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Sample records for parana metodo dos

  1. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  2. Oil migration examples in Irati Formation, Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Espitalie, J.; Mizuta, K.; Carvalho, T.E.M.; Triguis, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The Irati Formation (Late Permian), in the Parana basin, is a source rock with high oil generating potential. The TOC contents range from 0.5 to 13% according to the quality of the organic matter. Pyrolysis analysis indicates that the area where the Irati has the highest oil-generating source rock is in the north and south of the Parana basin. In these areas petroleum potential can reach 90 kg HC/t of rock. In the central part of the basin the Irati Formation might reach a depth of about 3200 m (10,498 ft). In many wells diabase intrusions have more or less completely cooked this formation, thus generating oil or gas, and leaving residual organic matter. The phenomenon of migration into the Irati Formation has been observed in many wells. In certain places, oil is accumulated in shales embedded between intrusion levels; in other places oil is accumulated into limestone beds, intercalated in the Irati Formation. It seems safe to assume that the oil accumulated in the deeper beds resulted from the effect of thermal intrusions and also from the effects of normal burial. Oil migration occurred after diabase intrusions (Late Cretaceous) during the increasing subsidence of the basin. In the Parana basin, the Irati Formation may be compared to a drain with a lateral oil migration. Vertical migration was hindered by the lack of enough porosity and permeability in the shales above the Irati source rock. Consequently, migration and accumulation of oil above and below the formation might have resulted from changes in facies of the Irati itself, by faulting, or by fractures due to diabase intrusions.

  3. Regional magnetotelluric surveys in hydrocarbon exploration, Parana' Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, W.D.; Ohofugi, W.; Saad, A.R.

    1985-03-01

    The magnetotelluric geophysical method has been used effectively as a hydrocarbon exploration tool in the intracratonic Parana basin of South America. The 1-2 km thick surface basalts and buried diabase sills pose no problem for the magnetotelluric method because the natural electromagnetic fields used as the energy source pass easily through the basalt. Data for the regional study were taken on six profiles with soundings spaced 8 to 15 km apart. The magnetotelluric sounding data outline a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. This major structural feature cuts across the northeast-trending intracratonic basin almost perpendicularly, and is injected with numerous diabase dikes. In the survey area, MT interpretations show that basalts have aggregate thicknesses of as much as 2 km (6,600 ft), and basement may be as much as 6 km (20,000 ft) below the surface. Over most of the basin, the basalts are covered by Upper Cretaceous to Holocene continental sediments of a few hundred meters thickness and are underlain by 2 to 4 km (6,600 to 13,100 ft) thick Paleozoic sediments with possible hydrocarbon potential. Significant electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that magnetotelluric measurements can give an indication of the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments to aid in interpreting hydrocarbon migration patterns and possible trap areas.

  4. DOS basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    DOS is an acronym for Disk Operating System. It is actually a set of programs that allows you to control your personal computer. DOS offers the capabilities to create and manage files; organize and maintain information placed on disks; use application programs such as WordPerfect, Lotus 123, Excel, Windows, etc. In addition, DOS provides the basic utilities needed to copy files from one area to another, delete files and list files. The latest version of DOS also offers more advanced features that include hard disk compression and memory management. Basic DOS commands are discussed.

  5. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in the State of Parana in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malaghini, Marcelo; Brockelt, Sonia Regina; Burger, Marion; Kritski, Afrânio; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2009-01-01

    Sequence IS6110 has been successfully used throughout the world for characterizing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages. The aim of this study was to obtain data about circulating strains of M. tuberculosis in patients from the State of Parana in southern Brazil. Sixty-two clinical specimens obtained from sputum, bronchial aspirate, biopsy and urine from 62 patients clinically diagnosed with tuberculosis and admitted to the SUS-Brazil - The Brazilian Centralized Health Service System - were genotyped by the mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting technique. The analysis demonstrated that the number of copies of the IS6110 sequence per isolates varied from four to 13 bands, with an average number of 8.5. From this, 93% of the isolates presented multiple copies. Isolates with no copies of the IS6110 element were not observed. The genetic analysis by UPGMA grouped the 62 isolates by similarity into three different groups: the first group contained two strains, the second was composed of 23, and the third, a more heterogeneous group, contained 37 isolates. Only two isolates (3.2%) formed a cluster; in other words, they presented a pattern of polymorphism with similarity above 95%. Such findings suggest that in the State of Parana, illness predominantly develops through reactivation of the latent infection as opposed to exogenous transmission. The methodology used (mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting) allowed for 93.5% differentiation of the isolates tested, and proved to be a powerful tool for differentiation in the molecular genotyping of M. tuberculosis. PMID:18824413

  6. Acritarchs from Ponta Grossa Formation and their stratigraphic significance: Devonian of Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dino, R.

    1983-03-01

    The Devonian fossil record in the Parana basin of Brazil is restricted to the Ponta Grossa Formation, a potential source rock unit. Paleontological studies of the macrofauna from this formation indicated an Early Devonian age. For this paper a wide range of surface samples and core samples from eight wells drilled by Pauliperto (a CESP-IPT joint venture) have been studied. Microplankton from the Devonian of the Parana basin never before described are presented here, together with their biostratigraphical and paleoecological implications. Intrabasinal and interbasinal correlations are also made. From a total of 60 species identified until now, twenty forms having well-defined stratigraphic ranges and broad (intercontinental) geographic representation are described herein. This assemblage is marked by the presence and diversity of the Subgroups Polygonomorphitae and Pteromorphitae. The Subgroup Acanthomorphitae is also well represented. The Emsian-Frasnian age previously established for the Ponta Grossa Formation through other palynological studies is further confirmed by the paleomicroplankton evidence. Moreover, the chronostratigraphic limits of these sediments may now be refined even further. Thus, depsite the presence of long-ranging forms, other species, such as Triangulina alargada, which is restricted to the Emsian in the La Vid Formation in northern Spain, allow a better chronostratigraphic subdivision of the Ponta Grossa Formation. The abundance of forms of Tasmanites together with a large quantity and diversity of microplankton provides the basis for the paleoecologic interpretations.

  7. Vegetation and its relationship with geomorphologic units in the Parana River floodplain, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Z. Y.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Pereira, M. S.; Ramonell, C. G.

    2013-10-01

    The Parana River is one of the most important fluvial systems of South America and its floodplain includes the most diverse subtropical ecosystem on the continent. However, the relationship between basic aspects, such as the vegetation and geomorphology of the river floodplain, has scarcely been investigated. In this paper, the annual dynamics of vegetation in relation to the geomorphologic and hydrological characteristics of a river floodplain around 31° 30' S, are analyzed. The annual dynamics of vegetation was investigated using values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from satellite images at two scales of spatial analysis: the first, at the geomorphologic unit level, through several transects crossing the total width of each unit and, the second, through some transects selected from each unit. Our analysis considered variables of different temporal stability (such as geomorphology, hydrology, vegetation, precipitation, and ground temperature), using scenes corresponding to two hydrological cycles of the system (2009 and 2010), which represented relatively "dry" and "humid" years. Five main geomorphologic units were identified in the floodplain of this anabranching system, which were named considering the predominant landforms and the most important (or typical) water course of each area: Bars and Islands of the Main Channel of the Parana River (BI-MCH), Scroll Bars of the Colastine Branch (SB-C), Scroll Bars of the San Javier River Channel (SB-SJ), Crevasse Splays and Levees of the Malo-Mendieta minor channels (CSL-MM), and Crevasse Splays and Levees of the Santa Fe-Coronda river channels (CSL-SFC). These major units are assembled at different general levels and with variable slopes, which partially control the permanence and other characteristics of the flood flow. The crevasse splays and river levees units were predominantly characterized by herbaceous-bushy marshy vegetation, with low mean NDVI values, while SB-C and BI

  8. Late Triassic climate in southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): evidence from dendrochronological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbrin Pires, Etiene; Guerra Sommer, Margot; Marlon dos Santos Scherer, Claiton

    2005-01-01

    Dendrochronological methods were used to study a fossil wood assemblage identified as Sommerxylon spiralosus Pires et Guerra-Sommer from outcropping sandstone fluvial sequences (Late Triassic of southernmost Parana Basin, Brazil). The climate signal from fossil woods, supported by sedimentary evidence, indicates a seasonal climate. Analysis of preserved growth rings has yielded information about the peridiodicity of growth related to seasonal cycles. The growth phase in each cycle developed at a slow rate, and the growing period was relatively uniform; in contrast, the periodic phases of growth restriction were not very extensive. These seasonal cycles were interrupted by occasional droughts during the growth season, reflected by the presence of false growth rings. These data match recent global climate patterns from the Late Triassic.

  9. Genotoxic effects of water from São Francisco River, Brazil, in Astyanax paranae.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Diego Luis; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; d'Arce, Luciana Paula Grégio

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic monitoring is an important tool for identifying potential compounds in rivers that may damage the environment. Here, we evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of water samples from São Francisco River (Brazil) using the micronuclei (MN) assay in resident species, Astyanax paranae. Four seasonal collections occurred between the years 2009 and 2010, at three locations between two nearby cities in the region. It was clearly observed an increase of MN frequency in fish caught in the river. This result is most likely due to the sewage contamination from the treatment plant, the waste pesticides from crops and the lack of riparian vegetation along the river, especially during the winter when there was a significant increase in the frequencies of MN. These results indicate that compounds in waters from São Francisco River may have genotoxic effects and consequently, cause damage to the environment as well as to human health. PMID:24849712

  10. An assessment of the fluvial geomorphology of subcatchments in Parana Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, B. G.; Hancock, G. R.; Cohen, S.; Willgoose, G. R.; Rey-Lescure, Olivier

    2013-02-01

    This paper uses a multifaceted remote sensing and morphometric approach to investigate if the surface of subcatchments in the Parana Valles area of Mars (20-30°S, 0-20°W) is reflective of hydrology and sediment transport by water. Using digital elevation model (DEM) data obtained from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), three nested subcatchments were examined using a suite of terrestrial geomorphic and hydrologic statistics to determine if their shape and form lies within the known range of fluvial catchment properties on Earth. Further, an examination of statistical accuracy via an innovative pixel-by-pixel solution of two statistics established that despite mineralogical homogeneity confirmed by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral survey, erosion processes were likely to be variable across the study site. The DEM-based methods outlined here can be employed at other sites to investigate geomorphic properties and attributes of the Martian surface.

  11. Zoonoses in humans from small rural properties in Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Alves, Lucimara Aparecida; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Santana, Maria Aparecida Zanella; dos Santos, Luís Roberto Alves; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa; de Freitas, Julio Cesar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a serological survey for Lyme diseases, brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis and identify the risk variables related to these zoonoses in humans living in the rural area of Jataizinho, state of Parana, Brazil. A total of 63 rural properties were surveyed. Additionally, 207 serum samples collected from these rural area inhabitants were tested for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and western blots (WB) were performed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato); a tamponated acidified antigen test (AAT) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) were used to detect antibodies of Brucella abortus; the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was carried out to detect antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. and IFI was used to find antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii. Two of the samples (0.96%) were reactive for Lyme borreliosis, three (1.4%) for brucellosis, 25 (12.1%) for leptospirosis and 143 (69.1%) for toxoplasmosis. Although the town of Jataizinho has a human development index (IDH) that was considered to be average (0.733) in the state of Parana, the low social, economic and cultural conditions of the population from small rural properties have resulted in lack of basic information on animal health and direct or indirect contact with the various species of domestic animals, wildlife and ticks have probably contributed to the prevalence levels found. These results show the need for additional regional studies in order to determine the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases as well as their respective vectors and reservoirs so that effective prophylaxis can be administered in the human population. PMID:24159294

  12. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine

    PubMed Central

    Tella, José L.; Dénes, Francisco V.; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P.; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved. PMID:27546381

  13. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine.

    PubMed

    Tella, José L; Dénes, Francisco V; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved. PMID:27546381

  14. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las

  15. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the silicic volcanic rocks of the Etendeka-Parana province: Source constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Milner, S.C.; Armstrong, R.A. ); Whittingham, A.M. )

    1990-11-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of pyroxene phenocrysts in the silicic volcanic rocks from the Cretaceous Etendeka-Parana flood basalt province (Namibia, South America) are believed to reflect the {delta}{sup 18}O values of the original magmas. The authors recognize a high {delta}{sup 18}O value type ({delta}{sup 18}O pyroxene {approximately} +10{per thousand}) found in the south of both regions, and a low {delta}{sup 18}O value type ({delta}{sup 18}O pyroxene {approximately} +6.5{per thousand}) found in the north. Other differences between thee two rhyolite types include higher concentrations of incompatible elements and lower initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in the low {delta}{sup 18}O value type. The authors suggest that the regional distribution of rhyolite types reflects differences in source composition, which can best be explained if the sources are lower crustal, Late Proterozoic mobile belt material (high {delta}{sup 18}O) and Archean lower crust (low {delta}{sup 18}O).

  16. Diet and nutrition of prehistoric populations at the alluvial banks of the Parana River.

    PubMed

    Cornero, S; Puche, R C

    2000-01-01

    This study attempts to characterize the health status and diet of prehistoric populations (1,000-2,000 years BP), dwelling at both banks of Parana River, between 29 degrees S and 32 degrees S. The data obtained suggest that these prehistoric populations had an adequate nutritional status, with complete proteins in the diet, as suggested by the ratio strontium/calcium in their bone mineral (0.71 +/- 0.04 microgram Srx1,000/mg Ca). The overall frequency of dental caries (4.9%) coincides with that reported for hunters-gatherers. The average mineral densities of the tibiae of adult subjects exhumed at two sites (males: 1.51 +/- 0.07 gr/cm2; females: 1.24 +/- 0.06 gr/cm2) suggested that they had significant bone mass, an asset compatible with adequate nutrition. In metacarpals, the amount of cortical tissue also suggests bone mass comparable to contemporaneous controls. The growth and development of the prehistoric populations studied are deemed normal as shown by the clear sexual dimorphism of their estimated heights at adult age (males: 177-183 cm; females 152-166 cm) and their bone mass. PMID:10835707

  17. Discovery of a Novel Diterpene in Brown Propolis from the State of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shigemi; Arai, Yasuko; Hotta, Sho; Mitsui, Taichi; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Ichihara, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from certain plant sources. The components of propolis depend on the vegetation of the area in which apiculture is practiced. In Brazil, there are several types of propolis including 'green,' 'red' and 'brown'. Brazilian brown propolis from the state of Parana characteristically includes diterpenes, and we discovered a novel clerodane diterpene, rel-(5S,6S,8R,9R,10S,18R,19S)-18,19-epoxy-2-oxocleroda-3,12(E),14- triene-6,18,19-triol 18,19-diacetate 6-benzoate (3) and five known diterpenes (1, 2, 4, 5 and 6). The chemical structure of the novel diterpene 3 was determined using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the activities of the isolated diterpenes on growth inhibition of several human cancer cell lines (LNCaP, MCF-7, DLD-1 and A549) were evaluated in vitro; diterpene 3 exhibited a potent inhibition of cell growth, and its activity was approximately 15 times higher than that of the other diterpenes. PMID:27032202

  18. The age of parana flood volcanism, rifting of gondwanaland, and the jurassic-cretaceous boundary.

    PubMed

    Renne, P R; Ernesto, M; Pacca, I G; Coe, R S; Glen, J M; Prévot, M; Perrin, M

    1992-11-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka flood volcanic event produced approximately 1.5 x 10(6) cubic kilometers of volcanic rocks, ranging from basalts to rhyolites, before the separation of South America and Africa during the Cretaceous period. New (40)Ar/(39)Ar data combined with earlier paleomagnetic results indicate that Paraná flood volcanism in southern Brazil began at 133 +/- 1 million years ago and lasted less than 1 million years. The implied mean eruption rate on the order of 1.5 cubic kilometers per year is consistent with a mantle plume origin for the event and is comparable to eruption rates determined for other well-documented continental flood volcanic events. Paraná flood volcanism occurred before the initiation of sea floor spreading in the South Atlantic and was probably precipitated by uplift and weakening of the lithosphere by the Tristan da Cunha plume. The Parana event postdates most current estimates for the age of the faunal mass extinction associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. PMID:17794593

  19. Late Mesozoic crustal extension and rifting on the western edge of the Parana Basin, Paraguay

    SciTech Connect

    DeGraff, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Geophysical and geological evidence indicates that the western edge of the Parana basin in Paraguay was a site of NE-SW directed crustal extension during late Mesozoic time. Major zones of normal faulting in south-eastern Paraguay trend northwesterly on average, and mafic dikes of probable late Mesozoic age have similar orientations. At least two NW-trending zones of tectonic subsidence, each over 200 km long, are now recognized in eastern Paraguay. Most alkalic rocks of south-eastern Paraguay are concentrated along this rift, and occur as simple to composite stocks and ring complexes composed of rocks ranging from foid-syenite to essexite. NW-trending, lamprophyric to phonolitic dikes are associated with some alkalic complexes. The southern zone, located about 125 km southwest, is a composite tectonic basin about 60 km wide and nearly devoid of alkalic rocks. The timing of crustal extension and rifting in eastern Paraguay is largely based on isotopic ages of associated alkalic rocks, which cluster between 150 and 100 Ma (latest Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous). Geologic evidence for the age of faulting and subsidence is consistent with this age range; tectonic depressions were being filled in late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic time. The age range of alkalic rocks in Paraguay contain that of the Serra Geral basalts and spans the time when South America Separated from Africa. This suggests that alkalic activity and crustal extension in eastern Paraguay are grossly related to the Serra Geral extrusive event, and were a manifestation of the breakup of South America and Africa far from the site of final separation.

  20. The practice of OTC counseling by community pharmacists in Parana, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Halila, Gerusa C.; Junior, Edson H.; Otuki, Michel F.; Correr, Cassyano J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to provide appropriate advice to the patient at the time of dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC) medication counseling, community pharmacists need access to current and reliable information about medicines. Brazilian pharmacists have assumed new functions such as prescribing medication, in a dependent model, based in protocols. Objective: To examine the practice of community pharmacists in a Brazilian State, focusing on OTC recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in a state of Brazil was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014, with data collection through a pre-piloted self-administered anonymous survey via Survey Monkey® platform. Following ethical approval, the online instrument was sent to 8,885 pharmacists registered in Parana State, Brazil, focusing on professionals working in community pharmacies. The questionnaire assessed the community pharmacy setting, the search for information, the knowledge of the evidence-based practice, the important factors to consider when recommending an OTC medicine, and the pharmacist prescribing. Responses were imported into SPSS® (version 22.0) for analysis. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the association between responses and demographic information with a significance level less than 5% (p<0.05). Results: Of the pharmacists, 97.4% dispensed medications and counseled patients for a median of six hours per day. Product’s efficacy (97%) and adverse effects (62.3%) were the most important factors taken into account when counseling a nonprescription medicine. Few pharmacists knew the meaning of terms related to evidence-based health. Most respondents agreed that pharmacists have the necessary training to prescribe. Conclusion: Over-the-counter medication counseling is a daily practice among Brazilian pharmacists. Learning needs exist for community pharmacists in relation to evidence-based practice. Thus, sources of information with good evidence could be used

  1. Late Paleozoic paleofjord in the southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): Geomorphology and sedimentary fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Julia; Cagliari, Joice; Coitinho, Julia dos Reis; da Cunha Lopes, Ricardo; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa

    2016-09-01

    In the southernmost part of the Parana Basin, records of the late Paleozoic glaciation occur in a discontinuous form preserved in paleovalley systems excavated in the crystalline basement. This paper addresses one of these paleovalleys, the Mariana Pimentel, which extends over 60 km with NW-SE valley direction and a constant width of 2.5 km. With the objective of demonstrating that the paleovalley worked as a fjord during the glaciation period, its origin as well as sedimentary fill and morphology were analyzed. The paleovalley morphology was obtained through electrical resistivity (electrical sounding and lateral mapping) and mathematical modeling in four transverse sections. The morphology of the paleovalley documented by the U-shape, steady width, and high depth reaching up to 400 m are typical features of modern glacial valleys. The sedimentary facies that fill the base of the paleovalley, such as rhythmites and dropstones with thickness up to 70 m and diamictites with faceted pebbles (up to 5 m thick) are signs of its glacial origin. During the glaciation period, the paleovalley had a connection to the epicontinental sea located to the northwest, extended toward Namibia, and was excavated by glaciers from the highlands of this region. Thus, the evidence attests that the Mariana Pimentel paleovalley was a fjord during the late Paleozoic glaciation. The duration of the late Paleozoic glaciation (which is longer than the Quaternary glaciation), the apatite fission track that suggests erosion up to 4 km thick in the study area, and the lack of preserved hanging valleys in the Mariana Pimentel indicate that the paleovalley once featured a higher dimension. Furthermore, the existence of paleofjords excavated in the border of the basement corroborates the idea of small ice centers controlled by topography during the late Paleozoic glaciation.

  2. Fitting mathematical models to lactation curves from Holstein cows in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Abílio G T; Henrique, Douglas S; Vieira, Ricardo A M; Maeda, Emilyn M; Valotto, Altair A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate four mathematical models with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows from herds raised in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil. Initially, 42,281 milk production records from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from "Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH)". Data lacking dates of drying and total milk production at 305 days of lactation were excluded, resulting in a remaining 15,142 records corresponding to 2,441 Holstein cows. Data were sorted according to the parity order (ranging from one to six), and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles (Q25%, Q50%, Q75% and Q100%) corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. Within each parity order, for each quartile, four mathematical models were adjusted, two of which were predominantly empirical (Brody and Wood) whereas the other two presented more mechanistic characteristics (models Dijkstra and Pollott). The quality of fit was evaluated by the corrected Akaike information criterion. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations and, therefore, may be considered as the most suitable model to describe, at least empirically, the lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in Southwestern Parana. PMID:25806994

  3. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  4. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  5. Stratigraphy and reservoir potential of glacial deposits of the Itarare Group (Carboniferous-Permian), Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, A.B. ); Potter, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Drilling in the Parana basin of Brazil in the mid-1980s discovered gas and condensate in the Itarare Group, and showed that glacial deposits in Brazil can contain hydrocarbons. The reservoir potential of the Carboniferous-Permian Itarare Group of the basin is analyzed using new subsurface data from 20 deep wells drilled in the early to middle 1980s. Central to the analysis was the construction of over 3000 km of cross sections based on more than 100 wells, the description of more than 400 m of core, and study of 95 thin sections. Subsurface exploration and mapping of the Itarare are greatly aided by the recognition of three recently defined and described formations and four members, which are traceable for hundreds of kilometers. These units belong to three major glacial cycles in which the pebbly mudstones and shales are seals and glacially related sandstones are reservoirs. The best sandstone reservoirs in the deep subsurface belong to the Rio Segredo Member, the upper-most sandy unit of the Itarare. The Rio Segredo Member is the best petroleum target because it is overlain by thick seals and massive pebbly mudstones and shales, and because it is shallower and less compacted than underlying, more deeply buried sandstones. This member has little detrital matrix and much of its porosity is secondary, developed by carboxylic acid and CO{sub 2} generated when Jurassic-Cretaceous basalts, sills, and dikes were intruded into the Parana basin as Gondwana broke up.

  6. Stratigraphical framework of basaltic lavas in Torres Syncline main valley, southern Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Lucas M.; Lima, Evandro F.; Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M.; Barreto, Carla J.

    2014-12-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Volcanic Province records the volcanism of the Early Cretaceous that precedes the fragmentation of the South-Gondwana supercontinent. Traditionally, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic stack as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. Torres Syncline is a tectonic structure located in southern Brazil and where the Parana-Etendeka basalts are well preserved. This work provides a detailed analysis of lithofacies and facies architecture, integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. We identified seven distinct lithofacies grouped into four facies associations related to different flow morphologies. The basaltic lava flows in the area can be divided into two contrasting units: Unit I - pahoehoe flow fields; and Unit II - simple rubbly flows. The first unit is build up by innumerous pahoehoe lava flows that cover the sandstones of Botucatu Formation. These flows occur as sheet pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, and ponded lavas morphologies. Compound lavas are olivine-phyric basalts with intergranular pyroxenes. In ponded lavas and cores of sheet flows coarse plagioclase-phyric basalts are common. The first pahoehoe lavas are more primitive with higher contents of MgO. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flows is related to low volume eruptions, while sheet lavas were emplaced during sustained eruptions. In contrast, Unit II is formed by thick simple rubbly lavas, characterized by a massive core and a brecciated/rubbly top. Petrographically these flows are characterized by plagioclase-phyric to aphyric basalts with high density of plagioclase crystals in the matrix. Chemically they are more differentiated lavas, and the emplacement is related to sustained high effusion rate eruptions. Both units are low TiO2 and have geochemical characteristics of Gramado magma type. The Torres Syncline main valley has a similar evolution when compared to other Large Igneous Provinces

  7. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las

  8. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  9. Integrated remote sensing, geological and geophysical data processing and analysis for hydrocarbon prospection in the Parana Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, G.; Filho, A.P.; Crosta, A.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive basaltic lava flows of the Serra Geral Formation (Lower Cretaceous), in the upper portions of the Parana sedimentary basin, are a severe obstacle for hydrocarbon prospecting. Its thickness and physical characteristics make difficult the general application of conventional geophysical methods. In order to overcome this problem a research program was developed for PETROBRAS in order to obtain the maximum geological information from remote sensing data and integrate it with field and geophysical data. Automated analysis of LANDSAT data with visual inspection of LANDSAT and SLAR imagery resulted in a large amount of lithological and structural information, which were integrated with geological and geophysical data for the selection of target areas for future investigation.

  10. The Montessori System of Education: An Examination of Characteristic Features Set Forth in Il Metodo Della Pedagogica Scientifica. Bulletin, 1912, No. 17. Whole Number 489

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anna Tolman

    1912-01-01

    The publication of "Il metodo della pedagogica scientifica," by Dr. Maria Montessori, docent in the University of Rome, giving a full account of the inception and development of the system of education of which she is the author and the simultaneous translation of the work into English and German are events so unusual as to challenge attention.…

  11. Delimiting the Origin of a B Chromosome by FISH Mapping, Chromosome Painting and DNA Sequence Analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Duílio M. Z. de A.; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Cláudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism. PMID:24736529

  12. Crustal thickness beneath the Chaco-Parana basin, NE Argentina, from surface waves and ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, M.; Collaco, B.; Sanchez, G.; Assumpcao, M.; Sabbione, N.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a study of surface-wave dispersion data obtained by group velocity tomography, using seismic data and ambient seismic noise correlation, for the region of the Chaco-Parana basin, a Neopaleozoic intracratonic basin, formed by a complex history of different processes of subsidence. Previous surface waves analysis (e.g., Feng et al., 2004, 2007; Snokes and James, 1997) estimated Moho depth in the central Chaco basin and a low-velocity anomaly in the lithospheric mantle. However the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle remains little characterized across the region due to the rather poor resolution, especially for the south region. The aim of this work is to improve the resolution and fidelity of crustal images obtained from traditional earthquake-based measurements. Hence, we have increased the number of group velocity measurements using data from regional earthquakes recorded at LPA (La Plata) station, Brazilian Seismic Network stations (BRASIS), permanent (GSN) and portable (BLSP) stations as well as inter-station dispersion curves derived from a dataset of seismic noise recordings from BRASIS, INPRES stations, LPA, CPUP and TRQA stations. The resulting path coverage is denser and displays a more uniform azimuthally distribution producing better tomographic images. The dispersion curves were obtained by a multiple filter technique (Dziewonski et al, 1969) using a phase-matched filter. A 2D group velocity tomographic inversion was performed, applying a conjugate-gradient method (Paige and Saunders, 1982). The group velocity maps for 10 to 120 seconds correspond very well to tectonic structures throughout the studied area and the resolution was improved in northern Argentina and southern Brazil by the better seismic ray coverage showing low-velocity anomalies in the upper-mantle beneath the Chaco basin, compatible with other dispersion results. The new group velocity maps were inverted for S velocity structures, using a

  13. Frequency of virulence genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from piglets with diarrhea in the North Parana State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vidotto, Marilda C.; de Lima, Natália C.S.; Fritzen, Juliana T.T.; de Freitas, Júlio C.; Venâncio, merson J.; Ono, Mario A.

    2009-01-01

    Identification of Escherichia coli causing porcine postweaning diarrhea requires knowledge regarding the prevalent pathotypes within a given region. A total of 100 Escherichia coli isolates from piglets with diarrhea in Londrina city, Parana State, South Brazil, were screened for the presence of genes for F4, F5, F6, F18, F41 fimbrial antigens by specific probes and for enterotoxins (STa, STb, LT and STx2e) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that 60% of the isolates were positive for one or more of the fimbrial antigens and 92% were positive at least for one of the virulence factors examined. Virulence factor genes detected were F4 (44%), F18 (38%), F5 (30%), F41 (32%), F6 (25%), LTp-I (71%), STa (40%), STb (47%) and STx2e (3%). Twenty four patterns of virulence factor according to the different virulence genes form were found and the most frequent virulence gene pattern was F4, F18, F41, STa, STb and LT. Most of the isolates that carried genes for adhesins also harboured genes for toxins. PMID:24031344

  14. Populational fluctuation and spatial distribution of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae) in a poultry house, Cascavel, Parana state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chernaki-Leffer, A M; Almeida, L M; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Anjos, A; Vogado, K M

    2007-05-01

    Knowledge of the population fluctuation and spatial distribution of pests is fundamental for establishing an appropriate control method. The population fluctuation and spatial distribution of the Alphitobius diaperinus in a poultry house in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil, was studied between October, 2001 and October 2002. Larvae and adults of the lesser mealworm were sampled weekly using Arends tube traps (n = 22) for six consecutive flock grow-outs. The temperature of the litter and of the poultry house was measured at the same locations of the tube traps. Beetle numbers increased continuously throughout all the sampling dates (average 5,137 in the first week and 18,494 insects on the sixth week). Significantly greater numbers of larvae were collected than adults (1 to 20 times in 95% of the sampling points). There was no correlation between temperature and the number of larvae and adults collected, therefore no fluctuation was observed during the sampling period. The population growth was correlated to litter re-use. The highest temperatures were observed in deep litter. The spatial distribution of larvae and adults in the poultry house was heterogeneous during the whole period of evaluation. Results suggest that monitoring in poultry houses is necessary prior to adopting and evaluating control measures due to the great variability of the insect distribution in the poultry house. PMID:17876430

  15. Investigation of Neospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in mares and in precolostral foals from Parana State, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Locatelli-Dittrich, R; Dittrich, J R; Richartz, R R T B; Gasino Joineau, M E; Antunes, J; Pinckney, R D; Deconto, I; Hoffmann, D C S; Thomaz-Soccol, V

    2006-02-18

    Antibodies to Neospora sp. and Toxoplasma gondii were measured in mares and precolostral foals from a farm in Parana State, Brazil. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used to determine specific antibodies. Three sampling points, 2003, 2004 and at parturition were included in the study, but not all horses are represented at a parturition time point. In 2003, antibodies to Neospora were detected in 17 mares (47%) at 1:50 dilution and in 5 mares (13.8%) at 1:100 dilution. In 2004, antibodies to Neospora were found in 11/36 (30%) horses with titers of 1:50 and in 6 mares (16.6%) at 1:100 dilution. The prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii was 2.7% in mares, either in 2003 and 2004. Evidence for the role of Neospora sp. in equine reproduction failure was not observed in the farm. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to Neospora were found in two of the nine precolostrum foals. Four seronegative foals were born from seronegative mothers, and three seronegative foals were born from seropositive mothers (1:50). Two seropositive precolostrum foals were born from seropositive mothers (1:50). The foals were born clinically normal, and T. gondii antibodies were not detected in their serum samples. The total immunoglobulins values detected on seronegative precolostrum foals were lower than the levels observed in the seropositive foals. This data warrants additional studies to differentiate N. hughesi and N. caninum serologically and determination if these parasites were associated with equine neurological disease and reproductive failure. PMID:16289863

  16. The DosS-DosT/DosR Mycobacterial Sensor System

    PubMed Central

    Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    DosS/DosR is a two-component regulatory system in which DosS, a heme-containing sensor also known as DevS, under certain conditions undergoes autophosphorylation and then transfers the phosphate to DosR, a DNA-binding protein that controls the entry of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria into a latent, dormant state. DosT, a second sensor closely related to DosS, is present in M. tuberculosis and participates in the control of the dormancy response mediated by DosR. The binding of phosphorylated DosR to DNA initiates the expression of approximately fifty dormancy-linked genes. DosT is accepted to be a gas sensor that is activated in the ferrous state by the absence of an oxygen ligand or by the binding of NO or CO. DosS functions in a similar fashion as a gas sensor, but contradictory evidence has led to the suggestion that it also functions as a redox state sensor. This review focuses on the structure, biophysical properties, and function of the DosS/DosT heme sensors. PMID:25002970

  17. The DosS-DosT/DosR Mycobacterial Sensor System.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    DosS/DosR is a two-component regulatory system in which DosS, a heme-containing sensor also known as DevS, under certain conditions undergoes autophosphorylation and then transfers the phosphate to DosR, a DNA-binding protein that controls the entry of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria into a latent, dormant state. DosT, a second sensor closely related to DosS, is present in M. tuberculosis and participates in the control of the dormancy response mediated by DosR. The binding of phosphorylated DosR to DNA initiates the expression of approximately fifty dormancy-linked genes. DosT is accepted to be a gas sensor that is activated in the ferrous state by the absence of an oxygen ligand or by the binding of NO or CO. DosS functions in a similar fashion as a gas sensor, but contradictory evidence has led to the suggestion that it also functions as a redox state sensor. This review focuses on the structure, biophysical properties, and function of the DosS/DosT heme sensors. PMID:25002970

  18. Generation of Northern Parana High Ti/Y Basalts By Progressive Lithospheric Thinning Above a "Gough"-like Mantle Source.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peate, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Stratigraphic and geochronologic data show that the high Ti/Y magma types (Pitanga & Paranapanema) of NW Paraná are the youngest magmatic phase in the Paraná-Etendeka flood basalt province and comprise ~50% of the total erupted volume. They are more homogeneous than low Ti/Y basalts in SE Paraná and the Etendeka, with a restricted range in Sr-Nd-Pb isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr 0.7055-0.7063; ɛNd -5 to -3; 206Pb/204Pb 17.7-18.2). Subtle differences between Pitanga and Paranapanema (Th/Ta, 206Pb/204Pb) are consistent with minor crustal assimilation. Pitanga show greater incompatible element enrichment compared to Paranapanema (Ti/Y 440-590 vs. 325-510; La/Yb 9.3-12.2 vs. 5.9-9.0), and have greater MREE/HREE enrichment (Dy/Yb 2.1-2.5 vs. 1.8-2.1). Boreholes and surface profiles reveal a consistent temporal transition from Pitanga to Paranapanema lavas, and the decrease in Dy/Yb requires a shallowing of the mean depth of melting, consistent with lithospheric thinning. Pitanga and Paranapanema lavas show Dupal characteristics (elevated Δ7/4Pb 8-13), distinct from Tristan hot-spot and S Atlantic MORB compositions, but similar to the EM-I endmember composition from Walvis Ridge DSDP Site 525A. Previous workers suggested a common origin for Parana high Ti/Y magmas and DSDP Site 525A in continental lithospheric mantle. However, recent comprehensive sampling of the Tristan - Gough - Walvis Ridge - Rio Grande Rise hotspot track has revealed spatial geochemical zonation with a northern "Tristan"-track and a southern "Gough"-track, and the "Tristan" component (Δ7/4Pb 3-6) is only found in samples < 70 Ma (Hoernle et al. 2015). The early hotspot track history is dominated by the "Gough" component (Δ7/4Pb 6-13), inferred to be derived from the African LLSVP, and this material has the compositional features (Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes, elevated La/Nb and Th/Nb) required for the mantle source for the Pitanga and Paranapanema magma types of the 135 Ma Paraná flood basalt

  19. On the Separation of Bedforms by Using Robust Spline Filter and Wavelet Transform, application on the Parana River, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, R. R.; Abad, J. D.; Parsons, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The quantification of the variability of bedform geometry is necessary for scientific and practical purposes. For the former purpose, it is necessary for modeling bed roughness cross-strata sets, vertical sorting, sediment transport rates, transition between two-dimensional and three-dimensional dunes, velocity pulsations, flow over bedforms, interaction between flow over bedforms and groundwater, and transport of contaminants. For practical purposes the study of the variability of bedforms is important to predict floods and flow resistance, to predict uplifting of manmade structures underneath a river beds, to track future changes of bedform and biota following dam removal, to estimate the relationship between bedform characteristics and biota, in river restoration, among others. Currently there is not a standard nomenclature and procedure to separate bedform features such as sand waves, dunes and ripples which are commonly present in large rivers. Likewise, there is not a standard definition of the scope for the different scales of such bedform features. The present study proposes a standardization of the nomenclature and symbolic representation of bedform features and elaborates on the combined application of robust spline filter and continuous wavelet transforms to separate the morphodynamic features. A fully automated robust spline procedure for uniformly sampled datasets is used. The algorithm, based on a penalized least squares method, allows fast smoothing of uniformly sampled data elements by means of the discrete cosine transform. The wavelet transforms, which overcome some limitations of the Fourier transforms, are applied to identify the spectrum of bedform wavelengths. The proposed separation method is applied to a 370-m width and 1.028-km length swath bed morphology data of the Parana River, one of the world's largest rivers, located in Argentina. After the separation is carried out, the descriptors (e.g. wavelength, slope, and amplitude for both

  20. HLA-A, B and DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in volunteer bone marrow donors from the north of Parana State

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Marlene Silva; Jarduli, Luciana Ribeiro; Jorge, Adylson Justino; Camargo, Rossana Batista Oliveira Godoy; Carneiro, Fernando Pagotto; Gelinski, Jair Roberto; Silva, Roseclei Assunção Feliciano; Lavado, Edson Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of allele and haplotype frequencies of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is important in the search for unrelated bone marrow donors. The Brazilian population is very heterogeneous and the HLA system is highly informative of populations because of the high level of polymorphisms. Aim The aim of this study was to characterize the immunogenetic profile of ethnic groups (Caucasians, Afro-Brazilians and Asians) in the north of Parana State. Methods A study was carried out of 3978 voluntary bone marrow donors registered in the Brazilian National Bone Marrow Donor Registry and typed for the HLA-A, B and DRB1 (low resolution) loci. The alleles were characterized by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotides method using the LabType SSO kit (One Lambda, CA, USA). The ARLEQUIN v.3.11 computer program was used to calculate allele and haplotype frequencies Results The most common alleles found in Caucasians were HLA-A*02, 24, 01; HLA-B*35, 44, 51; DRB1*11, 13, 07; for Afro-Brazilians they were HLA-A*02, 03, 30; HLA-B*35, 15, 44; DRB1*13, 11, 03; and for Asians they were: HLA-A*24, 02, 26; HLA-B*40, 51, 52; DRB1*04, 15, 09. The most common haplotype combinations were: HLA-A*01, B*08, DRB1*03 and HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 for Caucasians; HLA-A*29, B*44, DRB1*07 and HLA-A*01, B*08 and DRB1*03 for Afro-Brazilians; and HLA-A*24, B*52, DRB1*15 and HLA-A*24, B*40 and DRB1*09 for Asians. Conclusion There is a need to target and expand bone marrow donor campaigns in the north of Parana State. The data of this study may be used as a reference by the Instituto Nacional de Cancer/Brazilian National Bone Marrow Donor Registry to evaluate the immunogenetic profile of populations in specific regions and in the selection of bone marrow donors PMID:23049380

  1. Curie surface of the alkaline provinces of Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP), central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes Rocha, Loiane Gomes de; Pires, Augusto César Bittencourt; Carmelo, Adriana Chatack; Oksum, Erdinc

    2015-05-01

    The study area includes the most important carbonatite and kimberlite complexes in Brazil, located in the Brazilian states of Goiás and Minas Gerais. The central portion of this area involves the Azimuth 125° lineament (Az 125°) that consists of an extensive set of faults (oriented in the NW-SE direction) that served as a conduit for magma ascent. This lineament is the main structural feature associated with these complexes. The Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP) Alkaline Provinces occur along the Az 125° and include highly economically valuable mineralizations. In this study, we aim to map the depth to the curie isotherm (or Curie Point Depths: CPD) of the study area (mainly the Gap and APAP regions) based on spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. The CPD estimations were achieved from a spectral approach known as the centroid method, providing the relationship between the spectra of magnetic anomalies and the depths of the magnetic source of a 2-D magnetic data. The CPD estimates from approximately 500 overlapping blocks vary from 7 km to 40 km deep. The shallower depths are related to the GAP and APAP regions, and the deeper ones are related to the São Franciscana Plate. The Curie depths related to the Az 125° are between 30 km and 15.7 km deep. According to the results, the GAP and APAP intrusive bodies have shallower roots the major faults of the Az 125°.

