varying the phase of the 2?0 field. I will describe these experiments and my home-built NMR “Stark probe”, employed on a conventional wide-bore solid-state NMR system. Results with GaAs demonstrate each method, while extensions to a wider array of molecular and material systems may now be possible using these methods.

  1. Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Anne Lesage,

    E-print Network

    the possibility to directly investigate both the bulk (silica and/or alumina) and surface functionalities (e to a 50-fold increase in the NMR sensitivity of molecular organic functionalities of hybrid silica

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of Fe3+ ions in amethyst: thermodynamic potentials and magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramaiah, Gobburu; Lin, Jinru; Pan, Yuanming

    2011-02-01

    Single-crystal and powder electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies of natural amethyst quartz, before and after isochronal annealing between 573 and 1,173 K, have been made from 90 to 294 K. Single-crystal EPR spectra confirm the presence of two substitutional Fe3+ centers. Powder EPR spectra are characterized by two broad resonance signals at g = ~10.8 and 4.0 and a sharp signal at g = 2.002. The sharp signal is readily attributed to the well-established oxygen vacancy electron center E 1'. However, the two broad signals do not correspond to any known Fe3+ centers in the quartz lattice, but are most likely attributable to Fe3+ clusters on surfaces. The absolute numbers of spins of the Fe3+ species at g = ~10.8 have been calculated from powder EPR spectra measured at temperatures from 90 to 294 K. These results have been used to extract thermodynamic potentials, including Gibbs energy of activation ? G, activation energy E a, entropy of activation ? S and enthalpy of activation ? H for the Fe3+ species in amethyst. In addition, magnetic susceptibilities ( ?) have been calculated from EPR data at different temperatures. A linear relationship between magnetic susceptibility and temperature is consistent with the Curie-Weiss law. Knowledge about the stability and properties of Fe3+ species on the surfaces of quartz is important to better understanding of the reactivity, bioavailability and heath effects of iron in silica particles.

  3. Determination of the three-dimensional structure for weakly aligned biomolecules by NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahkhatuni, Astghik A.; Shahkhatuni, Aleksan G.

    2002-12-01

    The key achievements and the potential of NMR spectroscopy for weakly aligned biomolecules are considered. Due to weak alignment, it becomes possible to determine a number of NMR parameters dependent on the orientation of biomolecules, which are averaged to zero in usual isotropic media. The addition of new orientational constraints to standard procedures of 3D structure determination markedly increases the achievable accuracy. The possibility of structure determination for biomolecules using only orientation-dependent parameters without invoking other NMR data is discussed. The methods of orientation, experimental techniques, and calculation methods are systematised. The main results obtained and the prospects of using NMR spectroscopy of weakly aligned systems to study different classes of biomolecules and to solve various problems of molecular biology are analysed. Examples of biomolecules whose structures have been determined using orientation-dependent parameters are given. The bibliography includes 508 references.

  4. Acetone-induced polymerisation of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) as revealed by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Pierluigi; Fusco, Luigi; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    We followed the reactivity of acetone with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, a potential organosilane coupling agent, by (1)H, (13)C and (29)Si NMR spectroscopy. Selective 1D and 2D-edited NMR experiments significantly contributed to simplify the spectral complexity of reaction solution and elucidated molecular structures within progressive reaction phases. The course of the 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane reaction with acetone was shown by a progressive decrease of both reactants, and a concomitant appearance of water and methanol, due to formation of imine and hydrolysis of alkoxysilane groups, respectively. The occurrence of multiple siloxane linkages in a progressively larger cross-linked macromolecular structure was revealed by DOSY-NMR experiments and new signals in (29)Si-NMR spectra at different reaction times. The NMR approach described here may be applied to investigate the reactivity of other ?-aminopropylalkoxysilanes and contribute to define procedures for the preparation of silica-based materials. PMID:24757082

  5. Area per Lipid and Acyl Length Distributions in Fluid Phosphatidylcholines Determined by 2H NMR Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horia I. Petrache; Steven W. Dodd; Michael F. Brown

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium (2H) NMR spectroscopy provides detailed information regarding the structural fluctuations of lipid bilayers, including both the equilibrium properties and dynamics. Experimental 2H NMR measurements for the homologous series of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines with perdeuterated saturated chains (from C12:0 to C18:0) have been performed on randomly oriented, fully hydrated multilamellar samples. For each lipid, the C–D bond order parameters have been calculated

  6. Metabolomic analysis of methyl jasmonate treated Brassica rapa leaves by 2-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Sa Liang; Young Hae Choi; Hye Kyong Kim; Huub J. M. Linthorst; Robert Verpoorte

    2006-01-01

    The metabolomic analysis of Brassica rapa leaves treated with methyl jasmonate was performed using 2-dimensional J-resolved NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis. The principal component analysis of the J-resolved NMR spectra showed discrimination between control and methyl jasmonate treated plants by principal components 1 and 2. While the level of glucose, sucrose and amino acids showed a decrease after

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polyphosphazene copolymers using phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, F.F.; Peterson, E.S.; Stone, M.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Singler, R.E. [Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    It was observed that competitive nucleophilic addition processes may be observed by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy. Methoxyethoxyethanol (MEE) and p-methoxyphenol readily substitute for chlorineonto phosphorus and the relative rates are generally comparable to each other. Sterically, the phenol presents is slightly larger than MEE but this does not appear to effect substitution judging by the observed PN(OAr){sub 2} NMR signal. These processes are still being studied.

  8. Metabolic differentiations of Pueraria lobata and Pueraria thomsonii using ¹H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Gan; Song, Yue-Lin; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ye, Wen-Cai; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Puerariae Radix was a widely used herbal medicine. Pueraria lobata (PL) and Pueraria thomsonii (PT) were the two authorized sources of Puerariae Radix (gegen) in China. In this study, metabolic differentiations between these two species were investigated using NMR spectroscopy followed by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The content of puerarin in PL and PT was also determined using quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Thirteen isoflavones were tentatively identified based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data in two species. The (1)H NMR spectra of PL and PT were obviously different. PL and PT could also be markedly discriminated from (1)H NMR spectroscopic data by PCA and PLS-DA. For the crude drug resources, isoflavones, in which puerarin is the most important one, were regarded as the reasonable markers for the discrimination of the two species. The contents of puerarin and total isoflavones in PL were quantitated much higher than those in PT. Above all, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, which can provide comprehensive profiles of the metabolites and achieve convenient determinations of puerarin and total isoflavones in a single run, is an efficient means for evaluating the medicinal samples and achieving a better quality control of Puerariae Radix. PMID:23746990

  9. Egg yolk identification and aging in mixed paint binding media by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sfakianaki, Sofia; Kouloumpi, Eleni; Anglos, Demetrios; Spyros, Apostolos

    2015-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool for the identification and quantitative analysis of organic materials in a cultural heritage context. In this report, we present an analytical NMR protocol for the identification and semiquantification of egg yolk binders and mixed binding media that also contain a drying oil, namely linseed oil. The samples studied have been artificially and/or naturally aged in order to simulate the composition of organic materials in paintings. Analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR spectra showed that egg yolk can be identified even in binding media of considerable age via signals originating from cholesterol and/or cholesterol oxidation products present in the aged binding medium. Based on cholesterol-related and other lipid signals in the NMR spectra of egg yolk binders, a molecular marker (R/F) that suggests the presence of egg yolk in paint binders is proposed. Via this marker, the presence of egg yolk in the organic material obtained from an early 18th century Greek icon is confirmed, and this is further verified by 2D NMR spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that NMR molecular markers developed to estimate the hydrolysis/oxidation state of oil paintings are also suitable for the analysis of egg yolk and mixed medium (egg yolk-linseed oil) binders, indicating the generality of the NMR methodological approach in the analysis of organic materials in a cultural heritage context. PMID:25280129

  10. Structural determination of larger proteins using stable isotope labeling and NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, C.; Hernandez, G.; Springer, P.; Trewhella, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Blumenthal, D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lidstrom, M. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The project sought to employ stable isotope labeling and NMR spectroscopy to study protein structures and provide insight into important biochemical problems. A methylotrophic bacterial expression system has been developed for uniform deuterium and carbon-13 labeling of proteins for structural studies. These organisms grow using methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy. Because isotopically labeled methanol is relatively inexpensive, the methylotrophs are ideal for expressing proteins labeled uniformly with deuterium and/or carbon-13. This expression system has been employed to prepare deuterated troponin C. NMR spectroscopy measurements have been made on the inhibitory peptide from troponin I (residues 96--115), both as the free peptide and the peptide complexed with deuterated troponin C. Proton-NMR spectroscopy resonance-signal assignments have been made for the free peptide.

  11. Ligand screening by saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, V V

    2005-04-26

    NMR based methods to screen for high-affinity ligands have become an indispensable tool for designing rationalized drugs, as these offer a combination of good experimental design of the screening process and data interpretation methods, which together provide unprecedented information on the complex nature of protein-ligand interactions. These methods rely on measuring direct changes in the spectral parameters, that are often simpler than the complex experimental procedures used to study structure and dynamics of proteins. The goal of this review article is to provide the basic details of NMR based ligand-screening methods, with particular focus on the saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment. In addition, we provide an overview of other NMR experimental methods and a practical guide on how to go about designing and implementing them.

  12. Quantitating metabolites in protein precipitated serum using NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagana Gowda, G A; Raftery, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Quantitative NMR-based metabolite profiling is challenged by the deleterious effects of abundant proteins in the intact blood plasma/serum, which underscores the need for alternative approaches. Protein removal by ultrafiltration using low molecular weight cutoff filters thus represents an important step. However, protein precipitation, an alternative and simple approach for protein removal, lacks detailed quantitative assessment for use in NMR based metabolomics. In this study, we have comprehensively evaluated the performance of protein precipitation using methanol, acetonitrile, perchloric acid, and trichloroacetic acid and ultrafiltration approaches using 1D and 2D NMR, based on the identification and absolute quantitation of 44 human blood metabolites, including a few identified for the first time in the NMR spectra of human serum. We also investigated the use of a "smart isotope tag," (15)N-cholamine for further resolution enhancement, which resulted in the detection of a number of additional metabolites. (1)H NMR of both protein precipitated and ultrafiltered serum detected all 44 metabolites with comparable reproducibility (average CV, 3.7% for precipitation; 3.6% for filtration). However, nearly half of the quantified metabolites in ultrafiltered serum exhibited 10-74% lower concentrations; specifically, tryptophan, benzoate, and 2-oxoisocaproate showed much lower concentrations compared to protein precipitated serum. These results indicate that protein precipitation using methanol offers a reliable approach for routine NMR-based metabolomics of human blood serum/plasma and should be considered as an alternative to ultrafiltration. Importantly, protein precipitation, which is commonly used by mass spectrometry (MS), promises avenues for direct comparison and correlation of metabolite data obtained from the two analytical platforms to exploit their combined strength in the metabolomics of blood. PMID:24796490

  13. 31P NMR spectroscopy of in vivo tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, T. C.; Evanochko, W. T.; Hiramoto, R. N.; Ghanta, V. K.; Lilly, M. B.; Lawson, A. J.; Corbett, T. H.; Durant, J. R.; Glickson, J. D.

    A probe, suitable for any wide-bore NMR spectrometer, was constructed for monitoring high-resolution spectra of in vivo subcutaneously implanted tumors in mice. Preliminary studies of a variety of murine tumors (MOPC 104E myeloma, Dunn osteosarcoma, colon-26, ovarian M5, and mammary adenocarcinoma as well as human colon, mammary, and lung tumors in athymic mice) indicate that the 31P NMR spectrum is a sensitive monitor of progressive metabolic changes that occur during untreated tumor growth and an early indicator of tumor response to chemotherapy, hyperthermia, and X radiation. Response to each of these therapeutic modalities is accompanied by distinctly different spectral changes.

  14. Discovering [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Laboratory through a Sequence of Guided-Inquiry Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iler, H. Darrell; Justice, David; Brauer, Shari; Landis, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This sequence of three guided-inquiry labs is designed for a second-semester general chemistry course and challenges students to discover basic theoretical principles associated with [superscript 13]C NMR, [superscript 1]H NMR, and IR spectroscopy. Students learn to identify and explain basic concepts of magnetic resonance and vibrational…

  15. NMR spectroscopy of experimentally shocked single crystal quartz: A reexamination of the NMR shock barometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiske, P. S.; Gratz, A. J.; Nellis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cygan and others report a broadening of the Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) peak for synthetic quartz powders with increasing shock pressure which they propose as a shock wave barometer for natural systems. These results are expanded by studying single crystal quartz shocked to 12 and 33 GPa using the 6.5 m two-stage light-gas gun at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Our NMR results differ substantially from those of Cygan and others and suggest that the proposed shock wave barometer may require refinement. The difference in results between this study and that of Cygan and others is most likely caused by different starting materials (single crystal vs. powder) and different shock loading histories. NMR results from single crystal studies may be more applicable to natural systems.

  16. Characterization of the essential oil of Agastache rugosa by NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakovskii, E. D.; Kiselev, W. P.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.; Schutova, A. G.; Gonsharova, L. W.; Spiridowish, E. W.; Bovdey, N. A.; Kiselev, P. A.; Gaidukevich, O. A.

    2010-07-01

    The composition of essential oil from Agastache rugosa (Fish. et Mey) O.Kuntze was studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Essential oil was isolated from the aerial part of plants growing in the Central Botanical Garden of the NAS of Belarus during flowering and fruiting. The oil chemical composition was found to depend little on the sampling time. It was shown that NMR spectroscopy could be successfully used to both monitor the content of the hepatotoxic substance (pulegone) and characterize the quality and authenticity of essential oils.

  17. From Molecular Structure to Global Processes : NMR Spectroscopy in Analytical/Environmental Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, A.

    2009-04-01

    NMR Spectroscopy is arguably the most powerful tool to elucidate structure and probe molecular interactions. A range of NMR approaches will be introduced with emphasis on addressing and understanding structure and reactivity of soil organic matter at the molecular level. The presentation will be split into three main sections. The first section will look at evidence from advanced NMR based approaches that when considered synergistically describes the major structural components in soil organic matter. Multidimensional NMR spectroscopy (1-3D NMR), automated pattern matching, spectral simulations, diffusion NMR and hybrid-diffusion NMR will be introduced in context of molecular structure. Finally the structural components in soil will be contrasted to those found in aquatic dissolved organic matter. Secondly molecular interactions of natural organic matter will be considered. Advanced structural studies have provided detailed spectral assignments which in turn permit the reactivity of various soil components to be elucidated. Aggregation and self-association of soil and dissolved organic matter will be discussed along with the structural components likely responsible for aggregation/colloid formation. Interactions of soil organic matter with anthropogenic chemicals will also be considered and NMR techniques based on "Saturation Transfer Difference" introduced. These techniques are extremely powerful and can be used to both; describe mechanistically how anthropogenic chemicals sorb to whole soils and identify the structural components (lignin, protein, cellulose, etc..) that are responsible for the binding/sorption in soil. In the last section, the "big questions" and challenges facing the field will be considered along with some novel experimental NMR based approaches that should, in future, assist in providing answers to these questions.

  18. Profiling formulated monoclonal antibodies by (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Poppe, Leszek; Jordan, John B; Lawson, Ken; Jerums, Matthew; Apostol, Izydor; Schnier, Paul D

    2013-10-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is arguably the most direct methodology for characterizing the higher-order structure of proteins in solution. Structural characterization of proteins by NMR typically utilizes heteronuclear experiments. However, for formulated monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics, the use of these approaches is not currently tenable due to the requirements of isotope labeling, the large size of the proteins, and the restraints imposed by various formulations. Here, we present a new strategy to characterize formulated mAbs using (1)H NMR. This method, based on the pulsed field gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) experiment, facilitates the use of (1)H NMR to generate highly resolved spectra of intact mAbs in their formulation buffers. This method of data acquisition, along with postacquisition signal processing, allows the generation of structural and hydrodynamic profiles of antibodies. We demonstrate how variation of the PGSTE pulse sequence parameters allows proton relaxation rates and relative diffusion coefficients to be obtained in a simple fashion. This new methodology can be used as a robust way to compare and characterize mAb therapeutics. PMID:24006877

  19. Structural determination of diterpenes from Daphne genkwa by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Kalsoom; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Ali, Irshad

    2006-11-01

    Five daphnane type diterpenes have been isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of Daphne genkwa. The structure of the new compound (1) was assigned as 5beta-hydroxyresiniferonol-6alpha,7alpha-epoxy-12beta-acetoxy-9,13,14-ortho-2E-decenoate by extensive NMR studies. PMID:16953522

  20. High-Resolution NMR Spectroscopy: An Alternative Fast Tool for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Diacylglycerol (DAG) Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanuel Hatzakis; Alexia Agiomyrgianaki; Sarantos Kostidis; Photis Dais

    Multinuclear (1H, 13C, 31P) and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy was employed for the analysis of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil and the quantification\\u000a of its acylglycerols and acyl chains composition. A number of gradient selected two dimensional NMR techniques (TOCSY, HSQC-DEPT,\\u000a HSQC-TOCSY, and HMBC) facilitated the assignment of the complex one dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra. In several cases, the aforementioned 2D-NMR techniques

  1. Analysis of illegally manufactured formulations of tadalafil (Cialis ®) by 1H NMR, 2D DOSY 1H NMR and Raman spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saleh Trefi; Corinne Routaboul; Saleh Hamieh; Véronique Gilard; Myriam Malet-Martino; Robert Martino

    2008-01-01

    Counterfeit and\\/or imitation medicines are becoming a major health problem not only in developing countries but also in wealthier countries. The need of new and easy analytical methods for quality control of drugs is essential. We describe the use of Raman spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) NMR to analyse genuine Cialis® and seven illegally

  2. New insights into glycopeptide antibiotic binding to cell wall precursors using SPR and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Juan; Bayón, Carlos; Ardá, Ana; Marinelli, Flavia; Gandolfi, Raffaella; Molinari, Francesco; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesús; Hernáiz, María J

    2014-06-10

    Glycopeptide antibiotics, such as vancomycin and teicoplanin, are used to treat life-threatening infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. They inhibit bacterial cell wall biosynthesis by binding to the D-Ala-D-Ala C-terminus of peptidoglycan precursors. Vancomycin-resistant bacteria replace the dipeptide with the D-Ala-D-Lac depsipeptide, thus reducing the binding affinity of the antibiotics with their molecular targets. Herein, studies of the interaction of teicoplanin, teicoplanin-like A40926, and of their semisynthetic derivatives (mideplanin, MDL63,246, dalbavancin) with peptide analogues of cell-wall precursors by NMR spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) are reported. NMR spectroscopy revealed the existence of two different complexes in solution, when the different glycopeptides interact with Ac2KdAlaDAlaOH. Despite the NMR experimental conditions, which are different from those employed for the SPR measurements, the NMR spectroscopy results parallel those deduced in the chip with respect to the drastic binding difference existing between the D-Ala and the D-Lac terminating analogues, confirming that all these antibiotics share the same primary molecular mechanism of action and resistance. Kinetic analysis of the interaction between the glycopeptide antibiotics and immobilized AcKdAlaDAlaOH by SPR suggest a dimerization process that was not observed by NMR spectroscopy in DMSO solution. Moreover, in SPR, all glycopeptides with a hydrophobic acyl chain present stronger binding with a hydrophobic surface than vancomycin, indicating that additional interactions through the employed surface are involved. In conclusion, SPR provides a tool to differentiate between vancomycin and other glycopeptides, and the calculated binding affinities at the surface seem to be more relevant to in vitro antimicrobial activity than the estimations from NMR spectroscopy analysis. PMID:24805824

  3. Application of High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy to Define the Cell Uptake of MRI Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabi, Luisella; Alfieri, Goffredo; Biondi, Luca; De Miranda, Mario; Paleari, Lino; Ghelli, Stefano

    2002-06-01

    A new method, based on proton high-resolution magic-angle spinning ( 1H HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy, has been employed to study the cell uptake of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents (MRI-CAs). The method was tested on human red blood cells (HRBC) and white blood cells (HWBC) by using three gadolinium complexes, widely used in diagnostics, Gd-BOPTA, Gd-DTPA, and Gd-DOTA, and the analogous complexes obtained by replacing Gd(III) with Dy(III), Nd(III), and Tb(III) (i.e., complexes isostructural to the ones of gadolinium but acting as shift agents). The method is based on the evaluation of the magnetic effects, line broadening, or induced lanthanide shift (LIS) caused by these complexes on NMR signals of intra- and extracellular water. Since magnetic effects are directly linked to permeability, this method is direct. In all the tests, these magnetic effects were detected for the extracellular water signal only, providing a direct proof that these complexes are not able to cross the cell membrane. Line broadening effects (i.e., the use of gadolinium complexes) only allow qualitative evaluations. On the contrary, LIS effects can be measured with high precision and they can be related to the concentration of the paramagnetic species in the cellular compartments. This is possible because the HR-MAS technique provides the complete elimination of bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shift and the differentiation of extra- and intracellular water signals. Thus with this method, the rapid quantification of the MRI-CA amount inside and outside the cells is actually feasible.

  4. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of membrane-associated myelin basic protein--conformation and dynamics of an immunodominant epitope.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mumdooh A M; Bamm, Vladimir V; Harauz, George; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2010-08-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) maintains the tight multilamellar compaction of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system through peripheral binding of adjacent lipid bilayers of oligodendrocytes. Myelin instability in multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with the loss of positive charge in MBP as a result of posttranslational enzymatic deimination. A highly-conserved central membrane-binding fragment (murine N81-PVVHFFKNIVTPRTPPP-S99, identical to human N83-S101) represents a primary immunodominant epitope in MS. Previous low-resolution electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the V83-T92 fragment, with Cys-mutations and spin-labeling that scanned the epitope, were consistent with it being a membrane-associated amphipathic alpha-helix. Pseudodeimination at several sites throughout the protein, all distal to the central segment, disrupted the alpha-helix at its amino-terminus and exposed it to proteases, representing a potential mechanism in the autoimmune pathogenesis of MS. Here, we have used magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy to characterize more precisely the molecular conformation and dynamics of this central immunodominant epitope of MBP in a lipid milieu, without Cys-substitution. Our solid-state NMR measurements have revealed that the alpha-helix present within the immunodominant epitope is shorter than originally modeled, and is independent of the pseudodeimination, highlighting the importance of the local hydrophobic effects in helix formation and stability. The main effect of pseudodeimination is to cause the cytoplasmic exposure of the fragment, potentially making it more accessible to proteolysis. These results are the first, to our knowledge, to provide atomic-level detail of a membrane-anchoring segment of MBP, and direct evidence of decreased MBP-membrane interaction after posttranslational modification. PMID:20713009

  5. Solid-State NMR Investigation of Paramagnetic Nylon-6 Clay Nanocomposites. 1. Crystallinity, Morphology, and the Direct Influence of Fe3+ on Nuclear Spins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vanderhart, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    Several exfoliated nylon-6/clay nanocomposites (NnC’s) were investigated and compared with pure nylon-6 using solid-state NMR, both proton and 13C. NnC’s had nominally 5 mass % clay and were generated both by blending and by in situ polymerization (IsP). Most of the studied NnC’s contained layered, naturally occurring montmorillonite clays having nonstoichiometric amounts of nonexchangeable Mg2+ and Fe3+ ions that substitute into octahedral Al3+ sites along the midplane of the 1-nm-thick clay layers. The Fe3+ ions impart a useful paramagnetism to the clay. Each Mg2+ ion leaves an embedded negative charge that must be neutralized with some cation at the surface of the clay. All clays were initially treated with a cationic so-called organic modifier (OM), often a substituted ammonium ion, which increases the clay layer spacing, attaching ionically to the surface of the clay layers. Clay is found to promote growth of the ç-crystalline phase of nylon-6 for both blended and IsP NnC’s; R-crystallites are characteristic of the pure nylon-6. Stability of the ç-phase to annealing at 214 °C was investigated. Conversion of ç- to R-crystallinity during annealing was minimal, except for an injection-molded IsP NnC, which had been exposed to a temperature of 295 °C during molding. This high processing temperature produced an irreversible change. An attempt was made to understand, at least qualitatively, the nature of the spectral density of magnetic fluctuations associated with the paramagnetic Fe3+ sites in the clay. For this purpose, we looked directly at the influence of Fe3+ on the 13C and proton observables in organically modified clays (OMC). We agree with other investigators that the spectral density of paramagnetic fluctuations at the surface of the clay is determined mainly by spin-exchange interactions between Fe3+ sites; thus, the spectral density can be altered by changing the Fe3+ concentration. Moreover, we find that the spectral density is very wide, having strong contributions all the way from mid-kHz fluctuations to MHz fluctuations near the proton Larmor frequencies. Significant variations in the R/ç ratio were also observed in the injection-molded disk, which reflect either a processing-induced heterogeneity in clay dispersion or a significant variation in cooling history from region to region. Proton spin diffusion and multiple-pulse methods were utilized to compare morphologies for a diamagnetic NnC and nylon-6 with the same thermal histories. Long spacing, crystallinity, and the mobility of the noncrystalline nylon-6 segments are very similar for NnC’s and nylon-6.

  6. Simultaneous 19F-1H medium resolution NMR spectroscopy for online reaction monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zientek, Nicolai; Laurain, Clément; Meyer, Klas; Kraume, Matthias; Guthausen, Gisela; Maiwald, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Medium resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (MR-NMR) spectroscopy is currently a fast developing field, which has an enormous potential to become an important analytical tool for reaction monitoring, in hyphenated techniques, and for systematic investigations of complex mixtures. The recent developments of innovative MR-NMR spectrometers are therefore remarkable due to their possible applications in quality control, education, and process monitoring. MR-NMR spectroscopy can beneficially be applied for fast, non-invasive, and volume integrating analyses under rough environmental conditions. Within this study, a simple 1/16? fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) tube with an ID of 0.04? (1.02 mm) was used as a flow cell in combination with a 5 mm glass Dewar tube inserted into a benchtop MR-NMR spectrometer with a 1H Larmor frequency of 43.32 MHz and 40.68 MHz for 19F. For the first time, quasi-simultaneous proton and fluorine NMR spectra were recorded with a series of alternating 19F and 1H single scan spectra along the reaction time coordinate of a homogeneously catalysed esterification model reaction containing fluorinated compounds. The results were compared to quantitative NMR spectra from a hyphenated 500 MHz online NMR instrument for validation. Automation of handling, pre-processing, and analysis of NMR data becomes increasingly important for process monitoring applications of online NMR spectroscopy and for its technical and practical acceptance. Thus, NMR spectra were automatically baseline corrected and phased using the minimum entropy method. Data analysis schemes were designed such that they are based on simple direct integration or first principle line fitting, with the aim that the analysis directly revealed molar concentrations from the spectra. Finally, the performance of 1/16? FEP tube set-up with an ID of 1.02 mm was characterised regarding the limit of detection (LOQ (1H) = 0.335 mol L-1 and LOQ (19F) = 0.130 mol L-1 for trifluoroethanol in D2O (single scan)) and maximum quantitative flow rates up to 0.3 mL min-1. Thus, a series of single scan 19F and 1H NMR spectra acquired with this simple set-up already presents a valuable basis for quantitative reaction monitoring.

  7. Simultaneous (19)F-(1)H medium resolution NMR spectroscopy for online reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zientek, Nicolai; Laurain, Clément; Meyer, Klas; Kraume, Matthias; Guthausen, Gisela; Maiwald, Michael

    2014-10-18

    Medium resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (MR-NMR) spectroscopy is currently a fast developing field, which has an enormous potential to become an important analytical tool for reaction monitoring, in hyphenated techniques, and for systematic investigations of complex mixtures. The recent developments of innovative MR-NMR spectrometers are therefore remarkable due to their possible applications in quality control, education, and process monitoring. MR-NMR spectroscopy can beneficially be applied for fast, non-invasive, and volume integrating analyses under rough environmental conditions. Within this study, a simple 1/16? fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) tube with an ID of 0.04? (1.02mm) was used as a flow cell in combination with a 5mm glass Dewar tube inserted into a benchtop MR-NMR spectrometer with a (1)H Larmor frequency of 43.32MHz and 40.68MHz for (19)F. For the first time, quasi-simultaneous proton and fluorine NMR spectra were recorded with a series of alternating (19)F and (1)H single scan spectra along the reaction time coordinate of a homogeneously catalysed esterification model reaction containing fluorinated compounds. The results were compared to quantitative NMR spectra from a hyphenated 500MHz online NMR instrument for validation. Automation of handling, pre-processing, and analysis of NMR data becomes increasingly important for process monitoring applications of online NMR spectroscopy and for its technical and practical acceptance. Thus, NMR spectra were automatically baseline corrected and phased using the minimum entropy method. Data analysis schemes were designed such that they are based on simple direct integration or first principle line fitting, with the aim that the analysis directly revealed molar concentrations from the spectra. Finally, the performance of 1/16? FEP tube set-up with an ID of 1.02mm was characterised regarding the limit of detection (LOQ ((1)H)=0.335molL(-1) and LOQ ((19)F)=0.130molL(-1) for trifluoroethanol in D2O (single scan)) and maximum quantitative flow rates up to 0.3mLmin(-1). Thus, a series of single scan (19)F and (1)H NMR spectra acquired with this simple set-up already presents a valuable basis for quantitative reaction monitoring. PMID:25462947

  8. Slow-spinning low-sideband HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy: delicate analysis of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renault, Marie; Shintu, Laetitia; Piotto, Martial; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy has become an extremely versatile analytical tool to study heterogeneous systems endowed with liquid-like dynamics. Spinning frequencies of several kHz are however required to obtain NMR spectra, devoid of spinning sidebands, with a resolution approaching that of purely isotropic liquid samples. An important limitation of the method is the large centrifugal forces that can damage the structure of the sample. In this communication, we show that optimizing the sample preparation, particularly avoiding air bubbles, and the geometry of the sample chamber of the HR-MAS rotor leads to high-quality low-sideband NMR spectra even at very moderate spinning frequencies, thus allowing the use of well-established solution-state NMR procedures for the characterization of small and highly dynamic molecules in the most fragile samples, such as live cells and intact tissues.

  9. Citron and lemon under the lens of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Adele; Parenti, Francesca; Righi, Valeria; Schenetti, Luisa

    2013-12-01

    High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) is an NMR technique that can be applied to semi-solid samples. Flavedo, albedo, pulp, seeds, and oil gland content of lemon and citron were studied through HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy, which was used directly on intact tissue specimens without any physicochemical manipulation. HR-MAS NMR proved to be a very suitable technique for detecting terpenes, sugars, organic acids, aminoacids and osmolites. It is valuable in observing changes in sugars, principal organic acids (mainly citric and malic) and ethanol contents of pulp specimens and this strongly point to its use to follow fruit ripening, or commercial assessment of fruit maturity. HR-MAS NMR was also used to derive the molar percentage of fatty acid components of lipids in seeds, which can change depending on the Citrus species and varieties. Finally, this technique was employed to elucidate the metabolic profile of mold flavedo. PMID:23871074

  10. 13C NMR Spectroscopy for the Quantitative Determination of Compound Ratios and Polymer End Groups

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    13C NMR spectroscopic integration employing short relaxation delays was evaluated as a quantitative tool to obtain ratios of diastereomers, regioisomers, constitutional isomers, mixtures of unrelated compounds, peptoids, and sugars. The results were compared to established quantitative methods such as 1H NMR spectroscopic integration, gas chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography and were found to be within <3.4% of 1H NMR spectroscopic values (most examples give results within <2%). Acquisition of the spectra took 2–30 min on as little as 10 mg of sample, proving the general utility of the technique. The simple protocol was extended to include end group analysis of low molecular weight polymers, which afforded results in accordance with 1H NMR spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight spectrometry. PMID:24601654

  11. Interplay between Minor and Major Groove-binding Transcription Factors Sox2 and Oct1 in Translocation on DNA Studied by Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic NMR*

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Yuki; Clore, G. Marius

    2012-01-01

    The pathways whereby Sox2 scans DNA to locate its specific binding site are investigated by NMR in specific and nonspecific Sox2·DNA complexes and in a specific ternary complex with Oct1 on the Hoxb1 regulatory element. Direct transfer of Sox2 between nonspecific sites on different DNA molecules occurs without dissociation into free solution at a rate of ?106 m?1 s?1, whereas one-dimensional sliding proceeds with a diffusion constant of ?0.1 ?m2·s?1. Translocation of Sox2 from one specific DNA site to another occurs via jumping, involving complete dissociation into free solution (kd ?5–6 s?1) followed by reassociation (ka ?5 × 108 m?1 s?1). In the presence of Oct1 bound to an adjacent specific site, kd is reduced by more than 10-fold. Paramagnetic relaxation measurements, however, demonstrate that sparsely populated (<1%), transient states involving nonspecifically bound Sox2 in rapid exchange with specifically bound Sox2 are sampled in both binary Sox2·DNA- and ternary Oct1·Sox2·Hoxb1-DNA-specific complexes. Moreover, Sox2 modulates the mechanism of translocation of Oct1. Both Sox2 and the Oct1 POUHD domain are transiently released from the specific ternary complex by sliding to an adjacent nonspecific site, followed by direct transfer to another DNA molecule, whereas the Oct1 POUS domain is fixed to its specific site through direct interactions with Sox2. Intermolecular translocation of POUHD results in the formation of a bridged intermediate spanning two DNA molecules, enhancing the probability of complete intermolecular translocation of Oct1. By way of contrast, in the specific Oct1·DNA binary complex, POUS undergoes direct intermolecular translocation, whereas POUHD scans the DNA by sliding. PMID:22396547

  12. Photo-CIDNP NMR spectroscopy of amino acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Lars T

    2013-01-01

    Photo-chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) is a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon which, among other things, is exploited to extract information on biomolecular structure via probing solvent-accessibilities of tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), and histidine (His) amino acid side chains both in polypeptides and proteins in solution. The effect, normally triggered by a (laser) light-induced photochemical reaction in situ, yields both positive and/or negative signal enhancements in the resulting NMR spectra which reflect the solvent exposure of these residues both in equilibrium and during structural transformations in "real time". As such, the method can offer - qualitatively and, to a certain extent, quantitatively - residue-specific structural and kinetic information on both the native and, in particular, the non-native states of proteins which, often, is not readily available from more routine NMR techniques. In this review, basic experimental procedures of the photo-CIDNP technique as applied to amino acids and proteins are discussed, recent improvements to the method highlighted, and future perspectives presented. First, the basic principles of the phenomenon based on the theory of the radical pair mechanism (RPM) are outlined. Second, a description of standard photo-CIDNP applications is given and it is shown how the effect can be exploited to extract residue-specific structural information on the conformational space sampled by unfolded or partially folded proteins on their "path" to the natively folded form. Last, recent methodological advances in the field are highlighted, modern applications of photo-CIDNP in the context of biological NMR evaluated, and an outlook into future perspectives of the method is given. PMID:23670104

  13. Probing acid-amide intermolecular hydrogen bonding by NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Sachin Rama; Suryaprakash, N.

    2012-05-01

    Benzene carboxylic acids and benzamide act as their self-complement in molecular recognition to form inter-molecular hydrogen bonded dimers between amide and carboxylic acid groups, which have been investigated by 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy. Extensive NMR studies using diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY), variable temperature 1D, 2D NMR, established the formation of heterodimers of benzamide with benzoic acid, salicylic acid and phenyl acetic acid in deuterated chloroform solution. Association constants for the complex formation in the solution state have been determined. The results are ascertained by X-ray diffraction in the solid state. Intermolecular interactions in solution and in solid state were found to be similar. The structural parameters obtained by X-ray diffraction studies are compared with those obtained by DFT calculations.

  14. Bacterial expression and purification of the amyloidogenic peptide PAPf39 for multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Bishop, Anthony C; French, Kinsley C; McCallum, Scott A; Makhatadze, George I

    2013-04-01

    PAPf39 is a 39 residue peptide fragment from human prostatic acidic phosphatase that forms amyloid fibrils in semen. These fibrils have been implicated in facilitating HIV transmission. To enable structural studies of PAPf39 by NMR spectroscopy, efficient methods allowing the production of milligram quantities of isotopically labeled peptide are essential. Here, we report the high-yield expression and purification of uniformly (13)C- and (15)N-labeled PAPf39 peptide, through expression as a fusion to ubiquitin at the N-terminus and an intein at the C-terminus. This allows the study of the PAPf39 monomer conformational ensemble by NMR spectroscopy. To this end, we performed the NMR chemical shift assignment of the PAPf39 peptide in the monomeric state at low pH. PMID:23314347

  15. NMRFAM-SPARKY: enhanced software for biomolecular NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woonghee; Tonelli, Marco; Markley, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: SPARKY (Goddard and Kneller, SPARKY 3) remains the most popular software program for NMR data analysis, despite the fact that development of the package by its originators ceased in 2001. We have taken over the development of this package and describe NMRFAM-SPARKY, which implements new functions reflecting advances in the biomolecular NMR field. NMRFAM-SPARKY has been repackaged with current versions of Python and Tcl/Tk, which support new tools for NMR peak simulation and graphical assignment determination. These tools, along with chemical shift predictions from the PACSY database, greatly accelerate protein side chain assignments. NMRFAM-SPARKY supports automated data format interconversion for interfacing with a variety of web servers including, PECAN , PINE, TALOS-N, CS-Rosetta, SHIFTX2 and PONDEROSA-C/S. Availability and implementation: The software package, along with binary and source codes, if desired, can be downloaded freely from http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/download_packages.html. Instruction manuals and video tutorials can be found at http://www.nmrfam.wisc.edu/nmrfam-sparky-distribution.htm. Contact: whlee@nmrfam.wisc.edu or markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25505092

  16. Dynamic nuclear polarization NMR spectroscopy of microcrystalline solids.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Aaron J; Zagdoun, Alexandre; Hegner, Franziska; Schwarzwälder, Martin; Gajan, David; Copéret, Christophe; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2012-10-10

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR has been applied to powdered microcrystalline solids to obtain sensitivity enhancements on the order of 100. Glucose, sulfathiazole, and paracetamol were impregnated with bis-nitroxide biradical (bis-cyclohexyl-TEMPO-bisketal, bCTbK) solutions of organic solvents. The organic solvents were carefully chosen to be nonsolvents for the compounds, so that DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectra of the unaltered solids could be acquired. A theoretical model is presented that illustrates that for externally doped organic solids characterized by long spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)((1)H) > 200 s), (1)H-(1)H spin diffusion can relay enhanced polarization over micrometer length scales yielding substantial DNP enhancements (?). ? on the order of 60 are obtained for microcrystalline glucose and sulfathiazole at 9.4 T and with temperatures of ca. 105 K. The large gain in sensitivity enables the rapid acquisition of (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra at natural isotopic abundance. It is anticipated that this will be a general method for enhancing the sensitivity of solid-state NMR experiments of organic solids. PMID:22967206

  17. Construction of a DNA four-way junction: Design and NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelis Altona; Jeroen A. Pikkemaat

    1995-01-01

    In 1964 Holliday postulated the formation of cruciform structures (four-way junctions) in duplex DNA as intermediate in genetic recombination. Since then, many biochemical and biophysical investigations were directed at solving questions concerning structural details of stable four-way junctions. Thus far, NMR spectroscopy played a minor part in these investigations on account of the minimum size of the molecule (expressed as

  18. NMR imaging and spectroscopy of the mammalian central nervous system after heavy ion radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, T.

    1984-09-01

    NMR imaging, NMR spectroscopic, and histopathologic techniques were used to study the proton relaxation time and related biochemical changes in the central nervous system after helium beam in vivo irradiation of the rodent brain. The spectroscopic observations reported in this dissertation were made possible by development of methods for measuring the NMR parameters of the rodent brain in vivo and in vitro. The methods include (1) depth selective spectroscopy using an optimization of rf pulse energy based on a priori knowledge of N-acetyl aspartate and lipid spectra of the normal brain, (2) phase-encoded proton spectroscopy of the living rodent using a surface coil, and (3) dual aqueous and organic tissue extraction technique for spectroscopy. Radiation induced increases were observed in lipid and p-choline peaks of the proton spectrum, in vivo. Proton NMR spectroscopy measurements on brain extracts (aqueous and organic solvents) were made to observe chemical changes that could not be seen in vivo. Radiation-induced changes were observed in lactate, GABA, glutamate, and p-choline peak areas of the aqueous fraction spectra. In the organic fraction, decreases were observed in peak area ratios of the terminal-methyl peaks, the N-methyl groups of choline, and at a peak at 2.84 ppM (phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine resonances) relative to TMS. With histology and Evans blue injections, blood-brain barrier alternations were seen as early as 4 days after irradiation. 83 references, 53 figures.

  19. Softening of Membrane Bilayers by Detergents Elucidated by Deuterium NMR Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Brown, Michael F.

    Softening of Membrane Bilayers by Detergents Elucidated by Deuterium NMR Spectroscopy Do1rte Otten-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) was compared with DMPC containing a nonionic detergent as an additive. Order (DMPC-d54). A reduction of the order parameters of DMPC-d54 in the presence of the detergent

  20. Characterization of the essential oil of Agastache rugosa by NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Skakovskii; W. P. Kiselev; L. Yu. Tychinskaya; A. G. Schutova; L. W. Gonsharova; E. W. Spiridowish; N. A. Bovdey; P. A. Kiselev; O. A. Gaidukevich

    2010-01-01

    The composition of essential oil from Agastache rugosa (Fish. et Mey) O.Kuntze was studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Essential oil was isolated from the aerial part of plants growing in the Central Botanical Garden of the NAS of Belarus during flowering and fruiting. The oil chemical composition was found to depend little on the sampling time. It was

  1. USING HIGH-RESOLUTION SOLUTION-STATE NMR SPECTROSCOPY TO INVESTIGATE PMDI REACTIONS WITH WOOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solution-state NMR spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for understanding the formation of chemical bonds between wood components and adhesives. Finely ground cell wall (CW) material fully dissolves in a solvent system containing dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO-d6) and N-methyl¬imidazole (NMI-d6), keeping ...

  2. Determination of the synthetic origin of methamphetamine samples by 2H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Armellin, Silvia; Brenna, Elisabetta; Frigoli, Samuele; Fronza, Giovanni; Fuganti, Claudio; Mussida, Daniele

    2006-05-01

    Samples of methamphetamine, prepared according to the most common synthetic pathways, were submitted to natural-abundance 2H NMR spectroscopy. The deuterium content at the various sites of the molecule was found to depend on its synthetic history. The technique provides a chemical fingerprint of methamphetamine samples and can give hints to trace back the starting materials and the synthetic procedures. PMID:16643001

  3. En route to traceable reference standards for surface group quantifications by XPS, NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Andreas; Dietrich, Paul M; Hemmann, Felix; Thiele, Thomas; Borcherding, Heike; Hoffmann, Angelika; Schedler, Uwe; Jäger, Christian; Resch-Genger, Ute; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2015-03-21

    The fluorine content of polymer particles labelled with 2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine was reliably quantified with overlapping sensitivity ranges by XPS and solid-state NMR. This provides a first step towards reference materials for the metrological traceability of surface group quantifications. The extension of this concept to fluorescence spectroscopy is illustrated. PMID:25652135

  4. Si-29 NMR spectroscopy of polysilazanes and related systems: Progress report, June 1988--December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Mariam, Y.H.; Abrahams, P.; Feng, K.

    1988-12-01

    Since /sup 29/Si NMR spectroscopy is expected to be very powerful in its ability to differentiate among minor structural changes, we have recently initiated use of this technique for the structural investigations of some Si-N polymer systems and some preliminary results are reported in this communication. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  5. The conformational analysis of 3-hydroxytetrahydro-1,3-oxazines by NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sk. Asrof; Hashmi, Syed M. A.; Wazeer, Mohammed I. M.

    1999-07-01

    The stereochemistry of the preferred conformers of several 3-hydroxytetrahydro-1,3-oxazines has been established by NMR spectroscopy. Strong anomeric effect stabilises the conformation having equatorial orientation of the lone pair on nitrogen. Nitrogen inversion process was found to be the rate limiting process in the conformational equilibria.

  6. High-Resolution Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Characterization of Polymorphism in Cimetidine, a Pharmaceutical Compound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacilio, Julia E.; Tokarski, John T.; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Iuliucci, Robbie J.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy has many advantages as a tool to characterize solid-phase material that finds applications in polymer chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, biomolecular structure determination, and others, including the pharmaceutical industry. The technology associated with achieving high resolution…

  7. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  8. Characterization of various fast pyrolysis bio-oils by NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NMR spectroscopy, including 1H, 13 C and DEPT spectra were used to characterize fast pyrolysis oil from numerous energy crops and other agricultural feedstocks. The bio-oils studied were produced from swithchgrass, alfalfa stems, corn stover, guayule (whole plant and latex extracted bagasse) and ch...

  9. Theory of mirrored time domain sampling for NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Wu, Yibing; He, Yunfen; Szyperski, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    A generalized theory is presented for novel mirrored hypercomplex time domain sampling (MHS) of NMR spectra. It is the salient new feature of MHS that two interferograms are acquired with different directionality of time evolution, that is, one is sampled forward from time t = 0 to the maximal evolution time tmax, while the second is sampled backward from t = 0 to - tmax. The sampling can be accomplished in a (semi) constant time or non constant-time manner. Subsequently, the two interferograms are linearly combined to yield a complex time domain signal. The manifold of MHS schemes considered here is defined by arbitrary settings of sampling phases ('primary phase shifts') and amplitudes of the two interferograms. It is shown that, for any two given primary phase shifts, the addition theorems of trigonometric functions yield the unique linear combination required to form the complex signal. In the framework of clean absorption mode (CAM) acquisition of NMR spectra being devoid of residual dispersive signal components, 'secondary phase shifts' represent time domain phase errors which are to be eliminated. In contrast, such secondary phase shifts may be introduced by experimental design in order to encode additional NMR parameters, a new class of NMR experiments proposed here. For generalization, it is further considered that secondary phase shifts may depend on primary phase shifts and/or sampling directionality. In order to compare with MHS theory, a correspondingly generalized theory is derived for widely used hypercomplex ('States') sampling (HS). With generalized theory it is shown, first, that previously introduced 'canonical' schemes, characterized by primary phases being multiples of ?/4, afford maximal intensity of the desired absorptive signals in the absence of secondary phase shifts, and second, how primary phases can be adjusted to maximize the signal intensity provided that the secondary phase shifts are known. Third, it is demonstrated that theory enables one to accurately measure secondary phase shifts and amplitude imbalances. Application to constant time 2D [ 13C, 1H]-HSQC spectra recorded for a protein sample with canonical MHS/HS schemes showed that accurate CAM data acquisition can be readily implemented on modern spectrometers for experiments based on through-bond polarization transfer. Fourth, when moderate variations of secondary phase shifts with primary phase shift and/or sampling directionality are encountered, generalized theory allowed comparison of the robustness of different MHS/HS schemes for CAM data acquisition, and thus to identify the scheme best suited to suppress dispersive peak components and quadrature image peaks. Moreover, it is shown that for spectra acquired with several indirect evolution periods, the best suited scheme can be identified independently for each of the periods.

  10. Fourier synthesis techniques for NMR spectroscopy in inhomogeneous fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthanari, H.; Frueh, D.; Wagner, G.; Pryor, B.; Khaneja, N.

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes a method for synthesizing spin rotations with arbitrary space dependence on a sample of noninteracting spin 12 by using nonselective radio frequency pulses and pulsed field gradients. This method is used to map out spatial distribution of inhomogeneous B0 field and to engineer a space dependent evolution of spins that cancels the space dependent phase spins acquire when precessing in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The technique allows one to record high resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic field by using only time varying linear gradients and rf fields and is expected to find applications in ex situ NMR.

  11. Quadrupole effects in 63 Cu NMR spectroscopy of copper nanocrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tompa; P. Bánki; M. Bokor; G. Lasanda; L. K. Varga; Y. Champion; L. Takács

    2004-01-01

    Quadrupole effects in room-temperature continuous-wave (CW)63Cu nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, “?\\/2” pulse length shortening and amplitudes of two-pulse generated echoes were\\u000a investigated on nanocrystalline copper powders produced by cryogenic melting and by ball milling techniques. Systematic measurements\\u000a on the parent polycrystalline copper and on copper-based copper-palladium dilute alloys on the basis of the same experimental\\u000a techniques were also made

  12. Urinary metabolic fingerprint of acute intermittent porphyria analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Carichon, Mickael; Pallet, Nicolas; Schmitt, Caroline; Lefebvre, Thibaud; Gouya, Laurent; Talbi, Neila; Deybach, Jean Charles; Beaune, Philippe; Vasos, Paul; Puy, Hervé; Bertho, Gildas

    2014-02-18

    (1)H NMR is a nonbiased technique for the quantification of small molecules that could result in the identification and characterization of potential biomarkers with prognostic value and contribute to better understand pathophysiology of diseases. In this study, we used (1)H NMR spectroscopy to analyze the urinary metabolome of patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an inherited metabolic disorder of heme biosynthesis in which an accumulation of the heme precursors 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) promotes sudden neurovisceral attacks, which can be life-threatening. Our objectives were (1) to demonstrate the usefulness of (1)H NMR to identify and quantify ALA and PBG in urines from AIP patients and (2) to identify metabolites that would predict the response to AIP crisis treatment and reflect differential metabolic reprogramming. Our results indicate that (1)H NMR can help to diagnose AIP attacks based on the identification of ALA and PBG. We also show that glycin concentration increases in urines from patients with frequent recurrences at the end of the treatment, after an initial decrease, whereas PBG concentration remains low. Although the reasons for this altered are elusive, these findings indicate that a glycin metabolic reprogramming occurs in AIPr patients and is associated with recurrence. Our results validate the proof of concept of the usefulness of (1)H NMR spectroscopy in clinical chemistry for the diagnosis of acute attack of AIP and identify urinary glycin as a potential marker of recurrence of AIP acute attacks. PMID:24437734

  13. Solvation and crystal effects in bilirubin studied by NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Rohmer, Thierry; Matysik, Jörg; Mark, Franz

    2011-10-27

    The open-chain tetrapyrrole compound bilirubin was investigated in chloroform and dimethyl sulfoxide solutions by liquid-state NMR and as solid by (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to interpret the data, using the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional to optimize geometries and to compute NMR chemical shieldings by the gauge-including atomic orbital method. The dependence of geometries and chemical shieldings on the size of the basis sets was investigated for the reference molecules tetramethylsilane, NH(3), and H(2)O, and for bilirubin as a monomer and in clusters consisting of up to six molecules. In order to assess the intrinsic errors of the B3LYP approximation in calculating NMR shieldings, complete basis set estimates were obtained for the nuclear shielding values of the reference molecules. The experimental liquid-state NMR data of bilirubin are well reproduced by a monomeric bilirubin molecule using the 6-311+G(2d,p) basis set for geometry optimization and for calculating chemical shieldings. To simulate the bilirubin crystal, a hexameric model was required. It was constructed from geometry-optimized monomers using information from the X-ray structure of bilirubin to fix the monomeric entities in space and refined by partial optimization. Combining experimental (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(15)N NMR correlation spectroscopy and density functional theory, almost complete sets of (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N chemical shift assignments were obtained for both liquid and solid states. It is shown that monomeric bilirubin in chloroform solution is formed by 3-vinyl anti conformers, while bilirubin crystals are formed by 3-vinyl syn conformers. This conformational change leads to characteristic differences between the liquid- and solid-state NMR resonances. PMID:21846145

  14. Double Quantum Filtered 1H NMR Spectroscopy Enables Quantification of Lactate in Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asllani, I.; Shankland, E.; Pratum, T.; Kushmerick, M.