  2. [Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) cultivated in the State of Parana and containing arcelin].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S; Pereira, Paulo Roberto V da S; Zukovski, Luciana

    2007-01-01

    This research intended to evaluate the development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boh.), a stored-grain pest, on bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) commonly cultivated in the State of Parana and containing arcelin, and the possible resistance of these genotypes to the bruchine. Tests were performed under laboratory conditions (27 masculineC, fotophase 12h, 50 +/- 10 % RH) with the genotypes TPS-Bionobre, IAC-Una, IPR-Uirapuru, IAPAR 44, IPR Juriti, IAPAR 81, Pérola, Carioca, Bolinha, and two others containing arcelin, Arc 1 and Arc 2. The genotypes with Arc 1 and 2 alleles caused higher mortality of immature stages; in Arc 1 developmental period was prolonged and the male and female dry weights were the lowest, suggesting an antibiosis mechanism of resistance. Non-preference for oviposition was not observed for these two genotypes. Among varieties without arcelin, IAPAR 44 was the most resistant to the bruchid, being the least preferred for oviposition, and promoting low percentage of viable eggs, long developmental period and reduced male and female adult dry weight. Perola, IPR Juriti and Bolinha with high number of eggs and viable eggs, low mortality of immature stages, were the most susceptible. PMID:17934622

  3. A DOS Primer for Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1989-01-01

    Presents a basic orientation to the functions and capabilities of disk operating systems (DOS), aimed at the nontechnically oriented user of IBM personal computers and compatible microcomputers. Areas discussed include booting up, the use of floppy and hard disks, file storage and manipulation, and directories. Further readings are provided. (CLB)

  4. Joint Inversion of Geoid Anomaly and Teleseismic P-Wave Delay Times: Modeling Density and Velocity Perturbations Beneath the Parana Magmatic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, C. A. M.; Ussami, N.; Ritsema, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Parana Magmatic Province (PMP) is one of the largest continental igneous provinces (LIP) on Earth. It is well dated at 133 Ma preceding the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, but the causative geodynamic processes are still poorly understood. Although a low-velocity anomaly has been imaged by seismic tomography in the northeast region of the PMP and interpreted as a fossil conduct of a mantle plume that is related to the flood basalt eruptions, geochemical data indicate that such magmatism is caused by the melting of a heterogeneous and enriched lithospheric mantle with no deep plume participation. Models of density perturbations in the upper mantle estimated from joint inversion of geoid anomalies and P-wave delay times will offer important constraints on mantle dynamics. A new generation of accurate global geopotential models derived from satellite-missions (e.g. GRACE, GOCE) allows us to estimate density distribution within the Earth from geoid inversion. In order to obtain the residual geoid anomaly related to the density structure of the mantle, we use the EGM2008 model removing estimated geoid perturbations owing to variations in crustal structure (i.e., topographical masses, Moho depth, thickness of sediments and basalts). Using a spherical-Earth approximation, the density model space is represented by a set of tesseroids and the velocity model is parameterized in nodes of a spherical grid where cubic B-splines are utilized as an interpolation function. To constrain the density inversion, we add more than 10,000 manually picked teleseismic P-wave delay times. During the inversion procedure, density and P-wave velocity are linked through the optimization of a constant linear factor correlating density and velocity perturbation. Such optimization will be performed using a probability density function (PDF) [Tarantola, 2005]. We will present the preliminary results of this joint inversion scheme and hypothesize on the geodynamic processes responsible for

  5. The dissolved chemical and isotopic signature downflow the confluence of two large rivers: The case of the Parana and Paraguay rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campodonico, Verena Agustina; García, María Gabriela; Pasquini, Andrea Inés

    2015-09-01

    contributions represent between ∼0.5% and 6% of the total water inputs to the Middle Paraná River under baseflow conditions. This implies that the chemical asymmetry in the Middle Parana River is mostly due to the incomplete mixing of the main tributaries. Though the influence of groundwater is not a determining factor in the chemical variability of the river, it may partially explain the higher concentrations of some trace elements found in the eastern margin ∼580 km downflow the confluence.

  6. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dos Rios. 9.175 Section 9.175 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.175 Dos Rios. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural...

  7. Vertical Profiles Of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th And {sup 40}K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Parana Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-07

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Parana sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 1.84 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 4.20 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Activity concentrations were determined for {sup 226}Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81{+-}0.22 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 4.21{+-}0.07 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 50

  8. A DOS Primer for Librarians: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, Henry

    1990-01-01

    Provides an introduction to DOS commands and strategies for the effective organization and use of hard disks. Functions discussed include the creation of directories and subdirectories, enhanced copying, the assignment of disk drives, and backing up the hard disk. (CLB)

  9. DOS Batch Files As Control Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyk, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-programming technique circumvents maximum of 640K imposed on random-access memory (RAM) by DOS (Disk Operating System) software. Involves breaking application program into smaller programs. Each resulting subprogram, when compiled and linked, must be small enough to fit within 640K of RAM. Retrieved from storage on disk as needed. In terms of DOS software, each subprogram ".EXE" file executed in "stand-alone" manner.

  10. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  11. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  12. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  13. 27 CFR 9.175 - Dos Rios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1) Dos Rios, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (2) Laytonville, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; (3) Iron Peak, California—Mendocino County, 1967 edition, revised 1994; and (4) Covelo...

  14. "DOS for Managers." Management Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion County Schools, Fairmont, WV.

    A plan is provided for a lesson on disk operating systems (DOS) for managers. Twenty-five lesson objectives are listed, followed by suggestions for learning activities and special resources. In the presentation section, key points and content are provided for 25 instructional topics that correspond to the 25 lesson objectives. The topics are as…

  15. DOS: the discrete-ordinates system. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W. A.; Emmett, M. B.

    1982-09-01

    The Discrete Ordinates System determines the flux of neutrons or photons due either to fixed sources specified by the user or to sources generated by particle interaction with the problem materials. It also determines numerous secondary results which depend upon flux. Criticality searches can be performed. Numerous input, output, and file manipulation facilities are provided. The DOS driver program reads the problem specification from an input file and calls various program modules into execution as specified by the input file.

  16. Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duryea, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct assess to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to a 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

  17. Fast interrupt platform for extended DOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duryea, T. W.

    1995-01-01

    Extended DOS offers the unique combination of a simple operating system which allows direct access to the interrupt tables, 32 bit protected mode access to 4096 MByte address space, and the use of industry standard C compilers. The drawback is that fast interrupt handling requires both 32 bit and 16 bit versions of each real-time process interrupt handler to avoid mode switches on the interrupts. A set of tools has been developed which automates the process of transforming the output of a standard 32 bit C compiler to 16 bit interrupt code which directly handles the real mode interrupts. The entire process compiles one set of source code via a make file, which boosts productivity by making the management of the compile-link cycle very simple. The software components are in the form of classes written mostly in C. A foreground process written as a conventional application which can use the standard C libraries can communicate with the background real-time classes via a message passing mechanism. The platform thus enables the integration of high performance real-time processing into a conventional application framework.

  18. The Heme-Based Oxygen-Sensor Phosphodiesterase Ec DOS (DosP): Structure-Function Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli Direct Oxygen Sensor (Ec DOS, also known as Ec DosP) is a heme-based O2-sensing phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli that catalyzes the conversion of cyclic-di-GMP to linear di-GMP. Cyclic-di-GMP is an important second messenger in bacteria, highlighting the importance of understanding structure-function relationships of Ec DOS. Ec DOS is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound O2-sensing PAS domain and a C-terminal phosphodiesterase catalytic domain. Notably, its activity is markedly enhanced by O2 binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in the PAS sensor domain. X-ray crystal structures and spectroscopic and catalytic characterization of the wild-type and mutant proteins have provided important structural and functional clues to understanding the molecular mechanism of intramolecular catalytic regulation by O2 binding. This review summarizes the intriguing findings that have obtained for Ec DOS. PMID:25586128

  19. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  20. Geochemical Stratigraphy of Southern Parana' Lava Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, A.; De Min, A.; Marques, L. S.; Nardy, A.; Chiaradia, M.

    2015-12-01

    Basaltic lava flows of the Paranà Large Igneous Province exhibit significant regional and stratigraphic geochemical variations. While the most notable difference concerns the dominance of low-Ti (TiO2 < 2.0 wt.%) and high-Ti types in the southern and northern part of the province, respectively, detailed analyses of lava flow sequences sampled mostly in drill cores allowed definition of six main groups of chemically distinct flow units. The chemical and possible age differences among these units were then used to define the global time-related evolution of Paranà basaltic magmatism and involvement of distinct mantle-source components. Newly sampled outcropping lava flow sequences from the southern Paranà do however only partially support this picture. Our new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data show that high- and low-Ti basaltic flows are interlayered. In particular, Pitanga type high-Ti basalts are interlayered with Gramado and Esmeralda low-Ti basalts (these latter being present both towards the base and the top of the sequence) in Paranà State, while in Santa Caterina State Gramado flows are interlayered with Urubici-type high-Ti basalts. The interlayering of distinct basaltic magma type requires near-synchronous eruption of chemically strongly different magma types generated from clearly heterogeneous mantle sources and erupted through separated magma plumbing systems, without apparent interaction (mixing) among the distinct basalts. In conclusion, the relative timing of low- and high-Ti magma types seems to be much more complicated than previously thought, as for example Esmeralda or Pitanga basalts, previously considered as quite late and postdating Gramado basalts, are indeed synchronous with them.

  1. Xenon spallation systematics in Angra dos Reis. [meteoritic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, C. M.; Hudson, B.; Kennedy, B. M.; Podosek, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Literature Xe data for the Angra dos Reis meteorite have been resolved into constituent spallation, fission and trapped components. The spallation Xe compositions vary over a range wider than observed in any other samples, including lunar samples. These variations are due to the mixing of spallation Xe from Ba and rare earth element targets. It is possible to infer the Ba and rare earth spallation Xe compositions. Angra dos Reis spallation Xe compositions are systematically different from those observed in lunar samples, possibly because of differences in the irradiation conditions (geometry and shielding). Thus the Angra dos Reis data appear to be superior to lunar data for predicting spallation Xe compositions in other meteorites.

  2. Dos dosis de vacuna contra los VPH pueden proteger

    Cancer.gov

    Dos dosis de Cervarix, la vacuna contra virus del papiloma humano (VPH), fueron tan efectivas como la pauta normal actual de tres dosis después de cuatro años de seguimiento. El estudio de vacuna en Costa Rica, patrocinado por el NCI, fue diseñado para ev

  3. Ultrafast ligand dynamics in the heme-based GAF sensor domains of the histidine kinases DosS and DosT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vos, Marten H; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Luo, Hao; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R; Liebl, Ursula

    2012-01-10

    The transcriptional regulator DosR from M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in the virulence to dormancy transition of the pathogen. DosR can be activated by DosT and DosS, two histidine kinases with heme-containing sensor GAF domains, capable of diatomic ligand binding. To investigate the initial processes occurring upon ligand dissociation, we performed ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of the isolated sensor domains ligated with O(2), NO, and CO. The results reveal a relatively closed heme pocket for both proteins. For DosT the yield of O(2) escape from the heme pocket on the picoseconds time scale upon photodissociation was found to be very low (1.5%), similar to other heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, implying that this sensor acts as an effective O(2) trap. Remarkably, this yield is an order of magnitude higher in DosS (18%). For CO, by contrast, the fraction of CO rebinding within the heme pocket is higher in DosS. Experiments with mutant DosT sensor domains and molecular dynamics simulations indicate an important role in ligand discrimination of the distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, which forms a hydrogen bond with heme-bound O(2). We conclude that despite their similarity, DosT and DosS display ligand-specific different primary dynamics during the initial phases of intraprotein signaling. The distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, plays an important role in these processes. PMID:22142262

  4. Ultrafast ligand dynamics in the heme-based GAF sensor domains of the histidine kinases DosS and DosT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis†

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Marten H.; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Luo, Hao; Eaton-Rye, Julian J.; Ioanoviciu, Alexandra; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.; Liebl, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The transcriptional regulator DosR from M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in the virulence to dormancy transition of the pathogen. DosR can be activated by DosT and DosS, two histidine kinases with heme-containing sensor GAF domains, capable of diatomic ligand binding, To investigate the initial processes occurring upon ligand dissociation, we performed ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of the isolated sensor domains ligated with O2, NO and CO. The results reveal a relatively closed heme pocket for both proteins. For DosT the yield of O2 escape from the heme pocket on the picoseconds timescale upon photodissociation was found to be very low (1.5%), similar to other heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, implying that this sensor acts as an effective O2 trap. Remarkably, this yield is an order of magnitude higher in DosS (18%). For CO, by contrast, the fraction of CO rebinding within the heme pocket is higher in DosS. Experiments with mutant DosT sensor domains and molecular dynamics simulations indicate an important role in ligand discrimination of the distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, which forms a hydrogen bond with heme-bound O2. We conclude that despite their similarity, DosT and DosS display ligand-specific different primary dynamics during the initial phases of intra-protein signaling. The distal tyrosine, present in both proteins, plays an important role in these processes. PMID:22142262

  5. Deceiving entropy-based DoS detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özçelik, Ä.°lker; Brooks, Richard R.

    2014-06-01

    Denial of Service (DoS) attacks disable network services for legitimate users. A McAfee report shows that eight out of ten Critical Infrastructure Providers (CIPs) surveyed had a significant Distributed DoS (DDoS) attack in 2010.1 Researchers proposed many approaches for detecting these attacks in the past decade. Anomaly based DoS detection is the most common. In this approach, the detector uses statistical features; such as the entropy of incoming packet header fields like source IP addresses or protocol type. It calculates the observed statistical feature and triggers an alarm if an extreme deviation occurs. However, intrusion detection systems (IDS) using entropy based detection can be fooled by spoofing. An attacker can sniff the network to collect header field data of network packets coming from distributed nodes on the Internet and fuses them to calculate the entropy of normal background traffic. Then s/he can spoof attack packets to keep the entropy value in the expected range during the attack. In this study, we present a proof of concept entropy spoofing attack that deceives entropy based detection approaches. Our preliminary results show that spoofing attacks cause significant detection performance degradation.

  6. Structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and DosR-DNA Complex Involved in Gene Activation during Adaptation to Hypoxic Latency

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Wu, Meiting; Rice, Adrian E; Roberts, David M; Sherman, David R; Hol, Wim G.J.

    2010-07-20

    On encountering low oxygen conditions, DosR activates the transcription of 47 genes, promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a non-replicating state. Here, we report the crystal structures of the DosR C-terminal domain and its complex with a consensus DNA sequence of the hypoxia-induced gene promoter. The DosR C-terminal domain contains four {alpha}-helices and forms tetramers consisting of two dimers with non-intersecting dyads. In the DNA-bound structure, each DosR C-terminal domain in a dimer places its DNA-binding helix deep into the major groove, causing two bends in the DNA. DosR makes numerous protein-DNA base contacts using only three amino acid residues per subunit: Lys179, Lys182, and Asn183. The DosR tetramer is unique among response regulators with known structures.

  7. Creating presentation graphics with MS-DOS computer technology.

    PubMed

    Van Hoozer, H; Warner, S; Felton, G

    1989-01-01

    This article describes how The University of Iowa College of Nursing Instructional Design Services uses MS-DOS computer technology to create presentation graphics to support nursing education, research, scholarly productivity, and service. Hardware and software are described and examples are presented to illustrate the use of software to create alphanumeric, schematic, and freeform pictures. The authors stress that the use of computer-aided design and production does not eliminate the use of traditional principles of visual design, but rather necessitates their application. PMID:2752333

  8. Dynamic crystallization experiments on the Angra dos Reis achondritic meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, G. E.; Lanier, A. B.

    1992-01-01

    The types of cooling histories necessary to produce the porphyritic texture and the observed mineral assemblage in Angra dos Reis (ADOR) achondritic meteorite, which, on the basis of its trace element characteristics was considered to be a cumulate with a recrystallized texture, while a recent model suggested that ADOR is a porphyry. Dynamic crystallization experiments were conducted with nucleation conditions varied by melting the starting material at different degrees of superheat. The results show that, at low pressure, a volcanic or hypabyssal history of ADOR is possible. The most likely history involved cooling from a slightly subliquidus temperature with a relatively high and irregular nucleation density resulting in a granular texture with the poikilitic fassaite growing late; accumulation of some crystal is tought to be probable.

  9. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, June 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, Ferdinand; Melendez, Frank; Bonnet, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the sedimentation of Dos Bocas reservoir, in central Puerto Rico, was conducted during July 1985. The survey showed that the capacity of the reservoir has declined from 30,420 acre-ft in 1942 to about 19,620 acre-ft. Sediment is accumulating in the reservoir at an average rate of about 251 acre-ft/yr, or about 0.83%/yr of the original capacity. The expected usable life of the reservoir on the basis of the long-term sedimentation rate is about 78 years. However, the sedimentation rate appears to have increased significantly since 1979. During the last six years, the average sedimentation rate has exceeded 600 acre-ft/yr. If this rate is maintained, the expected usable life of the reservoir would be about 32 years. (Author 's abstract)

  10. Document image archive transfer from DOS to UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Gill, Michael J.; Thoma, George R.

    1994-01-01

    An R&D division of the National Library of Medicine has developed a prototype system for automated document image delivery as an adjunct to the labor-intensive manual interlibrary loan service of the library. The document image archive is implemented by a PC controlled bank of optical disk drives which use 12 inch WORM platters containing bitmapped images of over 200,000 pages of medical journals. Following three years of routine operation which resulted in serving patrons with articles both by mail and fax, an effort is underway to relocate the storage environment from the DOS-based system to a UNIX-based jukebox whose magneto-optical erasable 5 1/4 inch platters hold the images. This paper describes the deficiencies of the current storage system, the design issues of modifying several modules in the system, the alternatives proposed and the tradeoffs involved.

  11. The Mycobacterium DosR regulon structure and diversity revealed by comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; He, Liming; Deng, Wanyan; Xie, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which claims approximately two million people annually, remains a global health concern. The non-replicating or dormancy like state of this pathogen which is impervious to anti-tuberculosis drugs is widely recognized as the culprit for this scenario. The dormancy survival regulator (DosR) regulon, composed of 48 co-regulated genes, is held as essential for Mtb persistence. The DosR regulon is regulated by a two-component regulatory system consisting of two sensor kinases-DosS (Rv3132c) and DosT (Rv2027c), and a response regulator DosR (Rv3133c). The underlying regulatory mechanism of DosR regulon expression is very complex. Many factors are involved, particularly the oxygen tension. The DosR regulon enables the pathogen to persist during lengthy hypoxia. Comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the DosR regulon is widely distributed among the mycobacterial genomes, ranging from the pathogenic strains to the environmental strains. In-depth studies on the DosR response should provide insights into its role in TB latency in vivo and shape new measures to combat this exceeding recalcitrant pathogen. PMID:22833514

  12. DosS Is Required for the Complete Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mice with Classical Granulomatous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Uma S.; McGillivray, Amanda; Mehra, Smriti; Didier, Peter J.; Midkiff, Cecily C.; Kissee, Ryan S.; Golden, Nadia A.; Alvarez, Xavier; Niu, Tianhua; Rengarajan, Jyothi; Sherman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must counter hypoxia within granulomas to persist. DosR, in concert with sensor kinases DosS and DosT, regulates the response to hypoxia. Yet Mtb lacking functional DosR colonize the lungs of C57Bl/6 mice, presumably owing to the lack of organized lesions with sufficient hypoxia in that model. We compared the phenotype of the Δ-dosR, Δ-dosS, and Δ-dosT mutants to Mtb using C3HeB/FeJ mice, an alternate mouse model where lesions develop hypoxia. C3HeB/FeJ mice were infected via aerosol. The progression of infection was analyzed by tissue bacterial burden and histopathology. A measure of the comparative global immune responses was also analyzed. Although Δ-dosR and Δ-dosT grew comparably to wild-type Mtb, Δ-dosS exhibited a significant defect in bacterial burden and pathology in vivo, accompanied by ablated proinflammatory response. Δ-dosS retained the ability to induce DosR. The Δ-dosS mutant was also attenuated in murine macrophages ex vivo, with evidence of reduced expression of the proinflammatory signature. Our results show that DosS, but not DosR and DosT, is required by Mtb to survive in C3HeB/FeJ mice. The attenuation of Δ-dosS is not due to its inability to induce the DosR regulon, nor is it a result of the accumulation of hypoxia. That the in vivo growth restriction of Δ-dosS could be mimicked ex vivo suggested sensitivity to macrophage oxidative burst. Anoxic caseous centers within tuberculosis lesions eventually progress to cavities. Our results provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms of Mtb persistence within host lungs. PMID:25322074

  13. DosS Is required for the complete virulence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice with classical granulomatous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Uma S; McGillivray, Amanda; Mehra, Smriti; Didier, Peter J; Midkiff, Cecily C; Kissee, Ryan S; Golden, Nadia A; Alvarez, Xavier; Niu, Tianhua; Rengarajan, Jyothi; Sherman, David R; Kaushal, Deepak

    2015-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must counter hypoxia within granulomas to persist. DosR, in concert with sensor kinases DosS and DosT, regulates the response to hypoxia. Yet Mtb lacking functional DosR colonize the lungs of C57Bl/6 mice, presumably owing to the lack of organized lesions with sufficient hypoxia in that model. We compared the phenotype of the Δ-dosR, Δ-dosS, and Δ-dosT mutants to Mtb using C3HeB/FeJ mice, an alternate mouse model where lesions develop hypoxia. C3HeB/FeJ mice were infected via aerosol. The progression of infection was analyzed by tissue bacterial burden and histopathology. A measure of the comparative global immune responses was also analyzed. Although Δ-dosR and Δ-dosT grew comparably to wild-type Mtb, Δ-dosS exhibited a significant defect in bacterial burden and pathology in vivo, accompanied by ablated proinflammatory response. Δ-dosS retained the ability to induce DosR. The Δ-dosS mutant was also attenuated in murine macrophages ex vivo, with evidence of reduced expression of the proinflammatory signature. Our results show that DosS, but not DosR and DosT, is required by Mtb to survive in C3HeB/FeJ mice. The attenuation of Δ-dosS is not due to its inability to induce the DosR regulon, nor is it a result of the accumulation of hypoxia. That the in vivo growth restriction of Δ-dosS could be mimicked ex vivo suggested sensitivity to macrophage oxidative burst. Anoxic caseous centers within tuberculosis lesions eventually progress to cavities. Our results provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms of Mtb persistence within host lungs. PMID:25322074

  14. America Inc.: John Dos Passos'"USA" as Professional Writing Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Renzo, Anthony

    While working as a special consultant for General Mills in 1948, John Dos Passos wrote a report explaining the latest scientific research and technological advancements and how the postwar economy was affecting General Mills and the cereal market. General Mills, using a real writer for a corporate freelance, profited from Dos Passos' expertise and…

  15. The Rio dos Sinos watershed: an economic and social space and its interface with environmental status.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, J A S; Drumm, E; Rodrigues, M A S; Spilki, F R

    2010-12-01

    The Rio dos Sinos watershed is located in the eastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and includes 32 municipalities. These municipalities develop several different economic activities such as farming and livestock along the 190 km length of the Rio dos Sinos, one of the rivers with the worst quality of water in Brazil. The region is also characterised by growing urbanisation and heavy industrialisation. The main economic activity is the leather and footwear industry. This diversified land use puts the Rio dos Sinos watershed at risk of a wide range of potential environmental impacts. The aim of the present article is to discuss the socioeconomic process currently implemented in the Rio dos Sinos watershed and the effect of these human actions on the environmental quality described throughout this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Biology. PMID:21225153

  16. Measurements of degree of sensitization (DoS) in aluminum alloys using EMAT ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Xiang, Dan; Qin, Yexian; Pond, Robert B; Slusarski, Kyle

    2011-07-01

    Sensitization in 5XXX aluminum alloys is an insidious problem characterized by the gradual formation and growth of beta phase (Mg(2)Al(3)) at grain boundaries, which increases the susceptibility of alloys to intergranular corrosion (IGC) and intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The degree of sensitization (DoS) is currently quantified by the ASTM G67 Nitric Acid Mass Loss Test, which is destructive and time consuming. A fast, reliable, and non-destructive method for rapid detection and the assessment of the condition of DoS in AA5XXX aluminum alloys in the field is highly desirable. In this paper, we describe a non-destructive method for measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). AA5083 aluminum alloy samples were sensitized at 100°C with processing times varying from 7days to 30days. The DoS of sensitized samples was first quantified with the ASTM 67 test in the laboratory. Both ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in sensitized specimens were then measured using EMAT and the results were correlated with the DoS data. We found that the longitudinal wave velocity was almost a constant, independent of the sensitization, which suggests that the longitudinal wave can be used to determine the sample thickness. The shear wave velocity and especially the shear wave attenuation are sensitive to DoS. Relationships between DoS and the shear velocity, as well as the shear attenuation have been established. Finally, we performed the data mining to evaluate and improve the accuracy in the measurements of DoS in aluminum alloys with EMAT. PMID:21232777

  17. The DosR Regulon Modulates Adaptive Immunity and Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Smriti; Foreman, Taylor W.; Didier, Peter J.; Ahsan, Muhammad H.; Hudock, Teresa A.; Kissee, Ryan; Golden, Nadia A.; Gautam, Uma S.; Johnson, Ann-Marie; Alvarez, Xavier; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E.; Doyle, Lara A.; Roy, Chad J.; Niu, Tianhua; Blanchard, James L.; Khader, Shabaana A.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Sherman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Hypoxia promotes dormancy by causing physiologic changes to actively replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DosR controls the response of M. tuberculosis to hypoxia. Objectives: To understand DosR's contribution in the persistence of M. tuberculosis, we compared the phenotype of various DosR regulon mutants and a complemented strain to M. tuberculosis in macaques, which faithfully model M. tuberculosis infection. Methods: We measured clinical and microbiologic correlates of infection with M. tuberculosis relative to mutant/complemented strains in the DosR regulon, studied lung pathology and hypoxia, and compared immune responses in lung using transcriptomics and flow cytometry. Measurements and Main Results: Despite being able to replicate initially, mutants in DosR regulon failed to persist or cause disease. On the contrary, M. tuberculosis and a complemented strain were able to establish infection and tuberculosis. The attenuation of pathogenesis in animals infected with the mutants coincided with the appearance of a Th1 response and organization of hypoxic lesions wherein M. tuberculosis expressed dosR. The lungs of animals infected with the mutants (but not the complemented strain) exhibited early transcriptional signatures of T-cell recruitment, activation, and proliferation associated with an increase of T cells expressing homing and proliferation markers. Conclusions: Delayed adaptive responses, a hallmark of M. tuberculosis infection, not only lead to persistence but also interfere with the development of effective antituberculosis vaccines. The DosR regulon therefore modulates both the magnitude and the timing of adaptive immune responses in response to hypoxia in vivo, resulting in persistent infection. Hence, DosR regulates key aspects of the M. tuberculosis life cycle and limits lung pathology. PMID:25730547

  18. Documenting 35 Years of Land Cover Change: Lago Cachet Dos Drainage, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B.; Nimick, D.; McGrath, D.; Cole, C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Special Applications Science Center is monitoring temporal changes at the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos, Northern Patagonia Icefield of southern Chile. This location is one of the newest international sites in the USGS Global Fiducial Program (GFP)—a program which provides systematic monitoring of dynamic and environmentally critical areas with high-resolution imagery (http://gfp.usgs.gov/). In 2008, Lago Cachet Dos began experiencing glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) during which the entire pool of water (about 200 million m3) rapidly drains from the lake and flows south-southeast through the Colonia Glacier. These catastrophic events cause massive erosion of lake-bed and valley-fill deposits, and consequent upstream expansion of Lago Cachet Dos towards Lago Cachet Uno. Panchromatic and multispectral images for 1979, 2007, and 2014 highlight the dramatic changes that have occurred at this site over a 35-year period. The lake was smallest in 1979, when the Colonia Glacier was at its maximum thickness and extent during the study period. Between 1979 and 2007, the glacier shrank causing an increase in the surface area of the lake. The size of the lake increased substantially, from 2.98 km2 in 1979 to 4.41 km2 in 2014, primarily due to erosion of valley-fill deposits at its northern edge by the 15 GLOFs that occurred between April 2008 and February 2014. Ongoing studies of the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos are focused on providing real-time monitoring of Lago Cachet Dos lake levels, understanding the history of advances and retreats of the Colonia Glacier, and determining the physical mechanisms and hazards associated with the GLOFs that come from Lago Cachet Dos.

  19. Documenting 35 years of land cover change: Lago Cachet Dos drainage, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, Beverly A.; Nimick, David A.; Mcgrath, Daniel; Cole, Christopher J.; Wilson, Earl M.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Fahey, Mark J.; Leidich, Jonathan; O'Kuinghttons Villena, Jorge I.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Special Applications Science Center is monitoring temporal changes at the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos, Northern Patagonia Icefield of southern Chile. This location is one of the newest international sites in the USGS Global Fiducial Program (GFP)—a program which provides systematic monitoring of dynamic and environmentally critical areas with high-resolution imagery (http://gfp.usgs.gov/). In 2008, Lago Cachet Dos began experiencing glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) during which the entire pool of water (about 200 million cubic meters) rapidly drains from the lake and flows south-southeast through the Colonia Glacier. These catastrophic events cause massive erosion of valley-fill deposits and consequent upstream expansion of Lago Cachet Dos towards Lago Cachet Uno.  Panchromatic and multispectral images for 1979, 2007, and 2014 highlight the dramatic changes that have occurred at this site over a 35-year period. The lake was smallest in 1979, when the Colonia Glacier was at its maximum extent during the study period. Between 1979 and 2007, the glacier shrank causing an increase in the surface area of the lake. The size of the lake increased substantially, from 2.98 square kilometers (km2) in 1979 to 4.41 km2 in 2014, primarily due to erosion of valley-fill deposits upstream of its northern edge by the 15 GLOFs that occurred between April 2008 and February 2014. Ongoing studies of the Colonia Glacier and Lago Cachet Dos are focused on providing real-time monitoring of Lago Cachet Dos lake levels, understanding the history of advances and retreats of the Colonia Glacier, and determining the physical mechanisms and hazards associated with the GLOFs that come from Lago Cachet Dos.

  20. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  1. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  2. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  3. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  4. 33 CFR 106.250 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Declaration of Security (DoS). 106.250 Section 106.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf...

  5. MIIS to MS-DOS: Microcomputer Options for Online Catalog Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotophorst, Clyde W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes use of personal computer at George Mason University to provide support to the online catalog. Merging of bibliographic information in MS-DOS format into database management system and experimentation with full-text retrieval packages (ZyIndex and SIRE) are discussed. Addresses and price information for hardware and software packages…

  6. Function, regulation and pathological roles of the Gab/DOS docking proteins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Since their discovery a little more than a decade ago, the docking proteins of the Gab/DOS family have emerged as important signalling elements in metazoans. Gab/DOS proteins integrate and amplify signals from a wide variety of sources including growth factor, cytokine and antigen receptors as well as cell adhesion molecules. They also contribute to signal diversification by channelling the information from activated receptors into signalling pathways with distinct biological functions. Recent approaches in protein biochemistry and systems biology have revealed that Gab proteins are subject to complex regulation by feed-forward and feedback phosphorylation events as well as protein-protein interactions. Thus, Gab/DOS docking proteins are at the centre of entire signalling subsystems and fulfil an important if not essential role in many physiological processes. Furthermore, aberrant signalling by Gab proteins has been increasingly linked to human diseases from various forms of neoplasia to Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the structure, effector functions, regulation and evolution of the Gab/DOS family. We also summarize recent findings implicating Gab proteins, in particular the Gab2 isoform, in leukaemia, solid tumours and other human diseases. PMID:19737390

  7. Sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas, Utuado, Puerto Rico, January 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2014-01-01

    Lago Dos Bocas reservoir was completed in 1942 to provide water for hydroelectric power generation along the northern coast of Puerto Rico. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters (Mm3). The dam is located about 9 kilometers (km) northeast of the town of Utuado, immediately downstream of the original confluence of the Río Grande de Arecibo and the Río Caonillas (fig. 1). The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) owns and operates the Lago Dos Bocas reservoir, and since 1996, the reservoir has become an essential part of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) North Coast Superaqueduct Project. The Superaqueduct is supplied by controlled releases for hydroelectric power generation that replenish the public-supply raw-water intake pool located about 10 km downstream from the Lago Dos Bocas Dam (fig. 1). As of 2005, the Superaqueduct supplies about 4.03 cubic meters per second (m3/s) (348,192 cubic meters per day [m3/d]) of potable water to communities along the northern coast, from Arecibo to the San Juan metropolitan area. Because of the importance of the reservoir to the North Coast Superaqueduct, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PRASA, conducted a sedimentation survey of Lago Dos Bocas in January 2009. The results of this survey were used to estimate the useful life and the firm yield of the reservoir, and evaluate the need to dredge the reservoir.

  8. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  9. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Programa en Dos Lenguas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludanyi, R. P.; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the "Programa en Dos Lenguas" of Fort Worth, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the linguistic…

  10. Low-Budget, Cost-Effective OCR: Optical Character Recognition for MS-DOS Micros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Discusses optical character recognition (OCR) for use with MS-DOS microcomputers. Cost effectiveness is considered, three types of software approaches to character recognition are explained, hardware and operation requirements are described, possible library applications are discussed, future OCR developments are suggested, and a list of OCR…

  11. Sedimentation History of Lago Dos Bocas, Puerto Rico, 1942-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2007-01-01

    The Lago Dos Bocas Dam, located in the municipality of Utuado in north central Puerto Rico, was constructed in 1942 for hydroelectric power generation. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 37.50 million cubic meters and a drainage area of 440 square kilometers. In 1948, the construction of the Lago Caonillas Dam on the Rio Caonillas branch of Lago Dos Bocas reduced the natural sediment-contributing drainage area to 310 square kilometers; therefore, the Lago Caonillas Dam is considered an effective sediment trap. Sedimentation in Lago Dos Bocas reservoir has reduced the storage capacity from 37.50 million cubic meters in 1942 to 17.26 million cubic meters in 2005, which represents a storage loss of about 54 percent. The long-term annual water-storage capacity loss rate remained nearly constant at about 320,000 cubic meters per year to about 1997. The inter-survey sedimentation rate between 1997 and 1999, however, is higher than the long-term rate at about 1.09 million cubic meters per year. Between 1999 and 2005 the rate is lower than the long-term rate at about 0.13 million cubic meters per year. The Lago Dos Bocas effective sediment-contributing drainage area had an average sediment yield of about 1,400 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1942 and 1997. This rate increased substantially by 1999 to about 4,600 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, probably resulting from the historical magnitude floods caused by Hurricane Georges in 1998. Recent data indicate that the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area sediment yield decreased substantially to about 570 cubic meters per square kilometer per year, which is much lower than the 1942-1997 area normalized sedimentation rate of 1,235 cubic meters per square kilometer per year. The impact of Hurricane Georges on the basin sediment yield could have been the cause of this change, since the magnitude of the floods could have nearly depleted the Lago Dos Bocas drainage area of easily erodible and

  12. Observational Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior, Part II: Validity of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Keenan, Kate; Egger, Helen L.; Cicchetti, Domenic; Burns, James; Carter, Alice S.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to determine whether the multidomain, multicontext Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS) is a valid observational method for assessing disruptive behavior of preschool children. It is concluded that the DB-DOS is a valid method for a direct observational assessment of clinically significant disruptive…

  13. Models that Teach about the Computer: AppleWorks and ProDOS, the Computer's Memory and Disk Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niess, Margaret L.

    1989-01-01

    This final article in a series on creating models for teaching about computer memory and disk storage and retrieval focuses on AppleWorks software and the Professional Disk Operating System (ProDOS). Instructions for creating a paper model of the AppleWorks menu system and the ProDOS disk file are given. (LRW)

  14. 76 FR 25733 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS- 7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program... of 1995. Title of Information Collection: DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program Application. OMB.... Respondents: Applicants for the Academic Exchange Program. Estimated Number of Respondents: 7160 (For...

  15. 76 FR 58074 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS- 7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange Program... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: DOS-Sponsored Academic Exchange..., DS-7005. Respondents: Applicants for the Academic Exchange Program. Estimated Number of...

  16. Effect of modulation frequency bandwidth on measurement accuracy and precision for digital diffuse optical spectroscopy (dDOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Justin; Istfan, Raeef; Roblyer, Darren

    2014-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) frequency-domain Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy (DOS) is an emerging technology with a growing number of potential clinical applications. In an effort to reduce DOS system complexity and improve portability, we recently demonstrated a direct digital sampling method that utilizes digital signal generation and detection as a replacement for more traditional analog methods. In our technique, a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) samples the detected time-domain radio frequency (RF) waveforms at each modulation frequency in a broad-bandwidth sweep (50- 300MHz). While we have shown this method provides comparable results to other DOS technologies, the process is data intensive as digital samples must be stored and processed for each modulation frequency and wavelength. We explore here the effect of reducing the modulation frequency bandwidth on the accuracy and precision of extracted optical properties. To accomplish this, the performance of the digital DOS (dDOS) system was compared to a gold standard network analyzer based DOS system. With a starting frequency of 50MHz, the input signal of the dDOS system was swept to 100, 150, 250, or 300MHz in 4MHz increments and results were compared to full 50-300MHz networkanalyzer DOS measurements. The average errors in extracted μa and μs' with dDOS were lowest for the full 50-300MHz sweep (less than 3%) and were within 3.8% for frequency bandwidths as narrow as 50-150MHz. The errors increased to as much as 9.0% when a bandwidth of 50-100MHz was tested. These results demonstrate the possibility for reduced data collection with dDOS without critical compensation of optical property extraction.

  17. ACONF DOS

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, Stanley; Butler, Paul; Symons, Phlip; & Corey, Garth

    2009-03-25

    ACONF is a system which has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories. ACONF is a system for optimizing the interaction between generator, photovoltaic system, batteries, and load in independent non-grid-tied electrical systems. It is primarily used in rural locations where running utility lines proves costly if it is possible at all. It is controlled by an Ampro PC-104 Coremodule 400 controller system. The code for this system is written in the BASIC programming language. The routine contained in this document was written originally by Phil Symons. ACONF is intended to increase the efficiency of freestanding electrical systems to increase battery life and more efficiently use generator fuel.

  18. ACONF DOS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-03-25

    ACONF is a system which has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories. ACONF is a system for optimizing the interaction between generator, photovoltaic system, batteries, and load in independent non-grid-tied electrical systems. It is primarily used in rural locations where running utility lines proves costly if it is possible at all. It is controlled by an Ampro PC-104 Coremodule 400 controller system. The code for this system is written in the BASIC programming language. Themore » routine contained in this document was written originally by Phil Symons. ACONF is intended to increase the efficiency of freestanding electrical systems to increase battery life and more efficiently use generator fuel.« less

  19. Mitigating DoS Attacks on the Paging Channel by Efficient Encoding in Page Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liang; Maganis, Gabriel; Zang, Hui; Chen, Hao

    Paging is an important mechanism for network bandwidth efficiency and mobile terminal battery life. It has been widely adopted by mobile networks, such as cellular networks, WiMax, and Mobile IP. Due to certain mechanisms for achieving paging efficiency and the convergence of wireless voice and data networks, the paging channel is vulnerable to inexpensive DoS attacks. To mitigate these attacks, we propose to leverage the knowledge of the user population size, the slotted nature of the paging operation, and the quick paging mechanism to reduce the length of terminal identifiers. In the case of a CDMA2000 system, we can reduce each identifier from 34 bits down to 7 bits, effectively doubling the paging channel capacity. Moreover, our scheme incurs no paging latency, missed pages, or false pages. Using a simulator and data collected from a commercial cellular network, we demonstrate that our scheme doubles the cost for DoS attackers.

  20. An alternate hypothesis for the origin of Angra dos Reis - Porphyry, not cumulate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    The Angra dos Reis achondrite is a unique meteorite of potentially great importance for understanding the origins of the solar system and of the terrestrial planets. It is proposed that the meteorite, which consists of megacrysts of Al-Ti augite (fassaite) in skeletal or cellular shapes, olivine, and possibly whitlockite in a fine-grained groundmass of the same materials plus spinel, is a porphyritic igneous rock modified by metamorphism. In this interpretation, the megacrysts represent cellular-textured phenocrysts, and the fine-grain groundmass represents crystallized or devitrified magma. Phase equilibria suggest that Angra dos Reis-like compositions could grow phenocrysts of fassaite pyroxene, olivine, and whitlockite. These same compositions could crystallize, without crystal sorting or accumulation, to an almost monomineralic fassaite pyroxenite.

  1. Perspectivas Futuras para o Observatório do Pico dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Albert

    2004-02-01

    Com o Observatório Gemini plenamente operacional e o telescópio SOAR iniciando suas operações em breve, a astronomia observacional brasileira encontra-se no auge de uma transformação profunda que terá um impacto grave no Observatório do Pico dos Dias - OPD. Refletimos aqui sobre a natureza desse impacto e estratégias para manter a competitividade do OPD. Não queremos apresentar receitas prontas, mas idéias que poderão servir como base de discussão sobre o uso inteligente dos telescópios do OPD como parte do conjunto de instrumentos disponíveis à comunidade astronômica brasileira.

  2. Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittipaldo, M. M.; Jones, R. H.; Shearer, C. K.

    2003-01-01

    The angrites are a small and enigmatic group of basaltic achondrites that possess unique mineralogical and chemical properties. The dominant mineralogy of the seven angrite members (Angra dos Reis, LEW 86010, LEW 87051, Asuka 881371, Sahara 99555, D Orbigny, and a new Moroccan member) is fassaite, olivine, and plagioclase. Angrites display a wide range of thermal histories, with Angra dos Reis (AdoR) exhibiting a cooling history different from that of the rapidly cooled members and from LEW86010, a more slowly cooled member. AdoR could represent either a cumulate or a porphyritic igneous rock that was later altered by metamorphism. We are re-examining the thermal history of AdoR in light of the more recently described angrite members. Our emphasis is a trace element study of low-Ca olivine, which we refer to as olivine, and high-Ca olivine, which we refer to as kirschsteinite, in AdoR.

  3. Reagent-based DOS: developing a diastereoselective methodology to access spirocyclic- and fused heterocyclic ring systems.

    PubMed

    Damerla, V Surendra Babu; Tulluri, Chiranjeevi; Gundla, Rambabu; Naviri, Lava; Adepally, Uma; Iyer, Pravin S; Murthy, Y L N; Prabhakar, Nampally; Sen, Subhabrata

    2012-10-01

    Herein, we report a diversity-oriented-synthesis (DOS) approach for the synthesis of biologically relevant molecular scaffolds. Our methodology enables the facile synthesis of fused N-heterocycles, spirooxoindolones, tetrahydroquinolines, and fused N-heterocycles. The two-step sequence starts with a chiral-bicyclic-lactam-directed enolate-addition/substitution step. This step is followed by a ring-closure onto the built-in scaffold electrophile, thereby leading to stereoselective carbocycle- and spirocycle-formation. We used in silico tools to calibrate our compounds with respect to chemical diversity and selected drug-like properties. We evaluated the biological significance of our scaffolds by screening them in two cancer cell-lines. In summary, our DOS methodology affords new, diverse scaffolds, thereby resulting in compounds that may have significance in medicinal chemistry. PMID:22887684

  4. Distal Hydrogen-bonding Interactions in Ligand Sensing and Signaling by Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosS.

    PubMed

    Basudhar, Debashree; Madrona, Yarrow; Yukl, Erik T; Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; Nishida, Clinton R; Moënne-Loccoz, Pierre; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2016-07-29

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosS is critical for the induction of M. tuberculosis dormancy genes in response to nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), or hypoxia. These environmental stimuli, which are sensed by the DosS heme group, result in autophosphorylation of a DosS His residue, followed by phosphotransfer to an Asp residue of the response regulator DosR. To clarify the mechanism of gaseous ligand recognition and signaling, we investigated the hydrogen-bonding interactions of the iron-bound CO and NO ligands by site-directed mutagenesis of Glu-87 and His-89. Autophosphorylation assays and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Glu-87 has an important role in ligand recognition, whereas His-89 is essential for signal transduction to the kinase domain, a process for which Arg-204 is important. Mutation of Glu-87 to Ala or Gly rendered the protein constitutively active as a kinase, but with lower autophosphorylation activity than the wild-type in the Fe(II) and the Fe(II)-CO states, whereas the E87D mutant had little kinase activity except for the Fe(II)-NO complex. The H89R mutant exhibited attenuated autophosphorylation activity, although the H89A and R204A mutants were inactive as kinases, emphasizing the importance of these residues in communication to the kinase core. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of the wild-type and H89A mutant indicates the mutation does not alter the heme coordination number, spin state, or porphyrin deformation state, but it suggests that interdomain interactions are disrupted by the mutation. Overall, these results confirm the importance of the distal hydrogen-bonding network in ligand recognition and communication to the kinase domain and reveal the sensitivity of the system to subtle differences in the binding of gaseous ligands. PMID:27235395

  5. A Comparison of Three LISP Interpreters for MS-DOS-Based Microcomputers

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Stephen N.; Johannes, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    We report a comparison of three commercially available LISP interpreters running on MS-DOS-based microcomputers. Marked differences were found between the different products' memory addressing abilities, error handling and debugging facilities. Editing tools, tutoring environments, windowing, graphic capabilities, operating system and port call facilities are also contrasted. Speed was tested via a group of LISP functions (benchmarks) that attempt to isolate list manipulation, iteration, function calling, recursion and mathematical calculation performance.

  6. FlexyDos3D: a deformable anthropomorphic 3D radiation dosimeter: radiation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deene, Y.; Skyt, P. S.; Hil, R.; Booth, J. T.

    2015-02-01

    Three dimensional radiation dosimetry has received growing interest with the implementation of highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. The radiotherapy community faces new challenges with the commissioning of image guided and image gated radiotherapy treatments (IGRT) and deformable image registration software. A new three dimensional anthropomorphically shaped flexible dosimeter, further called ‘FlexyDos3D’, has been constructed and a new fast optical scanning method has been implemented that enables scanning of irregular shaped dosimeters. The FlexyDos3D phantom can be actuated and deformed during the actual treatment. FlexyDos3D offers the additional advantage that it is easy to fabricate, is non-toxic and can be molded in an arbitrary shape with high geometrical precision. The dosimeter formulation has been optimized in terms of dose sensitivity. The influence of the casting material and oxygen concentration has also been investigated. The radiophysical properties of this new dosimeter are discussed including stability, spatial integrity, temperature dependence of the dosimeter during radiation, readout and storage, dose rate dependence and tissue equivalence. The first authors Y De Deene and P S Skyt made an equivalent contribution to the experimental work presented in this paper.

  7. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%. PMID:27494411

  8. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks.

    PubMed

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%. PMID:27494411

  9. DevS/DosS sensor is bifunctional and its phosphatase activity precludes aerobic DevR/DosR regulon expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kohinoor; Kumari, Priyanka; Sharma, Saurabh; Sehgal, Snigdha; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-08-01

    Two-component systems, comprising histidine kinases and response regulators, empower bacteria to sense and adapt to diverse environmental stresses. Some histidine kinases are bifunctional; their phosphorylation (kinase) and dephosphorylation (phosphatase) activities toward their cognate response regulators permit the rapid reversal of genetic responses to an environmental stimulus. DevR-DevS/DosR-DosS is one of the best-characterized two-component systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The kinase function of DevS is activated by gaseous stress signals, including hypoxia, resulting in the induction of ~ 48-genes DevR dormancy regulon. Regulon expression is tightly controlled and lack of expression in aerobic Mtb cultures is ascribed to the absence of phosphorylated DevR. Here we show that DevS is a bifunctional sensor and possesses a robust phosphatase activity toward DevR. We used site-specific mutagenesis to generate substitutions in conserved residues in the dimerization and histidine phosphotransfer domain of DevS and determined their role in kinase/phosphatase functions. In vitro and in vivo experiments, including a novel in vivo phosphatase assay, collectively establish that these conserved residues are critical for regulating kinase/phosphatase functions. Our findings establish DevS phosphatase function as an effective control mechanism to block aerobic expression of the DevR dormancy regulon. Asp-396 is essential for both kinase and phosphatase functions, whereas Gln-400 is critical for phosphatase function. The positive and negative functions perform opposing roles in DevS: the kinase function triggers regulon induction under hypoxia, whereas its phosphatase function prevents expression under aerobic conditions. A finely tuned balance in these opposing activities calibrates the dormancy regulon response output. PMID:27327040

  10. El Metodo Llamado Proyecto (The Project Approach). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    A project is an in-depth investigation of a topic worth learning more about, usually undertaken by a group of children within a class. The goal of a project is to learn more about a topic rather than to find answers to questions posed by a teacher. Project work is complementary to the systematic parts of a curriculum. Whereas systematic…

  11. Ensenanza de la Astronomia a Traves de Metodos no Tradicionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H. L.

    1990-11-01

    REUMEN: Se presentan los aspects pri nc ipales de a ense? anza de la astronor:. a para -; s. En esta cc .unicaci #n, 5 ha especial mfasis em Ia descripci':"n de las caracteristicas y las posibi lidades peda gicas de los no tradicionales de aprendiZaje. E' : In the following the principal aspects of teaching of astrono ..y for children) are oresented. In this paper, special emphasis has been given to desc rib the characteristics and pedagogical possibilities of the non traditional methods of learning. : TEACHING

  12. Using 4DOS Batch Files To Create an Infrastructure That Makes It Easy for Students To Create and Maintain HTML Web Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robin M.

    This paper describes the use of simple 4DOS batch files to automate the creation and maintenance of an infrastructure to assist students in creating and maintaining HTML World Wide Web pages. Background is provided on Web pages, DOS, 4DOS, and batch files. The assumptions made in creating the infrastructure are summarized, and program statements…

  13. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  14. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  15. Use of Remote Sensing and Local Knowledge for Geoconservation of Regiao dos Lagos, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelar, S.; Vasconcelos, G.; Mansur, K. L.; Anjos, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    A series of lagoons can be found along the coastline of Rio de Janeiro, in the so-called Regiao dos Lagos. The lagoons differ in size, physicochemical, sedimentological and biological characteristics. Rare examples of litifying microbialites that produce stromatolites, the oldest fossils on Earth, can be found living in this lagoon system. The occurrence of stromatolites in the region is of great scientific interest because it enables the study of possible analogues of the earliest life on Earth. However, this region has been suffering from intense human activities and degradations. Geoconservation planning requires an assessment of the characteristics of the region and its potential threats. The primary goal of this study is to assess physical environmental changes and anthropogenic impacts over the last four decades in Regiao dos Lagos. Using a broad integrative assessment combining remote sensing, GIS, field studies and local knowledge of communities, land-cover and land-use classes were identified, as well as the main human activities impacting the environment. The seasonal and weekend tourism and urban sprawl in this coastal area of Rio de Janeiro triggers the occupation of new areas and the removal of natural vegetation, especially on lagoon margins. This disorderly occupation by an ever increasing population, with both legal and illegal constructions and the subsequent overload of the local infrastructure, e.g. increase of electrical energy consumption, volume of vehicles, pollution in air, water and soil and problems with water supply and wastewater treatment, are hastening the gradual degradation of the lake ecosystem. The main driving forces to environmental changes over the last four decades in Regiao dos Lagos were the change of dense vegetation, saline and bare soil classes into built-up areas, adding to the poor waste treatment and inadequate sewage disposal. This analysis provides a basis for a better control of anthropogenic impacts and

  16. Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra dos Reis achondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.; Hlava, P. F.; Berkley, J. L.; Gomes, C. B.; Curvello, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    The mineral composition of the Angra dos Reis meteorite, which fell in 1869, is described. This achondrite contains phases reported in a meteorite for the first time. Petrofabric analysis shows that fassaite has a preferred orientation and lineation, which is interpreted as being due to cumulus processes, possibly the effect of post-depositional magmatic current flow or laminar flow of a crystalline mush. The mineral chemistry indicates crystallization from a highly silica-undersaturated melt at low pressure. Several aspects of the mineral composition are discussed with reference to the implications of crystallization conditions.

  17. Volcanic and structural controls of mineralization in the Dos Cabezas Mountains of southeastern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Drewes, H.; Klein, D.P.; Birmingham, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    A combination of geophysical, geochemical, and geological features suggests that a central part of the Dos Cabezas Mountains probably has considerable potential for blind deposits, chiefly base metals. The area exposes the root zone of a Paleocene( ) volcanic complex and its underlying granitic stocks, which were emplaced next to a major northwest-trending, much reactivated fault zone. The new data, combined with the knowledge of past mining activity in the area, lead them to propose several exploration targets that may lead to ore bodies in breccia pipes along the base of the volcanic pile and along a possible concealed fault or caldera margin.

  18. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    SciTech Connect

    Lugmair, G.W. ); Galer, S.J.G. Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz )

    1992-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the unique Antarctican angrite LEW-86010 (LEW) are presented, together with a reassessment of the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR). The principal objectives of this study are to obtain precise radiometric ages, initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei {sup 146}Sm and {sup 26}Al via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were also measured. This allows a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the genealogy of, these two angrites.

  19. Reproductive Dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Hélio Augusto Alves; Branco, Joaquim Olinto; Efe, Márcio Amorim

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we intend to describe the reproductive dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea in an island from South Brazil. We studied the reproductive biology of this species in its natural environment and provide data on their growth, survival, and reproductive success in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, South Brazil. Samplings were carried out daily on the island throughout the reproductive seasons of 2003, 2005, and 2006 and the different stages of development of the chicks were characterized according to age, length of the beak, and plumage characteristics. We provide a basic equation Lm = 167.91 (1 − e−0.062t−(−0.23)) to determine the approximate age of individuals using their body mass. The main cause of chick mortality on the island was natural (63.17% in 2003, 81.41% in 2005, and 79.96% in 2006), whereas predation contributed to mortality in a proportion of 38.83% in 2003, 18.59% in 2005, and 20.04% in 2006. The absence in the area of the chicks' main predator, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus), the large number of chicks that reached the final stages of development, and their reproductive success demonstrate that Ilha dos Cardos is an important breeding site for the species in southern Brazil. PMID:24977100

  20. RighTime: A real time clock correcting program for MS-DOS-based computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, G. Thomas

    1993-01-01

    A computer program is described which effectively eliminates the misgivings of the DOS system clock in PC/AT-class computers. RighTime is a small, sophisticated memory-resident program that automatically corrects both the DOS system clock and the hardware 'CMOS' real time clock (RTC) in real time. RighTime learns what corrections are required without operator interaction beyond the occasional accurate time set. Both warm (power on) and cool (power off) errors are corrected, usually yielding better than one part per million accuracy in the typical desktop computer with no additional hardware, and RighTime increases the system clock resolution from approximately 0.0549 second to 0.01 second. Program tools are also available which allow visualization of RighTime's actions, verification of its performance, display of its history log, and which provide data for graphing of the system clock behavior. The program has found application in a wide variety of industries, including astronomy, satellite tracking, communications, broadcasting, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, medicine, and the military.

  1. Dosimetry and Vibration measurements in BIOLAB and EMCS (Dos-ViBE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideström, Johan Olof; Hendrik Anken, Ralf; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Hauslage, Jens; Schuber, Marianne; Fossum, Knut R.; Vanhavere, Filip

    Space irradiation and vibrations in even small dosages can impact biological experiments and have not yet been measured in the biological payloads of the Columbus module at the Interna-tional Space Station (ISS). Installing active dosimeters and accelerometers in the Experiment Containers (EC) of Biolab and the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), to sur-vey in-situ the radiation and vibrations in these facilities, should be performed to serve as a reference of the space conditions to future experiments. To monitor the radiation field, the space radiation should be measured with an active dosime-ter inside the Multi-User-Facilities, as close to the actual shielding conditions of the biological experiments as possible. To measure the full spectrum of vibration frequencies, several instru-ments with different measurement ranges and sensitivity should be combined. The radiation and vibrations should be measured simultaneously in Biolab and EMCS to compare their radiation shielding and sensitivities to vibrations from the ISS. The radiation could also be measured with passive dosimeters. On the one hand this would be a back-up to the active dosimeter and on the other hand it would provide additional data since the passive dosimeters can give additional information on the radiation LET spectrum. As a response to ESA's Announcement of Opportunity (ILSRA-2009), a joint experiment in Biolab and EMCS, entitled Dos-ViBE, was proposed by the co-authors. The objectives and experimental flow of Dos-ViBE are outlined in this presentation.

  2. Quality control and assurance for validation of DOS/I measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerussi, Albert; Durkin, Amanda; Kwong, Richard; Quang, Timothy; Hill, Brian; Tromberg, Bruce J.; MacKinnon, Nick; Mantulin, William W.

    2010-02-01

    Ongoing multi-center clinical trials are crucial for Biophotonics to gain acceptance in medical imaging. In these trials, quality control (QC) and assurance (QA) are key to success and provide "data insurance". Quality control and assurance deal with standardization, validation, and compliance of procedures, materials and instrumentation. Specifically, QC/QA involves systematic assessment of testing materials, instrumentation performance, standard operating procedures, data logging, analysis, and reporting. QC and QA are important for FDA accreditation and acceptance by the clinical community. Our Biophotonics research in the Network for Translational Research in Optical Imaging (NTROI) program for breast cancer characterization focuses on QA/QC issues primarily related to the broadband Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging (DOS/I) instrumentation, because this is an emerging technology with limited standardized QC/QA in place. In the multi-center trial environment, we implement QA/QC procedures: 1. Standardize and validate calibration standards and procedures. (DOS/I technology requires both frequency domain and spectral calibration procedures using tissue simulating phantoms and reflectance standards, respectively.) 2. Standardize and validate data acquisition, processing and visualization (optimize instrument software-EZDOS; centralize data processing) 3. Monitor, catalog and maintain instrument performance (document performance; modularize maintenance; integrate new technology) 4. Standardize and coordinate trial data entry (from individual sites) into centralized database 5. Monitor, audit and communicate all research procedures (database, teleconferences, training sessions) between participants ensuring "calibration". This manuscript describes our ongoing efforts, successes and challenges implementing these strategies.

  3. Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, G.; Wu, M.; Sherman, D.R.; Hol, W.G.J.

    2009-05-26

    The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one-third of the world's population. Here, we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected ({beta}{alpha}){sub 4} topology instead of the canonical ({beta}{alpha}){sub 5} fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation that contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix {alpha}10, which allows Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix {alpha}10 residues, different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism.

  4. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 10(17)-10(21)/(cm(3)·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications. PMID:27297030

  5. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-06-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 1017–1021/(cm3·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications.

  6. DOS-HEATING6: A general conduction code with nuclear heat generation derived from DOT-IV transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L.; Yuecel, A.; Nadkarny, S.

    1988-05-01

    The HEATING6 heat conduction code is modified to (a) read the multigroup particle fluxes from a two-dimensional DOT-IV neutron- photon transport calculation, (b) interpolate the fluxes from the DOT-IV variable (optional) mesh to the HEATING6 control volume mesh, and (c) fold the interpolated fluxes with kerma factors to obtain a nuclear heating source for the heat conduction equation. The modified HEATING6 is placed as a module in the ORNL discrete ordinates system (DOS), and has been renamed DOS-HEATING6. DOS-HEATING6 provides the capability for determining temperature distributions due to nuclear heating in complex, multi-dimensional systems. All of the original capabilities of HEATING6 are retained for the nuclear heating calculation; e.g., generalized boundary conditions (convective, radiative, finned, fixed temperature or heat flux), temperature and space dependent thermal properties, steady-state or transient analysis, general geometry description, etc. The numerical techniques used in the code are reviewed and the user input instructions and JCL to perform DOS-HEATING6 calculations are presented. Finally a sample problem involving coupled DOT-IV and DOS-HEATING6 calculations of a complex space-reactor configurations described, and the input and output of the calculations are listed. 10 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. A Direct Method to Extract Transient Sub-Gap Density of State (DOS) Based on Dual Gate Pulse Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mingzhi; Khan, Karim; Zhang, Shengnan; Jiang, Kemin; Zhang, Xingye; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Lingyan; Cao, Hongtao; Wang, Pengjun; Wang, Peng; Miao, Lijing; Qin, Haiming; Jiang, Jun; Xue, Lixin; Chu, Junhao

    2016-01-01

    Sub-gap density of states (DOS) is a key parameter to impact the electrical characteristics of semiconductor materials-based transistors in integrated circuits. Previously, spectroscopy methodologies for DOS extractions include the static methods, temperature dependent spectroscopy and photonic spectroscopy. However, they might involve lots of assumptions, calculations, temperature or optical impacts into the intrinsic distribution of DOS along the bandgap of the materials. A direct and simpler method is developed to extract the DOS distribution from amorphous oxide-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on Dual gate pulse spectroscopy (GPS), introducing less extrinsic factors such as temperature and laborious numerical mathematical analysis than conventional methods. From this direct measurement, the sub-gap DOS distribution shows a peak value on the band-gap edge and in the order of 1017–1021/(cm3·eV), which is consistent with the previous results. The results could be described with the model involving both Gaussian and exponential components. This tool is useful as a diagnostics for the electrical properties of oxide materials and this study will benefit their modeling and improvement of the electrical properties and thus broaden their applications. PMID:27297030

  8. The Secret List of Dos and Don'ts for Filmmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, N.

    2012-12-01

    Science is a massive black box to billions of people who walk the streets. However, the process of filmmaking can be equally as mystifying. As with the development of many scientific experiments, the process starts on a napkin at a restaurant…but then what? The road to scientific publication is propelled by a canonical list of several dos and don't that fit most situations. An equally useful list exists for up-and-coming producers. The list streamlines efforts, optimizes your use of the tools at your fingertips and enhances impact. Many fundamentals can be learned from books, but during this talk we will project and discuss several examples of best practices, from honing a story, to identifying audience appeal, filming, editing and the secrets of inexpensively acquiring expert help. Whether your goal is a two-minute webisode or a 90 minute documentary, these time-tested practices, with a little awareness, can give life to your films.;

  9. Estudio dinámico de un potencial perturbador dependiente de dos parámetros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O.; Brunini, A.

    El objeto del presente trabajo consiste en el estudio dinámico de un sistema dinámico caracterizado por la función hamiltoniana correspondiente a un satélite planetario perturbado por la acción del Sol y del achatamiento del planeta madre. Cuando dicha Hamiltoniana se promedia respecto de los términos de corto período, esta queda con dos grados de libertad, y su estudio puede ser realizado con las herramientas clásicas de la dinámica no-lineal. Se tratará de determinar regiones regulares y caóticas de movimiento. En el caso de estas últimas, es de particular interés la determinación de su orígen.

  10. An MS-DOS-based program for analyzing plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhter, W.D.; Buckley, W.M.

    1989-09-07

    A plutonium gamma-ray analysis system that operates on MS-DOS-based computers has been developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra for plutonium isotopics. The program titled IAEAPU consists of three separate applications: a data-transfer application for transferring spectral data from a CICERO multichannel analyzer to a binary data file, a data-analysis application to analyze plutonium gamma-ray spectra, for plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percents of total plutonium, and a data-quality assurance application to check spectral data for proper data-acquisition setup and performance. Volume 3 contains the software listings for these applications.

  11. On securing wireless sensor network--novel authentication scheme against DOS attacks.

    PubMed

    Raja, K Nirmal; Beno, M Marsaline

    2014-10-01

    Wireless sensor networks are generally deployed for collecting data from various environments. Several applications specific sensor network cryptography algorithms have been proposed in research. However WSN's has many constrictions, including low computation capability, less memory, limited energy resources, vulnerability to physical capture, which enforce unique security challenges needs to make a lot of improvements. This paper presents a novel security mechanism and algorithm for wireless sensor network security and also an application of this algorithm. The proposed scheme is given to strong authentication against Denial of Service Attacks (DOS). The scheme is simulated using network simulator2 (NS2). Then this scheme is analyzed based on the network packet delivery ratio and found that throughput has improved. PMID:25106827

  12. Age and isotopic relationships among the angrites Lewis Cliff 86010 and Angra dos Reis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugmair, G. W.; Galer, S. J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents results of a wide-ranging isotopic investigation of the the Antarctic angrite LEW-86010 (LEW), and reassesses the type angrite Angra dos Reis (ADOR) in order to obtain precise radiometric ages and initial Sr isotopic compositions, and to search for the erstwhile presence of the short-lived nuclei Sm-146 and Al-26 via their daughter products. The isotopic compositions of Sm, U, Ca, and Ti were measured to allow a detailed appraisal to be made of the relations between, and the geneology of, these two angrites. LEW proves to be severely contaminated with modern terrestrial Pb, which is shown to result from terrestrial weathering. Concordant Pb-Pb model ages of pyroxene separates are obtained; uranium isotopic compositions are normal within error. Overall, striking age and isotopic similarities between LEW and ADOR were found, suggesting almost simultaneous production on the same asteroid, even though recent experimental studies imply that the two are not comagmatic.

  13. Cell cycle-dependent deposition of CENP-A requires the Dos1/2-Cdc20 complex.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marlyn; He, Haijin; Sun, Siyu; Li, Chen; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Centromeric histone CENP-A, a variant of canonical histone H3, plays a central role in proper chromosome segregation. Loading of CENP-A at centromeres is cell cycle-regulated: parental CENP-A is deposited at centromeres during S phase, whereas newly synthesized CENP-A is deposited during later stages of the cell cycle. The mechanisms involved in deposition of CENP-A at centromeres during S phase remain poorly understood. In fission yeast, loading of CENP-A during S phase is regulated by the GATA-type factor, Ams2. Here we show that the Dos1/2-Cdc20 complex, previously characterized as a silencing complex essential for inheritance of H3K9 methylation during S phase, is also required for localization of CENP-A(cnp1) at centromeres at this stage. Disruption of Dos1 (also known as Raf1/Clr8/Cmc1), Dos2 (also known as Raf2/Clr7/Cmc2), or Cdc20, a DNA polymerase epsilon subunit, results in dissociation of CENP-A from centromeres and mislocalization of the protein to noncentromeric sites. All three mutants display spindle disorganization and mitotic defects. Inactivation of Dos1 or Cdc20 also results in accumulation of noncoding RNA transcripts from centromeric cores, a feature common to mutants affecting kinetochore integrity. We further find that Dos1 physically associates with Ams2 and is required for the association of Ams2 with centromeric cores during S phase. Finally, we show that Dos2 associates with centromeric cores during S phase and that its recruitment to centromeric cores depends on Cdc20. This study identifies a physical link between DNA replication and CENP-A assembly machinery and provides mechanistic insight into how CENP-A is faithfully inherited during S phase. PMID:23267073

  14. Cell cycle-dependent deposition of CENP-A requires the Dos1/2–Cdc20 complex

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Marlyn; He, Haijin; Sun, Siyu; Li, Chen; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Centromeric histone CENP-A, a variant of canonical histone H3, plays a central role in proper chromosome segregation. Loading of CENP-A at centromeres is cell cycle-regulated: parental CENP-A is deposited at centromeres during S phase, whereas newly synthesized CENP-A is deposited during later stages of the cell cycle. The mechanisms involved in deposition of CENP-A at centromeres during S phase remain poorly understood. In fission yeast, loading of CENP-A during S phase is regulated by the GATA-type factor, Ams2. Here we show that the Dos1/2-Cdc20 complex, previously characterized as a silencing complex essential for inheritance of H3K9 methylation during S phase, is also required for localization of CENP-Acnp1 at centromeres at this stage. Disruption of Dos1 (also known as Raf1/Clr8/Cmc1), Dos2 (also known as Raf2/Clr7/Cmc2), or Cdc20, a DNA polymerase epsilon subunit, results in dissociation of CENP-A from centromeres and mislocalization of the protein to noncentromeric sites. All three mutants display spindle disorganization and mitotic defects. Inactivation of Dos1 or Cdc20 also results in accumulation of noncoding RNA transcripts from centromeric cores, a feature common to mutants affecting kinetochore integrity. We further find that Dos1 physically associates with Ams2 and is required for the association of Ams2 with centromeric cores during S phase. Finally, we show that Dos2 associates with centromeric cores during S phase and that its recruitment to centromeric cores depends on Cdc20. This study identifies a physical link between DNA replication and CENP-A assembly machinery and provides mechanistic insight into how CENP-A is faithfully inherited during S phase. PMID:23267073

  15. Open Cluster Radial Velocity determination from observations at Observatório Pico Dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, M. A. F.; Monteiro, H.; Dias, W. S.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2014-10-01

    In studies of the dynamics of the Galactic disk, such as the determination of the speed of the spiral pattern and the permanence of stars in the spiral arms, it is crucial to know orbits obtained from proper motions, radial velocities and the potential of the Galaxy. Aiming to improve the statistics of our catalog of open clusters, maintained by our research group, we determined the radial velocity of stars belonging to a group of open clusters using spectra with a resolution of 4000, obtained at the Pico dos Dias Observatory (LNA) with the 1.60 m telescope and the Coudé spectrograph. We observed the open cluster's member stars and calculated their radial speeds using standard techniques. The stars were selected from our own database based on relevant information concerning the clusters, obtained by statistical analysis of their proper motions and/or their position in the HR's diagram. In this work, we present the detailed analysis of the data reduction and radial velocity determination using synthetic spectra from different libraries. Finally we present the open cluster's radial (and spacial) velocities.

  16. Hydra: a C-language environment for real-time DOS multitasking at the bedside.

    PubMed

    DeGaetano, A; Coleman, W P; Pizzi, R; Tomasella, E; Castagneto, M; Greco, A V

    1993-10-01

    Patient monitoring at the bedside is an inherently parallel job, best handled by multiple individual tasks running concurrently. Cost and diffusion considerations strongly favor the use of PC's at the bedside, but their most widespread operating system, DOS, is not built for multitasking. Hence, a software platform in C language has been prepared, allowing the intermediate programmer to easily write independent modules which will then run simultaneously without conflicts. Such a platform aims at allowing effortless sharing of data among concurrently running processes, while providing strong insulation between tasks, enough to allow multiple copies of any one task to run simultaneously unknown to each other. A cooperative, memory sharing multitasking paradigm has been chosen, which offers fine granularity of timeslicing and low execution overhead at the price of some loss in generality of design. Speed, data exchange capability and number of stackable windows are greater than with commercial packages like Windows or LabWindows. Dynamical reprioritization of tasks is built in, allowing the computerized monitor to focus its attention and resources on urgent tasks. PMID:8254227

  17. Buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios subdivision, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report presents a plan for water quality monitoring at the Dos Rios subdivision (Units 2, 3, and the Island Unit) that is intended to satisfy the informational needs of residents who live southwest (downgradient) of the former Gunnison processing site. Water quality monitoring activities described in this report are designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of previous uranium milling operations. Requirements presented in this monitoring plan are also included in the water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) for the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The Gunnison WSAP is a site-specific document prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that provides background, guidance, and justification for future ground water sampling and analysis activities for the UMTRA Project Gunnison processing and disposal sites. The WSAP will be updated annually, as additional water quality data are collected and interpreted, to provide ongoing protection for public health and the environment.

  18. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-05-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources. PMID:26270219

  19. Urano y sus dos satélites irregulares recientemente descubiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Hasta hace poco tiempo, Urano era el único de los Planetas Gigantes que no poseía satélites irregulares. Esto lo diferenciaba del resto de los planetas Gigantes, al igual que la peculiar oblicuidad de su eje de spin. La gran inclinación de su eje de rotación se debe probablemente a una colisión que sufrió el planeta con otro embrión planetario al final del proceso de formación. Esta colisión habría desligado satélites exteriores preexistentes del planeta. Recientemente se han descubierto dos satélites irregulares de Urano, lo que introduce algunas nuevas cotas y condiciones en el escenario de la "Hipótesis de la Gran Colisión" . Los satélites irregulares de Urano tuvieron que ser capturados en una etapa posterior a la del escenario de la Gran Colisión, de no ser así, hubieran sido eyectados del sistema por el impulso impartido con ese gran impacto. En este trabajo, se discuten los posibles mecanismos de captura de los satélites irregulares y se presenta un nuevo posible mecanismo para dicha captura.

  20. Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the tectonic setting of Serra dos Carajas belt, eastern Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olszewski, W. J., Jr.; Gibbs, A. K.; Wirth, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The lower part of the Serra dos Carajas belt is the metavolcanic and metasedimentary Grao para Group (GPG). The GPG is thought to unconformably overlie the older (but undated) Xingu Complex, composed of medium and high-grade gneisses and amphibolite and greenstone belts. The geochemical data indicate that the GPG has many features in common with ancient and modern volcanic suites erupted through continental crust. The mafic rocks clearly differ from those of most Archean greenstone belts, and modern MORB, IAB, and hot-spot basalts. The geological, geochemical, and isotopic data are all consistent with deposition on continental crust, presumably in a marine basin formed by crustal extension. The isotopic data also suggest the existence of depleted mantle as a source for the parent magmas of the GPG. The overall results suggest a tectonic environment, igneous sources, and petrogenesis similar to many modern continental extensional basins, in contrast to most Archean greenstone belts. The Hammersley basin in Australia and the circum-Superior belts in Canada may be suitable Archean and Proterozoic analogues, respectively.

  1. ECHARPE: a fiber-fed echelle spectrograph for the Pico dos Dias Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, Tania P.; Castilho, Bruno; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Macanhan, Vanessa B. P.; de Arruda, Marcio V.; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Melendez, Jorge; Vaz, Luiz P. R.; Corradi, Wagner J. B.; Franco, Gabriel A. P.; do Nascimento, Jose D.; Quast, Germano R.; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.

    2012-09-01

    At least during the last ten years, the Brazilian astronomical community has been asking for an echelle spectrograph for the 1.6 m telescope installed at Pico dos Dias Observatory (Brazópolis, MG, Brazil, OPD/MCTI/LNA). Among the scientific cases are topics related to the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, asteroseismology, chemical composition and chromospheric activities of solar type stars and the relations between solar analogues and terrestrial planets. During 2009 the project finally got started. The called ECHARPE spectrograph (Espectrógrafo ECHelle de Alta Resolução para o telescópio Perkin-Elmer) is being projected to offer a spectral resolution of R ~ 50000, in the range 390-900 nm and with a single exposition. It will be a bench spectrograph with two channels: blue and red, fed by two optical fibers (object, sky or calibration) with aperture of 1.5 or 2.0 arcseconds. The instrument will be placed in one of the telescope pillar ramification, in the originals installations of a Coudé spectrograph and in a specially created environment controlled room. In this work we will present the scientific motivations, the conceptual optical design, the expected performance of the spectrograph, and the status of its development. ECHARPE is expected to be delivered to the astronomical community in 2014, fully prepared and optimized for remote operations.

  2. Geology, hydrology, and water quality of the Tracy-Dos Palos area, San Joaquin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, W.R.; Balding, G.O.

    1971-01-01

    The Tracy-Dos Palos area includes about 1,800 square miles on the northwest side of the San Joaquin Valley. The Tulare Formation of Pliocene and Pleistocene age, terrace deposits of Pleistocene age, and alluvium and flood-basin deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age constitute the fresh ground-water reservoir Pre-Tertiary and Tertiary sedimentary and crystalline rocks, undifferentiated, underlie the valley and yield saline water. Hydrologically most important, the Tulare Formation is divided into a lower water-bearing zone confined by the Corcoran Clay Member and an upper zone that is confined, semiconfined, and unconfined in different parts of the area. Alluvium and flood-basin deposits are included in the upper zone. Surficial alluvium and flood-basin deposits contain a shallow water-bearing zone. Lower zone wells were flowing in 1908, but subsequent irrigation development caused head declines and land subsidence. Overdraft in both zones ended in 1951 with import of surface water. Bicarbonate water flows into the area from the Sierra Nevada and Diablo Range. Diablo Range water is higher in sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Upper zone water averages between 400 and 1,200 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids and water hardness generally exceeds 180 mg/l as calcium carbonate. Nitrate, fluoride, iron, and boron occur in excessive concentrations in water from some wells. Dissolved constituents in lower zone water generally are sodium chloride and sodium sulfate with higher dissolved solids concentration than water from the upper zone. The foothills of the Diablo Range provide favorable conditions for artificial recharge, but shallow water problems plague about 50 percent of the area and artificial recharge is undesirable at this time.

  3. Lessons Learned from Sleep Education in Schools: A Review of Dos and Don'ts

    PubMed Central

    Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep duration and quality are associated with negative neuropsychological and psychosocial outcomes in children and adolescents. However, community awareness of this is low and sleep education programs in schools are attempting to address this issue. Several studies now exist assessing the efficacy of these sleep education programs for improving sleep knowledge, sleep hygiene and sleep patterns. This paper presents these sleep education programs, most particularly, it presents the strengths and weaknesses of the current available studies in the hope that this can identify areas where future sleep education programs can improve. Methods: A systematic search of all school-based sleep education studies in adolescents was undertaken. Studies were scrutinized for author, teacher and participant comment regarding strengths and limitations of each study, which were then extracted and summarized. Results: Two specific types of sleep education programs emerged from the review, those that sought to change sleep behavior and those that sought simply to disseminate information. Issues that dictated the strength or weakness of a particular study including who delivers the program, the theoretical basis, the tools utilized to measure sleep patterns, the content, and their capacity to engage students were assessed. Sleep education was considered important by teachers, students and parents alike. Conclusions: Future sleep education programs need to take into account lessons learned from previous sleep education efforts in order to maximize the potential for sleep education programs to improve the sleep health of our young people. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 595. Citation: Blunden S, Rigney G. Lessons learned from sleep education in schools: a review of dos and don'ts. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):671–680. PMID:25766709

  4. Video movie making using remote procedure calls and 4BSD Unix sockets on Unix, UNICOS, and MS-DOS systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.W.; Johnston, W.E.; Hall, D.E.; Rosenblum, M.

    1990-03-01

    We describe the use of the Sun Remote Procedure Call and Unix socket interprocess communication mechanisms to provide the network transport for a distributed, client-server based, image handling system. Clients run under Unix or UNICOS and servers run under Unix or MS-DOS. The use of remote procedure calls across local or wide-area networks to make video movies is addressed.

  5. Research on a Denial of Service (DoS) Detection System Based on Global Interdependent Behaviors in a Sensor Network Environment

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-gu; Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seo, Dong Il; Kim, Seoksoo

    2010-01-01

    This research suggests a Denial of Service (DoS) detection method based on the collection of interdependent behavior data in a sensor network environment. In order to collect the interdependent behavior data, we use a base station to analyze traffic and behaviors among nodes and introduce methods of detecting changes in the environment with precursor symptoms. The study presents a DoS Detection System based on Global Interdependent Behaviors and shows the result of detecting a sensor carrying out DoS attacks through the test-bed. PMID:22163475

  6. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  7. Ligand dynamics and early signaling events in the heme domain of the sensor protein Dos from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taku; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Liebl, Ursula; Vos, Marten H

    2008-01-25

    In the heme-based sensor Dos from Escherichia coli, the ferrous heme is coordinated by His-77 and Met-95. The latter residue is replaced upon oxygen binding or oxidation of the heme. Here we investigate the early signaling processes upon dissociation of the distal ligand using ultrafast spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis. Geminate CO rebinding to the heme domain DosH appears insensitive to replacement of Met-95, in agreement with the notion that this residue is oriented out of the heme pocket in the presence of external ligands. A uniquely slow 35-ps phase in rebinding of the flexible methionine side chain after dissociation from ferrous DosH is completely abolished in rebinding of the more rigid histidine side chain in the M95H mutant protein, where only the 7-ps phase, common to all 6-coordinate heme proteins, is observed. Temperature-dependence studies indicate that all rebinding of internal and external ligands is essentially barrierless, but that CfigsO escape from the heme pocket is an activated process. Solvent viscosity studies combined with molecular dynamics simulations show that there are two configurations in the ferrous 6-coordinate protein, involving two isomers of the Met-95 side chain, of which the structural changes extend to the solvent-exposed backbone, which is part of the flexible FG loop. One of these configurations has considerable motional freedom in the Met-95-dissociated state. We suggest that this configuration corresponds to an early signaling intermediate state, is responsible for the slow rebinding, and allows small ligands in the protein to efficiently compete for binding with the heme. PMID:18039668

  8. Rare earth elements in Angra dos Reis and Lewis Cliff 86010, two meteorites with similar but distinct magma evolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mckay, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented on ion microprobe measurements of REE and selected trace element abundances in individual grains of merrillite, fassaite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and plagioclase of Lewis Cliff 86010 (LEW 86010) meteorite and in merrillite and fassaite grains of Angra dos Reis (ADOR). Results show a close relationship between the two meteorites and support a magmatic origin for LEW 86010. However, the measurements indicate that, despite numerous common characteristics, the two meteorites must have been produced in separate magmatic events involving similar but distinct processes and parent melts.

  9. Supporting Security against SYN Flooding Attack in Distributed DoS Via Measuring IPFIX-Based Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, H.; Kia, M. Kashefi; Esmaeili, M.

    Distributed denial-of-service attacks on public servers after 2000 have become a serious problem. In the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks often seen recently, multiple distributed nodes concurrently attack a single server. To assure that network services will not be interrupted, faster and more effective defense mechanisms is needed to protect against malicious traffic, especially SYN floods. One problem in detecting SYN flood traffic is that server nodes or firewalls cannot distinguish the SYN packets of normal TCP connections from those of a SYN flood attack. Our method, FDFIX, relies on the use of monitoring and measurement techniques to evaluate the impact of DoS attacks. It uses flow based measurements. Capturing flow information is very important for detecting DoS and also other kinds of attacks. Flow monitoring allows detecting suspicious traffics and in the next step can analyze attacking flows and the results can be used for defense methods. Our method provides required information for many mechanisms that use traffic measurement as their input.

  10. Didelphidae marsupials (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia) from the late Pleistocene deposit of the Gruta dos Moura Cave, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nova, Patricia Villa; Avilla, Leonardo S; Oliveira, Édison V

    2015-03-01

    The present study acknowledges the diversity of fossil marsupials from the Gruta dos Moura cave, as well as environmental and climatic aspects during the Quaternary. The results show that this is the largest diversity of Pleistocene marsupials recorded in a single cave: Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus agilis, G. microtarsus, Marmosa murina, Monodelphis brevicaudata, M. domestica and Sairadelphys tocantinensis. Furthermore, the described specimens are also part of the only fossil assemblage unequivocally referable to the late Pleistocene. Paleontological studies suggest an intimate association with dry and open environments with high abundance of water sources. Since most of the identified taxa are characteristic of open forests and gallery forests, this could represent the actual environment around the Gruta dos Moura cave. Recent studies identified sympatric occurrences between species from open and dry environments and species from humid forests that were identified among our material and are characteristic of humid regions. Therefore, these species could inhabit gallery forests and capons, or even ecotones, inside a dry and open environment. Moreover, the extinction of Sairadelphys could also indicate that the climatic and environmental conditions changed or that the past environment was more heterogeneous than the current environment of the region. PMID:25806985

  11. Perfil de temperatura dos funis magnetosféricos de estrelas T Tauri com aquecimento alfvênico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas T Tauri Clássicas são objetos jovens circundados por discos de gás e poeira e que apresentam uma intensa atividade magnética. Seu espectro mostra linhas de emissão alargadas que são razoavelmente reproduzidas nos modelos de acresção magnetosférica. No entanto, o perfil de temperatura dos funis magnéticos é desconhecido. Aquecimento magnético compressional e difusão ambipolar foram considerados para estas estruturas, porém as temperaturas obtidas não são suficientes para explicar as observações. Neste trabalho, examinamos o aquecimento gerado pelo amortecimento de ondas Alfvén através de quatro mecanismos, os amortecimentos não-linear, turbulento, viscoso-resistivo e colisional como função da freqüência da onda. Inicialmente, a temperatura é ajustada para reproduzir as observações e o grau de turbulência requerido para que o mecanismo seja viável é calculado. Os resultados mostram que este é compatível com os dados observacionais. Apresentam-se, também, resultados preliminares do cálculo auto-consistente do perfil de temperatura dos funis, levando-se em conta fontes de aquecimento Alfvênica e fontes de resfriamento.