    2001-10-01

    In this study we address the question of quantification of muscle lactate using double quantum filtered (DQF) 1H NMR spectroscopy where dipolar and scalar coupled spectra are acquired. For this, lactate content in muscle samples was independently determined using a conventional enzymatic assay and DQF, 1H NMR spectroscopy. NMR quantification of lactate relied on comparison of muscle spectra with similarly acquired spectra of standard lactate solutions. Transverse relaxation, T2, and dipolar coupling effects were investigated at two different orientations of muscle fibers relative to Bo and at various lactate concentrations. In all cases, we found a biexponential T2 decay of the lactate methyl signal with a long T2 of 142 ms (±8 ms, n=24) and a short T2 of 37 ms (±6 ms, n=24). Lactate content of muscle determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed with the results obtained from enzymatic assays of the same samples provided that T2 effects as well as the presence of both scalar and dipolar coupling interactions of lactate in muscle were taken into account.

  15. Solid-State NMR Investigation of Paramagnetic Nylon-6 Clay Nanocomposites. 2. Measurement of Clay Dispersion, Crystal Stratification, and Stability of Organic Modifiers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vanderhart, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    In this second paper of a two-part series dealing mainly with NMR characterization of nylon-6/clay nanocomposites (NnC’s) having nominally 5 mass % clay, measurements with application to processing are featured. The paramagnetism of the montmorillonite clays, discussed in the first paper, allowed us to use the corresponding spin-diffusion-moderated reduction in longitudinal proton relaxation time, T1 H, for two purposes, namely, to rank the quality of clay dispersion in NnC families with the same formulation and to investigate morphological stratification of the nylon-6 R- and ç-crystallites with respect to the clay surface. In a group of three NnC’s with the same formulation but different melt-blending conditions, variations in T1 H correlated well with previously published TEM assessments of the quality of the clay dispersion. Also, in a set of samples from an injection-molded, in situ polymerized NnC disk where strong variations in R/ç ratios were observed, it was found that these differences did not arise from processing-induced inhomogeneities in clay concentration; rather, variations in cooling histories throughout the disk was the more probable cause. In these latter samples, well-defined stratification of the ç-phase (versus the R-phase) crystallites nearer the clay surface did not occur until after annealing at 214 °C. We also examined the dependence of NnC T1 H’s on the static field of the measurement. It is clear that the magnitude of the paramagnetic contribution to T1 H is a function of field and of Fe3+ concentration in the clay. Trends support the notion that spin-exchange interactions between the electrons on different Fe3+ ions largely define the spectral density of magnetic fluctuations near the clay surface. Some attention was, therefore, given to optimizing Fe3+ concentrations for the best NnC characterization. Finally, we investigated the chemical stability of a particular organic modifier (OM), which is used to pretreat the clay prior to melt blending. The OM, dimethyl, dehydrogenated-tallow ammonium ion, was followed in the process of blending this modified clay with nylon-6 at 240 °C. It was found that when such a clay surface was exposed to the nylon-6 during blending, most of the OM on that surface decomposed, releasing a free amine with one methyl and two tallow substituents. However, subsequent melting at 240 °C produced no further decomposition. The implication is that the combination of temperature and shear stress in blending causes decomposition, not just temperature alone. The susceptibility to chemical decomposition varied strongly with the OM. Ironically, extensive decomposition of the OM did not result in poor mixing; in fact, as judged by T1 H, the NnC with the best dispersion of clay also had the most extensively degraded OM. The implications of this degradation for the physical properties have not been explored in detail.

  16. Examination of amber and related materials by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Joseph B; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Wu, Yuyang; Levy, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    Examination of the solid-state (13)C and solution (1)H NMR spectra of fossilized resins (ambers) has generated five groupings of materials based on spectral characteristics. The worldwide Group A is associated with the botanical family of the Araucariaceae. The worldwide Group B is associated with the Dipterocarpaceae. Baltic amber or succinite (Group C) is related to Group A but with a disputed conifer source. Amber from Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa is associated with the Fabaceae, the genus Hymenaea in particular. The minor Group E contains the rare fossil polystyrene. The spectra of jet indicate that it is a coal-like material with a rank between lignite and sub-bituminous coal. PMID:25176402

  17. A solid-state 55Mn NMR spectroscopy and DFT investigation of manganese pentacarbonyl compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Feindel, Kirk W.; Ooms, Kristopher J.; Wasylishen, Roderick E.

    2007-01-23

    Central transition 55Mn NMR spectra of several solid manganese pentacarbonyls acquired at magnetic field strengths of 11.75, 17.63, and 21.1 T are presented. The variety of distinct powder sample lineshapes obtained demonstrates the sensitivity of solid-state 55Mn NMR to the local bonding environment, including the presence of crystallographically unique Mn sites, and facilitates the extraction of the Mn chemical shift anisotropies, CSAs, and the nuclear quadrupolar parameters. The compounds investigated include molecules with approximate C4v symmetry, LMn(CO)5 (L ¼ Cl, Br, I, HgMn(CO)5, CH3) and several molecules of lower symmetry (L ¼ PhCH2, Ph3*nClnSn (n ¼ 1, 2, 3)). For these compounds, the Mn CSA values range from o100 ppm for Cl3SnMn(CO)5 to 1260 ppm for ClMn(CO)5. At 21.1 T the 55Mn NMR lineshapes are appreciably influenced by the Mn CSA despite the presence of significant 55Mn quadrupolar coupling constants that range from 8.0 MHz for Cl3SnMn(CO)5 to 35.0 MHz for CH3Mn(CO)5. The breadth of the solid-state 55Mn NMR spectra of the pentacarbonyl halides is dominated by the CSA at all three applied magnetic fields. DFT calculations of the Mn magnetic shielding tensors reproduce the experimental trends and the magnitude of the CSA is qualitatively rationalized using a molecular orbital, MO, interpretation based on Ramsey’s theory of magnetic shielding. In addition to the energy differences between symmetry-appropriate occupied and virtual MOs, the d-character of the Mn MOs is important for determining the paramagnetic shielding contribution to the principal components of the magnetic shielding tensor.

  18. Study by (23)Na-NMR, (1)H-NMR, and ultraviolet spectroscopy of the thermal stability of an 11-basepair oligonucleotide.

    PubMed

    Cahen, P; Luhmer, M; Fontaine, C; Morat, C; Reisse, J; Bartik, K

    2000-02-01

    23Na-NMR, (1)H-NMR, and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy have been used to study the thermal stability of the double helix structure of an 11-basepair oligonucleotide. The denaturation curves obtained by (23)Na-NMR and UV are analyzed using a two-state model. The melting temperature and DeltaH(0) obtained are identical within experimental error, suggesting that modifications in the ionic atmosphere, probed by (23)Na-NMR, and the modifications in the basepair stacking, probed by UV, occur at the same temperature. Additional dynamical information on the denaturation process has been obtained by (1)H-NMR: slow exchange is observed between the thymine methyl resonances, and the disappearance of imino protons shows that a single basepair opening does not contribute significantly to proton exchange. PMID:10653819

  19. Paramagnetism (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paramagnetism: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In this problem we will begin by observing the magnetism of three manganese compounds. These compounds have been placed in capsules, which will be pulled toward a magnet if the compound is paramagnetic. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  20. Functional MRI and NMR spectroscopy of an operating gas-liquid-solid catalytic reactor.

    PubMed

    Koptyug, Igor V; Lysova, Anna A; Kulikov, Alexander V; Kirillov, Valery A; Parmon, Valentin N; Sagdeev, Renad Z

    2005-02-01

    A dynamic in situ study of alpha-methylstyrene catalytic hydrogenation on a single catalyst pellet or in a granular bed is performed using 1H MRI and spatially resolved 1H NMR spectroscopy. Owing to reaction exothermicity, a reciprocating motion of the liquid front within the pellet accompanied by pellet temperature oscillations has been observed. Spatially resolved information on the reactant to product conversion within the catalyst bed has been obtained for a steady-state regime. Two-dimensional 27Al NMR images of alumina catalyst supports and other alumina-containing materials have been detected using moderate magnetic field gradients (80 G/cm) and a two-pulse spin-echo sequence. Temperature dependence of signal intensity and 27Al T1 time of alumina are considered as possible temperature sensors for NMR thermometry applications. PMID:15833616

  1. Target-Based Whole-Cell Screening by (1) H?NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junhe; Cao, Qing; McLeod, Sarah M; Ferguson, Keith; Gao, Ning; Breeze, Alexander L; Hu, Jun

    2015-04-13

    An NMR-based approach marries the two traditional screening technologies (phenotypic and target-based screening) to find compounds inhibiting a specific enzymatic reaction in bacterial cells. Building on a previous study in which it was demonstrated that hydrolytic decomposition of meropenem in living Escherichia coli cells carrying New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase subclass 1 (NDM-1) can be monitored in real time by NMR spectroscopy, we designed a cell-based NMR screening platform. A strong NDM-1 inhibitor was identified with cellular IC50 of 0.51??M, which is over 300-fold more potent than captopril, a known NDM-1 inhibitor. This new screening approach has great potential to be applied to targets in other cell types, such as mammalian cells, and to targets that are only stable or functionally competent in the cellular environment. PMID:25693499

  2. Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium: An investigation of weak interactions in solution using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy is ideal for studying weak interactions (formation enthalpy {le}20 kcal/mol) in solution. The metallocene bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium, Cp*{sub 2}Yb, is ideal for this purpose. cis-P{sub 2}PtH{sub 2}complexes (P = phosphine) were used to produce slow-exchange Cp*{sub 2}YbL adducts for NMR study. Reversible formation of (P{sub 2}PtH){sub 2} complexes from cis-P{sub 2}PtH{sub 2} complexes were also studied, followed by interactions of Cp*{sub 2}Yb with phosphines, R{sub 3}PX complexes. A NMR study was done on the interactions of Cp*{sub 2}Yb with H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, Xe, CO, silanes, stannanes, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and toluene.

  3. In situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy of electrochemical cells: batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Frédéric; Leskes, Michal; Grey, Clare P

    2013-09-17

    Electrochemical cells, in the form of batteries (or supercapacitors) and fuel cells, are efficient devices for energy storage and conversion. These devices show considerable promise for use in portable and static devices to power electronics and various modes of transport and to produce and store electricity both locally and on the grid. For example, high power and energy density lithium-ion batteries are being developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles where they improve the efficiency of fuel use and help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To gain insight into the chemical reactions involving the multiple components (electrodes, electrolytes, interfaces) in the electrochemical cells and to determine how cells operate and how they fail, researchers ideally should employ techniques that allow real-time characterization of the behavior of the cells under operating conditions. This Account reviews the recent use of in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a technique that probes local structure and dynamics, to study these devices. In situ NMR studies of lithium-ion batteries are performed on the entire battery, by using a coin cell design, a flat sealed plastic bag, or a cylindrical cell. The battery is placed inside the NMR coil, leads are connected to a potentiostat, and the NMR spectra are recorded as a function of state of charge. (7)Li is used for many of these experiments because of its high sensitivity, straightforward spectral interpretation, and relevance to these devices. For example, (7)Li spectroscopy was used to detect intermediates formed during electrochemical cycling such as LixC and LiySiz species in batteries with carbon and silicon anodes, respectively. It was also used to observe and quantify the formation and growth of metallic lithium microstructures, which can cause short circuits and battery failure. This approach can be utilized to identify conditions that promote dendrite formation and whether different electrolytes and additives can help prevent dendrite formation. The in situ method was also applied to monitor (by (11)B NMR) electrochemical double-layer formation in supercapacitors in real time. Though this method is useful, it comes with challenges. The separation of the contributions from the different cell components in the NMR spectra is not trivial because of overlapping resonances. In addition, orientation-dependent NMR interactions, including the spatial- and orientation-dependent bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) effects, can lead to resonance broadening. Efforts to understand and mitigate these BMS effects are discussed in this Account. The in situ NMR investigation of fuel cells initially focused on the surface electrochemistry at the electrodes and the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and CO to CO2 on the Pt cathode. On the basis of the (13)C and (195)Pt NMR spectra of the adsorbates and electrodes, CO adsorbed on Pt and other reaction intermediates and complete oxidation products were detected and their mode of binding to the electrodes investigated. Appropriate design and engineering of the NMR hardware has allowed researchers to integrate intact direct methanol fuel cells into NMR probes. Chemical transformations of the circulating methanol could be followed and reaction intermediates could be detected in real time by either (2)H or (13)C NMR spectroscopy. By use of the in situ NMR approach, factors that control fuel cell performance, such as methanol cross over and catalyst performance, were identified. PMID:24041242

  4. Exploiting periodic first-principles calculations in NMR spectroscopy of disordered solids.

    PubMed

    Ashbrook, Sharon E; Dawson, Daniel M

    2013-09-17

    Much of the information contained within solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra remains unexploited because of the challenges in obtaining high-resolution spectra and the difficulty in assigning those spectra. Recent advances that enable researchers to accurately and efficiently determine NMR parameters in periodic systems have revolutionized the application of density functional theory (DFT) calculations in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. These advances are particularly useful for experimentalists. The use of first-principles calculations aids in both the interpretation and assignment of the complex spectral line shapes observed for solids. Furthermore, calculations provide a method for evaluating potential structural models against experimental data for materials with poorly characterized structures. Determining the structure of well-ordered, periodic crystalline solids can be straightforward using methods that exploit Bragg diffraction. However, the deviations from periodicity, such as compositional, positional, or temporal disorder, often produce the physical properties (such as ferroelectricity or ionic conductivity) that may be of commercial interest. With its sensitivity to the atomic-scale environment, NMR provides a potentially useful tool for studying disordered materials, and the combination of experiment with first-principles calculations offers a particularly attractive approach. In this Account, we discuss some of the issues associated with the practical implementation of first-principles calculations of NMR parameters in solids. We then use two key examples to illustrate the structural insights that researchers can obtain when applying such calculations to disordered inorganic materials. First, we describe an investigation of cation disorder in Y2Ti(2-x)Sn(x)O7 pyrochlore ceramics using (89)Y and (119)Sn NMR. Researchers have proposed that these materials could serve as host phases for the encapsulation of lanthanide- and actinide-bearing radioactive waste. In a second example, we discuss how (17)O NMR can be used to probe the dynamic disorder of H in hydroxyl-humite minerals (nMg2SiO4·Mg(OH)2), and how (19)F NMR can be used to understand F substitution in these systems. The combination of first-principles calculations and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy facilitates the investigation of local structure, disorder, and dynamics in solids. We expect that applications will undoubtedly become more widespread with further advances in computational and experimental methods. Insight into the atomic-scale environment is a crucial first step in understanding the structure-property relationships in solids, and it enables the efficient design of future materials for a range of end uses. PMID:23402741

  5. Fermentanomics: monitoring mammalian cell cultures with NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Scott A; Ouyang, Anli; Purdie, Jennifer; Smitka, Tim A; Wang, Tongtong; Kaerner, Andreas

    2010-07-21

    As the number of therapeutic proteins produced by mammalian cell cultures in the pharmaceutical industry continues to increase, the need to improve productivity and ensure consistent product quality during process development activities becomes more significant. Rational medium design is known to improve cell culture performance, but an understanding of nutrient consumption and metabolite accumulation within the medium is required. To this end, we have developed a technique for using 1D (1)H NMR to quantitate nonprotein feed components and metabolites in mammalian cell cultures. We refer to the methodology as "Fermentanomics" to differentiate it from standard metabolomics. The method was found to generate spectra with excellent water suppression, signal-to-noise, and resolution. More importantly, nutrient consumption and metabolite accumulation was readily observed. In total, 50 media components have been identified and quantitated. The application of Fermentanomics to the optimization of a proprietary CHO basal medium yielded valuable insight regarding the nutrient levels needed to maintain productivity. While the focus here is on the extracellular milieu of CHO cell cultures, this methodology is generally applicable to quantitating intracellular concentrations and can be extended to other mammalian cell lines, as well as platforms such as yeasts, fungi, and Escherichia coli. PMID:20578691

  6. Hadamard-encoded high-resolution NMR spectroscopy via intermolecular single-quantum coherences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Hanping; Cai, Honghao; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Hao; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    NMR spectroscopy plays an important role in metabolite studies because it can provide atomic level information critical for understanding biological systems. Nevertheless, NMR investigations on biological tissues are hampered by the magnetic field inhomogeneities originating from variations in macroscopic magnetic susceptibility, which lead to broad spectral lines and subsequently obscure metabolite signals. A new pulse sequence based on intermolecular single-quantum coherences was proposed to obtain one-dimensional high-resolution NMR spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields via Hadamard encoding. The new method can provide resolution-improved spectra directly through one-dimensional acquisition within a relatively short acquisition time. Theoretical derivation was performed and the conclusion was tested by solution samples in purposely de-shimmed magnetic fields and pig brain tissue sample. The experimental results show that this sequence can yield useful structural information, even when the field inhomogeneity is sufficiently severe to erase almost all spectral information with conventional one-dimensional single-quantum coherence techniques. Moreover, good solvent suppression efficiency can be achieved by this sequence. This sequence may provide a promising way for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of biological tissue.

  7. Application of 1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics to sera of tuberculosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aiping; Ni, Jinjing; Xu, Zhihong; Wang, Ying; Lu, Shuihua; Sha, Wei; Karakousis, Petros C.; Yao, Yu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an ideal platform for the metabolic analysis of biofluids, due to its high reproducibility, non-destructiveness, non-selectivity in metabolite detection, and the ability to simultaneously quantify multiple classes of metabolites. Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic wasting inflammatory disease characterized by multi-system involvement, which can cause metabolic derangements in afflicted patients. In this study, we combined multivariate pattern recognition (PR) analytical techniques with 1H NMR spectroscopy to explore the metabolic profile of sera from TB patients. A total of seventy-seven serum samples obtained from patients with TB (n=38) and healthy controls (n=39) were investigated. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was capable of distinguishing TB patients from controls, and establishing a TB-specific metabolite profile. A total of 17 metabolites differed significantly in concentration between the two groups. Serum samples from TB patients were characterized by increased concentrations of 1-methylhistidine, acetoacetate, acetone, glutamate, glutamine, isoleucine, lactate, lysine, nicotinate, phenylalanine, pyruvate, and tyrosine, accompanied by reduced concentrations of alanine, formate, glycine, glycerolphosphocholine, and low-density lipoproteins relative to control subjects. Our study reveals the metabolic profile of sera from TB patients and indicates that NMR-based methods can distinguish TB patients from healthy controls. NMR-based metabolomics has the potential to be developed into a novel clinical tool for TB diagnosis and/or therapeutic monitoring, and could contribute to an improved understanding of disease mechanisms. PMID:23980697

  8. Proton NMR spectroscopy shows lipids accumulate in skeletal muscle in response to burn trauma-induced apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loukas G. Astrakas; Igor Goljer; Shingo Yasuhara; Katie E. Padfield; Qunhao Zhang; Suresh Gopalan; Michael N. Mindrinos; George Dai; Yong-Ming Yu; J. A. Jeevendra Martyn; Ronald G. Tompkins; Laurence G. Rahme; A. Aria Tzika

    2005-01-01

    Burn trauma triggers hypermetabolism and muscle wasting via increased cellular protein degra- dation and apoptosis. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy can detect mobile lipids in vivo. To examine the local effects of burn in skeletal muscle, we performed in vivo 1H NMR on mice 3 days after burn trauma; and ex vivo, high-resolution, magic angle spinning 1 H

  9. Structural characterization of selenosubtilisin by sup 77 Se-NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    House, K.L.; Dunlap, R.B.; Odom, J.D.; Wu, Z.P.; Hilvert. D. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States) Research Inst. of Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Selenosubtilisin is an artificial enzyme containing an active site selenocysteine residue. In this environment the selenium atom is a valuable probe of structure-function relationships and also confers novel redox and hydrolytic properties to the original protease template. The authors have used {sup 77}Se NMR spectroscopy to characterize different oxidation states of {sup 77}Se isotopically enriched selenosubtilisin. The oxidized form of the enzyme exhibits a {sup 77}Se resonance at 1,189 ppm. This is in good agreement with the {sup 77}Se chemical shifts for model seleninic acids, confirming that the prosthetic group is in the seleninic acid oxidation state. On treatment of the oxidized enzyme with three equivalents of 3-carboxy-4-nitrobenzenethiol at pH 5.0, they observe the enzyme bound selenenyl sulfide at 388.5 ppm. This work demonstrates the utility of {sup 77}Se NMR spectroscopy for examining structure-function relationships of selenium containing proteins.

  10. In-cell ¹³C NMR spectroscopy for the study of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Felli, Isabella C; Gonnelli, Leonardo; Pierattelli, Roberta

    2014-09-01

    A large number of proteins carry out their function in highly flexible and disordered states, lacking a well-defined 3D structure. These proteins, referred to as intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), are now in the spotlight of modern structural biology. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy represents a unique tool for accessing atomic resolution information on IDPs in complex environments as whole cells, provided that the methods are optimized to their peculiar properties and to the characteristics of in-cell experiments. We describe procedures for the preparation of in-cell NMR samples, as well as for the setup of NMR experiments and their application to in-cell studies, using human ?-synuclein overexpressed in Escherichia coli as an example. The expressed protein is labeled with (13)C and (15)N stable isotopes to enable the direct recording of (13)C-detected NMR experiments optimized for the properties of IDPs. The entire procedure covers 24 h, including cell transformation, cell growth overnight, setup of the spectrometer and NMR experiment recording. PMID:25079425

  11. Monitoring the Electrochemical Processes in the Lithium–Air Battery by Solid State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A multi-nuclear solid-state NMR approach is employed to investigate the lithium–air battery, to monitor the evolution of the electrochemical products formed during cycling, and to gain insight into processes affecting capacity fading. While lithium peroxide is identified by 17O solid state NMR (ssNMR) as the predominant product in the first discharge in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) based electrolytes, it reacts with the carbon cathode surface to form carbonate during the charging process. 13C ssNMR provides evidence for carbonate formation on the surface of the carbon cathode, the carbonate being removed at high charging voltages in the first cycle, but accumulating in later cycles. Small amounts of lithium hydroxide and formate are also detected in discharged cathodes and while the hydroxide formation is reversible, the formate persists and accumulates in the cathode upon further cycling. The results indicate that the rechargeability of the battery is limited by both the electrolyte and the carbon cathode stability. The utility of ssNMR spectroscopy in directly detecting product formation and decomposition within the battery is demonstrated, a necessary step in the assessment of new electrolytes, catalysts, and cathode materials for the development of a viable lithium–oxygen battery. PMID:24489976

  12. Defect structure in lithium-doped polymer-derived SiCN ceramics characterized by Raman and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Emre; Mass, Valentina; Gembus, Armin; Schulz, Armin; Liebau-Kunzmann, Verena; Fasel, Claudia; Riedel, Ralf; Eichel, Rüdiger-A

    2009-07-21

    Lithium-doped polymer-derived silicon carbonitride ceramics (SiCN:Li) synthesized at various pyrolysis temperatures, have been investigated by means of multifrequency and multipulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Raman spectroscopy in order to determine different defect states that may impact the materials electronic properties. In particular, carbon- and silicon-based 'dangling bonds' at elevated, as well as metallic networks containing Li0 in the order of 1 microm at low pyrolysis temperatures have been observed in concentrations ranging between 10(14) and 10(17) spins mg(-1). PMID:19842480

  13. Solid state 13C-NMR spectroscopy and XRD studies of commercial and pyrolytic carbon blacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Darmstadt; Christian Roy; Serge Kaliaguine; Guoying Xu; Michèle Auger; Alain Tuel; Veda Ramaswamy

    2000-01-01

    The bulk chemistry of commercial carbon blacks and carbon blacks obtained by vacuum pyrolysis (CBP) of used tires was investigated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy with and without magic angle spinning of the sample. Two different kinds of carbon atoms can be distinguished: Graphite like carbon atoms in poly-condensed aromatic rings and carbon atoms in a less ordered environment. Commercial carbon blacks

  14. Characterization of the essential oil of Agastache rugosa by NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Skakovskii; W. P. Kiselev; L. Yu. Tychinskaya; A. G. Schutova; L. W. Gonsharova; E. W. Spiridowish; N. A. Bovdey; P. A. Kiselev; O. A. Gaidukevich

    2010-01-01

    The composition of essential oil from Agastache rugosa (Fish. et Mey) O.Kuntze was studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Essential oil was isolated from the aerial part of plants growing in the Central Botanical Garden of the\\u000a NAS of Belarus during flowering and fruiting. The oil chemical composition was found to depend little on the sampling time.\\u000a It was

  15. In situ NMR spectroscopy in heterogeneous catalysis: Kinetic study of hydrocarbon conversion mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Stepanov; V. N. Parmon; D. Freude

    2007-01-01

    The potential of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy for kinetic and mechanistic studies of hydrocarbon conversion\\u000a on solid acid catalysis between 20 and 300?C is considered. The use of this technique is illustrated by the elucidation of\\u000a the mechanisms of hydrogen exchange and 13C label transfer in alkanes and olefins, n-butane isomerization on sulfated zirconia, and ethane aromatization on zinc-containing zeolite

  16. Nanotechnology for biomaterials engineering: structural characterization of amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Hrkach; Maria Teresa Peracchia; Avi Bomb; noah Lotan; Robert Langer

    1997-01-01

    Nanoparticles composed of diblock poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) or a branched, multiblock PLA-(PEG)3 were prepared by the single emulsion technique. Results of previous studies of these nanoparticles suggested that their structure is of the core-corona type with a polyester core and an outer PEG coating. In the present study, 1H NMR spectroscopy was utilized to provide direct evidence of the structure

  17. Quantitative determination of glyphosate in human serum by 1H NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Cartigny; Nathalie Azaroual; Michel Imbenotte; Daniel Mathieu; Erika Parmentier; Gaston Vermeersch; Michel Lhermitte

    2008-01-01

    The determination and quantification of glyphosate in serum using 1H NMR spectroscopy is reported. This method permitted serum samples to be analysed without derivatization or any other sample pre-treatment, using 3-trimethylsilyl 2,2?,3,3?-tetradeuteropropionic acid (TSP-d4) as a qualitative and quantitative standard. Characterization of the herbicide N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine was performed by analysing chemical shifts and coupling constant patterns. Quantification was performed by relative

  18. Determination of glyphosate in biological fluids by 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Cartigny; N Azaroual; M Imbenotte; D Mathieu; G Vermeersch; J. P Goullé; M Lhermitte

    2004-01-01

    Identification of glyphosate in four cases of poisoning, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biological fluids is reported. It has been performed by using a combination of 1H and 31P NMR analyses. Characterization of the N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine herbicide was achieved by chemical shift considerations and coupling constant patterns: CH2?(P) presents specific resonance at 3.12ppm and appears as a doublet with

  19. Elucidation of cross relaxation in liquids by two-dimensional N.M.R. spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Macura; R. R. Ernst

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional N.M.R. spectroscopy is applied to the elucidation of cross relaxation pathways in liquids. The theory underlying two dimensional studies of cross relaxation and of transient nuclear Overhauser effects is developed. The influence of the correlation time of the molecular random process is investigated. It is found that in the limit of short correlation times (extreme narrowing limit) weak negative

  20. Intramyocellular lipid concentrations are correlated with insulin sensitivity in humans: a 1H NMR spectroscopy study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Krssak; K. Falk Petersen; A. Dresner; L. DiPietro; S. M. Vogel; D. L. Rothman; G. I. Shulman; M. Roden

    1999-01-01

    Summary   Recent muscle biopsy studies have shown a relation between intramuscular lipid content and insulin resistance. The aim of\\u000a this study was to test this relation in humans by using a novel proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy technique, which enables non-invasive and rapid ( ? 45 min) determination of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL)\\u000a content. Normal weight non-diabetic adults (n

  1. 13C INEPT Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) with Internal References

    PubMed Central

    Li, Deyu; Hopson, Russell; Li, Weibin; Liu, Jia; Williard, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    13C INEPT Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) with an internal reference system was developed to study the aggregation state of THF solvated LDA dimeric complex. Six components are clearly identified in the diffusion dimension and their DOSY-generated 13C INEPT spectrum slices agree extremely well with their respective INEPT spectra. The correlation between log D and log FW of the linear least squares fit to reference points of all components is exceptionally high – (r = 0.9985). PMID:18251549

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy of Yb3+ ions in SrF2 and BaF2; an analysis of distortions of the crystal lattice near Yb3+

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M L Falin; K I Gerasimov; V A Latypov; A M Leushin

    2003-01-01

    SrF2 and BaF2 crystals, doped with the Yb3+ ions, have been investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. As-grown crystals of SrF2 and BaF2 show the two paramagnetic centres for the cubic (Tc) and trigonal (T4) symmetries of the Yb3+ ions. Empirical diagrams of the energy levels were established and the potentials of the crystal field were determined. Information

  3. (77)Se NMR Spectroscopy As a Sensitive Probe for Hammett ? Constants.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Anne; Rasmussen, Brian; Pittelkow, Michael

    2015-04-17

    Herein we showcase the use of a combination of (1)H, (13)C, and (77)Se NMR spectroscopy as a sensitive tool for correlation analysis. A series of substituted O-aryl selenocarbamates [ArOC(Se)N(CH3)2] and Se-aryl selenocarbamates [ArSeC(O)N(CH3)2] have been investigated by means of (1)H, (13)C, and (77)Se NMR spectroscopy. We have determined the (1)H, (13)C, and (77)Se chemical shift values as well as both one- and two-bond heteronuclear (13)C-(77)Se coupling constants, and the changes in both the chemical shift values and the coupling constants were found to obey linear free energy relationships with Hammett's ?p and ?p(-) constants. For the eight studied O-aryl selenocarbamates, we observe linear free energy correlations with two of the (13)C and (77)Se chemical shift values and as well as one (13)C-(77)Se coupling constant. With the five examples of Se-aryl selenocarbamates, linear correlations are observed with three different (13)C-(77)Se coupling constants. The strong internal consistency validates the use of (77)Se NMR spectroscopy for correlation analysis. PMID:25835812

  4. High-sensitivity multinuclear NMR spectroscopy of a smectite clay and of clay-intercalated polymer.

    PubMed

    Hou, S S; Beyer, F L; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of a smectite clay low in paramagnetic ions, and NMR experiments to detect organic material near the silicate surfaces with high sensitivity, have been explored by 1H, 29Si, and 13C NMR. In oven-dried hectorite clay, 1H NMR reveals a sharp signal at 0.35 ppm that narrows significantly with spinning speed. It is assigned to the "inner" OH protons of the silicate layers. In fluorohectorite, where the OH groups are replaced by fluorines, no such 1H peak is observed. The assignment is further confirmed by the efficient cross-polarization observed in two-dimensional (2D) 1H-29Si HETCOR spectra, and by 29Si-detected REDOR experiments with 1H-dephasing in the 29Si dipolar field, which yield a 1H-29Si distance of 2.9 + 0.4 A. In these 1H-29Si experiments, the sensitivity of the 29Si signal is enhanced at least fivefold by refocusing the decay resulting from the inhomogeneous broadening of the single 29Si peak, stretching the 29Si signal out over 80 ms. The small 1H linewidth of this signal at spinning frequencies exceeding 4 kHz is attributed to the large proton-proton distances in the clay. The upfield isotropic chemical shift of the OH groups is explained by their inaccessibility to hydrogen-bonding partners, as a result of their location in hexagonal "cavities" of the clay structure. The well-resolved, easily selectable OH-proton signal and the high-sensitivity 29Si detection open excellent perspectives for NMR studies of composites of clays with organic molecules. Two-dimensional 1H-29Si and 1H-1H chemical-shift correlation experiments enable efficient detection of the 1H spectrum of organic segments near the clay surface. Combined with 1H spin diffusion, the organic segments at up to several nanometers from the clay surfaces can be probed. A 2D 1H-13C correlation experiment yields the 13C spectrum of the organic species near the clay surfaces. A mobility gradient of intercalated poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, segments is proven in 1H-3Si WISE experiments with spin diffusion. PMID:12469807

  5. Structural basis of the green-blue color switching in proteorhodopsin as determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jiafei; Do, Nhu-Nguyen; Scholz, Frank; Reggie, Lenica; Mehler, Michaela; Lakatos, Andrea; Ong, Yean-Sin; Ullrich, Sandra J; Brown, Lynda J; Brown, Richard C D; Becker-Baldus, Johanna; Wachtveitl, Josef; Glaubitz, Clemens

    2014-12-17

    Proteorhodopsins (PRs) found in marine microbes are the most abundant retinal-based photoreceptors on this planet. PR variants show high levels of environmental adaptation, as their colors are tuned to the optimal wavelength of available light. The two major green and blue subfamilies can be interconverted through a L/Q point mutation at position 105. Here we reveal the structural basis behind this intriguing color-tuning effect. High-field solid-state NMR spectroscopy was used to visualize structural changes within green PR directly within the lipid bilayer upon introduction of the green-blue L105Q mutation. The observed effects are localized within the binding pocket and close to retinal carbons C14 and C15. Subsequently, magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy with sensitivity enhancement by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) was applied to determine precisely the retinal structure around C14-C15. Upon mutation, a significantly stretched C14-C15 bond, deshielding of C15, and a slight alteration of the retinal chain's out-of-plane twist was observed. The L105Q blue switch therefore acts locally on the retinal itself and induces a conjugation defect between the isomerization region and the imine linkage. Consequently, the S0-S1 energy gap increases, resulting in the observed blue shift. The distortion of the chromophore structure also offers an explanation for the elongated primary reaction detected by pump-probe spectroscopy, while chemical shift perturbations within the protein can be linked to the elongation of late-photocycle intermediates studied by flash photolysis. Besides resolving a long-standing problem, this study also demonstrates that the combination of data obtained from high-field and DNP-enhanced MAS NMR spectroscopy together with time-resolved optical spectroscopy enables powerful synergies for in-depth functional studies of membrane proteins. PMID:25415762

  6. Stereochemistry of 16a-hydroxyfriedelin and 3-Oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene established by 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Silva de Miranda, Roqueline Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Salomão Bento Vasconcelos; de Fátima Silva, Grácia Divina; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto; Knupp, Vagner Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Friedelin (1), 3beta-friedelinol (2), 28-hydroxyfriedelin (3), 16alpha-hydroxyfriedelin (4), 30-hydroxyfriedelin (5) and 16alpha,28-dihydroxyfriedelin (6) were isolated through fractionation of the hexane extract obtained from branches of Salacia elliptica. After a week in CDCl(3) solution, 16alpha-hydroxyfriedelin (4) reacted turning into 3-oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene (7). This is the first report of a dehydration followed by a Nametkin rearrangement of a pentacyclic triterpene in CDCl(3) solution occurring in the NMR tube. These seven pentacyclic triterpenes was identified through NMR spectroscopy and the stereochemistry of compound 4 and 7 was established by 2D NMR (NOESY) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is also the first time that all the (13)C-NMR and 2D NMR spectral data are reported for compounds 4 and 7. PMID:19214150

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by [sup 31]P NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G. (Ames Lab., IA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used [sub 31]P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850[degrees]F[sup +] distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.[sup 31]P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different [sup 31]P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a [sup 31]P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe[sub 2]CMe[sub 2]O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  8. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used {sub 31}P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850{degrees}F{sup +} distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.{sup 31}P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different {sup 31}P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a {sup 31}P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  9. Sensitivity of 2H NMR spectroscopy to motional models: Proteins and highly viscous liquids as examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, D.; Mielczarek, A.; Korpala, A.; Kozlowski, A.; Earle, K. A.; Moscicki, J.

    2012-06-01

    In order to study to what extent mechanisms of molecular motion can be unambiguously revealed by 2H NMR spectroscopy, 2H spectra for proteins (chicken villin protein headpiece HP36, selectively methyl-deuterated at leucine-69, C? D3) and binary systems of high viscosity (benzene-d6 in tricresyl phosphate) have been carefully analyzed as illustrative examples (the spectra are taken from the literature). In the first case, a model of restricted diffusion mediated by jumps between rotameric orientations has been tested against jump- and free diffusion models which describe rotational motion combined with jump dynamics. It has been found that the set of 2H spectra of methyl-deuterated at leucine-69 chicken villin protein headpiece HP36 can be consistently explained by different motional models as well as by a Gaussian distribution of correlation times assuming isotropic rotation (simple Brownian diffusion model). The last finding shows that when the possible distribution of correlation times is not very broad one might not be able to distinguish between heterogeneous and homogenous (but more complex) dynamics by analyzing 2H lineshapes. For benzene-d6 in tricresyl phosphate, the dynamics is heterogeneous and it has been demonstrated that a Gaussian distribution of correlation times reproduces well the experimental lineshapes, while for a Cole-Davidson distribution the agreement is somewhat worse. For inquires into the sensitivity of quadrupolar NMR spectral analysis (by "quadrupolar NMR spectroscopy we understand NMR spectroscopy of nuclei possessing quadrupole moment), the recently presented theoretical approach [Kruk et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224511 (2011)], 10.1063/1.3664783 has been used as it allows simulating quadrupolar spectra for arbitrary motional conditions by employing the stochastic Liouville equation.

  10. Lithium ion diffusion in Li ?-alumina single crystals measured by pulsed field gradient NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Tareque, E-mail: mtareque@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Takekawa, Reiji; Iwai, Yoshiki; Kuwata, Naoaki; Kawamura, Junichi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)] [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-03-28

    The lithium ion diffusion coefficient of a 93% Li ?-alumina single crystal was measured for the first time using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR spectroscopy with two different crystal orientations. The diffusion coefficient was found to be 1.2 × 10{sup ?11} m{sup 2}/s in the direction perpendicular to the c axis at room temperature. The Li ion diffusion coefficient along the c axis direction was found to be very small (6.4 × 10{sup ?13} m{sup 2}/s at 333 K), which suggests that the macroscopic diffusion of the Li ion in the ?-alumina crystal is mainly two-dimensional. The diffusion coefficient for the same sample was also estimated using NMR line narrowing data and impedance measurements. The impedance data show reasonable agreement with PFG-NMR data, while the line narrowing measurements provided a lower value for the diffusion coefficient. Line narrowing measurements also provided a relatively low value for the activation energy and pre-exponential factor. The temperature dependent diffusion coefficient was obtained in the temperature range 297–333 K by PFG-NMR, from which the activation energy for diffusion of the Li ion was estimated. The activation energy obtained by PFG-NMR was smaller than that obtained by impedance measurements, which suggests that thermally activated defect formation energy exists for 93% Li ?-alumina single crystals. The diffusion time dependence of the diffusion coefficient was observed for the Li ion in the 93% Li ?-alumina single crystal by means of PFG-NMR experiments. Motion of Li ion in fractal dimension might be a possible explanation for the observed diffusion time dependence of the diffusion coefficient in the 93% Li ?–alumina system.

  11. Novel monosaccharide fermentation products in Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus identified using NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is a thermophilic, Gram-positive, non-spore forming, strictly anaerobic bacterium of interest in potential industrial applications, including the production of biofuels such as hydrogen or ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass through fermentation. High-resolution, solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a useful method for the identification and quantification of metabolites that result from growth on different substrates. NMR allows facile resolution of isomeric (identical mass) constituents and does not destroy the sample. Results Profiles of metabolites produced by the thermophilic cellulose-degrading bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903 strain following growth on different monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-mannose, L-arabinose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, L-fucose, and D-fucose) as carbon sources revealed several unexpected fermentation products, suggesting novel metabolic capacities and unexplored metabolic pathways in this organism. Both 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to determine intracellular and extracellular metabolite profiles. One dimensional 1H NMR spectral analysis was performed by curve fitting against spectral libraries provided in the Chenomx software; 2-D homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments were conducted to further reduce uncertainties due to unassigned, overlapping, or poorly-resolved peaks. In addition to expected metabolites such as acetate, lactate, glycerol, and ethanol, several novel fermentation products were identified: ethylene glycol (from growth on D-arabinose), acetoin and 2,3-butanediol (from growth on D-glucose, L-arabinose, and D-xylose), and hydroxyacetone (from growth on D-mannose, L-arabinose, and D-xylose). Production of ethylene glycol from D-arabinose was particularly notable, with around 10% of the substrate carbon converted into this uncommon fermentation product. Conclusions The present research shows that C. saccharolyticus, already of substantial interest due to its capability for biological ethanol and hydrogen production, has further metabolic potential for production of higher molecular weight compounds, such as acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, as well as hydroxyacetone and the uncommon fermentation product ethylene glycol. In addition, application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy facilitates identification of novel metabolites, which is instrumental for production of desirable bioproducts from biomass through microbial fermentation. PMID:23552326

  12. Distinguishing Phosphate Structural Defects From Inclusions in Calcite and Aragonite by NMR Spectroscopy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, B. L.; Mason, H. E.

    2010-12-01

    Variations in the concentration of minor and trace elements are being studied extensively for potential use as proxies to infer environmental conditions at the time of mineral deposition. Such proxies rely fundamentally on a relationship between the activities in the solution and in the solid that would seem to be simple only in the case that the species substitutes into the mineral structure. Other incorporation mechanisms are possible, including inclusions (both mineral and fluid) and occlusion of surface adsorbate complexes, that might be sensitive to other factors, such as crystallization kinetics, and difficult to distinguish analytically. For example, it is known from mineral adsorption studies that surface precipitates can be nanoscopic, and might not be apparent at resolutions typical of microchemical analysis. Techniques by which a structural relationship between the substituting element and the host mineral structure are needed to provide a sound basis for geochemical proxies. NMR spectroscopy offers methods for probing such spatial relationship. We are using solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate phosphate incorporation in calcium carbonate minerals, including calcite speleothems and coral skeletal aragonite, at concentrations of the order 100 ?g P g -1. In 31P NMR spectra of most samples, narrow peaks arising from crystalline inclusions can be resolved, including apatite in coral aragonite and an unidentified phase in calcite. All samples studied yield also a broad 31P signal, centered near chemical shifts of +3 to +4 ppm, that could be assigned to phosphate defects in the host mineral and from which the fraction of P occurring in the carbonate mineral structure can be determined. To test this assignment we applied rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) NMR techniques that probe the molecular-scale proximity of carbonate groups to the phosphate responsible for the broad 31P peak. This method measures dipole-dipole coupling between 31P of phosphate and carbonate carbon, which varies with the inverse-cube of the internuclear distance. 31P{13C} REDOR NMR results for synthetic phosphate/(13C)-aragonite coprecipitates show that the broad peak is closely associated with carbonate, exhibiting a 31P-13C dipolar coupling qualitatively consistent with phosphate occupying an anion structural site (i.e., 6 C at 0.32 nm). 31P-detected 1H NMR spectra, which contain signal only from H located near P, show that structural water molecules help accommodate phosphate in the structure. Similar methods can be applied to other elements of potential paleo-proxy interest having NMR-active isotopes, including B, Mg, and Cd.

  13. Diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy for analysis of DNA secondary structural elements

    PubMed Central

    Ambrus, Attila; Yang, Danzhou

    2007-01-01

    Structure determination of secondary DNA structural elements, such as G-quadruplexes, gains an increasing importance as fundamental physiological roles are being associated with the formation of such structures in vivo. A truncated native DNA sequence generally requires further optimization to obtain a candidate with desired NMR properties for structural analysis in solution. The optimum sequence is expected to form one dominant, stable molecular entity in solution with well-resolved NMR peaks. However, DNA sequences are prone to form structures composed of one, two, three or four strands depending on sequence and solution conditions. The thorough characterization of the molecularity (stoichiometry and molecular weight) and appropriate solution conditions for sequences with different modifications traditionally applies analytical techniques that generally do not represent the solution conditions for NMR structure determination. Here we present the application of diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy as a useful analytical tool for the optimization and analysis of DNA secondary structural elements, specifically, the DNA G-quadruplex structures, including those formed in the human telomeric sequence and in the promoter regions of bcl-2 and c-myc genes. PMID:17570331

  14. Probing the surface structure of hydroxyapatite using NMR spectroscopy and first principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Helen; Duer, Melinda; Groom, Nicholas; Pickard, Chris; Bristowe, Paul

    2008-01-28

    The surface characteristics of hydroxyapatite (HA) are probed using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and first principles calculations. The NMR spectrum is taken from a bone sample and the first principles calculations are performed using a plane-wave density functional approach within the pseudopotential approximation. The computational work focuses on the (100) and (200) surfaces, which exhibit a representative range of phosphate, hydroxyl and cation bonding geometries. The shielding tensors for the 31P, 1H and 17O nuclei are calculated from the relaxed surface structures using an extension of the projector augmented-wave method. The calculated 31P chemical shifts for the surface slab are found to be significantly different from the bulk crystal and are consistent with the NMR data from bone and also synthetically prepared nanocrystalline samples of HA. Rotational relaxations of the surface phosphate ions and the sub-surface displacement of other nearby ions are identified as causing the main differences. The investigation points to further calculations of other crystallographic surfaces and highlights the potential of using NMR with ab initio modelling to fully describe the surface structure and chemistry of HA, which is essential for understanding its reactivity with the surrounding organic matrix. PMID:18183321

  15. Characterization of the insertase BamA in three different membrane mimetics by solution NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Leonor; Zeth, Kornelius; Burmann, Björn M; Maier, Timm; Hiller, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The insertase BamA is the central protein of the Bam complex responsible for outer membrane protein biogenesis in Gram-negative bacteria. BamA features a 16-stranded transmembrane ?-barrel and five periplasmic POTRA domains, with a total molecular weight of 88 kDa. Whereas the structure of BamA has recently been determined by X-ray crystallography, its functional mechanism is not well understood. This mechanism comprises the insertion of substrates from a dynamic, chaperone-bound state into the bacterial outer membrane, and NMR spectroscopy is thus a method of choice for its elucidation. Here, we report solution NMR studies of different BamA constructs in three different membrane mimetic systems: LDAO micelles, DMPC:DiC7PC bicelles and MSP1D1:DMPC nanodiscs. The impact of biochemical parameters on the spectral quality was investigated, including the total protein concentration and the detergent:protein ratio. The barrel of BamA is folded in micelles, bicelles and nanodiscs, but the N-terminal POTRA5 domain is flexibly unfolded in the absence of POTRA4. Measurements of backbone dynamics show that the variable insertion region of BamA, located in the extracellular lid loop L6, features high local flexibility. Our work establishes biochemical preparation schemes for BamA, which will serve as a platform for structural and functional studies of BamA and its role within the Bam complex by solution NMR spectroscopy. PMID:25638436

  16. NMR Spectroscopy of Human Eye Tissues: A New Insight into Ocular Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Kryczka, Tomasz; Wyl?ga?a, Edward; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Midelfart, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background. The human eye is a complex organ whose anatomy and functions has been described very well to date. Unfortunately, the knowledge of the biochemistry and metabolic properties of eye tissues varies. Our objective was to reveal the biochemical differences between main tissue components of human eyes. Methods. Corneas, irises, ciliary bodies, lenses, and retinas were obtained from cadaver globes 0-1/2 hours postmortem of 6 male donors (age: 44–61 years). The metabolic profile of tissues was investigated with HR MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. A total of 29 metabolites were assigned in the NMR spectra of the eye tissues. Significant differences between tissues were revealed in contents of the most distant eye-tissues, while irises and ciliary bodies showed minimal biochemical differences. ATP, acetate, choline, glutamate, lactate, myoinositol, and taurine were identified as the primary biochemical compounds responsible for differentiation of the eye tissues. Conclusions. In this study we showed for the first time the results of the analysis of the main human eye tissues with NMR spectroscopy. The biochemical contents of the selected tissues seemed to correspond to their primary anatomical and functional attributes, the way of the delivery of the nutrients, and the location of the tissues in the eye. PMID:25525621

  17. Structure and dynamics of paramagnetic transients by pulsed EPR and NMR detection of nuclear resonance. [Pulse radiolysis of methanol in D/sub 2/O

    SciTech Connect

    Trifunac, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Structure and dynamics of transient radicals in pulse radiolysis can be studied by time resolved EPR and NMR techniques. EPR study of kinetics and relaxation is illustrated. The NMR detection of nuclear resonance in transient radicals is a new method which allows the study of hyperfine coupling, population dynamics, radical kinetics, and reaction mechanism. 9 figures.

  18. Mapping hypoxia-induced bioenergetic rearrangements and metabolic signaling by 18O-assisted 31P NMR and 1H NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pucar, Darko; Dzeja, Petras P.; Bast, Peter; Gumina, Richard J.; Drahl, Carmen; Lim, Lynette; Juranic, Nenad; Macura, Slobodan; Terzic, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Brief hypoxia or ischemia perturbs energy metabolism inducing paradoxically a stress-tolerant state, yet metabolic signals that trigger cytoprotection remain poorly understood. To evaluate bioenergetic rearrangements, control and hypoxic hearts were analyzed with 18O-assisted 31P NMR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The 18O-induced isotope shift in the 31P NMR spectrum of CrP, ?ADP and ?ATP was used to quantify phosphotransfer fluxes through creatine kinase and adenylate kinase. This analysis was supplemented with determination of energetically relevant metabolites in the phosphomonoester (PME) region of 31P NMR spectra, and in both aromatic and aliphatic regions of 1H NMR spectra. In control conditions, creatine kinase was the major phosphotransfer pathway processing high-energy phosphoryls between sites of ATP consumption and ATP production. In hypoxia, creatine kinase flux was dramatically reduced with a compensatory increase in adenylate kinase flux, which supported heart energetics by regenerating and transferring ?- and ?-phosphoryls of ATP. Activation of adenylate kinase led to a build-up of AMP, IMP and adenosine, molecules involved in cardioprotective signaling. 31P and 1H NMR spectral analysis further revealed NADH and H+ scavenging by ?-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (?GPDH) and lactate dehydrogenase contributing to maintained glycolysis under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced accumulation of ?-glycerophosphate and nucleoside 5?-monophosphates, through ?GPDH and adenylate kinase reactions, respectively, was mapped within the increased PME signal in the 31P NMR spectrum. Thus, 18O-assisted 31P NMR combined with 1H NMR provide a powerful approach in capturing rearrangements in cardiac bioenergetics, and associated metabolic signaling that underlie the cardiac adaptive response to stress. PMID:14977188

  19. A Blind Source Separation Method for Nearly Degenerate Mixtures and Its Applications to NMR Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Sun, Yuanchang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel blind source separation (BSS) method for nonnegative and correlated data, particularly for the nearly degenerate data. The motivation lies in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, where a multiple mixture NMR spectra are recorded to identify chemical compounds with similar structures (degeneracy). There have been a number of successful approaches for solving BSS problems by exploiting the nature of source signals. For instance, independent component analysis (ICA) is used to separate statistically independent (orthogonal) source signals. However, signal orthogonality is not guaranteed in many real-world problems. This new BSS method developed here deals with nonorthogonal signals. The independence assumption is replaced by a condition which requires dominant interval(s) (DI) from each of source signals over others. Additionally, the mixing matrix is assumed to be nearly singular. The method first estimates the mixing matrix by exploiting geometry in data clustering. ...