  12. A PIXE Study of Trace Elements in Sediments of Toledo River, Parana, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Hellen C.; Rizzutto, Marcia; Added, Nemitala; Espinoza-Quinones, Fernando

    2009-06-03

    In this work we characterize sediment samples from several points in the River Toledo--PR, using the PIXE (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) spectroscopy technique, in order to quantify trace elements in these samples aiming to provide information about pollution levels for trace elements. The samples were collected in six points of river, during a period of twelve months (12/2001 to 11/2002). The collected material was air-dried at room temperature and then pressed in pellets. The samples were irradiated under vacuum using a H beam of 2,39 MeV in the LAMFI (Laboratorio de Analises de Materials por Feixe Ionico). Produced x-rays were detected using a Si(Li) detector and a standard electronics. Using the Axil program to analyze PIXE spectra it was possible to identify and quantify some elements present in the samples. A multi-elemental referenced material (Buffalo River sediment--RM 8704) was used to validate the PIXE analysis with thick targets. Twelve months of monitoring of six river points were analyzed and these allowed us to identify 18 elements such as Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr e Pb. The following elements were monitored: V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn e Pb.

  13. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 in Parana State, Brazil: case report, viral isolation, and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Ernesto Renato; Penha, Tania Regina; Stoffelo, Daura Regina Eira; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Ribeiro, Magda Costa; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a member of Gammaherpesvirinae sub-family and belongs to genus Rhadinovirus . This virus has been associated with different clinical manifestations and research activity has put forward a strong correlation among virus infection, postpartum metritis, and abortion. The goal of this work was to characterize a virus strain isolate from a cow's uterine outflow. From swabs drawn of uterine secretion, a virus strain was isolated and characterized by its cytopathology, morphology, and molecular biology approaches. In culture there was CPE development, characterized mainly by long strands with several small balloons along them, radiated from infected cells. Electron microscopy analysis revealed virus particles that had icosahedrical capsid symmetry surrounded by a loose envelope, typical of a herpesvirus. A 2,571 bp PCR product after Hind III digestion generated four fragments, whose base pair composition were 403, 420, 535, and 1,125 bp. Restriction enzymes Hind III and Bam HI generated the expected diagnostic bands as well as a 2,350 bp hypermolar fragment as a result of Bam HI treatment to demonstrate that agent was a bovine herpesvirus 4, appertaining to DN-599 group. PMID:26221118

  14. Characterizing silicic rocks in the Parana Magmatic Province: an update in their origin and emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchetti, A. F.; Nardy, A. R.; Machado, F. B.; Gravley, D. M.; Gualda, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Paraná Magmatic Province (PMP), a large igneous province in southern Brazil (with correlative rocks in western Africa), includes 800,000 km3 of flood basalts generated during the rifting that ultimately led to the opening of the South Atlantic and covers nearly 75% of the surface of the Paraná Basin. Towards the top of the volcanic pile, silicic rocks are observed in many areas. They comprise a small proportion of the total erupted volume (2.5%), yet correspond to a significant flare-up of silicic volcanism over a period of only a few million years. In Brazil, the silicic rocks are divided into two groups, the Chapecó Member, which appears more northerly and includes porphyritic, crystal-rich, high-Ti dacites and trachydacites; and the Palmas Member, which includes fine-grained, crystal-poor, low-Ti dacites and rhyolites. The mode of emplacement (lavas vs. pyroclastic flows) of the volcanic units has been the subject of much controversy. The aim of this project is to better understand the origin and evolution of the PMP silicic rocks. We are combining information from the regional to the thin section scale to better characterize eruption dynamics and magma distribution prior to eruption. In both Palmas and Chapecó units, we observe features consistent with emplacement in the form of pyroclastic density currents, e.g. fiamme, variable weathering patterns consistent with local variations in welding at the outcrop scale, vertical gas-escape structures, sedimentary dykes, and lythophysae. Some ignimbrite units can be traced for 10's of kilometers and with more research on their spatial distribution could reveal the location of eruptive centers. In the Palmas, ignimbrites can be observed juxtaposed against or overlying discrete eruptive centers in the form of discordant structures that resemble domes and coulees typical of lava extrusion and flow. However, many of the silicic rocks are ambiguous and difficult to characterize, with features that could be related to either lava flows or high-grade rheomorphic ignimbrites. Ongoing work is focused on detailed characterization of contrasting rock types on the thin section scale, including determination of crystal size distributions and mineral and glass compositions - particularly in fiamme - with the goal of better constraining the conditions of crystallization prior to and during eruption and deposition. In addition, more fieldwork is proposed to gain a better understanding of the regional architecture of the silicic ignimbrite/lava stratigraphy to unravel volcano-tectonic processes and identify likely volcanic sources.

  15. Aphidophagous Parasitoids can Forage Wheat Crops Before Aphid Infestation, Parana State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ceolin Bortolotto, Orcial; de Oliveira Menezes Júnior, Ayres; Thibes Hoshino, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids are common in Brazilian wheat fields, and parasitize aphids at the wheat tillering stage. However, there is little information available about when this natural enemy occurs in wheat crops. This study investigated the initial occurrence of aphid parasitoids in four commercial wheat crops in northern Paraná during the 2009 crop season. We installed two Malaise traps at each wheat farm, and 400 tillers were assessed weekly in each field for aphid abundance. During this study, we captured 4,355 aphid parasitoids and 197 aphids. Three species of braconid parasitoids were identified, including Aphidius colemani (Viereck 1912), Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson 1880), and Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh 1855). The aphids species identified were Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus 1758) and Sitobion avenae (Fabricius 1775). This study showed that aphid parasitoids are present in wheat crops even when aphid densities are low, and in one farm, occurred before the aphids colonization. These reports can justified the high efficiency of these natural enemies against aphids in wheat fields. PMID:25843593

  16. Artificial maturation of oil shale: The Irati Formation from the Parana Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayer, James L.

    Oil shale samples from the Irati Formation in Brazil were evaluated from an outcrop block, denoted Block 003. The goals of this thesis include: 1) Characterizing the Irati Formation, 2) Comparing the effects of two different types of pyrolysis, anhydrous and hydrous, and 3) Utilizing a variety of geophysical experiments to determine the changes associated with each type of pyrolysis. Primary work included determining total organic carbon, source rock analysis, mineralogy, computer tomography x-ray scans, and scanning electron microscope images before and after pyrolysis, as well as acoustic properties of the samples during pyrolysis. Two types of pyrolysis (hydrous and anhydrous) were performed on samples cored at three different orientations (0°, 45°, and 90°) with respect to the axis of symmetry, requiring six total experiments. During pyrolysis, the overall effective pressure was maintained at 800 psi, and the holding temperature was 365°C. The changes and deformation in the hydrous pyrolysis samples were greater compared to the anhydrous pyrolysis. The velocities gave the best indication of changes occurring during pyrolysis, but it was difficult to maintain the same amplitude and quality of waveforms at higher temperatures. The velocity changes were due to a combination of factors, including thermal deformation of the samples, fracture porosity development, and the release of adsorbed water and bitumen from the sample. Anhydrous pyrolysis in this study did not reduce TOC, while TOC was reduced due to hydrous pyrolysis by 5%, and velocities in the hydrous pyrolysis decreased by up to 30% at 365°C compared to room temperature. Data from this study and future data that can be acquired with the improved high-temperature, high-pressure experiment will assist in future economic production from oil shale at lower temperatures under hydrous pyrolysis conditions.

  17. Cytogenetic analysis of two locariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from Iguatemi River (Parana River drainage) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Alves, Diandra Soares; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fishes of the Loricariidae family, known as “cascudos”, constitute an endemic group in Neotropical freshwaters. In this study, were cytogenetically examined two species of Loricariidae (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 and Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864) belonging to Hypostominae and Loricariinae subfamilies respectively) from Iguatemi River. Our study provide the first description regarding C-band and fluorochromic analysis in Farlowella amazonum. In Farlowella amazonum, diploid number was 58 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric regions of some chromosomes and large subtelomeric blocks were evidenced on the long arm of the pair 27, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The Pterygoplichthys anisitsi showed diploid number equal 52 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous large telomeric blocks on the long arm of the pair 10, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The results show that karyotype formula is nonconservative in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi and Farlowella amazonum. PMID:25893075

  18. Spontaneous poisoning by Hovenia dulcis in dairy cattle in Southwest Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Fabricio; Possa, Marina Gabriela; Faccin, Mayane; Gruchouskei, Leonardo; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Pípole, Fernando; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Elias, Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Livestock poisoning by plants is a frequent occurrence which determines severe losses, such as the fall in the milk and meat production, the cost of expensive treatments, the state of immunosuppression, or even the animal's death. Cattle ingest toxic plants only when there is food shortage, when they cannot select what they eat, or when they ingest food for preference, which is the case of Hovenia dulcis fruits, very rich in sucrose. This plant is widely distributed in the southern and southeastern Brazilian regions. In literature, there are some cases of severe human liver injury associated with a long-term of H. dulcis leaf and fruit tea intake, and only one report regarding spontaneous poisoning of goats caused by this plant ingestion. However, its toxic effects associated with spontaneous ingestion by cattle have never been reported. This paper reports the first case of spontaneous poisoning in cattle by H. dulcis, which occurred in a dairy farm in southwest Paraná, Brazil. Three cattle individuals showed anorexia, ruminal atony, severe diarrhea and neurological tournament, head pressing, blindness, ataxia, and circling. The necropsy of the animals was done, and the remaining alterations were restricted to the digestive system and brain. The clinical signs presented by the animals are characteristic of polioencephalomalacia (PEM), caused by changes in the thiamine metabolism. Furthermore, clinical signs, gross, and microscopic lesions as well as the large amount of the plant throughout the digestive segment led to a diagnosis. PMID:26415955

  19. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW Gondwana, we suggest that the basin fill was derived from paleohighs located in what is currently SE Uruguay.

  20. PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State. PMID:24213193

  1. Bovine Herpesvirus 4 in Parana State, Brazil: case report, viral isolation, and molecular identification

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Ernesto Renato; Penha, Tania Regina; Stoffelo, Daura Regina Eira; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Ribeiro, Magda Costa; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2015-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is a member of Gammaherpesvirinae sub-family and belongs to genus Rhadinovirus . This virus has been associated with different clinical manifestations and research activity has put forward a strong correlation among virus infection, postpartum metritis, and abortion. The goal of this work was to characterize a virus strain isolate from a cow’s uterine outflow. From swabs drawn of uterine secretion, a virus strain was isolated and characterized by its cytopathology, morphology, and molecular biology approaches. In culture there was CPE development, characterized mainly by long strands with several small balloons along them, radiated from infected cells. Electron microscopy analysis revealed virus particles that had icosahedrical capsid symmetry surrounded by a loose envelope, typical of a herpesvirus. A 2,571 bp PCR product after Hind III digestion generated four fragments, whose base pair composition were 403, 420, 535, and 1,125 bp. Restriction enzymes Hind III and Bam HI generated the expected diagnostic bands as well as a 2,350 bp hypermolar fragment as a result of Bam HI treatment to demonstrate that agent was a bovine herpesvirus 4, appertaining to DN-599 group. PMID:26221118

  2. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts. PMID:26529894

  3. NGC 2287: Un cúmulo abierto rico en binarias espectroscópicas de dos espectros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, H.; Malaroda, S.; García, B.; Grosso, M.

    NGC 2287 contiene 100 estrellas con buena fotometría y 40 con tipos MK. En 1979 Levato et al., usando la técnica de la clasificación espectral, descubrieron que la mayoría de las estrellas en el rango B8-A0 eran binarias espectroscópicas con una inusual proporción de binarias con dos espectros. El presente proyecto tuvo el propósito de confirmar la naturaleza binaria de los miembros del cúmulo. Hemos obtenido espectros con resolución 14000 de 15 estrellas clasificadas como binarias. Los espectros, que abarcan la región λ 3500-λ 6000 Å, permitieron confirmar la naturaleza binaria de varias de las estrellas en la muestra. Hacemos notar el considerable interés astrofísico de este cúmulo abierto.

  4. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbo, Fausto E; Gasparini, João Luiz; Almeida, Antonio P; Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe G; Gusmão, Rodrigo B; Ferrarini, José Mário G; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    A new insular species of the genus Bothrops is described from Ilha dos Franceses, a small island off the coast of Espírito Santo State, in southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from mainland populations of B. jararaca mainly by its small size, relative longer tail, relative smaller head length, and relative larger eyes. The new species is distinguished from B. alcatraz, B. insularis and B. otavioi by the higher number of ventral and subcaudal scales, relative longer tail and smaller head. The new species is highly abundant on the island, being nocturnal, semiarboreal, and feeding on small lizards and centipeds. Due its unique and restricted area of occurrence, declining quality of habitat, and constant use of the island for tourism, the new species may be considered as critically endangered. PMID:27394563

  5. Observações no âmbito dos "additional programs" do satélite COROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    O satélite Fraco-europeu COROT fará fotometria de altissima precisão (pretende-se atingir uma parte em um milhão), grande campo (3x3 graus) e por longos períodos, de duas regiões pré-determinadas do céu, com 10 graus de raio. Suas finalidades básicas serão estudos em sismologia estelar e a procura de exoplanetas. A comunidade astronômica brasileira participará dessa missão espacial, com direitos iguais aos dos parceiros europeus. Isso se deve a que o satélite utilizará a estação de recepção de dados de Natal (INPE), 5 a 6 brasileiros participarão das equipes de software e cientistas do país atuarão na fase de pré-lançamento. Apresentamos nesta comunicação sugestões para a preparação de propostas de observações com COROT, no âmbito dos Programas Adicionais, que contemplam outros projetos que não de sismologia ou exoplanetas. As últimas definições técnicas e decisões tomadas na 4th Corot Week de junho último serão igualmente apresentadas, em particular quanto às regiões de observação escolhidas e quanto aos procedimentos a seguir para se propor observações.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR is Required for Activity of the PmbtB and PmbtI Promoters under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Schreuder, Lise J.; Parish, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the ability to survive for extended periods of time under conditions of low oxygen, low pH, low iron and low nutrients. The mycobactins (M. tuberculosis siderophores) play a key role in scavenging iron from the environment and are induced in response to low iron in an IdeR-regulated manner. We demonstrate that the promoters of two mycobactin gene (mbt) operons are also expressed during adaptation to low oxygen, and that this expression is dependent on the DosR regulator. Up-regulation of mbt operons induced by low iron was not DosR-dependent. DosR is a member of a two component regulatory system which responds to oxygen availability. Deletion of the DosR regulator led to increased expression of bacterioferritin and increased capacity to grow under iron depletion. These data provide a link between the mycobacterial response to two conditions likely to be encountered in vivo, low iron and low oxygen. PMID:25211224

  7. Dynamics of the T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis DosR and Rpf antigens in a Colombian population of household contacts of recently diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Leonar; Rojas, Mauricio; Ortíz, Blanca L; Franken, Kees L M C; García, Luis F; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Barrera, Luis F

    2016-03-01

    Immune response to DosR and Rpf antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) seems to be important for latency maintenance. Little is known about the dynamics of the immune response to these antigens in an endemic community. Thus, the IFNγ response and cytokine production in response to PPD, Esat6-Cfp10 (E6-C10), DosR and Rpf antigens in healthy HHC of tuberculosis (TB) patients over a 12 (T12) months period (short-term, stLTBI) was investigated. This response was compared with a group of LTBI, who have remained healthy for 5-7 years (long-term, ltLTBI). According to the IFNγ response, two groups of HHCs were identified in stLTBI in response to E6-C10. At T12, E6-C10(+) HHCs displayed a decrease in the IFNγ levels and a generalized decrease in cytokines production. The E6-C10(-) HHC showed an increase in the IFNγ response and cytokine levels. In stLTBI, the responses to E6-C10, DosR, and Rpf may be interpreted as a protective immune response controlling Mtb infection and may be leading to a state of latent infection. Comparing the response of stLTBI and ltLTBI, we observed significant changes in the proportions of CD45RO(+)CD27(+) T cells to specific DosR and Rpf, which may indicate a persistent immune response to Mtb antigens in ltLTBI. PMID:26980501

  8. Immunogenicity of Novel DosR Regulon-Encoded Candidate Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Three High-Burden Populations in Africa▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Black, Gillian F.; Thiel, Bonnie A.; Ota, Martin O.; Parida, Shreemanta K.; Adegbola, Richard; Boom, W. Henry; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.; Friggen, Annemiek H.; Hill, Philip C.; Klein, Michel R.; Lalor, Maeve K.; Mayanja, Harriet; Schoolnik, Gary; Stanley, Kim; Weldingh, Karin; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing knowledge about DosR regulon-encoded proteins has led us to produce novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens for immunogenicity testing in human populations in three countries in Africa to which tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A total of 131 tuberculin skin test-positive and/or ESAT-6/CFP10-positive, human immunodeficiency virus-negative adult household contacts of active pulmonary TB cases from South Africa (n = 56), The Gambia (n = 26), and Uganda (n = 49) were tested for gamma interferon responses to 7 classical and 51 DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis recombinant protein antigens. ESAT-6/CFP10 fusion protein evoked responses in >75% of study participants in all three countries. Of the DosR regulon-encoded antigens tested, Rv1733c was the most commonly recognized by participants from both South Africa and Uganda and the third most commonly recognized antigen in The Gambia. The four most frequently recognized DosR regulon-encoded antigens in Uganda (Rv1733c, Rv0081, Rv1735c, and Rv1737c) included the three most immunogenic antigens in South Africa. In contrast, Rv3131 induced the highest percentage of responders in Gambian contacts (38%), compared to only 3.4% of Ugandan contacts and no South African contacts. Appreciable percentages of TB contacts with a high likelihood of latent M. tuberculosis infection responded to several novel DosR regulon-encoded M. tuberculosis proteins. In addition to significant similarities in antigen recognition profiles between the three African population groups, there were also disparities, which may stem from genetic differences between both pathogen and host populations. Our findings have implications for the selection of potential TB vaccine candidates and for determining biosignatures of latent M. tuberculosis infection, active TB disease, and protective immunity. PMID:19553548

  9. Activation of ATP binding for the autophosphorylation of DosS, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis histidine kinase lacking an ATP lid motif.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ha Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Bae, Young-Seuk; Kim, Eungbin; Kang, Beom Sik

    2013-05-01

    The sensor histidine kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DosS and DosT, are responsible for sensing hypoxic conditions and consist of sensor and kinase cores responsible for accepting signals and phosphorylation activity, respectively. The kinase core contains a dimerization and histidine phosphate-accepting (DHp) domain and an ATP binding domain (ABD). The 13 histidine kinase genes of M. tuberculosis can be grouped based on the presence or absence of the ATP lid motif and F box (elements known to play roles in ATP binding) in their ABDs; DosS and DosT have ABDs lacking both these elements, and the crystal structures of their ABDs indicated that they were unsuitable for ATP binding, as a short loop covers the putative ATP binding site. Although the ABD alone cannot bind ATP, the kinase core is functional in autophosphorylation. Appropriate spatial arrangement of the ABD and DHp domain within the kinase core is required for both autophosphorylation and ATP binding. An ionic interaction between Arg(440) in the DHp domain and Glu(537) in the short loop of the ABD is available and may open the ATP binding site, by repositioning the short loop away from the site. Mutations at Arg(440) and Glu(537) reduce autophosphorylation activity. Unlike other histidine kinases containing an ATP lid, which protects bound ATP, DosS is unable to accept ATP until the ABD is properly positioned relative to the histidine; this may prevent unexpected ATP reactions. ATP binding can, therefore, function as a control mechanism for histidine kinase activity. PMID:23486471

  10. MprA and DosR coregulate a Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence operon encoding Rv1813c and Rv1812c.

    PubMed

    Bretl, Daniel J; He, Hongjun; Demetriadou, Crystalla; White, Mark J; Penoske, Renee M; Salzman, Nita H; Zahrt, Thomas C

    2012-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a significant global pathogen, causing extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide. This bacterium persists within granulomatous lesions in a poorly characterized, nonreplicating state. The two-component signal transduction systems MprAB and DosRS-DosT (DevRS-Rv2027c) are responsive to conditions likely to be present within granulomatous lesions and mediate aspects of M. tuberculosis persistence in vitro and in vivo. Here, we describe a previously uncharacterized locus, Rv1813c-Rv1812c, that is coregulated by both MprA and DosR. We demonstrate that MprA and DosR bind to adjacent and overlapping sequences within the promoter region of Rv1813c and direct transcription from an initiation site located several hundred base pairs upstream of the Rv1813 translation start site. We further show that Rv1813c and Rv1812c are cotranscribed, and that the genomic organization of this operon is specific to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis. Although Rv1813c is not required for survival of M. tuberculosis in vitro, including under conditions in which MprAB and DosRST signaling are activated, an M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant is attenuated in the low-dose aerosol model of murine tuberculosis, where it exhibits a lower bacterial burden, delayed time to death, and decreased ability to stimulate proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-12. Interestingly, overcomplementation of these phenotypes is observed in the M. tuberculosis ΔRv1813c mutant expressing both Rv1813c and Rv1812c, but not Rv1813c alone, in trans. Therefore, Rv1813c and Rv1812c may represent general stress-responsive elements that are necessary for aspects of M. tuberculosis virulence and the host immune response to infection. PMID:22689819

  11. Power-efficiency trade-off due to density of states (DOS) distortion in a molecular thermoelectric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desouza, Priyanka; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2013-03-01

    The issue of how a distortion in the electronic DOS affects nanoscale thermoelectric performance is addressed within an ``electrical engineering'' perspective. This view point is based on the direct evaluation of the overall efficiency and power from device current-voltage characteristics and gives a more complete picture of the thermoelectric performance in comparison to the traditional ``figure of merit'' based material science approach. We use representative examples from molecular conduction to study the trade-off between maximum efficiency and the maximum power generated within the set up. The trade-off is maximum for the well known example of a sharply resonant molecular level which represents the ultimate distortion in the electronic density of states. As the distortion is reduced via contact induced broadening, we obtain a smaller trade-off between maximum power and efficiency. We then present the effects of self consistent charging, contact induced asymmetry and the HOMO-LUMO gap on the thermoelectric performance. In all cases we compare our non-equilibrium calculations with zT calculations, and our results depict that zT is not the sole metric for the assessment of nanoscale thermoelectric performance.

  12. Dos Amigos... (Two Friends...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Rosalie M.

    Intended for supplementary reading material for Spanish speaking children in elementary grades, this illustrated Spanish text was developed by students in the Bilingual Teacher Aide Program at Mesa Community College. Both language and content have been controlled to provide linguistically and culturally sensitive material relevant to the…

  13. En la búsqueda de características en eyecciones coronales de masa que discriminen entre dos paradigmas físicos en modelos de ECMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paissan, G.; Stenborg, G.; Rovira, M.

    Se conocen tres diferentes fenómenos de gran escala que ocurren en la atmósfera solar, denominados eyecciones coronales de masa (ECMs), protuberancias eruptivas y grandes fulguraciones de dos bandas. Estos fenómenos están estrechamente relacionados y podrían ser distintas manifestaciones de un único proceso físico. Las ECMs son definidas como eyecciones de gran escala de masa y flujo magnético desde la baja corona al espacio interplanetario. Desde su descubrimiento en los '70, muchos modelos han sido propuestos para explicar su origen y evolución. La explicación física de las ECMs es un tema de debate intenso. No obstante, los modelos pueden sintetizarse en dos grandes grupos: 1) los modelos de inyección de flujo y 2) los modelos de almacenamiento y liberación. En este trabajo, se presentan los estudios realizados con una serie de eventos observados con el coronógrafo MICA (Mirror Coronograph for Argentina), el telescopio en H-alfa HASTA (H-alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina) y los coronógrafos C2 y C3 de la sonda SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory). Los eventos que pudieron ser identificados como ECMs son contrastados dentro del esquema de los dos paradigmas teóricos propuestos.

  14. Exposure pathways to HCH and DDT in Cidade dos Meninos and its surrounding districts of Amapa, Figueiras and Pilar, metropolitan regions of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Ogenis M; Franco, Robson

    2006-06-01

    In 1989, the Rio de Janeiro State environmental agency (FEEMA) after a preliminary survey of the site known as Cidade dos Meninos, collected and disposed in a safe area tons of a pesticide that was spread in and around the ruins of an old hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) factory. The aim of this article is three-fold: (i) To investigate the existing HCH and DDT contamination levels in soil, water, air, vegetables and grasses at the Cidade dos Meninos site and the surrounding districts of Amapa, Figueiras and Pilar; (ii) To identify the main environmental exposure pathways present in the study area, and (iii) To propose a health hazard classification for this area. The results showed the presence of high levels of total HCH and DDT in the environmental media samples, especially in those collected in the district Cidade dos Meninos. This district is also the one that produces more food (vegetables, milk and meat) for local and outside population. The environmental data correlated to the socio-economic, food diet and local health conditions led to the identification of four complete exposure pathways to HCH and DDT (surface soil, access road, food chain and ambient air). Using the ATSDR (1996) and Magalhães (2000) criteria the site was classified in two public health hazard categories: Category II - hazard for public health, and category III - indeterminate hazard for public health. PMID:16611565

  15. La pronunciacion espanola y los metodos de investigacion. (Spanish Pronunciation and Methods of Investigation.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torreblanca, Maximo

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the validity of studies of Spanish pronunciation in terms of research methods employed. Topics include data collection in the laboratory vs. in a natural setting; recorded vs. non-recorded data; quality of the recording; aural analysis vs. spectrographic analysis; and transcriber reliability. Suggestions for improving data collection are…

  16. Problemi e di Fisica e Astronomia ed il metodo di Gerberto docente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2015-04-01

    Teaching Physics and Astronomy to pupils of 14-19 years old requires nowadays a continuous upgrade of knowledge as well as a capacity of selecting topics. The art of presenting arguments made Gerbert the teacher Rogatus a Pluribus in the end of X century and it is still actual; the proposed series of problems wants to link everyday experiences with the mathematical models of the phenomena, to allow the prediction and explanation of the experimental data. These problems of Physics and Astronomy are “observation oriented”, as the method of Gerbert was to start from the experience to get the theory, and not viceversa. Physics is much more than an “applied Algebra”. In the dispute of Ravenna (980) between Gerbert and Otric from Magdeburg, the primacy of Physics with respect to Mathematics was discussed. In the Italian secondary technical schools there are laboratory activities, while there is nothing similar for Lyceums and for the Astronomy teaching which is limited to a series of notions to be learned without any kind of observation; considered too difficult in polluted skyes.

  17. Influência da presença de endossimbionte em Brevipalpus phoenicis na aquisição e transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A leprose dos citros destaca-se como uma fitovirose de grande impacto econômico e ambiental à citricultura, elevando o custo de produção para o controle do vetor B. phoenicis. É conhecido que a presença de endossimbiontes do gênero Cardinium em ácaros Brevipalpus spp. causa a feminilização dos ácaro...

  18. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  19. Ultrafast ligand rebinding in the heme domain of the oxygen sensors FixL and Dos: general regulatory implications for heme-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Ursula; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Negrerie, Michel; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H

    2002-10-01

    Heme-based oxygen sensors are part of ligand-specific two-component regulatory systems, which have both a relatively low oxygen affinity and a low oxygen-binding rate. To get insight into the dynamical aspects underlying these features and the ligand specificity of the signal transduction from the heme sensor domain, we used femtosecond spectroscopy to study ligand dynamics in the heme domains of the oxygen sensors FixL from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (FixLH) and Dos from Escherichia coli (DosH). The heme coordination with different ligands and the corresponding ground-state heme spectra of FixLH are similar to myoglobin (Mb). After photodissociation, the excited-state properties and ligand-rebinding kinetics are qualitatively similar for FixLH and Mb for CO and NO as ligands. In contrast to Mb, the transient spectra of FixLH after photodissociation of ligands are distorted compared with the ground-state difference spectra, indicating differences in the heme environment with respect to the unliganded state. This distortion is particularly marked for O(2). Strikingly, heme-O(2) recombination occurs with efficiency unprecedented for heme proteins, in approximately 5 ps for approximately 90% of the dissociated O(2). For DosH-O(2), which shows 60% sequence similarity to FixLH, but where signal detection and transmission presumably are quite different, a similarly fast recombination was found with an even higher yield. Altogether these results indicate that in these sensors the heme pocket acts as a ligand-specific trap. The general implications for the functioning of heme-based ligand sensors are discussed in the light of recent studies on heme-based NO and CO sensors. PMID:12271121

  20. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  1. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam

  2. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor

  3. PREMIUM ENERGY FOR LACTEC INSTITUTE FOR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT LACTEC R&D DPT. CURITIBA, STATE OF PARANA. BRAZIL

    SciTech Connect

    Silvio Vedovatto

    2003-12-31

    On April 2002 a 200KW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Power Plant. was installed at LACTEC Institute For Technology Development, Research and Development facilities. The power plant installed at LACTEC site is the second of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. Its presence, not only contributed to the creation of a Fuel Cell Stationary Power market for Brazil and the rest of the region, but increased the knowledge about fuel cell technology, and marked the point of entry as a reference for the education of a new generation of applied scientists. On its first year the power plant has operated 8,558 hours achieving an availability factor of 97% and supplying 730.50MWh of premium energy. As a second regional experience with fuel cell technology, we expect this report about LACTEC PACFC power plant performance, applications and cost-benefit evaluation will provide relevant information for future regional investments on this technology.

  4. New field evidence for silicic ignimbrites and proximal lavas and their distribution in the Parana Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramontano, S.; Harmon, L. J.; Gravley, D. M.; Gualda, G. A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Silicic ignimbrites and lavas are sometimes very difficult to distinguish from one another in the field. Their accurate identification provides the basis for a better understanding of the origin of these deposits, including processes related to magma extraction, fragmentation and eruption style. We are studying the silicic volcanics in the Paraná Rift Basin in southern Brazil (the ~130 to 135 Ma Palmas member of the Serra Geral Formation), the counterpart to the Etendeka silicic volcanics in Africa. We present new field evidence for the identification of tabular-shaped ignimbrite-like packages, which contrast with dome-shaped proximal viscous lavas and domes. The tabular-shaped packages are highly welded and devitrified, but primary feldspar and pyroxene crystals can still be identified in outcrops. Flow/cooling unit boundaries can be seen at outcrop scale as well as at the kilometer scale where successive flat-topped terraces have been cut into the volcanic landscape. These packages bear conspicuous swarms of vesicle-poor black lens-shaped features set in a light colored matrix. The lenses range in their aspect ratio (2D height vs. length) and can be > 2 m long. Horizontal jointing is superimposed on the black lens-bearing outcrops and their spacing appears to coincide with the aspect ratio of the lenses, i.e. thinner lenses have a narrower joint spacing. Locally wider lenses grade down into completely stretched and/or flattened lenses that resemble conventional flow banding. We interpret these tabular packages as ignimbrites and the vesicle-poor black lenses as juvenile magma blobs (distinct from typical pumice or fiamme). A notably different flow-banded, irregularly deformed, and sometimes obsidian-bearing lithology appears in a number of locations. It supports topography characterized by rolling hills that contrasts markedly with the tilted plateaus supported by ignimbrites. The difference in morphology between ignimbrites and lavas is most readily observed in the north-south trending southern Brazil escarpment, where up to ~700 m of tabular-shaped packages are juxtaposed against domical features. Future work will include detailing the genetic relationships between these two different lithologies, as well as the study of the magmatic conditions that led to their eruption.

  5. Genotoxic evaluation of the River Paranaíba hydrographic basin in Monte Carmelo, MG, Brazil, by the Tradescantia micronucleus

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Carlos F.; Pereira, Boscolli B.; de Campos-Junior, Edimar O.; Sousa, Eduardo F.; Souto, Henrique N.; Morelli, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pollutants have adverse effects on human health and on other organisms that inhabit or use water resources. The aim of the present study was to assess the environmental quality of three watercourses in Monte Carmelo, MG, Brazil, using the micronucleus test on Tradescantia. For each treatment, 15 plants were exposed to water samples for 24 h. The control group was exposed to formaldehyde (0.2%) and the negative control to Hoagland solution. Subsequently the plants were placed in Hoagland solution for 24 h to recover. Cells were stained with 2% acetic carmine and examined by light microscopy. Three hundred tetrads were analyzed per slide. The frequency of genotoxic alterations was expressed as the number of micronuclei per 100 tetrads, and the groups were compared by ANOVA. At all sample sites for each watercourse significant genotoxicity indices were observed. The results suggest that in the Mumbuca creek, the current situation of effluent discharge should be reconsidered by the municipal environmental authorities. The increase in micronucleus frequency denoted for water samples of the Mumbuca creek, Lambari river and Perdizes river emphasizes the need to adopt environmental vigilance strategies, such as biological monitoring. PMID:26692158

  6. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for the petrogenesis and emplacement tectonics of the Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the Ribeira belt, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; McReath, Ian; Peucat, Jean Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is a NE-SW-trending elongated body that occupies ca. 5000 km2 in plan view. It is a foliated intrusion, especially at its borders and is crosscut by syn-magmatic shear zones, with foliations that are moderately-to steeply-dipping to the northwest and moderately-to shallow-dipping in the center and to the southeast, in a configuration of a large laccolith. It was emplaced between 560 and 570 Ma, during an extensional episode that was part of a series of events that comprise the Brasiliano Orogeny in SE Brazil, and which includes deformation, metamorphism and granite intrusion during the interval between 630 and 480 Ma. The two main rock types in the batholith are biotite-hornblende monzogranite, and biotite leucogranite, with subordinate tonalite, granodiorite, diorite, quartz diorite (enclaves), aplite and pegmatite. Harker-type diagrams help show two rock groups with similar trends of evolution: a dioritic and a granitic. The first one is tholeiitic, whereas the second is calc-alkaline, with medium-to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous character. In both groups strong decrease in Al2O3, MgO, FeOT and CaO relative to silica contents are observed, which is compatible with trends of fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and/or hornblende, plagioclase, opaque minerals, apatite, microcline and biotite. The Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest recycling of a Paleoproterozoic crust as an important petrological process to generate the batholith rocks. Geothermometry (amphibole composition) and geobarometry (saturation in zircon and apatite) indicate that most of the batholith solidified at mid to lower crustal levels at about 750 °C and between 5 and 5.5 kbar. We consider that Serra dos Órgãos crustal protoliths underwent melting caused by the interaction with hotter mafic magma at the base of the crust. These two magmas, with distinct initial

  7. Geology and geochemistry of Pelagatos, Cerro del Agua, and Dos Cerros monogenetic volcanoes in the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, south of México City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustín-Flores, Javier; Siebe, Claus; Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-04-01

    This study focuses on the geology and geochemistry of three closely-spaced monogenetic volcanoes that are located in the NE sector of the Sierra Chichinautzin Volcanic Field near México City. Pelagatos (3020 m.a.s.l.) is a small scoria cone (0.0017 km 3) with lava flows (0.036 km 3) that covered an area of 4.9 km 2. Cerro del Agua scoria cone (3480 m.a.s.l., 0.028 km 3) produced several lava flows (0.24 km 3) covering an area of 17.6 km 2. Dos Cerros is a lava shield which covers an area of 80.3 km 2 and is crowned by two scoria cones: Tezpomayo (3080 m.a.s.l., 0.022 km 3) and La Ninfa (3000 m.a.s.l., 0.032 km 3). The eruptions of Cerro del Agua and Pelagatos occurred between 2500 and 14,000 yr BP. The Dos Cerros eruption took place close to 14,000 yr BP as constrained by radiocarbon dating. Rocks from these three volcanoes are olivine-hypersthene normative basaltic andesites and andesites with porphyritic, aphanitic, and glomeroporphyritic textures. Their mineral assemblages include olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene phenocrysts (≤ 10 vol.%) embedded in a trachytic groundmass which consists mainly of plagioclase microlites and glass. Pelagatos rocks also present quartz xenocrysts. Due to their high Cr and Ni contents, and high Mg#s, Pelagatos rocks are considered to be derived from primitive magmas, hence the importance of this volcano for understanding petrogenetic processes in this region. Major and trace element abundances and petrography of products from these volcanoes indicate a certain degree of crystal fractionation during ascent to the surface. However, the magmas that formed the volcanoes evolved independently from each other and are not cogenetically related. REE, HFSE, LILE, and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions point towards a heterogeneous mantle source that has been metasomatized by aqueous/melt phases from the subducted Cocos slab. There is no clear evidence of important crustal contributions in the compositions of Pelagatos and

  8. Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS).

    PubMed

    Du, Yongming; Liu, Gefei; Yan, Yinxia; Huang, Dongyang; Luo, Wenhong; Martinkova, Marketa; Man, Petr; Shimizu, Toru

    2013-10-01

    The heme-based oxygen-sensor phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS), is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound oxygen sensing domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Oxygen (O2) binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in Ec DOS substantially enhances catalysis. Addition of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to the heme Fe(III) complex in Ec DOS also remarkably stimulates catalysis in part due to the heme Fe(III)-SH and heme Fe(II)-O2 complexes formed by H2S. In this study, we examined the roles of the heme distal amino acids, M95 (the axial ligand of the heme Fe(II) complex) and R97 (the O2 binding site in the heme Fe(II)-O2 complex) of the isolated heme-binding domain of Ec DOS (Ec DOS-PAS) in the binding of H2S under aerobic conditions. Interestingly, R97A and R97I mutant proteins formed an oxygen-incorporated modified heme, verdoheme, following addition of H2S combined with H2O2 generated by the reactions. Time-dependent mass spectroscopic data corroborated the findings. In contrast, H2S did not interact with the heme Fe(III) complex of M95H and R97E mutants. Thus, M95 and/or R97 on the heme distal side in Ec DOS-PAS significantly contribute to the interaction of H2S with the Fe(III) heme complex and also to the modification of the heme Fe(III) complex with reactive oxygen species. Importantly, mutations of the O2 binding site of the heme protein converted its function from oxygen sensor to that of a heme oxygenase. This study establishes the novel role of H2S in modifying the heme iron complex to form verdoheme with the aid of reactive oxygen species. PMID:23736976

  9. A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR/DosR Dormancy Regulator Activation Mechanism: Dispensability of Phosphorylation, Cooperativity and Essentiality of α10 Helix

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Saurabh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-01-01

    DevR/DosR is a well-characterized regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is implicated in various processes ranging from dormancy/persistence to drug tolerance. DevR induces the expression of an ~48-gene dormancy regulon in response to gaseous stresses, including hypoxia. Strains of the Beijing lineage constitutively express this regulon, which may confer upon them a significant advantage, since they would be ‘pre-adapted’ to the environmental stresses that predominate during infection. Aerobic DevR regulon expression in laboratory-manipulated overexpression strains is also reported. In both instances, the need for an inducing signal is bypassed. While a phosphorylation-mediated conformational change in DevR was proposed as the activation mechanism under hypoxia, the mechanism underlying constitutive expression is not understood. Because DevR is implicated in bacterial dormancy/persistence and is a promising drug target, it is relevant to resolve the mechanistic puzzle of hypoxic activation on one hand and constitutive expression under ‘non-inducing’ conditions on the other. Here, an overexpression strategy was employed to elucidate the DevR activation mechanism. Using a panel of kinase and transcription factor mutants, we establish that DevR, upon overexpression, circumvents DevS/DosT sensor kinase-mediated or small molecule phosphodonor-dependent activation, and also cooperativity-mediated effects, which are key aspects of hypoxic activation mechanism. However, overexpression failed to rescue the defect of C-terminal-truncated DevR lacking the α10 helix, establishing the α10 helix as an indispensable component of DevR activation mechanism. We propose that aerobic overexpression of DevR likely increases the concentration of α10 helix-mediated active dimer species to above the threshold level, as during hypoxia, and enables regulon expression. This advance in the understanding of DevR activation mechanism clarifies a long standing question as to

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis DevR/DosR Dormancy Regulator Activation Mechanism: Dispensability of Phosphorylation, Cooperativity and Essentiality of α10 Helix.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2016-01-01

    DevR/DosR is a well-characterized regulator in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is implicated in various processes ranging from dormancy/persistence to drug tolerance. DevR induces the expression of an ~48-gene dormancy regulon in response to gaseous stresses, including hypoxia. Strains of the Beijing lineage constitutively express this regulon, which may confer upon them a significant advantage, since they would be 'pre-adapted' to the environmental stresses that predominate during infection. Aerobic DevR regulon expression in laboratory-manipulated overexpression strains is also reported. In both instances, the need for an inducing signal is bypassed. While a phosphorylation-mediated conformational change in DevR was proposed as the activation mechanism under hypoxia, the mechanism underlying constitutive expression is not understood. Because DevR is implicated in bacterial dormancy/persistence and is a promising drug target, it is relevant to resolve the mechanistic puzzle of hypoxic activation on one hand and constitutive expression under 'non-inducing' conditions on the other. Here, an overexpression strategy was employed to elucidate the DevR activation mechanism. Using a panel of kinase and transcription factor mutants, we establish that DevR, upon overexpression, circumvents DevS/DosT sensor kinase-mediated or small molecule phosphodonor-dependent activation, and also cooperativity-mediated effects, which are key aspects of hypoxic activation mechanism. However, overexpression failed to rescue the defect of C-terminal-truncated DevR lacking the α10 helix, establishing the α10 helix as an indispensable component of DevR activation mechanism. We propose that aerobic overexpression of DevR likely increases the concentration of α10 helix-mediated active dimer species to above the threshold level, as during hypoxia, and enables regulon expression. This advance in the understanding of DevR activation mechanism clarifies a long standing question as to the

  12. The ethnocategory ''insect'' in the conception of the inhabitants of Tapera County, São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Neto, Eraldo M; Magalhães, Henrique F

    2007-06-01

    This article deals with the construction of the "insect" ethnozoological dominium by the inhabitants of Tapera County, which is located in the municipality of São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia State. Data were obtained from March to May 2005 through open-ended interviews carried out with 23 men and 8 women, whose ages ranged from 6 to 66 years old. Interviewees were asked about how they perceived and defined the animals considered as "insects", which types they knew, and if they used them as food resource. Most of the interviews were tape-recorded, and semi-literal transcriptions are kept at the Ethnobiology Laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Considering the ethnozoological classification system of the inhabitants of Tapera, the term "insect" is a broad semantic category that brings together animals of different and not systematically related taxonomic groups. Apparently, these animals are culturally perceived and categorized as "insects" because they are usually considered as noxious, disgusting, and disease carrier creatures. True insects can be excluded from this ethnocategory due to the perception people have that such animals do not cause "injuries" or because they are useful. Perceptions toward these animals imply ambiguous behavior and feelings, which range from more positive attitudes (conservative) to more negative (destructive). PMID:17625679

  13. ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF PHLEBOTOMINES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) IN AN AREA OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS OCCURRENCE, MUNICIPALITY OF ANGRA DOS REIS, COAST OF RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Aguiar, Gustavo Marins; de Azevedo, Alfredo Carlos Rodrigues; de Medeiros, Wagner Muniz; Alves, João Ricardo Carreira; Rendeiro, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Over a complete two-year period, phlebotomine specimens were caught in an area of cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence in the municipality of Angra dos Reis. A manual suction tube was used to catch phlebotomines on house walls, and also light traps in domestic and peridomestic settings and in the forest. This yielded 14,170 specimens of 13 species: two in the genus Brumptomyia and eleven in the genus Lutzomyia. L. intermedia predominantly in domestic and peridomestic settings, with little presence in the forest, with the same trend being found in relation to L. migonei, thus proving that these species have adapted to the human environment. L. fischeri appeared to be eclectic regarding location, but was seen to be proportionally more endophilic. L. intermedia and L. migonei were more numerous in peridomestic settings, throughout the year, while L. fischeri was more numerous in domestic settings except in March, April, May and September. From the prevalence of L. intermedia, its proven anthropophily and findings of this species naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, it can be incriminated as the main vector for this agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the study area, especially in the peridomestic environment. L. fischeri may be a coadjuvant in carrying the parasite. PMID:24626417

  14. A putative nitroreductase from the DosR regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces pro-inflammatory cytokine expression via TLR2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Peddireddy, Vidyullatha; Doddam, Sankara Narayana; Qureshi, Insaf A; Yerra, Priyadarshini; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a global encumbrance and it is estimated that nearly one third population of the world acts as a reservoir for this pathogen without any symptoms. In this study, we attempted to characterise one of the genes of DosR regulon, Rv3131, a FMN binding nitroreductase domain containing protein, for its ability to alter cytokine profile, an essential feature of M. tuberculosis latency. Recombinant Rv3131 stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a time and dose dependent manner. In silico analyses using docking and simulations indicated that Rv3131 could strongly interact with TLR2 via a non-covalent bonding which was further confirmed using cell based colorimetric assay. In THP-1 cells treated with Rv3131 protein, a significant upsurge in the surface expression, overall induction and expression of mRNA of TLR2 was observed when analysed by flow cytometry, western blotting and real time PCR, respectively. Activation of TLR2 by Rv3131 resulted in the phosphorylation of NF- κβ. Results of this study indicate a strong immunogenic capability of Rv3131 elicited via the activation of TLR2 signalling pathway. Therefore, it can be surmised that cytokine secretion induced by Rv3131 might contribute to establishment of M. tuberculosis in the granulomas. PMID:27094446

  15. The influence of health education on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a low-income community of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A P M F; Alencar, M F L; Cohen, S C; Souza-Júnior, P R B; Cecchetto, F; Mathias, L S; Santos, C P; Almeida, J C A; de Moraes Neto, A H A

    2012-05-01

    In a recent study by our group on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of local residents of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we observed that about 50% of the inhabitants were parasitized and had some knowledge of intestinal parasitic infections but did not apply this knowledge in daily practice. We were thus motivated to implement strategies in health education to promote preventive measures in the locality. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the influence of health education on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the region in an effort to strengthen public policies for controlling these diseases in Brazil. The methodology adopted was based on action-research and a theoretical framework of health promotion. Our results demonstrate that the study population exhibited an enhanced awareness of the importance of disease from intestinal parasitic infections. Attitudes and practices related to prevention were significantly improved after the shared health education. In conclusion, this study allowed the shared construction of knowledge that reflected the true needs of the residents. PMID:22313520

  16. A putative nitroreductase from the DosR regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces pro-inflammatory cytokine expression via TLR2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Peddireddy, Vidyullatha; Doddam, Sankara Narayana; Qureshi, Insaf A.; Yerra, Priyadarshini; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a global encumbrance and it is estimated that nearly one third population of the world acts as a reservoir for this pathogen without any symptoms. In this study, we attempted to characterise one of the genes of DosR regulon, Rv3131, a FMN binding nitroreductase domain containing protein, for its ability to alter cytokine profile, an essential feature of M. tuberculosis latency. Recombinant Rv3131 stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a time and dose dependent manner. In silico analyses using docking and simulations indicated that Rv3131 could strongly interact with TLR2 via a non-covalent bonding which was further confirmed using cell based colorimetric assay. In THP-1 cells treated with Rv3131 protein, a significant upsurge in the surface expression, overall induction and expression of mRNA of TLR2 was observed when analysed by flow cytometry, western blotting and real time PCR, respectively. Activation of TLR2 by Rv3131 resulted in the phosphorylation of NF- κβ. Results of this study indicate a strong immunogenic capability of Rv3131 elicited via the activation of TLR2 signalling pathway. Therefore, it can be surmised that cytokine secretion induced by Rv3131 might contribute to establishment of M. tuberculosis in the granulomas. PMID:27094446

  17. Analysis of the Astronomical Concepts Presented by Teachers of Science, Physics, and Mathematics of São José dos Campos / SP Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Gonzaga, Edson; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work is to conduct a survey of alternative conceptions about the basic concepts of Astronomy from schoolteachers in the City of São José dos Campos. This study covers the the state-run education system and complies with legal documents related to the curriculum of educational systems, such as the Curriculum of São Paulo State and the Parameters of the National Curriculum (PCN). Alternative conceptions, mentioned in Langhi (2009) as very important, were used, because it is believed that if a student can learn these concepts before the methodological intervention, it is possible to prepare contextualized presentations for teachers, and consequently students, to compare what they already know with the new information they obtain in the sessions at the digital mobile planetarium (DMP) of the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul. Afterwards, they may discuss in a forum, in the form of debate, seeking to draw conclusions relevant to the topic, and transmitting the same to students in Basic Education (EB). This is a case study with a quantitative survey and a qualitative analysis of data on astronomical concepts collected through two questionnaires, one before and one after the intervention, respecting the implementation period of the study,- here called methodological intervention of content presentations at the mobile planetarium - and on respective discussions.

  18. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    complexidade, considerando, entre outros aspectos: as situações problemáticas relevantes que levaram à construção dos conhecimentos, as dificuldades de todo tipo que se teve que enfrentar nessa construção e, muito em particular,a necessidade de se superar as "evidências do senso comum" que estabeleciam uma suposta barreira intransponível entre a Terra e os Céus e que foram um obstáculo durante séculos para o desenvolvimento científico. Neste trabalho apresentamos um programa de atividades para o estudo da gravitação nos últimos anos do ensino médio, orientado a favorecer a participação dos estudantes, em alguma medida, na reconstrução deste processo que constituiu a denominada primeira grande revolução científica e a nos aproximarmos do estudo de uma das ciências mais antigas, a Astronomia, que hoje continua despertando grande interesse.

  19. Evaluation of the chromium contamination at Ribeirão dos Bagres, Franca (SP), Brazil, by the ²¹⁰Pb method.

    PubMed

    Matamet, F R M; Bonotto, D M

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a chronological study focusing the use of ²¹⁰Pb in four sediment cores collected at Ribeirão dos Bagres in the region of Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. When evaluating the sedimentation rate by using the ²¹⁰Pb method, it was possible to monitor historical changes occurring in the concentrations of chromium present in the sediments. In order to do so, several specific parameters were determined in sediments, as chromium concentration, major oxides, organic matter, grain size, and chemical and physical-chemical parameters of waters. The sediments possessed a Cr concentration range of 0.83-26.25mg/kg that is below the world's average of shales. The sedimentation rates obtained from the ²¹⁰Pb analysis were between 0.07 and 0.77 g cm⁻²year⁻¹, while the linear sedimentation rate was from 0.6 to 3.2 cm/year. The adoption of the CIC (Constant Initial Concentration) ²¹⁰Pb model allowed characterize older sediments, aged 177 years, and younger sediments, aged 4 years. The organic matter in the sediments was more abundant in the first few centimeters of practically all profiles, and the analysis of oxides showed that silica is the major constituent of the sediments, in which there is predominance of sand and silt. In addition, the analysis of the physical and chemical parameters of waters indicated that they are suitable for navigation and natural harmony landscape. PMID:24184739

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites versus knowledge, attitudes, and practices of inhabitants of low-income communities of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Neto, Antonio Henrique A; Pereira, Adriana P M F; Alencar, Maria de Fátima L; Souza, Paulo R B; Dias, Rodrigo C; Fonseca, Juliana G; Santos, Clóvis P; Almeida, João C A

    2010-07-01

    Intestinal parasites are the causative agents of common infections responsible for significant public health problems in developing countries and generally linked to lack of sanitation, safe water, and improper hygiene. More than two billion people throughout the world live with unrelenting illness due to intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). The purposes of this study are to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices on IPIs and investigate the relationship with prevalence of intestinal parasites among a low-income group of inhabitants from two communities of the Travessão District area, Campos dos Goytacazes, north of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The two communities are known as "Parque Santuário," which is an urban slum with miserable living conditions, and "Arraial," where the socioeconomic and educational levels are better, neither having a sanitary infrastructure with an excreta collection system. Questionnaires revealed that both communities had local and specific codification to denominate the intestinal parasites and present correct knowledge on the theme but ignored some aspects of IPI transmission, with the Arraial population being better informed (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of IPIs in Parque Santuário (49.7%) was greater than in Arraial (27.2%) (p < 0.001; prevalence ratio/95% confidence interval 1.83/1.50-2.23). This study reports the real IPI situation in the Travessão District and also reinforces the need to continue the investigation on the impact of combined prophylactic methods, educational measures, and socioeconomic and sanitary improvements by governmental authorities and the local popular organization. PMID:20407910

  1. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd whole rock analyses of basalts of the Grao Para Group, Serra dos Carajas, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, W.J. Jr.; Gibbs, A.K.; Wirth, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Grao Para Group at Serra dos Carajas in the Guapore Shield of Brazil is a 6 km thick sequence of bimodal metavolcanic rock with interbedded iron formations. Rhyolites are a minor part of the low grade meta-volcanic section, with the bulk consisting of subalkaline basalt, basaltic andesite, and shoshonite. Rb-Sr whole rock analyses of 7 basalts yield an age of 2687 +/- 54 Ma. This agrees well with an age of 2758 +/- 39 Ma from zircon U-Pb analyses of the interbedded rhyolites. Except for the allocthonous Imataca Complex of Venezuela, these dates for the Grao Para Group are the first well-constrained Archean ages from the Amazonian Craton. An even older age for the basement to the Grao Para Group is also implied. Sm-Nd whole-rock analyses of four of these basalts did not yield an isochron because of the limited range of /sup 147/Sm//sup 144/Nd values, but element of/sub Nd/ values relative to CHUR were calculated using the Rb-Sr age. The typical LREE-enrichment, lack of Ce depletion or spilitic alteration of alkalies, and the high Sr initial ratios, may indicate that these isotopic patterns were derived by incorporation of some older continental crust in the mafic melts. These data together with an element of/sub Sr/ of +63.6 might indicate significant seawater exchange with volcanic rocks derived from mantle with chondritic REE patterns. This demonstrates the presence of significant continental crust in the Archean and seawater-volcanic rock interaction in a rifting environment similar to modern analogs.

  2. Estudio fotométrico y espectroscópico de dos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes del disco con apariencia globular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, A. E.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    Se presentan y discuten resultados obtenidos en el CASLEO y en el Observatorio de Las Campanas de dos cúmulos abiertos compactos con apariencia globular: Westerlund1 (BH197), ubicado en dirección hacia el centro galáctico, y Westerlund2. A partir de espectroscopía CCD integrada de ambos e imágenes CCD en las bandas VI obtenidas para el primero de ellos, se derivan sus parámetros fundamentales y se examinan sus apariencias estructurales. Se encuentra que Westerlund1 es un cúmulo joven (7 ± 3 millones de años), ubicado sobre el plano galáctico a 1.0 ± 0.4 kpc del sol, en una región caracterizada por una absorción excepcionalmente elevada (Av~=13.0 mag), en tanto que Westerlund2 es también un cúmulo joven (4-6 millones de años) ubicado sobre el plano, en una región afectada por una absorción menor (Av~=5.7 mag). Desde el punto de vista estructural, Westerlund 1 se presenta como uno de los pocos cúmulos abiertos jóvenes de la Galaxia con apariencia tipicamente globular, en contraste con los cúmulos azules de las Nubes de Magallanes en los cuales la apariencia globular constituye un fenómeno común. Westerlund2, aunque menos rico en estrellas, puede también ser incluído dentro de esta interesante clase de objetos.

  3. Modelos para la Unificacion de Conceptos, Metodos y Procedimientos Administrativos (Guidelines for Uniform Administrative Concepts, Methods, and Procedures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Jorge A., Ed.

    These documents, discussed and approved during the first meeting of the university administrators affiliated with the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC), seek to establish uniform administrative concepts, methods, and procedures, particularly with respect to budgetary matters. The documents define relevant…

  4. Espectroscopia infravermelha para a determinacao de carbono do solo: Perspectiva de um metodo economicamente viavel e ambientalmente seguro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement among many of the world’s nations to, among other things, reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in order to reduce global warming. One potential method to do so is to sequester carbon in soils. This has had the effect of stimulating the establishment of ...

  5. Stratigraphy of fluvial sediment sequences and their palaeoenvironmental information in the foreland of the Serra dos Órgãos, southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, André; Nehren, Udo; Heinrich, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    In the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro city the rivers Guapiaçu, Macacu and Iconha originate in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range and drain into the Atlantic Ocean. Since their channelization in the 1950s, higher flow velocities caused an incision of the rivers into the valley fills. These circumstances provide the possibility to study the alluvial deposits along the streams during low water level and allow conclusions on palaeoenvironmental change and landscape history. Sedimentological investigations of 13 exposures as well as AMS 14C measurements were carried out to investigate sediment properties and reconstruct the sedimentation history within the floodplains. These results enable to distinguish three different facies units. A late Pleistocene Unit I can be detected at the base of the observed exposures and consists of clast-supported fine to coarse gravels. It can be assumed that the gravel bodies were formed by a climatically induced erosional-depositional cycle within a braided river system. The gravels are overlaid by Unit II, a grayish to bluish loam mainly of mid-Holocene age. During generally drier climates these loams have been deposited during high water stages or flooding events as a splay facies proximal to the rivers. A reduced flow competence and relatively stable morphodynamic conditions are assumed for that period. Unit III accumulated in the late Holocene typically consists of several meters of planar or cross bedded sands to fine gravels, interfingered by loamy inclusions, buried peat bogs and organic debris. Fining-upward sequences can be frequently studied within Unit III which were completed by loamy sediments in the uppermost parts of the exposures. The increased flow competence from Unit II to Unit III seems to be a fluvial response to the increased humidity of the late Holocene as well as the enhancement of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Heavy rainfall likely caused higher sediment supply from the steep slopes as well as a

  6. Discovery of the base of the Pinal Schist and the Bear Canyon sequence below it in the eastern Metamorphic terrane of the Dos Cabezas mountains, Cochise County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.C. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The eastern metamorphic terrane of the Dos Cabezas mountains is underlain by Pinal Schist (PS). Recent detailed mapping along the western edge of this terrane shows that a flat planar regional unconformity (UC) bounds this Pinal body at its western stratigraphic base. Below the UC lies 8 km[sup 2] of greenschist facies metapelites and metafelsites here given the provisional name of the Bear Canyon sequence (BCS). The PS above the UC is over 10 stratigraphic km, grading from 1 km conglomerate at the base (clasts are metafelsites and metasediments with very minor quartz and granite) up into 3 km of sandstones and then pelite, all with greenschist facies overprint. Relict bedding with abundant crossbedding is common; the sequence is upright. Foliation parallels bedding. Lineation is absent. The UC itself is well exposed in two places, on both sides of Happy Camp Canyon (HCC). On the west of HCC, the surface is exposed at the mouth of Bear Canyon (NW1/4 Sec. 31, T13S R28E) striking south and then southwest about 4 km, ending in the N center of Sec. 12, T14S R27E. The unconformity and the Pinal above it lie NS 30E in the north and smoothly swing to NE 50 SE in the south. Below the UC are 6 km[sup 2] of metasandstone and metafelsites of the BCS. The metasandstone is quartz-sericite schist with strong lineation ([minus]50 S70E) in its northern km of exposure. Bedding and foliation are NS 60 E in N, and NE 70 SE in S. This schist body is intruded on the E by a dike of quartz-phyric metafelsite to 1 km wide which underlies the UC along its entire length. The felsite shows strong relict flow layering and no foliation. Flow layering is NS 90 in the N, and strikes and dips variably in the S. A 1/4 km[sup 2] metafelsite plug intrudes the schist on the W, with flow layering NE 90. The two exposures of the UC are separated by a Precambrian normal fault striking N45E and dipping moderately SE under HCC alluvial fill; it has about a km of dip slip.

  7. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Mesoarchean granites from the Canaã dos Carajás area, Carajás Province, Brazil: Implications for the origin of Archean granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feio, G. R. L.; Dall'Agnol, R.

    2012-12-01

    Four Mesoarchean (2.93 to 2.83 Ga) granite units, which encompass the Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus, Cruzadão and Serra Dourada granites, were recognized in the Canaã dos Carajás area of the Archean Carajás Province. The Mesoarchean units are composed dominantly of biotite leucomonzogranites. They are compared with the Neoarchean Planalto suite (2.73 Ga) which encompasses biotite-hornblende monzogranites to syenogranites. The Canaã dos Carajás, Bom Jesus and the variety of the Cruzadão granite with higher (La/Yb)N are geochemically more akin to the calc-alkaline granites, whereas the other varieties of the Cruzadão granite are transitional between calc-alkaline and alkaline granites. The Serra Dourada granite has an ambiguous geochemical character with some features similar to those of calc-alkaline granites and other peraluminous granites. The Planalto granites have ferroan character, are similar geochemically to reduced A-type granites and show a strong geochemical contrast with the Mesoarchean studied granites. The Mesoarchean granites described in the Canaã dos Carajás area are geochemically distinct to those of the Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province. The Canaã dos Carajás and Bom Jesus granites are similar to the high-Ca granites, whereas the Cruzadão and Serra Dourada are more akin to the low-CaO granites of the Yilgarn craton. The geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean studied granites approach those of the biotite granite group of Dharwar but the latter are enriched in HFSE and HREE compared to the Canaã dos Carajás granites. The Neoarchean Planalto suite granite has no counterpart in the Mesoarchean Rio Maria domain of the Carajás Province, neither in the Yilgarn and Dharwar cratons. Geochemical modeling suggests that partial melting of a source similar in composition to an Archean basaltic andesite of the Carajás Province could give origin to the Bom Jesus and Cruzadão granites. In the case of the Bom Jesus granite the

  8. Geochronological data from TTG-type rock associations of the Arroio dos Ratos Complex and implications for crustal evolution of southernmost Brazil in Paleoproterozoic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Tiago Rafael; Bitencourt, Maria de Fátima; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll; Florisbal, Luana Moreira; Chemale, Farid, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    U-Pb isotope analyses by LA-MC-ICPMS (Laser Ablation - Multi Collector - Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) in zircon crystals from metatonalites, tonalites and granodiorite gneiss from the Arroio dos Ratos Complex (ARC) early magmatism in southernmost Brazil are presented. The ARC is located in the eastern portion of the Sul-rio-grandense Shield, occurring as septa and roof pendants on granitoids emplaced along the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt (SBSB). The SBSB corresponds to a translithospheric structure composed of several anastomosed shear zones of dominantly transcurrent kinematics whose syntectonic magmatism, of Neoproterozoic age, is characteristic of post-collisional environments. The studied rocks comprise TTG-type associations with coeval mafic magmatism, deformed and metamorphosed within a ductile shear zone. Zircon crystals obtained from six samples are interpreted as igneous given that the crystals are subhedral to euhedral, bipyramidal, with concentric zonation, have ratios Th/U between 0.13 and 0.81 and have restricted evidence of overgrowth. The oldest Association 1 (A1) has structures compatible with recrystallization under conditions of high temperature and an igneous age of 2148 ± 33 Ma, obtained in a metatonalite. The rocks of Association 2 (A2) have similar compositions, although with a more significant coeval mafic fraction. They are intrusive into A1 and also show high-temperature recrystallization features. However, they are less deformed and partly preserve their primary, igneous fabric. The igneous ages obtained from two A2 tonalites are 2150 ± 28 Ma and 2136 ± 27 Ma. Association 3 (A3) is represented by tonalitic to granodioritic gneisses whose structure, composition and metamorphic features are similar to those of A1 rocks, except for the absence of coeval mafic magmas in the former. Local features resulting from partial melting are present in A3 rocks. Three samples from A3 were dated. A tonalitic gneiss gives igneous age

  9. Identification of familial clustering for cancer through the family health strategy program in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Daniela Koeller Rodrigues; Attianezi, Margareth; Esposito, Ana Carolina; Barth, Anneliese; Sequeira, Cecília; Krause, Nathália; Oliveira, Vivian; Lucidi, Alexandre; Serao, Cassio; Llerena, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Identification of families with history of cancer in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), through the Brazilian Unified Primary Health Care System was explored based in the Community Health Agents (CHA) program. This study was divided into two phases: a descriptive one with a cross-sectional epidemiological data of families with history of cancer based on CHA-collected data from home visits in four primary health care units. The second phase consisted in identifying familial clustering of three or more individuals with cancer through construction of a three-generation pedigree and revisited by an itinerant group of medical geneticists. Genetic counseling was carried out with the intent of selecting potential families at risk for hereditary familial cancers. In the first phase of the study, 1,581 families were interviewed by the CHA at their homes. A positive history for cancer was present in 42.3 % of families, comprising 22.3 % with only one case per family, 11.2 % with two cases, and 8.6 % with three or more cases in the family. The informant reported that 15 % of the cases were from the father lineage, 12 % from the mother lineage, and 12.1 % within siblings. In the remaining 60.9 % families, cancer was present in both sides of the family. The types of cancer reported were uterus 8.7 % (n = 137), stomach 7.7 % (n = 122), breast 6.9 % (n = 109), throat 6.8 % (n = 99), prostate 5.4 % (n = 85), lung 5.6 % (n = 88), bowel 3.7 % (n = 59), and unspecified sites in 6.8 % (n = 108) of families. No statistical differences were noted between the data collected on each primary care unit. In the second phase of the study, 136 families (2.9 %) from the total of families interviewed in phase 1 were selected due to the presence of three or more individuals with cancer in the family. Among those, only 73 families attended genetic counseling. Comparison between the data obtained by the CHA and the medical

  10. Determinação de elementos próprios dos asteróides troianos: comparação entre as teorias semi-analítica e sintética

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, F.; Beaugé, C.

    2003-08-01

    Além do cálculo semi-analítico de elementos próprios dos asteróides Troianos (Beaugé & Roig 2001, Icarus 153, 391), recentemente foi apresentado um novo conjunto destes elementos próprios determinado através de uma teoria sintética (Knenezevic & Milani 2003, comunicação pessoal). As bases de dados contendo estas determinações estão disponiveis na pagina web do Asteroid Dynamical Site (http://hamilton.dm.unipi.it/cgi-bin/astdys/astibo). Nesta comunicação apresentamos os primeiros resultados de um estudo comparativo entre ambos conjuntos de elementos próprios, analisando suas vantagens e desvantagens, assim como os limites de precisão de cada conjunto. Mostramos que os elementos próprios sintéticos são mais precisos que os smi-analíticos para grandes amplitudes de libração do ângulo s = l-lJup, embora acontece o contrario para os corpos cuja amplitude de libração é muito pequena. Finalmente discutimos a influencia destes erros na determinação de familias de asteroides e da estrutura resonante em torno dos pontos Lagrangeanos L4 e L5.

  11. Characterization of a cAMP responsive transcription factor, Cmr (Rv1675c), in TB complex mycobacteria reveals overlap with the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Sridevi; Bai, Guangchun; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Knapp, Gwendowlyn S; Peterson, Matthew W; Gazdik, Michaela; C Gomes, Antonio L; Galagan, James E; McDonough, Kathleen A

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Cmr (Rv1675c) is a CRP/FNR family transcription factor known to be responsive to cAMP levels and during macrophage infections. However, Cmr's DNA binding properties, cellular targets and overall role in tuberculosis (TB) complex bacteria have not been characterized. In this study, we used experimental and computational approaches to characterize Cmr's DNA binding properties and identify a putative regulon. Cmr binds a 16-bp palindromic site that includes four highly conserved nucleotides that are required for DNA binding. A total of 368 binding sites, distributed in clusters among ~200 binding regions throughout the Mycobacterium bovis BCG genome, were identified using ChIP-seq. One of the most enriched Cmr binding sites was located upstream of the cmr promoter, and we demonstrated that expression of cmr is autoregulated. cAMP affected Cmr binding at a subset of DNA loci in vivo and in vitro, including multiple sites adjacent to members of the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon. Our findings of cooperative binding of Cmr to these DNA regions and the regulation by Cmr of the DosR-regulated virulence gene Rv2623 demonstrate the complexity of Cmr-mediated gene regulation and suggest a role for Cmr in the biology of persistent TB infection. PMID:26358810

  12. Characterization of a cAMP responsive transcription factor, Cmr (Rv1675c), in TB complex mycobacteria reveals overlap with the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Sridevi; Bai, Guangchun; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Knapp, Gwendowlyn S.; Peterson, Matthew W.; Gazdik, Michaela; C. Gomes, Antonio L.; Galagan, James E.; McDonough, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Cmr (Rv1675c) is a CRP/FNR family transcription factor known to be responsive to cAMP levels and during macrophage infections. However, Cmr's DNA binding properties, cellular targets and overall role in tuberculosis (TB) complex bacteria have not been characterized. In this study, we used experimental and computational approaches to characterize Cmr's DNA binding properties and identify a putative regulon. Cmr binds a 16-bp palindromic site that includes four highly conserved nucleotides that are required for DNA binding. A total of 368 binding sites, distributed in clusters among ∼200 binding regions throughout the Mycobacterium bovis BCG genome, were identified using ChIP-seq. One of the most enriched Cmr binding sites was located upstream of the cmr promoter, and we demonstrated that expression of cmr is autoregulated. cAMP affected Cmr binding at a subset of DNA loci in vivo and in vitro, including multiple sites adjacent to members of the DosR (DevR) dormancy regulon. Our findings of cooperative binding of Cmr to these DNA regions and the regulation by Cmr of the DosR-regulated virulence gene Rv2623 demonstrate the complexity of Cmr-mediated gene regulation and suggest a role for Cmr in the biology of persistent TB infection. PMID:26358810

  13. WATER FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES USED FOR THE IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLES TO BE MARKETED: RESEARCH ON Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., AND COLIFORMS IN PARANA, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TIYO, Rogerio; de SOUZA, Carla Zangari; NISHI, Letícia; BRUSTOLIN, Camila Fernanda; RATTI, Bianca Altrão; FALAVIGNA GUILHERME, Ana Lucia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analysis, and five liters for physicochemical analysis. Water samples were filtered under vacuum with a kit containing a cellulose acetate membrane filter, 1.2 µm (Millipore(r), Barueri, SP, Brazil). The material retained on the membrane was mechanically extracted and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor(r)kit). From 20 rural properties investigated, 10 had artesian wells (40 samples), 10 had common wells (40 samples), and one had a mine (four samples), the latter contaminated by Cryptosporidiumspp. In samples from artesian wells, 90 to 130 meters depth, 42.5% were positive for total coliforms and 5.0% were identified to have abnormal coloration. From the samples of common wells, 14 to 37 meters depth, 87.5% were contaminated with total coliforms, 82.5% were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and 12.5% had color abnormalities. We did not detect the presence of Giardiaspp. or Cryptosporidiumspp. in artesian and common wells. The use of artesian or common wells is an important step in the control of the spreading of zoonoses, particularly Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardiaspp., as well as artesian wells for coliform control in local production of vegetables to be marketed. PMID:26422158

  14. Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Ephydridae) from Brazil with an emphasis on the faunas from the states of Parana and Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco de Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Couri, Márcia Souto

    2014-01-01

    With more than 200 species worldwide, Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy is the largest genus of the family Ephydridae (Diptera). However, knowledge of this genus is much reduced in Brazil and throughout the Neotropical Region, where only 8 species are known, including one from Brazil (H. xanthocera Cresson). The objective of this study is to review the species of Hydrellia from Brazil, with an emphasis on the faunas of Paraná and Rio de Janeiro states. Six new species are described: H. bocaiuvensis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m), H. longiseta sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m),H. vilelai sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°16.6'S, 48°58.5'W, 770 m), H. simplex sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m) e H. schneiderae sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú (25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m), H. similis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m). Seven new registers are recorded: H. agitator (Pará), H. apalachee (Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. calverti (Amazonas and Paraná), H. cavator (Rio de Janeiro), H. tibialis (Amazonas, Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. vulgaris (Paraná, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro), H. wirthi (Pará, Paraná and Santa Catarina). Together with H. xanthocera, Hydrellia now includes 14 species from Brazil. PMID:24869512

  15. Three-dimensional Magnetotelluric Inversion and Model Validation with Potential Field Data and Seismics for the Central Portion of Parana Sedimentary Basin in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Terra, E. F.; Fontes, S. L.; Taveira, D. T.; Miquelutti, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Paraná basin, on the central-south region of the South American Plate, is one of the biggest South American intracratonic basins. It is composed by Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments, which were covered by the enormous Cretaceous flood basalts, associated with the rifting of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Its depocenter region, with a maximum estimated depth of just over 7000 m, was crossed by three magnetotelluric - MT profiles proposed by the Brazilian Petroleum Agency (ANP) aimed at better characterizing its geological structure, as the seismic images are very poor. The data include about 350 MT broadband soundings spanning from 1000 Hz down to 2,000 s. The MT data were processed using robust techniques and remote reference. Static shift observed in some stations were corrected based on Transient Electromagnetic - TEM measurements at each site. These models were integrated to existent gravity, magnetic and seismic data for a more comprehensive interpretation of the region. A pilot 3D model has also been constructed on a crustal scale covering the study area using four frequencies per decade in the 3D inversion scheme proposed by Siripunvaraporn et al. (2005). The inversion scheme produced a reliable model and the observations were adequately reproduced, with observed fitting particularly better for the deeper structures related to basement compared to the 2D results. The main features in the conductivity model correspond to known geological features. These included the conductivity structures obtained for the upper crust, i.e. the sedimentary sequences, underlain by more resistive material, assumed to be basement. Local resistive features in the near-surface are associated to volcanic basalts covering the sediments. Some highly resistivity horizontal and vertical bodies were associated to volcanic intrusion like dikes and sills. We observed depressions on basement consistent with half-graben structures possibly filled with sandstones.

  16. WATER FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES USED FOR THE IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLES TO BE MARKETED: RESEARCH ON Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., AND COLIFORMS IN PARANA, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Tiyo, Rogerio; de Souza, Carla Zangari; Nishi, Letícia; Brustolin, Camila Fernanda; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Falavigna Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analysis, and five liters for physicochemical analysis. Water samples were filtered under vacuum with a kit containing a cellulose acetate membrane filter, 1.2 µm (Millipore(r), Barueri, SP, Brazil). The material retained on the membrane was mechanically extracted and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor(r)kit). From 20 rural properties investigated, 10 had artesian wells (40 samples), 10 had common wells (40 samples), and one had a mine (four samples), the latter contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp. In samples from artesian wells, 90 to 130 meters depth, 42.5% were positive for total coliforms and 5.0% were identified to have abnormal coloration. From the samples of common wells, 14 to 37 meters depth, 87.5% were contaminated with total coliforms, 82.5% were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and 12.5% had color abnormalities. We did not detect the presence of Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. in artesian and common wells. The use of artesian or common wells is an important step in the control of the spreading of zoonoses, particularly Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., as well as artesian wells for coliform control in local production of vegetables to be marketed. PMID:26422158

  17. Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods ISO 10272: 2006 in Curitiba – Parana State – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Konell, K.; Gelinsk, M.A.; Benetti, T.M.; Abrahão, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection. PMID:25763066

  18. Factores socio-económicos asociados a la percepción de situación socioeconómica entre adultos mayores de dos países latinoamericanos

    PubMed Central

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal del artículo es estudiar la asociación entre la percepción subjetiva sobre la situación económica propia y una serie de medidas objetivas de bienestar socioeconómico –fuentes de ingresos, tenencia de vivienda, nivel educativo y transferencias familiares informales de dinero- entre adultos mayores de dos países Latinoamericanos: México y Costa Rica. Los datos se obtienen de las primeras rondas de dos encuestas sobre envejecimiento: CRELES para Costa Rica y ENASEM para México. La variable dependiente más importante se obtiene de las respuestas a las pregunta “¿Cómo califica su situación económica actual?” en Costa Rica y “¿Diría usted que su situación económica es…?” en México. Para ambas encuestas, las respuestas se codificaron en forma binaria; el código 0 representa las categorías Excelente, Muy buena y Buena, y el código 1 representa a las categorías Regular y Mala. Se encontró que el ingreso por jubilación es un importante determinante de la percepción de bienestar en ambos países. En Costa Rica, el ingreso del cónyuge y la tenencia de vivienda son importantes predictores de la percepción de bienestar, mientras que en México, los ingresos por transferencias están fuertemente asociados con dicha percepción. PMID:25360057

  19. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  20. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  1. Identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros no método Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas e práticas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo Sonewend

    2011-01-01

    O método Grade of Membership (GoM) tem sido cada vez mais utilizado por demógrafos brasileiros e tem a vantagem de possuir um parâmetro que mensura a heterogeneidade individual, com base nas correlações não-observáveis entre as categorias de resposta das variáveis de interesse, gerando um medida do grau de pertencimento de cada indivíduo a perfis extremos. Alguns autores, contudo, chamam atenção para questões importantes na calibragem dos modelos finais que utilizam o programa GoM versão 3.4, como o problema de identificabilidade – soluções múltiplas para parâmetros estimados. Neste artigo, é sugerido um procedimento capaz de identificar um modelo final com solução única que descreva os tipos puros mais fidedignos à base de dados, em uma tentativa de otimização. Para ilustrar esse processo, utilizou-se uma base de dados correspondente a um levantamento econômico e sociodemográfico de uma população de pequenos agricultores residentes ao longo da Rodovia Transamazônica, no Estado do Pará. Também identificou-se a existência de instabilidade nos parâmetros estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4, sendo proposto um método de estabilização de seus valores. Com esses procedimentos combinados, os usuários do programa GoM 3.4 poderão descrever sua base de dados de forma mais adequada e responder às críticas sobre questões de identificabilidade e estabilidade dos modelos resultantes. Essas soluções empíricas são relevantes por afetarem cálculos de prevalência e de incidência de eventos de interesse, além de trazerem consequências importantes sobre o ponto e o momento corretos para intervenções de políticas públicas ou de planejamento prospectivo em análises de projeção. PMID:21709732

  2. A terD Domain-Encoding Gene (SCO2368) Is Involved in Calcium Homeostasis and Participates in Calcium Regulation of a DosR-Like Regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, François; Lerat, Sylvain; Bucca, Giselda; Sanssouci, Édith; Smith, Colin P.; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    Although Streptomyces coelicolor is not resistant to tellurite, it possesses several TerD domain-encoding (tdd) genes of unknown function. To elucidate the function of tdd8, the transcriptomes of S. coelicolor strain M145 and of a tdd8 deletion mutant derivative (the Δtdd8 strain) were compared. Several orthologs of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes involved in dormancy survival were upregulated in the deletion mutant at the visual onset of prodiginine production. These genes are organized in a putative redox stress response cluster comprising two large loci. A binding motif similar to the dormancy survival regulator (DosR) binding site of M. tuberculosis has been identified in the upstream sequences of most genes in these loci. A predicted role for these genes in the redox stress response is supported by the low NAD+/NADH ratio in the Δtdd8 strain. This S. coelicolor gene cluster was shown to be induced by hypoxia and NO stress. While the tdd8 deletion mutant (the Δtdd8 strain) was unable to maintain calcium homeostasis in a calcium-depleted medium, the addition of Ca2+ in Δtdd8 culture medium reduced the expression of several genes of the redox stress response cluster. The results shown in this work are consistent with Tdd8 playing a significant role in calcium homeostasis and redox stress adaptation. PMID:25535276

  3. Tritium ((3)H) as a tracer for monitoring the dispersion of conservative radionuclides discharged by the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plants in the Piraquara de Fora Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; de Souza, Elder Magalhães; Rodrigues Silva, José Ivan; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    Presently, two nuclear power plants operate in Brazil. Both are located at Itaorna beach, Angra dos Reis, approximately 133 km from Rio de Janeiro city. The reactor cooling circuits require the input of seawater, which is later discharged through a pipeline into the adjacent Piraquara de Fora Cove. The radioactive effluents undergo ion-exchange treatment prior to their release in batches, causing the enrichment of (3)H relative to other radionuclides in the discharged waters. Under steady state conditions, the (3)H gradient in the Piraquara de Fora waters can be used to determine the dependence of the dilution factor on the distance from the discharge point. The present work describes experiments carried out at the reactor site during batch release episodes, including time series sampling at the discharge point and surface seawater sampling every 250 m to a distance of 1250 m, after a double distillation, the (3)H concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting applying a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The obtained results showed a linear relationship between the (3)H concentration and distance from the discharge point. At 1250 m from the discharge point a dilution index of 1:15 was measured which fits the expected value based on modeling. PMID:24959753

  4. DevR (DosR) mimetic peptides impair transcriptional regulation and survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under hypoxia by inhibiting the autokinase activity of DevS sensor kinase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Two-component systems have emerged as compelling targets for antibacterial drug design for a number of reasons including the distinct histidine phosphorylation property of their constituent sensor kinases. The DevR-DevS/DosT two component system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is essential for survival under hypoxia, a stress associated with dormancy development in vivo. In the present study a combinatorial peptide phage display library was screened for DevS histidine kinase interacting peptides with the aim of isolating inhibitors of DevR-DevS signaling. Results DevS binding peptides were identified from a phage display library after three rounds of panning using DevS as bait. The peptides showed sequence similarity with conserved residues in the N-terminal domain of DevR and suggested that they may represent interacting surfaces between DevS and DevR. Two DevR mimetic peptides were found to specifically inhibit DevR-dependent transcriptional activity and restrict the hypoxic survival of M. tb. The mechanism of peptide action is majorly attributed to an inhibition of DevS autokinase activity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that DevR mimetic peptides impede DevS activation and that intercepting DevS activation at an early step in the signaling cascade impairs M. tb survival in a hypoxia persistence model. PMID:25048654

  5. Pepita Talks Twice = Pepita habla dos veces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachtman, Ofelia Dumas

    This illustrated bilingual children's book (English and Spanish), relates the story of Pepita, a young Hispanic girl who is fluent in both Spanish and English. Pepita always helps when asked to talk for others in Spanish and English. But one day Pepita decides she doesn't want to help anymore. She wants to hurry and get home from school before her…

  6. DOS/Russian - US program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pifer, M.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the organization and describes the objectives for the science and technology agreements between the U.S.A. and Russia. The Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission objectives and the Civilian Research and the Development Foundation for the Independent States of the former Soviet Union (CRDF) are discussed.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Human Pathogenic Bunyaviruses of the Nyando and Bwamba/Pongola Virus Groups Leads to the Genetic Identification of Mojuí dos Campos and Kaeng Khoi Virus

    PubMed Central

    Groseth, Allison; Mampilli, Veena; Weisend, Carla; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F.; Russell, Brandy J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Ebihara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background Human infection with Bwamba virus (BWAV) and the closely related Pongola virus (PGAV), as well as Nyando virus (NDV), are important causes of febrile illness in Africa. However, despite seroprevalence studies that indicate high rates of infection in many countries, these viruses remain relatively unknown and unstudied. In addition, a number of unclassified bunyaviruses have been isolated over the years often with uncertain relationships to human disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to better understand the genetic and evolutionary relationships among orthobunyaviruses associated with human disease, we have sequenced the complete genomes for all 3 segments of multiple strains of BWAV (n = 2), PGAV (n = 2) and NDV (n = 4), as well as the previously unclassified Mojuí dos Campos (MDCV) and Kaeng Khoi viruses (KKV). Based on phylogenetic analysis, we show that these viruses populate 2 distinct branches, one made up of BWAV and PGAV and the other composed of NDV, MDCV and KKV. Interestingly, the NDV strains analyzed form two distinct clades which differed by >10% on the amino acid level across all protein products. In addition, the assignment of two bat-associated bunyaviruses into the NDV group, which is clearly associated with mosquito-borne infection, led us to analyze the ability of these different viruses to grow in bat (RE05 and Tb 1 Lu) and mosquito (C6/36) cell lines, and indeed all the viruses tested were capable of efficient growth in these cell types. Conclusions/Significance On the basis of our analyses, it is proposed to reclassify the NDV strains ERET147 and YM176-66 as a new virus species. Further, our analysis definitively identifies the previously unclassified bunyaviruses MDCV and KKV as distinct species within the NDV group and suggests that these viruses may have a broader host range than is currently appreciated. PMID:25188437

  8. "Mastery Learning" Como Metodo Psicoeducativo para Ninos con Problemas Especificos de Aprendizaje. ("Mastery Learning" as a Psychoeducational Method for Children with Specific Learning Problems.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coya, Liliam de Barbosa; Perez-Coffie, Jorge

    1982-01-01

    "Mastery Learning" was compared with the "conventional" method of teaching reading skills to Puerto Rican children with specific learning disabilities. The "Mastery Learning" group showed significant gains in the cognitive and affective domains. Results suggested Mastery Learning is a more effective method of teaching reading skills to children…

  9. Las historias de la narrativa hispanoamericana: Criterios, metodos y ausencias. (Histories of the Latin-American Narrative: Criteria, Methods, and Absences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavalo, Lauro

    This paper explains that materials on the teaching of Latin-American literature are sparse, even though most researchers in the field will dedicate much of their time to teaching. The paper adds that, in scholarly journals, little attention is given to teaching literature, and the topic is also absent from most academic congresses. The paper then…

  10. Metodo y Proceso de la Investigacion Participativa en la Capacitacion Rural (The Method and Process of Participatory Research in Rural Leadership Training). Cuadernos del CREFAL 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Schutter, Anton

    In participatory research, education and learner participation are directly connected. The document analyzes the role of a participatory research method in the basic education of rural adults. The different phases of the Participant Research method are presented, along with a profound analysis of both research and participation. The claim is that…

  11. Metodo de Archivar las Observaciones del Comportamiento del Nino, Como Guia para Entenderlo Mejor (Methods of Recording Observations of Children's Behavior, A Guide for Better Understanding)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Isla M.