  20. Low Temperature 65Cu NMR Spectroscopy of the Cu+ Site in Azurin

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, Andrew S.; Heck, Robert W.; de Jong, Wibe A.; Gao, Amy R.; Wu, Xiongjian; Roehrich, Adrienne; Harbison, Gerard S.; Ellis, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    65Cu central-transition NMR spectroscopy of the blue copper protein azurin in the reduced Cu(I) state, conducted at 18.8 Tesla and 10 K, gave a strongly second order quadrupole perturbed spectrum, which yielded a 65Cu quadrupole coupling constant of ±71.2 ± 1 MHz, corresponding to an electric field gradient of ±1.49 atomic units at the copper site, and an asymmetry parameter of approximately 0.2. Quantum chemical calculations employing second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory and large basis sets successfully reproduced these experimental results. Sensitivity and relaxation times were quite favorable, suggesting that NMR may be a useful probe of the electronic state of copper sites in proteins. PMID:19746904

  1. Application of /sup 31/P-NMR spectroscopy to the study of striated muscle metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.A.; Kushmerick, M.J.; Brown, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    This review presents the principles and limitations of phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (/sup 31/P-NMR) spectroscopy as applied to the study of striated muscle metabolism. Application of the techniques discussed include noninvasive measurement of high-energy phosphate, intracellular pH, intracellular free Mg/sup 2 +/, and metabolite compartmentation. In perfused cat biceps (fast-twitch) muscles, but not in soleus (slow-twitch), NMR spectra indicate a substantially lower (1 mM) free inorganic phosphate level than when measured chemically (6 mM). In addition, saturation and inversion spin-transfer methods that enable direct measurement of the unidirectional fluxes through creatine kinase are described. In perfused cat biceps muscle, results suggest that this enzyme and its substrates are in simple chemical equilibrium.

  2. N-15 NMR Spectroscopy as a Method for Comparing the Rates of Imidization of Several Diamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. Christopher; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2006-01-01

    The relative rates of the conversion of amide-acid to imide was measured for a series or aromatic diamines that have been identified as potential replacements for 4,4'-methylene dianiline (MDA) in high-temperature polyimides and polymer composites. These rates were compared with the N-15 NMR resonances of the unreacted amines. The initial rates of imidization track with the difference in chemical shift between the amine nitrogens in MDA and those in the subject diamines. This comparison demonstrated that N-15 NMR spectroscopy is appropriate for the rapid screening of candidate diamines to determine their reactivity relative to MDA, and can serve to provide guidance to the process of creating the time-temperature profiles used in processing these materials into polymer matrix composites.

  3. Isotopically enriched 13C diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy: analysis of methyllithium.

    PubMed

    Su, Chicheung; Hopson, Russell; Williard, Paul G

    2013-12-01

    We report the development of isotopic-labeled (13)C diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) NMR with diffusion coefficient-formula weight (D-FW) analysis and its application in characterizing the aggregation state of methyllithium aggregates and complexes with several widely used diamines. Commercially available (13)C-labeled benzene and several easily synthesized (13)C-labeled compounds using (13)C-labeled iodomethane as the isotopic source are developed as internal references for diffusion-formula weight analysis (D-FW). The technique greatly expands the applicability of DOSY D-FW analysis to a much wider variety of compounds because of isotopic labeling. These results reveal that methyllithium exists as a tetrasolvated tetramer in diethyl ether and exclusively as bis-solvated dimers with chelating diamines. PMID:24134615

  4. Microfabricated inserts for magic angle coil spinning (MACS) wireless NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Badilita, Vlad; Fassbender, Birgit; Kratt, Kai; Wong, Alan; Bonhomme, Christian; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Korvink, Jan G; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and testing of the first automatically microfabricated probes to be used in conjunction with the magic angle coil spinning (MACS) NMR technique. NMR spectroscopy is a versatile technique for a large range of applications, but its intrinsically low sensitivity poses significant difficulties in analyzing mass- and volume-limited samples. The combination of microfabrication technology and MACS addresses several well-known NMR issues in a concerted manner for the first time: (i) reproducible wafer-scale fabrication of the first-in-kind on-chip LC microresonator for inductive coupling of the NMR signal and reliable exploitation of MACS capabilities; (ii) improving the sensitivity and the spectral resolution by simultaneous spinning the detection microcoil together with the sample at the "magic angle" of 54.74° with respect to the direction of the magnetic field (magic angle spinning - MAS), accompanied by the wireless signal transmission between the microcoil and the primary circuit of the NMR spectrometer; (iii) given the high spinning rates (tens of kHz) involved in the MAS methodology, the microfabricated inserts exhibit a clear kinematic advantage over their previously demonstrated counterparts due to the inherent capability to produce small radius cylindrical geometries, thus tremendously reducing the mechanical stress and tearing forces on the sample. In order to demonstrate the versatility of the microfabrication technology, we have designed MACS probes for various Larmor frequencies (194, 500 and 700 MHz) testing several samples such as water, Drosophila pupae, adamantane solid and LiCl at different magic angle spinning speeds. PMID:22936994

  5. Microfabricated Inserts for Magic Angle Coil Spinning (MACS) Wireless NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Badilita, Vlad; Fassbender, Birgit; Kratt, Kai; Wong, Alan; Bonhomme, Christian; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Korvink, Jan G.; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and testing of the first automatically microfabricated probes to be used in conjunction with the magic angle coil spinning (MACS) NMR technique. NMR spectroscopy is a versatile technique for a large range of applications, but its intrinsically low sensitivity poses significant difficulties in analyzing mass- and volume-limited samples. The combination of microfabrication technology and MACS addresses several well-known NMR issues in a concerted manner for the first time: (i) reproducible wafer-scale fabrication of the first-in-kind on-chip LC microresonator for inductive coupling of the NMR signal and reliable exploitation of MACS capabilities; (ii) improving the sensitivity and the spectral resolution by simultaneous spinning the detection microcoil together with the sample at the “magic angle” of 54.74° with respect to the direction of the magnetic field (magic angle spinning – MAS), accompanied by the wireless signal transmission between the microcoil and the primary circuit of the NMR spectrometer; (iii) given the high spinning rates (tens of kHz) involved in the MAS methodology, the microfabricated inserts exhibit a clear kinematic advantage over their previously demonstrated counterparts due to the inherent capability to produce small radius cylindrical geometries, thus tremendously reducing the mechanical stress and tearing forces on the sample. In order to demonstrate the versatility of the microfabrication technology, we have designed MACS probes for various Larmor frequencies (194, 500 and 700 MHz) testing several samples such as water, Drosophila pupae, adamantane solid and LiCl at different magic angle spinning speeds. PMID:22936994

  6. Purification, crystallization, NMR spectroscopy and biochemical analyses of alpha-phycoerythrocyanin peptides.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Georg; Parbel, Axel; Seifert, Markus H J; Holak, Tad A; Reuter, Wolfgang

    2002-10-01

    The alpha-phycoerythrocyanin subunits of the different phycoerythrocyanin complexes of the phycobilisomes from the cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus perform a remarkable photochemistry. Similar to phytochromes - the photoreceptors of higher plants - the spectral properties of the molecule reversibly change according to the irradiation wavelength. To enable extensive analyses, the protein has been produced at high yield by improving purification protocols. As a result, several comparative studies on the Z- and E-configurations of the intact alpha-subunit, and also on photoactive peptides originating from nonspecific degradations of the chromoprotein, were possible. The analyses comprise absorbance, fluorescence and CD spectroscopy, crystallization, preliminary X-ray measurements, mass spectrometry, N-terminal amino acid sequencing and 1D NMR spectroscopy. Intact alpha-phycoerythrocyanin aggregates significantly, due to hydrophobic interactions between the two N-terminal helices. Removal of these helices reduces the aggregation but also destabilizes the protein fold. The complete subunit could be crystallized in its E-configuration, but the X-ray measurement conditions must be improved. Nevertheless, NMR spectroscopy on a soluble photoactive peptide presents the first insight into the complex chromophore protein interactions that are dependent on the light induced state. The chromophore environment in the Z-configuration is rigid whereas other regions of the protein are more flexible. In contrast, the E-configuration has a mobile chromophore, especially the pyrrole ring D, while other regions of the protein rigidified compared to the Z-configuration. PMID:12383264

  7. Dynamic processes and chemical composition of Lepidium sativum seeds determined by means of field-cycling NMR relaxometry and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rachocki, A; Latanowicz, L; Tritt-Goc, J

    2012-12-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, such as field-cycling relaxometry, wide-line NMR spectroscopy, and magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, were applied to study the seeds of cress, Lepidium sativum. Field-cycling NMR relaxometry was used for the first time to investigate the properties of the whole molecular system of dry cress seeds. This method not only allowed the dynamics to be studied, but was also successful in the differentiation among the solid (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, or fats forming a solid form of lipids) and liquid-like (oil compounds) components of the seeds. The (1)H NMR relaxation dispersion of oils was interpreted as a superposition of intramolecular and intermolecular contributions. The intramolecular part was described in terms of a Lorentzian spectral density function, whereas a log-Gaussian distribution of correlation times was applied for the intermolecular dipole-dipole contribution. The models applied led to very good agreement with the experimental data and demonstrate that the contribution of the intermolecular relaxation to the overall relaxation should not be disregarded, especially at low frequencies. A power-law frequency dependence of the proton relaxation dispersion was used for the interpretation of the solid components. From the analysis of the (1)H wide-line NMR spectra of the liquid-like component of hydrated cress seeds, we can conclude that the contribution of oil protons should always be taken into account when evaluating the spin-lattice relaxation times values or measuring the moisture and oil content. The application of (1)H magic angle spinning NMR significantly improves resolution in the liquid-like spectrum of seeds and allows the determination of the chemical composition of cress seeds. PMID:23001307

  8. Heteronuclear dipolar couplings, total spin coherence, and bilinear rotations in NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Garbow, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    In Chapter 1 a variety of different introductory topics are presented. The potential complexity of the nuclear magnetic resonsnace (NMR) spectra of molecules dissolved in liquid crystal solvents serves to motivate the development of multiple quantum (MQ) spectroscopy. The basics of MQ NMR are reviewed in Chapter 2. An experimental search procedure for the optimization of MQ pulse sequences is introduced. Chapter 3 discusses the application of MQ NMR techniques to the measurement of dipolar couplings in heteronuclear spin systems. The advantages of MQ methods in such systems are developed and experimental results for partially oriented (1-/sup 13/C) benzene are presented. Several pulse sequences are introduced which employ a two-step excitation of heteronuclear MQ coherence. A new multiple pulse method, involving the simultaneous irradiation of both rare and abundant spin species, is described. The problem of the broadening of MQ transitions due to magnetic field inhomogeneity is considered in Chapter 4. The method of total spin coherence transfer echo spectroscopy (TSCTES) is presented, with experimets on partially oriented acetaldehyde serving to demonstrate this new technique. TSCTES results in MQ spectra which are sensitive to all chemical shifts and spin-spin couplings and which are free of inhomogeneous broadening. In Chapter 5 the spectroscopy of spin systems of several protons and a /sup 13/C nucleus in the isotropic phase is discussed. The usefulness of the heteronuclear bilinear rotation as a calculational tool is illustrated. Compensated bilinear ..pi.. rotations, which are relatively insensitive to timing parameter missets, are presented. A new technique for homonuclear proton decoupling, Bilinear Rotation Decoupling, is described and its success in weakly coupled systems is demonstrated.

  9. Structure elucidation of an acetylated saponin of Blighia welwitschii by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Penders, A; Delaude, C

    1994-10-01

    A new glycosylated triterpene has been isolated from the fruit of Blighia welwitschii. The structural analysis of its peracetylated derivative (1) was performed by 2D homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. The saponin was shown to contain hederagenin and five sugar residues forming two glycosyl chains. The complete structure of the saponin was established to be 3-O-[beta-D-Glc p-(1-->3)-alpha-L-Rha p-(1-->2)-alpha- L-Ara p]-28-O-[beta-D-Glc p-(1-->6)-beta-D-Glc p]hederagenin. PMID:7982232

  10. 6Li diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) and applications to organometallic complexes.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Gerald; Li, Weibin; Hopson, Russell; Williard, Paul G

    2010-02-01

    The development of (6)Li diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) is reported. This technique is applied to (6)Li organometallic complexes. (6)Li DOSY provides a facile means of identification of peaks in the (6)Li spectrum, as well as evidence of mixed aggregates based on relative diffusion coefficients. (6)Li data is correlated to (1)H diffusion experiments through (6)Li{(1)H} HOESY and/or (1)H{(6)Li} HMBC experiments to obtain formula weight information of Li aggregates. PMID:20041695

  11. 13C INEPT diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) with internal references.

    PubMed

    Li, Deyu; Hopson, Russell; Li, Weibin; Liu, Jia; Williard, Paul G

    2008-03-01

    13C INEPT Diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) with an internal reference system was developed to study the aggregation state of THF-solvated LDA dimeric complex. Six components are clearly identified in the diffusion dimension, and their DOSY-generated 13C INEPT spectrum slices agree extremely well with their respective INEPT spectra. The correlation between log D and log FW of the linear least-squares fit to reference points of all components is exceptionally high: (r = 0.9985). PMID:18251549

  12. 1H to 13C Energy Transfer in Solid State NMR Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berns, Anne E.; Conte, Pellegrino

    2010-05-01

    Cross polarization (CP) magic angle spinning (MAS) 13C-NMR spectroscopy is a solid state NMR technique widely used to study chemical composition of organic materials with low or no solubility in the common deuterated solvents used to run liquid state NMR experiments. Based on the magnetization transfer from abundant nuclei (with spin of 1 -2) having a high gyromagnetic ratio (?), such as protons, to the less abundant 13C nuclei with low ? values, 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy is often applied in environmental chemistry to obtain quantitative information on the chemical composition of natural organic matter (NOM) (Conte et al., 2004), although its quantitative assessment is still matter of heavy debates. Many authors (Baldock et al., 1997; Conte et al., 1997, 2002; Dria et al., 2002; Kiem et al., 2000; Kögel-Knabner, 2000; Preston, 2001), reported that the application of appropriate instrument setup as well as the use of special pulse sequences and correct spectra elaboration may provide signal intensities that are directly proportional to the amount of nuclei creating a NMR signal. However, many other papers dealt with the quantitative unsuitability of 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Among those, Mao et al. (2000), Smernik and Oades (2000 a,b), and Preston (2001) reported that cross-polarized NMR techniques may fail in a complete excitation of the 13C nuclei. In fact, the amount of observable carbons via 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy appeared, in many cases, lower than that measured by a direct observation of the 13C nuclei. As a consequence, cross-polarized NMR techniques may provide spectra where signal distribution may not be representative of the quantitative distribution of the different natural organic matter components. Cross-polarization is obtained after application of an initial 90° x pulse on protons and a further spin lock pulse (along the y axis) having a fixed length (contact time) for both nuclei (1H and 13C) once the Hartmann-Hahn condition is matched. The Hartmann-Hahn condition can be expressed as ?HB1H = ?CB1C, where ?H and ?C are the gyromagnetic ratios of protons and carbons, whereas B1H and B1C are the 1H and 13C radio-frequency (r.f.) fields applied to the nuclei. The Hartmann-Hahn condition is affected by the H-C dipolar interaction strength (Stejskal & Memory, 1994). All the factors affecting dipolar interactions may mismatch the Hartmann-Hahn condition and prevent a quantitative representation of the NOM chemical composition (Conte et al., 2004). It has been reported that under low speed MAS conditions, broad matching profiles are centered around the Hartmann-Hahn condition....... With increasing spinning speed the Hartmann-Hahn matching profiles break down in a series of narrow matching bands separated by the rotor frequency (Stejskal & Memory, 1994). In order to account for the instability of the Hartmann-Hahn condition at higher rotor spin rates (>10 kHz), variable amplitude cross-polarization techniques (RAMP-CP) have been developed (Metz et al., 1996). So far, to our knowledge, the prevailing way used to obtain quantitative 13C-CPMAS NMR results was to optimize the 1H and 13C spin lock r.f. fields on simple standard systems such as glycine and to use those r.f. field values to run experiments on unknown organic samples. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evidence that the stability of the Hartmann-Hahn condition was different for different samples with a known structure. Moreover, Hartmann-Hahn profiles of four different humic acids (HAs) were also provided in order to show that the 1H/13C r.f. spin lock field strength must also be tested on the HAs prior to a quantitative evaluation of their 13C-CPMAS NMR spectra. Baldock, J.A., Oades, J.M., Nelson, P.N., Skene, T.M., Golchin, A. & Clarke, P., 1997. Assessing the extent of decomposition of natural organic materials using solid-state C-13 NMR spectroscopy. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 35, 1061-1083. Conte, P., Piccolo, A., van Lagen, B., Buurman, P. & de Jager, P.A., 1997. Quantitative Aspects of So

  13. Actinide(IV) and actinide(VI) carbonate speciation studies by PAS and NMR spectroscopies; Yucca Mountain Project: Milestone report 3031-WBS 1.2.3.4.1.3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.L.; Ekberg, S.A.; Morris, D.E.; Palmer, P.D.; Tait, C.D.

    1994-09-01

    Pulsed-laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and Fourier-transform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to study speciation of actinide(IV) and actinide(VI) ions (Np, Pu, Am) in aqueous carbonate solutions vs pH, carbonate content, actinide content, temperature. PAS focused on Pu(IV) speciation. Stability fields on a pH (8.4 to 12.0) versus total carbonate content (0.003 to 1.0 M) plot for dilute Pu(IV) carbonate species ([Pu]{sub tot} = 1 mM) were mapped. Four plutonium species, with absorption peaks at 486, 492, 500, and 512 nm were found. Loss of a single carbonate ligand does not account for the difference in speciation for the 486 and 492 nm absorption peaks, nor can any of the observed species be identified as colloidal Pu(IV). NMR data have been obtained for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. This report focuses on results for PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The ligand exchange reaction between free and coordinated carbonate on the PuO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} systems has been examined by variable temperature {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. In each of the six different PuO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} samples, two NMR signals are present, one for the free carbonate ligand and one for the carbonate ligand coordinated to a paramagnetic plutonium metal center. The single{sup 13}C resonance line for coordinated carbonate is consistent with expectations of a monomeric PuO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4{minus}} species in solution. A modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill NMR pulse sequence was used for determining ligand exchange parameters for paramagnetic actinide complexes. Eyring analysis at standard conditions provided activation parameters of {Delta}H = 38 KJ/M and {Delta}S = {minus}60 J/K for the plutonyl triscarbonate system, suggesting an associative transition state for the plutonyl(VI) carbonate complex self-exchange reaction.

  14. Assignment of non-crystalline forms in cellulose I by CP\\/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Wickholm; Per Tomas Larsson; Tommy Iversen

    1998-01-01

    Non-crystalline forms of cellulose in birch pulp, cotton linters and Cladophora sp were studied by CP\\/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy. New assignments were made for the NMR-signals in the lower shift part of the C-4 region (80–86ppm). These signals were assigned to cellulose at accessible fibril surfaces, cellulose at inaccessible fibril surfaces and hemicellulose. Also, further evidence was found for para-crystalline

  15. Measurement of the ^32Cl Ground State Magnetic Moment Using On-Line beta-NMR Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren F. Rogers; Andrew Davies; Jonathan Mitchell; Georgi Georgiev; Nico Coulier; Gerda Neyens; Stephanie Teughels; Paul Mantica; Jason Pond

    1998-01-01

    Part I of a two-part experiment involving the combination of beta-NMR and beta-LMR spectroscopy for measurement of ground state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of beta-emitting nuclei has been conducted on the T=1 nucleus ^32Cl at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at MSU. In this first part (beta-NMR), polarized ^32Cl fragments produced from 100MeV\\/amu ^36Ar directed 2^o off-axis on

  16. Confirming the 3D Solution Structure of a Short Double-Stranded DNA Sequence Using NMR Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhayel, Rasha A.; Berners-Price, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    2D [superscript 1]H NOESY NMR spectroscopy is routinely used to give information on the closeness of hydrogen atoms through space. This work is based on a 2D [superscript 1]H NOESY NMR spectrum of a 12 base-pair DNA duplex. This 6-h laboratory workshop aims to provide advanced-level chemistry students with a basic, yet solid, understanding of how…

  17. Metabolomic Characterization of Ovarian Epithelial Carcinomas by HRMAS-NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ben Sellem, D.; Elbayed, K.; Neuville, A.; Moussallieh, F.-M.; Lang-Averous, G.; Piotto, M.; Bellocq, J.-P.; Namer, I. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of the present study are to determine if a metabolomic study by HRMAS-NMR can (i) discriminate between different histological types of epithelial ovarian carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue, (ii) generate statistical models capable of classifying borderline tumors and (iii) establish a potential relationship with patient's survival or response to chemotherapy. Methods. 36 human epithelial ovarian tumor biopsies and 3 healthy ovarian tissues were studied using 1H HRMAS NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. Results. The results presented in this study demonstrate that the three histological types of epithelial ovarian carcinomas present an effective metabolic pattern difference. Furthermore, a metabolic signature specific of serous (N-acetyl-aspartate) and mucinous (N-acetyl-lysine) carcinomas was found. The statistical models generated in this study are able to predict borderline tumors characterized by an intermediate metabolic pattern similar to the normal ovarian tissue. Finally and importantly, the statistical model of serous carcinomas provided good predictions of both patient's survival rates and the patient's response to chemotherapy. Conclusions. Despite the small number of samples used in this study, the results indicate that metabolomic analysis of intact tissues by HRMAS-NMR is a promising technique which might be applicable to the therapeutic management of patients. PMID:21577256

  18. Study of aging in oil paintings by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spyros, Apostolos; Anglos, Demetrios

    2004-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is proposed as an efficient analytical tool in the study of painted artworks. The binding medium from two original oil paintings, dated from the early 20th and the late 17th century, was studied via high-resolution 1D and 2D NMR, establishing the advanced state of hydrolysis and oxidation of the oil paint. Studies of the solvent-extractable component from model samples of various drying oils, raw oil paints, and aged oil paints allowed the definition of several markers based on the integral ratios of various chemical species present in the 1H and 13C NMR spectra. These markers are sensitive to hydrolytic and oxidative processes that reflect the extent of aging in oil paintings. The rapidity, simplicity, and nondestructive nature of the proposed analytical NMR methodology represents a great advantage, since the usually minute sample quantities available from original artwork can be subsequently analyzed further by other analytical techniques, if necessary. PMID:15373425

  19. 60 MHz (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the analysis of edible oils.

    PubMed

    Parker, T; Limer, E; Watson, A D; Defernez, M; Williamson, D; Kemsley, E Kate

    2014-05-01

    We report the first results from a new 60 MHz (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bench-top spectrometer, Pulsar, in a study simulating the adulteration of olive oil with hazelnut oil. There were qualitative differences between spectra from the two oil types. A single internal ratio of two isolated groups of peaks could detect hazelnut oil in olive oil at the level of ?13%w/w, whereas a whole-spectrum chemometric approach brought the limit of detection down to 11.2%w/w for a set of independent test samples. The Pulsar's performance was compared to that of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Pulsar delivered comparable sensitivity and improved specificity, making it a superior screening tool. We also mapped NMR onto FTIR spectra using a correlation-matrix approach. Interpretation of this heat-map combined with the established annotations of the NMR spectra suggested a hitherto undocumented feature in the IR spectrum at ?1130 cm(-1), attributable to a double-bond vibration. PMID:24850979

  20. 60 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy for the analysis of edible oils?

    PubMed Central

    Parker, T.; Limer, E.; Watson, A.D.; Defernez, M.; Williamson, D.; Kemsley, E. Kate

    2014-01-01

    We report the first results from a new 60 MHz 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bench-top spectrometer, Pulsar, in a study simulating the adulteration of olive oil with hazelnut oil. There were qualitative differences between spectra from the two oil types. A single internal ratio of two isolated groups of peaks could detect hazelnut oil in olive oil at the level of ?13%w/w, whereas a whole-spectrum chemometric approach brought the limit of detection down to 11.2%w/w for a set of independent test samples. The Pulsar’s performance was compared to that of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Pulsar delivered comparable sensitivity and improved specificity, making it a superior screening tool. We also mapped NMR onto FTIR spectra using a correlation-matrix approach. Interpretation of this heat-map combined with the established annotations of the NMR spectra suggested a hitherto undocumented feature in the IR spectrum at ?1130 cm?1, attributable to a double-bond vibration. PMID:24850979

  1. Biological effects and physical safety aspects of NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.; Budinger, T.F.

    1985-08-01

    An assessment is made of the biological effects and physical hazards of static and time-varying fields associated with the NMR devices that are being used for clinical imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. A summary is given of the current state of knowledge concerning the mechanisms of interaction and the bioeffects of these fields. Additional topics that are discussed include: (1) physical effects on pacemakers and metallic implants such as aneurysm clips, (2) human health studies related to the effects of exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, and (3) extant guidelines for limiting exposure of patients and medical personnel to the fields produced by NMR devices. On the basis of information available at the present time, it is concluded that the fields associated with the current generation of NMR devices do not pose a significant health risk in themselves. However, rigorous guidelines must be followed to avoid the physical interaction of these fields with metallic implants and medical electronic devices. 476 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Structures of ionic liquid-water mixtures investigated by IR and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seoncheol; Ao, Mingqi; Sung, Woongmo; Moon, Bongjin; Ahlström, Bodil; Johansson, Patrik; Ouchi, Yukio; Kim, Doseok

    2014-05-28

    Imidazolium-based ionic liquids having different anions 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([BMIM]X: X = Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), and BF4(-)) and their aqueous mixtures were investigated by IR absorption and proton NMR spectroscopy. The IR spectra of these ionic liquids in the CHx stretching region differed substantially, especially for C-H bonds in the imidazolium ring, and the NMR chemical shifts of protons in the imidazolium ring also varied markedly for ILs having different anions. Upon the introduction of water to screen the electrostatic forces and separate the ions, both IR and NMR spectra of [BMIM]X (X = Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) showed significant changes, while those of [BMIM]BF4 did not change appreciably. H-D isotopic exchange rates of C(2)-H in [BMIM]X-D2O mixtures exhibited an order: C(2)-HCl > C(2)-HBr > C(2)-HI, while the C(2)-H of [BMIM]BF4 was not deuterated at all. These experimental findings, supported by DFT calculations, lead to the microscopic bulk configurations in which the anions and the protons of the cations in the halide ionic liquids have specific, hydrogen-bond type of interaction, while the BF4(-) anion does not participate in the specific interaction, but interacts less specifically by positioning itself more above the ring plane of the imidazolium cation. This structural change dictated by the anion type will work as a key element to build the structure-property relationship of ionic liquids. PMID:24728507

  3. Unraveling the structure and function of G protein-coupled receptors through NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tikhonova, Irina G.; Costanzi, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large superfamily of signaling proteins expressed on the plasma membrane. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes and, therefore, are exploited as drug targets in a multitude of therapeutic areas. In this extent, knowledge of structural and functional properties of GPCRs may greatly facilitate rational design of modulator compounds. Solution and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy represents a powerful method to gather atomistic insights into protein structure and dynamics. In spite of the difficulties inherent the solution of the structure of membrane proteins through NMR, these methods have been successfully applied, sometimes in combination with molecular modeling, to the determination of the structure of GPCR fragments, the mapping of receptor-ligand interactions, and the study of the conformational changes associated with the activation of the receptors. In this review, we provide a summary of the NMR contributions to the study of the structure and function of GPCRs, also in light of the published crystal structures. PMID:20028318

  4. Investigation of Oxidative Degradation in Polymers Using (17)O NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd M.; Celina, Mathew; Assink, Roger A.; Clough, Roger L.; Gillen, Kenneth T.; Wheeler David R.

    1999-07-20

    The thermal oxidation of pentacontane (C{sub 50}H{sub 102}), and of the homopolymer polyisoprene, has been investigated using {sup 17}O NMR spectroscopy. By performing the oxidation using {sup 17}O labeled O{sub 2} gas, it is possible to easily identify degradation products, even at relatively low concentrations. It is demonstrated that details of the degradation mechanism can be obtained from analysis of the {sup 17}O NMR spectra as a function of total oxidation. Pentacontane reveals the widest variety of reaction products, and exhibits changes in the relative product distributions with increasing O{sub 2} consumption. At low levels of oxygen incorporation, peroxides are the major oxidation product, while at later stages of degradation these species are replaced by increasing concentrations of ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters. Analyzing the product distribution can help in identification of the different free-radical decomposition pathways of hydroperoxides, including recombination, proton abstraction and chain scission, as well as secondary reactions. The {sup 17}O NMR spectra of thermally oxidized polyisoprene reveal fewer degradation functionalities, but exhibit an increased complexity in the type of observed degradation species due to structural features such as unsaturation and methyl branching. Alcohols and ethers formed from hydrogen abstraction and free radical termination.

  5. Methylation patterns of aquatic humic substances determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Steelink, C.; Wershaw, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    13C NMR spectroscopy is used to examine the hydroxyl group functionality of a series of humic and fulvic acids from different aquatic environments. Samples first are methylated with 13C-labeled diazomethane. The NMR spectra of the diazomethylated samples allow one to distinguish between methyl esters of carboxylic acids, methyl ethers of phenolic hydroxyls, and methyl ethers of phenolic hydroxyls adjacent to two substituents. Samples are then permethylated with 13C-labeled methyl iodide/NaH. 13C NMR spectra of permethylated samples show that a significant fraction of the hydroxyl groups is not methylated with diazomethane alone. In these spectra methyl ethers of carbohydrate and aliphatic hydroxyls overlap with methyl ethers of phenolic hydroxyls. Side reactions of the methyltion procedure including carbon methylation in the CH3I/NaH procedure, are also examined. Humic and fulvic acids from bog, swamp, groundwater, and lake waters showssome differences in their distribution of hydroxyl groups, mainly in the concentrations of phenolic hydroxyls, which may be attributed to their different biogeochemical origins. ?? 1987.

  6. Novel monosaccharide fermentation products in Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus identified using NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Isern, Nancy G.; Xue, Junfeng; Rao, Jaya V.; Cort, John R.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2013-04-03

    Profiles of metabolites produced by the thermophilic obligately anaerobic cellulose-degrading Gram-positive bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903 strain following growth on different monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-mannose, L-arabinose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, L-fucose, and D-fucose) as carbon sources revealed several unexpected fermentation products, suggesting novel metabolic capacities and unexplored metabolic pathways in this organism. Both 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to determine intracellular and extracellular metabolite profiles. Metabolite profiles were determined from 1-D 1H NMR spectra by curve fitting against spectral libraries provided in Chenomx software. To reduce uncertainties due to unassigned, overlapping, or poorly-resolved peaks, metabolite identifications were confirmed with 2-D homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments. In addition to expected metabolites such as acetate, lactate, glycerol, and ethanol, several novel fermentation products were identified: ethylene glycol (from growth on D-arabinose, though not L-arabinose), acetoin and 2,3-butanediol (from D-glucose and L-arabinose), and hydroxyacetone (from D-mannose and L-arabinose). Production of ethylene glycol from D-arabinose was particularly notable, with around 10% of the substrate carbon converted into this uncommon fermentation product. The novel products have not previously been reported to be produced by C. saccharolyticus, nor would they be easily predicted from the current genome annotation, and show new potentials for using this strain for production of bioproducts.

  7. Characterization of silica catalyst supports by single and multiple quantum proton NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S.J.; Uner, D.O.; King, T.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Pruski, M.; Gerstein, B.C. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1995-03-16

    Cab-O-Sil HS5, used as the support in silica supported ruthenium (Ru/SiO{sub 2}) catalysts, was characterized via single and multiple quantum (MQ) {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The samples were studied both in the presence and in the absence of ruthenium. Single quantum spin counting of protons on silica support with and without ruthenium metal indicated that the total number of hydroxyl groups decreased significantly with increasing reduction temperature over the range of 350-530{degree}C. Two different components shown in static {sup 1}H NMR were found to reveal homogeneous and inhomogenous broadening via spectral hole burning experiments. {sup 1}H MQ-NMR spin, counting, based on the number of MQ coherences observed, showed the existence of small clusters of proton spins on the silica surface. The maximum measured cluster size was 6-7, or less, spins. Segments of silica resembling the 100 face of cristobalite on the surface are postulated to be possible sites for the clusters. The clusters in pure silica became smaller as the reduction temperature increased over 500{degree}C. No such change was detected in the presence of ruthenium. 33 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The application of HPLC and microprobe NMR spectroscopy in the identification of metabolites in complex biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhaoxia; Jin, Mengxia; Liu, Xia; Guo, Wei; Jin, Xiangju; Liu, Hongyue; Wang, Yinghong

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics can be used directly to identify a variety of metabolites in biological fluids and tissues. Metabolite analysis is an important part of life science and metabolomics research. However, the identification of some metabolites using NMR spectroscopy remains a big challenge owing to low abundance or signal overlap. It is important to develop a method to measure these compounds accurately. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, metabolite prediction software packages, and spike-in experiments with authentic standards are often used to solve these problems, but they are costly and time-consuming. In this study, methods were developed to identify metabolites in complex biological mixtures using both high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and off-line microprobe NMR spectroscopy. With use of these methods, 83 and 73 metabolites were identified in Sprague Dawley rat urine and feces, respectively. Among them, 40 and 45 metabolites, respectively, could not be identified with traditional NMR methods. Our research revealed that the combination of HPLC and NMR techniques could significantly improve the accuracy of trace and overlapped metabolite identification, while offering an effective and convenient approach to identify potential biomarkers in complex biological systems. PMID:25814271

  9. Quantitation of aliphatic suberin in Quercus suber L. cork by FTIR spectroscopy and solid-state (13)C-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M H; Neto, C P; Barros, A S; Rutledge, D; Delgadillo, I; Gil, A M

    2000-01-01

    This work determined that the percentage of suberin in cork may be found by solid-state (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy and by FTIR with photoacoustic detection (FTIR-PAS) spectroscopy. A linear relationship is found between the suberin content measured through CP/MAS spectral areas and that measured gravimetrically. Furthermore, application of a partial least squares (PLS1) regression model to the NMR and gravimetric data sets clearly correlates the two sets, enabling suberin quantification with 90% precision. Suberin quantitation by FTIR-PAS spectroscopy is also achieved by a PLS1 regression model, giving 90% accurate estimates of the percentage of suberin in cork. Therefore, (13)C-CP/MAS NMR and FTIR-PAS proved to be useful and accurate noninvasive techniques to quantify suberin in cork, thus avoiding the traditional time consuming and destructive chemical methods. PMID:11054654

  10. Combining weak affinity chromatography, NMR spectroscopy and molecular simulations in carbohydrate-lysozyme interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Landström, Jens; Bergström, Maria; Hamark, Christoffer; Ohlson, Sten; Widmalm, Göran

    2012-04-21

    By examining the interactions between the protein hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) and commercially available and chemically synthesized carbohydrate ligands using a combination of weak affinity chromatography (WAC), NMR spectroscopy and molecular simulations, we report on new affinity data as well as a detailed binding model for the HEWL protein. The equilibrium dissociation constants of the ligands were obtained by WAC but also by NMR spectroscopy, which agreed well. The structures of two HEWL-disaccharide complexes in solution were deduced by NMR spectroscopy using (1)H saturation transfer difference (STD) effects and transferred (1)H,(1)H-NOESY experiments, relaxation-matrix calculations, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. In solution the two disaccharides ?-d-Galp-(1?4)-?-D-GlcpNAc-OMe and ?-D-GlcpNAc-(1?4)-?-D-GlcpNAc-OMe bind to the B and C sites of HEWL in a syn-conformation at the glycosidic linkage between the two sugar residues. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding and CH/?-interactions form the basis of the protein-ligand complexes in a way characteristic of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water molecules of both the apo-form of the protein and a ligand-protein complex showed structural change compared to a crystal structure of the protein. The flexibility of HEWL as indicated by a residue-based root-mean-square deviation analysis indicated similarities overall, with some residue specific differences, inter alia, for Arg61 that is situated prior to a flexible loop. The Arg61 flexibility was notably larger in the ligand-complexed form of HEWL. N,N'-Diacetylchitobiose has previously been observed to bind to HEWL at the B and C sites in water solution based on (1)H NMR chemical shift changes in the protein whereas the disaccharide binds at either the B and C sites or the C and D sites in different crystal complexes. The present study thus highlights that protein-ligand complexes may vary notably between the solution and solid states, underscoring the importance of targeting the pertinent binding site(s) for inhibition of protein activity and the advantages of combining different techniques in a screening process. PMID:22395160

  11. Structural investigation of aluminium doped ZnO nanoparticles by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Avadhut, Yamini S; Weber, Johannes; Hammarberg, Elin; Feldmann, Claus; Schmedt auf der Günne, Jörn

    2012-09-01

    The electrical conductivity of aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO, ZnO:Al) materials depends on doping induced defects and grain structure. This study aims at relating macroscopic electrical conductivity of AZO nanoparticles with their atomic structure, which is non-trivial because the derived materials are heavily disordered and heterogeneous in nature. For this purpose we synthesized AZO nanoparticles with different doping levels and narrow size distribution by a microwave assisted polyol method followed by drying and a reductive treatment with forming gas. From these particles electrically conductive, optically transparent films were obtained by spin-coating. Characterization involved energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, wet chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, which provided a basis for a detailed structural solid-state NMR study. A multinuclear ((27)Al, (13)C, (1)H) spectroscopic investigation required a number of 1D MAS NMR and 2D MAS NMR techniques (T(1)-measurements, (27)Al-MQMAS, (27)Al-(1)H 2D-PRESTO-III heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy), which were corroborated by quantum chemical calculations with an embedded cluster method (EEIM) at the DFT level. From the combined data we conclude that only a small part of the provided Al is incorporated into the ZnO structure by substitution of Zn. The related (27)Al NMR signal undergoes a Knight shift when the material is subjected to a reductive treatment with forming gas. At higher (formal) doping levels Al forms insulating (Al, H and C containing) side-phases, which cover the surface of the ZnO:Al particles and increase the sheet resistivity of spin-coated material. Moreover, calculated (27)Al quadrupole coupling constants serve as a spectroscopic fingerprint by which previously suggested point-defects can be identified and in their great majority be ruled out. PMID:22801707

  12. The Development of 460 GHz gyrotrons for 700 MHz DNP-NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idehara, T.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Khutoryan, E. M.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Ueda, K.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.

    2015-03-01

    Two demountable gyrotrons with internal mode converters were developded as sub-THz radiation sources for 700 MHz DNP (Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) enhanced NMR spectroscopy. Experimental study on the DNP-NMR spectroscopy will be carried out in Osaka University, Institute for Protein Research, as a collaboration with FIR UF. Both gyrotrons operate near 460 GHz and the output CW power measured at the end of transmission system made by circular waveguides is typically 20 to 30 watts. One of them named Gyrotron FU CW GVI (we are using "Gyrotron FU CW GO-1" as an official name in Osaka University) is designed to have a special function of high speed frequency modulation ?f within 100 MHz band. This will expand excitable band width of ESR and increase the number of electron spins contributing to DNP. The other gyrotron, Gyrotron FU CW GVIA ("Gyrotron FU CW GO-II") has a function of frequency tunability ?f in the range of wider than 1.5 GHz, which is achieved in steady state by changing magnetic field intensity. This function should be used for adjusting the output frequency at the optimal value to achieve the highest enhancement factor of DNP.

  13. Flexible Stoichiometry and Asymmetry of the PIDDosome Core Complex by Heteronuclear NMR Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nematollahi, Lily A.; Garza-Garcia, Acely; Bechara, Chérine; Esposito, Diego; Morgner, Nina; Robinson, Carol V.; Driscoll, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Homotypic death domain (DD)–DD interactions are important in the assembly of oligomeric signaling complexes such as the PIDDosome that acts as a platform for activation of caspase-2-dependent apoptotic signaling. The structure of the PIDDosome core complex exhibits an asymmetric three-layered arrangement containing five PIDD-DDs in one layer, five RAIDD-DDs in a second layer and an additional two RAIDD-DDs. We addressed complex formation between PIDD-DD and RAIDD-DD in solution using heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, nanoflow electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering. The DDs assemble into complexes displaying molecular masses in the range 130–158 kDa and RAIDD-DD:PIDD-DD stoichiometries of 5:5, 6:5 and 7:5. These data suggest that the crystal structure is representative of only the heaviest species in solution and that two RAIDD-DDs are loosely attached to the 5:5 core. Two-dimensional 1H,15N-NMR experiments exhibited signal loss upon complexation consistent with the formation of high-molecular-weight species. 13C-Methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy measurements of the PIDDosome core exhibit signs of differential line broadening, cross-peak splitting and chemical shift heterogeneity that reflect the presence of non-equivalent sites at interfaces within an asymmetric complex. Experiments using a mutant RAIDD-DD that forms a monodisperse 5:5 complex with PIDD-DD show that the spectroscopic signature derives from the quasi- but non-exact equivalent environments of each DD. Since this characteristic was previously demonstrated for the complex between the DDs of CD95 and FADD, the NMR data for this system are consistent with the formation of a structure homologous to the PIDDosome core. PMID:25528640

  14. Flexible Stoichiometry and Asymmetry of the PIDDosome Core Complex by Heteronuclear NMR Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, Lily A; Garza-Garcia, Acely; Bechara, Chérine; Esposito, Diego; Morgner, Nina; Robinson, Carol V; Driscoll, Paul C

    2015-02-27

    Homotypic death domain (DD)-DD interactions are important in the assembly of oligomeric signaling complexes such as the PIDDosome that acts as a platform for activation of caspase-2-dependent apoptotic signaling. The structure of the PIDDosome core complex exhibits an asymmetric three-layered arrangement containing five PIDD-DDs in one layer, five RAIDD-DDs in a second layer and an additional two RAIDD-DDs. We addressed complex formation between PIDD-DD and RAIDD-DD in solution using heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, nanoflow electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering. The DDs assemble into complexes displaying molecular masses in the range 130-158kDa and RAIDD-DD:PIDD-DD stoichiometries of 5:5, 6:5 and 7:5. These data suggest that the crystal structure is representative of only the heaviest species in solution and that two RAIDD-DDs are loosely attached to the 5:5 core. Two-dimensional (1)H,(15)N-NMR experiments exhibited signal loss upon complexation consistent with the formation of high-molecular-weight species. (13)C-Methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy measurements of the PIDDosome core exhibit signs of differential line broadening, cross-peak splitting and chemical shift heterogeneity that reflect the presence of non-equivalent sites at interfaces within an asymmetric complex. Experiments using a mutant RAIDD-DD that forms a monodisperse 5:5 complex with PIDD-DD show that the spectroscopic signature derives from the quasi- but non-exact equivalent environments of each DD. Since this characteristic was previously demonstrated for the complex between the DDs of CD95 and FADD, the NMR data for this system are consistent with the formation of a structure homologous to the PIDDosome core. PMID:25528640

  15. The contribution of solid-state NMR spectroscopy to understanding biomineralization: Atomic and molecular structure of bone.

    PubMed

    Duer, Melinda J

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has had a major impact on our understanding of the structure of mineralized tissues, in particular bone. Bone exemplifies the organic-inorganic composite structure inherent in mineralized tissues. The organic component of the extracellular matrix in bone is primarily composed of ordered fibrils of collagen triple-helical molecules, in which the inorganic component, calcium phosphate particles, composed of stacks of mineral platelets, are arranged around the fibrils. This perspective argues that key factors in our current structural model of bone mineral have come about through NMR spectroscopy and have yielded the primary information on how the mineral particles interface and bind with the underlying organic matrix. The structure of collagen within the organic matrix of bone or any other structural tissue has yet to be determined, but here too, this perspective shows there has been real progress made through application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with other techniques. In particular, NMR spectroscopy has highlighted the fact that even within these structural proteins, there is considerable dynamics, which suggests that one should be cautious when using inherently static structural models, such as those arising from X-ray diffraction analyses, to gain insight into molecular roles. It is clear that the NMR approach is still in its infancy in this area, and that we can expect many more developments in the future, particularly in understanding the molecular mechanisms of bone diseases and ageing. PMID:25797009

  16. Spectroscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes the theory and practice of IR and NMR spectroscopy for classroom and laboratory instruction. Although it is written for a course at the University of Colorado, Boulder, this site is appropriate for anyone doing analytical measurements with infrared or NMR.

  17. Single-Crystalline cooperite (PtS): Crystal-Chemical characterization, ESR spectroscopy, and {sup 195}Pt NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhdestvina, V. I., E-mail: veronika@ascnet.ru; Ivanov, A. V.; Zaremba, M. A. [Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology and Nature Management (Russian Federation); Antsutkin, O. N.; Forsling, W. [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden)

    2008-05-15

    Single-crystalline cooperite (PtS) with a nearly stoichiometric composition was characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, electron-probe X-ray microanalysis, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. For the first time it was demonstrated that {sup 195}Pt static and MAS NMR spectroscopy can be used for studying natural platinum minerals. The {sup 195}Pt chemical-shift tensor of cooperite was found to be consistent with the axial symmetry and is characterized by the following principal values: {delta}{sub xx} = -5920 ppm, {delta}{sub yy} = -3734 ppm, {delta}{sub zz} = +4023 ppm, and {delta}{sub iso} = -1850 ppm. According to the ESR data, the samples of cooperite contain copper(II), which is adsorbed on the surface during the layer-by-layer crystal growth and is not involved in the crystal lattice.

  18. Spectroscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page is a set of concept test questions about organic chemistry spectroscopy. There are ten questions about topics including trans isomer and NMR spectra, C-X vibration, wavenumber absorption, and carbon signals.

  19. NMR characterization of shocked quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, M.B.; Cygan, R.T.; Assink, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kirkpatrick, R.J. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    We have characterized experimentally and naturally-shocked quartz (both synthetic and natural samples) by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Relaxation analysis of experimentally-shocked samples provides a means for quantitative characterization of the amorphous/disordered silica component NMR spectra demonstrate that magnetization in both the amorphous and crystalline components follows power-law behavior as a function of recycle time. This observation is consistent with the relaxation of nuclear spins by paramagnetic impurities. A fractal dimension can be extracted from the power-law exponent associated with each phase, and relative abundances can be extracted from integrated intensities of deconvolved peaks. NMR spectroscopy of naturally-shocked sandstone from Meteor Crater, Arizona (USA) led to the discovery of a new amorphous hydroxylated silica phase. Solid state NMR spectra of both experimentally and naturally shocked quartz were unexpectedly rich in microstructural information, especially when combined with relaxation analysis and cross-polarization studies. We suggest solid state NMR as a potentially useful tool for examining shock-induced microstructural changes in other inorganic compounds, with possible implications for shock processing of structural ceramics.

  20. Metabolic characterization of Palatinate German white wines according to sensory attributes, varieties, and vintages using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kashif Ali; Federica Maltese; Reinhard Toepfer; Young Hae Choi; Robert Verpoorte

    2011-01-01

    1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) has been used for metabolomic analysis of ‘Riesling’ and ‘Mueller-Thurgau’\\u000a white wines from the German Palatinate region. Diverse two-dimensional NMR techniques have been applied for the identification\\u000a of metabolites, including phenolics. It is shown that sensory analysis correlates with NMR-based metabolic profiles of wine.\\u000a 1H NMR data in combination with multivariate data analysis methods,

  1. Synthesis and Resolution of the Atropisomeric 1,1'-Bi-2-Naphthol: An Experiment in Organic Synthesis and 2-D NMR Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Kendrew K. W.

    2004-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is presented. It is seen that the experiment regarding the synthesis and resolution of 1,1'-Bi-2-naphtol presents a good experiment for teaching organic synthesis and NMR spectroscopy and provides a strategy for obtaining enantiopure compounds from achiral starting materials.

  2. Characterization of reactive intermediates by multinuclear diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY).

    PubMed

    Li, Deyu; Keresztes, Ivan; Hopson, Russell; Williard, Paul G

    2009-02-17

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the most powerful and widely utilized technique for determining molecular structure. Although traditional NMR data analysis involves the correlation of chemical shift, coupling constant, and NOE interactions to specific structural features, a largely overlooked method introduced more than 40 years ago, pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE), measures diffusion coefficients of molecules in solution, thus providing their relative particle sizes. In the early 1990s, the PGSE sequence was incorporated into a two-dimensional experiment, dubbed diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY), in which one dimension represents chemical shift data while the second dimension resolves species by their diffusion properties. This combination provides a powerful tool for identifying individual species in a multicomponent solution, earning the nickname "chromatography by NMR". In this Account, we describe our efforts to utilize DOSY techniques to characterize organometallic reactive intermediates in solution in order to correlate structural data to solid-state crystal structures determined by X-ray diffraction and to discover the role of aggregate formation and solvation states in reaction mechanisms. In 2000, we reported our initial efforts to employ DOSY techniques in the characterization of reactive intermediates such as organolithium aggregates. Since then, we have explored DOSY experiments with various nuclei beyond (1)H, including (6)Li, (7)Li, (11)B, (13)C, and (29)Si. Additionally, we proposed a diffusion coefficient-formula weight relationship to determine formula weight, aggregation number, and solvation state of reactive intermediates. We also introduced an internal reference system to correlate the diffusion properties of unknown reactive intermediates with known inert molecular standards, such as aromatic compounds, terminal olefins, cycloolefins, and tetraalkylsilanes. Furthermore, we utilized DOSY to interpret the role of aggregation number and solvation state of organometallic intermediates in the reactivity, kinetics, and mechanism of organic reactions. By utilizing multinuclear DOSY methodologies at various temperatures, we also correlated solid-state X-ray structures with those in solution and discovered new reactive complexes, including a monomeric boron enolate, a product-inhibition aggregate, and a series of intermediates in the vinyl lithiation of allyl amines. As highlighted by our efforts, DOSY techniques provide practical and feasible NMR procedures and hold the promise of even more powerful insights when extended to three-dimensional experiments. PMID:19105594

  3. Correlating high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy and gene analysis in osteoarthritic cartilage.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Lauren; Shet Vishnudas, Keerthi; Fu, Eunice; Kurhanewicz, John; Ries, Michael; Alliston, Tamara; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common multifactorial and heterogeneous degenerative joint disease, and biochemical changes in cartilage matrix occur during the early stages of OA before morphological changes occur. Thus, it is desired to measure regional biochemical changes in the joint. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectroscopy is a powerful method of observing cartilaginous biochemical changes ex vivo, including the concentrations of alanine and N-acetyl, which are markers of collagen and total proteoglycan content, respectively. Previous studies have observed significant changes in chondrocyte metabolism of OA cartilage via the altered gene expression profiles of ACAN, COL2A1 and MMP13, which encode aggrecan, type II collagen and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (a protein crucial in the degradation of type II collagen), respectively. Employing HRMAS, this study aimed to elucidate potential relationships between N-acetyl and/or alanine and ACAN, COL2A1 and/or MMP13 expression profiles in OA cartilage. Thirty samples from the condyles of five subjects undergoing total knee arthroplasty to treat OA were collected. HRMAS spectra were obtained at 11.7?T for each sample. RNA was subsequently extracted to determine gene expression profiles. A significant negative correlation between N-acetyl metabolite and ACAN gene expression levels was observed; this provides further evidence of N-acetyl as a biomarker of cartilage degeneration. The alanine doublet was distinguished in the spectra of 15 of the 30 specimens of this study. Alanine can only be detected with HRMAS NMR spectroscopy when the collagen framework has been degraded such that alanine is sufficiently mobile to form a distinguished peak in the spectrum. Thus, HRMAS NMR spectroscopy may provide unique localized measurements of collagenous degeneration in OA cartilage. The identification of imaging markers that could provide a link between OA pathology and chondrocyte metabolism will facilitate the development of more sensitive diagnostic techniques and will improve methods of monitoring treatment for patients suffering from OA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25761416

  4. Heterogeneous ordered-disordered structure of the mesodomain in frozen sucrose-water solutions revealed by multiple electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanlin; Sun, Li; Warncke, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    The microscopic structure of frozen aqueous sucrose solutions, over concentrations of 0-75% (w/v), is characterized by using multiple continuous-wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic and relaxation techniques and the paramagnetic spin probe, TEMPOL. The temperature dependence of the TEMPOL EPR line-shape anisotropy reveals a mobility transition, specified at 205 K in pure water and 255 ± 5 K for >1% (w/v) added sucrose. The transition temperature is >Tg, where Tg is the homogeneous water glass transition temperature, which shows that TEMPOL resides in the mesoscopic domain (mesodomain) at water-ice crystallite boundaries and that the mesodomain sucrose concentrations are comparable at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy of TEMPOL-(2)H2-sucrose hyperfine interactions also indicates comparable sucrose concentrations in mesodomains at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin-echo (ESE) detected longitudinal and phase memory relaxation times (T1 and TM, respectively) at 6 K indicate a general trend of increased mesodomain volume with added sucrose, in three stages: 1-15, 20-50, and >50% (w/v). The calibrated TEMPOL concentrations indicate that the mesodomain volume is less than the predicted maximally freeze-concentrated value [80 (w/w); 120% (w/v)], with transitions at 15-20% and 50% (w/v) starting sucrose. An ordered sucrose hydrate phase, which excludes TEMPOL, and a disordered, amorphous sucrose-water glass phase, in which TEMPOL resides, are proposed to compose a heterogeneous mesodomain. The results show that the ratio of ordered and disordered volume fractions in the mesodomain is exquisitely sensitive to the starting sucrose concentration. PMID:23464733

  5. Heterogeneous Ordered-Disordered Structure of the Mesodomain in Frozen Sucrose-Water Solutions Revealed by Multiple Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hanlin; Sun, Li; Warncke, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The microscopic structure of frozen aqueous sucrose solutions, over concentrations of 0–75% (w/v), is characterized by using multiple continuous-wave and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic and relaxation techniques and the paramagnetic spin probe, TEMPOL. The temperature dependence of the TEMPOL EPR lineshape anisotropy reveals a mobility transition, specified at 205 K in pure water and 255 ±5 K for >1% (w/v) added sucrose. The transition temperature is >>Tg, where Tg is the homogeneous water glass transition temperature, which shows that TEMPOL resides in the mesoscopic domain (mesodomain) at water-ice crystallite boundaries, and that the mesodomain sucrose concentrations are comparable at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy of TEMPOL-2H2-sucrose hyperfine interactions also indicates comparable sucrose concentrations in mesodomains at >1% (w/v) added sucrose. Electron spin echo (ESE) – detected longitudinal and phase memory relaxation times (T1 and TM, respectively) at 6 K indicate a general trend of increased mesodomain volume with added sucrose, in three stages: 1-15, 20-50, and >50% (w/v). The calibrated TEMPOL concentrations indicate that the mesodomain volume is less than the predicted maximally freeze-concentrated value [80 (w/w); 120% (w/v)], with transitions at 15-20% and 50% (w/v) starting sucrose. An ordered sucrose hydrate phase, which excludes TEMPOL, and a disordered, amorphous sucrose-water glass phase, in which TEMPOL resides, are proposed to compose a heterogeneous mesodomain. The results show that the ratio of ordered and disordered volume fractions in the mesodomain is exquisitely sensitive to the starting sucrose concentration. PMID:23464733

  6. Structures of Glycans Bound to Receptors from Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR Spectroscopy: Quantitative Analysis by Using CORCEMA-ST.

    PubMed

    Enríquez-Navas, Pedro M; Guzzi, Cinzia; Muñoz-García, Juan C; Nieto, Pedro M; Angulo, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Glycan-receptor interactions are of fundamental relevance for a large number of biological processes, and their kinetics properties (medium/weak binding affinities) make them appropriated to be studied by ligand observed NMR techniques, among which saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy has been shown to be a very robust and powerful approach. The quantitative analysis of the results from a STD NMR study of a glycan-receptor interaction is essential to be able to translate the resulting spectral intensities into a 3D molecular model of the complex. This chapter describes how to carry out such a quantitative analysis by means of the Complete Relaxation and Conformational Exchange Matrix Approach for STD NMR (CORCEMA-ST), in general terms, and an example of a previous work on an antibody-glycan interaction is also shown. PMID:25753726

  7. Aliphatic chain length by isotropic mixing (ALCHIM): determining composition of complex lipid samples by ¹H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sachleben, Joseph R; Yi, Ruiyang; Volden, Paul A; Conzen, Suzanne D

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying the amounts and types of lipids present in mixtures is important in fields as diverse as medicine, food science, and biochemistry. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can quantify the total amounts of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in mixtures, but identifying the length of saturated fatty acid or the position of unsaturation by NMR is a daunting challenge. We have developed an NMR technique, aliphatic chain length by isotropic mixing, to address this problem. Using a selective total correlation spectroscopy technique to excite and transfer magnetization from a resolved resonance, we demonstrate that the time dependence of this transfer to another resolved site depends linearly on the number of aliphatic carbons separating the two sites. This technique is applied to complex natural mixtures allowing the identification and quantification of the constituent fatty acids. The method has been applied to whole adipocytes demonstrating that it will be of great use in studies of whole tissues. PMID:24831341

  8. Organic solute changes with acidification in Lake Skjervatjern as shown by 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; Hayes, T.

    1994-01-01

    1H-NMR spectroscopy has been found to be a useful tool to establish possible real differences and trends between all natural organic solute fractions (fulvic acids, humic acids, and XAD-4 acids) after acid-rain additions to the Lake Skjervatjern watershed. The proton NMR technique used in this study determined the spectral distribution of nonexchangeable protons among four peaks (aliphatic protons; aliphatic protons on carbon ?? or attached to electronegative groups; protons on carbons attached to O or N heteroatoms; and aromatic protons). Differences of 10% or more in the respective peak areas were considered to represent a real difference. After one year of acidification, fulvic acids decreased 13% (relative) in Peak 3 protons on carbon attached to N and O heteratoms and exhibited a decrease in aromatic protons between 27% and 31%. Humic acids also exhibited an 11% relative decrease in aromatic protons as a result of acidification. After one year of acidification, real changes were shown in three of the four proton assignments in XAD-4 acids. Peak 1 aliphatic protons increased by 14% (relative), Peak 3 protons on carbons attached to O and N heteroatoms decreased by 13% (relative), and aromatic protons (Peak 4) decreased by 35% (relative). Upon acidification, there was a trend in all solutes for aromatic protons to decrease and aliphatic protons to increase. The natural variation in organic solutes as shown in the Control Side B of the lake from 1990 to 1991 is perhaps a small limitation to the same data interpretations of acid rain changes at the Lake Skjervatjern site, but the proton NMR technique shows great promise as an independent scientific tool to detect and support other chemical techniques in establishing organic solute changes with different treatments (i.e., additions of acid rain).

  9. Surface speciation of phosphate on boehmite (gamma-AlOOH) determined from NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Feng, Jian; Kwon, Kideok D; Kubicki, James D; Phillips, Brian L

    2010-04-01

    Interaction of phosphate with the surfaces of clays and metal oxyhydroxides is important for nutrient cycling in natural and agricultural systems. We examined the specific adsorption of phosphate to boehmite (gamma-AlOOH) by solid-state (31)P NMR spectroscopy, which yields evidence for the presence of two bridging bidentate surface complexes differing in protonation. For samples prepared along the sorption isotherm at pH 5, distinct phosphate environments are observed as two major peaks in (31)P NMR spectra (chemical shifts of 0 and -6 ppm) that show little change in relative intensity with adsorbate loading. Both peaks correspond to rigid phosphate in close proximity to H, as indicated by (31)P{(1)H} cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CP/MAS) data, and yield nearly identical (31)P{(27)Al} dephasing curves in rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR) experiments. The REAPDOR results indicate that both phosphate environments have similar coordination to Al and are best fit by dephasing curves simulated for bridging bidentate configurations. The two resolved phosphate species exhibit distinct (31)P chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) and intensity variations with pH, the peak near 0 ppm being dominant at pH > 7. (31)P CSA's from quantum chemical calculations of hydrated bidentate cluster models with varying protonation state show that the CSA for monoprotonated phosphate is unique and closely matches that for the peak at -6 ppm. The CSA for the peak at 0 ppm is consistent with both di- and nonprotonated phosphate, but assignment to the latter is suggested based on the dominance of this peak in samples prepared at high pH and with trends in (31)P NMR chemical shifts. PMID:20180597

  10. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  11. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Fusion Peptides Associated with Host-Cell-Like

    E-print Network

    Weliky, David

    Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Fusion Peptides Associated with Host-Cell-mail: weliky@chemistry.msu.edu Abstract: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is "enveloped" by a membrane, and infection of a host cell begins with fusion between viral and target cell membranes. Fusion is catalyzed

  12. Response to the Letter to the Editor regarding "Determination of the fatty acid profile by 1H-NMR spectroscopy."

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In expansion of previous work (G. Knothe, J.A. Kenar, Determination of the fatty acid profile by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2004, 106, 88-96), an additional approach is discussed for quantitating saturated fatty acids in the fatty acid profiles of common vegetable oils by 1H-NM...

  13. Monitoring the synthetic procedures of commercial drugs by 2H NMR spectroscopy: the case of ibuprofen and naproxen.

    PubMed

    Acetti, Daniela; Brenna, Elisabetta; Fronza, Giovanni; Fuganti, Claudio

    2008-07-30

    We determined the D/H isotope ratios of some ibuprofen and naproxen samples by (2)H NMR spectroscopy. Some of these values were found to be useful for collecting hints on the synthetic procedures employed to prepare these drugs. Site-specific isotope ratio analysis shows great potentials in the fight against patent infringement. PMID:18585334

  14. Time-domain Bayesian detection and estimation of noisy damped sinusoidal signals applied to NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rubtsov, Denis V; Griffin, Julian L

    2007-10-01

    The problem of model detection and parameter estimation for noisy signals arises in different areas of science and engineering including audio processing, seismology, electrical engineering, and NMR spectroscopy. We have adopted the Bayesian modeling framework to jointly detect and estimate signal resonances. This considers a model of the time-domain complex free induction decay (FID) signal as a sum of exponentially damped sinusoidal components. The number of model components and component parameters are considered unknown random variables to be estimated. A Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique is used to draw samples from the joint posterior distribution on the subspaces of different dimensions. The proposed algorithm has been tested on synthetic data, the (1)H NMR FID of a standard of L-glutamic acid and a blood plasma sample. The detection and estimation performance is compared with Akaike information criterion (AIC), minimum description length (MDL) and the matrix pencil method. The results show the Bayesian algorithm superior in performance especially in difficult cases of detecting low-amplitude and strongly overlapping resonances in noisy signals. PMID:17827043

  15. Massive glutamine cyclization to pyroglutamic Acid in human serum discovered using NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagana Gowda, G A; Gowda, Yashas N; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Glutamine is one of the most abundant metabolites in blood and is a precursor as well as end product central to numerous important metabolic pathways. A number of surprising and unexpected roles for glutamine, including cancer cell glutamine addiction discovered recently, stress the importance of accurate analysis of glutamine concentrations for understanding its role in health and numerous diseases. Utilizing a recently developed NMR approach that offers access to an unprecedented number of quantifiable blood metabolites, we have identified a surprising glutamine cyclization to pyroglutamic acid that occurs during protein removal. Intact, ultrafiltered and protein precipitated samples from the same pool of human serum were comprehensively investigated using (1)H NMR spectroscopy at 800 MHz to detect and quantitatively evaluate the phenomenon. Interestingly, although glutamine cyclization occurs in both ultrafiltered and protein precipitated serum, the cyclization was not detected in intact serum. Strikingly, due to cyclization, the apparent serum glutamine level drops by up to 75% and, concomitantly, the pyroglutamic acid level increases proportionately. Further, virtually under identical conditions, the magnitude of cyclization is vastly different for different portions of samples from the same pool of human serum. However, the sum of glutamine and pyroglutamic acid concentrations in each sample remains the same for all portions. These unexpected findings indicate the importance of considering the sum of apparent glutamine and pyroglutamic acid levels, obtained from the contemporary analytical methods, as the actual blood glutamine level for biomarker discovery and biological interpretations. PMID:25746059

  16. Authentication of beef versus horse meat using 60 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jakes, W; Gerdova, A; Defernez, M; Watson, A D; McCallum, C; Limer, E; Colquhoun, I J; Williamson, D C; Kemsley, E K

    2015-05-15

    This work reports a candidate screening protocol to distinguish beef from horse meat based upon comparison of triglyceride signatures obtained by 60 MHz (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Using a simple chloroform-based extraction, we obtained classic low-field triglyceride spectra from typically a 10 min acquisition time. Peak integration was sufficient to differentiate samples of fresh beef (76 extractions) and horse (62 extractions) using Naïve Bayes classification. Principal component analysis gave a two-dimensional "authentic" beef region (p=0.001) against which further spectra could be compared. This model was challenged using a subset of 23 freeze-thawed training samples. The outcomes indicated that storing samples by freezing does not adversely affect the analysis. Of a further collection of extractions from previously unseen samples, 90/91 beef spectra were classified as authentic, and 16/16 horse spectra as non-authentic. We conclude that 60 MHz (1)H NMR represents a feasible high-throughput approach for screening raw meat. PMID:25577043

  17. Measurement of the ^32Cl Ground State Magnetic Moment Using On-Line ?-NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Warren F.; Davies, Andrew; Mitchell, Jonathan; Georgiev, Georgi; Coulier, Nico; Neyens, Gerda; Teughels, Stephanie; Mantica, Paul; Pond, Jason

    1998-10-01

    Part I of a two-part experiment involving the combination of ?-NMR and ?-LMR spectroscopy for measurement of ground state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of ?-emitting nuclei has been conducted on the T=1 nucleus ^32Cl at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at MSU. In this first part (?-NMR), polarized ^32Cl fragments produced from 100MeV/amu ^36Ar directed 2^o off-axis on a Nb target were implanted in a cubic NaCl single crystal. The asymmetric ?-decay vanished when the frequency of applied RF matched the Larmor precession frequency in a 0.1 T holding magnetic field, allowing determination of the dipole moment. In the second part (?-LMR) alignment of fragments implanted in a non-cubic host will be partially transferred to polarization at certain values of external magnetic field where substate levels cross and mix populations, manifest in the onset of decay asymmetry, from which the quadrupole frequency to magnetic moment ratio will be deduced. Results from part I, including an initial value for the ^32Cl magnetic moment, will be presented.

  18. Quadruple-resonance magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy of deuterated solid proteins.

    PubMed

    Akbey, Ümit; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J; Wegner, Sebastian; Voreck, Anja; Kunert, Britta; Bandara, Priyanga; Engelke, Frank; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2014-02-24

    (1)H-detected magic-angle spinning NMR experiments facilitate structural biology of solid proteins, which requires using deuterated proteins. However, often amide protons cannot be back-exchanged sufficiently, because of a possible lack of solvent exposure. For such systems, using (2)H?excitation instead of (1)H?excitation can be beneficial because of the larger abundance and shorter longitudinal relaxation time, T1, of deuterium. A new structure determination approach, "quadruple-resonance NMR spectroscopy", is presented which relies on an efficient (2)H-excitation and (2)H-(13)C cross-polarization (CP) step, combined with (1)H?detection. We show that by using (2)H-excited experiments better sensitivity is possible on an SH3 sample recrystallized from 30?% H2O. For a membrane protein, the ABC transporter ArtMP in native lipid bilayers, different sets of signals can be observed from different initial polarization pathways, which can be evaluated further to extract structural properties. PMID:24474388

  19. Diffusion of small molecules in a chitosan/water gel determined by proton localized NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    García-Aparicio, Carlos; Quijada-Garrido, Isabel; Garrido, Leoncio

    2012-02-15

    Proton localized NMR spectroscopy (MRS) has been applied to study the diffusion of three small molecules, caffeine, theophylline and caprolactam, in chitosan gels with different concentration of water. This technique allows the non-destructive monitorization of diffusant concentration as a function of time and location. Concentration profiles were compared with theoretical curves based on solutions of Fick's diffusion equation for the best fitting, with the appropriate boundary conditions. The measured concentration profiles show a good agreement with the Fickian law. Values of the diffusion coefficients D ranging from 6.1×10(-6) to 3.4×10(-6)cm(2)s(-1) depending on chitosan concentration and type of diffusant molecule were determined. In addition, measurements of diffusion coefficients at equilibrium conditions with proton pulsed field gradient NMR methods supported the observed Fickian behavior and showed values of D in excellent agreement with those determined by proton MRS. All these facts demonstrate that proton MRS is an appropriate method for investigating diffusion process in complex systems, such as polymer gels. PMID:22154495

  20. Characterization of alkyl carbon in forest soils by CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy and dipolar dephasing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kogel-Knabner, I.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    Samples obtained from forest soils at different stages of decomposition were treated sequentially with chloroform/methanol (extraction of lipids), sulfuric acid (hydrolysis), and sodium chlorite (delignification) to enrich them in refractory alkyl carbon. As revealed by NMR spectroscopy, this treatment yielded residues with high contents of alkyl carbon. In the NMR spectra of residues obtained from litter samples, resonances for carbohydrates are also present, indicating that these carbohydrates are tightly bound to the alkyl carbon structures. During decomposition in the soils this resistant carbohydrate fraction is lost almost completely. In the litter samples the alkyl carbon shows a dipolar dephasing behavior indicative of two structural components, a rigid and a more mobile component. As depth and decomposition increase, only the rigid component is observed. This fact could be due to selective degradation of the mobile component or to changes in molecular mobility during decomposition, e.g., because of an increase in cross linking or contact with the mineral matter of the soil.

  1. XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR Spectroscopy of In Situ Crystallization of Lithium Disilicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuss, T.; Mogus-Milankovic, A.; Ray, C. S.; Lesher, C. E.; Youngman, R.; Day, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a Li2O-2SiO2 (LS2) glass was investigated as a function of pressure and temperature up to 6 GPa and 750 C respectively, using XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Glass densified at 6 GPa has an average Si-O-Si bond angle approx.7deg lower than that found in glass processed at 4.5 GPa. At 4.5 GPa, lithium disilicate crystallizes from the glass, while at 6 GPa a new high pressure form of lithium metasilicate crystallizes. The new phase, while having lithium metasilicate crystal symmetry, contains at least 4 different Si sites. NMR results for 6 GPa sample indicate the presence of Q4 species with (Q(sup 4))Si-O-Si(Q(sup 4)) bond angles of approx.157deg. This is the first reported occurrence of Q(sup 4) species with such large bond angles in alumina free alkali silicate glass. No five- or six- coordinated Si are found.

  2. In situ and ex situ low-field NMR spectroscopy and MRI endowed by SABRE hyperpolarization.

    PubMed

    Barskiy, Danila A; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Koptyug, Igor V; He, Ping; Groome, Kirsten A; Best, Quinn A; Shi, Fan; Goodson, Boyd M; Shchepin, Roman V; Truong, Milton L; Coffey, Aaron M; Waddell, Kevin W; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-12-15

    By using 5.75 and 47.5 mT nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, up to 10(5)-fold sensitivity enhancement through signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) was enabled, and subsecond temporal resolution was used to monitor an exchange reaction that resulted in the buildup and decay of hyperpolarized species after parahydrogen bubbling. We demonstrated the high-resolution low-field proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pyridine in a 47.5 mT magnetic field endowed by SABRE. Molecular imaging (i.e. imaging of dilute hyperpolarized substances rather than the bulk medium) was conducted in two regimes: in situ real-time MRI of the reaction mixture (in which pyridine was hyperpolarized), and ex situ MRI (in which hyperpolarization decays) of the liquid hyperpolarized product. Low-field (milli-Tesla range, e.g. 5.75 and 47.5 mT used in this study) parahydrogen-enhanced NMR and MRI, which are free from the limitations of high-field magnetic resonance (including susceptibility-induced gradients of the static magnetic field at phase interfaces), potentially enables new imaging applications as well as differentiation of hyperpolarized chemical species on demand by exploiting spin manipulations with static and alternating magnetic fields. PMID:25367202

  3. In vivo sup 31 P-NMR spectroscopy of chronically stimulated canine skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, B.J. III; McCully, A.K.; Subramanian, H.V.; Hammond, R.L.; Salmons, S.; Chance, B.; Stephenson, L.W. (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Harrison (USA) Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA) Univ. of Birmingham (England))

    1988-02-01

    Chronic stimulation converts skeletal muscle of mixed fiber type to a uniform muscle made up of type I, fatigue-resistant fibers. Here, the bioenergetic correlates of fatigue resistance in conditioned canine latissimus dorsi are assessed with in vivo phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 31}P-NMR) spectroscopy. After chronic electrical stimulation, five dogs underwent {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopic and isometric tension measurements on conditioned and contralateral control muscle during stimulation for 200, 300, 500, and 800 ms of an 1,100-ms duty cycle. With stimulation, phosphocreatine (PCr) fell proportional to the degree of stimulation in both conditioned and control muscle but fell significantly less in conditioned muscle at all the least intense stimulation period (200 ms). Isometric tension, expressed as a tension time index per gram muscle, was significantly greater in the conditioned muscle at the two longest stimulation periods. The overall small change in PCr and the lack of a plateau in tension observed in the conditioned muscle are similar to that seen in cardiac muscle during increased energy demand. This study indicates that the conditioned muscle's markedly enhanced resistance to fatigue is in part the result of its increased capacity for oxidative phosphorylation.

  4. Direct measurement of brain glucose concentrations in humans by sup 13 C NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetter, R.; Novotny, E.J.; Boulware, S.D.; Rothman, D.L.; Mason, G.F.; Shulman, G.I.; Shulan, R.G.; Tamborlane, W.V. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Glucose is the main fuel for energy metabolism in the normal human brain. It is generally assumed that glucose transport into the brain is not rate-limiting for metabolism. Since brain glucose concentrations cannot be determined directly by radiotracer techniques, the authors used {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy after infusing enriched D-(1-{sup 13}C)glucose to measure brain glucose concentrations at euglycemia and at hyperglycemia in six healthy children. Brain glucose concentrations averaged 1.0 {plus minus} 0.1 {mu}mol/ml at euglycemia and 1.8-2.7 {mu}mol/ml at hyperglycemia. Michaelis-Menten parameters of transport were calculated from the relationship between plasma and brain glucose concentrations. The brain glucose concentrations and transport constants are consistent with transport not being rate-limiting for resting brain metabolism at plasma levels >3 mM.

  5. Simultaneous De Novo Identification of Molecules in Chemical Mixtures by Doubly Indirect Covariance NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengli; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The detailed characterization of complex molecular mixtures plays a key role in many areas of modern Chemistry. Here we report a novel NMR spectroscopic method that deconvolutes a complex mixture of organic molecules simultaneously into individual components and depicts their chemical structure without requiring physical separation of the components. Doubly indirect covariance spectroscopy is introduced and applied to 2D 13C-1H HSQC and 2D 1H-1H COSY spectra, which results in a 13C-13C 2D spectrum with unprecedented high resolution. This reconstituted spectrum is indeed a carbon-connectivity map that can be directly analyzed with basic graph theory to obtain the skeletal structures of individual mixture components or their fragments. The method is demonstrated for a model mixture and a natural product mixture extracted from cancer cells. Its suitability for automation makes this approach attractive for the analysis of a broad range of mixtures of natural or synthetic products. PMID:21062057

  6. Stereostructure of luminamicin, an anaerobic antibiotic, via molecular dynamics, NMR spectroscopy, and the modified Mosher method

    PubMed Central

    Gouda, Hiroaki; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Ui, Hideaki; Handa, Masaki; Sakoh, Yusuke; Iwai, Yuzuru; Hirono, Shuichi; ?mura, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    The absolute stereostructure of luminamicin, an anaerobic antibiotic, has been determined by using conformational analysis via high-temperature molecular dynamics, NMR spectroscopy, and the modified Mosher method. It was found that luminamicin has the S, S, R, R, R, R, S, S, S, R, and S configurations at C2, C4, C7, C9, C10, C11, C12, C13, C16, C28, and C29, respectively. This configuration is the same as that found in nodusmicin, which has a chemical structure quite similar to luminamicin. The structure of luminamicin consists of three different rings, i.e., a decalin ring, a 10-membered macrolactone ring, and a 14-membered macrolactone ring. The resulting three-dimensional structure of luminamicin shows an interesting feature in that the maleic anhydride functionality in conjugation with the enol ether group of the 14-membered macrolactone is nearly perpendicular to the plane of the other two rings. PMID:16344486

  7. Single-Quantum Coherence Filter for Strongly Coupled Spin Systems for Localized 1H NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Mueller, D. Christoph; Boesiger, Peter

    2000-08-01

    A pulse sequence for localized in vivo1H NMR spectroscopy is presented, which selectively filters single-quantum coherence built up by strongly coupled spin systems. Uncoupled and weakly coupled spin systems do not contribute to the signal output. Analytical calculations using a product operator description of the strongly coupled AB spin system as well as in vitro tests demonstrate that the proposed filter produces a signal output for a strongly coupled AB spin system, whereas the resonances of a weakly coupled AX spin system and of uncoupled spins are widely suppressed. As a potential application, the detection of the strongly coupled AA?BB? spin system of taurine at 1.5 T is discussed.

  8. Quantitative analysis of sesquiterpene lactones in extract of Arnica montana L. by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Staneva, Jordanka; Denkova, Pavletta; Todorova, Milka; Evstatieva, Ljuba

    2011-01-01

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used as a method for quantitative analysis of sesquiterpene lactones present in a crude lactone fraction isolated from Arnica montana. Eight main components - tigloyl-, methacryloyl-, isobutyryl- and 2-methylbutyryl-esters of helenalin (H) and 11?,13-dihydrohelenalin (DH) were identified in the studied sample. The method allows the determination of the total amount of sesquiterpene lactones and the quantity of both type helenalin and 11?,13-dihydrohelenalin esters separately. Furthermore, 6-O-tigloylhelenalin (HT, 1), 6-O-methacryloylhelenalin (HM, 2), 6-O-tigloyl-11?,13-dihydrohelenalin (DHT, 5), and 6-O-methacryloyl-11?,13-dihydrohelenalin (DHM, 6) were quantified as individual components. PMID:20837387

  9. Size effects in ferroelectric PbTiO3 nanomaterials observed by multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Emre; Matthes, Anke; Böttcher, Rolf; Gläsel, Hans-Jürgen; Hartmann, Eberhard

    2008-02-01

    Lead titanate (PbTiO3) micro- and nanocrystalline powders have been prepared from metallo-oranic precursor through combined polymerisation and pyrolysis (CPP). The enhanced liquid-precursor based version of the cpp route in combination with soft milling enables an adjustment of the mean particle size up to 5 nm. A multi-frequency (X, Q, and W band) electron paramagnetic resonance study of Cr-doped micro- and nanocrystalline PbTiO3 samples was performed. Three Cr3+ centers (C1, C2, and C3) with different axial Zero Field Splitting (ZFS) parameters were identified in microcrystalline samples. The center C1 is similar to that observed in previous X band single crystal and ceramic sample measurements. The superposition model by Newman and Urban was applied to translate the ZFS data of these centers into local Cr3+ displacements inside the distorted oxygen octahedra of the microcrystalline PbTiO3 lattice. In the nanocrystalline powders only the center C1 was observed. Its EPR spectra in dependence on the mean particle size were fitted using a spin-Hamiltonian in which a Gaussian distribution of ZFS terms was assumed. The variation of the mean value of ZFS parameter D and distribution width deltaD was determined and the critical particle size of the size-driven phase (tetragonal-cubic) transition was estimated. In nanocrystalline powders with mean particle size d < d(cr) the tetragonal C1 spectrum is not more detectable. A new Cr3+ center spectrum, C4, consisting of a single line with an isotropic g-factor is detectable allowing the cubic phase in the nanomaterials to be quantified. Further, temperature dependent EPR measurements were made which allowed the variation in Curie temperature with mean particle size to be determined. PMID:18464395

  10. LEGO-NMR spectroscopy: a method to visualize individual subunits in large heteromeric complexes.

    PubMed

    Mund, Markus; Overbeck, Jan H; Ullmann, Janina; Sprangers, Remco

    2013-10-18

    Seeing the big picture: Asymmetric macromolecular complexes that are NMR active in only a subset of their subunits can be prepared, thus decreasing NMR spectral complexity. For the hetero heptameric LSm1-7 and LSm2-8 rings NMR spectra of the individual subunits of the complete complex are obtained, showing a conserved RNA binding site. This LEGO-NMR technique makes large asymmetric complexes accessible to detailed NMR spectroscopic studies. PMID:23946163

  11. NMR study of the electric field gradient in the paramagnetic phase of M3V2O8 (M = Co, Ni) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smol'Nikov, A. G.; Ogloblichev, V. V.; Sadykov, A. F.; Piskunov, Yu. V.; Gerashchenko, A. P.; Verkhovskii, S. V.; Yakubovskii, A. Yu.; Barilo, S. N.; Bychkov, G. L.; Shiryaev, S. V.

    2011-06-01

    The NMR spectra and the decay of a spin echo signal from 51V nuclei in Kagome-staircase Co3V2O8 (CVO) and Ni3V2O8 (NVO) single crystals are measured in the temperature range 30-300 K and a magnetic field H 0 = 20 kOe. The orientation dependences of the 51V NMR line shape are used to determine the electric field gradient (EFG) parameters, namely, quadrupole frequency ? Q and asymmetry parameter ?. These parameters for NVO and CVO are ? Q = 180(10) kHz, ? = 0.5(1) and ? Q = 130(10) kHz, ? = 0.6(1), respectively. A comparison of the results of calculating EFG tensors with a point charge model and the NMR data indicates that the crystallographically equivalent vanadium atoms in the Ni3V2O8 and Co3V2O8 compounds differ in the EFG axis orientation. M3V2O8 crystals are found to have vanadium positions (V1, V2) with different orientations of the z axis, which specifies the direction of the principal value of EFG ( V zz ): these orientations lie in the bc plane and make an angle of either +51(5)° (V1) or -51(5)° (V2) with axis c. In the temperature range 30-300 K, the EFG tensor components and the local symmetry of the charge surrounding of the vanadium positions in NVO and CVO oxides are found to change insignificantly.

  12. Paramagnetic NMR Relaxation and Molecular Mechanics Studies of Chloroperoxidase-Indole Complex: Insights into the Mechanism of Chloroperoxidase-Catalyzed Regioselective Oxidation of Indole

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; He, Qinghao; Chatfield, David; Wang, Xiaotang

    2013-01-01

    To unravel the mechanism of CPO-catalyzed regioselective oxidation of indole, the structure of the CPO-indole complex was studied using NMR relaxation measurements and computational techniques. The dissociation constant (KD) of the CPO-indole complex was calculated to be approximately 21 mM. The distances (r) between protons of indole and the heme iron calculated from NMR relaxation measurements and molecular docking revealed that the pyrrole ring of indole is oriented toward the heme with its 2-H pointing directly at the heme iron. Both KD and r values are independent of pH in the range of 3.0–6.5. The stability and structure of the CPO-indole complex are also independent of the concentration of chloride/iodide ion. Molecular docking suggests the formation of a hydrogen bond between the N–H of indole and the carboxyl O of Glu 183 in the binding of indole to CPO. Simulated annealing of the CPO-indole complex using r values from NMR experiments as distance restraints reveals that the van der Waals interactions were much stronger than the Coulomb interactions in indole binding to CPO, indicating that the association of indole with CPO is primarily governed by hydrophobic rather than electrostatic interactions. This work provides the first experimental and theoretical evidence for the long-sought mechanism that leads to the “unexpected” regioselectivity of CPO-catalyzed oxidation of indole. The structure of the CPO-indole complex will serve as a lighthouse in guiding the design of CPO mutants with tailor-made activities for biotechnological applications. PMID:23634952

  13. State-of-the-Art Direct 13C and Indirect 1H-[13C] NMR Spectroscopy In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Robin A.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Behar, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy in combination with 13C-labeled substrate infusion is a powerful technique to measure a large number of metabolic fluxes non-invasively in vivo. It has been used to quantify glycogen synthesis rates, establish quantitative relationships between energy metabolism and neurotransmission and evaluate the importance of different substrates. All measurements can, in principle, be performed through direct 13C NMR detection or via indirect 1H-[13C] NMR detection of the protons attached to 13C nuclei. The choice for detection scheme and pulse sequence depends on the magnetic field strength, whereas substrate selection depends on the metabolic pathways that are studied. 13C NMR spectroscopy remains a challenging technique that requires several non-standard hardware modifications, infusion of 13C-labeled substrates and sophisticated processing and metabolic modeling. Here the various aspects of direct 13C and indirect 1H-[13C] NMR are reviewed with the aim of providing a practical guide. PMID:21919099

  14. Improvements in localized proton NMR spectroscopy of human brain. Water suppression, short echo times, and 1 ml resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, J.; Michaelis, T.; Merboldt, K. D.; Bruhn, H.; Gyngell, M. L.; Hänicke, W.

    Considerable technical improvements are reported for localized proton NMR spectroscopy using stimulated echoes. When compared to previous results, proton NMR spectra of the human brain are now obtainable (i) with in vivo water suppression factors of ?1000, (ii) with only minor T2 losses and negligible distortions due to J modulation at short echo times of 10-20 ms, and (iii) from volumes of interest as small as 1-8 ml within measuring times of 1-10 min. As a consequence, the detection of cerebral metabolites is greatly facilitated. This particularly applies to the assignment of those resonances (e.g., glutamate, taurine, inositols) that suffer from strong spin-spin coupling at the field strengths commonly in use for NMR in man. Studies of regional metabolite differences, tissue heterogeneity, and focal lesions in patients benefit from the increased spatial resolution and a concomitant reduction of partial volume effects. Localized proton NMR spectroscopy was performed on young healthy volunteers. Experiments were carried out on a 2.0 T whole-body MRI/MRS system using the standard headcoil for both imaging and spectroscopy.

  15. The use of high-resolution ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the clinical diagnosis of Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Sandra; Parkes, Hary; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    Acanthamoeba are opportunistic protozoan pathogens that can produce sight-threatening keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis. The successful prognosis requires early diagnosis and differentiation of pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. followed by aggressive treatment regimen. In this study, we tested the use of high-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy in the clinical diagnosis of Acanthamoeba. Using NMR spectroscopy combined with Pattern Recognition Analysis (PRA), we analysed variations in the biochemical 'fingerprint' of invasive and non-invasive Acanthamoeba, its closely related genus, Balamuthia mandrillaris, neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1 strain E44, a laboratory strain of E. coli K-12, HB101, mammalian cells including human brain microvascular endothelial cells and monkey kidney cells. The findings revealed significant variations in the metabolites of amoebae, mammalian cells and bacteria. Interestingly, (1)H NMR spectra provided distinct biochemical profiles of clinical and non-clinical Acanthamoeba isolates highlighting the potential of (1)H NMR spectroscopy combined with PRA for the development of a novel diagnostic test that could rapidly identify pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolates with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:21556684

  16. (1)H NMR spectroscopy for profiling complex carbohydrate mixtures in non-fractionated beer.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Bent O; Nilsson, Mathias; Bøjstrup, Marie; Hindsgaul, Ole; Meier, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    A plethora of biological and biotechnological processes involve the enzymatic remodelling of carbohydrates in complex mixtures whose compositions affect both the processes and products. In the current study, we employed high-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the analysis of cereal-derived carbohydrate mixtures as exemplified on six beer samples of different styles. Structural assignments of more than 50 carbohydrate moieties were obtained using (1)H1-(1)H2 groups as structural reporters. Spectroscopically resolved carbohydrates include more than ''20 different'' small carbohydrates with more than 38 isomeric forms in addition to cereal polysaccharide fragments with suspected organoleptic and prebiotic function. Structural motifs at the cleavage sites of starch, ?-glucan and arabinoxylan fragments were identified, showing different extent and specificity of enzymatic polysaccharide cleavage during the production of different beer samples. Diffusion ordered spectroscopy supplied independent size information for the characterisation and identification of polysaccharide fragments, indicating the presence especially of high molecular weight arabinoxylan fragments in the final beer. PMID:24360420

  17. Identification of unknown surfactants using electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy preceded by liquid ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yukio; Fukazawa, Yoshiyuki; Ito, Takashi; Sato, Hisakuni

    2002-05-01

    Commercially available but completely unknown surfactants used in the tin-lead plating industry were successfully identified by using electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy techniques, preceded by liquid ionization mass spectrometry used to obtain the preliminary information. The mass spectral data suggested that ethoxylated nonionic surfactants having a homologous distribution of molecular weights like 520, 564, 608, 652, 696, etc. were present. The NMR data suggested the presence of two aromatic rings and a quaternary carbon for the hydrophobe moiety instead of the well-known alkyl chains or alkylphenols. The unknown surfactants were finally concluded to be novel nonionic 4-(alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzyl)-phenol ethoxylates. PMID:12083668

  18. Identification of unknown surfactants using electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy preceded by liquid ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Yukio; Fukazawa, Yoshiyuki; Ito, Takashi; Sato, Hisakuni

    2002-05-01

    Commercially available but completely unknown surfactants used in the tin-lead plating industry were successfully identified by using electrospray mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy techniques, preceded by liquid ionization mass spectrometry used to obtain the preliminary information. The mass spectral data suggested that ethoxylated nonionic surfactants having a homologous distribution of molecular weights like 520, 564, 608, 652, 696, etc. were present. The NMR data suggested the presence of two aromatic rings and a quaternary carbon for the hydrophobe moiety instead of the well-known alkyl chains or alkylphenols. The unknown surfactants were finally concluded to be novel nonionic 4-(?,?-dimethylbenzyl)-phenol ethoxylates.

  19. Characterization of microbial poly (?- L-lysine) by FT-IR, Raman and solid state 13C NMR spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Shiro; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Sasaki, Chizuru; Kuwae, Akio; Hanai, Kazuhiko

    2003-07-01

    The molecular structure and conformation of microbial poly(?- L-lysine) (M-?-PL) produced by a variant of Streptomyces albulus were studied by means of FT-IR, FT-Raman and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopies. Vibrational results indicate that M-?-PL assumes a ?-sheet conformation in the solid state. Solid state 13C NMR spectra of the crystalline and the amorphous components were observed separately and the degree of crystallinity was estimated to be 63%. A plausible conformation model was proposed.

  20. Exploring weak, transient protein-protein interactions in crowded in vivo environments by in-cell NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinghua; Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Gierasch, Lila M.

    2011-01-01

    Biology relies on functional interplay of proteins in the crowded and heterogeneous environment inside cells, and functional protein interactions are often weak and transient. Thus, methods are needed that preserve these interactions and provide information about them. In-cell NMR spectroscopy is an attractive method to study a protein’s behavior in cells because it may provide residue-level structural and dynamic information. Yet several factors limit the feasibility of protein NMR spectroscopy in cells, and among them slow rotational diffusion has emerged as the most important. In this paper, we seek to elucidate the causes of the dramatically slow protein tumbling in cells and in so doing to gain insight into how the intracellular viscosity and weak, transient interactions modulate protein mobility. To address these questions, we characterized the rotational diffusion of three model globular proteins in E. coli cells using 2D heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. These proteins have a similar molecular size and globular fold, but very different surface properties, and indeed, they show very different rotational diffusion in the E. coli intracellular environment. Our data are consistent with an intracellular viscosity approximately eight times that of water—too low to be a limiting factor to observing small globular proteins by in-cell NMR spectroscopy. Thus, we conclude that transient interactions with cytoplasmic components significantly and differentially affect the mobility of proteins and therefore their NMR detectability. Moreover, we suggest that an intricate interplay of total protein charge and hydrophobic interactions plays a key role in regulating these weak intermolecular interactions in cells. PMID:21942871

  1. Application of parahydrogen induced polarization techniques in NMR spectroscopy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Duckett, Simon B; Mewis, Ryan E

    2012-08-21

    Magnetic resonance provides a versatile platform that allows scientists to examine many different types of phenomena. However, the sensitivity of both NMR spectroscopy and MRI is low because the detected signal strength depends on the population difference that exists between the probed nuclear spin states in a magnetic field. This population difference increases with the strength of the interacting magnetic field and decreases with measurement temperature. In contrast, hyperpolarization methods that chemically introduce parahydrogen (a spin isomer of hydrogen with antiparallel spins that form a singlet) based on the traditional parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) approach tackle this sensitivity problem with dramatic results. In recent years, the potential of this method for MRI has been recognized, and its impact on medical diagnosis is starting to be realized. In this Account, we describe the use of parahydrogen to hyperpolarize a suitable substrate. This process normally involves the introduction of a molecule of parahydrogen into a target to create large population differences between nuclear spin states. The reaction of parahydrogen breaks the original magnetic symmetry and overcomes the selection rules that prevent both NMR observation and parahydrogen/orthohydrogen interconversion, yielding access to the normally invisible hyperpolarization associated with parahydrogen. Therefore the NMR or MRI measurement delivers a marked increase in the detected signal strength over the normal Boltzmann-population derived result. Consequently, measurements can be made which would otherwise be impossible. This approach was pioneered by Weitekamp, Bargon, and Eisenberg, in the late 1980s. Since 1993, we have used this technique in York to study reaction mechanisms and to characterize normally invisible inorganic species. We also describe signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE), an alternative route to sensitize molecules without directly incorporating a molecule of parahydrogen. This approach widens the applicability of PHIP methods and the range of materials that can be hyperpolarized. In this Account we describe our parahydrogen studies in York over the last 20 years and place them in a wider context. We describe the characterization of organometallic reaction intermediates including those involved in catalytic reactions, either with or without hydride ligands. The collection of spectroscopic and kinetic data with rapid inverse detection methods has proved to be particularly informative. We can see enhanced signals for the organic products of catalytic reactions that are linked directly to the catalytic intermediates that form them. This method can therefore prove unequivocally that a specific metal complex is involved in a catalytic cycle, thus pinpointing the true route to catalysis. Studies where a pure nuclear spin state is detected show that it is possible to detect all of the analyte molecules present in a sample using NMR. In addition, we describe methods that achieve the selective detection of these enhanced signals, when set against a strong NMR background such as that of water. PMID:22452702

  2. Higher Order Amyloid Fibril Structure by MAS NMR and DNP Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Debelouchina, Galia T.; Bayro, Marvin J.; Fitzpatrick, Anthony W.; Ladizhansky, Vladimir; Colvin, Michael T.; Caporini, Marc A.; Jaroniec, Christopher P.; Bajaj, Vikram S.; Rosay, Melanie; MacPhee, Cait E.; Vendruscolo, Michele; Maas, Werner E.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Protein magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy has generated structural models of several amyloid fibril systems, thus providing valuable information regarding the forces and interactions that confer the extraordinary stability of the amyloid architecture. Despite these advances, however, obtaining atomic resolution information describing the higher levels of structural organization within the fibrils remains a significant challenge. Here, we detail MAS NMR experiments and sample labeling schemes designed specifically to probe such higher order amyloid structure and we have applied them to the fibrils formed by an eleven-residue segment of the amyloidogenic protein transthyretin (TTR(105-115)). These experiments have allowed us to define unambiguously not only the arrangement of the peptide ?-strands into ?-sheets but also the ?-sheet interfaces within each protofilament, and in addition to identify the nature of the protofilament-to-protofilament contacts that lead to the formation of the complete fibril. Our efforts have resulted in 111 quantitative distance and torsion angle restraints (10 per residue) that describe the various levels of structure organization. The experiments benefited extensively from the use of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), which in some cases allowed us to shorten the data acquisition time from days to hours and to improve significantly the signal-to-noise ratios of the spectra. The ?-sheet interface and protofilament interactions identified here revealed local variations in the structure that result in multiple peaks for the exposed N- and C-termini of the peptide and in inhomogeneous line-broadening for the side-chains buried within the interior of the fibrils. PMID:24304221

  3. Carbohydrate binding specificity of pea lectin studied by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Youngjoo; Shim, Gyuchang; Kang, Dongil; Kim, Yangmee

    1999-02-01

    The conformational details of Man( ?1,6)Man( ?)OMe are investigated through NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with molecular modeling. The lowest energy structure (M1) in the adiabatic energy map calculated with a dielectric constant of 50 has glycosidic dihedral angles of ?=-60°, ?=180° and ?=180°. The other low energy structure (M2) has glycosidic dihedral angles of ?=-60°, ?=180° and ?=-60°. Molecular dynamics simulations and NMR experiments prove that Man( ?1,6)Man( ?)OMe in the free form exists with conformational averaging of M1 and M2 conformers predominantly. Molecular dynamics simulations of the pea lectin-carbohydrate complex with explicit water molecules starting from the X-ray crystallographic structure of pea lectin show that the protein-carbohydrate interaction centers mainly on the hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions between protein and carbohydrate. From the molecular dynamics simulation, it is found that the M1 structure can bind to pea lectin better than the M2 structure. The origin of this selectivity is the water- mediated hydrogen bond interactions between the remote mannose and the binding site of pea lectin as well as the direct hydrogen bond interaction between the terminal mannose and pea lectin. Extensive networks of interactions in the carbohydrate binding site and the metal binding site are important in maintaining the carbohydrate binding properties of pea lectin. Especially, the predominant factors of mannose binding specificity of pea lectin are the hydrogen bond interactions between the 4th hydroxyl groups of the terminal sugar ring and the side chains of Asp-81 and Asn-125 in the carbohydrate binding site, and the additional interactions between these side chains of Asp-81 and Asn-125 and the calcium ion in the metal binding site of pea lectin.

  4. Dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced 13C NMR spectroscopy of static biological solids

    PubMed Central

    Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility of using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to enhance signals in structural studies of biological solids by solid state NMR without sample spinning. Specifically, we use 2D 13C-13C exchange spectroscopy to probe the peptide backbone torsion angles (?,?) in a series of selectively 13C-labeled 40-residue ?-amyloid (A?1–40) samples, in both fibrillar and non-fibrillar states. Experiments are carried out at 9.39 T and 8 K, using a static double-resonance NMR probe and low-power microwave irradiation at 264 GHz. In frozen solutions of A?1–40 fibrils doped with DOTOPA-TEMPO, we observe DNP signal enhancement factors of 16–21. We show that the orientation- and frequency-dependent spin polarization exchange between sequential backbone carbonyl 13C labels can be simulated accurately using a simple expression for the exchange rate, after experimentally determined homogeneous 13C lineshapes are incorporated in the simulations. The experimental 2D 13C-13C exchange spectra place constraints on the ? and ? angles between the two carbonyl labels. Although the data are not sufficient to determine ? and ? uniquely, the data do provide non-trivial constraints that could be included in structure calculations. With DNP at low temperatures, 2D 13C-13C exchange spectra can be obtained from a 3.5 mg sample of A?1–40 fibrils in 4 hr or less, despite the broad 13C chemical shift anisotropy line shapes that are observed in static samples. PMID:23562665

  5. 31P-NMR SPECTROSCOPY OF RAT LIVER DURING SIMPLE STORAGE OR CONTINUOUS HYPOTHERMIC PERFUSION1

    PubMed Central

    Rossaro, Lorenzo; Murase, Noriko; Caldwell, Cary; Farghali, Hassan; Casavilla, Adrian; Starzl, Thomas E.; Ho, Chien; Van Thiel, David H.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The ATP content and intracellular pH (pHi)3 of isolated rat liver before, during, and after cold preservation in either UW-lactobionate (UW, n=10) or Euro-Collins (EC, n=8) solutions were monitored using phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy. The 31P-NMR spectra were obtained on a 4.7-Tesla system operating at 81 MHz. Fructose metabolism, liver enzyme release, O2 consumption, and rat survival after liver transplantation were also evaluated. During simple cold storage (SCS), the ATP level declined to undetectable levels with both preservation solutions while the pHi declined to approximately 7.0. In contrast, during continuous hypothermic perfusion (CHP), hepatic ATP levels remained measurable during the 24-hour EC preservation and actually increased significantly (p>0.01) during UW preservation. After reperfusion at 37°C with Krebs-lactate, the SCS livers treated with EC differed significantly from the UW livers in terms of their ATP and pHi as well as their response to a fructose challenge. In contrast, livers undergoing CHP demonstrated similar behaviors with both solutions. These results demonstrate an increase in the hepatic ATP content during CHP which occurs with UW but is not seen with EC. On the other hand, only livers that were simply stored with UW achieved significant survival after transplant, while CHP livers were affected by vascular damage as demonstrated by fatal thrombosis after transplant. These data suggest that ATP content is not the only determinant of good liver function although a system of hypothermic perfusion might further improve liver preservation efficacy should injury to vascular endothelium be avoided. PMID:1402332

  6. Protein analysis by 31p NMR spectroscopy in ionic liquid: quantitative determination of enzymatically created cross-links.

    PubMed

    Monogioudi, Evanthia; Permi, Perttu; Filpponen, Ilari; Lienemann, Michael; Li, Bin; Argyropoulos, Dimitris; Buchert, Johanna; Mattinen, Maija-Liisa

    2011-02-23

    Cross-linking of ?-casein by Trichoderma reesei tyrosinase (TrTyr) and Streptoverticillium mobaraense transglutaminase (Tgase) was analyzed by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in ionic liquid (IL). According to (31)P NMR, 91% of the tyrosine side chains were cross-linked by TrTyr at high dosages. When Tgase was used, no changes were observed because a different cross-linking mechanism was operational. However, this verified the success of the phosphitylation of phenolics within the protein matrix in the IL. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in solid state showed that disk-shaped nanoparticles were formed in the reactions with average diameters of 80 and 20 nm for TrTyr and Tgase, respectively. These data further advance the current understanding of the action of tyrosinases on proteins on molecular and chemical bond levels. Quantitative (31)P NMR in IL was shown to be a simple and efficient method for the study of protein modification. PMID:21218836

  7. High Resolution H-1 NMR Spectroscopy in a Live Mouse subjected to 1.5 Hz Magic Angle Spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.

    2003-12-03

    It is demonstrated that the resolution of the 1H NMR metabolite spectrum in a live mouse can be significantly enhanced by an ultra-slow magic angle spinning of the animal combined with a modified phase-corrected magic angle turning (PHORMAT) pulse sequence. Proton NMR spectra were measured of the torso and the top part of the belly of a female BALBc mouse in about one hour in a 2T field, while spinning the animal at a speed of 1.5 Hz. It was found that even in this relatively low field with PHORMAT an isotropic spectrum is obtained with line widths that are a factor 4.6 smaller than those obtained in a stationary mouse. It is concluded that in vivo PHORMAT has the potential to significantly increase the utility of 1H NMR spectroscopy for biochemical and biomedical animal research.