    1971-01-01

    Copies of the Behaviour Study Technique described in this article may be obtained in English from the Australian Council for Educational Research, Frederick St., Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia 3122. (RY)

  12. Lengua nacional: Fichas de trabajo 1. Metodo de lectura y escritura (National Language: Workbook 1. A Method of Reading and Writing).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peniche Leger, Maria Elena, Ed.

    This consumable, graded workbook can be used for exercises, tests, and individualized learning. Each level contains 30 units divided into four groups of exercises: reading analysis, grammar, composition, and spelling. Ten general tests are also included. For the accompanying reader, see FL 004 047. (Author/SK)

  13. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  14. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    participantes basado en lo que estas manifestaron en su practica didactica. Dos maestras coinciden en una vision constructivista social de la construccion del conocimiento, del aprendizaje y de los metodos didacticos. La otra manifesto una vision constructivista piagetiana en el aprendizaje, los metodos didacticos y en la construccion del conocimiento. Se espera que este trabajo, ademas de promover los estudios de caso sobre el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza en el contexto puertorriqueno, sirva para que los maestros, que estan transformando su enfoque educativo de uno tradicional a uno constructivista, tengan una vision mas clara de la implantacion de este enfoque. Se espera ademas que sirva para que el Departamento de Educacion y sus programas de adiestramiento y readiestramiento en servicio, asi como las universidades y sus programas de preparacion de maestros, tomen en cuenta los resultados y recomendaciones de este estudio al revisar sus programas.

  15. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    learning of astronomy in basic education. Embora a astronomia seja considerada uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e ainda que a compreensão de seus conceitos tenha trazido enormes avanços para a Ciência e, consequentemente, para a sociedade, observa-se que uma parcela significativa de pessoas encontra-se à margem desses conhecimentos. De acordo com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica, cabe à escola a difusão dos conceitos cientificamente corretos, entre eles os relacionados à área de astronomia. Pertinente a essa questão, apresenta-se uma pesquisa realizada com 140 estudantes do nono ano do ensino fundamental e com 120 estudantes da terceira série do ensino médio de quatro escolas da região de Passo Fundo/RS. Buscou-se averiguar, por meio de um questionário composto de questões abertas e de múltipla escolha, o conhecimento desse grupo de estudantes acerca de termos e fenômenos astronômicos básicos e, também, verificar se o índice de acertos cresce à medida que eles avançam nas diferentes e gradativas séries dos ensinos fundamental e médio. De modo geral, os resultados apresentados demonstram que o ensino de astronomia na educação básica enfrenta deficiências. Das 20 questões investigadas, em 17 os índices de acertos são semelhantes nas respostas dadas por estudantes de nível fundamental e médio, revelando que muitas concepções equivocadas permanecem ao longo da educação básica. Isso evidencia que tais temas não são - ou são pouco - abordados durante esses dois níveis de escolarização. Assim, conclui-se que a discussão dos conceitos relacionados com a astronomia deve receber maior ênfase na abordagem dos diferentes conteúdos, sendo necessária uma ação nacional em prol do seu ensino. Acredita-se que essa ação nacional deve estar apoiada em um pilar triplo de atores coletivos: comunidade científica, comunidade astronômica semiprofissional e comunidade escolar. Por fim, esse pilar seria

  16. Los Dos Mundos: Rural Mexican Americans, Another America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    This book explores race relations between Mexican Americans and Anglo Americans in "Middlewest," a fictitious name for an actual rural Idaho community with the highest proportion of Mexican Americans in the state. Many Mexican Americans in this predominantly agricultural area are current or former migrant workers. The first chapter describes field…

  17. Exercise beyond menopause: Dos and Don’ts

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V. N.; Devanshi

    2011-01-01

    With a significant number of women belonging to the status of menopause and beyond, it is imperative to plan a comprehensive health program for them, including lifestyle modifications. Exercise is an integral part of the strategy. The benefits are many, most important being maintenance of muscle mass and thereby the bone mass and strength. The exercise program for postmenopausal women should include the endurance exercise (aerobic), strength exercise and balance exercise; it should aim for two hours and 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity each week. Every woman should be aware of her target heart rate range and should track the intensity of exercise employing the talk test. Other deep breathing, yoga and stretching exercises can help to manage the stress of life and menopause-related symptoms. Exercises for women with osteoporosis should not include high impact aerobics or activities in which a fall is likely. The women and the treating medical practitioner should also be aware of the warning symptoms and contraindications regarding exercise prescription in women beyond menopause. The role of exercise in hot flashes, however, remains inconclusive. Overall, exercising beyond menopause is the only noncontroversial and beneficial aspect of lifestyle modification and must be opted by all. PMID:22408332

  18. Dos and don’ts in response priming research

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Filipp; Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Response priming is a well-understood but sparsely employed paradigm in cognitive science. The method is powerful and well-suited for exploring early visuomotor processing in a wide range of tasks and research fields. Moreover, response priming can be dissociated from visual awareness, possibly because it is based on the first sweep of feedforward processing of primes and targets. This makes it a theoretically interesting device for separating conscious and unconscious vision. We discuss the major opportunities of the paradigm and give specific recommendations (e.g., tracing the time-course of priming in parametric experiments). Also, we point out typical confounds, design flaws, and data processing artifacts. PMID:22253674

  19. Dos and Don'ts of Writing Presidential Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In the not-so-distant past, an employment agreement between a university president and a governing board was often nothing more than a handshake. Today, formal contracts are requirements for presidents, with boards and presidents typically relying on lawyers to extensively document terms of employment, salary and benefits, and, perhaps most…

  20. Web-Based Mathematics: Some "Dos" and "Don'ts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loong, Esther Yook-Kin

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes an "out of field" teacher's use of the Internet to teach a range of mathematical topics in a modified Year 8 mathematics class. It highlights the importance of three factors for implementing a discernible web-based teaching strategy: appropriate choice of web objects, effective "virtual" pedagogy, and technical support…

  1. Writing at Work; Dos, Don'ts, and How Tos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobi, Ernst

    Intended for the adult who needs writing skills for career purposes, this three-part book presents principles rather than mechanical rules for achieving effective communication through writing. The first section of the book offers specific guidelines on communicative attitude, content, perspective, theme, organization, and revision. The middle…

  2. Divorce Matters: Visitation Dos and Don'ts

    MedlinePlus

    ... your former spouse. • Don’t question your children’s loyalty. • Help make the transition from one home to ... Don’t spoil your children to buy their loyalty and love • Don’t let your children blackmail ...

  3. Dos and Don'ts for a Fabulous Pedicure

    MedlinePlus

    ... be done frequently to not only keep feet looking good, but also to ensure proper foot health. Here are a few pointers to keep in mind the next time you get a pedicure at home or in the salon: Don’t shave your ...

  4. Dos Hermanas Chicanas: Overcoming Barriers to Professional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospero, Moises

    2007-01-01

    Women and ethnic minorities face steep barriers to professional advancement, and those who rise to the executive level typically use a variety of strategies to overcome obstacles in their way. This study first reviewed the literature on barriers to professional advancement for women and ethnic minorities and the strategies that they report using…

  5. Dos and Don'ts for Beginning Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Coleen

    1993-01-01

    Beginning teachers are advised to pace themselves; provide disciplinary options; learn to justify their teaching; be tolerant about student gripes; use the Socratic method to elicit thoughtful responses; refrain from killing discussion, solving students' personal problems, and insulting students' intelligence; listen to veteran teachers; begin…

  6. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  7. Difficulties of First Years Elementary School Teachers with the Teaching of Astronomy. (Breton Title: Dificuldades de Professores dos Anos Iniciais do Ensino Fundamental em Relação ao Ensino da Astronomia. ) Dificultades de LOS Profesores de los Primeros Años de la Escuela Primaria en Relación a la Enseñanza de la Astronomía

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo; Nardi, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports Primary School teachers' discourses analysis about their difficulties related to the teaching of Astronomy. It reports partial data of a master's level research carried out in the last two years, named "An exploratory study for inserting Astronomy in primary school teachers' education" (LANGHI, 2004). The study took into consideration students' and teachers' common sense conceptions about astronomical phenomena, conceptual mistakes in textbooks, and Astronomy's suggestions given by the PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - The Brazilian National Curriculum Standards). The paper aims to characterize teachers' difficulties, in order to provide subsides to the implementation of an initial or continuing education program. This study is justified by the fact that courses plans like these only will be adapted to the teacher's (and students') reality, if there is a primary investigation about what the teachers really need to know about Astronomy. This fact was possible here by the enunciations interpretation of a teachers' sample using semi-structured interviews, according to discourse analysis procedures. The research outcomes show difficulties related to factors like: those of personal order, methodological, on teacher's formation, educational infrastructure and other related to information sources for educators. Este artigo, que relata as dificuldades de professores em relação ao ensino da Astronomia, faz parte de um estudo exploratório para a inserção da Astronomia na formação de professores dos anos iniciais do Ensino Fundamental. Esse estudo leva em consideração as concepções alternativas de alunos e professores sobre fenômenos astronômicos, os erros conceituais em livros didáticos e as sugestões de conteúdos de Astronomia constantes nos PCN (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais). Caracterizar as dificuldades dos professores é a questão central deste texto, apontando para o objetivo de contribuir com subsídios para um futuro

  8. Estudio comparativo de los metodos analitico-sintetico y global en el aprendizaje de la lectura (Comparative Study of the Analytical-Synthetical (Phonics) and Global (Sight) Reading Methods).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonell de Grompone, Maria A.; And Others

    An investigation into the phonics and sight methods of reading instruction being taught in Uruguay schools seeks valid predictions in support of each approach. The study, written in Spanish, examines the progressive reading habits and abilities of 12 first-grade classes. Teachers assigned to teach each method uniformly had equivalent training and…

  9. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches To Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use [and] La Prevencion Positiva: Metodos que han tenido exito en la prevencion del uso de drogas y alcohol entre la juventud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The United States has the highest rate of youthful drug abuse of any industrialized country in the world. There is a growing awareness that drug and alcohol use are closely connected to other problems such as teenage suicide, adolescent pregnancy, traffic fatalities, juvenile delinquency, poor school performance, runaways, and dropouts. Youthful…

  10. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-03-15

    virgenes para evaluar la competicion por el apareamiento. Se midieron ocho rasgos morfometricos en machos exitosos y no exitosos: ancho de la cabeza, ancho de la cara, largo del ojo, largo del torax, largo del ala, ancho del ala, largo del femur y largo de la tibia. Se realizaron analisis morfometricos para determinar la relacion entre el fenotipo multivariado y el exito copulatorio. Para evaluar la seleccion sexual sobre el fenotipo del macho se utilizaron diferentes combinaciones de metodos estadisticos multivariados y analisis graficos. Los resultados demostraron que el ancho de ala y el largo de torax serian los blancos mas probables de seleccion sexual, y describen una asociacion no lineal entre el exito copulatorio y cada uno de estos dos rasgos. Dicha asociacion sugiere que la seleccion observada mantendria la diversidad para el tamano del cuerpo. (author)

  11. Implementacion de modulos constructivistas que atiendan "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales en temas de la fisica en estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacruz Sarmiento, Neida M.

    Este estudio se enfoco en los "misconception" y lagunas conceptuales en temas fundamentales de Fisica como son Equilibrio Termodinamico y Estatica de fluidos. En primer lugar se trabajo con la identificacion de "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales y se analizo en detalle la forma en que los estudiantes construyen sus propias teorias de fenomenos relacionados con los temas. Debido a la complejidad en la que los estudiantes asimilan los conceptos fisicos, se utilizo el metodo de investigacion mixto de tipo secuencial explicativo en dos etapas, una cuantitativa y otra cualitativa. La primera etapa comprendio cuatro fases: (1) Aplicacion de una prueba diagnostica para identificar el conocimiento previo y lagunas conceptuales. (2) Identificacion de "misconceptions" y lagunas del concepto a partir del conocimiento previo. (3) Implementacion de la intervencion por medio de modulos en el topico de Equilibrio Termodinamico y Estatica de Fluidos. (4) Y la realizacion de la pos prueba para analizar el impacto y la efectividad de la intervencion constructivista. En la segunda etapa se utilizo el metodo de investigacion cualitativo, por medio de una entrevista semiestructurada que partio de la elaboracion de un mapa conceptual y se finalizo con un analisis de datos conjuntamente. El desarrollo de este estudio permitio encontrar "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales a partir del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes participantes en los temas trabajados, que fueron atendidos en el desarrollo de las distintas actividades inquisitivas que se presentaron en el modulo constructivista. Se encontro marcadas diferencias entre la pre y pos prueba en los temas, esto se debio al requerimiento de habilidades abstractas para el tema de Estatica de Fluidos y al desarrollo intuitivo para el tema de Equilibrio Termodinamico, teniendo mejores respuestas en el segundo. Los participantes demostraron una marcada evolucion y/o cambio en sus estructuras de pensamiento, las pruebas estadisticas

  12. La problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia y sus implicaciones en la educacion cientifica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez Tolentino, Dinorah

    2011-12-01

    En la sociedad prevalece una tendencia generalizada hacia la inclusion de creencias y practicas pseudocientificas. Esta investigacion responde a la necesidad de analizar como la proliferacion de las pseudociencias afecta la vision que tienen los estudiantes universitarios sobre las ciencias naturales. A tales efectos, la investigadora describe las concepciones epistemologicas que tienen los estudiantes sobre las ciencias y las pseudociencias e identifica los criterios de demarcacion, entre un area y otra, que se derivan de estas concepciones. De igual modo, esta identifica las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas de mayor arraigo entre los estudiantes, destacando, a su vez, la razon de ser de las mismas. Por ultimo, la investigadora analiza las implicaciones educativas de la problematica de la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La investigacion es de naturaleza mixta, enmarcada en los paradigmas empirico- analitico y cualitativo. El proceso investigativo se llevo a cabo mediante la administracion del cuestionario Criterios para la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia. La parte cualitativa estuvo enmarcada en el diseno de estudio de caso, recopilando informacion mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas en dos grupos focales. La poblacion de estudio estuvo constituida por estudiantes universitarios del nivel subgraduado de la Universidad Central de Bayamon. Los resultados del estudio reflejaron las concepciones erroneas de los estudiantes sobre la naturaleza de las ciencias y las pseudociencias. Con respecto a la demarcacion entre ciencia y pseudociencia, el criterio imperante entre los universitarios es el de la verificabilidad, considerando la aplicacion del metodo cientifico como el metodo para demostrar la veracidad de las teorias cientificas. Las creencias y practicas pseudocientificas no son muy frecuentes entre los universitarios. Estos atribuyen las mismas a la prevalencia de elementos supersticiosos y al engano a que es sometida la poblacion

  13. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de

  14. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  15. Rethinking Science and Technology Education To Meet the Demands of Future Generations in a Changing World. International Organization for Science and Technology Education (IOSTE) Symposium Proceedings (10th, Foz do Iguacu, Parana, Brazil, July 28-August 2, 2002). Volumes I [and] II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizzo, Nelio, Ed.; Kawasaki, Clarice Sumi, Ed.; Ferracioli, Laercio, Ed.; Leyser da Rosa, Vivian, Ed.

    This document is the proceedings of the 10th annual meeting of the International Organization for Science and Technology Education (IOSTE). Papers include: (1) "Liberal Education, Information Assessment and Argumentation in Science-LIA" (Andreas Quale, Anders Isnes, Terje Kristensen, and Ketil Mathiassen); (2) "Placing the History and the…

  16. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  17. Apparent Motion of the Sun, Shadows of Objects and Measurement of Time in the View of Seventh Grade Students of Middle School. (Breton Title: Movimento Aparente do Sol, Sombras dos Objetos e Medição do Tempo na Visão de Alunos do Sétimo Ano do Ensino Fundamental.) Movimiento Aparente del Sol, Sombras de los Objetos y Medición del Tiempo en la Visión de Estudiantes del Séptimo Grado del Ciclo Pirmario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The apparent motion of the Sun on the celestial sphere and the behavior of the shadows of objects over time are observable phenomena in everyday life. However, students often do not have a proper understanding of such occurrences, and can even display misconceptions about them. Therefore, we performed a research in order to know students' notions about these subjects and to evaluate the contribution to their understanding brought about by an activity performed with an interactive sundial in an informal learning environment. We investigated the ideas of 43 students from the seventh grade of middle school by applying a test with open questions before and after an activity with an analemmatic sundial, conducted by a monitor. A significant proportion of students were initially unaware of most of the phenomena treated. The intervention performed helped the students to assimilate new concepts, providing the contact with new phenomena and to a lesser degree, the development of explanations about them, indicating an educational potential of this action. However, the contribution to the understanding of some of the ideas explored was small, pointing to the need to make additional observations, studies and discussions. O movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste e o comportamento das sombras dos objetos com o passar do tempo são fenômenos observáveis no dia a dia. No entanto, muitas vezes os estudantes não possuem uma compreensão adequada de tais ocorrências, podendo inclusive exibir concepções alternativas a seu respeito. Por isso, efetuou-se uma pesquisa com o intuito de conhecer as noções dos alunos sobre esses temas e avaliar a contribuição para seu entendimento propiciada por uma atividade feita com um relógio de Sol interativo, em um ambiente de ensino informal. Foram investigadas as ideias de 43 alunos do sétimo ano do Ensino Fundamental mediante a aplicação de um teste com questões abertas antes e depois de uma atividade com um relógio de Sol

  18. Dos Puertorriquenos Visitan Puerto Rico (Two Puerto Ricans Visit Puerto Rico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    These materials for Spanish instruction are based on the meeting and friendship of two Puerto Ricans arriving in Puerto Rico for visits to their hometowns, their discussions of Puerto Rican life, and a sightseeing tour of San Juan. Introductory passages to the visitors' dialogues are in English, and dialogues are in Spanish, with photographs,…

  19. Influencias africanas na lingua brasileira dos terreiros (African Influences in Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how determination of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in songs of voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in southern and northeastern Brazil is complicated by factors like existence of phonological correspondence without accompanying semantic correspondence, difficulty of determining meaning of word in a given text, and high…

  20. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  1. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  2. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  3. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  4. 33 CFR 105.245 - Declaration of Security (DoS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessels subject to part 104, of this subchapter must sign and implement DoSs as required in (b)(1) and (2... with this section. (g) A copy of all currently valid continuing DoSs must be kept with the...

  5. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Bicultural Development in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacallao, Martica L.; Smokowski, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    How do Mexican immigrant adolescents balance different, and often oppositional, cultural influences in the acculturation process? In this article, we explore how acculturating adolescents absorb cultural messages and go about creating their (multiple) identities. Guided by Alternation Theory, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 12…

  6. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Solar Twin Planet Search. IV. (dos Santos+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, L. A.; Melendez, J.; Do Nascimento, J.-D. Jr; Bedell, M.; Ramirez, I.; Bean, J. L.; Asplund, M.; Spina, L.; Dreizler, S.; Alves-Brito, A.; Casagrande, L.

    2016-07-01

    Ages, the measured projected rotational velocities (vsini) and stellar parameters of the 81 solar twins and the Sun. The ages of all solar twins and stellar parameters for HIP68468 were obtained by Tucci Maia et al. (2016A&A...590A..32T). Stellar parameters for the other solar twins were obtained by Ramirez et al. (2014A&A...572A..48R). The vsini were measured by line profile fitting using red spectra from HARPS (R=115000). Macroturbulence velocities were inferred from the scaling Eq. 2 in our study. (1 data file).

  8. The Politics of Hispanic Education. Un Paso pa'lante y dos pa'tras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Stewart, Joseph, Jr.

    This book presents an in-depth examination of 142 U.S. school districts (containing at least 5,000 students and 5 percent Hispanic enrollment) in order to understand Hispanic inequities in education and what can be done to correct these inequities. Chapter 1 presents political theory of educational policy. Chapter 2 presents an overview of the…

  9. NASA Glenn Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Users Manual, DOS Input. Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K.

    2000-01-01

    The heat pipe code LERCHP has been revised, corrected, and extended. New features include provisions for pipes with curvature and bends in "G" fields. Heat pipe limits are examined in detail and limit envelopes are shown for some sodium and lithium-filled heat pipes. Refluxing heat pipes and gas-loaded or variable conductance heat pipes were not considered.

  10. Análise dos Resultados da VII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Preta Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta; de Medeiros, José Renan; Dantas, Márcia Pragano; Roque da Silva, Adriana; Martins, Roberto Vieira; Dottori, Horácio Alberto; Maia, Márcio Antonio Geimba; Da Rocha Poppe, Paulo César; Rodrigues da Costa, Antônio Carlos

    2006-06-01

    In this work we show the results of the VII Brazilian Astronomy Olympiad (VII OBA), that occurred on 15/05/2004, in all previous registered elementary and high schools, public and/or private, urban and/or rural. Took part in this Olympiad 123.001 students (60,7 % more than VI OBA), distributed over 2.721 schools (increasing of 73% if compared with the VI OBA), belonging to all Brazilian states. The public schools are 75,5% and the private are 24,5%. The team of 4 students selected in the VI OBA (2003) represented the Brazil in the IX International Astronomy Olympiad (IX IAO), that occurred on October of 2004, in Ukraine and won a silver medal and two bronze medals.

  11. Conditions of Collaboration: A Dean's List of Dos and Don'ts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glotzbach, Philip A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents relational and structural conditions necessary to successful collaboration between college faculty and administrators. Relational conditions include "refuse to play zero-sum games" and "the most important power in a college is the power to persuade." Structural conditions include "clarify the roles of players" and "prefer a matrix…

  12. Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII Biennial Evaluation Report, 1995-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa M.

    This is an evaluation of the first 2 years of a 5-year comprehensive Bilingual Education grant funded by Title VII Part A of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas). The grant awarded to the AISD funds a program of Developmental Bilingual Education at two elementary schools where more…

  13. A social media primer for professionals: digital dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Jay M; Alber, Julia; Gold, Robert S

    2014-03-01

    Social media sites have become powerful and important tools for health education, promotion, and communication activities as they have dramatically grown in popularity. Social media sites also offer many features that can be used for professional development and advancement. When used wisely and prudently, social media sites and platforms offer great potential for professional development by building and cultivating professional networks, as well as sharing information to increase one's recognition and improve one's reputation. They also provide a medium for increasing one's knowledge and awareness of timely news and trends by following important organizations, opinion leaders, and influential professionals. When used unwisely and imprudently, there is the potential to delay, damage, or even destroy one's professional and personal life. In this commentary, we offer recommendations for using Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter for professional development and caution against online behaviors that may have negative professional consequences. In summary, we believe that the strengths and benefits of social media for professional advancement and development far outweigh the risks and encourage health promotion professionals to properly engage these powerful tools. PMID:24396119

  14. The "Dos and Don'ts" of Writing a Journal Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kekale, Tauno; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra; Cervai, Sara; Borelli, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: During work as reviewers and editors of journals authors are often faced the same types of problems in many articles. The purpose of this piece is to give some guidelines on typical problems that lead to rejection, and how to avoid these. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses journal article design and offers some methodology…

  15. Aspectos linguisticos dos emprestimos em portugues (Linguistic Aspects of Adaptation into Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Ronald M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the process through which modern Portuguese borrows from other languages, mainly French and English. Portuguese adapts these derivatives to conform to its own rules of phonology, morphology, and semantics. (four references) (Author/CK)

  16. Vibration DOS of 57Fe and Zn doped rutile Sn(Sb) oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi; Rykov, Alexandre; Németh, Zoltán; Yoda, Yoshitaka

    2012-03-01

    Sn oxides co-doped with Zn, Sb and 57Fe were prepared by sol-gel method, and especially the doping effect of non-magnetic Zn ions was studied. The bulk saturation magnetization is in accordance with the intensity of the magnetic component in Mössbauer spectra. The nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of these compounds were measured in SPring 8. The vibration density of states (VDOS) of 57Fe doped Sn(Sb) oxides showed that the softening peaks around 15-20 meV appeared by doping less than 10% Zn ions. The clusters of non-magnetic ZnFe2O4 may be most probably formed under the limit of XRD detections. The results suggest that the strengthening of ferromagnetism, which appears in the dilute Zn doping, may occur due to the spin arrangement of dilute Fe3 + through magnetic defects rather than the formation of magnetic iron oxides.

  17. Mössbauer and vibrational DOS studies of diluted magnetic tin oxides and nano iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Rykov, A. I.; Navarro, A. M. Mudarra; Torres, C. E. Rodriguez; Errico, L. A.; Barrero, C. A.; Yoda, Y.

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic properties and Mössbauer results for SnO2 doped with 57Fe are reviewed, and the values of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are compared with the results obtained by ab initio calculations. It is concluded that the exchange interactions between oxygen defects and magnetic atoms are responsible for long range magnetic interactions of dilute Fe ions dispersed in SnO2. Fe atom precipitated clusters may be formed in highly Fe doped SnO2 samples by annealing at relatively high temperatures for several hours. The reduction of the particle size to nano-scale dimensions induces magnetization, which can be associated with oxygen defects. We have measured the nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of Fe oxides, and 57Fe and (Co or Mn) doped SnO2 synthesized mainly by sol-gel methods and we have derived the vibration density of states (VDOS). The local phonons are sensitive to the presence of precipitated clusters.

  18. Mössbauer and vibrational DOS studies of diluted magnetic tin oxides and nano iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Rykov, A. I.; Navarro, A. M. Mudarra; Torres, C. E. Rodriguez; Errico, L. A.; Barrero, C. A.; Yoda, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic properties and Mössbauer results for SnO2 doped with 57Fe are reviewed, and the values of isomer shift and quadrupole splitting are compared with the results obtained by ab initio calculations. It is concluded that the exchange interactions between oxygen defects and magnetic atoms are responsible for long range magnetic interactions of dilute Fe ions dispersed in SnO2. Fe atom precipitated clusters may be formed in highly Fe doped SnO2 samples by annealing at relatively high temperatures for several hours. The reduction of the particle size to nano-scale dimensions induces magnetization, which can be associated with oxygen defects. We have measured the nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) spectra of Fe oxides, and 57Fe and (Co or Mn) doped SnO2 synthesized mainly by sol-gel methods and we have derived the vibration density of states (VDOS). The local phonons are sensitive to the presence of precipitated clusters.

  19. Unidad: Las influencias culturales en el arte mexicana (Unit: Cultural Influences in Mexican Art). Dos semanas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finere, Neal

    This two-week unit, appropriate for bilingual education settings as well as foreign language programs, deals with the three primary cultural influences found in Mexican contemporary art. The multisensory materials, pragmatic focus, and direct creative student involvement are designed to make it a microcosmic, real-life experience. The first part…

  20. Buscando Su Voz en Dos Culturas = Finding Your Voice in Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara

    1998-01-01

    An administrator/former teacher ponders difficulties of living in two cultures: a professional world that respects her degrees and credentials and a Latina world that questions pursuit of the "American dream." Although she used her American voice to coax a Latina student back to school, she sympathized with the mother's family-centered aspirations…

  1. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  2. Land disposal of San Luis drain sediments, Panoche Water District, South Dos Palos, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, Peter; Benson, Sally; TerBerg, Robert; Borglin, Sharon

    2002-07-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), LFR Levine-Fricke (LFR), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Panoche Water District, have completed a pilot-scale test of the viability of land application of selenium- (Se-) enriched San Luis Drain (SLD) sediments. The project was initiated in October 1998 by LBNL. LFR assumed the role of primary subcontractor on the project in July 2001. Substantial portions of this report, describing work performed prior to November 2000, were previously prepared by LBNL personnel. The data set, findings, and recommendations are herein updated with information collected since November 2000. Local land disposal is an attractive option due to its low cost and the proximity of large areas of available land. Two modes of disposal are being tested: (1) the application to a nearby SLD embankment, and (2) the application to and incorporation with nearby farm soils. The study of these options considers the key problems that may potentially arise from this approach. These include disturbance of SLD sediments during dredging, resulting in increased downstream Se concentrations; movement of the land-applied Se to groundwater; reduced productivity of farm crops; and Se uptake by wild and crop plants. This report describes field and laboratory activities carried out from 1998 through February 2002, and results of these investigations.

  3. How to write an EEG report: dos and don'ts.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Peter W; Benbadis, Selim R

    2013-01-01

    The EEG report is structured to include demographics of the patient studied and reason for the EEG; specifics of the EEG techniques used; a description of the patterns, frequencies, voltages, and progression of the EEG pattern that were recorded; and finally a clinical impression of the EEG significance. The interpretation should be concise, clear and to the point, avoid jargon and EEG specifics, and should be understandable by any health care practitioner. PMID:23267044

  4. Dos and Don'ts of Giving OTC Cough and Cold Medicines to Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... packages to keep track of important labels and expiration dates. Do store all medicines up and away, out ... prevent them from becoming less effective before their expiration dates. Don’ts Don’t give OTC cough and ...

  5. "Being Present in the World": A Conversation with Professor Jose Marques dos Santos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.; Dodds, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The University of Porto was awarded the European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Elite Award for its innovative application of information technology to a European university. This university--nearly one hundred years old--is pressing hard, on a number of fronts, to place itself in the top rank of European universities. The Rector of the…

  6. DIABETES MELLITUS COMO FACTOR DE RIESGO DE DEMENCIA EN LA POBLACIÓN ADULTA MAYOR MEXICANA

    PubMed Central

    Silvia, Mejía-Arango; Clemente, y Zúñiga-Gil

    2012-01-01

    Introduccion La diabetes mellitus y las demencias constituyen dos problemas crecientes de salud entre la población adulta mayor del mundo y en particular de los paises en desarrollo. Hacen falta estudios longitudinales sobre el papel de la diabetes como factor de riesgo para demencia. Objetivo Determinar el riesgo de demencia en sujetos Mexicanos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Materiales y Metodos Los sujetos diabéticos libres de demencia pertenecientes al Estudio Nacional de Salud y Envejecimiento en México fueron evaluados a los dos años de la línea de base. Se estudió el papel de los factores sociodemográficos, de otras comorbilidades y del tipo de tratamiento en la conversión a demencia. Resultados Durante la línea de base 749 sujetos (13.8%) tuvieron diabetes. El riesgo de desarrollar demencia en estos individuos fue el doble (RR, 2.08 IC 95%, 1.59–2.73). Se encontró un riesgo mayor en individuos de 80 años y más (RR 2.44 IC 95%, 1.46–4.08), en los hombres (RR, 2.25 IC 95%, 1.46–3.49) y en sujetos con nivel educativo menor de 7 años. El estar bajo tratamiento con insulina incrementó el riesgo de demencia (RR, 2.83, IC 95%, 1.58–5.06). Las otras comorbilidades que aumentaron el riesgo de demencia en los pacientes diabéticos fueron la hipertensión (RR, 2.75, IC 95%, 1.86–4.06) y la depresión (RR, 3.78, 95% IC 2.37–6.04). Conclusión Los sujetos con diabetes mellitus tienen un riesgo mayor de desarrollar demencia, La baja escolaridad y otras comorbilidades altamente prevalentes en la población Mexicana contribuyen a la asociación diabetes-demencia. PMID:21948010

  7. Undiscovered petroleum of the Brazilian interior sag basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingston, J.; Matzko, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the four large intracratonic (or interior) sag basins of Brazil: the Solimoes, Amazonas, Parnaiba, and Parana. The smaller Chaco basin also is discussed, although in less detail. The Dolimoes basin has the greatest initial estimated undiscovered reserves of oil (0.04 BBO), and the Parana basin has the greatest initial estimated undiscovered reserves of gas (5.08 TCFG). The most important plays in the Solimoes and structurally similar Amazonas basins are the fold and fault closures associated with the wrench systems found in the basins. The plays in the Parana basin are limited to possible structural traps linked to fault-associated closures, and possibly to some wrench-related features.

  8. Nonproducing Paraguay to get rare wildcats

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1997-04-21

    Exploratory drilling is to start this summer on one of two large, lightly explored tracts in the Chaco-Parana basin of nonproducing Paraguay. Spectrum Oil Corp., Bakersfield, California, plans to start drilling in July 1997 on the Alto Parana Block, one of two blocks that cover a combined 21,000 sq miles. This is more than one eight of Paraguay`s land area and one of the world`s largest onshore concession areas. The first wells will aim at Devonian and Carboniferous targets. Spectrum has spent $11 million reinterpreting Pecten and Texaco seismic data and acquiring new seismic data. The company only got good data on one half of 1% of the total area but believes it has 17 drillable targets. The paper discusses exploration history, geologic setting, the Alto Parana Block, the San Pedro Block, terms and logistics.

  9. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, R. E.; Laurino, C. N.; Vallejos, R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The use of aquatic plants in artificial lakes as a biomass source for biogas and fertilizer production through anaerobic fermentation is evaluated, and the magnitude of this resource and the potential production of biogas and fertilizer are estimated. The specific case considered is the artificial lake that will be created by the construction of Parana Medio Hydroelectric Project on the middle Parana River in Argentina. The growth of the main aquatic plant, water hyacinth, on the middle Parana River has been measured, and its conversion to methane by anaerobic fermentation is determined. It is estimated that gross methane production may be between 1.0-4.1 x 10 to the 9th cu cm/year. The fermentation residue can be used as a soil conditioner, and it is estimated production of the residue may represent between 54,900-221,400 tons of nitrogen/year, a value which is 2-8 times the present nitrogen fertilizer demand in Argentina.

  10. Geologic Map of MTM -20012 and -25012 Quadrangles, Margaritifer Terra Region of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S.A.; Fortezzo, C.M.; Clark, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Mars Transverse Mercator (MTM) -20012 and -25012 quadrangles (lat 17.5 deg - 27.5 deg S., long 345 deg - 350 deg E.) cover a portion of Margaritifer Terra near the east end of Valles Marineris. The map area consists of a diverse assemblage of geologic surfaces including isolated knobs of rugged mountainous material, heavily cratered and dissected ancient highland material, a variety of plains materials, chaotic terrain materials, and one of the highest densities of preserved valleys and their associated deposits on the planet (Saunders, 1979; Baker, 1982; Phillips and others, 2000, 2001). The map area is centered on a degraded, partially filled, ~200-km-diameter impact structure (lat 22 deg S., long 347.5 deg E.), informally referred to as Parana basin, located between Parana Valles to the east and Loire Valles to the west. Parana Valles is a network of multidigitate, mostly east-west-oriented valleys that flowed west and discharged into Parana basin (Grant, 1987, 2000; Grant and Parker, 2002). Loire Valles, broadly comparable in length to the Grand Canyon on Earth, has a deeply incised channel within the map area that originates at the west-northwest edge of Erythraeum Chaos within Parana basin (Grant, 1987, 2000; Grant and Parker, 2002; Strom and others, 2000). Parana and Loire Valles, combined with Samara Valles to the west, form one of the most laterally extensive, well-integrated valley networks on Mars (Grant, 2000) and record a long history of modification by fluvial processes. The origin and morphology of the valley networks, therefore, provide insight into past environmental conditions, whereas their relation with other landforms helps constrain the timing and role of fluvial processes in the evolution and modification of the Margaritifer Terra region.

  11. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de

  12. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    modelizacion, y aplicacion en convertidores PWM, esta aun por estudiar y valorar. El primer Capitulo consiste en una breve introduccion al problema de la regulacion cruzada y la impedancia cruzada para posteriormente describir las tecnicas de post-regulacion actualmente mas empleadas, con especial atencion al post-regulador con transformador controlado. El Capitulo segundo trata del estudio de las caracteristicas estaticas del postregulador con transformador controlado. Partiendo de los estudios disponibles sobre el postregulador se plantean mejoras en su modo de actuacion y se discuten tres alternativas diferentes para controlar el transformador. Las dos primeras consisten en emplear un convertidor auxiliar Boost en sus dos modos de funcionamiento, continuo y discontinuo. La tercera consiste en controlar el transformador con una tension PWM directamente, sin filtrado. Finalmente se comprueba experimentalmente, para el estado estacionario, el funcionamiento del post-regulador para cada uno de los tres metodos de control. El Capitulo tercero trata de la dinamica de la salida controlada con el post-regulador cuando este emplea un convertidor auxiliar tipo Boost. Mediante la tecnica de promediado de variables de estado se propone el modelo de pequena senal, tanto para el modo continuo como para el modo discontinuo de funcionamiento del convertidor auxiliar. Los resultados mas significativos de esta seccion son las expresiones analiticas de las impedancias cruzadas y de la impedancia de la salida post-regulada. Como complemento al modelo de pequena senal se plantea un modelo de gran senal implementado sobre el simulador Pspice. Con este nuevo modelo se reproducen los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de pequena senal y ademas es posible simular los transitorios en las tensiones de salida ante cambios de carga. La modelizacion del convertidor cuando el transformador se controla con una tension PWM sin filtrar es el objetivo del Capitulo 4. En las secciones siguientes del Capitulo

  13. Efficacy of an experimentally inactivated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reared in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tilapia aquaculture is one of the fastest growing segments of fish production in Brazil. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is largely cultivated in the state of Parana, where Streptococcus agalactiae is the cause of severe disease outbreaks. The objective of this paper was to evaluate an inactiva...

  14. The History of Water Discharge in the Margaritifer Sinus Region of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J. A.; Parker, T.

    2001-01-01

    Uzboi-Holden-Ladon-Margaritifer Valles and Samara and Parana-Loire Valles discharge into Margaritifer Basin during late-Noachian/early-Hesperian caused ponding, infiltration, and storage. Early-to-mid Hesperian release formed Margaritifer Chaos and Ares Valles. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Genetic diversity and biogeographic determinants of population structure in Araucaria angustifolia Bert. O Ktze.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is a dioecious conifer that plays an important social and economic role, especially in the South region of Brazil. Due to changes in land use and over- harvesting of seeds and timber, the species is now listed as critically endangered (IUCN 3.1). There have been...

  16. E-Learning of Genetic Counseling and Basic Genetics for Psychologists in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustilnick, Renato; Correia-Neto, Jorge S.; Vilar, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the development of a learning process of genetic counseling and basic genetics using an e-learning model and its application to a group of psychologists in the state of Parana in southern Brazil. The aim was to analyze the impact on the increase of knowledge in the presented subjects and the possibility of applying this…

  17. 76 FR 19788 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... notice in the Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act on December 8, 1988 (53 FR 49615). The... Federal Register pursuant to Section 6(b) of the Act October 22, 2010 (75 FR 65383). Patricia A. Brink..., Fink Kiel, GERMANY; Graphene, Palm Coast, FL; GVT Curitiba, Parana, BRAZIL; HughesTelematics,...

  18. Fluvial Drainage Basins and Valley Networks: Eastern Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, J. C.; Grant, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The fluvial drainage of the eastern Margaritifer Sinus (MC-19NE, SE) and northeastern Argyre (MC-26NE) Quadrangles is dominated by two major longitudinal valley networks, the Parana/Loire system on the east, and the Samara Himera system to the west. It is believed that both of these drainages are through-going to the northwest and debouch into Margaritifer Chaos (general location: 12S, 22.5W). The Parana/Loire drainage is bounded on the east in part by an ancient multi-ringed impact basin. The Parana multi-digitate network drains northwest into a depositional basin, and impact basin floor, characterized by positive relief chaos. It is believed that Loire Vallis heads in the basin; thus Parana and Loire Valles may be treated as one system. Samara Valles heads in the northeastern Argyre Quadrangle and extends as a major truck valley to the northwest. Samara Valles cuts through the hills forming one of the concentric rings of the Ladon impact basin and joins the Himera drainage to trend in a more northerly direction to Margaritifer Chaos. The downstream portion of Himera is considered to be part of the Samara

  19. A Remote Sensing Class Exercise To Study the Effects of "El Nino" in South America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxey, Lucas Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate physical science laboratory course exercising the utilization of satellite imagery for studying the floods that resulted in the Parana River region in South America during El Nino (1997-1998), and examines vegetation cover and spectral profiles from the study area in order to further understand and assess the changes…

  20. Internalizing the Crisis of Cotton: Organizing Small Farmers in Eastern Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, David; Borda, Dionisio

    1988-01-01

    Describes history, organizational problems and activities of Paraguay's Asociacion de Agricultores de Alto Parana (ASAGRAPA) and Programa de Ayuda Cristiana (PAC), farmer organizations. Details how cotton production losses forced farmers to invent new, varied markets, turning subsistence crops (peanuts, corn, and rice) into cash crops, while…

  1. First approach to studies of sulphur electron DOS in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues studied by XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Czapla, Joanna; Podgórczyk, Magdalena; Kisiel, Andrzej; Konior, Jerzy; Balerna, Antonella

    2011-10-01

    Urological cancers comprise approximately one-third of all cancers diagnosed in men worldwide and out of these, prostate cancer is the most common one ( WHO World Cancer Report, 2008). Several risk factors such as age, hormone levels, environmental conditions and family history are suspected to play a role in the onset of this disease of otherwise obscure aetiology. It is therefore the medical need that drives multidisciplinary research in this field, carried out by means of various experimental and theoretical techniques. Out of many relevant factors, it is believed that sulphur can take an important part in cancer transformations. We have investigated the prostate cancer cell lines and tissues, along with selected organic and inorganic compounds used as references, by the X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy near the sulphur edge energy region. Particularly, the comparison of the experimental results collected during XANES measurements and theoretical calculations of electron density of states with use of the FEFF8 code and LAPW (linearised augmented plane-wave) method has been performed and in this work the first results of our studies are presented.

  2. Computer Aided Drafting Packages for Secondary Education. Edition 2. PC DOS Compatible Programs. A MicroSIFT Quarterly Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim

    This report reviews eight IBM-compatible software packages that are available to secondary schools to teach computer-aided drafting (CAD). Software packages to be considered were selected following reviews of CAD periodicals, computers in education periodicals, advertisements, and recommendations of teachers. The packages were then rated by…

  3. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: El Bebe de Dos Meses (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Two-Month-Old).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Distributed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Education, and Health and Human Services, this Spanish-language pamphlet provides parents with information and advice about their infants in the second month of life. The pamphlet outlines typical infant behavior at 2 months of age, the need for regular visits to a physician, health insurance,…

  4. Spatial distribution of metals in sediments of the Ribeira Bay, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freret-Meurer, N V; Andreata, J V; Meurer, B C; Manzano, F V; Baptista, M G S; Teixeira, D E; Longo, M M

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to analyze the spatial distributions of several metals in sediments from five sites in Ribeira Bay, Brazil. Ribeira Bay is a very important area to the local community, due to its artisan fishery, and it also has a biological relevance for many marine species that use mangroves as nursery and feeding sites. According to the results, the area was not considered a metal polluted area. Despite not having a significant source of metals inside the Bay nowadays, Ilha Grande Bay harbors a shipyard, an oil terminal, and a commercial port, as well as two thermonuclear power plants (Angra I e II), all of which indirectly influence the study area. PMID:20188384

  5. The Dos and Don'ts of how to Build a Planet, Using the Moon as an Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The bulk chemical compositions of planets may yield important clues concerning planetary origins. Failing that, bulk compositions are still important, in that they constrain calculation of planetary mineralogies and also constrain the petrogenesis of basaltic magmas. In the case of the Earth, there is little or no debate about the composition of the Earth's upper mantle. This is because our sample collections contain peridotitic xenoliths of that mantle. The most fertile of these are believed to have been little modified from their primary compositions. Using these samples and chondritic meteorites as a starting point, small perturbations on the compositions of existing samples allow useful reconstruction of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). Elsewhere, I have argued that the next simplest case is the Eucrite Parent Body (EPB). Reconstructions based on Sc partitioning indicate that the EPB can be well approximated by a mixture of 20% eucrite and 80% equilibrium olivine. This leads to a parent body that is similar to CO (or devolatilized CM) chondrites. Partial melting experiments on CM chondrites confirm this model, because the residual solids in these experiments are dominated by olivine with minor pigonite [3]. The most difficult bodies to reconstruct are those that have undergone the most differentiation. Both the Moon and Mars may have passed through a magma ocean stage. In any event, lunar and martian basalts, unlike eucrites, were not derived from undifferentiated source regions. Reconstructions are primarily based on compositional trends within the basalts themselves with some critical assumptions: (i) Refractory lithophile elements (Ca, Al, REE, actinides) are presumed to be in chondritic relative abundances; and (ii) some major element ratio is believed to exist in a chondritic ratio (e.g., Mg/Si, Mg/Al). The most commonly used parameter is Mg/Si.

  6. The DOS 1 neutron dosimetry experiment at the HB-4-A key 7 surveillance site on the HFIR pressure vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, K.; Kam, F.B.; Baldwin, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive neutron dosimetry experiment was made at one of the prime surveillance sites at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel to aid radiation embrittlement studies of the vessel and to benchmark neutron transport calculations. The thermal neutron flux at the key 7, position 5 site was found, from measurements of radioactivation of four cobalt wires and four silver wires, to be 2.4 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux derived from two helium accumulation monitors was 2.3 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The thermal flux estimated by neutron transport calculations was 3.7 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. The fast flux, >1 MeV, determined from two nickel activation wires, was 1.5 {times} 10{sup 12} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1}, in keeping with values obtained earlier from stainless steel surveillance monitors and with a computed value of 1.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}{sup {minus}1}. The fast fluxes given by two reaction-product-type monitors, neptunium-237 and beryllium, were 2.6 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s {sup {minus}1} and 2.2 {times} 10{sup 13} n{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Follow-up experiments indicate that these latter high values of fast flux are reproducible but are false; they are due to the creation of greater levels of reaction products by photonuclear events induced by an exceptionally high ratio of gamma flux to fast neutron flux at the vessel.

  7. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  8. Cornell Produces a Video of Safety Dos and Don'ts for the YouTube Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Don't drink too much, download pirated files, light candles, or prop open doors. Warnings like those pervade the weighty work of admonition known as the student handbook. However, Allen J. Bova wonders, "Who ever reads that?" So Mr. Bova, director of risk management and insurance at Cornell University, tried to reach students with a video. This…

  9. Hybrid Identity in Academic Writing: "Are There Two of Me?" (Identidad híbrida: "¿hay dos yo?")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Troy; Lengeling, Martha; Mora Pablo, Irasema; Heredia Ocampo, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the construction of identity in an academic learning environment in Central Mexico, and shows how identity may be linked to non-language factors such as emotions or family. These issues are associated with elements of hybrid identity. To analyze this we draw on language choice as a tool used for the construction of identity and…

  10. (BARS) -- Bibliographic Retrieval System, Sandia Shock Compression (SSC) database Shock Physics Index (SPHINX). PC/DOS version 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, W.; Parker, T.J.; Mulholland, K.

    1993-09-01

    The Bibliographic Retrieval System (BARS) is a database management system specially designed to retrieve bibliographic references. Two databases are available, (i) the Sandia Shock Compression (SSC) database which contains over 5600 references to the literature related to stress waves in solids and their applications, and (ii) the Shock Physics Index (SPHINX) which includes over 6200 further references to stress waves in solids, material properties at intermediate and low rates, ballistic and hypervelocity impact, and explosive or shock fabrication methods. There is some overlap in the information in the two data bases.

  11. Protective Action Evaluator for Chemical Emergencies: A user's manual (MS-DOS reg sign Version 1. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.O.; Sharp, R.D.

    1990-10-01

    The protective action evaluator for chemical emergencies (PAECE) is a package of computer programs developed to simulate an emergency response to airborne release of chemical agents. This user's manual documents the use of PAECE in the evaluation of chemical agent emergencies in areas potentially affected by the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Planning Program (CSEPP). This research documents the development and use of a method for the evaluation of protective action alternatives in conjunction with potential chemical agent emergencies. The user's manual highlights the development of the PAECE model, the selection of appropriate parameters to represent various scenarios, generate results and interpret them in the analysis of protective action alternatives during the planning and preparedness phases of the CSEPP. The PAECE model is designed to evaluate protective actions in the context of potential accidents, the emergency management systems required to implement protective actions, and the anticipated consequences for human receptors. The implications and uncertainties of the model are discussed to provide potential users with insight into the use, limitations, and uncertainties associated with evaluating the effectiveness of protective action alternatives. While PAECE represents a unique and powerful tool to evaluate protective actions, the user must exercise caution when interpreting the results to avoid misrepresentation. The expected value interpretation of the PAECE results biases the results toward extreme values. Hence, the PAECE results have to be interpreted in the context exposures similar to those represented by the unprotected exposure and the protection capacity that tend to be associated with people completing the implementation of the required actions later than and earlier than average, respectively. 16 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab. (JF)

  12. HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors as promising compounds against Candida albicans André Luis Souza dos Santos

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, André Luis Souza

    2010-01-01

    Cells of Candida albicans (C. albicans) can invade humans and may lead to mucosal and skin infections or to deep-seated mycoses of almost all inner organs, especially in immunocompromised patients. In this context, both the host immune status and the ability of C. albicans to modulate the expression of its virulence factors are relevant aspects that drive the candidal susceptibility or resistance; in this last case, culminating in the establishment of successful infection known as candidiasis. C. albicans possesses a potent armamentarium consisting of several virulence molecules that help the fungal cells to escape of the host immune responses. There is no doubt that the secretion of aspartyl-type proteases, designated as Saps, are one of the major virulence attributes produced by C. albicans cells, since these hydrolytic enzymes participate in a wide range of fungal physiological processes as well as in different facets of the fungal-host interactions. For these reasons, Saps clearly hold promise as new potential drug targets. Corroborating this hypothesis, the introduction of new anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs of the aspartyl protease inhibitor-type (HIV PIs) have emerged as new agents for the inhibition of Saps. The introduction of HIV PIs has revolutionized the treatment of HIV disease, reducing opportunistic infections, especially candidiasis. The attenuation of candidal infections in HIV-infected individuals might not solely have resulted from improved immunological status, but also as a result of direct inhibition of C. albicans Saps. In this article, we review updates on the beneficial effects of HIV PIs against the human fungal pathogen C. albicans, focusing on the effects of these compounds on Sap activity, growth behavior, morphological architecture, cellular differentiation, fungal adhesion to animal cells and abiotic materials, modulation of virulence factors, experimental candidiasis infection, and their synergistic actions with classical antifungal agents. PMID:21537366

  13. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #9: ORD PROVIDES TECHNICAL SUPPORT TO EPA/OIA & DOS INITIATIVE IN EGYPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ninth edition reports on a workshop on global climate change that was held in Cairo, Egypt, on May 10-12, 1999. The workshop represented a successful partnership between EPA's Office of International Affairs, Office of Research and Development (ORD), Office of Air and Radiat...

  14. Cozinha: Um Lugar para a "bildung" dos Educadores (The Kitchen: A Place for the "bildung" of Educators).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damiano, Gilberto

    2000-01-01

    Uses a kitchen metaphor for philosophy of education, in dialogue with Augustine, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Brillat-Savarin, and others. Mixes and cooks ingredients in thinking: the centrality of the human being, corporeality, historicity, and transcendency; food as sign-symbol; eating-linguistic habits; educator-cook; space of the kitchen; sensuality,…

  15. Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

    2012-08-01

    Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human

  16. View of Argentina-Paraguay border area of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Argentina-Paraguay border area of South America as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. This picture was taken with type 2443 infrared color film. The Parana River flows from east to west across the picture. This part of the Rio Parana is located between the towns of Posadas, Argentina, and Resitencia, Argentina. The major body of water in the large swamp area is Laguna Ibera. Note the several fires burning in this area. The largest land mass (Argentina) is south of the river. Paraguay is north of the river. Isla Apipe Grande is near the center of the photograph.

  17. The Ponta Grossa Arch: A proposal for ts configuration and evolution from the interpretation of remote sensing data. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dealmeida, T. I. R.

    1983-01-01

    Visual analysis of MSS imagery was used to construct a map of dikes in a wide area of the Ponta Grossa Arch both in the Parana Basin and its basement. Analysis of the map by photographic methods defined the zone of highest density of the dikes, and some aspects of the longitudinal and transverse heterogeneities, as well as localized the apex of the Arch. Borders of the Arch were also suggested. Field investigations confirmed the position of the apex of the flexure on Palezoic sediments and pre-lava Mesozoic sediments. Controversial aspects of the relative absence of dikes in certain units or lithologies and the composition of intrusions surrounding the city of Castro were observed. The apparent synchronism between the activity of the Parana Basin and the Arch is discussed as well as the frequent inverse characteristics of vertical movements. The similarity of rocks in Brazil and Africa is also considered.

  18. Karyotypic diversity among three species of the genus Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, P B; Vieira, M M R; Porto, F E; Borin, L A; Portela-Castro, A L B; Santos, I C M

    2016-06-01

    The group Incertae sedis within the Characidae family currently includes 88 genera, previously included in the subfamily Tetragonopterinae. Among them is the genus Astyanax comprising a group of species with similar morphology and widely distributed in the Neotropics. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the karyotype diversity in Astyanax species from different watersheds by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH rDNA 18S) probe.specimens of Astyanax aff. paranae belonging to the "scabripinnis complex", Astyanax asunsionensis and Astyanax aff. bimaculatus were analyzed". Two sympatric karyomorphs were observed in Astyanax.aff paranae, one of them having2n=48andthe other one with 2n=50 chromosomes. Other population of this same species also presented 2n=50 chromosomes, but differing in the karyotype formula and with macro supernumerary chromosome found in 100% of the cells in about 80%of females analyzed. Two population of A. asuncionensis and one population of Astyanax. aff. bimaculatus, also showed a diploid number of 50 chromosomes, but also differing in their karyotype formulas. Therefore, A. asuncionensis was also characterized by intraspecific chromosome diversity. The C-banding analysis was able to demonstrate a distinctable to demonstrate a distinct pattern of heterochromatin differing A. asuncionensis from Astyanax aff. paranae and Astyanax aff. bimaculatus. The supernumerary chromosome of Astyanax aff. paranae proved completely heterochromatic. Only Astyanax.aff. bimaculatus multiple showed multiple sites of nucleolar organizing regions. The other species were characterized by having a simple system of NOR. These data contributes to the know ledge of the existing biodiversity in our fish fauna, here highlighted by the inter- and intraspecific chromosomal diversity in the genus Astyanax. PMID:26934153

  19. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  20. Well cored to 9,800 ft in Paraguay

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, K.B. )

    1991-05-13

    The mining industry's slim hole drilling rigs have proven applicable to primary oil exploration. These machines are smaller than conventional drilling rigs and can be transported with relative ease to remote locations. A typical rig drills an entire well by coring, with the cores retrieved by wire line without tripping the pipe. The core drilling system is specially suited to drilling hard rock formations. This paper reports on the project which evaluated the geological aspects of the Parana basin and determined the applicability of slim hole, core drilling techniques as an exploration tool. The Parana basin is found in the eastern third of Paraguay, part of northeastern Argentina, and part of southern Brazil. Much of the basin is overlaid by basalt flows up to 5,000-ft thick, and there are numerous igneous intrusions and dikes within the sedimentary section. This combination makes seismic quality poor and interpretation extremely difficult. The formations are relatively old, with Triassic red beds occurring only a few feet below the surface or immediately below the basalt. Beneath the Triassic are Permian marine deposits, Permo-Carboniferous tillites, and then Devonian, Silurian, and Ordovician deposits to the basement. The section outcrops 100 miles west of the Mallorquin Well No. 1 site. The Parana basin has been only randomly explored. To date, success has been limited to a minor gas find near Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  1. Glacial geologic confirmation of an intraplate boundary, in the Paraná basin of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyles, N.; Eyles, C. H.

    1993-05-01

    The predrift fit of South America and Africa remains problematic given the inability to match all parts of the coastlines simultaneously. Early opening of the South Atlantic Ocean may have been facilitated by intraplate deformation in either South America or Africa, but the location of such deformation is controversial and poorly constrained. Broad-scale remote sensing has suggested an intraplate boundary in South America, stretching from the Cochabamba bend in the Andes to the Rio Grande-Walvis rise, but the inferred boundary crosses the Paranaá basin of Brazil where any evidence of deformation is obscured by Late Jurassic flood basalts. A subsurface study of the upper Paleozoic glaciogenic infill of the Paranaá basin (the 1300-m-thick Itarare Group; ca. 300-260 Ma) identifies repeated episodes of intracratonic rifting on either side of an accommodation zone crossing the basin along the trend of the inferred intraplate boundary. Renewed influence of this zone during the opening of the South Atlantic is suggested by the asymmetric distribution of successive magma units within the Serra Geral lava pile and by the trend of dike swarms. The intraplate boundary identified within the Paranaá basin may extend westward along the northern margin of the Chaco basin in Bolivia.

  2. Part 1: The geomorphic evolution of Eastern Margaritifer Sinus, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III

    1987-01-01

    Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins, were used to trace the geologic evolution of Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The oldest dated surface covering these basins evolved during the period of intense bombardment. Since that time four resurfacing events have occurred. The first three were all of regional extent, while the fourth, occurred locally, filling basins. Valley networks, incised in the third event unit, are always buried by the fourth event unit when present. A peak in geomorphic activity occurred from 10,000 to 5000. Events during this period included the formation of Uzboi/Ladon Valles with deposition in Ladon Basin, and the formation of Samara and Parana/Loire Valles in MC19SE. Flow out of Ladon Basin and to a lesser extent Samara and Parana/Loire Valles created etched terrain at their confluence that was synchronous with initiation of Margaritifer and Iani Chaos. The range of dates for the chaos may be due to periodic collapse. The extensive, well integrted nature of Samara and Parana/Loire Valles requires the existence of a long period of favorable climatic conditions to allow their formation. Development of these two systems was probably through sapping processes.

  3. Análise da aplicação e dos resultados do modelo OPM3® para a área da saúde

    PubMed Central

    Augusto dos Santos, Luis; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Esta pesquisa procurou analisar se um modelo de questionário criado por uma comunidade internacional de gerenciamento de projetos e se é aplicavél a organizações voltadas a área de saúde. O modelo OPM3® (Organizational Project Management Maturity Model) foi criado para que organizações de qualquer área ou porte pudessem identificar a presença, ou ausência, de boas práticas de gerenciamento. O objetivo da aplicação desse modelo é avaliar sempre a organização e não o entrevistado. No presente artigo, são apresentados os resultados da aplicação desse modelo em uma organização que possuía produtos e serviços de tecnologia da informação aplicados à área de saúde. Este estudo verificou que o modelo é aplicável de forma rápida e que a organização analisada possuía um número expressivo de boas práticas. PMID:26924862

  4. Neodymium, strontium and chromium isotopic studies of the LEW86010 and Angra dos Reis meteorites and the chronology of the angrite parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Bansal, B.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    Neodymium, stontium, and chromium isotopic studies of the LEW86010 angrite established its absolute age and the formation interval between its crystallization and condensation of Allende CAIs from the solar nebula. Pyroxene and phosphate were found to contain approximately 8% of its Sm and Nd inventory. A conventional Sm-147-Nd-143 isochron yielded an age of 4.53 +/- 0.04 Ga (2 sigma and Epsilon(sub Nd sup 143)) = 0.45 +/- 1.1. An Sm-146-Nd-142 isochron gives initial Sm-146/Sm-144 = 0.0076 +/- 0.0009 and Epsilon (sub Nd sup 142) = -2.5 +/- 0.4. The Rb-Sr analyses give initial Sr-87/Sr-86 Iota(sub Sr sup 87) = 0.698972 +/- 8 and 0.698970 +/- 18 for LEW and ADOR, respectively, relative to Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.71025 for NBS987. The difference, Delta Iota(sub Sr Sup 87), between Iota (sub sr sup 87) for the angrites and literature values for Allende CAIs, corresponds to approximately Ma of growth in a solar nebula with a CI chondrite value of Rb-87/Sr-86 = 0.91, or approximately 5 Ma in a nebula with solar photospheric Rb-87/Sr-86 = 1.51. Excess Cr-53 from extinct Mn-53(t(sub 1/2) = 3.7 Ma)in LEW86010 corresponds to initial Mn-53/Mn-55 = 4.4 +/- 1.0 x 10(exp -5) for the inclusions as previously reported by the Paris group (Birck and Allegre, 1988). The Sm-146/Sm-144 value found for LEW86010 corresponds to solar system initial (Sm-146/Sm-144) = 0.0080 +/- 0.0009 for crystallization 8 Ma after Allende, the difference between Pb-Pb ages of angrites and Allende, or 0.0086 +/- 0.0009 for crystallation 18 Ma after Allende, using the Mn-Cr formation interval. The isotopic data are discussed in the context of a model in which an undifferentiated 'chondritic' parent body formed from the solar nebula approximately Ma after Allende CAIs and subsequently underwent differentiation accompanied by loss of volatiles. Parent bodies with Rb/Sr similar to that of CI, CM, or CO chondrites could satisfy the Cr and Sr isotopic systematics. If the angrite parent body had Rb/Sr similar to that of CV meteorites, it would have to form slightly later, approximately 2.6 Ma after the CAIs, to satisfy the Sr and CR isotopic systematics.

  5. Environmental factors affecting the distribution of land snails in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, G K M; Santos, S B

    2012-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of terrestrial molluscs are affected by environmental factors, but data are lacking for Brazilian land snails. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between measured environmental factors and the land-snail species composition of two hillsides covered with Atlantic Rain Forest on Ilha Grande. On each hillside, five plots located at 100 m intervals between 100 to 500 m asl were chosen. Each plot was sampled by carrying out timed searches and collecting and sorting litter samples from ten quadrats of 25 × 75 cm. A range of environmental data was measured for each of the quadrats in a plot. A Cluster Analysis was carried out for the richness and abundance data. The environmental variables were analysed using a Pearson Correlation Matrix and Discriminant Analysis. Our results show that the two mountains are similar in species richness, but species composition and abundance are different, probably reflecting observed differences in environmental conditions. The environmental factors associated with compositional variation between the two mountains were: atmospheric temperature, soil temperature, litter depth, and relative air humidity. Distinct luminosity and canopy closure conditions were related to the composition of the land-snail community of one hillside. PMID:22437388

  6. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  7. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  8. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  9. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  10. 48 CFR 653.219-71 - DOS form DS-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. 653.219-71 Section 653.219-71 Federal Acquisition...-4053, Department of State Mentor-Protégé Program Application. As prescribed in 619.102-70(i), DS-4053 is prescribed for use in applying for an agreement under the Department of State...

  11. El Proyecto Cunningham: Dos Idiomas; Muchos Paises, 1995-96 (The Cunningham Project: Two Languages, Many Countries, 1995-96). Research Report on Educational Grants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    This report presents an evaluation of a two-way bilingual program in English and Spanish at the Cunningham Elementary School (Texas). The program was designed to extend and expand educational reform by shifting the instructional program at the school over the 5-year time span from a transitional bilingual program to a two-way bilingual, or dual…

  12. Sanchez and Metz Elementary Schools: Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII First-Year Evaluation Report, 1995-96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa Maria

    The first-year evaluation of a two-way Spanish/English bilingual education program at two Austin (Texas) elementary schools is presented. The developmental program has as its objectives the development of students' oral proficiency in Spanish and English, development of grade-level appropriate literacy in both languages, increase in academic…

  13. Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo Dual Language Project Title VII Third-Year Evaluation Report, 1997-98. Publication Number 97.21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberty, Paul; Gonzalez, Rosa Maria

    An evaluation was conducted of the third year of a 5-year comprehensive bilingual education grant funded by Title VII of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994. The grant funds a program of developmental bilingual education at two elementary schools in the Austin Independent School District (Texas). More than 25% of the students at each…

  14. La investigacion sobre la calidad de los programas para ninos de hasta dos anos de edad (Research on Quality in Infant-Toddler Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Concern about the quality of infant-toddler care programs has grown recently in response to two factors. The first is the need of employed parents for such care, and the second is research emphasizing the importance of brain development in the early years. This Spanish-language Digest introduces some of the many issues related to the quality of…

  15. Adolescentes que no habrían fumado pueden ser atraídos por los cigarrillos electrónicos

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo del blog Temas y relatos sobre un estudio reciente que sugiere que los adolescentes están usando cigarrillos electrónicos no solo como sustituto de cigarrillos convencionales sino cigarrillos electrónicos están atrayendo nuevos usuarios de tabaco

  16. Plug in to the Utah Library Network, Reach Out to the World. Utah Library Network and Internet Training Handbook [for DOS]. Information Forum Publication #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinwand, Louis; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist public libraries in Utah in their use of the Internet. Many of the examples used were created specifically to explain the use of products that the Utah Library Network provides for public libraries in Utah. The introduction provides background history and general information about the Internet and general…

  17. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OSD files to the OSD Records Administrator, 1155 Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155. The... Review, Executive Services Directorate, 1155, Defense, Pentagon, Washington, DC 20301-1155 for...

  2. How Do You Say "Twos" in Spanish, if "Two" Is "Dos"? Language as Means and Object in a Bilingual Kindergarten Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Naomi Mulvihill uses vignettes from her bilingual kindergarten classroom to explore the dynamic processes by which young children make sense of language, focusing on instances in which she asks her students to compare texts presented in English and Spanish. Using Piaget's concept of disequilibrium as a guiding framework,…

  3. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  4. Determinación fotométrica de parámetros fundamentales de dos cúmulos abiertos del cuarto cuadrante Galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcionni, N.; Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Palma, T.; Piatti, A. E.

    We present preliminary results obtained from a photometric analysis in the Washington system C and T_{1} passbands of two poorly known open clusters (OCs) located in the fourth Galactic quadrant: BH 84 and BH 211. Based on the best fits of theoretical isochrones to the (T_1,C-T_1) colour- magnitude diagrams, we derive the fundamental cluster parameters. The present results are part of a major project which aims to characterize almost a hundred OCs observed and analyzed in a homogeneous way. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  5. Influence of El Nino and ITCZ on Brazilian River Streamflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, A.; Dracup, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    This study analyzes effects of climatic phenomena El Nino and ITCZ latitudinal movements on streamflow patterns in major Brazilian river basins: Amazon (north), Araguaia-Tocantins (central-north), Parana (central-south) and Sao Francisco (central-northeast). Multiple correlation between annual streamflows and the NINO 3.4 and North Tropical Atlantic SST indexes (NTA) were analyzed for each river basin using different annual periods in order to account for the delay in streamflow response. The data consists of unimpaired river discharge time series at key points (from the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA)); normalized yearly averaged NINO3.4 index characterizing El Nino (from NOAA); and NTA index (from NOAA), as a surrogate of the latitudinal movement of the ITCZ, since it is correlated to the Atlantic SST gradient. As a result, each river basin showed a different response. At the Amazon river basin, almost all dry years occurred when NINO3.4 was above average (El Nino years). Moreover, in almost every year when NINO3.4 was below average (La Nina) the streamflows were above average. Thus, it seems that La Nina have strong effects in floods in Amazon river. Moreover, El Nino events seem to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition for low streamflows at Amazon river. A weaker relationship was found for Xingu river basin, since it is probably affected by cold fronts from the south. As the location of river basins changes towards the south, the effect of El Nino events gets weaker as for Araguaia-Tocantins and Sao Francisco river basins. At the Parana river basin, the relationship is reversed. Almost all extreme wet years occurred during El Nino years. The correlation between streamflows and the NTA indexes were very weak for all river basins except for the Amazon. When the NTA anomaly is negative, wet years occurs, since the ITCZ moves southwards and stays longer at that position, increasing rainfall over the Amazon and Northeast of Brazil. In contrast, almost

  6. Associations between forest fragmentation patterns and geneticstructure in Pfrimer’s Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), an endangered endemic to central Brazil’s dry forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Leonard F.; Bianchi, Carlos; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    When habitat becomes fragmented, populations of species may become increasingly isolated. In the absence of habitat corridors, genetic structure may develop and populations risk reductions in genetic diversity from increased genetic drift and inbreeding. Deforestation of the Cerrado biome of Brazil, particularly of the dry forests within the Parana˜ River Basin, has incrementally occurred since the 1970s and increased forest fragmentation within the region. We performed landscape genetic analyses of Pfrimer’s parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), a globally endangered endemic to the region, to determine if forest fragmentation patterns were associated with genetic structuring in this species. We used previously generated satellite imagery that identified the locations of Parana˜ River Basin forest fragments in 1977, 1993/94, and 2008. Behavioral data quantifying the affinity of Pfrimer’s parakeet for forest habitat was used to parameterize empirically derived landscape conductance surfaces. Though genetic structure was observed among Pfrimer’s parakeet populations, no association between genetic and geographic distance was detected. Likewise, least cost path lengths, circuit theorybased resistance distances, and a new measure of least cost path length complexity could not be conclusively associated with genetic structure patterns. Instead, a new quantity that encapsulated connection redundancy from the 1977 forest fragmentation data provided the clearest associations with pairwise genetic differentiation patterns (Jost’s D: r = 0.72, P = 0.006; FST: r = 0.741, P = 0.001). Our analyses suggest a 35-year or more lag between deforestation and its effect on genetic structure. Because 66 % of the Parana˜ River Basin has been deforested since 1977, we expect that genetic structure will increase substantially among Pfrimer’s Parakeet populations in the future, especially if fragmentation continues at its current pace.

  7. Hard X-ray observations of the region from the galactic center to Centaurus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, D. D.; Webber, W. R.; Damle, S. V.

    1974-01-01

    A balloon flight from Parana, Argentina, was conducted to observe emissions from discrete or extended sources in the southern sky. The sources observed include GX 304-1, Nor X-2, GX 340+0, GX 354-5, a possibly composite source near the galactic center, and the nova-like source (2U1543-47) in the Lupus-Norma region which has been reported previously only in satellite observations. Data concerning the possibility of line emission near 0.5 MeV from different regions of the southern sky are also presented.

  8. [The Brazilguayans, Brazilian migrants in Paraguay].

    PubMed

    Pebayle, R

    1994-01-01

    "Since the 1950s, the population of Eastern regions of Paraguay has grown with the steady influx of Brazilian immigrants. Planters from Parana and Sao Paulo, mechanized wheat and soy farmers from the southern campos and cattle farmers from the Matto Grosso do Sul have joined mixed farmers, descendants of European settlers from the south of Brazil. Despite some local conflicts, the Brazilguayans...[in] Oriente [province] seem to be on the road to integration in Paraguay." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND POR) PMID:12288169

  9. Use of NOAA-N satellites for land/water discrimination and flood monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tappan, G.; Horvath, N. C.; Doraiswamy, P. C.; Engman, T.; Goss, D. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A tool for monitoring the extent of major floods was developed using data collected by the NOAA-6 advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). A basic understanding of the spectral returns in AVHRR channels 1 and 2 for water, soil, and vegetation was reached using a large number of NOAA-6 scenes from different seasons and geographic locations. A look-up table classifier was developed based on analysis of the reflective channel relationships for each surface feature. The classifier automatically separated land from water and produced classification maps which were registered for a number of acquisitions, including coverage of a major flood on the Parana River of Argentina.

  10. View of forest fires in South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This view, acquired with a Hasselblad camera equipped with a 250mm lens, shows only a small portion of forest fires that marked the Earth photography taken over Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina during this mission. Numerous fires are visible in this late-dry-season scene of the areas between the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. Most of this burning is usually associated with agricultural preparations. The nadir point of the Space Shuttle at the time this photograph was taken (2018 GMT, September 16, 1993) was 28.5 degrees South, 60.0 degrees West. The view is to the west.

  11. Linking the Modern and Recent Record of Cabo Frio Upwelling with Local Climate and Biogeochemical Processes in Hypersaline Coastal Lagoons, Região dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Nascimento, G. S.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Belem, A. L.; Carreira, R.; Eglinton, T. I.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2015-12-01

    A unique marine and lagoonal system along the coast east of Rio de Janeiro is being investigated to understand the impact of climatic variability on the South Atlantic carbon cycle and biomineralisation processes involved in carbonate precipitation in the hypersaline coastal lagoons. The region is dominated by a semi-arid microclimate attributed to the local coastal upwelling phenomenon near Cabo Frio. The intensity of the upwelling affects the hydrology of the annual water and biogeochemical cycles in the lagoons, as well as biogeochemical signals of environmental change recorded in both onshore and offshore sediments. Preliminary results of δ18O and δD values of water samples collected monthly in Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho from 2011 to 2014 show lower values for waters corresponding to the wet season, reflecting increased input of meteoric water. The higher values for waters collected during the dry season reflect the greater amount of evaporation with increased seasonal aridity. Radiocarbon dating of Holocene marine and lagoonal cores indicates that Mg-carbonate precipitation in the lagoons is associated with high evaporation. Modern field observations for the last 3 years suggest that the amount of carbonate precipitation is correlated with evaporitic conditions associated with the upwelling phenomenon. A calibration study of hydrogen isotopic fractionation in the modern lagoons is underway to define a relationship between δDlipid of suspended particles and δDwater of associated water. This isotopic relationship will be applied to material obtained in cores from the lagoons. Offshore cores will be studied using well-tested paleotemperature proxies to evaluate the intensity of the upwelling during the Holocene. In summary, linking the coastal upwelling with the lagoonal hydrology has the potential to furnish important insights about the relationship between the local climate and paleoceanographic circulation associated with the regional carbon cycle.

  12. 101 Tips, Traps, and To-Dos for Creating Teams: A Guidebook for School Leaders. Guiding Groups To Become Teams, Facilitating Them To Become High-Performance Teams, and Empowering Them To Become Technology-Based Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Gerald D.; Ross, Tweed; Bailey, Gwen L.; Lumley, Dan

    Using teams is an effective way to meet the challenges of breaking down teacher isolation, halting curriculum fragmentation, and creating a learning organization. This guide is designed to help school leaders train groups to become teams, guide them to become high-performance teams, and empower them to become technology-based teams. It contains…

  13. Geochronology and Nd isotope geochemistry of the Gameleira Cu-Au deposit, Serra dos Carajás, Brazil: 1.8-1.7 Ga hydrothermal alteration and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Márcio M.; Lindenmayer, Zara G.; Laux, Jorge H.; Armstrong, Richard; de Araújo, Janice Caldas

    2003-01-01

    The Gameleira deposit is one of several important Cu-Au deposits associated with the late Archean (ca. 2.7 Ga) volcanic rocks of the Itacaiúnas supergroup in the Carajás mineral province, southeastern Pará. It comprises mainly biotite- and sulphide-rich veins and quartz-grunerite-biotite-gold hydrothermal veins that cut andesitic rocks. It is interpreted as representative of the Fe oxide Cu-Au class of deposit. Sm-Nd isotopic data indicate an age of 2719±80 Ma (MSWD=3.0) and ɛNd( T) of -1.4 for the host meta-andesites. Metavolcanic rocks and cogenetic gabbros give an age of 2757±81 Ma (1 σ) with ɛNd( T) of -0.8. This is considered the best estimate for the crystallization age of the Gameleira volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. Negative ɛNd( T) and Archean TDM model ages (mostly between 2.8 and 3.1 Ga) suggest some contamination with older crustal material. The andesitic/gabbroic rocks are cut by two generations of granite dykes. The older has striking petrographic and geochemical similarities to the ca. 1.87 Ga alkali-rich Pojuca granite, which is exposed a few kilometers to the northwest of the deposit. The younger is a leucogranite with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 1583+9/-7 Ma. Neodymium isotopic analyses of the two generations of granites indicate a strong crustal affinity and possible derivation from reworking of the Archean crust. The quartz-grunerite-gold hydrothermal vein yields a Sm-Nd isochron (MSWD=.83) age of 1839±15 Ma (1 σ) with ɛNd( T) of -9.2. Pervasive potassic alteration, represented by the widespread formation of biotite in the country rocks, is dated by Ar-Ar at 1734±8 Ma, and a similar age of 1700±31 Ma (1 σ) is indicated by the Sm-Nd isochron for the biotite-sulphide veins. Similar to that for the quartz-grunerite vein, the ɛNd( T) value for the sulphide-rich veins is strongly negative (-8.2), thereby suggesting that the original fluids percolated through, leached, or were derived from igneous rocks with an Archaean Nd isotopic signature. The geochronological data suggest that the Gameleira Cu-Au mineralization is related to a Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1.83 Ga) episode of hydrothermal activity and is not Archaean. The younger ages of ca. 1.70-1.73 might be interpreted as products of the lower blocking temperatures of biotite in relation to the Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd isotopic systems. Combined with previous geochemistry and stable isotope data, the Nd isotopic data suggest that the mineralizing fluids were derived from, or strongly interacted with, a Paleoproterozoic crustal granite, possibly similar in age and composition to the Pojuca granite.

  14. DIMED 86: Discurso dos Media e Ensino a Distancia = Discours des Media et Enseignement a Distance = Media Speech and Distance Teaching. Papers Presented at a Seminar (21st, Algarve, Portugal, March 10-15, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Maria Eduarda Leal

    Presentations at this seminar on distance education focused on the different types of speech in multimedia presentations which contribute to the elaboration (simulated or substituted) of a situation involving different relationships. In addition to opening and closing remarks by Marcel de Greve and a final report by the Scientific Committee of…

  15. Observações simultâneas no óptico e infravermelho próximo dos BL Lacs PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304 em diversas escalas de tempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, T. P.; Abraham, Z.; Galo, A. L.

    2003-08-01

    A existência de variações rápidas de brilho em alguns blazares é um fenômeno bem comprovado, mas até agora não sabemos ao certo quais são os mecanismos físicos envolvidos. A maior dificuldade é a ausência de observações multibanda simultâneas que poderiam fornecer vínculos aos modelos. Buscando colaborar com a discussão estudamos o comportamento de dois BL Lacs, PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304, em relação à variabilidade em diversas escalas de tempo, de poucos minutos até vários meses, com observações simultâneas em seis bandas espectrais (óptico e infravermelho próximo). Para tanto dois telescópios do LNA foram utilizados em conjunto nas campanhas observacionais realizadas em 2001 e 2002, cujos resultados são apresentados aqui. As duas fontes apresentaram características bastante diferentes, inclusive em relação à existência de variabilidade nos índices espectrais. Particularmente, registramos a primeira detecção de variações em escalas de tempo da ordem de poucos minutos em PKS 2005-489, com evidências da presença de um atraso entre as curvas de luz nas bandas V e R e a variação em R ocorrendo antes (o contrário do esperado no modelo de shock-in-jet). Em PKS 2155-304 detectamos pela primeira vez variabilidade em escalas de tempo de poucos minutos no infravermelho em um AGN. As observações indicam que as variações de brilho em blazares são o resultado da ação de mais de um fenômeno, especialmente em escalas de tempo muito curtas. Alguns cenários físicos são sugeridos para explicar os resultados observacionais.

  16. Adenoviruses of canine and human origins in stool samples from free-living pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) in São Francisco de Paula, Rio dos Sinos basin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, G S; Fleck, J D; Kluge, M; Rech, N K; Soliman, M C; Staggemeier, R; Rodrigues, M T; Barros, M P; Heinzelmann, L S; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    The spread of enteric viruses of domestic animals and human beings to wild species can be facilitated by the resistance of these viruses on the environment and their ability to be transmitted by water and contaminated food. The health status of the populations of pampas foxes Lycalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) is largely unknown and the landscapes occupied by these animals in southern Brazil have been threatened by human occupation and expansion of agriculture. In this work, the search of genomes of human and canine adenoviruses in feces from these wild carnivores was used to track the dissemination of domestic animals and human pathogens to the free-living populations in a wildlife reserve located in southern Brazil. This was performed by virus-specific differential real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) on stool specimens, avoiding capture and additional stress to the animals. Genus-specific conventional reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was complementarily performed aiming the detection of enteroviruses (EV) and rotaviruses (RV) on these same samples. HAdV genomes were found on 14 out of the 17 (82.35%) stool samples analysed, whereas CAV was found co-infecting 5 of these samples. RV genomes were detected on 7 of the 17 samples (41.18%) and all samples were negative for EV. The results point to the dispersion of HAdV and RV at a high rate to these species of South American wild carnivores, which can be an effect of growing anthropisation of the habitat of these animals. PMID:26270208

  17. 14C and 13C Constraints on CO2 Cycling in Pristine and Deforested Lowland Amazonian Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorga, E.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Krusche, A. V.; Masiello, C. A.; Quay, P. D.; Richey, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    "Lowland" rivers in the Amazon are those that, unlike the Amazon mainstem, do not drain the Andean cordillera and are not directly influenced by sediments recently eroded from the Andes. The Brazilian Amazon is predominantly drained by lowland watersheds. We examined the sources and fate of CO2 and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) in a range of small to large lowland rivers across the region. In particular, we focused on the Ji-Parana basin, which spans the deforestation arc in the state of Rondonia. Carbonate weathering appears to be a strong source of DIC in the western lowland basins (Jurua and Purus); however, carbonate-derived DIC in these systems is completely flushed out downstream through outgassing and mixing with contemporary respiratory CO2 inputs and carbonate-free tributaries. DIC exported from carbonate-free lowland soils appers to be predominantly contemporary, but some regions in the Ji-Parana headwaters export CO2 with a mean age of several decades. In that system, replacement of C3 forests with C4 pastures appears to exert a strong influence on riverine carbon cycling from small to large rivers. Inputs from riparian grasses may play a disproportionately important role. Finally, we found tentative evidence that anoxic conditions in wetlands may result in mineralization of previously protected, aged organic matter, leading to significant aging in riverine DIC.