  8. Enhanced detection of aldehydes in Extra-Virgin Olive Oil by means of band selective NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugo, Giacomo; Rotondo, Archimede; Mallamace, Domenico; Cicero, Nicola; Salvo, Andrea; Rotondo, Enrico; Corsaro, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    High resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a very powerful tool for comprehensive food analyses and especially for Extra-Virgin Olive Oils (EVOOs). We use the NMR technique to study the spectral region of aldehydes (8-10 ppm) for EVOOs coming from the south part of Italy. We perform novel experiments by using mono and bidimensional band selective spin-echo pulse sequences and identify four structural classes of aldehydes in EVOOs. For the first time such species are identified in EVOOs without any chemical treatment; only dilution with CDCl3 is employed. This would allow the discrimination of different EVOOs for the aldehydes content increasing the potentiality of the NMR technique in the screening of metabolites for geographical characterization of EVOOs.

  9. Characterisation of strongly bonded V(V) species in VO x \\/TiO 2 catalyst by static and MAS solid-state 51 V NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A Shubin; O. B Lapina; V. M Bondareva

    1999-01-01

    51V static and MAS NMR spectroscopy of central transition is shown to be an effective method for the characterisation of strongly bonded V(V) species in VOx\\/TiO2 catalysts. Simultaneous determination of quadrupole and CSA tensors parameters (i.e., CQ, ?Q, ??, ??) from both static and MAS NMR spectra of central transition permits the extraction of all NMR parameters with a reasonable

  10. Observation of intermediate states of the human prion protein by high pressure NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kachel, Norman; Kremer, Werner; Zahn, Ralph; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2006-01-01

    Background Prions as causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in humans and animals are composed of the infectious isomer, PrPSc, of the cellular prion protein, PrPC. The conversion and thus the propensity of PrPC to adopt alternative folds leads to the species-specific propagation of the disease. High pressure is a powerful tool to study the physico-chemical properties of proteins as well as the dynamics and structure of folding intermediates. Results Conformational intermediates of the human prion protein huPrPC were characterized by a combination of hydrostatic pressure (up to 200 MPa) with two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. All pressure effects showed to be reversible and there is virtually no difference in the overall pressure response between the folded core of the N-terminal truncated huPrPC(121–230) and the full-length huPrPC(23–230). The only significant differences in the pressure response of full-length and truncated PrP suggest that E168, H187, T192, E207, E211 and Y226 are involved in a transient interaction with the unfolded N-terminus. High-pressure NMR spectroscopy indicates that the folded core of the human prion protein occurs in two structural states N1and N2 in solution associated with rather small differences in free enthalpies (3.0 kJ/mol). At atmospheric pressure approximately 29% of the protein are already in the pressure favored conformation N2. There is a second process representing two possible folding intermediates I1 and I2 with corresponding average free enthalpies of 10.8 and 18.6 kJ/mol. They could represent preaggregation states of the protein that coexist at ambient pressure with a very small population of approximately 1.2% and less than 0.1%. Further the pressure response of the N-terminus indicates that four different regions are in a fast equilibrium with non-random structural states whose populations are shifted by pressure. Conclusion We identified pressure stabilized folding intermediates of the human prion protein. The regions reflecting most strongly the transition to the intermediate states are the ?1/?1-loop and the solvent exposed side of ?3. The most pressure-sensitive region (representing mainly intermediate I1) is the loop between ?-strand 1 and ?-helix 1 (residue 139–141), indicating that this region might be the first entry point for the infectious conformer to convert the cellular protein. PMID:16846506

  11. Assignment of the ferriheme resonances of high- and low-spin forms of the symmetrical hemin-reconstituted nitrophorins 1-4 by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy: the dynamics of heme ruffling deformations.

    PubMed

    Shokhireva, Tatiana K; Shokhirev, Nikolai V; Berry, Robert E; Zhang, Hongjun; Walker, F Ann

    2008-08-01

    The four major nitrophorins (NPs) of the adult blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus have been reconstituted with the "symmetrical hemin" 2,4-dimethyldeuterohemin, and their NMR spectra have been investigated as the high-spin (S=5/2) aqua and low-spin (S=1/2) N-methylimidazole (NMeIm) and cyanide complexes. The NMeIm complexes allow assignment of the high-spin hemin resonances by saturation transfer difference spectroscopy. The cyanide complexes were investigated as paramagnetic analogues of the NO complexes. It is shown that the hemin ring is highly distorted from planarity, much more so for NP2 than for NP1 and NP4 (with ruffling being the major distortion mode), for both high- and low-spin forms. For the cyanide complexes, the conformation of the distorted ring changes on the NMR timescale to yield chemical exchange (exchange spectroscopy, EXSY) cross peaks for NP1sym(CN), NP3sym(CN) and NP4sym(CN) but not for NP2sym(CN). These changes in nonplanar conformation are visualized as a "rolling" of the ruffled macrocycle ridges through some number of degrees, the lowest-energy ruffling mode. This probably occurs in response to slow protein dynamics that cause the I120 and L132 side chains in the distal heme pocket to move in opposite directions (up and away vs. down and toward the hemin ring). This in turn changes the out-of-plane displacements of the 2M and 3M of the symmetrical hemin on the NMR timescale. Two other types of dynamics, i.e., changes in heme seating and NMeIm rotation, are also observed. The highly distorted heme and the dynamics it causes are unique to the NPs and a few other heme proteins with highly distorted macrocycles. PMID:18458965

  12. A double quantum coherence transfer proton NMR spectroscopy technique for monitoring steady-state tumor lactic acid levels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Freeman, D M; Sotak, C H; Muller, H H; Young, S W; Hurd, R E

    1990-05-01

    If proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy is to provide a clinically useful modality for monitoring tumor growth and treatment, the technique must be able to unambiguously detect steady-state metabolite concentrations in human tumors and differentiate these from normal tissue levels. To address this problem, a two-dimensional double quantum coherence transfer spectroscopy (2DDQCT) method was developed and tested in a series of tumor cell lines implanted in mice. Lactate-edited proton NMR spectra were determined from a roughly 1-cm3 region of interest in EMT6, RIF-1, and fibroma. In two-dimensional data matrix representations of the 2DDQCT experiments (double quantum frequency on the vertical axis and chemical shift on the horizontal axis) the lactate signal (330 Hz with the transmitter set at the water resonance) was well-resolved from lipid (480 Hz, 600 Hz). The resolution in the double quantum dimension was also sufficient to conclude that a detectable level of alanine, which would reside at 358 Hz, was not present in the three tumor types. Following the NMR experiment, tumors were chemically assayed for lactate giving 8.17, 9.1, and 6.73 mumols/g wet wt for RIF-1, EMT6, and fibroma, respectively. This technique is likely to provide a noninvasive method for monitoring the steady-state lactic acid levels in small tumors before and after therapy, as well as in tissues with impaired oxygen delivery using clinical and research NMR systems. PMID:2345512

  13. Use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products in enviornmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Szafraniec, L.L.; Beaudry, W.T. [Army Edgewood Research, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful analytical techniques for elucidating the molecular structure of organic compounds. In environmental samples, the identification and detection of chemical warfare related compounds is best accomplished using high field high resolution NMR. This paper describes the experimental procedures.

  14. Cherry tomatoes metabolic profile determined by ¹H-High Resolution-NMR spectroscopy as influenced by growing season.

    PubMed

    Masetti, Olimpia; Ciampa, Alessandra; Nisini, Luigi; Valentini, Massimiliano; Sequi, Paolo; Dell'Abate, Maria Teresa

    2014-11-01

    The content of the most valuable metabolites present in the lipophilic fraction of Protected Geographical Indication cherry tomatoes produced in Pachino (Italy) was observed for 2 cultivated varieties, i.e. cv. Naomi and cv. Shiren, over a period of 3 years in order to observe variations due to relevant climatic parameters, e.g. solar radiation and average temperature, characterising different seasons. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy was applied and spectral data were processed by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). We found that the metabolic profile was different for the two considered cultivated varieties and they were differently affected by climatic conditions. Major metabolites influenced by cropping period were ?-tocopherol and the unsaturated lipid fraction in Naomi cherry tomatoes, and chlorophylls and phospholipids in Shiren variety, respectively. These results furnished useful information on seasonal dynamics of such important nutritional metabolites contained in tomatoes, confirming also NMR spectroscopy as powerful tool to define a complete metabolic profiling. PMID:24874378

  15. Fast characterization of functionalized silica materials by silicon-29 surface-enhanced NMR spectroscopy using dynamic nuclear polarization.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Moreno; Gajan, David; Lesage, Anne; Caporini, Marc A; Vitzthum, Veronika; Miéville, Pascal; Héroguel, Florent; Rascón, Fernando; Roussey, Arthur; Thieuleux, Chloé; Boualleg, Malika; Veyre, Laurent; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Copéret, Christophe; Emsley, Lyndon

    2011-02-23

    We demonstrate fast characterization of the distribution of surface bonding modes and interactions in a series of functionalized materials via surface-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Surface-enhanced silicon-29 DNP NMR spectra were obtained by using incipient wetness impregnation of the sample with a solution containing a polarizing radical (TOTAPOL). We identify and compare the bonding topology of functional groups in materials obtained via a sol-gel process and in materials prepared by post-grafting reactions. Furthermore, the remarkable gain in time provided by surface-enhanced silicon-29 DNP NMR spectroscopy (typically on the order of a factor 400) allows the facile acquisition of two-dimensional correlation spectra. PMID:21280606

  16. Rapid approach to identify the presence of Arabica and Robusta species in coffee using (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Ruge, Winfried; Kuballa, Thomas; Ilse, Maren; Winkelmann, Ole; Diehl, Bernd; Thomas, Freddy; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2015-09-01

    NMR spectroscopy was used to verify the presence of Arabica and Robusta species in coffee. Lipophilic extracts of authentic roasted and green coffees showed the presence of established markers for Robusta (16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC)) and for Arabica (kahweol). The integration of the 16-OMC signal (? 3.165ppm) was used to estimate the amount of Robusta in coffee blends with an approximate limit of detection of 1-3%. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of 77 commercial coffee samples (coffee pods, coffee capsules, and coffee beans). Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the spectra of lipophilic and aqueous extracts of 20 monovarietal authentic samples. Clusters of the two species were observed. NMR spectroscopy can be used as a rapid prescreening tool to discriminate Arabica and Robusta coffee species before the confirmation applying the official method. PMID:25842325

  17. COVALENT BINDING OF REDUCED METABOLITES OF [15N3] TNT TO SOIL ORGANIC MATTER DURING A BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS ANALYZED BY 15N NMR SPECTROSCOPY. (R826646)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence is presented for the covalent binding of biologically reduced metabolites of 2,4,6-15N3-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to different soil fractions (humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin) using liquid 15N NMR spectroscopy. A silylation p...

  18. Indirectly detected chemical shift correlation NMR spectroscopy in solids under fast magic angle spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Kanmi

    2011-08-15

    The development of fast magic angle spinning (MAS) opened up an opportunity for the indirect detection of insensitive low-{gamma} nuclei (e.g., {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N) via the sensitive high-{gamma} nuclei (e.g., {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F) in solid-state NMR, with advanced sensitivity and resolution. In this thesis, new methodology utilizing fast MAS is presented, including through-bond indirectly detected heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectroscopy, which is assisted by multiple RF pulse sequences for {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H homonuclear decoupling. Also presented is a simple new strategy for optimization of {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H homonuclear decoupling. As applications, various classes of materials, such as catalytic nanoscale materials, biomolecules, and organic complexes, are studied by combining indirect detection and other one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques. Indirectly detected through-bond HETCOR spectroscopy utilizing refocused INEPT (INEPTR) mixing was developed under fast MAS (Chapter 2). The time performance of this approach in {sup 1}H detected 2D {sup 1}H{l_brace}{sup 13}C{r_brace} spectra was significantly improved, by a factor of almost 10, compared to the traditional {sup 13}C detected experiments, as demonstrated by measuring naturally abundant organic-inorganic mesoporous hybrid materials. The through-bond scheme was demonstrated as a new analytical tool, which provides complementary structural information in solid-state systems in addition to through-space correlation. To further benefit the sensitivity of the INEPT transfer in rigid solids, the combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy (CRAMPS) was implemented for homonuclear {sup 1}H decoupling under fast MAS (Chapter 3). Several decoupling schemes (PMLG5{sub m}{sup {bar x}}, PMLG5{sub mm}{sup {bar x}x} and SAM3) were analyzed to maximize the performance of through-bond transfer based on decoupling efficiency as well as scaling factors. Indirect detection with assistance of PMLG{sub m}{sup {bar x}} during INEPTR transfer proved to offer the highest sensitivity gains of 3-10. In addition, the CRAMPS sequence was applied under fast MAS to increase the {sup 1}H resolution during t{sub 1} evolution in the traditional, {sup 13}C detected HETCOR scheme. Two naturally abundant solids, tripeptide N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (f-MLF-OH) and brown coal, with well ordered and highly disordered structures, respectively, are studied to confirm the capabilities of these techniques. Concomitantly, a simple optimization of {sup 1}H homonuclear dipolar decoupling at MAS rates exceeding 10 kHz was developed (Chapter 4). The fine-tuned decoupling efficiency can be obtained by minimizing the signal loss due to transverse relaxation in a simple spin-echo experiment, using directly the sample of interest. The excellent agreement between observed decoupling pattern and earlier theoretical predictions confirmed the utility of this strategy. The properties of naturally abundant surface-bound fluorocarbon groups in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were investigated by the above-mentioned multidimensional solid-state NMR experiments and theoretical modeling (Chapter 5). Two conformations of (pentafluorophenyl)propyl groups (abbreviated as PFP) were determined as PFP-prone and PFP-upright, whose aromatic rings are located above the siloxane bridges and in roughly upright position, respectively. Several 1D and 2D NMR techniques were implemented in the characterizations, including indirectly detected {sup 1}H{l_brace}{sup 13}C{r_brace} and {sup 19}F{l_brace}{sup 13}C{r_brace} 2D HETCOR, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) assisted {sup 29}Si direct polarization and {sup 29}Si{sup 19}F 2D experiments, 2D double-quantum (DQ) {sup 19}F MAS NMR spectra and spin-echo measurements. Furthermore, conformational details of two types of PFP were confirmed by theoretical calculation, operated by Dr. Takeshi Kobayashi. Finally, the arrangement of two surfactants, cetyltrimetylammoium bromide (CTAB) and cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB), mixed inside th

  19. NMR Scalar Couplings across Watson-Crick Base Pair Hydrogen Bonds in DNA Observed by Transverse Relaxation-Optimized Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantin Pervushin; Akira Ono; Cesar Fernandez; Thomas Szyperski; Masatsune Kainosho; Kurt Wuthrich

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the NMR observation of 15N--15N and 1H--15N scalar couplings across the hydrogen bonds in Watson-Crick base pairs in a DNA duplex, hJNN and hJHN. These couplings represent new parameters of interest for both structural studies of DNA and theoretical investigations into the nature of the hydrogen bonds. Two dimensional [15N, 1H]-transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) with a 15N-labeled

  20. Synthesis and Study of Isomeric Benzo[1,4]oxazines and Benzothiazolines by NMR Spectroscopy and X-Ray Crystallography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V?ctor Santes; Susana Rojas-Lima; Rosa L. Santillan; Norberto Farfán

    1999-01-01

    Summary.  ?Reaction of 2-aminophenol and 2-aminothiophenol with 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione yields a mixture of both possible isomeric\\u000a benzo[1,4]oxazines and benzothiazolines which were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the structures for 3-methyl-2-phenyl-2H-benzo[1,4]-oxazin-2-ol and 1-(2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-benzothiazol-2-yl)-ethanone were established by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  1. Electronic Structure, Chemical Bonding, and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of the Digallides of Ca, Sr, and Ba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Haarmann; Katrin Koch; Daniel Grner; Walter Schnelle; Oliver Pecher; Raul Cardoso-Gil; Horst Borrmann; Helge Rosner; Yuri Grin

    2009-01-01

    Combined application of 69,71 Ga NMR spectroscopy and quan- tum mechanical calculations reveals the chemical bonding in the digallides of Ca, Sr, and Ba. An analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) shows honeycomb-like 63 nets of the Ga atoms as the most prominent struc- tural features in SrGa2 and BaGa2 .F or CaGa2 a description of a 3+1-coordi- nated

  2. Metabolic analysis of elicited cell suspension cultures of Cannabis sativa L. by 1 H-NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaroslav Pe?; Isvett Josefina Flores-Sanchez; Young Hae Choi; Robert Verpoorte

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites. Cannabis cell cultures were treated with jasmonic acid (JA) and\\u000a pectin as elicitors to evaluate their effect on metabolism from two cell lines using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data\\u000a analysis. According to principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the chloroform\\u000a extract of the pectin-treated cultures

  3. NMR spectroscopy reveals the presence and association of lipids and keratin in adhesive gecko setae.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dharamdeep; Stark, Alyssa Y; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Lipid and protein aggregates are one of the fundamental materials of biological systems. Examples include cell membranes, insect cuticle, vertebrate epidermis, feathers, hair and adhesive structures known as 'setae' on gecko toes. Until recently gecko setae were assumed to be composed entirely of keratin, but analysis of footprints left behind by geckos walking on surfaces revealed that setae include various kinds of lipids. However, the arrangement and molecular-level behavior of lipids and keratin in the setae is still not known. In the present study we demonstrate, for the first time, the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques to confirm the presence of lipids and investigate their association with keratin in 'pristine' sheds, or natural molts of the adhesive toe pad and non-adhesive regions of the skin. Analysis was also carried on the sheds after they were 'delipidized' to remove surface lipids. Our results show a distribution of similar lipids in both the skin and toe shed but with different dynamics at a molecular level. The present study can help us understand the gecko system both biologically and for design of synthetic adhesives, but the findings may be relevant to the characteristics of lipid-protein interactions in other biological systems. PMID:25902194

  4. Membrane interactions of phylloseptin-1, -2, and -3 peptides by oriented solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Resende, Jarbas M; Verly, Rodrigo M; Aisenbrey, Christopher; Cesar, Amary; Bertani, Philippe; Piló-Veloso, Dorila; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2014-08-19

    Phylloseptin-1, -2, and -3 are three members of the family of linear cationic antimicrobial peptides found in tree frogs. The highly homologous peptides encompass 19 amino acids, and only differ in the amino acid composition and charge at the six most carboxy-terminal residues. Here, we investigated how such subtle changes are reflected in their membrane interactions and how these can be correlated to their biological activities. To this end, the three peptides were labeled with stable isotopes, reconstituted into oriented phospholipid bilayers, and their detailed topology determined by a combined approach using (2)H and (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Although phylloseptin-2 and -3 adopt perfect in-plane alignments, the tilt angle of phylloseptin-1 deviates by 8° probably to assure a more water exposed localization of the lysine-17 side chain. Furthermore, different azimuthal angles are observed, positioning the amphipathic helices of all three peptides with the charged residues well exposed to the water phase. Interestingly, our studies also reveal that two orientation-dependent (2)H quadrupolar splittings from methyl-deuterated alanines and one (15)N amide chemical shift are sufficient to unambiguously determine the topology of phylloseptin-1, where quadrupolar splittings close to the maximum impose the most stringent angular restraints. As a result of these studies, a strategy is proposed where the topology of a peptide structure can be determined accurately from the labeling with (15)N and (2)H isotopes of only a few amino acid residues. PMID:25140425

  5. Conformational studies on five octasaccharides isolated from chondroitin sulfate using NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Véronique; Chevalier, Franck; Imberty, Anne; Leeflang, Bas R; Basappa; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Kamerling, Johannis P

    2007-02-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CS-PG) are involved in the regulation of the central nervous system in vertebrates due to their presence on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix of tissues. The CS moieties are built up from repeating -4)GlcA(beta1-3)GalNAc(beta1- disaccharide units, partly O-sulfated at different positions. The presence of the disulfated disaccharide D-unit, GlcA2S(beta1-3)GalNAc6S, in the CS moiety of the proteoglycan DSD-1-PG/phosphacan, correlates with neurite outgrowth promotion. The binding of monoclonal antibody (mAb) 473HD to DSD-1-PG, reducing neuronal stimulation, is inhibited by shark cartilage CS-D. CS-D is also recognized by two other mAbs, MO-225 and CS-56. Conformational studies were performed using NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling on five octasaccharides isolated from shark cartilage CS-D. These octasaccharides present different binding properties toward the three mAbs. The combination of the experimental and theoretical approaches revealed that the sulfate group at position 2 of GlcA in disaccharide D and the presence of an exocyclic negative tail in disaccharides C [GlcA(beta1-3)GalNAc6S] and DeltaC [Delta4,5HexA(alpha1-3)GalNAc6S] are important for antibody recognition. PMID:17260946

  6. Metabolic footprinting study of white spruce somatic embryogenesis using NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dowlatabadi, Reza; Weljie, Aalim M; Thorpe, Trevor A; Yeung, Edward C; Vogel, Hans J

    2009-05-01

    White spruce is an important commercial species for reforestation. The success in its propagation through somatic embryogenesis is well documented; however the physiological processes involved are poorly understood and remain unoptimized. The variable quality embryos generated in vitro from the same genotype suggest control at the protein and metabolite level. In order to probe metabolic changes, we have conducted a "metabolic footprinting" study, whereby culture media from growing cells was quantitatively analyzed to determine which metabolites were consumed and excreted. Such experiments are advantageous in that there is no need to quench cellular metabolism or extract intracellular metabolites through time-consuming protocols. In this paper we demonstrate the application of the footprinting assay to somatic embryo cells of white spruce (Picea glauca) using 1D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We have surveyed embryogenesis metabolism in two types of media, maintenance (MN) and maturation (MT). MN medium does not result in shoot apical meristem (SAM) formation, while MT medium induces the necessary changes leading to fully developed somatic embryos. The two types of media were easily distinguished using metabolomics analysis, namely multivariate pattern recognition statistics (orthogonal partial least squares discriminatory analysis). From this analysis, we have identified numerous compounds involved with branched chain amino acid pathways such as valine and isoleucine. These results are explained on the basis of known metabolic pathways implicated in plant and animal developmental processes, and ultimately implicate altered CoA biosynthesis. PMID:19195904

  7. Hetergeneous tumour response to photodynamic therapy assessed by in vivo localised 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ceckler, T. L.; Gibson, S. L.; Kennedy, S. D.; Hill, R.; Bryant, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is efficacious in the treatment of small malignant lesions when all cells in the tumour receive sufficient drug, oxygen and light to induce a photodynamic effect capable of complete cytotoxicity. In large tumours, only partial effectiveness is observed presumably because of insufficient light penetration into the tissue. The heterogeneity of the metabolic response in mammary tumours following PDT has been followed in vivo using localised phosphorus NMR spectroscopy. Alterations in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and pH within localised regions of the tumour were monitored over 24-48 h following PDT irradiation of the tumour. Reduction of NTP and increases in Pi were observed at 4-6 h after PDT irradiation in all regions of treated tumours. The uppermost regions of the tumours (those nearest the skin surface and exposed to the greatest light fluence) displayed the greatest and most prolonged reduction of NTP and concomitant increase in Pi resulting in necrosis. The metabolite concentrations in tumour regions located towards the base of the tumour returned a near pre-treatment levels by 24-48 h after irradiation. The ability to follow heterogeneous metabolic responses in situ provides one means to assess the degree of metabolic inhibition which subsequently leads to tumour necrosis. Images Figure 4 PMID:1829953

  8. Amino acid conservation and interactions in rhodopsin: probing receptor activation by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pope, Andreyah; Eilers, Markus; Reeves, Philip J; Smith, Steven O

    2014-05-01

    Rhodopsin is a classical two-state G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In the dark, its 11-cis retinal chromophore serves as an inverse agonist to lock the receptor in an inactive state. Retinal-protein and protein-protein interactions have evolved to reduce the basal activity of the receptor in order to achieve low dark noise in the visual system. In contrast, absorption of light triggers rapid isomerization of the retinal, which drives the conversion of the receptor to a fully active conformation. Several specific protein-protein interactions have evolved that maintain the lifetime of the active state in order to increase the sensitivity of this receptor for dim-light vision in vertebrates. In this article, we review the molecular interactions that stabilize rhodopsin in the dark-state and describe the use of solid-state NMR spectroscopy for probing the structural changes that occur upon light-activation. Amino acid conservation provides a guide for those interactions that are common in the class A GPCRs as well as those that are unique to the visual system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinal Proteins - You can teach an old dog new tricks. PMID:24183693

  9. Diffusion in Model Networks as Studied by NMR and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the diffusion of small solvent molecules (octane) and larger hydrophobic dye probes in octane-swollen poly(dimethyl siloxane) linear-chain solutions and end-linked model networks, using pulsed-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), respectively, focusing on diffusion in the bulk polymer up to the equilibrium degree of swelling of the networks, that is, 4.8 at most. The combination of these results allows for new conclusions on the feasibility of different theories describing probe diffusion in concentrated polymer systems. While octane diffusion shows no cross-link dependence, the larger dyes are increasingly restricted by fixed chemical meshes. The simple Fujita free-volume theory proved most feasible to describe probe diffusion in linear long-chain solutions with realistic parameters, while better fits were obtained assuming a stretched exponential dependence on concentration. Importantly, we have analyzed the cross-link specific effect on probe diffusion independently of any specific model by comparing the best-fit interpolation of the solution data with the diffusion in the networks. The most reasonable description is obtained by assuming that the cross-link effect is additive in the effective friction coefficient of the probes. The concentration dependences as well as the data compared at the equilibrium degrees of swelling indicate that swelling heterogeneities and diffusant shape have a substantial influence on small-molecule diffusion in networks. PMID:19812716

  10. Near constant loss regime in fast ionic conductors analyzed by impedance and NMR spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Bucheli, Wilmer; Arbi, Kamel; Sanz, Jesús; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Kamba, Stanislav; Várez, Alejandro; Jimenez, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    Universal dielectric response (UDR) and nearly constant loss (NCL) dispersive regimes have been investigated in fast ion conductors with perovskite and NASICON structure by using NMR and impedance spectroscopy (IS). In this study, the electrical behavior of La(0.5)Li(0.5)TiO3 (LLTO-05) perovskite and Li(1.2)Ti(1.8)Al(0.2)(PO4)3 (LTAP0-02) NASICON compounds was investigated. In both systems a three-dimensional network of conduction paths is present. In the Li-rich LLTO-05 sample, lithium and La are randomly distributed on A-sites of perovskites, but in LTAP0-02 Li and cation vacancies are preferentially disposed at M1 and M2 sites. In perovskite compounds, local motions produced inside unit cells are responsible for the large "near constant loss" regime detected at low temperatures, however, in the case of NASICON compounds, local motions not participating in long-range charge transport were not detected. In both analyzed systems long-range correlated motions are responsible for dc-conductivity values of ceramic grains near 10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature, indicating that low-temperature local motions, producing large NCL contribution, are not required to achieve the highest ionic conductivities. PMID:24944081

  11. A Simple and Highly Sensitive Method for Magnetic Nanoparticle Quantitation Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Jonathan; Paranji, Rajan K.; Zhang, Miqin

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs) have drawn significant attention because of their potential impact on medical diagnosis and therapy. However, the difficulty of achieving reliable and standardized quantification of these nanoparticles has limited the uniform study of nanoparticle systems. Current measurement techniques have limited sensitivity, and are sophisticated and subject to individual instrumental settings. Here, a characterization method using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy is presented that can quantify SPIONs regardless of surface modification. In addition to routine quantification of SPIONs during nanoparticle development, the method can also be used with in vitro nanoparticle assays and potentially with tissue samples for biodistribution studies. Specifically, measurement of water relaxivity shifts (R1 or R2) of dissolved SPION samples is correlated with nanoparticle concentration. Unmodified and dextran- and poly(ethylene glycol)-coated SPIONs gave linear correlations between SPION concentration and R1 and R2 relaxivities over five orders of magnitude, to below 10 ppb iron. Quantification of SPION concentration was also demonstrated in the presence of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. A linear correlation between the SPION concentration and relaxivities was observed to <10 ng Fe/mL. This method is a rapid and inexpensive approach for quantitation of SPIONs and exhibits a number of advantages over many of the current methods for quantitative SPION analysis. PMID:19883608

  12. NH NMR shifts of new structurally characterized fac-[Re(CO)3(polyamine)]n+ complexes probed via outer-sphere hydrogen-bonding interactions to anions, including the paramagnetic [Re(IV)Br6]2- anion.

    PubMed

    Perera, Theshini; Marzilli, Patricia A; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2010-06-21

    fac-[Re(I)(CO)(3)L](n) complexes serve as models for short-lived fac-[(99m)Tc(I)(CO)(3)L](n) imaging tracers (L = tridentate ligands forming two five-membered chelate rings defining the L face). Dangling groups on L, needed to achieve desirable biodistribution, complicate the NMR spectra, which are not readily understood. Using less complicated L, we found that NH groups (exo-NH) projecting toward the L face sometimes showed an upfield shift attributable to steric shielding of the exo-NH group from the solvent by the chelate rings. Our goal is to advance our ability to relate these spectral features to structure and solution properties. To investigate whether exo-NH groups in six-membered rings exhibit the same effect and whether the presence of dangling groups alters the effect, we prepared new fac-[Re(CO)(3)L](n+) complexes that allow direct comparisons of exo-NH shifts for six-membered versus five-membered chelate rings. New complexes were structurally characterized with the following L: dipn [N-3-(aminopropyl)-1,3-propanediamine], N'-Medipn (3,3'-diamino-N-methyldipropylamine), N,N-Me(2)dipn (N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine), aepn [N-2-(aminoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine], trpn [tris-(3-aminopropyl)amine], and tren [tris-(2-aminoethyl)amine]. In DMSO-d(6), the upfield exo-NH signals were exhibited by all complexes, indicating that the rings sterically shield the exo-NH groups from bulky solvent molecules. This interpretation was supported by exo-NH signal shift changes caused by added halide and [ReBr(6)](2-) anions, consistent with outer-sphere hydrogen-bond interactions between these anions and the exo-NH groups. For fac-[Re(CO)(3)(dipn)]PF(6) in acetonitrile-d(3), the exo-NH signal shifted further downfield in the series, Cl(-) > Br(-) > I(-), and the plateau in the shift change required a lower concentration for smaller anions. These results are consistent with steric shielding of the exo-NH groups by the chelate rings. Nevertheless, despite its size, the shape and charge of [ReBr(6)](2-) allowed the dianion to induce large upfield paramagnetic shifts of the exo-NH signal of fac-[Re(CO)(3)(dipn)]PF(6). This dianion shows promise as an outer-sphere hydrogen-bonding paramagnetic shift reagent. PMID:20481637

  13. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, Vladimir K.; Ushakov, Igor A.

    2010-12-01

    The features of the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetic systems are considered. Specific character of detection of high-resoluton NMR spectra modified by hyperfine coupling is analyzed. Examples of the use of specific features of nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetic complexes in studies of the structure and dynamics of multielectron systems are given. The need for further experimental investigations of the nature of paramagnetic shifts (especially, contact ones) of NMR signals not only of 1H and 13C, but also of other nuclei is emphasized.

  14. Copper doping of ZnO crystals by transmutation of {sup 64}Zn to {sup 65}Cu: An electron paramagnetic resonance and gamma spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Recker, M. C.; McClory, J. W., E-mail: John.McClory@afit.edu; Holston, M. S.; Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C. [Department of Engineering Physics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Halliburton, L. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2014-06-28

    Transmutation of {sup 64}Zn to {sup 65}Cu has been observed in a ZnO crystal irradiated with neutrons. The crystal was characterized with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) before and after the irradiation and with gamma spectroscopy after the irradiation. Major features in the gamma spectrum of the neutron-irradiated crystal included the primary 1115.5?keV gamma ray from the {sup 65}Zn decay and the positron annihilation peak at 511?keV. Their presence confirmed the successful transmutation of {sup 64}Zn nuclei to {sup 65}Cu. Additional direct evidence for transmutation was obtained from the EPR of Cu{sup 2+} ions (where {sup 63}Cu and {sup 65}Cu hyperfine lines are easily resolved). A spectrum from isolated Cu{sup 2+} (3d{sup 9}) ions acquired after the neutron irradiation showed only hyperfine lines from {sup 65}Cu nuclei. The absence of {sup 63}Cu lines in this Cu{sup 2+} spectrum left no doubt that the observed {sup 65}Cu signals were due to transmuted {sup 65}Cu nuclei created as a result of the neutron irradiation. Small concentrations of copper, in the form of Cu{sup +}-H complexes, were inadvertently present in our as-grown ZnO crystal. These Cu{sup +}-H complexes are not affected by the neutron irradiation, but they dissociate when a crystal is heated to 900?°C. This behavior allowed EPR to distinguish between the copper initially in the crystal and the copper subsequently produced by the neutron irradiation. In addition to transmutation, a second major effect of the neutron irradiation was the formation of zinc and oxygen vacancies by displacement. These vacancies were observed with EPR.

  15. Multiple structural States exist throughout the helical nucleation sequence of the intrinsically disordered protein stathmin, as reported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chui, Ashley J; López, Carlos J; Brooks, Evan K; Chua, Katherina C; Doupey, Tonia G; Foltz, Gretchen N; Kamel, Joseph G; Larrosa, Estefania; Sadiki, Amissi; Bridges, Michael D

    2015-03-10

    The intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) stathmin plays an important regulatory role in cytoskeletal maintenance through its helical binding to tubulin and microtubules. However, it lacks a stable fold in the absence of its binding partner. Although stathmin has been a focus of research over the past two decades, the solution-phase conformational dynamics of this IDP are poorly understood. It has been reported that stathmin is purely monomeric in solution and that it bears a short helical region of persistent foldedness, which may act to nucleate helical folding in the C-terminal direction. Here we report a comprehensive study of the structural equilibria local to this region in stathmin that contradicts these two claims. Using the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy on spin-labeled stathmin mutants in the solution-phase and when immobilized on Sepharose solid support, we show that all sites in the helical nucleation region of stathmin exhibit multiple spectral components that correspond to dynamic states of differing mobilities and stabilities. Importantly, a state with relatively low mobility dominates each spectrum with an average population greater than 50%, which we suggest corresponds to an oligomerized state of the protein. This is in contrast to a less populated, more mobile state, which likely represents a helically folded monomeric state of stathmin, and a highly mobile state, which we propose is the random coil conformer of the protein. Our interpretation of the EPR data is confirmed by further characterization of the protein using the techniques of native and SDS PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, and multiangle and dynamic light scattering, all of which show the presence of oligomeric stathmin in solution. Collectively, these data suggest that stathmin exists in a diverse equilibrium of states throughout the purported helical nucleation region and that this IDP exhibits a propensity toward oligomerization. PMID:25715079

  16. Human in vivo cardiac phosphorus NMR spectroscopy at 3.0 Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, Angela Properzio

    One of the newest methods with great potential for use in clinical diagnosis of heart disease is human, cardiac, phosphorus NMR spectroscopy (cardiac p 31 MRS). Cardiac p31 MRS is able to provide quantitative, non-invasive, functional information about the myocardial energy metabolites such as pH, phosphocreatine (PCr), and adenosinetriphosphate (ATP). In addition to the use of cardiac p3l MRS for other types of cardiac problems, studies have shown that the ratio of PCr/ATP and pH are sensitive and specific markers of ischemia at the myocardial level. In human studies, typically performed at 1.5 Tesla, PCr/ATP has been relatively easy to measure but often requires long scan times to provide adequate signal-to-noise (SNR). In addition, pH which relies on identification of inorganic phosphate (Pi), has rarely been obtained. Significant improvement in the quality of cardiac p31 MRS was achieved through the use of the General Electric SIGNATM 3.0 Tesla whole body magnet, improved coil designs and optimized pulse sequences. Phantom and human studies performed on many types of imaging and spectroscopy sequences, identified breathhold gradient-echo imaging and oblique DRESS p31 spectroscopy as the best compromises between SNR, flexibility and quality localization. Both single-turn and quadrature 10-cm diameter, p31 radiofrequency coils, were tested with the quadrature coil providing greater SNR, but at a greater depth to avoid skeletal muscle contamination. Cardiac p31 MRS obtained in just 6 to 8 minutes, gated, showed both improved SNR and discernment of Pi allowing for pH measurement. A handgrip, in-magnet exerciser was designed, created and tested at 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla on volunteers and patients. In ischemic patients, this exercise was adequate to cause a repeated drop in PCr/ATP and pH with approximately eight minutes of isometric exercise at 30% maximum effort. As expected from literature, this exercise did not cause a drop in PCr/ATP for reference volunteers.

  17. Mixing and Matching Detergents for Membrane Protein NMR Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Columbus, Linda; Lipfert, Jan; Jambunathan, Kalyani; Fox, Daniel A.; Sim, Adelene Y.L.; Doniach, Sebastian; Lesley, Scott A.; (Stanford); (Scripps); (UV)

    2009-10-21

    One major obstacle to membrane protein structure determination is the selection of a detergent micelle that mimics the native lipid bilayer. Currently, detergents are selected by exhaustive screening because the effects of protein-detergent interactions on protein structure are poorly understood. In this study, the structure and dynamics of an integral membrane protein in different detergents is investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The results suggest that matching of the micelle dimensions to the protein's hydrophobic surface avoids exchange processes that reduce the completeness of the NMR observations. Based on these dimensions, several mixed micelles were designed that improved the completeness of NMR observations. These findings provide a basis for the rational design of mixed micelles that may advance membrane protein structure determination by NMR.

  18. Humic acids as proxies for assessing different Mediterranean forest soils signatures using solid-state CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina M B O; Fernández-Getino, Ana P; Duarte, Armando C

    2013-06-01

    Humic acids (HAs) of four representative forest soils profiles from Central Spain (two with different vegetation - pine and oak - but same parent material - granitie, and two with same vegetation - holm oak - but different parent material - granite and limestone) were investigated by solid-state cross polarization with magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The objectives included the investigation of the impact of different forest properties on HA composition, assessing how the structural characteristics of the HA vary with soil depth, and evaluating the role of HA as surrogates for mapping the different forest soils signatures using structural data derived from (13)C NMR spectroscopy. On average, alkyl C is the dominant C constituent (38-48% of the total NMR peak area) in all HA samples, followed by aromatic (12-22%) and O-alkyl C (12-19%), and finally carboxyl C (7.0-10%). The NMR data also indicated that HA composition is likely to be differently affected by the soil physico-chemical properties and type of forest vegetation. The structural characteristics of the HA from soil under oak did not differ broadly downward in the profile, whereas soil HA under pine forest exhibits a somewhat higher recalcitrant nature as a consequence of a higher degree of decomposition. The soil HA from holm oak forests differed from the other two forest soils, exhibiting a progressive decomposition of the alkyl C structures with increasing depth, while the carbohydrate-like indicator (O-alkyl C) is apparently being protected from mineralization in the horizons below the ground level. Overall, these differences in soil HA NMR signatures are an important diagnostic tool for understanding the role of different soil environmental factors on the structural composition of HA from Mediterranean forest soils. PMID:23332874

  19. The aluminum ordering in aluminosilicates: a dipolar 27Al NMR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Gee, Becky A

    2004-01-01

    The spatial ordering of aluminum atoms in CsAl(SiO3)2 and 3Al2O3.2SiO2 was probed by 27Al dipolar solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The 27Al response to a Hahn spin-echo pulse sequence in a series of aluminum-containing model crystalline compounds demonstrates that quantitative 27Al homonuclear dipolar second moments can be obtained to within +/-20% of the theoretical values, if evaluation of the spin-echo response curve is limited to short evolution periods (2t1 < or = 0.10 ms). Additionally, selective excitation of the central transition m = 1/2 --> -1/2 is necessary in order to ensure quantitative results. Restriction of spin exchange affecting the dephasing of the magnetization may decelerate the spin-echo decay at longer evolution periods. Considering these restraints, the method was used to probe the spatial distribution of aluminum atoms among the tetrahedral sites in two aluminosilicate materials. Experimental 27Al spin-echo response data for the aluminosilicates CsAl(SiO3)2 (synthetic pollucite) and 3Al2O3.2SiO2 (mullite) are compared with theoretical data based on (I) various degrees of aluminum-oxygen-aluminum bond formation among tetrahedrally coordinated aluminum atoms (Al(T(d) )-O-Al(T(d) )) and (II) the maximum avoidance of Al(T(d) )-O-Al(T(d) ) bonding. Analysis of the second moment values and resulting echo decay responses suggests that partial suppression of spin exchange among aluminum atoms in crystallographically distinct sites may contribute to the 27Al spin echo decay in 3Al2O3.2SiO2, thus complicating quantitative analysis of the data. Silicon-29 and aluminum-27 magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra of 3Al2O3.2SiO2 are consistent with those previously reported. The experimental 27Al spin-echo response behavior of CsAl(SiO3)2 differs from the theoretical response behavior based on the maximum avoidance of Al-O-Al bonding between tetrahedral aluminum sites in CsAl(SiO3)2. A single unresolved resonance is observed in both the silicon-29 and aluminum-27 MAS spectra of CsAl(SiO3)2. PMID:14745814

  20. Plasticity of the tryptophan synthase active site probed by 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schnackerz, K D; Mozzarelli, A

    1998-12-11

    The functional properties of tryptophan synthase alpha2beta2 complex are modulated by a variety of allosteric effectors, including pH, monovalent cations, and alpha-subunit ligands. The dynamic properties of the beta-active site were probed by 31P NMR spectroscopy of the enzyme-bound coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The 31P NMR signal of the cofactor phosphate of the internal aldimine exhibits a single peak at 3.73 ppm with a line width of 12 Hz. In the presence of saturating concentrations of sodium ions, the 31P signal shifts to 3.97 ppm concomitant with a change in line width to 35 Hz. The latter indicates that sodium ions decrease the conformational flexibility of the coenzyme. In the absence of ions, lowering pH leads to the appearance of a second peak at 4.11 ppm, the intensity of which decreases in the presence of cesium ions. Addition of L-serine in the presence of sodium ions leads to the formation of the external aldimine, the first metastable catalytic intermediate. The 31P signal does not change its position, but a change in line width from 35 to 5 Hz is observed, revealing that this species is characterized by a considerable degree of rotational freedom around the coenzyme C-O bond. In the presence of L-serine and either cesium ions or the allosteric effector indole-3-acetylglycine, the accumulation of the second catalytic intermediate, alpha-aminoacrylate, is observed. The 31P signal is centered at 3.73 ppm with a line width of 5 Hz, indicating that the phosphate group of the coenzyme in the external aldimine and the alpha-aminoacrylate exhibits the same flexibility but a slightly different state of ionization. Because the alpha-aminoacrylate intermediate but not the external aldimine triggers the allosteric signal to the alpha-subunit, other portions of the beta-active site modify their dynamic properties in response to the progress of the catalytic process. A narrow line width was also observed for the quinonoid species formed by nucleophilic attack of indoline to the alpha-aminoacrylate. The 31P signal moves downfield to 4.2 ppm, indicating a possible change of the ionization state of the phosphate group. Thus, the modification of either the ionization state of the coenzyme phosphate or its flexibility or both are, at least in part, responsible for the conformational events that accompany the catalytic process. PMID:9837895

  1. Structural transitions in short-chain lipid assemblies studied by (31)P-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschmidt, Jörg H; Tamm, Lukas K

    2002-01-01

    The self-assembled supramolecular structures of diacylphosphatidylcholine (diC(n)PC), diacylphosphatidylethanolamine (diC(n)PE), diacylphosphatidyglycerol (diC(n)PG), and diacylphosphatidylserine (diC(n)PS) were investigated by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as a function of the hydrophobic acyl chain length. Short-chain homologs of these lipids formed micelles, and longer-chain homologs formed bilayers. The shortest acyl chain lengths that supported bilayer structures depended on the headgroup of the lipids. They increased in the order PE (C(6)) < PC (C(9)) < or = PS (C(9) or C(10)) < PG (C(11) or C(12)). This order correlated with the effective headgroup area, which is a function of the physical size, charge, hydration, and hydrogen-bonding capacity of the four headgroups. Electrostatic screening of the headgroup charge with NaCl reduced the effective headgroup area of PS and PG and thereby decreased the micelle-to-bilayer transition of these lipid classes to shorter chain lengths. The experimentally determined supramolecular structures were compared to the assembly states predicted by packing constraints that were calculated from the hydrocarbon-chain volume and effective headgroup area of each lipid. The model accurately predicted the chain-length threshold for bilayer formation if the relative displacement of the acyl chains of the phospholipid were taken into account. The model also predicted cylindrical rather than spherical micelles for all four diacylphospholipid classes and the (31)P-NMR spectra provided evidence for a tubular network that appeared as an intermediate phase at the micelle-to-bilayer transition. The free energy of micellization per methylene group was independent of the structure of the supramolecular assembly, but was -0.95 kJ/mol (-0.23 kcal/mol) for the PGs compared to -2.5 kJ/mol (-0.60 kcal/mol) for the PCs. The integral membrane protein OmpA did not change the bilayer structure of thin (diC(10)PC) bilayers. PMID:12124281

  2. Quantitative two-dimensional EXSY spectroscopy and dynamic behavior of a paramagnetic lanthanide macrocyclic chelate: YbDOTA (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{double_prime}{prime}-tetraacetic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques, V.; Desreux, J.F. [Univ. of Liege, Sart Tilman (Belgium)

    1994-08-31

    The chelate, YbDOTA (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{double_prime}{prime}-tetraacetic acid) has two possible conformations. Interconversion between isomers was studied by EXSY NMR spectroscopy. The activation energy for conversion was found to be 65.6 kJ/mol for conversion from the major to the minor species.

  3. Analyzing the adsorption of blood plasma components by means of fullerene-containing silica gels and NMR spectroscopy in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melenevskaya, E. Yu.; Mokeev, M. V.; Nasonova, K. V.; Podosenova, N. G.; Sharonova, L. V.; Gribanov, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    The results from studying the adsorption of blood plasma components (e.g., protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, and lipoproteins of low and high density) using silica gels modified with fullerene molecules (in the form of C60 or the hydroxylated form of C60(OH) x ) and subjected to hydration (or, alternatively, dehydration) are presented. The conditions for preparing adsorbents that allow us to control the adsorption capacity of silica gel and the selectivity of adsorption toward the components of blood plasma, are revealed. The nature and strength of the interactions of the introduced components (fullerene molecules and water) with functional groups on the silica surface are studied by means of solid state NMR spectroscopy (NMR-SS). Conclusions regarding the nature of the centers that control adsorption are drawn on the basis of NMR-SS spectra in combination with direct measurements of adsorption. The interaction of the oxygen of the hydroxyl group of silica gel with fullerene, leading to the formation of electron-donor complexes of C60-H, C60-OH, or C60-OSi type, is demonstrated by the observed changes in the NMR-SS spectra of silica gels in the presence of fullerene.

  4. Detection of Potential TNA and RNA Nucleoside Precursors in a Prebiotic Mixture by Pure Shift Diffusion-Ordered NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Saidul; Aguilar, Juan A; Powner, Matthew W; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A; Sutherland, John D

    2013-01-01

    In the context of prebiotic chemistry, one of the characteristics of mixed nitrogenous-oxygenous chemistry is its propensity to give rise to highly complex reaction mixtures. There is therefore an urgent need to develop improved spectroscopic techniques if onerous chromatographic separations are to be avoided. One potential avenue is the combination of pure shift methodology, in which NMR spectra are measured with greatly improved resolution by suppressing multiplet structure, with diffusion-ordered spectroscopy, in which NMR signals from different species are distinguished through their different rates of diffusion. Such a combination has the added advantage of working with intact mixtures, allowing analyses to be carried out without perturbing mixtures in which chemical entities are part of a network of reactions in equilibrium. As part of a systems chemistry approach towards investigating the self-assembly of potentially prebiotic small molecules, we have analysed the complex mixture arising from mixing glycolaldehyde and cyanamide, in a first application of pure shift DOSY NMR to the characterisation of a partially unknown reaction composition. The work presented illustrates the potential of pure shift DOSY to be applied to chemistries that give rise to mixtures of compounds in which the NMR signal resolution is poor. The direct formation of potential RNA and TNA nucleoside precursors, amongst other adducts, was observed. These preliminary observations may have implications for the potentially prebiotic assembly chemistry of pyrimidine threonucleotides, and therefore of TNA, by using recently reported chemistries that yield the activated pyridimidine ribonucleotides. PMID:23371787

  5. Solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy of mushrooms gives directly the ratio between proteins and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Pizzoferrato, L; Manzi, P; Bertocchi, F; Fanelli, C; Rotilio, G; Paci, M

    2000-11-01

    The solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR technique has the potential of monitoring the chemical composition in the solid state of an intact food sample. This property has been utilized to study mushrooms of different species (Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus pulmunarius, and Lentinula edodes), already characterized by chemical analyses for protein and dietary fiber components. Solid-state (13)C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy reveals a large difference in the ratio between the glucidic and the proteic resonances probably depending on the mushroom species. An accurate inspection by model compounds and suitable mixtures of proteins and saccharides gives a methodology to interpret these experimental data. A good correlation (R(2) = 0.93; R(2) = 0.81) has been obtained by comparing the NMR data with the results of the chemical analyses. The results suggest the possibility to perform a taxonomic study and/or a nutritional study on the basis of the ratio between protein and polysaccharide levels determined by NMR or chemical methodologies. PMID:11087506

  6. Characterization and quantification of microstructures of a fluorinated terpolymer by both homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ok, Salim

    2015-02-01

    Fluoropolymers are usually insoluble in organic solvents. Insolubility of fluoropolymers limits basic characterization such as microstructural investigations. In the family of fluoropolymers, terpolymer of tetrafluorethylene (TFE), hexafluoropropylene (HFP), and vinylidene fluoride (VDF), named THV is one of the newest members. There are nine grades of THV available. Among the nine grades, THV-221 G is an ideal model polymer for basic characterization purposes. THV-221 G is soluble in solvents such as acetone and ethyl acetate. In the current report, both homonuclear and heteronuclear 2D NMR experiments were employed in solution on THV-221 G. The homonuclear gradient correlation spectroscopy NMR measurement revealed that THV has two adjacent TFE units in addition to TFE-HFP sequence orders. The fraction of the microstructures is quantified by the analysis of 1D solution (19)F NMR spectrum. Further, the gradient heteronuclear single quantum coherence experiment helped with the clarification of chemical environments of the units TFE, HFP, and VDF. The 1D solution (13)C NMR spectrum was helpful in clarifying sequence assignments of VDF. It is concluded that THV is a random polymer with a limited fraction of TFE-TFE and TFE-HFP sequence orders in addition to head-to-tail polymerization of VDF unit. PMID:25327292

  7. Precision high-throughput proton NMR spectroscopy of human urine, serum, and plasma for large-scale metabolic phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Dona, Anthony C; Jiménez, Beatriz; Schäfer, Hartmut; Humpfer, Eberhard; Spraul, Manfred; Lewis, Matthew R; Pearce, Jake T M; Holmes, Elaine; Lindon, John C; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2014-10-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic phenotyping of urine and blood plasma/serum samples provides important prognostic and diagnostic information and permits monitoring of disease progression in an objective manner. Much effort has been made in recent years to develop NMR instrumentation and technology to allow the acquisition of data in an effective, reproducible, and high-throughput approach that allows the study of general population samples from epidemiological collections for biomarkers of disease risk. The challenge remains to develop highly reproducible methods and standardized protocols that minimize technical or experimental bias, allowing realistic interlaboratory comparisons of subtle biomarker information. Here we present a detailed set of updated protocols that carefully consider major experimental conditions, including sample preparation, spectrometer parameters, NMR pulse sequences, throughput, reproducibility, quality control, and resolution. These results provide an experimental platform that facilitates NMR spectroscopy usage across different large cohorts of biofluid samples, enabling integration of global metabolic profiling that is a prerequisite for personalized healthcare. PMID:25180432

  8. Improving the resolution in proton-detected through-space heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ming; Trébosc, J.; Lafon, O.; Pourpoint, F.; Hu, Bingwen; Chen, Qun; Amoureux, J.-P.

    2014-08-01

    Connectivities and proximities between protons and low-gamma nuclei can be probed in solid-state NMR spectroscopy using two-dimensional (2D) proton-detected heteronuclear correlation, through Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Correlation (HMQC) pulse sequence. The indirect detection via protons dramatically enhances the sensitivity. However, the spectra are often broadened along the indirect F1 dimension by the decay of heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherences under the strong 1H-1H dipolar couplings. This work presents a systematic comparison of the performances of various decoupling schemes during the indirect t1 evolution period of dipolar-mediated HMQC (D-HMQC) experiment. We demonstrate that 1H-1H dipolar decoupling sequences during t1, such as symmetry-based schemes, phase-modulated Lee-Goldburg (PMLG) and Decoupling Using Mind-Boggling Optimization (DUMBO), provide better resolution than continuous wave 1H irradiation. We also report that high resolution requires the preservation of 1H isotropic chemical shifts during the decoupling sequences. When observing indirectly broad spectra presenting numerous spinning sidebands, the D-HMQC sequence must be fully rotor-synchronized owing to the rotor-synchronized indirect sampling and dipolar recoupling sequence employed. In this case, we propose a solution to reduce artefact sidebands caused by the modulation of window delays before and after the decoupling application during the t1 period. Moreover, we show that 1H-1H dipolar decoupling sequence using Smooth Amplitude Modulation (SAM) minimizes the t1-noise. The performances of the various decoupling schemes are assessed via numerical simulations and compared to 2D 1H-{13C} D-HMQC experiments on [U-13C]-L-histidine?HCl?H2O at various magnetic fields and Magic Angle spinning (MAS) frequencies. Great resolution and sensitivity enhancements resulting from decoupling during t1 period enable the detection of heteronuclear correlation between aliphatic protons and ammonium 14N sites in L-histidine?HCl?H2O.

  9. Membrane interaction of neuropeptide Y detected by EPR and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lars; Scheidt, Holger A; Bettio, Andrea; Huster, Daniel; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Arnold, Klaus; Zschörnig, Olaf

    2005-08-15

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant peptides in the central nervous system of mammals. It belongs to the best-conserved peptides in nature, i.e., the amino acid sequences of even evolutionary widely separated species are very similar to each other. Using porcine NPY, which differs from human NPY only at position 17 (a leucine residue exchanged for a methionine), labeled with a TOAC spin probe at the 2nd, 32nd, or 34th positions of the peptide backbone, the membrane binding and penetration of NPY was determined using EPR and NMR spectroscopy. The vesicular membranes were composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine at varying mixing ratios. From the analysis of the EPR line shapes, the spectral contributions of free, dimerized, and membrane bound NPY could be separated. This analysis was further supported by quenching experiments, which selected the contributions of the bound NPY fraction. The results of this study give rise to a model where the alpha-helical part of NPY (amino acids 13-36) penetrates the membrane interface. The unstructured N-terminal part (amino acids 1-12) extends into the aqueous phase with occasional contacts with the lipid headgroup region. Besides the mixing ratio of zwitterionic and negatively charged phospholipid species, the electrostatic peptide membrane interactions are influenced by the pH value, which determines the net charge of the peptide resulting in a modified membrane binding affinity. The results of these variations indicate that NPY binding to phospholipid membranes depends strongly on the electrostatic interactions. An estimation of the transfer energy of the peptide from aqueous solution to the membrane interface DeltaG supports the preferential interaction of NPY with negatively charged membranes. PMID:16095559

  10. Visualising substrate-fingermark interactions: Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of amino acid reagent development on cellulose substrates.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Xanthe; Shimmon, Ronald; Roux, Claude; Lennard, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Most spectroscopic studies of the reaction products formed by ninhydrin, 1,2-indanedione-zinc (Ind-Zn) and 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) when reacted with amino acids or latent fingermarks on paper substrates are focused on visible absorption or luminescence spectroscopy. In addition, structural elucidation studies are typically limited to solution-based mass spectrometry or liquid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which does not provide an accurate representation of the fingermark development process on common paper substrates. The research presented in this article demonstrates that solid-state carbon-13 magic angle spinning NMR ((13)C-MAS-NMR) is a technique that can not only be utilised for structural studies of fingermark enhancement reagents, but is a promising technique for characterising the effect of paper chemistry on fingermark deposition and enhancement. The latter opens up a research area that has been under-explored to date but has the potential to improve our understanding of how fingermark secretions and enhancement reagents interact with paper substrates. PMID:25766739

  11. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter in glacial ice: coupling natural abundance 1H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pautler, Brent G; Woods, Gwen C; Dubnick, Ashley; Simpson, André J; Sharp, Martin J; Fitzsimons, Sean J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2012-04-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are the second largest freshwater reservoir in the global hydrologic cycle, and the onset of global climate warming has necessitated an assessment of their contributions to sea-level rise and the potential release of nutrients to nearby aquatic environments. In particular, the release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from glacier melt could stimulate microbial activity in both glacial ecosystems and adjacent watersheds, but this would largely depend on the composition of the material released. Using fluorescence and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, we characterize DOM at its natural abundance in unaltered samples from a number of glaciers that differ in geographic location, thermal regime, and sample depth. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modeling of DOM fluorophores identifies components in the ice that are predominantly proteinaceous in character, while (1)H NMR spectroscopy reveals a mixture of small molecules that likely originate from native microbes. Spectrofluorescence also reveals a terrestrial contribution that was below the detection limits of NMR; however, (1)H nuclei from levoglucosan was identified in Arctic glacier ice samples. This study suggests that the bulk of the DOM from these glaciers is a mixture of biologically labile molecules derived from microbes. PMID:22385100

  12. Enhanced resolution and quantitation from `ultrahigh' eld NMR spectroscopy of glasses

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    -ordination environments in silicate glasses using 25 Mg MAS NMR. Also presented are 17 O MAS NMR spectra of a zeolite in the devel- opment of structural and dynamical models of glass structure [1±3]. The chemical shift is a sen- sitive probe of the local environment of a given isotope, hence providing an inventory of the spe- cies

  13. Organic Spectroscopy Laboratory: Utilizing IR and NMR in the Identification of an Unknown Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glagovich, Neil M.; Shine, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that emphasizes the interpretation of both infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra in the elucidation of the structure of an unknown compound was developed. The method helps students determine [to the first power]H- and [to the thirteenth power]C-NMR spectra from the structures of compounds and to…

  14. Assessing the fate and transformation of plant residues in the terrestrial environment using HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, Brian P.; Simpson, Myrna J.; Simpson, Andre J.

    2006-08-01

    Plant litter decomposition plays a fundamental role in carbon and nitrogen cycles, provides key nutrients to the soil environment and represents a potentially large positive feedback to atmospheric CO 2. However, the full details of decomposition pathways and products are unknown. Here we present the first application of HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy on 13C and 15N labeled plant materials, and apply this approach in a preliminary study to monitor the environmental degradation of the pine and wheatgrass residues over time. In HR-MAS, is it possible to acquire very high resolution NMR data of plant biomass, and apply the vast array of multidimensional experiments available in conventional solution-state NMR. High levels of isotopic enrichment combined with HR-MAS significantly enhance the detection limits, and provide a wealth of information that is unattainable by any other method. Diffusion edited HR-MAS NMR data reveal the rapid loss of carbohydrate structures, while two-dimensional (2-D) HR-MAS NMR spectra demonstrate the relatively fast loss of both hydrolysable and condensed tannin structures from all plant tissues studied. Aromatic (partially lignin) and aliphatic components (waxes, cuticles) tend to persist, along with a small fraction of carbohydrate, and become highly functionalized over time. While one-dimensional (1-D) 13C HR-MAS NMR spectra of fresh plant tissue reflect compositional differences between pine and grass, these differences become negligible after decomposition suggesting that recalcitrant carbon may be similar despite the plant source. Two-dimensional 1H- 15N HR-MAS NMR analysis of the pine residue suggests that nitrogen from specific peptides is either selectively preserved or used for the synthesis of what appears to be novel structures. The amount of relevant data generated from plant components in situ using HR-MAS NMR is highly encouraging, and demonstrates that complete assignment will yield unprecedented structural knowledge of plant cell components, and provide a powerful tool with which to assess carbon sequestration and transformation in the environment.

  15. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy studies of xylans in the cell wall of Palmaria palmata (L. Kuntze, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Lahaye, Marc; Rondeau-Mouro, Corinne; Deniaud, Estelle; Buléon, Alain

    2003-07-22

    The chemical structure and interactions of the cell wall polysaccharides from the red edible seaweed Palmaria palmata were studied by liquid-like magic-angle-spinning (MAS) and cross-polarization MAS (CPMAS) solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. The liquid-like MAS and CPMAS 13C NMR spectra of the rehydrated algal powder revealed the presence of beta-(1-->4)/beta-(1-->3)-linked D-xylan with chemical shifts close to those observed in the solution 13C NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide. Observation of mix-linked xylan in the liquid-like MAS 13C NMR spectrum indicated that part of this cell wall polysaccharide is loosely held in the alga. The CPMAS NMR spectrum of the dry algal powder alcohol insoluble residue (AIR) showed broad peaks most of which corresponded to the mix-linked xylan. Hydration of AIR induced a marked increase in the signal resolution also in the CPMAS NMR spectra together with a shift of the C-3 and C-4 signals of the (1-->3)- and (1-->4)-linked xylose, respectively. Such modifications were present in the spectrum of hydrated (1-->3)-linked xylan from the green seaweed Caulerpa taxifolia and absent in that of (1-->4)-linked xylan from P. palmata. This result emphasizes the important role of (1-->3) linkages on the mix-linked xylan hydration-induced conformational rearrangement. The mix-linked xylan signals were observed in the CPMAS NMR spectrum of hydrated residues obtained after extensive extractions by NaOH or strong chaotropic solutions indicating strong hydrogen bonds or covalent linkages. T(1 rho) relaxations were measured close or above 10 ms for the mix-linked xylan in the dry and hydrated state in AIR and indicated that the overall xylan chains likely remain rigid. Rehydration of the mix-linked xylan lead to a decrease in the motion of protons bounded to the C-1 and C-4 carbons of the (1-->4)-linked xylose supporting the re-organization of the xylan chains under hydration involving junction-zones held by hydrogen bonds between adjacent (1-->4)-linked xylose blocks. The CPMAS NMR spectrum of both dry and rehydrated residues obtained after NaOH and HCl extractions demonstrated the presence of cellulose and (1-->4)-linked xylans. The structures of the different polysaccharides are discussed in relation to their interactions and putative functions on the cell wall mechanical properties in P. palmata. PMID:12860427

  16. ¹H NMR spectroscopy reveals the effect of genotype and growth conditions on composition of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries.

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Kallio, Heikki

    2014-03-15

    ¹H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis were applied to the metabolic profiling and discrimination of wild sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries from different locations in Finland (subspecies (ssp.) rhamnoides) and China (ssp. sinensis). Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed discrimination of the two subspecies and different growth sites. The discrimination of ssp. rhamnoides was mainly associated with typically higher temperature, radiation and humidity and lower precipitation in the south, yielding higher levels of O-ethyl ?-d-glucopyranoside and d-glucose, and lower levels of malic, quinic and ascorbic acids. Significant metabolic differences (p<0.05) in genetically identical berries were observed between latitudes 60° and 67° north in Finland. High altitudes (> 2,000 m) correlated with greater levels of malic and ascorbic acids in ssp. sinensis. The NMR metabolomics approach applied here is effective for identification of metabolites, geographical origin and subspecies of sea buckthorn berries. PMID:24206697

  17. Metabolite Characterization in Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent Using High-resolution 1H and 1H-13C NMR Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Guleria, Anupam; Rawat, Atul; Khetrapal, C L; Prasad, Narayan; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Metabolite analysis of peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluent may provide information regarding onset and progression of complications associated with prolonged PD therapy. In this context, the NMR detectable small metabolites of PD effluent samples were characterized using high resolution 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. The various spectra were recorded (at 800 MHz proton frequency) on PD effluent samples obtained after 4 hour (intraperitoneal) dwell time from patients with end stage renal failure (ESRF) and continuing normally on PD therapy. Inspite of devastating spectral feature of PD effluent due to the presence of intense resonances from glucose and lactate, we were able to identify about 53 small endogenous metabolites (including many complex coupled spin systems) and more than 90 % of the total CH cross peaks of 1H-13C HSQC spectrum were identified specific to various metabolites of PD effluent. We foresee that the characteristic fingerprints of various metabolites of control PD effluent samples will be us...

  18. Si-29 NMR spectroscopy of naturally-shocked quartz from Meteor Crater, Arizona: Correlation to Kieffer's classification scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boslough, M. B.; Cygan, R. T.; Kirkpatrick, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    We have applied solid state Si-29 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to five naturally-shocked Coconino Sandstone samples from Meteor Crater, Arizona, with the goal of examining possible correlations between NMR spectral characteristics and shock level. This work follows our observation of a strong correlation between the width of a Si-29 resonance and peak shock pressure for experimentally shocked quartz powders. The peak width increase is due to the shock-induced formation of amorphous silica, which increases as a function of shock pressure over the range that we studied (7.5 to 22 GPa). The Coconino Sandstone spectra are in excellent agreement with the classification scheme of Kieffer in terms of presence and approximate abundances of quartz, coesite, stishovite, and glass. We also observe a new resonance in two moderately shocked samples that we have tentatively identified with silicon in tetrahedra with one hydroxyl group in a densified form of amorphous silica.

  19. HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy: an innovative tool for the characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles tracers for molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Henoumont, Céline; Laurent, Sophie; Muller, Robert N; Vander Elst, Luce

    2015-02-01

    The development of molecular imaging by MRI requires the use of contrast agents able to recognize specifically a peculiar target at the molecular level. Iron oxide nanoparticles grafted with small organic molecules represent an interesting platform for molecular imaging. The characterization of the surface of these nanoparticles is an important step in the development of these molecular agents, and HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy appears to be a very interesting tool. The use of 1D and 2D NMR spectra is indeed very helpful to investigate the covalent grafting of organic molecules at the nanoparticle surface. DOSY spectra could also be very helpful, but we will show here that it is not possible to obtain accurate DOSY spectra on iron oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25544033

  20. Conversion of propan-2-ol on zeolites LaNaY and HY investigated by gas chromatography and in situ MAS NMR spectroscopy under continuous-flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, M.; Horvath, T. [Univ of Stuttgart (Germany)] [Univ of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    The conversion of propan-2-ol on zeolites HY and LaNaY has been investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and in situ {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectroscopy under continuous-flow conditions using a new MAS NMR microreactor with cylindrical catalyst bed. At reaction temperatures of T = 373 K and T = 393 K a propan-2-ol conversion of 50 and 100%, respectively, and the formation of propene, diisopropyl. ether, and small amounts of acetone was determined by GC. Applying in situ {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectroscopy, the initial step of the reaction was found to be the physisorption of propan-2-ol on Bronsted acid sites. A formation of isopropoxy species could be excluded by {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectroscopy. {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectroscopy indicated that the Bronsted acid sites of the zeolites LaNaY and HY were hydrated by water molecules in the first part of the induction period. These water molecules were formed in result of the propan-2-ol dehydration. The strong low-field shift of the {sup 1}H MAS NMR signals of the hydrated Bronsted acid sites is due to a partial protonation of adsorbed water molecules. At T = 393 K, a significant {sup 13}C MAS NMR signal of strongly bonded acetone molecules appeared at 220 ppm in the spectra of zeolites LaNaY and HY. As demonstrated by propan-2-ol conversion on a partially dealuminated zeolite HY, this by-reaction is promoted by extra-framework aluminium species. The formation of coke precursors which caused {sup 13}C MAS NMR signals at 10-50 ppm is explained by an oligomerization of propene. In situ {sup 13}C MAS NMR experiments carried out under a continuous flow of propene showed that the above-mentioned coke precursors are also formed on partially rehydrated zeolite HY. 25 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Elastic deformation and area per lipid of membranes: atomistic view from solid-state deuterium NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kinnun, Jacob J; Mallikarjunaiah, K J; Petrache, Horia I; Brown, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the application of solid-state ²H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for investigating the deformation of lipid bilayers at the atomistic level. For liquid-crystalline membranes, the average structure is manifested by the segmental order parameters (SCD) of the lipids. Solid-state ²H NMR yields observables directly related to the stress field of the lipid bilayer. The extent to which lipid bilayers are deformed by osmotic pressure is integral to how lipid-protein interactions affect membrane functions. Calculations of the average area per lipid and related structural properties are pertinent to bilayer remodeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of membranes. To establish structural quantities, such as area per lipid and volumetric bilayer thickness, a mean-torque analysis of ²H NMR order parameters is applied. Osmotic stress is introduced by adding polymer solutions or by gravimetric dehydration, which are thermodynamically equivalent. Solid-state NMR studies of lipids under osmotic stress probe membrane interactions involving collective bilayer undulations, order-director fluctuations, and lipid molecular protrusions. Removal of water yields a reduction of the mean area per lipid, with a corresponding increase in volumetric bilayer thickness, by up to 20% in the liquid-crystalline state. Hydrophobic mismatch can shift protein states involving mechanosensation, transport, and molecular recognition by G-protein-coupled receptors. Measurements of the order parameters versus osmotic pressure yield the elastic area compressibility modulus and the corresponding bilayer thickness at an atomistic level. Solid-state ²H NMR thus reveals how membrane deformation can affect protein conformational changes within the stress field of the lipid bilayer. PMID:24946141

  2. Probing the surface of platinum nanoparticles with 13CO by solid-state NMR and IR spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinayyigit, Solen; Lara, Patricia; Lecante, Pierre; Philippot, Karine; Chaudret, Bruno

    2013-12-01

    The synthesis and full characterization of platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) prepared by decomposition of the Pt(dba)2 complex in the presence of CO and H2 and stabilized either sterically by a polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone or chemically by a ligand, diphenylphosphinobutane, are reported. In these studies, 13CO was used as a probe molecule to investigate the surface of the particles, using IR and solid-state NMR spectroscopies with magic angle spinning (MAS-NMR). Three nanosystems with different sizes are described: Pt/PVP/13CO (monomodal: 1.2 nm), Pt/dppb/13CO (bimodal: 1.2 nm and 2.0 nm) and Pt/dppb/H2 (monomodal: 2.0 nm) NPs. Spectroscopic data suggest a modification of the electronic state of the nanoparticles between 1.2 nm and 2.0 nm which can be related to the presence of Knight shift.The synthesis and full characterization of platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) prepared by decomposition of the Pt(dba)2 complex in the presence of CO and H2 and stabilized either sterically by a polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone or chemically by a ligand, diphenylphosphinobutane, are reported. In these studies, 13CO was used as a probe molecule to investigate the surface of the particles, using IR and solid-state NMR spectroscopies with magic angle spinning (MAS-NMR). Three nanosystems with different sizes are described: Pt/PVP/13CO (monomodal: 1.2 nm), Pt/dppb/13CO (bimodal: 1.2 nm and 2.0 nm) and Pt/dppb/H2 (monomodal: 2.0 nm) NPs. Spectroscopic data suggest a modification of the electronic state of the nanoparticles between 1.2 nm and 2.0 nm which can be related to the presence of Knight shift. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis of the Pt(dba)2 precursor, TEM images of Pt/PVP/H2 and Pt/dppb/13CO NPs, further results from WAXS studies, solution NMR spectra of Pt/dppb/13CO NPs and MAS-NMR spectra of Pt/dppb/13CO and Pt/dppb/H2 NPs at 260 K. See DOI: 10.1039c3nr03948j

  3. Cationic complexation with dissolved organic matter: Insights from molecular dynamics computer simulations and NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichev, A. G.; Xu, X.; Kirkpatrick, R.

    2006-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in soil and surface water and plays many important geochemical and environmental roles acting as a proton donor/acceptor and pH buffer and interacting with metal ions, minerals and organic species to form water-soluble and water-insoluble complexes of widely differing chemical and biological stabilities. There are strong correlations among the concentration of DOM and the speciation, solubility and toxicity of many trace metals in soil and water due to metal-DOM interaction. DOM can also significantly negatively affect the performance of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes used industrially for water purification and desalination, being one of the major causes of a so-called `membrane bio- fouling'. The molecular scale mechanisms and dynamics of the DOM interactions with metals and membranes are, however, quite poorly understood. Methods of computational molecular modeling, combined with element- specific nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, can serve as highly effective tools to probe and quantify on a fundamental molecular level the DOM interactions with metal cations in aqueous solutions, and to develop predictive models of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the metal-DOM complexation in the environment. This paper presents the results of molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations of the interaction of DOM with dissolved Na+, Cs+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. Na+ forms only very weak outer-sphere complexes with DOM. These results and the results of other recent molecular modeling efforts (e.g., Sutton et al., Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24, 1902-1911, 2005), clearly indicate that both the structural and dynamic aspects of the cation-DOM complexation follow a simple trend in terms of the charge/size ratio for the ions. Due to the competition between ion hydration in bulk aqueous solution and adsorption of these cations by the negatively charged DOM functional groups (primarily carboxylate), larger ions of the same charge (Cs+ vs Na+, or Ca2+ vs Mg2+) have a stronger tendency for DOM association. However, for ions of approximately the same size, higher charge results in a stronger association with DOM. Thus, in contrast to Mg2+, Ca2+ forms strong inner-sphere complexes with DOM carboxylate groups, whereas the association of Na+ with DOM is even weaker than the outer-sphere metal- DOM complexing observed for Cs+. Taken together, these results support the idea of supramolecular, Ca- mediated DOM aggregation in aqueous environment. Cation-DOM binding occurs principally with carboxylate groups, and to a lesser extent with phenolic and other R-OH groups. The contributions of other DOM functional groups are minimal. The diffusional mobility of DOM-bound cations can decrease from ~20% (DOM- Na+ outer-sphere complex) to ~2000% (DOM-Ca2+ inner-sphere complex) compared with neat aqueous solutions (without DOM). The MD simulation results are in good agreement with NMR spectroscopic measurements for Cs-DOM solutions. The case of Cs+ complexation is particularly interesting, because Cs+ readily occurs as inner-sphere complexes on the surfaces of silica gel and many common soil minerals, including illite, kaolinite, and boehmite. The weaker interaction with DOM may be due to the occurence of relatively isolated carboxylic and phenolic groups on the DOM compared to densely packed structural oxygens and hydroxyl groups on the mineral surfaces.

  4. Hyperpolarized (13)C spectroscopy and an NMR-compatible bioreactor system for the investigation of real-time cellular metabolism.

    PubMed

    Keshari, Kayvan R; Kurhanewicz, John; Jeffries, Rex E; Wilson, David M; Dewar, Brian J; Van Criekinge, Mark; Zierhut, Matthew; Vigneron, Daniel B; Macdonald, Jeffrey M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine a three-dimensional NMR-compatible bioreactor with hyperpolarized (13)C NMR spectroscopy in order to probe cellular metabolism in real time. JM1 (immortalized rat hepatoma) cells were cultured in a three-dimensional NMR-compatible fluidized bioreactor. (31)P spectra were acquired before and after each injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate and subsequent (13)C spectroscopy at 11.7 T. (1)H and two-dimensional (1)H-(1)H-total correlation spectroscopy spectra were acquired from extracts of cells grown in uniformly labeled (13)C-glucose, on a 16.4 T, to determine (13)C fractional enrichment and distribution of (13)C label. JM1 cells were found to have a high rate of aerobic glycolysis in both two-dimensional culture and in the bioreactor, with 85% of the (13)C label from uniformly labeled (13)C-glucose being present as either lactate or alanine after 23 h. Flux measurements of pyruvate through lactate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase in the bioreactor system were 12.18 +/- 0.49 nmols/sec/10(8) cells and 2.39 +/- 0.30 nmols/sec/10(8) cells, respectively, were reproducible in the same bioreactor, and were not significantly different over the course of 2 days. Although this preliminary study involved immortalized cells, this combination of technologies can be extended to the real-time metabolic exploration of primary benign and cancerous cells and tissues prior to and after therapy. PMID:20099325

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Applications: Proton NMR In Biological Objects Subjected To Magic Angle Spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2005-01-01

    Proton NMR in Biological Objects Submitted to Magic Angle Spinning, In Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, Second Edition (Paul J. Worsfold, Alan Townshend and Colin F. Poole, eds.), Elsevier, Oxford 6:333-342. Published January 1, 2005. Proposal Number 10896.

  6. Nanoporosity of an organo-clay shown by hyperpolarized xenon and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sozzani, Piero; Bracco, Silvia; Comotti, Angiolina; Mauri, Michele; Simonutti, Roberto; Valsesia, Patrizia

    2006-05-14

    Interlayer nanoporosity of hectorite pillared by tetraethylammonium ions is explored by hyperpolarized xenon NMR and relevant gases such as carbon dioxide revealing the adsorption capacity of the open galleries. PMID:16767236

  7. Applications of 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy in structural investigations of Vinca indole alkaloids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Yagudaev

    1986-01-01

    This review considers the laws connecting the parameters of the1H and13C NMR spectra with the structure of the substances and the use of these laws for solving structural and stereochemical problems of theVinca indole alkaloids and other compounds of closely related structure. For each type of alkaloids, characteristic features of the PMR and13C NMR spectra are given that permit the

  8. Protein structure determination in living cells by in-cell NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Sakakibara; Atsuko Sasaki; Teppei Ikeya; Junpei Hamatsu; Tomomi Hanashima; Masaki Mishima; Masatoshi Yoshimasu; Nobuhiro Hayashi; Tsutomu Mikawa; Markus Wälchli; Brian O. Smith; Masahiro Shirakawa; Peter Güntert; Yutaka Ito

    2009-01-01

    Investigating proteins `at work' in a living environment at atomic resolution is a major goal of molecular biology, which has not been achieved even though methods for the three-dimensional (3D) structure determination of purified proteins in single crystals or in solution are widely used. Recent developments in NMR hardware and methodology have enabled the measurement of high-resolution heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR

  9. Analysis of positional distribution of fatty acids in palm oil by 13 C NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soon Ng

    1985-01-01

    The13C NMR spectrum of the carbonyl carbons of the acyl groups of triacylglycerols of palm oil has been shown to give the composition\\u000a of saturated, oleic and linoleic acyl groups at the 1,3-positions and at the 2-position of the glycerol moiety. Except for\\u000a the lack of differentiation of the saturated fatty acids, the13C NMR technique provides the same information as

  10. Probing Transient Conformational States of Proteins by Solid-State R1? Relaxation-Dispersion NMR Spectroscopy**

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Peixiang; Haller, Jens D; Zajakala, Jérémy; Macek, Pavel; Sivertsen, Astrid C; Willbold, Dieter; Boisbouvier, Jérôme; Schanda, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The function of proteins depends on their ability to sample a variety of states differing in structure and free energy. Deciphering how the various thermally accessible conformations are connected, and understanding their structures and relative energies is crucial in rationalizing protein function. Many biomolecular reactions take place within microseconds to milliseconds, and this timescale is therefore of central functional importance. Here we show that R1? relaxation dispersion experiments in magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy make it possible to investigate the thermodynamics and kinetics of such exchange process, and gain insight into structural features of short-lived states. PMID:24644028

  11. Multinuclear NMR and vibrational spectroscopy studies of the substituent effects in benzensulphonamide inhibitors of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Benedetti, P. G.; Iarossi, D.; Menziani, M. C.; Frassineti, C.; Benedetti, A.

    1988-05-01

    Substituent effects on the electronic structure of sixteen biologically active benzensulphonamide derivatives were investigated by means of 15N, 13C, 1H NMR, and IR spectroscopy, as well as by quantum chemical calculations. Good correlations were found between the spectroscopic data and both substituent constant and computed electronic charges. On this basis the substituent effects are interpreted in terms of electronic charge perturbation, which is linearly transmitted from the substituent to the biofunctional -SO 2NH 2 group. The resonance nature of the substituent seems most important in determining the 15N chemical shifts, which follow a "reverse" trend; i.e., electron-donor substituents induce downfield 15N shifts.

  12. Identification and quantitative determination of carbohydrates in ethanolic extracts of two conifers using 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Castola, Vincent; Casanova, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    We developed a method for the direct identification and quantification of carbohydrates in raw vegetable extracts using (13)C NMR spectroscopy without any preliminary step of precipitation or reduction of the components. This method has been validated (accuracy, precision and response linearity) using pure compounds and artificial mixtures before being applied to authentic ethanolic extracts of pine needles, pine wood and pine cones and fir twigs. We determined that carbohydrates represented from 15% to 35% of the crude extracts in which pinitol was the principal constituent accompanied by arabinitol, mannitol, glucose and fructose. PMID:18299126

  13. The solution conformations of a mutant trp operator determined by n.m.r. spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, A N

    1991-01-01

    The principal conformational features of the mutant trp operator [d(CGTACTGATTAATCAGTACG)2] have been determined by n.m.r. at different temperatures. The sugar puckers were determined from J-resolved spectroscopy and high-resolution homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn spectroscopic (HOHAHA) experiments. Extensive one-dimensional nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement (NOE) data sets were acquired at 25 degrees C using irradiation times of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 ms to generate sufficient NOE information to determine the individual nucleotide conformations, and place limits on the local helical parameters, using multi-spin least-squares fitting and searching in conformation space with the program NUCFIT [Lane (1990) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1049, 189-204]. The conformations of the nucleotides are well determined, and show significant sequence-dependent variation. Pyrimidine residues on average have a wider range of sugar conformations and smaller glycosidic torsion angles than purine residues. The helical parameters are in general less well determined, though clear evidence was obtained for sequence-dependent variation of the helical twist. The overall mean fractional deviation of the calculated from the observed NOEs was 0.108. The conformations of the base-pairs TAAT are temperature-dependent [Lane (1989) Biochem. J. 259, 715-724]. NOESY spectra were recorded at 10, 25 and 40 degrees C, using mixing times inversely proportional to the overall tumbling time to allow changes in the conformation to be described. A more detailed analysis was made using one-dimensional NOEs collected for nucleotides involved in the conformational transitions. There are significant temperature-dependent changes in the conformations of the central base-pairs from T9 to T13 with the largest changes in the glycosidic torsion angle occurring for A11 and A12 (up to 30 degrees). The orientation of the base-pairs T9-A12:T10-A11 also changes, with an increase in the base-pair roll and an unwinding of the helix as the temperature is increased. The conformational changes are qualitatively similar to those observed in a related sequence (Lefèvre, Lane & Jardetzky (1988) Biochemistry 27, 1086-1094]. The conformation is also similar to the wild-type sequence and to that observed in the crystal state in the complex with the trp holorepressor. The similarity suggests that the mutation produces a poorer operator by virtue of removal of essential functional groups within the major groove. PMID:1998537

  14. The solution conformations of a mutant trp operator determined by n.m.r. spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lane, A N

    1991-01-15

    The principal conformational features of the mutant trp operator [d(CGTACTGATTAATCAGTACG)2] have been determined by n.m.r. at different temperatures. The sugar puckers were determined from J-resolved spectroscopy and high-resolution homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn spectroscopic (HOHAHA) experiments. Extensive one-dimensional nuclear-Overhauser-enhancement (NOE) data sets were acquired at 25 degrees C using irradiation times of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 ms to generate sufficient NOE information to determine the individual nucleotide conformations, and place limits on the local helical parameters, using multi-spin least-squares fitting and searching in conformation space with the program NUCFIT [Lane (1990) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1049, 189-204]. The conformations of the nucleotides are well determined, and show significant sequence-dependent variation. Pyrimidine residues on average have a wider range of sugar conformations and smaller glycosidic torsion angles than purine residues. The helical parameters are in general less well determined, though clear evidence was obtained for sequence-dependent variation of the helical twist. The overall mean fractional deviation of the calculated from the observed NOEs was 0.108. The conformations of the base-pairs TAAT are temperature-dependent [Lane (1989) Biochem. J. 259, 715-724]. NOESY spectra were recorded at 10, 25 and 40 degrees C, using mixing times inversely proportional to the overall tumbling time to allow changes in the conformation to be described. A more detailed analysis was made using one-dimensional NOEs collected for nucleotides involved in the conformational transitions. There are significant temperature-dependent changes in the conformations of the central base-pairs from T9 to T13 with the largest changes in the glycosidic torsion angle occurring for A11 and A12 (up to 30 degrees). The orientation of the base-pairs T9-A12:T10-A11 also changes, with an increase in the base-pair roll and an unwinding of the helix as the temperature is increased. The conformational changes are qualitatively similar to those observed in a related sequence (Lefèvre, Lane & Jardetzky (1988) Biochemistry 27, 1086-1094]. The conformation is also similar to the wild-type sequence and to that observed in the crystal state in the complex with the trp holorepressor. The similarity suggests that the mutation produces a poorer operator by virtue of removal of essential functional groups within the major groove. PMID:1998537

  15. Analysis of individual purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates and other cellular metabolites in PCA extracts by using multinuclear high resolution NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lutz, N W; Yahi, N; Fantini, J; Cozzone, P J

    1996-11-01

    This work demonstrates that individual purine and pyrimidine NDP and NTP can be assigned in high resolution 31P NMR spectra from tissue extracts. To the best of our knowledge, it is shown for the first time that ATP, GTP, UTP, CTP, and the corresponding diphosphates can be quantitated in cell extracts without using HPLC or other biochemical methods. This work provides the basis for further optimization of nucleotide quantitation by 31P NMR spectroscopy, and for a full assessment of this method. Furthermore, a new technique was developed for 1H, 31P, and 13C NMR signal assignment and quantitation in cell extracts by using the same external reference capillary for all three nuclei. This allows for efficient, quantitative, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy without extract contamination by standard material. PMID:8916031

  16. Paramagnetism of Honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Seishi

    1995-11-01

    The magnetic properties of honeybees have been investigated bymeasuring their susceptibility, magnetization andelectron-spin-resonance (ESR) absorption. The abdomen of adult workerhoneybees shows typical paramagnetism with small magnetic remanencedown to 4.2 K, while the other parts of the honeybees are apparentlydiamagnetic. The paramagnetism of the abdomen seems to develop not inthe pupal stage but after coming out of comb. Drones show noparamagnetism, but a queen bee seems to have some paramagnetic speciesin her abdomen.

  17. Determination of the structural changes by Raman and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy on native corn starch with plasticizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozar, O.; Filip, C.; Cioica, N.; Coţa, C.; Tripon, C.; Nagy, E. M.

    2013-11-01

    The plasticizing - antiplasticizing effect of water and glycerol contents on native corn starch samples is investigated by FT-Raman and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The presence of both amorphous and crystalline structural phases was evidenced in pure native corn starch and also in the samples containing plasticizers. Among the crystalline starch structures, the A- and V- types were suggested by CP/MAS NMR spectra.

  18. ACCELERATED LIGHT-INDUCED AGING OF ?-, ?-, AND ?-C-ENRICHED CELL WALL-DEHYDROGENATION POLYMERS STUDIED WITH SOLID STATE C NMR SPECTROSCOPY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Parkås; Magnus Paulsson; D. L. VanderHart; Ulla Westermark

    2002-01-01

    Light-induced aging of lignocellulosic materials has been studied with a new technique involving selectively ?-, ?-, and ?-C-enriched cell wall-dehydrogenation polymers (CW-DHPs) and solid state C NMR spectroscopy. The results from cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP\\/MAS) C NMR experiments of unirradiated and irradiated CW-DHP have revealed mainly a decrease in the amount of end-groups of both coniferaldehyde and coniferyl alcohol type. The

  19. Determination of the structural changes by Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy on native corn starch with plasticizers

    SciTech Connect

    Cozar, O. [Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei 54, 050094, Bucharest, Romania and National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry - INMA Bucure?ti - Cluj-Napoca Branch (Romania)] [Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei 54, 050094, Bucharest, Romania and National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry - INMA Bucure?ti - Cluj-Napoca Branch (Romania); Filip, C.; Tripon, C. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cioica, N.; Co?a, C.; Nagy, E. M. [National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry - INMA Bucure?ti - Cluj-Napoca Branch, RO-400458 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute of Research-Development for Machines and Installations Designed to Agriculture and Food Industry - INMA Bucure?ti - Cluj-Napoca Branch, RO-400458 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The plasticizing - antiplasticizing effect of water and glycerol contents on native corn starch samples is investigated by FT-Raman and {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The presence of both amorphous and crystalline structural phases was evidenced in pure native corn starch and also in the samples containing plasticizers. Among the crystalline starch structures, the A- and V- types were suggested by CP/MAS NMR spectra.

  20. Effect of ? -cyclodextrin on the aggregation of the non-ionic surfactant Igepal CO630 in water as studied by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Guerrero-Martínez; G. González-Gaitano; E. M. Murciano; G. Tardajos

    2007-01-01

    The micellization process of the non-ionic surfactant, Igepal CO-630, and its inclusion complexes with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) have been investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The critical micelle concentration of Igepal was determined by measuring\\u000a the chemical shifts of different resonances. The structure and binding of the inclusion complexes between the Igepal and the\\u000a ?-CD have been studied by 1D proton NMR and

  1. Natural Abundance 43Ca NMR Spectroscopy of Tobermorite and Jennite: Model Compounds for C–S–H

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, Robert J.

    2009-02-13

    There are few effective methods for characterizing the molecular scale structural environments of Ca2? in hydrated cements, which has limited our ability to understand the structure of, for example, Ca–silicate hydrate (C–S–H). 43Ca nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has long been considered too insensitive to provide useful data in this regard, but 43Ca magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra reported here for synthetic tobermorite and jennite with naturally abundant levels of 43Ca demonstrate that this is a viable approach.We show that spectra with useful signal/noise ratios can be obtained in a reasonable acquisition period (~2 days) using an H? field strength of 21.1 T, 5 mm rotors spinning at a frequency of 5 kHz, and a double frequency sweep preparatory pulse sequence. Tobermorite and jennite produce relatively broad resonances due to their complex structures and structural disorder, however, the chemical shift differences between six-coordinate 43Ca in jennite and seven-coordinate 43Ca in 11? tobermorite are large enough that the signals are entirely resolved at this field. These data suggest that signal from ideal tobermorite-like and jennite-like sites in cement C–S–H can most likely be distinguished by 43Ca NMR and that this method will be a powerful approach for studying cement-based ceramic materials in the coming decade.

  2. The hydrogen-bonded 2-pyridone dimer model system. 1. Combined NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Szyc, ?ukasz; Guo, Jing; Yang, Ming; Dreyer, Jens; Tolstoy, Peter M; Nibbering, Erik T J; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Bogus?awa; Elsaesser, Thomas; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2010-07-29

    2-Pyridone (PD), converting to 2-hydroxypyridine (HP) through a lactam-lactim isomerization mechanism, can form three different cyclic dimers by hydrogen bond formation: (PD)(2), (PD-HP), and (HP)(2). We investigate the complexation chemistry of pyridone in dichloromethane-d(2) using a combined NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) approach. Temperature-dependent (1)H NMR spectra indicate that at low temperatures (<200 K) pyridone in solution predominantly exists as a cyclic (PD)(2) dimer, in exchange with PD monomers. At higher temperatures a proton exchange mechanism sets in, leading to a collapse of the doublet of (15)N labeled 2-pyridone. Linear FT-IR spectra indicate the existence of several pyridone species, where, however, a straightforward interpretation is hampered by extensive spectral overlap of many vibrational transitions in both the fingerprint and the NH/OH stretching regions. Two-dimensional IR correlation spectroscopy applied on concentration-dependent and temperature-dependent data sets reveals the existence of the (PD)(2) cyclic dimer, of PD-CD(2)Cl(2) solute-solvent complexes, and of PD-PD chainlike dimers. Regarding the difference in effective time scales of the NMR and FT-IR experiments, milliseconds vs (sub)picoseconds, the cyclic dimers (PD-HP) and (HP)(2), and the chainlike conformations HP-PD, may function as intermediates in reaction pathways through which the protons exchange between PD units in cyclic (PD)(2). PMID:20593823

  3. Giant residual dipolar 13C-1H couplings in high-spin organoiron complexes: elucidation of their structures in solution by 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kruck, Matthias; Wadepohl, Hubert; Enders, Markus; Gade, Lutz H

    2013-01-28

    High-spin Fe(II)-alkyl complexes with bis(pyridylimino)isoindolato ligands were synthesized and their paramagnetic (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were analyzed comprehensively. The experimental (13)C-(1)H coupling values are temperature (T(-1))- as well as magnetic-field (B(2))-dependent and deviate considerably from typical scalar (1)J(CH) couplings constants. This deviation is attributed to residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), which arise from partial alignment of the complexes in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The analysis of the experimental RDCs allows an unambiguous assignment of all (13)C NMR resonances and, additionally, a structural refinement of the conformation of the complexes in solution. Moreover the RDCs can be used for the analysis of the alignment tensor and hence the tensor of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility. PMID:23307582

  4. GEL-STATE NMR OF BALL-MILLED WHOLE CELL WALLS IN DMSO-d6 USING 2D SOLUTION-STATE NMR SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cell walls were used for obtaining 2D solution-state NMR spectra without actual solubilization or structural modification. Ball-milled whole cell walls were swelled directly in the NMR tube with DMSO-d6 where they formed a gel. There are relatively few gel-state NMR studies. Most have involved...

  5. Cisplatin adducts on a GGG sequence within a DNA duplex studied by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Téletchéa, Stéphane; Skauge, Tormod; Sletten, Einar; Kozelka, Jirí

    2009-11-16

    The antitumor drug cisplatin(cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2]) reacts with cellular DNA to form GG intrastrand adducts between adjacent guanines as predominant lesions. GGG sites have been shown to be hotspots of platination. To study the structural perturbation induced by binding of cisplatin to two adjacent guanines of a GGG trinucleotide,we examined here the decanucleotide duplex d[(G1C2C3G*4 G*5 G6T7-C8G9C10).d(G11C12G13A14C15C16C17G18-G19C20)] (dsCG*G*G) intrastrand cross-linked at the G* guanines by cis-{Pt(NH3)2}2+ using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.The NMR spectra of dsCG*G*G were found to be similar to those of previously characterized DNA duplexes cross-linked by cisplatin at apyG*G*X site (py=pyrimidine; X=C,T, A). This similarity of NMR spectra indicates that the base at the 3'-side of the G*G*-Pt cross-link does not affect the structure to a large extent. An unprecedented reversible isomerization between the duplex dsCG*G*G (bearing a G*4 G*5 -Pt chelate) and duplex dsGG*G*T (bearing a G*5 G*6 -Pt chelate)was observed, which yielded a 40:60 equilibrium between the two intrastrand GG-Pt cross-links. No formation of interstrand cross-links was observed.NMR spectroscopic data of dsCG*G*G indicated that the deoxyribose of the 5'-G* adopts an N-type conformation, and the cytidines C3, C15,and C16 have average phase angles intermediate between S and N. The NMR spectroscopic chemical shifts of dsGG*G*T showed some fundamental differences to those of pyG*G*-platinum adducts but were in agreement with the NMR spectra reported previously for the DNA duplexes crosslinked at an AG*G*C sequence by cisplatin or oxaliplatin. The presence of apurine instead of a pyrimidine at the 5'-side of the G*G* cross-link seems therefore to affect the structure of the XG* step significantly. PMID:19813235

  6. Multicomponent analysis of radiolytic products in human body fluids using high field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootveld, Martin C.; Herz, Herman; Haywood, Rachel; Hawkes, Geoffrey E.; Naughton, Declan; Perera, Anusha; Knappitt, Jacky; Blake, David R.; Claxson, Andrew W. D.

    1994-05-01

    High field proton Hahn spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been employed to investigate radiolytic damage to biomolecules present in intact human body fluids. ?-Radiolysis of healthy or rheumatoid human serum (5.00 kGy) in the presence of atmospheric O 2 gave rise to reproducible elevations in the concentration of NMR-detectable acetate which are predominantly ascribable to the prior oxidation of lactate to pyruvate by hydroxyl radical (·OH) followed by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate by radiolytically-generated hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and/or further ·OH radical. Increases in the serum levels of non-protein-bound, low-molecular-mass components such as citrate and glutamine were also observed subsequent to ?-radiolysis, an observation which may reflect their mobilisation from protein binding-sites by ·OH radical, superoxide anion and/or H 2O 2. Moreover, substantial radiolytically-mediated elevations in the concentration of serum formate were also detectable. In addition to the above modifications, ?-radiolysis of inflammatory knee-joint synovial fluid (SF) generated a low-molecular-mass oligosaccharide species derived from the radiolytic fragmentation of hyaluronate. The radiolytically-mediated production of acetate in SF samples was markedly greater than that observed in serum samples, a consequence of the much higher levels of ·OH radical-scavenging lactate present. Indeed, increases in SF acetate concentration were detectable at doses as low as 48 Gy. We conclude that high field proton NMR analysis provides much useful information regarding the relative radioprotectant abilities of endogenous components and the nature, status and levels of radiolytic products generated in intact biofluids. We also suggest that NMR-detectable radiolytic products with associated toxicological properties (e.g. formate) may play a role in contributing to the deleterious effects observed following exposure of living organisms to sources of ionising radiation.

  7. Transformation of meta-stable calcium silicate hydrates to tobermorite: reaction kinetics and molecular structure from XRD and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Houston, Jacqueline R; Maxwell, Robert S; Carroll, Susan A

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the integrity of well-bore systems that are lined with Portland-based cements is critical to the successful storage of sequestered CO2 in gas and oil reservoirs. As a first step, we investigate reaction rates and mechanistic pathways for cement mineral growth in the absence of CO2 by coupling water chemistry with XRD and NMR spectroscopic data. We find that semi-crystalline calcium (alumino-)silicate hydrate (Al-CSH) forms as a precursor solid to the cement mineral tobermorite. Rate constants for tobermorite growth were found to be k = 0.6 (+/- 0.1) x 10(-5) s(-1) for a solution:solid of 10:1 and 1.6 (+/- 0.8) x 10(-4) s(-1) for a solution:solid of 5:1 (batch mode; T = 150 degrees C). This data indicates that reaction rates for tobermorite growth are faster when the solution volume is reduced by half, suggesting that rates are dependent on solution saturation and that the Gibbs free energy is the reaction driver. However, calculated solution saturation indexes for Al-CSH and tobermorite differ by less than one log unit, which is within the measured uncertainty. Based on this data, we consider both heterogeneous nucleation as the thermodynamic driver and internal restructuring as possible mechanistic pathways for growth. We also use NMR spectroscopy to characterize the site symmetry and bonding environment of Al and Si in a reacted tobermorite sample. We find two [4]Al coordination structures at delta iso = 59.9 ppm and 66.3 ppm with quadrupolar product parameters (PQ) of 0.21 MHz and 0.10 MHz (+/- 0.08) from 27Al 3Q-MAS NMR and speculate on the Al occupancy of framework sites by probing the protonation environment of Al metal centers using 27Al{1H}CP-MAS NMR. PMID:19144195

  8. Transformation of meta-stable calcium silicate hydrates to tobermorite: reaction kinetics and molecular structure from XRD and NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the integrity of well-bore systems that are lined with Portland-based cements is critical to the successful storage of sequestered CO2 in gas and oil reservoirs. As a first step, we investigate reaction rates and mechanistic pathways for cement mineral growth in the absence of CO2 by coupling water chemistry with XRD and NMR spectroscopic data. We find that semi-crystalline calcium (alumino-)silicate hydrate (Al-CSH) forms as a precursor solid to the cement mineral tobermorite. Rate constants for tobermorite growth were found to be k = 0.6 (± 0.1) × 10-5 s-1 for a solution:solid of 10:1 and 1.6 (± 0.8) × 10-4 s-1 for a solution:solid of 5:1 (batch mode; T = 150°C). This data indicates that reaction rates for tobermorite growth are faster when the solution volume is reduced by half, suggesting that rates are dependent on solution saturation and that the Gibbs free energy is the reaction driver. However, calculated solution saturation indexes for Al-CSH and tobermorite differ by less than one log unit, which is within the measured uncertainty. Based on this data, we consider both heterogeneous nucleation as the thermodynamic driver and internal restructuring as possible mechanistic pathways for growth. We also use NMR spectroscopy to characterize the site symmetry and bonding environment of Al and Si in a reacted tobermorite sample. We find two [4]Al coordination structures at ?iso = 59.9 ppm and 66.3 ppm with quadrupolar product parameters (PQ) of 0.21 MHz and 0.10 MHz (± 0.08) from 27Al 3Q-MAS NMR and speculate on the Al occupancy of framework sites by probing the protonation environment of Al metal centers using 27Al{1H}CP-MAS NMR. PMID:19144195

  9. Flow-through lipid nanotube arrays for structure-function studies of membrane proteins by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chekmenev, Eduard Y; Gor'kov, Peter L; Cross, Timothy A; Alaouie, Ali M; Smirnov, Alex I

    2006-10-15

    A novel method for studying membrane proteins in a native lipid bilayer environment by solid-state NMR spectroscopy is described and tested. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates with flow-through 175 nm wide and 60-mum-long nanopores were employed to form macroscopically aligned peptide-containing lipid bilayers that are fluid and highly hydrated. We demonstrate that the surfaces of both leaflets of such bilayers are fully accessible to aqueous solutes. Thus, high hydration levels as well as pH and desirable ion and/or drug concentrations could be easily maintained and modified as desired in a series of experiments with the same sample. The method allows for membrane protein NMR experiments in a broad pH range that could be extended to as low as 1 and as high as 12 units for a period of up to a few hours and temperatures as high as 70 degrees C without losing the lipid alignment or bilayers from the nanopores. We demonstrate the utility of this method by a solid-state 19.6 T (17)O NMR study of reversible binding effects of mono- and divalent ions on the chemical shift properties of the Leu(10) carbonyl oxygen of transmembrane pore-forming peptide gramicidin A (gA). We further compare the (17)O shifts induced by binding metal ions to the binding of protons in the pH range from 1 to 12 and find a significant difference. This unexpected result points to a difference in mechanisms for ion and proton conduction by the gA pore. We believe that a large number of solid-state NMR-based studies, including structure-function, drug screening, proton exchange, pH, and other titration experiments, will benefit significantly from the method described here. PMID:16861277

  10. Variability of cork from Portuguese Quercus suber studied by solid-state (13)C-NMR and FTIR spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M H; Barros, A S; Pascoal Neto, C; Rutledge, D; Delgadillo, I; Gil, A M

    2001-01-01

    A new approach is presented for the study of the variability of Portuguese reproduction cork using solid-state (13)C-NMR spectroscopy and photoacoustic (PAS) FTIR (FTIR-PAS) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. Cork samples were collected from 12 different geographical sites, and their (13)C-cross-polarization with magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) and FTIR spectra were registered. A large spectral variability among the cork samples was detected by principal component analysis and found to relate to the suberin and carbohydrate contents. This variability was independent of the sample geographical origin but significantly dependent on the cork quality, thus enabling the distinction of cork samples according to the latter property. The suberin content of the cork samples was predicted using multivariate regression models based on the (13)C-NMR and FTIR spectra of the samples as reported previously. Finally, the relationship between the variability of the (13)C-CP/MAS spectra with that of the FTIR-PAS spectra was studied by outer product analysis. This type of multivariate analysis enabled a clear correlation to be established between the peaks assigned to suberin and carbohydrate in the FTIR spectrum and those appearing in the (13)C-CP/MAS spectra. PMID:11745122

  11. Site-directed mutagenesis and high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of the active site of porphobilinogen deaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.I.; Roessner, C.A.; Stolowich, N.J.; Karuso, P.; Williams, H.J.; Grant, S.K.; Gonzalez, M.D.; Hoshino, T. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1988-10-18

    The active site of porphobilinogen (PBG){sup 1} deaminase from Escherichia coli has been found to contain an unusual dipyrromethane derived from four molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) covalently linked to Cys-242, one of the two cysteine residues conserved in E. coli and human deaminase. By use of a hemA{sup {minus}} strain of E. coli the enzyme was enriched from (5-{sup 13}C)ALA and examined by {sup 1}H-detected multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy, which revealed all of the salient features of a dipyrromethane composed of two PBG units linked heat to tail and terminating in a CH{sub 2}-S bond to a cysteine residue. Site-specific mutagenesis of Cys-99 and Cys-242, respectively, has shown that substitution of Ser for Cys-99 does not affect the enzymatic activity, whereas substitution of Ser for Cys-242 removes essentially all of the catalytic activity as measured by the conversion of the substrate PBG to uro'gen I. The NMR spectrum of the covalent complex of deaminase with the suicide inhibitor 2-bromo-(2,11-{sup 13}C{sub 2})PBG reveals that the aminomethyl terminus of the inhibitor reacts with the enzyme's cofactor at the {alpha}-free pyrrole. NMR spectroscopy of the ES{sub 2} complex confirmed a PBG-derived head-to-tail dipyrromethane attached to the {alpha}-free pyrrole position of the enzyme. A mechanistic rationale for deaminase is presented.

  12. Photoisomerization and structural dynamics of two nitrosylruthenium complexes: a joint study by NMR and nonlinear IR spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianru; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Pengyun; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-11-21

    In this work, the photoisomerization and structural dynamics of two isomeric nitrosylruthenium(ii) complexes [Ru(OAc)(2cqn)2NO] (H2cqn = 2-chloro-8-quinolinol) in CDCl3 and DMSO are examined using NMR and IR spectroscopic methods. The two N atoms in the 2cqn ligand are in trans position in the synthesized cis-1 isomer, while they are in cis position in the cis-2 isomer. Kinetics monitored by NMR spectroscopy shows that the rate constant of photoisomerization from cis-2 to cis-1 isomer depends on the wavelength of irradiation and solvent polarity; it proceeds faster on irradiating near the absorption peak in the UV-Vis region, and also in more polar solvents (DMSO). Density functional theory computation indicates that the peculiarity of [Ru(ii)-NO(+)] group affects the structure and reactivity of the nitrosylruthenium complexes. Using the nitrosyl stretching (?NO) to be vibrational probe, the structural dynamics and structural distributions of the cis-1 and cis-2 isomers are examined by steady-state linear infrared and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopies. The structural and photochemical aspects of the observed spectroscopic parameters are discussed in terms of solute-solvent interactions for the two nitrosylruthenium complexes. PMID:25285659

  13. Characterization of bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction of organic waste by NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leonardis, Irene; Chiaberge, Stefano; Fiorani, Tiziana; Spera, Silvia; Battistel, Ezio; Bosetti, Aldo; Cesti, Pietro; Reale, Samantha; De Angelis, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Solid wastes of organic origins are potential feedstocks for the production of liquid biofuels, which could be suitable alternatives to fossil fuels for the transport and heating sectors, as well as for industrial use. By hydrothermal liquefaction, the wet biomass is partially transformed into a water-immiscible, oil-like organic matter called bio-oil. In this study, an integrated NMR spectroscopy/mass spectrometry approach has been developed for the characterization of the hydrothermal liquefaction of bio-oil at the molecular level. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy were used for the identification of functional groups and gauging the aromatic carbon content in the mixture. GC-MS analysis revealed that the volatile fraction was rich in fatty acids, as well as in amides and esters. High-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) has been applied in a systematic way to fully categorize the bio-oil in terms of different classes of components, according to their molecular formulas. Most importantly, for the first time, by using this technique, and for the liquefaction bio-oil characterization in particular, FT-MS data have been used to develop a methodology for the determination of the aromatic versus aliphatic carbon and nitrogen content. It is well known that, because they resist hydrogenation and represent sources of polluting species, both aromatic molecules and nitrogen-containing species raise concerns for subsequent upgrading of bio-oil into a diesel-like fuel. PMID:23139164

  14. Evolution of the dynamic susceptibility in molecular glass formers: Results from light scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, and NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, N.; Schmidtke, B.; Kahlau, R.; Bock, D.; Meier, R.; Micko, B.; Kruk, D.; Rössler, E. A.

    2013-03-01

    Although broadly studied, molecular glass formers are not well investigated above their melting point. Correlation times down to 10-12 s are easily accessible when studying low-Tg systems by depolarized light scattering, employing a tandem-Fabry-Perot interferometer and a double monochromator. When combining these techniques with state-of-the-art photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), broad band susceptibility spectra become accessible which can compete with those of dielectric spectroscopy (DS). Comparing the results with those from DS, optical Kerr effect, and NMR, we describe the evolution of the susceptibilities starting from the boiling point Tb down to Tg, i.e., from simple liquid to glassy dynamics. Special attention is given to the emergence of the excess wing contribution which is also probed by PCS and which signals a crossover of the spectral evolution. The process is attributed to a small-angle precursor process of the ?-relaxation, and the apparent probe dependent stretching of the ?-process is explained by a probe dependent contribution of the excess wing. Upon cooling, its emergence is linked to a strong decrease of the strength of the fast dynamics which is taken as reorientational analog of the anomaly of the Debye-Waller factor. Many glass formers show in addition a slow ?-process which manifests itself rather universally in NMR, in DS, however, with different amplitudes, but not at all in PCS experiments. Finally, a three-parameter function is discussed interpolating ??(T) from Tb to Tg by connecting high- and low-temperature dynamics.

  15. Metabolome Profiling by HRMAS NMR Spectroscopy of Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas Detects SDH Deficiency: Clinical and Pathophysiological Implications12

    PubMed Central

    Imperiale, Alessio; Moussallieh, François-Marie; Roche, Philippe; Battini, Stéphanie; Cicek, A. Ercument; Sebag, Frédéric; Brunaud, Laurent; Barlier, Anne; Elbayed, Karim; Loundou, Anderson; Bachellier, Philippe; Goichot, Bernard; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Pacak, Karel; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Taïeb, David

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase gene (SDHx) mutations increase susceptibility to develop pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs). In the present study, we evaluate the performance and clinical applications of 1H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy–based global metabolomic profiling in a large series of PHEOs/PGLs of different genetic backgrounds. Eighty-seven PHEOs/PGLs (48 sporadic/23 SDHx/7 von Hippel-Lindau/5 REarranged during Transfection/3 neurofibromatosis type 1/1 hypoxia-inducible factor 2?), one SDHD variant of unknown significance, and two Carney triad (CTr)–related tumors were analyzed by HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to sporadic, SDHx-related PHEOs/PGLs exhibit a specific metabolic signature characterized by increased levels of succinate (P < .0001), methionine (P = .002), glutamine (P = .002), and myoinositol (P < .0007) and decreased levels of glutamate (P < .0007), regardless of their location and catecholamine levels. Uniquely, ATP/ascorbate/glutathione was found to be associated with the secretory phenotype of PHEOs/PGLs, regardless of their genotype (P < .0007). The use of succinate as a single screening test retained excellent accuracy in distinguishing SDHx versus non–SDHx-related tumors (sensitivity/specificity: 100/100%). Moreover, the quantification of succinate could be considered a diagnostic alternative for assessing SDHx-related mutations of unknown pathogenicity. We were also able, for the first time, to uncover an SDH-like pattern in the two CTr-related PGLs. The present study demonstrates that HRMAS-NMR provides important information for SDHx-related PHEO/PGL characterization. Besides the high succinate–low glutamate hallmark, SDHx tumors also exhibit high values of methionine, a finding consistent with the hypermethylation pattern of these tumors. We also found important levels of glutamine, suggesting that glutamine metabolism might be involved in the pathogenesis of SDHx-related PHEOs/PGLs. PMID:25622899

  16. Metabolome Profiling by HRMAS NMR Spectroscopy of Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas Detects SDH Deficiency: Clinical and Pathophysiological Implications.

    PubMed

    Imperiale, Alessio; Moussallieh, François-Marie; Roche, Philippe; Battini, Stéphanie; Cicek, A Ercument; Sebag, Frédéric; Brunaud, Laurent; Barlier, Anne; Elbayed, Karim; Loundou, Anderson; Bachellier, Philippe; Goichot, Bernard; Stratakis, Constantine A; Pacak, Karel; Namer, Izzie-Jacques; Taïeb, David

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase gene (SDHx) mutations increase susceptibility to develop pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs). In the present study, we evaluate the performance and clinical applications of (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based global metabolomic profiling in a large series of PHEOs/PGLs of different genetic backgrounds. Eighty-seven PHEOs/PGLs (48 sporadic/23 SDHx/7 von Hippel-Lindau/5 REarranged during Transfection/3 neurofibromatosis type 1/1 hypoxia-inducible factor 2?), one SDHD variant of unknown significance, and two Carney triad (CTr)-related tumors were analyzed by HRMAS-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to sporadic, SDHx-related PHEOs/PGLs exhibit a specific metabolic signature characterized by increased levels of succinate (P < .0001), methionine (P = .002), glutamine (P = .002), and myoinositol (P < .0007) and decreased levels of glutamate (P < .0007), regardless of their location and catecholamine levels. Uniquely, ATP/ascorbate/glutathione was found to be associated with the secretory phenotype of PHEOs/PGLs, regardless of their genotype (P < .0007). The use of succinate as a single screening test retained excellent accuracy in distinguishing SDHx versus non-SDHx-related tumors (sensitivity/specificity: 100/100%). Moreover, the quantification of succinate could be considered a diagnostic alternative for assessing SDHx-related mutations of unknown pathogenicity. We were also able, for the first time, to uncover an SDH-like pattern in the two CTr-related PGLs. The present study demonstrates that HRMAS-NMR provides important information for SDHx-related PHEO/PGL characterization. Besides the high succinate-low glutamate hallmark, SDHx tumors also exhibit high values of methionine, a finding consistent with the hypermethylation pattern of these tumors. We also found important levels of glutamine, suggesting that glutamine metabolism might be involved in the pathogenesis of SDHx-related PHEOs/PGLs. PMID:25622899

  17. Electronic structure, chemical bonding, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the digallides of Ca, Sr, and Ba.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Frank; Koch, Katrin; Grüner, Daniel; Schnelle, Walter; Pecher, Oliver; Cardoso-Gil, Raul; Borrmann, Horst; Rosner, Helge; Grin, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    Combined application of (69,71)Ga NMR spectroscopy and quantum mechanical calculations reveals the chemical bonding in the digallides of Ca, Sr, and Ba. An analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) shows honeycomb-like 6(3) nets of the Ga atoms as the most prominent structural features in SrGa(2) and BaGa(2). For CaGa(2) a description of a 3+1-coordinated Ga atom is revealed by the ELF and by an analysis of interatomic distances. The NMR spectroscopic signal shift is mainly due to the Knight shift and is almost equal for the investigated digallides, whereas the anisotropy of the signal shift decreases with the radius of the alkaline-earth metals. Calculated and observed values of the electric field gradient (EFG) are in good agreement for CaGa(2) and BaGa(2) but differ by about 21 % for SrGa(2) indicating structural instability. Better agreement is achieved by considering a puckering of the Ga layers. For BaGa(2) an instability of the structure is indicated by a peak in the density of states at the Fermi level, which is shifted to lower energies when taking puckering of the Ga layers into account. Both structural modifications are confirmed by crystallographic information. The Fermi velocity of the electrons is strongly anisotropic and is largest in the (001) plane of the crystal structure. This results in an alignment of the crystallites with the [001] axis perpendicular to the magnetic field as observed in (69,71)Ga NMR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility experiments. The electron transport is predominantly mediated by the Ga-Ga p(x)- and p(y)-like electrons in the (001) plane. The specific heat capacity of BaGa(2) was determined and indicated the absence of phase transitions between 1.8 and 320 K. PMID:19123208

  18. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of encapsulated proteins dissolved in low-viscosity fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucci, Nathaniel V.; Valentine, Kathleen G.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2014-04-01

    High-resolution multi-dimensional solution NMR is unique as a biophysical and biochemical tool in its ability to examine both the structure and dynamics of macromolecules at atomic resolution. Conventional solution NMR approaches, however, are largely limited to examinations of relatively small (<25 kDa) molecules, mostly due to the spectroscopic consequences of slow rotational diffusion. Encapsulation of macromolecules within the protective nanoscale aqueous interior of reverse micelles dissolved in low viscosity fluids has been developed as a means through which the ‘slow tumbling problem' can be overcome. This approach has been successfully applied to diverse proteins and nucleic acids ranging up to 100 kDa, considerably widening the range of biological macromolecules to which conventional solution NMR methodologies may be applied. Recent advances in methodology have significantly broadened the utility of this approach in structural biology and molecular biophysics.

  19. Solid state structures of phenylpyruvates as studied by high resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwae, Akio; Hanai, Kazuhiko; Oyama, Kaoru; Uchino, Masazumi; Lee, Ho-Hi

    1993-01-01

    High resolution solid state 13C NMR measurements were made on phenylpyruvic acid and its sodium, lithium and calcium salts, using the total suppression of spinning side bands and the dipolar diphasing technique. The spectra of their 2- 13C enriched analogs were also recorded. The NMR data were discussed by reference to the solution spectra, and the following definitive evidence was obtained: the acid, the hydrated sodium and lithium salts and the dehydrated sodium salt take the enol, the diol and the keto form, respectively, but the hydrated calcium salt exists in the keto form. The 13C NMR signal of the gem-diol carbon was found to appear at 98 ppm. The calcium salt has two doublets at 166 and 134 ppm which originate from the carbons C(1) and C(4); this splitting suggests that the carboxylate group and/or the phenyl ring in the phenylpyruvate anion are oriented in two different ways.

  20. Expanding the limits of human blood metabolite quantitation using NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagana Gowda, G A; Gowda, Yashas N; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A current challenge in metabolomics is the reliable quantitation of many metabolites. Limited resolution and sensitivity combined with the challenges associated with unknown metabolite identification have restricted both the number and the quantitative accuracy of blood metabolites. Focused on alleviating this bottleneck in NMR-based metabolomics, investigations of pooled human serum combining an array of 1D/2D NMR experiments at 800 MHz, database searches, and spiking with authentic compounds enabled the identification of 67 blood metabolites. Many of these (?1/3) are new compared with those reported previously as a part of the Human Serum Metabolome Database. In addition, considering both the high reproducibility and quantitative nature of NMR as well as the sensitivity of NMR chemical shifts to altered sample conditions, experimental protocols and comprehensive peak annotations are provided here as a guide for identification and quantitation of the new pool of blood metabolites for routine applications. Further, investigations focused on the evaluation of quantitation using organic solvents revealed a surprisingly poor performance for protein precipitation using acetonitrile. One-third of the detected metabolites were attenuated by 10-67% compared with methanol precipitation at the same solvent-to-serum ratio of 2:1 (v/v). Nearly 2/3 of the metabolites were further attenuated by up to 65% upon increasing the acetonitrile-to-serum ratio to 4:1 (v/v). These results, combined with the newly established identity for many unknown metabolites in the NMR spectrum, offer new avenues for human serum/plasma-based metabolomics. Further, the ability to quantitatively evaluate nearly 70 blood metabolites that represent numerous classes, including amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, and heterocyclic compounds, using a simple and highly reproducible analytical method such as NMR may potentially guide the evaluation of samples for analysis using mass spectrometry. PMID:25485990

  1. Identification of the chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei and Ocimum basilicum by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fatope, Majekodunmi O; Marwah, Ruchi G; Al Hadhrami, Nabil M; Onifade, Anthony K; Williams, John R

    2008-11-01

    The chemotypes of Ocimum forskolei Benth and Ocimum basilicum L. growing wild in Oman have been established by (13)C-NMR analyses of the vegetative and floral oils of the plants. The chemotypes, estragole for O. forskolei and linalool for O. basilicum, suggested by (13)C-NMR fingerprinting were also confirmed by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The oil of O. forskolei demonstrated better activities against bacteria and dermatophytes. The significance of the presence of estragole and linalool in the volatile oils of plants whose fragrances are traditionally inhaled, added to food, or rubbed on the skin are discussed. PMID:19035561

  2. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy study of L-zeolite- and silica-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.B.; Laska, T.E.; Balaraman, P.; Root, T.W.; Dumesic, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    NMR studies of CO adsorbed on small Pt particles show evidence of changes in the metallic nature of these particles with size. Large particles on silica or the exterior of zeolite crystallites have conduction-band electrons that cause a Knight shift for adsorbed CO. Small particles in zeolite cavities are diamagnetic clusters, and yield spectra for linear and bridging carbonyls similar to those of transition-metal cluster compounds. {sup 13}C NMR of CO offers a simple probe of metal dispersion and particle size for these Pt catalysts and other noble metal systems. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Intermolecular Interactions between Eosin Y and Caffeine Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Okuom, Macduff O.; Wilson, Mark V.; Jackson, Abby; Holmes, Andrea E.

    2014-01-01

    DETECHIP has been used in testing analytes including caffeine, cocaine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from marijuana, as well as date rape and club drugs such as flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and methamphetamine. This study investigates the intermolecular interaction between DETECHIP sensor eosin Y (DC1) and the analyte (caffeine) that is responsible for the fluorescence and color changes observed in the actual array. Using 1H-NMR, 1H-COSY, and 1H-DOSY NMR methods, a proton exchange from C-8 of caffeine to eosin Y is proposed. PMID:25018772

  4. Intermolecular Interactions between Eosin Y and Caffeine Using (1)H-NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Okuom, Macduff O; Wilson, Mark V; Jackson, Abby; Holmes, Andrea E

    2013-12-31

    DETECHIP has been used in testing analytes including caffeine, cocaine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from marijuana, as well as date rape and club drugs such as flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and methamphetamine. This study investigates the intermolecular interaction between DETECHIP sensor eosin Y (DC1) and the analyte (caffeine) that is responsible for the fluorescence and color changes observed in the actual array. Using (1)H-NMR, (1)H-COSY, and (1)H-DOSY NMR methods, a proton exchange from C-8 of caffeine to eosin Y is proposed. PMID:25018772

  5. Conformational Equilibria of -Alanine and Related Compounds as Studied by NMR Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    as the conjugate acid and conjugate base of -alanine, also show no significant conformational preference in water,N,N-trimethyltaurine is predominantly trans in acidic or neutral solution. The conformational equilibria of the N. In this context, we were much intrigued by several reports2-5 that proton NMR spectra of -alanine in acid, neutral

  6. Solid-State Deuterium NMR Spectroscopy of Membranes Michael F. Brown1

    E-print Network

    Brown, Michael F.

    are classified as smectic A lyotropic liquid crystals, and an illustration of the liquid-crystalline lamellar, e.g. polymers, glasses, protein precipitates, and mem- brane proteins. Rather than being mainly 2 H NMR studies of membrane proteins [11­15] and DNA fibers [16] have also been conducted

  7. In Situ NMR Spectroscopy of Supercapacitors: Insight into the Charge Storage Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, commonly known as supercapacitors, are important energy storage devices with high power capabilities and long cycle lives. Here we report the development and application of in situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methodologies to study changes at the electrode–electrolyte interface in working devices as they charge and discharge. For a supercapacitor comprising activated carbon electrodes and an organic electrolyte, NMR experiments carried out at different charge states allow quantification of the number of charge storing species and show that there are at least two distinct charge storage regimes. At cell voltages below 0.75 V, electrolyte anions are increasingly desorbed from the carbon micropores at the negative electrode, while at the positive electrode there is little change in the number of anions that are adsorbed as the voltage is increased. However, above a cell voltage of 0.75 V, dramatic increases in the amount of adsorbed anions in the positive electrode are observed while anions continue to be desorbed at the negative electrode. NMR experiments with simultaneous cyclic voltammetry show that supercapacitor charging causes marked changes to the local environments of charge storing species, with periodic changes of their chemical shift observed. NMR calculations on a model carbon fragment show that the addition and removal of electrons from a delocalized system should lead to considerable increases in the nucleus-independent chemical shift of nearby species, in agreement with our experimental observations. PMID:24274637

  8. Use and qualification of primary and secondary standards employed in quantitative ¹H NMR spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Rundlöf, Torgny; McEwen, Ian; Johansson, Monika; Arvidsson, Torbjörn

    2014-05-01

    Standards are required in quantitative NMR (qNMR) to obtain accurate and precise results. In this study acetanilide was established and used as a primary standard. Six other chemicals were selected as secondary standards: 3,4,5-trichloropyridine, dimethylterephthalate, maleic acid, 3-sulfolene, 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. The secondary standards were quantified using the primary standard acetanilide. A protocol for qualification and periodic checks of these secondary standards was developed, and used for evaluation of the stability of the compounds. Periodic monitoring of purity was performed for several years. The purity was higher than 99% for all secondary standards. All standards maintained the initial purity during the time period of monitoring, with very small variations in purity (0.3-0.4%). The selected secondary standards were shown to be suitable qNMR standards and that periodic requalification of the standards by qNMR ensures reliable analytical results. These standards have been used in our laboratory for compliance testing of pharmaceutical active substances and approved medicinal products as well as for analysis of suspected illegal medicines. In total more than 1000 samples have been tested using both internal and external standardization and examples are given. PMID:24206940

  9. Self-Association of N-Methylacetamide Examined by Infrared and NMR Spectroscopies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, Heather L.; Hui, KaWai

    2011-01-01

    These spectroscopic experiments investigate polarity and concentration effects on self-association behavior in N-methylacetamide. Inquiry can be limited to the concentration dependence of hydrogen bonding and estimation of dimerization constant (NMR studies) or to the effect of solvent polarity on extent of hydrogen bonding (IR studies). The…

  10. Structural studies of methyl brevifolincarboxylate in solid state by means of NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Wolniak; Michal Tomczyk; Jan Gudej; Iwona Wawer

    2006-01-01

    Methyl brevifolincarboxylate isolated from the herb of Potentilla argentea L. (Rosaceae) is a representative of the naturally occurring polyphenols. The compound is of pharmaceutical interest mainly because of its antiviral and antioxidant properties. 13C NMR spectra were recorded for solution and solid phase. 13C CPMAS spectra were assigned by comparison with solution data, dipolar dephasing and short contact time experiments.

  11. Post-grafting amination of alkyl halide-functionalized silica for applications in catalysis, adsorption, and (15)n NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moschetta, Eric G; Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Greenfield, Jake L; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-02-24

    An anhydrous synthesis of aminosilica materials from alkyl halide-functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 silica by post-grafting amination is introduced for applications in CO2 adsorption, cooperative catalysis, and (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The synthesis is demonstrated to convert terminal alkyl halide-functionalized silica materials containing Cl, Br, and I to primary alkylamines using anhydrous ammonia in a high-pressure reactor. The benefits of the post-grafting amination procedure include (i) use of anhydrous isotopically labeled ammonia, (15)NH3, to create aminosilica materials that can be investigated using (15)N solid-state NMR to elucidate potential intermediates and surface species in CO2 adsorption processes and catalysis, (ii) similar CO2 uptake in experiments extracting CO2 from dry simulated air experiments, and (iii) improved activity in acid-base bifunctional catalysis compared to traditional amine-grafted materials. The effects of the type of halide, the initial halide loading, and the total reaction time on the conversion of the halides to primary amines are explored. Physical and chemical characterizations of the materials show that the textural properties of the silica are unaffected by the reaction conditions and that quantitative conversion to primary amines is achieved even at short reaction times and high initial alkyl halide loadings. Additionally, preliminary (15)N solid-state NMR experiments indicate formation of nitrogen-containing species and demonstrate that the synthesis can be used to create materials useful for investigating surface species by NMR spectroscopy. The differences between the materials prepared via post-grafting amination vs traditional aminosilane grafting are attributed to the slightly increased spacing of the amines synthesized by amination because the alkylhalosilanes are initially better spaced on the silica surface after grafting, whereas the aminosilanes likely cluster to a greater extent when grafted on the silica surface. A slight increase in amine spacing allows for more effective amine-silanol interactions in cooperative catalysis without reducing the amine efficiency in CO2 uptake under the conditions used here. PMID:25647627

  12. Isomers and conformers of two push pull hydrazines studied by NMR and vibrational spectroscopy and by ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gróf, M.; Polovková, J.; Gatial, A.; Milata, V.; ?ernuchová, P.; Prónayová, N.; Mat?jka, P.

    2007-05-01

    The isomers and conformers of two push-pull hydrazines: 3- N, N-dimethylhydrazino-2-acetyl propenenitrile [(H 3C) 2N sbnd NH sbnd CH dbnd C(CN)(COCH 3)] (DMHAP) and 3- N, N-dimethylhydrazino-2-methylsulfonyl propenenitrile [(H 3C) 2N sbnd NH sbnd CH dbnd C(CN)(SO 2CH 3)] (DMHSP) have been studied experimentally by NMR and vibrational spectroscopy and theoretically by the ab initio calculations at MP2 level in 6-31G** basis set. The IR and Raman spectra of both compounds as a solid and solute in various solvents have been recorded. The NMR spectra were obtained in chloroform and DMSO at room temperature. Both compounds have been prepared by the same way. NMR spectra revealed that DMHAP was prepared as a pure Z-isomer whereas in the case of DMHSP a pure E-isomer was obtained. Due to the low barrier for both compounds practically free isomerisation process occurred in the solutions but in opposite directions. Whereas DMHAP exists in the solid state and in the less polar solvent as Z-isomer, in more polar solvents the appearance of next two conformers of E-isomer was observed. On the contrary DMHSP exists in the solid state and in the more polar solvent as E-isomer only but in less polar solvent the presence of Z-isomer was observed as well. Conformational possibilities of both studied compounds are given by the rotation of dimethylhydrazino group with its anti- or syn-orientation towards the olefinic double bond. Moreover, by the rotation of the acetyl group with Z- and E-orientation of carbonyl bond towards olefinic double bond can occur in DMHAP. Vibrational and NMR spectra revealed the existence of single conformer with intramolecular hydrogen bond for Z-isomer in less polar solvent and next two conformers for E-isomer of DMHAP with Z-orientation of acetyl group and anti and syn orientation of dimethylhydrazine group in more polar solvents. For E-isomer of DMHSP two conformers with anti or syn orientations of dimethylhydrazino group have been also confirmed by NMR spectra in more polar solvents. Additionally the third DMHSP conformer with anti orientation of dimethylhydrazino group originating from Z-isomer was detected in less polar solvents. These experimental findings have been supported by ab initio calculations with solvent effect inclusion.

  13. Determination of Structural Topology of a Membrane Protein in Lipid -Bilayers using Polarization Optimized Experiments (POE) for Static and MAS Solid State NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mote, Kaustubh R.; Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    The low sensitivity inherent to both the static and magic angle spinning techniques of solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has thus far limited the routine application of multidimensional experiments to determine the structure of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers. Here, we demonstrate the advantage of using a recently developed class of experiments, polarization optimized experiments (POE), for both static and MAS spectroscopy to achieve higher sensitivity and substantial time-savings for 2D and 3D experiments. We used sarcolipin, a single pass membrane protein, reconstituted in oriented bicelles (for oriented ssNMR) and multilamellar vesicles (for MAS ssNMR) as a benchmark. The restraints derived by these experiments are then combined into a hybrid energy function to allow simultaneous determination of structure and topology. The resulting structural ensemble converged to a helical conformation with a backbone RMSD ? 0.44 Å, a tilt angle of 24° ± 1°, and an azimuthal angle of 55° ± 6°. This work represents a crucial first step toward obtaining high-resolution structures of large membrane proteins using combined multidimensional O-ssNMR and MAS-ssNMR. PMID:23963722

  14. Characterization of polysulfone and polysulfone/vanillin microcapsules by 1H NMR spectroscopy, solid-state 13C CP/MAS-NMR spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption analyses.

    PubMed

    Peña, Brisa; de Ménorval, Louis-Charles; Garcia-Valls, Ricard; Gumí, Tània

    2011-11-01

    Textile detergent and softener industries have incorporated perfume microencapsulation technology to improve their products. Perfume encapsulation allows perfume protection until use and provides a long-lasting fragrance release. But, certain industrial microcapsules show low encapsulation capacity and low material stability. Polysulfone capsules have been already proposed to solve these drawbacks. Among them, PSf/Vanillin capsules were considered as a desirable system. They present both good material stability and high encapsulation capacity. However, several factors such as the final location of the perfume in the polymeric matrix, the aggregation state that it has in the capsule and its interaction with the capsule components have not been studied yet. These factors can provide vast information about the capsule performance and its improvement. With the aim to characterize these parameters, the physical and chemical properties of PSf/Vanillin capsules have been investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements. AFM micrograph and N(2) isotherms confirm that the presence of vanillin modify the physical structure of PSf/Vanillin microcapsules as it is trapped in the capsule porosity. NMR results show that vanillin is present in solid state in PSf/Vanillin microcapsules. PMID:22008282

  15. Simultaneous Structural Identification of Natural Products in Fractions of Crude Extract of the Rare Endangered Plant Anoectochilus roxburghii Using 1H NMR/RRLC-MS Parallel Dynamic Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Xue; He, Jiu-Ming; Wang, Chun-Lan; Zhang, Rui-Ping; He, Wen-Yi; Guo, Shun-Xing; Sun, Rui-Xiang; Abliz, Zeper

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance/liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy parallel dynamic spectroscopy (NMR/LC-MS PDS) is a method aimed at the simultaneous structural identification of natural products in complex mixtures. In this study, the method is illustrated with respect to 1H NMR and rapid resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (RRLC-MS) data, acquired from the crude extract of Anoectochilus roxburghii, which was separated into a series of fractions with the concentration of constituent dynamic variation using reversed-phase preparative chromatography. Through fraction ranges and intensity changing profiles in 1H NMR/RRLC–MS PDS spectrum, 1H NMR and the extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) signals deriving from the same individual constituent, were correlated due to the signal amplitude co-variation resulting from the concentration variation of constituents in a series of incompletely separated fractions. 1H NMR/RRLC-MS PDS was then successfully used to identify three types of natural products, including eight flavonoids, four organic acids and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, five of which have not previously been reported in Anoectochilus roxburghii. In addition, two groups of co-eluted compounds were successfully identified. The results prove that this approach should be of benefit in the unequivocal structural determination of a variety of classes of compounds from extremely complex mixtures, such as herbs and biological samples, which will lead to improved efficiency in the identification of new potential lead compounds. PMID:21731458

  16. II-utility of fluorine-19 NMR spectroscopy for investigation of charge transfer complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Adl, Sobhy

    1994-11-01

    Fluorine and proton chemical shifts for the griseofulvin oxime—fluoranil complex are reported. 1H, 19F-NMR spectra prove the course of the charge transfer complex formation. Due to redistribution of the electron density, the protons of the donor are slightly shifted towards a lower field where deshielding has occurred. Signals of the 19F-NMR spectra of fluoranil complex showed a positive value for the upfield shift of the fluorine resonance due to a shielding effect. Fluoranil (tetrafluoro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione) has a high electron-accepting ability with respect to the functional groups containing heteroatoms. The complete qualitative and quantitative chemical characterization of the resulting complex has been studied.

  17. Determination of carbon dioxide transport coefficients in liquids and polymers by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Julio; Garrido, Leoncio

    2012-05-24

    In liquids and in polymeric membranes, a precise determination of their transport properties is of paramount importance. In this work, an NMR method to measure sequentially the solubility and diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide in liquids (n-alkanes and 1-alkanols) and in polymer membranes (polyethylene, polybutadiene, and polycarbonate) is described. The results show that NMR measurements are very reproducible and in good agreement with those determined by other methods. Considering that the gas permeability is defined as the product of the solubility and diffusion coefficients, the method allows the determination of all transport parameters in an accurate manner. The influence of chain length, viscosity, and solubility parameters on the transport coefficients of [(13)C]O(2) in alkanes and 1-alkanols was also analyzed and compared to those measured in polyethylene. PMID:22537229

  18. A benzyl alcohol derivative of the BDPA radical for fast dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Gómez, J L; Monteagudo, E; Lloveras, V; Parella, T; Veciana, J; Vidal-Gancedo, J

    2015-03-01

    The synthesis, structural characterization and the successful application of a carbon centered radical derived from 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA), its benzyl alcohol derivative (BA-BDPA), as a polarizing agent for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) are described. The reported BA-BDPA radical meets all the requirements to become a promising candidate for its use in in vivo DNP-NMR experiments: it is soluble in neat [1-(13)C]pyruvic acid, insoluble in the dissolution transfer solvent and is effective as a polarizing agent in fast dissolution DNP-NMR applications, without the need for using glassing agents. Moreover, it enables a simple but effective in-line radical filtration to obtain hyperpolarized solutions of [1-(13)C]pyruvic acid free of radicals that offers a better polarization performance. PMID:25586215

  19. Determination of additives in an electrolytic zinc bath by q 1 H-NMR spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ainara Barriola; José I. Miranda; Miren Ostra; Carlos Ubide

    2010-01-01

    The use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) for the quantification of additives in an electrolytic Zn bath is reported. A simple and quick method is described\\u000a that does not need any prior sample preparation. Contrary to other analytical methods, the three additives in the bath, benzylidene\\u000a acetone (BDA), benzoic acid (BA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PE400), can be quantified. Two

  20. Total assignment and structure in solution of tetrandrine by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling.

    PubMed

    Thevand, André; Stanculescu, Ioana; Mandravel, Cristina; Woisel, Patrice; Surpateanu, Gheorghe

    2004-07-01

    High-resolution 1- and 2D NMR spectra of tetrandrine and molecular modelling were employed to characterise its structure in solution. Complete and unambiguous assignment of all proton and carbon resonance signals is reported. Scalar couplings were determined from dihedral angles with the Karplus equation. Inter-proton distances were evaluated from NOE correlation peaks. Comparison of simulated and X-ray conformations of tetrandrine reveals only small differences. PMID:15248956

  1. Total assignment and structure in solution of tetrandrine by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Thevand; Ioana Stanculescu; Cristina Mandravel; Patrice Woisel; Gheorghe Surpateanu

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution 1- and 2D NMR spectra of tetrandrine and molecular modelling were employed to characterise its structure in solution. Complete and unambiguous assignment of all proton and carbon resonance signals is reported. Scalar couplings were determined from dihedral angles with the Karplus equation. Inter-proton distances were evaluated from NOE correlation peaks. Comparison of simulated and X-ray conformations of tetrandrine reveals

  2. Gradient-tailored excitation for single-quantum NMR spectroscopy of aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martial Piotto; Vladimir Saudek; Vladimir Sklená?

    1992-01-01

    Summary A novel approach to tailored selective excitation for the measurement of NMR spectra in non-deuterated aqueous solutions (WATERGATE, WATER suppression by GraAdient-Tailored Excitation) is described. The gradient echo sequence, which effectively combines one selective 180° radiofrequency pulse and two field gradient pulses, achieves highly selective and effective water suppression. This technique is ideally suited for the rapid collection of

  3. In situ study of the magnetoelectrolysis phenomenon during copper electrodeposition using time domain NMR relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna Ferreira; Nunes, Luiza Maria Silva; Lobo, Carlos Manuel Silva; Cabeça, Luís Fernando; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Although the effect of magnetic field (B) on electrochemical reactions (magnetoelectrolysis phenomenon) has been long known, it has not been considered in electrochemical reactions analyzed in situ by magnetic resonance methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are intrinsically performed in the presence of B. In this report, the effect of B on the copper electrodeposition reaction, measured by a low-field (0.23 T) NMR spectrometer, was demonstrated. As expected, an enhancement in the reaction rate in comparison to the ex situ electrodeposition reaction was observed. Such enhancement was not dependent on electrodes/magnetic field orientations. Parallel and perpendicular orientations showed similar electrodeposition rates, which is explained by the cyclotron flows generated by distortions in electric and magnetic field lines near the electrode and the electrode edge. Therefore, NMR spectroscopy is not a passive analytical method, as assumed in preceding in situ spectroelectrochemical studies. Although the magnetoelectrolysis phenomenon demonstrated in this report used a paramagnetic ion, it can also be observed for diamagnetic species, since the magnetoelectrolysis phenomenon is independent of the nature of the species. Consequently, similar convection effects may occur in other electrochemical nuclear magnetic resonance (EC-NMR) experiments, such as the electrochemical reaction of organic molecules, as well as in electrocatalysis/fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries, and experiments that use electrochemical electron paramagnetic resonance (EC-EPR) and electrochemical magnetic resonance imaging (EC-MRI). PMID:25162751

  4. Mg/Al Ordering in Layered Double Hydroxides Revealed by Multinuclear NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sideris, Paul J.; Nielsen, Ulla G.; Gan, Zhehong; Grey, Clare P.

    2008-07-04

    The anion-exchange ability of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been exploited to create materials for use in catalysis, drug delivery, and environmental remediation. The specific cation arrangements in the hydroxide layers of hydrotalcite-like LDHs, of general formula Mg2+1–xAl3+xOH2(Anionn– x/n)·yH2O, have, however, remained elusive, and their elucidation could enhance the functional optimization of these materials. We applied rapid (60 kilohertz) magic angle spinning (MAS) to obtain high-resolution hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra and characterize the magnesium and aluminum distribution. These data, in combination with 1H-27Al double-resonance and 25Mg triple-quantum MAS NMR data, show that the cations are fully ordered for magnesium:aluminum ratios of 2:1 and that at lower aluminum content, a nonrandom distribution of cations persists, with no Al3+-Al3+ close contacts. The application of rapid MAS NMR methods to investigate proton distributions in a wide range of materials is readily envisaged.

  5. Conformational Analysis of Triazine Dendrimers: Using NMR Spectroscopy To Probe the Choreography of a Dendrimer's Dance

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Karlos X.; Simanek, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR studies are used to probe the conformation of a melamine dendrimer bearing unique NMR signals from the core to the periphery. Four conceptual anchors for dendrimer conformation emerge from these experiments. First, changes in isomer populations observed by 1H NMR reveal the onset of globular structure. Second, NOE complexity emerges with globular structure: variable temperature NOESY studies show that the peripheral groups, BOC-protected aliphatic amines, fold back into the globular core of the macromolecule at 75 °C in DMSO-d6. Third, variable temperature coefficients measured for NH protons suggest that solvent is largely excluded from the interior of the dendrimer: the carbamate NH groups of the periphery are most sensitive to temperature while the NHs nearest the core show little temperature dependence. Conformation is influenced by solvent choice: backfolding is observed in DMSO-d6, but not in either CDCl3 or CD3OD. Finally, relaxation studies show that peripheral groups are more dynamic than groups at the core. These anchors consolidate observations made by many groups on disparate systems within a common architecture. PMID:19946610

  6. Magneto-optical contrast in liquid-state optically detected NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pagliero, Daniela; Meriles, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    We use optical Faraday rotation (OFR) to probe nuclear spins in real time at high-magnetic field in a range of diamagnetic sample fluids. Comparison of OFR-detected NMR spectra reveals a correlation between the relative signal amplitude and the fluid Verdet constant, which we interpret as a manifestation of the variable detuning between the probe beam and the sample optical transitions. The analysis of chemical-shift-resolved, optically detected spectra allows us to set constraints on the relative amplitudes of hyperfine coupling constants, both for protons at chemically distinct sites and other lower-gyromagnetic-ratio nuclei including carbon, fluorine, and phosphorous. By considering a model binary mixture we observe a complex dependence of the optical response on the relative concentration, suggesting that the present approach is sensitive to the solvent-solute dynamics in ways complementary to those known in inductive NMR. Extension of these experiments may find application in solvent suppression protocols, sensitivity-enhanced NMR of metalloproteins in solution, the investigation of solvent-solute interactions, or the characterization of molecular orbitals in diamagnetic systems. PMID:22100736

  7. Magneto-optical contrast in liquid-state optically detected NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pagliero, Daniela; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    We use optical Faraday rotation (OFR) to probe nuclear spins in real time at high-magnetic field in a range of diamagnetic sample fluids. Comparison of OFR-detected NMR spectra reveals a correlation between the relative signal amplitude and the fluid Verdet constant, which we interpret as a manifestation of the variable detuning between the probe beam and the sample optical transitions. The analysis of chemical-shift-resolved, optically detected spectra allows us to set constraints on the relative amplitudes of hyperfine coupling constants, both for protons at chemically distinct sites and other lower-gyromagnetic-ratio nuclei including carbon, fluorine, and phosphorous. By considering a model binary mixture we observe a complex dependence of the optical response on the relative concentration, suggesting that the present approach is sensitive to the solvent-solute dynamics in ways complementary to those known in inductive NMR. Extension of these experiments may find application in solvent suppression protocols, sensitivity-enhanced NMR of metalloproteins in solution, the investigation of solvent-solute interactions, or the characterization of molecular orbitals in diamagnetic systems. PMID:22100736

  8. Study of structural modification of sodium aluminophosphate glasses with TiO 2 addition through Raman and NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Babita; Pandey, M.; Sudarsan, V.; Deb, S. K.; Kothiyal, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    Structural modification of sodium aluminophosphate (NAP) glasses with TiO 2 addition has been investigated using Raman and MAS-NMR ( 31P and 27Al) spectroscopy. TiO 2 incorporated NAP glasses having composition (mol%): 40Na 2O-10Al 2O 3- xTiO 2-(50- x)P 2O 5 ( x=0-20), are prepared by conventional melt quench method. The low-frequency Raman spectrum suggests an increase in the average ionic character of phosphate glass network with addition of TiO 2. Raman and 31P MAS-NMR revealed that the glasses without TiO 2, consist mainly metaphosphate (Q 2) structural units. These are gradually converted into pyrophosphate (Q 1) and orthophosphate (Q 0) structural units along with the formation of P-O-Ti/P-O-Al linkages. 27Al MAS-NMR revealed the change in coordination of Al from octahedral (AlO 6) to tetrahedral (AlO 4) for TiO 2 above 10 mol%. Raman spectra indicate that TiO 2 enters the network in the form of octahedral (TiO 6) and tetrahedral (TiO 4) structural units and at high concentration of TiO 2, tetrahedral structural units are more favourable. Various thermo-physical properties e.g. density ( ?), molar volume ( Vm), glass transition temperature ( Tg), microhardness (MH), and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) have been measured as a function of TiO 2 content. Variations in the thermo-physical properties are correlated with these structural modifications in the phosphate structural units and consequently changes in the average ionic character of phosphate glass network.

  9. Organic solute changes with acidification in Lake Skjervatjern as shown by [sup 1]H-NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm, R.L. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Hayes, T. (Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    [sup 1]H-NMR spectroscopy has been found to be a useful tool to establish possible real differences and trends between all natural organic solute fractions (fulvic acids, humic acids, and XAD-4 acids) after acid-rain additions to the Lake Skjervatjern watershed. The proton NMR technique used in this study determined the spectral distribution of nonexchangeable protons among four peaks (aliphatic protons; aliphatic protons on carbon [alpha] or attached to electronegative groups; protons on carbons attached to O or N heteroatoms; and aromatic protons). Differences of 10% or more in the respective peak areas were considered to represent a real difference. After one year of acidification, fulvic acids decreased 13% (relative) in Peak 3 protons on carbon attached to N and O heteroatoms and exhibited a decrease in aromatic protons between 27% and 31%. Humic acids also exhibited an 11% relative decrease in aromatic protons as a result of acidification. After one year of acidification, real changes were shown in three of the four proton assignments in XAD-4 acids. Peak 1 aliphatic protons increased by 14% (relative), Peak 3 protons on carbons attached to O and N heteroatoms decreased by 13% (relative), and aromatic protons (Peak 4) decreased by 35% (relative). Upon acidification, there was a trend in all solutes for aromatic protons to decrease and aliphatic protons to increase. The natural variation in organic solutes as shown in the Control Side B of the lake from 1990 to 1991 is perhaps a small limitation to the same data interpretations of acid rain changes at the Lake Skjervatjern site, but the proton NMR technique shows great promise as an independent scientific tool to detect and support other chemical techniques in establishing organic solute changes with different treatments (i.e., additions of acid rain). 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Structure and dynamics of the lipid modifications of a transmembrane ?-helical peptide determined by ²H solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Penk, Anja; Müller, Matthias; Scheidt, Holger A; Langosch, Dieter; Huster, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    The fusion of biological membranes is mediated by integral membrane proteins with ?-helical transmembrane segments. Additionally, those proteins are often modified by the covalent attachment of hydrocarbon chains. Previously, a series of de novo designed ?-helical peptides with mixed Leu/Val sequences was presented, mimicking fusiogenically active transmembrane segments in model membranes (Hofmann et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (2004) 14776-14781). From this series, we have investigated the peptide LV16 (KKKW LVLV LVLV LVLV LVLV KKK), which was synthesized featuring either a free N-terminus or a saturated N-acylation of 2, 8, 12, or 16 carbons. We used ²H and ³¹P NMR spectroscopy to investigate the structure and dynamics of those peptide lipid modifications in POPC and DLPC bilayers and compared them to the hydrocarbon chains of the surrounding membrane. Except for the C2 chain, all peptide acyl chains were found to insert well into the membrane. This can be explained by the high local lipid concentrations the N-terminal lipid chains experience. Further, the insertion of these peptides did not influence the membrane structure and dynamics as seen from the ²H and ³¹P NMR data. In spite of the fact that the longer acyl chains insert into the membrane, they do not adapt their lengths to the thickness of the bilayer. Even the C16 lipid chain on the peptide, which could match the length of the POPC palmitoyl chain, exhibited lower order parameters in the upper chain, which get closer and finally reach similar values in the lower chain region. ²H NMR square law plots reveal motions of slightly larger amplitudes for the peptide lipid chains compared to the surrounding phospholipids. In spite of the significantly different chain lengths of the acylations, the fraction of gauche defects in the inserted chains is constant. PMID:21192915

  11. Electron-paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using N-methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate iron cannot discriminate between nitric oxide and nitroxyl: implications for the detection of reaction products for nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Komarov, A M; Wink, D A; Feelisch, M; Schmidt, H H

    2000-03-01

    Purified neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) does not produce nitric oxide (NO) unless high concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD) are added, suggesting that nitroxyl (NO(-)) or a related molecule is the principal reaction product of NOS, which is SOD-dependently converted to NO. This hypothesis was questioned by experiments using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and iron N-methyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate (Fe-MGD) as a trap for NO. Although NOS and the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine produced an electron paramagnetic resonance signal, the NO(-) donor, Angeli's salt (AS) did not. AS is a labile compound that rapidly hydrolyzes to nitrite, and important positive control experiments showing that AS was intact were lacking. On reinvestigating this crucial experiment, we find identical MGD(2)-Fe-NO complexes both from S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine and AS but not from nitrite. Moreover, the yield of MGD(2)-Fe-NO complex from AS was stoichiometric even in the absence of SOD. Thus, MGD(2)-Fe directly detects NO(-), and any conclusions drawn from MGD(2)-Fe-NO complexes with respect to the nature of the primary NOS product (NO, NO(-), or a related N-oxide) are invalid. Thus, NOS may form NO(-) or related N-oxides instead of NO. PMID:10754269

  12. Use of NMR Spectroscopy in the Synthesis and Characterization of Air-and Water-Stable Silicon Nanoparticles from Porous Silicon

    E-print Network

    Augustine, Mathew P.

    Use of NMR Spectroscopy in the Synthesis and Characterization of Air- and Water-Stable Silicon Nanoparticles from Porous Silicon R. S. Carter, S. J. Harley, P. P. Power, and M. P. Augustine* Department. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed February 23, 2005 Air- and water-stable silicon nanocrystals were

  13. Chemical structures of swine-manure chars produced under different carbonization conditions investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two types of swine manure chars, hydrothermally-produced hydrochar and slow-pyrolysis pyrochar, and their raw swine manure solid were characterized using advanced 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Compared with the parent raw swine manure, both hydrochars and pyrochar di...

  14. Insights into the Catalytic Activity of Nitridated Fibrous Silica (KCC-1) Nanocatalysts from (15) N and (29) Si?NMR Spectroscopy Enhanced by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization.

    PubMed

    Lilly Thankamony, Aany Sofia; Lion, Cédric; Pourpoint, Frédérique; Singh, Baljeet; Perez Linde, Angel J; Carnevale, Diego; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Vezin, Hervé; Lafon, Olivier; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2015-02-01

    Fibrous nanosilica (KCC-1) oxynitrides are promising solid-base catalysts. Paradoxically, when their nitrogen content increases, their catalytic activity decreases. This counterintuitive observation is explained here for the first time using (15) N-solid-state NMR spectroscopy enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization. PMID:25469825

  15. Conformation and dynamics of the Gag polyprotein of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 studied by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Lalit; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Clore, G Marius

    2015-03-17

    Assembly and maturation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are governed by the Gag polyprotein. Here we study the conformation and dynamics of a large HIV-1 Gag fragment comprising the matrix, capsid, spacer peptide 1 and nucleocapsid domains (referred to as ?Gag) by heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. In solution, ?Gag exists in a dynamic equilibrium between monomeric and dimeric states. In the presence of nucleic acids and at low ionic strength ?Gag assembles into immature virus-like particles. The structured domains of ?Gag (matrix, the N- and C-terminal domains of capsid, and the N- and C-terminal zinc knuckles of nucleocapsid) retain their fold and reorient semi-independently of one another; the linkers connecting the structural domains, including spacer peptide 1 that connects capsid to nucleocapsid, are intrinsically disordered. Structural changes in ?Gag upon proteolytic processing by HIV-1 protease, monitored by NMR in real-time, demonstrate that the conformational transition of the N-terminal 13 residues of capsid from an intrinsically disordered coil to a ?-hairpin upon cleavage at the matrix|capsid junction occurs five times faster than cleavage at the capsid|spacer peptide 1 junction. Finally, nucleic acids interact with both nucleocapsid and matrix domains, and proteolytic processing at the spacer peptide 1|nucleocapsid junction by HIV-1 protease is accelerated in the presence of single-stranded DNA. PMID:25713345

  16. Using 15N-Ammonium to Characterise and Map Potassium Binding Sites in Proteins by NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Werbeck, Nicolas D; Kirkpatrick, John; Reinstein, Jochen; Hansen, D Flemming

    2014-01-01

    A variety of enzymes are activated by the binding of potassium ions. The potassium binding sites of these enzymes are very specific, but ammonium ions can often replace potassium ions in vitro because of their similar ionic radii. In these cases, ammonium can be used as a proxy for potassium to characterise potassium binding sites in enzymes: the 1H,15N spin-pair of enzyme-bound 15NH4+ can be probed by 15N-edited heteronuclear NMR experiments. Here, we demonstrate the use of NMR spectroscopy to characterise binding of ammonium ions to two different enzymes: human histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), which is activated allosterically by potassium, and the bacterial Hsp70 homologue DnaK, for which potassium is an integral part of the active site. Ammonium activates both enzymes in a similar way to potassium, thus supporting this non-invasive approach. Furthermore, we present an approach to map the observed binding site onto the structure of HDAC8. Our method for mapping the binding site is general and does not require chemical shift assignment of the enzyme resonances. PMID:24520048

  17. Dynamic light scattering and \\chem{^{31}P} NMR spectroscopy study of the self-assembly of deoxyguanosine mth{5'}-monophosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, L.; Drevenšek Olenik, I.; ?opi?, M.; Romih, R.; Cerar, J.; Škerjanc, J.; Mariani, P.

    2002-01-01

    Self-assembling properties of deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate in isotropic solutions of concentrations from 0.5 wt% to 15 wt% were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and \\chem{^{31}P} NMR spectroscopy. A slow diffusive mode with a diffusion coefficient D_slow sim 10^{-12} m2/s was detected by DLS for the whole concentration range. This mode is assigned to the translational motion of large globular aggregates, similar to those observed in DNA and other polyelectrolyte solutions. The existence of such aggregates was confirmed by freeze fracture electron microscopy. Close to the isotropic-cholesteric phase transition, at 4 wt% leqslant c leqslant 10 wt%, also a faster diffusive mode is observed in the polarized DLS response and a very fast mode is detected by depolarized DLS. These modes are related to translational and rotational diffusion of the columnar stacks of guanosine molecules, which are favorably formed in the relatively narrow pretransitional region. The stacking was also revealed from the appearance of a secondary resonance line in the \\chem{^{31}P} NMR spectra. Using the hydrodynamic theory of Tirado and Garcia de la Torre, the length of the cylindrical stacks was found to be L = 364 ± 78 Å, which is significantly larger than the values reported for other guanosine derivatives.

  18. Evolution of organic matter during composting of different organic wastes assessed by CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Caricasole, P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Provenzano, M.R., E-mail: Provenza@agr.uniba.it [Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agroforestale ed Ambientale, Universita di Bari, Via G. Amendola 165/a, 70126 Bari (Italy); Hatcher, P.G. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Senesi, N. [Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agroforestale ed Ambientale, Universita di Bari, Via G. Amendola 165/a, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, the evolution of organic matter (OM) during composting of different mixtures of various organic wastes was assessed by means of chemical analyses and CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy measured during composting. The trends of temperatures and C/N ratios supported the correct evolution of the processes. The CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR spectra of all composting substrates indicated a reduction in carbohydrates and an increase in aromatic, phenolic, carboxylic and carbonylic C which suggested a preference by microorganisms for easily degradable C molecules. The presence of hardly degradable pine needles in one of the substrates accounted for the lowest increase in alkyl C and the lowest reduction in carbohydrates and carboxyl C as opposite to another substrate characterized by the presence of a highly degradable material such as spent yeast from beer production, which showed the highest increase of the alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio. The highest increase of COOH deriving by the oxidative degradation of cellulose was shown by a substrate composed by about 50% of plant residues. The smallest increases in alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio and in polysaccharides were associated to the degradation of proteins and lipids which are major components of sewage sludge. Results obtained were related to the different composition of fresh organic substrates and provided evidence of different OM evolution patterns as a function of the initial substrate composition.

  19. Structural studies of boron and tellurium coordination in zinc borophosphate glasses by 11B MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosejpková, Kate?ina; Koudelka, Ladislav; ?ernošek, Zden?k; Mošner, Petr; Montagne, Lionel; Revel, Bertrand

    2012-02-01

    Zinc borophosphate glasses doped with TeO2 with different B2O3/P2O5 ratio were prepared, their basic properties were determined and their structure was studied by 11B MAS NMR and Raman spectroscopies. Structural studies were devoted to the investigation of changes in boron coordination in the dependence on changes in TeO2 content and in B2O3/P2O5 ratio in the borophosphate glasses. A special attention was devoted to the formation of mixed structural units B(OP)4-n(OTe)n in the studied borophosphate glasses, where by the deconvolution of 11B MAS NMR spectra quantitative data on the number of BO3 and B(OP)4-n(OTe)n mixed structural units were obtained. Raman spectra showed shortening of phosphate chains both with increasing TeO2 and B2O3 content. Raman spectra also showed that with the replacement of P2O5 by B2O3 in the studied glasses TeO4 units are replaced by TeO3 units as the number of oxygen atoms in the glass decreases when the B2O3/P2O5 ratio increases.

  20. The Effect of Antitumor Glycosides on Glioma Cells and Tissues as Studied by Proton HR-MAS NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvarez, Isabel; Garrido, Leoncio; Romero-Ramírez, Lorenzo; Nieto-Sampedro, Manuel; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Campos-Olivas, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the treatment with glycolipid derivatives on the metabolic profile of intact glioma cells and tumor tissues, investigated using proton high resolution magic angle spinning (1H HR-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, is reported here. Two compounds were used, a glycoside and its thioglycoside analogue, both showing anti-proliferative activity on glioma C6 cell cultures; however, only the thioglycoside exhibited antitumor activity in vivo. At the drug concentrations showing anti-proliferative activity in cell culture (20 and 40 µM), significant increases in choline containing metabolites were observed in the 1H NMR spectra of the same intact cells. In vivo experiments in nude mice bearing tumors derived from implanted C6 glioma cells, showed that reduction of tumor volume was associated with significant changes in the metabolic profile of the same intact tumor tissues; and were similar to those observed in cell culture. Specifically, the activity of the compounds is mainly associated with an increase in choline and phosphocholine, in both the cell cultures and tumoral tissues. Taurine, a metabolite that has been considered a biomarker of apoptosis, correlated with the reduction of tumor volume. Thus, the results indicate that the mode of action of the glycoside involves, at least in part, alteration of phospholipid metabolism, resulting in cell death. PMID:24194925

  1. Liposcale: a novel advanced lipoprotein test based on 2D diffusion-ordered 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mallol, Roger; Amigó, Núria; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Heras, Mercedes; Vinaixa, Maria; Plana, Núria; Rock, Edmond; Ribalta, Josep; Yanes, Oscar; Masana, Lluís; Correig, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    Determination of lipoprotein particle size and number using advanced lipoprotein tests (ALTs) is of particular importance to improve cardiovascular risk prediction. Here we present the Liposcale test, a novel ALT based on 2D diffusion-ordered (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Our method uses diffusion coefficients to provide a direct measure of the mean particle sizes and numbers. Using 177 plasma samples from healthy individuals and the concentration of ApoB and ApoA from isolated lipoprotein fractions, our test showed a stronger correlation between the NMR-derived lipoprotein particle numbers and apolipoprotein concentrations than the LipoProfile(®) test commercialized by Liposcience. We also converted LDL particle numbers to ApoB equivalents (milligrams per deciliter) and our test yielded similar values of LDL-ApoB to the LipoProfile(®) test (absolute mean bias of 8.5 and 7.4 mg/dl, respectively). In addition, our HDL particle number values were more concordant with the calibrated values determined recently using ion mobility. Finally, principal component analysis distinguished type 2 diabetic patients with and without atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) on a second cohort of 307 subjects characterized using the Liposcale test (area under the curve = 0.88) and showed concordant relationships between variables explaining AD. Altogether, our method provides reproducible and reliable characterization of lipoprotein particles and it is applicable to pathological states such as AD. PMID:25568061

  2. NMR Spectroscopy of the Hydrated Layer of Composite Particles Based on Nanosized Al2O3 and Vitreous Humor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turov, V. V.; Gerashchenko, I. I.; Markina, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    The hydrated layer of composite particles prepared using Al2O3 and cattle vitreous humor was investigated using NMR spectroscopy. It was found that water bound to Al2O3 nanoparticles was present in the form of clusters with different degrees of association and energies of interaction with the surface. Water bound to the surface of the Al2O3/vitreous humor composite became more uniform upon immobilization of vitreous humor components on the surface of the Al2O3. With this, the clusters of adsorbed water had characteristics that were close to those found in air and weakly polar CHCl3 media. Addition of polar CH3CN led to the formation of very small water clusters. PMR spectra of the surface of the Al2O3/vitreous humor composite in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid differentiated four types of hydrated structures that differed in the degree of water association.

  3. Parahydrogen-induced polarization transfer to 19F in perfluorocarbons for 19F?NMR spectroscopy and MRI.

    PubMed

    Plaumann, Markus; Bommerich, Ute; Trantzschel, Thomas; Lego, Denise; Dillenberger, Sonja; Sauer, Grit; Bargon, Joachim; Buntkowsky, Gerd; Bernarding, Johannes

    2013-05-10

    Fluorinated substances are important in chemistry, industry, and the life sciences. In a new approach, parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) is applied to enhance (19)F?MR signals of (perfluoro-n-hexyl)ethene and (perfluoro-n-hexyl)ethane. Unexpectedly, the end-standing CF3 group exhibits the highest amount of polarization despite the negligible coupling to the added protons. To clarify this non-intuitive distribution of polarization, signal enhancements in deuterated chloroform and acetone were compared and (19)F-(19)F?NOESY spectra, as well as (19)F T1 values were measured by NMR spectroscopy. By using the well separated and enhanced signal of the CF3 group, first (19)F?MR images of hyperpolarized linear semifluorinated alkenes were recorded. PMID:23526596

  4. The study of cyclododecane as a temporary coating for marble by NMR profilometry and FTIR reflectance spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, C.; Presciutti, F.; Doherty, B.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.; Miliani, C.

    2011-07-01

    This contribution focuses on an analytical evaluation of the use of cyclododecane (CDD) (C12H24) as a temporary protective coating for non-porous stone materials of cultural heritage interest. A facile solvent spray application technique for the production of an adherent continuous film has been assessed. The criterion for monitoring the sublimation of the cyclododecane film on marble has been established through the use of non-invasive analytical techniques so as to avoid any interaction with the process under study, where results serve to integrate and enhance knowledge into the use of cyclododecane in this discipline. Research is directed towards testing the applicability of portable infrared reflectance spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance profilometry systems to follow the in-situ behavior of temporary consolidants. In particular, the coupling of two spectroscopic techniques such as IR and NMR has been possible, enabling the descriptions of both the formation of the film and its kinetics of sublimation.

  5. The Synthesis, NMR Spectroscopy, and X-ray Structure of a New Rhenium N(2)S(2) Chelate Complex.

    PubMed

    Bell, R. A.; McCarry, B. E.; Valliant, J. F.

    1998-07-13

    A new chelate, mercaptoacetyl-L-histidinyl-S-benzyl-L-cysteine methyl ester was synthesized by standard peptide coupling techniques and reacted with ReOCl(3)(PPh(3))(2) to give two diastereomers, 7a and 7b. The two isomers were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. An X-ray structure of one isomer, 7a, confirmed that the chelated complex was analogous to other Re-N(2)S(2) compounds in that it formed a square pyramidal complex where the four donor atoms were the base of the pyramid and the oxygen attached to the rhenium was at the apex. The S-benzyl group, as expected, was cleaved during the formation of 7, and the resulting complex was a zwitterion where the rhenium was formally -1 and the counterion was the protonated imidazole ring. PMID:11670436

  6. An introduction to NMR-based approaches for measuring protein dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kleckner, Ian R; Foster, Mark P

    2010-01-01

    Proteins are inherently flexible at ambient temperature. At equilibrium, they are characterized by a set of conformations that undergo continuous exchange within a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales ranging from nanometers to micrometers and femtoseconds to hours. Dynamic properties of proteins are essential for describing the structural bases of their biological functions including catalysis, binding, regulation and cellular structure. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy represents a powerful technique for measuring these essential features of proteins. Here we provide an introduction to NMR-based approaches for studying protein dynamics, highlighting eight distinct methods with recent examples, contextualized within a common experimental and analytical framework. The selected methods are (1) Real-time NMR, (2) Exchange spectroscopy, (3) Lineshape analysis, (4) CPMG relaxation dispersion, (5) Rotating frame relaxation dispersion, (6) Nuclear spin relaxation, (7) Residual dipolar coupling, (8) Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. PMID:21059410

  7. Cryogenic Q-band (35 GHz) probehead featuring large excitation microwave fields for pulse and continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy: Performance and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrer, Jörg; García-Rubio, Inés; Schuhmam, Rolf; Tschaggelar, Rene; Harmer, Jeffrey

    2008-02-01

    The construction and performance of a Q-band (35 GHz) cryogenic probehead for pulse electron paramagnetic resonance and continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance measurements with down-scaled loop gap resonators (LGRs) is presented. The advantage of the LGR in comparison to TE 012 resonators lies in the large B1 microwave (mw) fields that can be generated with moderate input mw power. We demonstrated with several examples that this allows optimal performance for double-quantum electron coherence, HYSCORE, and hyperfine decoupling experiments employing matched and high turning angle mw pulses with high B1-fields. It is also demonstrated that with very low excitation power (i.e. 10-40 mW), B1-fields in LGRs are still sufficient to allow short mw pulses and thus experiments such as HYSCORE with high-spin systems to be performed with good sensitivity. A sensitivity factor ?rs of LGRs with different diameters and lengths is introduced in order to compare the sensitivity of different resonant structures. The electromagnetic field distribution, the B1-field homogeneity, the E1-field strength, and the microwave coupling between wave guide and LGRs are investigated by electromagnetic field calculations. The advantage and application range using LGRs for small sample diameters is discussed.

  8. Characterization of calcium-binding sites in the kidney stone inhibitor glycoprotein nephrocalcin with vanadyl ions: electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Mustafi, D; Nakagawa, Y

    1994-01-01

    Nephrocalcin (NC) is a calcium-binding glycoprotein of 14,000 molecular weight. It inhibits the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in renal tubules. The NC used in this study was isolated from bovine kidney tissue and purified with the use of DEAE-cellulose chromatography into four isoforms, designated as fractions A-D. They differ primarily according to the content of phosphate and gamma-carboxy-glutamic acid. Fractions A and B are strong inhibitors of the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal, whereas fractions C and D inhibit crystal growth weakly. Fraction A, with the highest Ca(2+)-binding affinity, was characterized with respect to its metal-binding sites by using the vanadyl ion (VO2+) as a paramagnetic probe in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopic studies. By EPR spectrometric titration, it was shown that fraction A of NC bound VO2+ with a stoichiometry of metal:protein binding of 4:1. Also, the binding of VO2+ to NC was shown to be competitive with Ca2+. Only protein residues were detected by proton ENDOR as ligands, and these ligands bound with complete exclusion of solvent from the inner coordination sphere of the metal ion. This type of metal-binding environment, as derived from VO(2+)-reconstituted NC, differs significantly from the binding sites in other Ca(2+)-binding proteins. PMID:7972057

  9. Coordination and ion-ion interactions of chromium centers in alkaline earth zinc borate glasses probed by electron paramagnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumalatha, B.; Omkaram, I.; Rajavardana Rao, T.; Linga Raju, Ch

    2013-05-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), optical absorption and FT-IR studies have been carried out on chromium ions incorporated in alkaline earth zinc borate glasses. The EPR spectra exhibit two resonance signals with effective g values at g ? 1.99 and ?1.97. The resonance signal at g ? 1.99 is attributed to the contribution from both the exchange coupled Cr3+-Cr3+ ion pairs and the isolated Cr3+ ions and the resonance signal at g ? 1.97 is due to Cr5+ ions. The paramagnetic susceptibility (?) was calculated from the EPR data at various (123-303 K) temperatures and the Curie temperature (?p) was calculated from the 1/?-T graph. The optical absorption spectra exhibit three bands at ˜360 nm, ˜440 nm and a broad band at ˜615 nm characteristic of Cr3+ ions in an octahedral symmetry. From the observed band positions, the crystal-field splitting parameter Dq and the Racah parameters (B and C) have been evaluated. From the ultraviolet edges, the optical band gap energies (Eopt) and Urbach energy (?E) are calculated. The theoretical optical basicity (?th) of these glasses has also been evaluated. Chromium ions doped alkaline earth zinc borate glasses show BO3 and BO4 structural units in the FT-IR studies.

  10. Continuously Tunable 250 GHz Gyrotron with a Double Disk Window for DNP-NMR Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Ni, Qing Zhe

    In this paper, we describe the design and experimental results from the rebuild of a 250 GHz gyrotron used for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy on a 380 MHz spectrometer. Tuning ...

  11. Probing structure and dynamics of bulk and confined crude oils by multiscale NMR spectroscopy, diffusometry, and relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Korb, Jean-Pierre; Louis-Joseph, Alain; Benamsili, Lyès

    2013-06-13

    We propose using a set of noninvasive multiscale NMR techniques for probing the structure and dynamics of bulk and confined crude oils with and without asphaltene. High-field 1D (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopies evidence the proton species and the amount of asphaltene and give an average chain length for the hydrocarbon aliphatic chains. Two-dimensional (1)H diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra allow us to identify two populations of hydrocarbons characterized by two distributions of translational diffusion coefficients in the presence of asphaltene and a single one without asphaltene. A detailed analysis of the distributions of longitudinal, T1, relaxation times measured at different magnetic fields is proposed in terms of highly skewed bimodal (or monomodal) log-normal distributions, confirming the two environments in the presence of asphaltene and a single one without asphaltene. We show that these distributions are similar to the gas and gel permeation chromatography distributions, thus showing a connection of the hydrocarbon dynamics with their chain lengths. The remarkable observed features of the nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles of <1/T1> for bulk and confined crude oils with and without asphaltene are interpreted with an original relaxation model of intermittent surface dynamics of proton species at the proximity of asphaltene nanoaggregates and bulk dynamics in between clusters of these nanoaggregates. This allows us to probe the 2D translational diffusion correlation time and the time of residence of hydrocarbons in the proximity of the asphaltene nanoaggregates. Provided that the diffusion of the hydrocarbons close to the asphaltene nanoaggregates is three times smaller than the bulk diffusion, as the DOSY experiments show, this time of residence gives an average radius of exploration for the 2D hydrocarbon diffusion, r2D ? 3.9 nm, of the same order of magnitude as the aggregate sizes found by J. Eyssautier with SAXS and SANS in asphaltene solutions and by O. C. Mullins with the observation of gravitational gradients of asphaltenes in oilfield reservoirs. PMID:23687962

  12. A 29Si MAS-NMR study of transition metal site occupancy in forsterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mccarty, R. J.; Palke, A.; Stebbins, J. F.; Hartman, S.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we address the problem of transition metal site occupancy in Mg-rich olivine using solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. Transition metal substitution in olivine can occur in either of the two crystallographically unique octahedral sites: the smaller, more symmetric M1 site or the larger, more distorted M2 site. Site occupancy of the transition metal is expected to correlate with ionic radius and d-orbital structure. In NMR spectroscopy the presence of paramagnetic ions, such as transition metal ions, can produce accessory peaks referred to as "contact shifts," due to the interaction between unpaired electrons on the paramagnetic ion locally associated with the resonating nucleus. The position and intensity of the contact shifts are dependent on the geometrical association such as bond distances and bond angles between the paramagnetic ion and the resonating nucleus. 29Si MAS-NMR spectra collected on synthetic forsterite (Mg2SiO4) doped with minor amounts (0.2-5%) of individual, divalent, paramagnetic, transition metal cations (Mn, Co, Ni, or Cu) substituting for Mg in the octahedral sites, reveals multiple contact shifts. An interpretation of the number of such contact shifts and their relative intensities correlated with structural information of possible 29Si-M1 and 29Si-M2 configurations, potentially allows for the assignment of specific transition metals to individual M1 or M2 sites. An analysis of the MAS-NMR data will potentially bring a new level of confidence to transition metal site occupancy in forsterite.

  13. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as a tool to link soil organic matter composition to ecosystem processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Environmental factors (e.g. temperature and moisture) and the size and composition of soil microbial populations are often considered the main drivers of soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization. Less consideration is given to the role of SOM as a substrate for microbial metabolism and the importance of the organo-chemical composition of SOM on decomposition. In addition, a fraction of the SOM is often considered as recalcitrant to mineralization leading to accumulation of SOM. However, recently the concept of intrinsic recalcitrance of SOM to mineralization has been questioned. The challenge in investigating the role of SOM composition on its mineralization to a large extent stems from the difficulties in obtaining high resolution characterization of a very complex matrix. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a widely used tool to characterize SOM. However, SOM is a very complex mixture and in the resulting 13C NMR spectra, the identified functional groups may represent different molecular fragments that appear in the same spectral region leading to broad peaks. These overlaps defy attempts to identify molecular moieties, and this makes it impossible to derive information at a resolution needed for evaluating e.g. recalcitrance of SOM. Here we applied a method, developed in wood science for the pulp paper industry, to achieve a better characterization of SOM. We directly dissolved finely ground organic layers of boreal forest floors-litters, fibric and humic horizons of both coniferous and broadleaved stands-in dimethyl sulfoxide and analyzed the resulting solution with a two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13C NMR experiment. We will discuss methodological aspects related to the ability to identify and quantify individual molecular moieties in SOM. We will demonstrate how the spectra resolve signals of CH groups in a 2D plane determined by the 13C and 1H chemical shifts, thereby vastly increasing the resolving power and information content of NMR spectra. The obtained 2D spectra resolve overlaps observed in 1D 13C spectra, so that hundreds of distinct CH moieties can be observed and many individual molecular fragments can be identified. For instance, in the aromatic spectral region, signals originating from various lignin monomers and unsaturated compounds can be resolved. This yields a detailed chemical fingerprint of the SOM samples, and valuable insights on molecular structures. We observed differences in the respective aromatic region of the 2D spectra of the litter layers and the fibric and humic horizons, in relation with humification processes. We were also able to relate the cross-peak complexity and abundance patterns of identifiable molecular moieties to variability in the temperature response of organic matter degradation, as assessed by Q10. To conclude, solution-state 2D NMR spectroscopy is a highly promising new tool to characterize SOM composition at the molecular level, which opens completely new possibilities to link SOM molecular composition to ecosystem processes, and their responses to environmental changes.

  14. Structure determination of two new indole-diterpenoids from Penicillium sp. CM-7 by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Hong; Huang, Sheng-Dong; Pan, Hua-Qi; Bian, Xi-Qing; Wang, Zai-Ying; Han, Ai-Hong; Bai, Jiao

    2014-06-01

    Two new indole-diterpenoids 4b-deoxy-1'-O-acetylpaxilline (1) and 4b-deoxypenijanthine A (2) were isolated from the fermentation broth and the mycelia of the soil fungus Penicillium sp. CM-7, along with three known structurally related compounds, 1'-O-acetylpaxilline (3), paspaline (4) and 3-deoxo-4b-deoxypaxilline (5). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR, and their absolute configurations were suggested on the basis of the circular dichroism spectral analysis and the NOESY data. PMID:24700676

  15. Determination of metabolite profiles in tropical wines by 1H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    da Silva Neto, Humberto G; da Silva, João B P; Pereira, Giuliano E; Hallwass, Fernando

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, wines are produced in temperate climate zones, with one harvest per year. Tropical wines are a new concept of vitiviniculture that is being developed, principally in Brazil. The new Brazilian frontier is located in the northeast region (São Francisco River Valley) in Pernambuco State, close to the equator, between 8 and 9 degrees S. Compared with other Brazilian and worldwide vineyards, the grapes of this region possess peculiar characteristics. The aim of this work is a preliminary study of commercial São Francisco River Valley wines, analyzing their metabolite profiles by (1)H NMR and chemometric methods. PMID:19810052

  16. Matrix-Free DNP-Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy of Liposomes Using a Lipid-Anchored Biradical.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Alba, Carlos; Takahashi, Hiroki; Richard, Alexandre; Chenavier, Yves; Dubois, Lionel; Maurel, Vincent; Lee, Daniel; Hediger, Sabine; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2015-03-16

    Magic-angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization (MAS-DNP) has been proven to be a powerful technique to enhance the sensitivity of solid-state NMR (SSNMR) in a wide range of systems. Here, we show that DNP can be used to polarize lipids using a lipid-anchored polarizing agent. More specifically, we introduce a C16-functionalized biradical, which allows localization of the polarizing agents in the lipid bilayer and DNP experiments to be performed in the absence of excess cryo-protectant molecules (glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide, etc.). This constitutes another original example of the matrix-free DNP approach that we recently introduced. PMID:25663569

  17. Probing Quadrupolar Nuclei by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Recent Advances

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Christian; Pruski, Marek

    2011-06-08

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of quadrupolar nuclei has recently undergone remarkable development of capabilities for obtaining structural and dynamic information at the molecular level. This review summarizes the key achievements attained during the last couple of decades in solid-state NMR of both integer spin and half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. We provide a concise description of the first- and second-order quadrupolar interactions, and their effect on the static and magic angle spinning (MAS) spectra. Methods are explained for efficient excitation of single- and multiple-quantum coherences, and acquisition of spectra under low- and high-resolution conditions. Most of all, we present a coherent, comparative description of the high-resolution methods for half-integer quadrupolar nuclei, including double rotation (DOR), dynamic angle spinning (DAS), multiple-quantum magic angle spinning (MQMAS), and satellite transition magic angle spinning (STMAS). Also highlighted are methods for processing and analysis of the spectra. Finally, we review methods for probing the heteronuclear and homonuclear correlations between the quadrupolar nuclei and their quadrupolar or spin-1/2 neighbors.

  18. The nature of fatty acid interaction with a polyelectrolyte-surfactant pair revealed by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Santiago, Jose; Totland, Christian; Ananthapadmanabhan, Kavssery P; Tsaur, Liang; Somasundaran, Ponisseril

    2014-09-01

    The interaction mechanisms of an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte-surfactant pair and dodecanoic (lauric) acid (LA) were experimentally investigated using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. It is observed that LA significantly affects the interaction between the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylethersulfate (SDES) and the cationic polymer guar modified with grafted hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride (Jaguar C13 BF). Typically, oppositely charged polymers and surfactants interact electrostatically at a certain surfactant concentration known as the critical aggregation concentration (CAC). Once the polymer is neutralized by the surfactant, an insoluble complex (precipitate) is observed (phase separation), and, at concentrations beyond the surfactant critical micellar concentration (CMC'), the system returns to a one phase entity. In a system in which a mixture of SDES-LA is added to the polymer, NMR data show that below the neutralization onset, some of the polymer interacts with SDES, while some of the polymer is adsorbed at the surface of LA solid aggregates present in the system. Furthermore, SDES is found to aggregate in a lamellar-like structure at the polymer side chain prior to the SDES CMC'. Above the SDES (CMC'), LA is solubilized and incorporated at the palisade region of SDES micelles. Analysis of (1)H resonances provided estimated concentrations of all species in the system phases at all stages of interaction. PMID:25109504

  19. Ligand-Detected Relaxation Dispersion NMR Spectroscopy: Dynamics of preQ1–RNA Binding**

    PubMed Central

    Moschen, Thomas; Wunderlich, Christoph Hermann; Spitzer, Romana; Levic, Jasmin; Micura, Ronald; Tollinger, Martin; Kreutz, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    An NMR-based approach to characterizing the binding kinetics of ligand molecules to biomolecules, like RNA or proteins, by ligand-detected Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion experiments is described. A 15N-modified preQ1 ligand is used to acquire relaxation dispersion experiments in the presence of low amounts of the Fsu class I preQ1 aptamer RNA, and increasing ligand concentrations to probe the RNA small molecule interaction. Our experimental data strongly support the conformational selection mechanism postulated. The approach gives direct access to two parameters of a ligand–receptor interaction: the off rate and the population of the small molecule–receptor complex. A detailed description of the kinetics underlying the ligand binding process is of crucial importance to fully understanding a riboswitch’s function and to evaluate potential new antibiotics candidates targeting the noncoding RNA species. Ligand-detected NMR relaxation dispersion experiments represent a valuable diagnostic tool for the characterization of binding mechanisms. PMID:25403518

  20. Ionic Liquid-Solute Interactions Studied by 2D NOE NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W

    2014-11-26

    Intermolecular interactions between a Ru(2+)(bpy)3 solute and the anions and cations of four different ionic liquids (ILs) are investigated by 2D NMR nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) techniques, including {(1)H-(19)F} HOESY and {(1)H-(1)H} ROESY. Four ILs are studied, each having the same bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion in common. Two of the ILs have aliphatic 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations, while the other two ILs have aromatic 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. ILs with both shorter (butyl) and longer (octyl or decyl) cationic alkyl substituents are studied. NOE NMR results suggest that the local environment of IL anions and cations near the Ru(2+)(bpy)3 solute is rather different from the bulk IL structure. The solute-anion and solute-cation interactions are significantly different both for ILs with short vs long alkyl tails and for ILs with aliphatic vs aromatic cation polar head groups. In particular, the solute-anion interactions are observed to be about 3 times stronger for the cations with shorter alkyl tails relative to the ILs with longer alkyl tails. The Ru(2+)(bpy)3 solute interacts with both the polar head and the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation but only with the nonpolar tail groups of the 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation. PMID:25402509

  1. 31P NMR spectroscopy of rat organs, in situ, using chronically implanted radiofrequency coils.

    PubMed Central

    Koretsky, A P; Wang, S; Murphy-Boesch, J; Klein, M P; James, T L; Weiner, M W

    1983-01-01

    A technique for making 31P NMR spectroscopic measurements in rat kidney, heart, and liver in vivo is presented. Two-turn solenoid coils were surgically implanted around the organ sufficiently in advance of NMR experiments to allow recovery of the animal. These chronically implanted coils allowed acquisition of high-resolution spectra at 40.5 and 97.3 MHz. No resolution improvement occurred at the higher field. Spectra were stable for up to 24 hr, during which time a variety of experiments could be performed. By accumulating spectra at 10-min intervals, the effects of intraperitoneal fructose injections were monitored; in kidney and liver, a rapid increase in sugar phosphates at the expense of Pi and ATP resulted. Fructose had no effect on heart metabolite levels. Spectra from the heart in vivo were obtained at systole and diastole by gating the spectrometer to the aortic pressure wave; no differences in phosphate metabolites were detected. Finally, saturation transfer techniques were used to monitor the rate of ATP synthesis in the kidney. The unidirectional rate constant for the conversion of Pi to ATP was 0.12 +/- 0.03 sec-1. Images PMID:6584867

  2. Probing helical hydrophobic binding sites in branched starch polysaccharides using NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Beeren, Sophie R; Meier, Sebastian; Hindsgaul, Ole

    2013-11-25

    Branched starch polysaccharides are capable of binding multiple hydrophobic guests, but their exploitation as multivalent hosts and in functional materials is limited by their structural complexity and diversity. Linear ?(1-4)-linked glucose oligosaccharides are known to bind hydrophobic guests inside left-handed single helices in solution and the solid state. Here, we describe the development of an amphiphilic probe that binds to linear ?(1-4)-linked glucose oligosaccharides and undergoes a conformational switch upon complexation, which gives rise to dramatic changes in the (1)H NMR spectrum of the probe. We use this probe to explore hydrophobic binding sites in the branched starch polysaccharides amylopectin and ?-limit dextrin. Diffusion-ordered (DOSY), nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) and chemical shift perturbation (HSQC) NMR experiments are utilised to provide evidence that, in aqueous solution, branched polysaccharides bind hydrophobic guests in well-defined helical binding sites, similar to those reported for complexation by linear oligosaccharides. By examining the binding affinity of the probe to systematically enzymatically degraded polysaccharides, we deduce that the binding sites for hydrophobic guests can be located on internal as well as external branches and that proximal ?(1-6)-linked branch points weaken but do not prevent complexation. PMID:24123516

  3. Quantitative analysis of polymer mixtures in solution by pulsed field-gradient spin echo NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lokeren, Luk; Ben Sassi, Hanen; Van Assche, Guy; Ribot, François

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed Field-Gradient Spin Echo (PGSE) NMR, which associates to a spectral dimension the measure of diffusion coefficients, is a convenient technique for mixture analysis. Unfortunately, because of relaxation, the quantification of mixtures by PGSE NMR is far from straightforward for mixtures with strong spectral overlap. Antalek (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 8402-8403) proposed a quantification strategy based on DECRA analysis and extrapolation to zero of the diffusion delay. More recently, Barrère et al. (J. Magn. Reson. 216 (2012) 201-208) presented a new strategy based also on DECRA and on the renormalization of the intensities using estimates of the T1 and T2 relaxation times. Here we report an alternative quantification approach in which the fractions are obtained by analyzing the PGSE attenuation profile with a general Stejskal-Tanner equation that explicitly includes the relaxation effects. The required values of T1 and T2 relaxation times are either independently measured with conventional sequences or determined, along with the fractions and the diffusion coefficients, from the simultaneous analysis of up to 6 PGSE data sets recorded with different diffusion delays. This method yields errors lower than 3% for the fractions, even for complete spectral overlap, as demonstrated on model binary and ternary mixtures of polystyrene in the case of a convection compensating double stimulated echo (DSTE) sequence.

  4. Identification of lithium-sulfur battery discharge products through 6Li and 33S solid-state MAS and 7Li solution NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Laura A.; Rapp, Jennifer L.; Baughman, Jessi A.; Rinaldi, Peter L.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    6Li and 33S solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to identify the discharge products in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery cathodes. Cathodes were stopped at different potentials throughout battery discharge and measured ex-situ to obtain chemical shifts and T2 relaxation rates of the products formed. The chemical shifts in the spectra of both 6Li and 33S NMR demonstrate that long-chain, soluble lithium polysulfide species formed at the beginning of discharge are indistinguishable from each other (similar chemical shifts), while short-chain, insoluble polysulfide species that form at the end of discharge (presumably Li2S2 and Li2S) have a different chemical shift, thus distinguishing them from the soluble long-chain products. T2 relaxation measurements of discharged cathodes were also performed which resulted in two groupings of T2 rates that follow a trend and support the previous conclusions that long-chain polysulfide species are converted to shorter chain species during discharge. Through the complementary techniques of 1-D 6Li and 33S solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy, solution 7Li and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and T2 relaxation rate measurements, structural information about the discharge products of Li-S batteries is obtained.

  5. Selective (15)N-labeling of the side-chain amide groups of asparagine and glutamine for applications in paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chan; Chen, Jia-Liang; Yang, Yin; Huang, Feng; Otting, Gottfried; Su, Xun-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    The side-chain amide groups of asparagine and glutamine play important roles in stabilizing the structural fold of proteins, participating in hydrogen-bonding networks and protein interactions. Selective (15)N-labeling of side-chain amides, however, can be a challenge due to enzyme-catalyzed exchange of amide groups during protein synthesis. In the present study, we developed an efficient way of selectively labeling the side chains of asparagine, or asparagine and glutamine residues with (15)NH2. Using the biosynthesis pathway of tryptophan, a protocol was also established for simultaneous selective (15)N-labeling of the side-chain NH groups of asparagine, glutamine, and tryptophan. In combination with site-specific tagging of the target protein with a lanthanide ion, we show that selective detection of (15)N-labeled side-chains of asparagine and glutamine allows determination of magnetic susceptibility anisotropy tensors based exclusively on pseudocontact shifts of amide side-chain protons. PMID:25002097

  6. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of biological tissues usingprojected Magic Angle Spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Rachel W.; Jachmann, Rebecca C.; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Pines, Alexander

    2005-01-27

    High-resolution NMR spectra of materials subject toanisotropic broadening are usually obtained by rotating the sample aboutthe magic angle, which is 54.7 degrees to the static magnetic field. Inprojected Magic Angle Spinning (p-MAS), the sample is spun about twoangles, neither of which is the magic angle. This provides a method ofobtaining isotropic spectra while spinning at shallow angles. The p-MASexperiment may be used in situations where spinning the sample at themagic angle is not possible due to geometric or other constraints,allowing the choice of spinning angle to be determined by factors such asthe shape of the sample, rather than by the spin physics. The applicationof this technique to bovine tissue samples is demonstrated as a proof ofprinciple for future biological or medical applications.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan Stem Packing by Rotational-Echo Double Resonance NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Joon; Singh, Manmilan; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria; Schaefer, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus grown in the presence of an alanine-racemase inhibitor was labeled with D-[1-13C]alanine and L-[15N]alanine to characterize some details of the peptidoglycan tertiary structure. Rotational-echo double-resonance NMR of intact whole cells was used to measure internuclear distances between 13C and 15N of labeled amino acids incorporated in the peptidoglycan, and from those labels to 19F of a glycopeptide drug specifically bound to the peptidoglycan. The observed 13C-15N average distance of 4.1 to 4.4 Å between D- and L-alanines in nearest-neighbor peptide stems is consistent with a local, tightly packed, parallel-stem architecture for a repeating structural motif within the peptidoglycan of S. aureus. PMID:23617832

  8. Selectively measuring ??back-donation in gold(I) complexes by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ciancaleoni, Gianluca; Biasiolo, Luca; Bistoni, Giovanni; Macchioni, Alceo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Zuccaccia, Daniele; Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    Even though the Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model has been successfully used by chemists since the 1950s, no experimental methodology is yet known to unambiguously estimate the constituents (donation and back-donation) of a metal-ligand interaction. It is demonstrated here that one of these components, the metal-to-ligand ??back-donation, can be effectively probed by NMR measurements aimed at determining the rotational barrier of a C-N bond (?Hr (?) ) of a nitrogen acyclic carbene ligand. A large series of gold(I) complexes have been synthesized and analyzed, and it was found that the above experimental observables show an accurate correlation with back-donation, as defined theoretically by the appropriate charge displacement originated upon bond formation. The proposed method is potentially of wide applicability for analyzing the ligand effect in metal catalysts and guiding their design. PMID:25504684

  9. 13C NMR spectroscopy of the insoluble carbon of carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, J. R.; Pizzarello, S.; Frye, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    13C NMR spectra have been obtained of the insoluble carbon residues resulting from HF-digestion of three carbonaceous chondrites, Orgueil (C1), Murchison (CM2), and Allende (CV3). Spectra obtained using the cross polarization magic-angle spinning technique show two major features attributable respectively to carbon in aliphatic/olefinic structures. The spectrum obtained from the Allende sample was weak, presumably as a consequence of its low hydrogen content. Single pulse excitation spectra, which do not depend on 1H-13C polarization transfer for signal enhancement were also obtained. These spectra, which may be more representative of the total carbon in the meteorite samples, indicate a greater content of carbon in aromatic/olefinic structures. These results suggest that extensive polycyclic aromatic sheets are important structural features of the insoluble carbon of all three meteorites. The Orgueil and Murchison materials contain additional hydrogenated aromatic/olefinic and aliphatic groups.

  10. De novo determination of peptide structure with solid-state magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienstra, Chad M.; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Jaroniec, Christopher P.; Hohwy, Morten; Reif, Bernd; McMahon, Michael T.; Tidor, Bruce; Lozano-Pérez, Tomás; Griffin, Robert G.

    2002-08-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-L-Met-L-Leu-L-Phe-OH was determined by using solid-state NMR (SSNMR). The set of SSNMR data consisted of 16 13C-15N distances and 18 torsion angle constraints (on 10 angles), recorded from uniformly 13C,15N- and 15N-labeled samples. The peptide's structure was calculated by means of simulated annealing and a newly developed protocol that ensures that all of conformational space, consistent with the structural constraints, is searched completely. The result is a high-quality structure of a molecule that has thus far not been amenable to single-crystal diffraction studies. The extensions of the SSNMR techniques and computational methods to larger systems appear promising.

  11. Molecular degradation of ancient documents revealed by 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; ?ojewska, Joanna; Mallamace, Francesco; Pietronero, Luciano; Missori, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    For centuries mankind has stored its knowledge on paper, a remarkable biomaterial made of natural cellulose fibers. However, spontaneous cellulose degradation phenomena weaken and discolorate paper over time. The detailed knowledge of products arising from cellulose degradation is essential in understanding deterioration pathways and in improving durability of cultural heritage. In this study, for the first time, products of cellulose degradation were individually detected in solid paper samples by means of an extremely powerful proton HR-MAS NMR set-up, in combination to a wise use of both ancient and, as reference, artificially aged paper samples. Carboxylic acids, in addition to more complex dicarboxylic and hydroxy-carboxylic acids, were found in all samples studied. Since these products can catalyze further degradation, their knowledge is fundamental to improve conservation strategies of historical documents. Furthermore, the identification of compounds used in ancient production techniques, also suggests for artifacts dating, authentication and provenance. PMID:24104201

  12. Structural studies of methyl brevifolincarboxylate in solid state by means of NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolniak, Micha?; Tomczyk, Micha?; Gudej, Jan; Wawer, Iwona

    2006-12-01

    Methyl brevifolincarboxylate isolated from the herb of Potentilla argentea L. (Rosaceae) is a representative of the naturally occurring polyphenols. The compound is of pharmaceutical interest mainly because of its antiviral and antioxidant properties. 13C NMR spectra were recorded for solution and solid phase. 13C CPMAS spectra were assigned by comparison with solution data, dipolar dephasing and short contact time experiments. The correctness of assignments was verified by GIAO DFT calculations of shielding constants. The differences between the solution and solid state chemical shift values were explained in terms of orientation of OH groups and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The splitting of the C1 dbnd O resonance shows that there exists a polymorphism in the solid phase, which might be due to the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bond involving carbonyl or methoxy oxygen (i.e. C10 sbnd OH⋯O dbnd C or C10 sbnd OH⋯OCH 3).

  13. Purity analysis of hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride and phosgene by quantitative (13)C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Terry J; Cullinan, David B

    2007-11-01

    Hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride and phosgene are produced in tremendously large quantities today by the chemical industry. The compounds are also particularly attractive to foreign states and terrorists seeking an inexpensive mass-destruction capability. Along with contemporary warfare agents, therefore, the US Army evaluates protective equipment used by warfighters and domestic emergency responders against the compounds, and requires their certification at > or = 95 carbon atom % before use. We have investigated the (13)C spin-lattice relaxation behavior of the compounds to develop a quantitative NMR method for characterizing chemical lots supplied to the Army. Behavior was assessed at 75 and 126 MHz for temperatures between 5 and 15 degrees C to hold the compounds in their liquid states, dramatically improving detection sensitivity. T(1) values for cyanogen chloride and phosgene were somewhat comparable, ranging between 20 and 31 s. Hydrogen cyanide values were significantly shorter at 10-18 s, most likely because of a (1)H--(13)C dipolar contribution to relaxation not possible for the other compounds. The T(1) measurements were used to derive relaxation delays for collecting the quantitative (13)C data sets. At 126 MHz, only a single data acquisition with a cryogenic probehead gave a signal-to-noise ratio exceeding that necessary for certifying the compounds at > or = 95 carbon atom % and 99% confidence. Data acquired at 75 MHz with a conventional probehead, however, required > or = 5 acquisitions to reach this certifying signal-to-noise ratio for phosgene, and >/= 12 acquisitions were required for the other compounds under these same conditions. In terms of accuracy and execution time, the NMR method rivals typical chromatographic methods. PMID:17924355

  14. Cytoplasmic malate levels in maize root tips during K+ ion uptake determined by 13C-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chang, K; Roberts, J K

    1991-03-19

    13C-NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the level of cytoplasmic malate in maize root tips that exhibited different rates of malate synthesis. Intracellular malate was 13C-labeled at carbons 1 and 4 by perfusing root tips with 5 nM H13CO3-. This labeling reflects the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and malate dehydrogenase (production of [4-13C]malate), and fumarase (scrambling of 13C-label between C1 and C4 of malate). In vivo 13C-NMR spectra contained a clearly resolved resonance from cytoplasmic [4-13C]malate, while the resonance from cytoplasmic [1-13C]malate overlapped with others. After 90 min of H13CO3- treatment, 13C-labeling of organic acid pools had reached steady-state. Thereafter, the ratios [13C]malate/[12C + 13C]malate and [1-13C]malate/[4-13C]malate in tissue extracts remained constant; evidence is presented that these ratios were the same for both cytoplasmic and total cellular malate. Hence, the intensity of the cytoplasmic [4-13C]malate signal was proportional to the amount of cytoplasmic malate in root tips. Potassium sulfate stimulate malate synthesis in maize root tips, relative to root tips perfused with HCO3- alone; total cellular malate doubled after approx. 1 h of 5 mM K2SO4-treatment. Cytoplasmic malate increased from approx. 3.5 mM to approx. 7.5 mM within 45 min of the onset of K2SO4-treatment, declining slightly thereafter. The possible effects of these changing cytoplasmic malate concentration on the enzymes involved in malate metabolism are discussed. PMID:2009309

  15. Allosteric modulation of myristate and Mn(III)heme binding to human serum albumin. Optical and NMR spectroscopy characterization.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Gabriella; Fesce, Riccardo; Agrati, Cristina; Ascenzi, Paolo; Fasano, Mauro

    2005-09-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is best known for its extraordinary ligand binding capacity. HSA has a high affinity for heme and is responsible for the transport of medium and long chain fatty acids. Here, we report myristate binding to the N and B conformational states of Mn(III)heme-HSA (i.e. at pH 7.0 and 10.0, respectively) as investigated by optical absorbance and NMR spectroscopy. At pH 7.0, Mn(III)heme binds to HSA with lower affinity than Fe(III)heme, and displays a water molecule coordinated to the metal. Myristate binding to a secondary site FAx, allosterically coupled to the heme site, not only increases optical absorbance of Mn(III)heme-bound HSA by a factor of approximately three, but also increases the Mn(III)heme affinity for the fatty acid binding site FA1 by 10-500-fold. Cooperative binding appears to occur at FAx and accessory myristate binding sites. The conformational changes of the Mn(III)heme-HSA tertiary structure allosterically induced by myristate are associated with a noticeable change in both optical absorbance and NMR spectroscopic properties of Mn(III)heme-HSA, allowing the Mn(III)-coordinated water molecule to exchange with the solvent bulk. At pH = 10.0 both myristate affinity for FAx and allosteric modulation of FA1 are reduced, whereas cooperation of accessory sites and FAx is almost unaffected. Moreover, Mn(III)heme binds to HSA with higher affinity than at pH 7.0 even in the absence of myristate, and the metal-coordinated water molecule is displaced. As a whole, these results suggest that FA binding promotes conformational changes reminiscent of N to B state HSA transition, and appear of general significance for a deeper understanding of the allosteric modulation of ligand binding properties of HSA. PMID:16156788

  16. Recombinant proteins incorporating short non-native extensions may display increased aggregation propensity as detected by high resolution NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzoni, Serena; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy)] [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy); Assfalg, Michael, E-mail: michael.assfalg@univr.it [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy)] [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acid binding proteins from different constructs retain structural integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR {sup 15}N-T{sub 1} relaxation data of BABPs show differences if LVPR extension is present. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deviations from a {sup 15}N-T{sub 1}/molecular-weight calibration curve indicate aggregation. -- Abstract: The use of a recombinant protein to investigate the function of the native molecule requires that the former be obtained with the same amino acid sequence as the template. However, in many cases few additional residues are artificially introduced for cloning or purification purposes, possibly resulting in altered physico-chemical properties that may escape routine characterization. For example, increased aggregation propensity without visible protein precipitation is hardly detected by most analytical techniques but its investigation may be of great importance for optimizing the yield of recombinant protein production in biotechnological and structural biology applications. In this work we show that bile acid binding proteins incorporating the common C-terminal LeuValProArg extension display different hydrodynamic properties from those of the corresponding molecules without such additional amino acids. The proteins were produced enriched in nitrogen-15 for analysis via heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Residue-specific spin relaxation rates were measured and related to rotational tumbling time and molecular size. While the native-like recombinant proteins show spin-relaxation rates in agreement with those expected for monomeric globular proteins of their mass, our data indicate the presence of larger adducts for samples of proteins with very short amino acid extensions. The used approach is proposed as a further screening method for the quality assessment of biotechnological protein products.

  17. Efficient resonance assignment of proteins in MAS NMR by simultaneous intra- and inter-residue 3D correlation spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Daviso, Eugenio

    Resonance assignment is the first step in NMR structure determination. For magic angle spinning NMR, this is typically achieved with a set of heteronuclear correlation experiments (NCaCX, NCOCX, CONCa) that utilize SPECIFIC-CP ...

  18. Structural features of the protoporphyrin-apomyoglobin complex: a proton NMR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J T; Cocco, M J

    1990-12-18

    The structural properties of the complex formed by apomyoglobin and protoporphyrin IX (des-iron myoglobin) were studied to probe the influence of iron-to-histidine coordination on the native myoglobin fold and the heme binding site geometry. Standard two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods were applied to identify porphyrin and protein signals. A pronounced spectral resemblance between carbonmonoxymyoglobin and des-iron myoglobin was noticed that could be exploited to assign a number of resonances by nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy. Protoporphyrin IX was determined to bind in the same orientation as the heme. Most residues in contact with the prosthetic group were found in the holomyoglobin conformation. Several tertiary structure features were also characterized near the protein termini. It was concluded that the protoporphyrin-apomyoglobin interactions are capable of organizing the binding site and the unfolded region of the apoprotein into the native holoprotein structure. PMID:2176891

  19. Characterization of hydrophobic cores in apomyoglobin: a proton NMR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Cocco, M J; Lecomte, J T

    1990-12-18

    A proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study of horse apomyoglobin was undertaken in order to define the regions of myoglobin that are and that are not structurally affected by the binding of the prosthetic group. It was found that, in spite of the poor spectral resolution, a number of spin systems could be identified by using standard correlated methods. Four clusters consisting mostly of hydrophobic residues were detected by nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy, two of which involved the tryptophan side chains. Extensive similarities to nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy data collected on the carbonmonoxy form of holomyoglobin suggested tentative assignments for several residues. It appeared that distinct cores of side chains on the distal side of the binding pocket and between the A, B, G, and H helices maintain the same packing as they do in holomyoglobin and apomyoglobin reconstituted with protoporphyrin IX. PMID:2176892

  20. Structural features of the protophorphyrin-apomyoglobin complex. A proton NMR spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Lecomte, J.T.J.; Cocco, M.J. (The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The structural properties of the complex formed by apomyoglobin and protoporphyrin IX (des-iron myoglobin) were studied to probe the influence of iron-to-histidine coordination on the native myoglobin fold and the heme binding site geometry. Standard two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods were applied to identify porphyrin and protein signals. A pronounced spectral resemblance between carbonmonoxymyoglobin and des-iron myogobin was noticed that could be exploited to assign a number of resonances by nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy. Protoporphyrin IX was determined to bind in the same orientation as the heme. Most residues in contact with the prosthetic group were found in the holomyoglobin conformation. Several tertiary structure features were also characterized near the protein termini. It was concluded that the protoporphyrin-apomyoglobin interactions are capable of organizing the binding site and the unfolded region of the apoprotein into the native holoprotein structure.