  18. Fungal diversity and natural occurrence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in freshly harvested wheat grains from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tralamazza, Sabina Moser; Bemvenuti, Renata Heidtmann; Zorzete, Patrícia; de Souza Garcia, Fábio; Corrêa, Benedito

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the fungal diversity and presence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in 150 samples of freshly harvested wheat grains collected in three regions of Brazil (Sao Paulo, Parana, and Rio Grande do Sul). Analysis of the mycobiota showed a predominance of Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp. and Epicoccum sp. Microdochium nivale (23%), a fungus rarely found in Brazilian crops, was detected in Sao Paulo. Four members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex were isolated: F. graminearum s.s. (37%), Fusarium meridionale (46%), Fusarium cortaderiae (13%), and Fusarium austroamericanum (3%). Toxin analysis revealed 99% contamination with deoxynivalenol (mean 706 μg/kg). The frequency of zearalenone varied greatly across regions: wheat grains from Rio Grande do Sul (84%) and Sao Paulo (12%) had median concentrations of 70.9 and 57.9 μg/kg, respectively. ZEA was not detected in the samples from Parana. A total of six samples were above the maximum tolerated level recommended by the European Commission for ZEA in wheat grains. This study provided new insights into the natural mycobiota of Brazilian wheat, demonstrating contamination of most samples with deoxynivalenol and high frequency of zearalenone in samples from Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:26593513

  19. Continental Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Continental flood basalts have been receiving considerable scientific attention lately. Recent publications have focused on several particular flood-basalt provinces (Brito-Arctic, Karoo, Parana', Deccan, and Columbia Plateau), and much attention has been given to the proposed connection between flood-basalt volcanism, bolide impacts, and mass extinctions. The editor of Continental Flood Basalts, J. D. Macdougall, conceived the book to assemble in a single volume, from a vast and scattered literature, an overview of each major post-Cambrian flood-basalt province.Continental Flood Basalts has 10 chapters; nine treat individual flood-basalt provinces, and a summary chapter compares and contrasts continental flood-basalts and mid-oceanic ridge basalts. Specifically, the chapters address the Columbia River basalt, the northwest United States including the Columbia River basalt, the Ethiopian Province, the North Atlantic Tertiary Province, the Deccan Traps, the Parana' Basin, the Karoo Province, the Siberian Platform, and Cenozoic basaltic rocks in eastern China. Each chapter is written by one or more individuals with an extensive background in the province.

  20. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 40. Protorhinoxenus prochilodi gen. n., sp. n. (Monogenoidea: Ancyrocephalinae), parasite of prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) from south Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Marcus V; Boege, Walter A

    2002-01-01

    The monotypic Protorhinoxenus gen. n. is proposed to accommodate a species with the following characteristics: 1) tubular sclerotised vagina, 2) vaginal pore dextrolateral, 3) ventral and dorsal anchors with undifferentiated elongate shaft and base (representing approximately 2/3 of the length of anchor), and 4) superficial and deep roots of ventral and dorsal anchors lacking. Protorhinoxenus prochilodi sp. n. is described from the gills of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes) of the Represa Capivari-Cachoeira, Municipality of Campina Grande do Sul, metropolitan area of Curitiba, Paraná. Specimens of other probable new species of Protorhinoxenus are reported from Prochilodus lineatus of the Rio Paranapanema, Municipality of Salto Grande, São Paulo; Hoplias spp. of the Rio Dois de Fevereiro, Municipality of Antonina, Paraná, and the Rio Piraquara, metropolitan area of Curitiba, Parana; Leporinus elongatus Valenciennes of the Rio Tibagi, Municipality of Jataizinho, Parana; and Schizodon fasciatum Agassiz of the Rio Solimões, island of Marchantaria, near Manaus, Amazonas. Protorhinoxenus appears to be a sister group of Rhinoxenus Kritsky, Boeger et Thatcher, 1988 based on the following apparent synapomorphies: 1) ventral and dorsal anchors lacking superficial and deep roots, 2) ventral and dorsal anchors with elongate shaft, and 3) male copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings. PMID:11993549

  1. Importance of reservoir tributaries to spawning of migratory fish in the upper Paraná River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    da Silva, P.S.; Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; Miranda, Leandro E.; Makrakis, Sergio; Assumpcao, L.; Paula, S.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro; Marques, H.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of rivers by dams transforms previously lotic reaches above the dam into lentic ones and limits or prevents longitudinal connectivity, which impairs access to suitable habitats for the reproduction of many migratory fish species. Frequently, unregulated tributaries can provide important habitat heterogeneity to a regulated river and may mitigate the influence of impoundments on the mainstem river. We evaluated the importance of tributaries to spawning of migratory fish species over three spawning seasons, by comparing several abiotic conditions and larval fish distributions in four rivers that are tributaries to an impounded reach of the Upper Parana River, Brazil. Our study confirmed reproduction of at least 8 long-distance migrators, likely nine, out of a total of 19 occurring in the Upper Parana River. Total larval densities and percentage species composition differed among tributaries, but the differences were not consistent among spawning seasons and unexpectedly were not strongly related to annual differences in temperature and hydrology. We hypothesize that under present conditions, densities of larvae of migratory species may be better related to efficiency of fish passage facilities than to temperature and hydrology. Our study indicates that adult fish are finding suitable habitat for spawning in tributaries, fish eggs are developing into larvae, and larvae are finding suitable rearing space in lagoons adjacent to the tributaries. Our findings also suggest the need for establishment of protected areas in unregulated and lightly regulated tributaries to preserve essential spawning and nursery habitats.

  2. Rhinolekos capetinga: a new cascudinho species (Loricariidae, Otothyrinae) from the rio Tocantins basin and comments on its ancestral dispersal route

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study deals with the description of a new species of Rhinolekos. It can be distinguished from its congeners by having 31 vertebrae, the anterior portion of the compound supraneural-first dorsal-fin proximal radial contacting the neural spine of the 9th vertebra, the absence of transverse dark bands in the pectoral, pelvic and anal-fin rays, 24–28 plates in the dorsal series, the lack of odontodes on the ventral tip of the snout, the absence of accessory teeth, a greater prenasal length, a smaller head length, and by a greater snout length. Rhinolekos capetinga is restricted to the headwaters of the rio Tocantins and it is the first species of this genus in the Amazon basin. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of a biogeographic scenario that may explain the dispersal of the new species from the rio Paranaíba to the rio Tocantins basin. We suggest that the ancestral lineage of Rhinolekos capetinga reached the rio Tocantins from portions of the rio Paranaíba at the end of the Miocene, about 6.3 Mya (4.1–13.9 Mya 95% HPD), probably as a result of headwater capture processes among adjacent drainages. PMID:25685034

  3. Fossilized excreta associated to dinosaurs in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto, P. R. F.; Fernandes, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an updated register of the main occurrences of fossilized excreta (coprolites and urolites) associated with dinosaurs found in the Brazil. The goal is to provide a relevant guide to the interpretation of the environment in the context of Gondwana. In four geographic areas, the excreta are recovered from Cretaceous sedimentary deposits in outcrops of the Bauru and São Luis basins and the Upper Jurassic aeolian deposits of the Parana Basin in the state of São Paulo. The coprolites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses reveal compositions that differ from the surrounding matrix, indicating a partial substitution of the organic material due to the feeding habits of the producers. Additionally, we describe the urolite excavations in epirelief and hyporelief, the result of gravitational flow the impact from urine jets on sand. These are associated with ornithopod and theropod dinosaur footprints preserved in the aeolian flagstones of the Botucatu Formation, Parana Basin.

  4. Rhinolekoscapetinga: a new cascudinho species (Loricariidae, Otothyrinae) from the rio Tocantins basin and comments on its ancestral dispersal route.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Fábio F; Ochoa, Luz E; Silva, Gabriel S C; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the description of a new species of Rhinolekos. It can be distinguished from its congeners by having 31 vertebrae, the anterior portion of the compound supraneural-first dorsal-fin proximal radial contacting the neural spine of the 9(th) vertebra, the absence of transverse dark bands in the pectoral, pelvic and anal-fin rays, 24-28 plates in the dorsal series, the lack of odontodes on the ventral tip of the snout, the absence of accessory teeth, a greater prenasal length, a smaller head length, and by a greater snout length. Rhinolekoscapetinga is restricted to the headwaters of the rio Tocantins and it is the first species of this genus in the Amazon basin. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of a biogeographic scenario that may explain the dispersal of the new species from the rio Paranaíba to the rio Tocantins basin. We suggest that the ancestral lineage of Rhinolekoscapetinga reached the rio Tocantins from portions of the rio Paranaíba at the end of the Miocene, about 6.3 Mya (4.1-13.9 Mya 95% HPD), probably as a result of headwater capture processes among adjacent drainages. PMID:25685034

  5. Variability in land water storage from GRACE and ENVISAT, and rainfall in South American river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, L.; Cazenave, A.; Bonnet, M.; Rotunno, O.

    2008-12-01

    Previous work has demonstrated the capability of GRACE to capture important aspects of the hydrological cycle, in particular seasonal and interannual fluctuations in land water storage of large river basins. Part of this behaviour can be immediately assigned to seasonal/interannual fluctuations of precipitation. In this study, we investigate existing correlations between GRACE water storage (two GRACE products are used and compared, the GRGS and GSFC/Mascons solutions), ENVISAT-based surface water levels and precipitation data over four large river basins of South America (Orinoco, Amazon, Tocantins and Parana). At the seasonal time scale, precipitation and total water storage correlate well in the Parana basin, with a few weeks lag of storage with respect to forcing. Over the Amazon, Tocantins and Orinoco, the two variables also correlate well. But in some years, storage response to forcing is enhanced, suggesting that other terms of the water balance (e.g., runoff) play a significant role. To investigate this, discharge data at the most downstream stations in these river basins are analysed, while the water balance is studied using outputs of global hydrological models available over the same time span as GRACE data. We also analyse water level data from ENVISAT altimetry over the main rivers. Finally, we study the interannual connection between rainfall and water storage, using among others, Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF). Compared to the seasonal cycle, the interannual signal displays larger regional variability both in precipitation and water storage.

  6. Fluvial drainage systems: Margaritifer Sinus and Agyre (NC, NE) quadrangles, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, J. C.; Grant, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Fluvial drainage systems, delineated by mapping on stereo pairs of Viking Orbiter images, have developed in various-sized basins in the Margaritifer Sinus (MC-19) and Agyre (MC-26) Quadrangles, Mars. The Ladon Valles system is the largest, draining into and through two multi-ringed impact basins. Smaller fluvial basins to the southeast of the Ladon structural basin appear to have internal drainage. An intermediate-scale fluvial basin containing Himera Vallis extends along a north-south axis at 22 W and opens northward toward outflow channels south of Margaritifer Chaos. Stereo-pair mapping was extended furhter to the east, in MC-19 Ne, Se, and MC-26 NE, to investigate sources of outflow to the Ares Vallis system. The direction of flow in the channel at the northeast quadrant of the Ladon Basin is unresolved at present because of the poor quality of images available to form stereo pairs. However, an easterly drainage basin boundary running north-south along longitude 9 W, and extending westward at latitude 32-35 S, encloses a series of longitudinal drainage systems. Both the Parana Valles-Loire Vallis system and the Samara Valles system appear to drain in a northwesterly direction. The Samara flows to the Himera drainage basin, and the Parana-Loire to the northeast Ladon channel area.

  7. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    varias razones, incluyendo perdidas debidas a diferentes tipos de depredadores. Estudios anteriores conducidos en el campo, y en jaulas de campo, han confirmado que las cepas de machos de laboratorio tienen menos capacidad de evadir depredadores que los machos silvestres. Estos estudios involucran, sin embargo, una considerable cantidad de manipulacion y observacion de depredadores, por lo que no son adecuados para ser usados como medidas rutinarias en los programas de cria masiva. Aqui describimos un metodo sencillo de control de calidad usando aspiradores para medir agilidad en la mosca del Mediterraneo y mostramos que este parametro esta relacionado a la capacidad de la moscas a evadir a depredadores. Aunque aun es necesario refinar la estandarizacion de este metodo para permitir la comparacion entre cepas, los resultados confirman la importancia de tener un metodo rutinario para medir la capacidad de evasion de depredadores en cepas de cria de laboratorio de la mosca del Mediterraneo. Ademas de medir este parametro de control de calidad de los machos esteriles, el metodo descrito podria tambien ser usado para la seleccion sistematica de cepas con una mayor capacidad de evasion de depredadores. (author)

  8. L'eliosismologia: onde sismiche per studiare l'interno del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Negli ultimi cinquanta anni siamo stati testimoni di una straordinaria rivoluzione della conoscenza e comprensione della nostra stella grazie alla nascita dell'Eliosismologia, lo studio delle oscillazioni solari. Analogamente a ciò che accade nella Terra durante i terremoti, anche l'interno del Sole è pervaso continuamente da onde sismiche che provocano piccole oscillazioni, ovvero deformazioni della fotosfera. Le oscillazioni sono la manifestazione di diversi processi che avvengono all'interno della struttura del Sole e le frequenze sismiche dei modi osservati e misurati sulla superficie sono legate direttamente ai parametri fisici degli strati interni attraversati dalle onde sismiche. Lo studio delle oscillazioni rappresenta, quindi, l'unico metodo diretto per studiare la struttura e la dinamica interna del Sole. In questo articolo verranno illustrate le caratteristiche generali delle oscillazioni solari e verranno presentati i risultati importanti e i progressi notevoli raggiunti grazie all'Eliosismologia.

  9. [Historical evolution of inguinal hernia treatment].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ortega, M Fernando; Cárdenas-Martínez, Guadalupe; López-Castañeda, Hugo

    2003-01-01

    Hernia (know breuk in Dutch, rompure in French, keal in Greek and rupture in English) has plagued humans throughout recorded history and descriptions of hernia reduction date back to the Ebers papyrus in Egypt. In medicine it is difficult to find historical periods, but we found two eras of uneven time: pre-technique and technique. The first was distinguished by a blend of empiricism and magic, and the second for greater comprehension of the human body; however much of modern surgical techniques result from contributions of early surgeons. Nonetheless, it was not until the late 19th century that hernia surgeon Eduardo Bassini published his work Nuovo Metodo per la Cura Radiacale dell"Ernia Inguinale (in 1889). Among the most notable contemporany classic hernia repairs are the Bassini, Halsted, Shouldice, and Tension-free repair techniques. PMID:14617414

  10. Crustal evolution and the eclogite to granulite phase transition in xenoliths from the West African Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.; Hills, D. V.; Toft, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    A suite of eclogite and granulite facies xenoliths from kimberlite pipes in the Archean Man Shield of West Africa is described. The xenoliths include lithologies ranging in composition from komatiite to anorthosite and appear to be geochemically, petrologically, and geophysically related. The suite may represent fractionation of felsic material separated from ancient mantle and added to early Archean crust. The samples can be used to define a xenolith geotherm, which may represent an ancient episode of high heat flow. The samples also imply that the crust-mantle boundary is a gradational and possibly interlayered geochemical, mineralogical, and seismic transition. It is speculated that the depleted subcontinental mantle required by diamond bearing coalescence of smaller depletion cells formed by extraction of ancient crustal components. These depleted zones are surrounded by fertile asthenospheric mantle, which may have given rise to later flood basalts such as the Karroo and Parana Provinces.

  11. Commercialization of oil shale with the Petrosix process

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, A.R.D.; Ivo, S.C.; Piper, E.M.

    1985-02-01

    Brazil, because of domestic crude oil shortage, took an interest in oil shale between 1940 and 1950. Petrobras, created in 1954, included in its charter the responsibility to develop a modern oil shale industry. An outgrowth has been the Petrosix process incorporated in a commercial unit in the State of Parana that has operated successfully more than 65,000 hours. Because of the maturity of the Petrosix process in this plant and the similarity of the Brazilian Irati oil shale to many other shales, interest has developed to apply the Petrosix process to producing shale oil and high BTU gas from these oil shales. A comparison of the characteristics has been developed between Irati and other oil shales. An evaluation of a commercial plant design has been completed for Irati, Kentucky, and Indiana oil shale projects. The technological and commercial aspects of producing shale oil using the Petrosix technology are discussed.

  12. Characterization of epidemic Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C strains in several Brazilian states.

    PubMed Central

    Sacchi, C T; Tondella, M L; de Lemos, A P; Gorla, M C; Berto, D B; Kumiochi, N H; Melles, C E

    1994-01-01

    Epidemic strains of the Neisseria meningitidis C:2b:P1.3 electrophoretic type 11 complex were responsible for an outbreak in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil, from 1990 to 1991. Strains of this complex were also isolated in other Brazilian states and were responsible for a meningococcal disease epidemic in São Paulo State in 1990. Serotyping both with monoclonal antibodies and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was useful for typing these epidemic strains related to the increased incidence of meningococcal disease. The genetic similarity of members of the electrophoretic type 11 complex was confirmed by the ribotyping method by using EcoRI or ClaI endonuclease restriction enzymes. Images PMID:7929775

  13. Host-parasite relationships of monogeneans in gills of Astyanax altiparanae and Rhamdia quelen of the São Francisco Verdadeiro River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferrari-Hoeinghaus, A P; Takemoto, R M; Oliveira, L C; Makrakis, M C; Baumgartner, G

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates the ecology of monogenean gill parasites of Aslyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 and Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) in a stretch of the Sao Francisco Verdadeiro River, Parana, Brazil. Statistical and ecological indices were used to examine observed levels of parasitism in relation to host and environmental characteristics. A. altiparance and R. quelen had infestation intensities of 2.8 and 23.1 parasites per fish, respectively. The only significant environmental influence was observed at the upstream station for R. quelen. For both host species, parasitized and non-parasitized individuals presented similar weight-ength relationships. Parasitized individuals had dispersed K,, values indicating abnormal conditions. The low levels of parasitism observed in this study suggest that the environment is relatively undisturbed. Additional studies should compare these two species and their respective parasites following completion of the hydroelectric headquarters planned for construction in this stretch of the Sao Francisco Verdoadeiro River. PMID:17285853

  14. The role of regulatory agencies in multiple water use.

    PubMed

    Braga, B P F

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual framework for regulating water use in cases where water is a public good. Public agencies with an independent directive board can successfully manage such a situation. Through a comprehensive system of water permits, charging and control it is possible to effectively manage water resources. Together with the conceptual framework a practical application is presented. The case of the National Water Agency of Brazil--ANA--shows that it is possible to implement modern water resources management concepts in less developed countries. The benefits of this institutional arrangement are demonstrated in the case of managing water conflicts among water users. Two situations are described: the semi-arid water allocation for agricultural use in the Jaraguaribe River Basin in Ceara State and the conflict between the hydropower and navigation sectors in the Parana River Basin. PMID:12731768

  15. Ultrastructure of the tegument of Saccocoelioides godoyi.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S C; Kohn, A; de Fatima Diniz Baptista-Farias, M

    2001-03-01

    The tegument of adult Saccocoelioides godoyi Kohn & Froes, 1986 (Digenea: Haploporidae), specimens of which were collected from the intestine of the freshwater fish, Leporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794) (Anostomidae) from the reservoir of Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Station, Parana State, Brazil, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The tegument comprises an external anucleate layer, covered by a surface plasma membrane and associated glycocalyx. The surface layer is bound by the basal plasma membrane and contains spines, two types of inclusion bodies and mitochondria. Tegumental cell bodies are located beneath the surface musculature and contain a single nucleus, cytoplasm with rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, ribosomes, and inclusion bodies similar to those found in the external layer. Cytoplasmic strands connect the cell bodies to the external surface layer, suggesting that the inclusion bodies are produced in these cells and pass up into the syncytium, as is known for other digeneans from experimental evidence. PMID:11316468

  16. South Atlantic fits and intraplate boundaries in Africa and South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unternehr, P.; Curie, D.; Olivet, J. L.; Goslin, J.; Beuzart, P.

    1988-12-01

    The misfit problems raised by the pre-drift reconstructions of the South and Equatorial Atlantic compel us to resort to intraplate deformations. It is shown that acceptable deformations of the African plate in line with the Benue Trough and the Transafrican rifts and shear zones provide a far from satisfactory solution to the geometrical misfit problems in the South Atlantic. These problems can instead be alleviated by considering a degree of deformation of the South American plate along an intraplate boundary in line with the Parana Province, the Rio Grande Rise and the Walvis Ridge. In spite of the scarcity of field observations in this area of South America, we show that such a deformation cannot be ruled out, but it will have to be associated with deformations in the Equatorial Atlantic and in other areas of the African and South American plates.

  17. Ionophore antibiotic (narasin) poisoning in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Salles, M S; Lombardo de Barros, C S; Barros, S S

    1994-10-01

    Outbreaks of narasin poisoning in rabbits from several commercial rabbit-raising farms in the state of Parana, Brazil, are reported. Approximately 5,000/35,000 rabbits died after having consumed a pelleted ration to which poultry ration premix had been added. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, muscle weakness, impaired walking, diarrhea, respiratory distress, and opistothonus. Gross findings were not remarkable, but varying degrees of degeneration, necrosis and regeneration of skeletal muscles were consistent histopathological features in affected rabbits. Myocardial changes were mild or absent. Thirty ppm of narasin were detected in the ration fed the rabbits. The disease was experimentally reproduced by feeding the suspected ration and by administering narasin po to rabbits. PMID:7839570

  18. Estimation of potential biomass resource and biogas production from aquatic plants in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimons, R.E.; Laurino, C.N.; Vallejos, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Argentine government's Agua y Energia Electrica is planning to construct a hydroelectric power-generation facility on the middle Parana River, which is already heavily infested with aquatic weeds such as water hyacinth. These species will probably proliferate in the lakes that will be formed by the power project and perhaps seriously interfere with the facility. As a solution to this problem, Argentine biochemists propose mechanical harvesting and anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic plants to produce biogas and fertilizer. According to an evaluation of this potential resource, gross methane production could reach 37-153 billion CF (1.0-4.1 billion m/sup 3/)/yr, and the digested residue could provide 60,500-244,000 tons (54,900-221,400 metric tons)/yr of nitrogen, which represents 2-8 times Argentina's current nitrogen fertilizer demand.

  19. Seismic Anisotropy And Upper Mantle Structure In Se Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintz, M.; Vauchez, A.; Assumpcao, M.; Egydio-Silva, M.

    We present preliminary shear wave splitting measurements performed in south-east Brazil in a quite complex region, from a geological point of view. Seismic anisotropy is the result of a preferred orientation of anisotropic minerals (olivine) in the upper mantle, due to deformation. Splitting parameters Ø (direction of the fastest S wave) are compared to large-scale tectonic structures of the area, in order to infer to which extent the deformations in the upper mantle and in the crust are mechanically coupled. The field of study is a region of 1000 by 1000 km, along the Atlantic coast from São Paulo to 500 km north of Rio de Janeiro. This region is made up of large scale geological units as the southern termination of the São Francisco craton, from archean age, surrounded by two neoproterozoic belts (the Ribeira belt to the east and the Brasilia belt to the west), and the Parana basin, which is a vast flood basalt region. Teleseisms used were acquired by 39 seismological stations well distributed in the region of interest. The results highlight the fact that the orientations of the polarization plane of the fast split shear wave vary a lot in this region, and measurements could be splitted into 5 groups : directions are parallel to the NE-SW trending of the Ribeira belt, some are parallel to the NW-SE trending of the Brasilia belt, in the NE-SW direction of the Transbrasiliano lineament, parallel to the absolute plate maotion (APM) that is EW in this region, or turning around a cylindrical low velocity anomaly imaged in the Parana basin and supposed to be the fossil plume head conduit of the Tristan da Cunha plume head.

  20. Communicacion Expresiva: Como los ninos nos envian mensajes [and] Comunicacion Receptiva: Como los ninos entienden nuestros mensajes [and] Interacciones de Comunicacion: Hacen falta dos. Hojas informativa de DB-LINK (Communication Interactions: It Takes Two [and] Receptive Communication: How Children Understand Your Messages to Them [and] Expressive Communication: How Children Send Their Messages to You. DB-LINK Fact Sheets).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremel, Kathleen

    This document consists of three separately published fact sheets combined here because of the close relationship of their subject matter. The first fact sheet, "Communication Interactions: It Takes Two" (Kathleen Stremel), defines communication; suggests ways to find opportunities for interactive communication; offers specific suggestions for…

  1. Reading: Students' Attitudes and Interests in Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Grades in Official Portuguese Schools in the USA (A Leitura: Atitudes e Preferencias dos Educandos do 4th, 5th, e 6th Anos de Escolaridade nas Escolas Oficiais Portuguesas nos Estados Unidos da America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Maria da Graca Borges

    A study investigated attitudes and preferences concerning reading among fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students in Portuguese-language schools in the United States. Extrinsic factors influencing students (parents, teachers) were also analyzed. The research took place in 10 schools in 5 states. Data were obtained using questionnaires (students)…

  2. O Passado como Nacao: Imagens do Imperio nas Falas Reacionarias dos Anos 30 e 40 do Seculo XX: Uma Pequena Arqueologia do Debate Publico e Privado (The Past as Nation: Images of the Empire in the Reactionary Words of the 30s and 40s in the 20th Century: A Small Archaeology of the Public Debate versus the Private One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Marcos Cezar

    1998-01-01

    Suggests an archaeology of the public debate versus the private one in Brazil through analysis of the reactionary speech of a religious leader, Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha, which produced innumerable representations of the Brazilian Empire. (PA)

  3. Lo que Piensan los Estudiantes y Profesores Sobre la Calidad de la Educacion Superior. Estudio Comparativo en 5 Instituciones de Educacion Superior--dos publicas y tres privadas--en Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico (What Students and Faculties Think about the Quality of Higher Education. Comparative Study of 5 Higher Education Institutions--Two Public and Three Private--in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Maria Lorena Hernandez

    This study, written in Spanish, compared attitudes of students (N=302) and faculty (N=28) at five institutions of higher education (two public and three private) in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The study explored first, whether respondents believed there are significant quality differences between private and public universities and, second, what…

  4. LETTERS TO THE EDITORS: Lightning ball: experiments on creation and hypotheses(comment on "Energy density calculations for ball-lightning-like luminous silicon balls" by G S Paiva, J V Ferreira, C C Bastos, M V P dos Santos, A C Pavão)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, Gennadii D.

    2010-05-01

    The problems addressed in this paper include estimating: the energy density of luminous silicon balls, the density range of a natural lightning ball, and whether and how the object created and described in the commented paper (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 180 218 (2010) [Phys. Usp. 53 (2) 209 (2010)]) corresponds to the natural phenomenon.

  5. Protein-protein interactions between histidine kinases and response regulators of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ha-Na; Jung, Kwang-Eun; Ko, In-Jeong; Baik, Hyung Suk; Oh, Jeong-Il

    2012-04-01

    Using yeast two-hybrid assay, we investigated protein-protein interactions between all orthologous histidine kinase (HK)/response regulator (RR) pairs of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and identified potential protein-protein interactions between a noncognate HK/RR pair, DosT/NarL. The protein interaction between DosT and NarL was verified by phosphotransfer reaction from DosT to NarL. Furthermore, we found that the DosT and DosS HKs, which share considerable sequence similarities to each other and form a two-component system with the DosR RR, have different cross-interaction capabilities with NarL: DosT interacted with NarL, while DosS did not. The dimerization domains of DosT and DosS were shown to be sufficient to confer specificity for DosR, and the different cross-interaction abilities of DosS and DosT with NarL were demonstrated to be attributable to variations in the amino acid sequences of the α2-helices of their dimerization domains. PMID:22538656

  6. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    SciTech Connect

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-03-15

    Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [Spanish] La conota, Panicum repens L., es una especie foranea de pasto que produce rizomas que ha convertido en ser una maleza invasora de ambientes terrestres, pantanosos y acuaticos en regiones tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. Hasta hace un tiempo reciente, las estrategias para controlar conota en los EEUU eran enfocadas casi exclusivamente en los metodos mecanicos y quimicos, solos o en combinacion, con resultados variables. Un muestreo de los artropodos y nematodos asociados corrientemente con esta planta en el Lago de Okeechobee, Florida, fue

  7. 37 CFR Appendix B to Part 202 - “Best Edition” of Published Copyrighted Works for the Collections of the Library of Congress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Packaging: 1. Archival-quality rather than less-permanent paper. 2. Hard cover rather than soft cover. 3... a backup copy of the disk(s)). 3. Format: a. PC-DOS or MS-DOS (or other IBM compatible formats, such... copy of the disk(s)). 4. Format a. PC-DOS or MS-DOS (or other IBM compatible formats, such as...

  8. Software Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews three software packages: (1) "The Weather Machine Courseware Kit" for grades 7-12; (2) "Exploring Measurement, Time, and Money--Level I," for primary level mathematics; and (3) "Professor DOS with SmartGuide for DOS" providing an extensive tutorial covering DOS 2.1 to 4.0. Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each package. (YP)

  9. Whenever You Use a Computer You Are Using a Program Called an Operating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Rick

    1984-01-01

    Examines design, features, and shortcomings of eight disk-based operating systems designed for general use that are popular or most likely to affect the future of microcomputing. Included are the CP/M family, MS-DOS, Apple DOS/ProDOS, Unix, Pick, the p-System, TRSDOS, and Macintosh/Lisa. (MBR)

  10. Identification and Analysis of Storm Tracks Associated with Extreme Flood Events in Southeast and South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Carlos; Lopes, Camila

    2015-04-01

    Flood is the main natural disaster in Brazil, practically affecting all regions in the country and causing several economical damages and losses of lives. In traditional hydrology, the study of floods is focused on a frequency analysis of the extreme events and on the fit of statistical models to define flood quantiles associated with pre-specified return periods or exceedance probabilities. The basic assumptions are randomness and temporal stationarity of the streamflow data. In this paper we seek to advance the traditional flood frequency studies by using the ideas developed in the area of flood hydroclimatology, which is defined as the study of climate in the flood framework, i.e., the understanding of long term changes in the frequency, magnitude, duration, location and seasonality of floods as driven by the interaction of regional and global patterns of the ocean and atmospheric circulation. That being said, flood events are not treated as random and stationary but resulting from a causal chain, where exceptional floods in water basins from different sizes are related with large scale anomalies in the atmospheric and ocean circulation patterns. Hence, such studies enrich the classical assumption of stationary flood hazard adopted in most flood frequency studies through a formal consideration of the physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of extreme floods, which implies recognizing the natural climate variability due to persistent and oscillatory regimes (e.g. ENSO, NAO, PDO) in many temporal scales (interannual, decadal, etc), and climate fluctuations in response to anthropogenic changes in the atmosphere, soil use and vegetation cover. Under this framework and based on streamflow gauge and reanalysis data, we identify and analyze here the storm tracks that preceded extreme events of floods in key flood-prone regions of the country (e.g. Parana and Rio Doce River basins) with such events defined based on the magnitude, duration and volume of the

  11. The emergence of primary hotspots as large igneous provinces at earth surface in the last 300 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V.; Besse, J.; Renne, P.

    2003-04-01

    Based on a set of geophysical, geochemical and geological criteria, we (1) have recently proposed that 7 hotspots, 3 in the Pacific hemisphere, 4 in the Indo-Atlantic, which we have called 'primary' may have a very deep origin. Hotspots in each hemisphere move at less than 5mm/a, whereas there has been significant (up to 50mm/a) episodic motion between the two hemispheres. These episodes coincide with discrete episodes in true polar wander (TPW) and primary hotspots are thought to passively trace the motions of quadrupolar lower mantle convection. One of the key features, possibly the most significant, of these primary hotspot is that they all emerged at the Earth's surface in the last 150 Ma or so as flood basalts or oceanic plateaus, i.e. large igneous provinces (LIPs). We have reviewed some characteristics of these LIPs, mostly related to the volumes of extruded material and the timing (age and duration) of this volcanism (2). The volumes of LIPs are remarkably unimodal (originally between say 2 and 8 million cubic kilometers), in contrast with many other geophysical phenomena. This is likely due to the fact that these huge instabilities in the mantle cannot pierce the lithosphere unless they have a minimum size, and that there is a maximum size of the plumes which the mantle can generate. The plume birth is correlated most of the time with major episodes of continental breakup (lithosphere) and mass extinction (biosphere). Major ocean basins that have not been subsequently affected by subduction or collision are simply the memory of the location of a primary plume impact: the clearest case is the Atlantic with its three major basins from South to North being linked to emergence of the Parana-Etendeka (135 Ma), Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (200 Ma) and Greenland traps (60 Ma). All primary hotspots connected to a trap less than 100 Ma in age are currently active. All traps older than 150 Ma are not connected to an active hotspot. Those with intermediate

  12. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    PubMed

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  13. Assessment of droughts at a continental scale under different climate change scenarios. Case study: La Plata Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, Maria Dolores; Asenjo, Victor; Bianucci, Paola

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we characterized and diagnosed the droughts across La Plata Basin for the reference (1961 - 2005) and future (2007 - 2040, 2041 - 2070 and 2071 - 2099) scenarios. La Plata Basin is located in the Centre-South of South America and comprises 3.174.229 km2 and five countries. Despite the significant impact of droughts on agriculture, cattle, water supply, natural water courses and wetlands, droughts are still difficult to predict in the region, both in time and space. We used the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) to characterize droughts based on Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) and Precipitation (P) at a monthly scale. PET and P were obtained for all 10 x 10 km-size cells within the basin by using the regional climatic model Eta, under the boundary conditions of the HadGEM2-ES model and the CO2 emissions scenario RCP 4.5. Cell to cell information was integrated into a sub-basin level in order to show and analyze the results. For each sub-basin, climate scenario, and temporal scale of SPEI (1, 3, 6 and 12 months), we identified the beginning of each drought, calculated its duration, magnitude, maximum and mean intensities, and the duration between drought events. Additionally, for each SPEI temporal scale and sub-basin, we described the spatial coverage of droughts for the temporal series of all climate scenarios. Spatially, we found a decrease of PET from North to South. Temporally, results showed a future increase of PET for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin but similar to present values for the remaining basin. Results showed that P will be similar in the future for the Paraguay river basin and upper Parana river basin, but will increase within the remaining basin. During the 2007 - 2040 scenario, we expect that the northern sub-basins suffer from several droughts while the southern ones have wetter climate with few short drought events. As we analyzed more distant future scenarios the wet climate

  14. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Fast, I.; Kaspar, F.

    2011-09-01

    Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution). The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation. For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America. The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin. Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the north along the western slope of the Andes

  15. Žemės paviršiaus lūžio linijos padėties nustatymas lokaliai pritaikant plokštumas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankevičius, Žilvinas

    2010-01-01

    Straipsnyje pristatomas sukurtas LIDAR skenuotų ta\\vskų apdorojimo metodas. Ta\\vskų klasifikavimo metodas pagrįstas ta\\vskų atrinkimu artimoje gretimybėje ir lokalios plokštumos pritaikymu. Lokaliai plokštumai pritaikyti skaičiuojamos tikrinių vektorių reikšmės, taikomas Jacobi iteracijų metodas. Sukurtoji preliminari šlaito viršaus ir apačios linija tikslinama pritaikant lokalias plokštumas kairėje ir dešinėje kiekvieno segmento pusėje. Pagal aprašytą algoritmą sukurtos kompiuterinės programos. Testinėje teritorijoje išbandytas siūlomo metodo patikimumas. Lyginant rezultatus su tradiciniais kartogafavimo metodais toje pačioje teritorijoje gautais duomenimis, parinktos tinkamos algoritmo parametrų reikšmės. Eksperimento rezultatai patvirtino, kad sudarius šį algoritmą galima pasiekti M 1:1000 ir smulkesnių mastelių planų kokybę.

  16. Distributed Denial-of-Service Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    DRAELOS, TIMOTHY J.; TORGERSON, MARK D.; BERG, MICHAEL J.; CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; DUGGAN, DAVID P.; VAN LEEUWEN, BRIAN P.; YOUNG, WILLIAM F.; YOUNG, MARY LOUISE

    2003-06-01

    Distributed denial of service (DoS) attacks on cyber-resources are complex problems that are difficult to completely define, characterize, and mitigate. We recognize the process-nature of DoS attacks and view them from multiple perspectives. Identification of opportunities for mitigation and further research may result from this attempt to characterize the DoS problem space. We examine DoS attacks from the point of view of (1) a high-level that establishes common terminology and a framework for discussing the DoS process, (2) layers of the communication stack, from attack origination to the victim of the attack, (3) specific network and computer elements, and (4) attack manifestations. We also examine DoS issues associated with wireless communications. Using this collection of views, one begins to see the DoS problem in a holistic way that may lead to improved understanding, new mitigation strategies, and fruitful research.

  17. The basins on the Argentine continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1996-08-01

    After the stabilization of the central Gondwana Craton, orogenic belts were accreted, as a result of convergence events and an extensive passive margin developed in southwestern Gondwana. Thermal subsidence in Parana, Karoo-Ventania basins and the Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic rifts, were modified by the Gondwana breakup and the South Atlantic opening. Early Paleozoic marine transgressions deposited the Table Mountain Group in Ventania. In southwestern Patagonia foreland clastics were deposited. Magmatic arcs and marine units indicate a tectonic trough was formed, alternating with continental sequences, over Late Paleozoic metamorphics and intrusives, resulting from plastered terrains along the Gondwana margin. In Patagonia, Permo-Carboniferous continental and glacio marine clastics infill the basins, while in Ventania, paralic sequences, grade from neritic to continental to the northeast, extending beneath the continental margin. The Triassic-Jurassic rift basins progressed onto regional widespread acid lavas and were infilled by lagoonal organic-rich sequences. Early drift phase built basins transverse to the margin, with fluvio-lacustrine sequences: Salado, Colorado, Valdes-Rawson, San Julian and North Malvinas intracratonic basins, which underwent transtensional faulting. Post-Oxfordian to Neocomian brackish sequences, onlapped the conjugate basins during the margin`s drift, with petroleum systems, as in Austral and Malvinas. In the Valanginian, basic extrusions commenced to form on the continental border, heralding the oceanic phase. Due to thermal subsidence, offlaping sediments prograded onto the remaining half-grabens. Several petroleum systems, proven and hypothetical, are identified in this region.

  18. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sgarioni, Sônia Aparecida; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; de Andrade Leite, Sergio Roberto; Filho, Dirceu Vedovello; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw) from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5-10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25%) raw and 2 (4%) pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum). M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil. PMID:25242962

  19. N Budgets of the Piracicaba River Basin, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filoso, S.; Williams, M.; Martinelli, L.

    2001-05-01

    Nitrogen budgets and the importance of the principal types of land use and other human activities as sources and sinks of N were determined for a meso-scale river basin (12 400 km2) in one of the most developed and economically important regions of South America. The Piracicaba River basin is located in southeastern Brazil and drains into a tributary of the Parana River. The basin supports about 2% of the population of Brazil with intensive agricultural and industrial activities. During two years from 1995 to 1997, biweekly samples were collected at 10 points along the Piracicaba River and its tributaries for analyses of dissolved and particulate N. The annual flux of N increased by a factor of about 20 times from the headwaters to the lower reaches of the main channel. Mass balances calculated for six linked sectors of the river system and for the entire basin had inputs that were generally slightly lower than outputs. These results are different from those observed in temperate regions, where low outputs in relation to inputs are common.

  20. [Seroprevalence of antibodies anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii in captive wild canids].

    PubMed

    Mattos, Bianca C; Patrício, Lia L F; Plugge, Nicolle F; Lange, Rogério R; Richartz, Rosária R T B; Dittrich, Rosângela Locatelli

    2008-09-01

    Neosporosis is considered one of the main cause of abortion in dairy cattle in the world. The prevalence of Neospora caninum in wild species has been studied since the coyote (Canis latrans), a North American wild canid specie was discovered as definitive host of this parasite. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in wild native canids species from Brazil. Serum samples of 25 crab-eating dogs (Cerdocyon thous), five pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), six bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) e 14 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) were tested. The animals were from zoos and sanctuaries from the states of Parana, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro and the Federal District. The total prevalence obtained for N. caninum was 36% (18/50) and for T. gondii was 40% (20/50). The present study demonstrated for the first time the presence of antibodies to N. caninum in bush dogs and the prevalence found was 33,3% (2/6). This study showed the presence of these protozoans in captive wild canids species and to alert about possible contamination sources. PMID:20059860

  1. Sheep milk: physical-chemical characteristics and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Merlin Junior, Ivandré Antonio; Santos, Joice Sifuentes dos; Costa, Ligia Grecco; Costa, Renan Grecco; Ludovico, Agostinho; Rego, Fabiola Cristine de Almeida; Santana, Elsa Helena Walter de

    2015-09-01

    Sheep milk is the third most consumed milk in Brazil. It is much appreciated for its nutritional status and is important for children that have problems with cow milk. Little information is known about the chemical, physical and microbiological composition of sheep milk from South Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe chemical and microbiological characteristics of sheep milk produced on two rural properties located in southern Brazil (ParanA and Rio Grande do Sul). The chemical composition of sheep milk was 17.32 g/100 g total solids, 5.86 g/100 g total protein, 4.46 g/100 g casein, 1.08 g/100 g whey protein, 7.28 g/100 g fat, 0.93 g/100 g ash, and 3.41 g/100 g lactose. High somatic cell count (1.7x106 cells/mL), total mesophilic bacterias (16.0 x 106 CFU/mL) and psychrotrophics (5.8 x 106 CFU/mL) were observed. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, enterobacteria and coliforms occurred in 100% of the samples, and 45% of the samples showed growth of Escherichia coli. The sheep milk physical-chemical and microbiology parameters are similar to those presented in the literature for other countries but somatic cell count presented high levels. PMID:26821492

  2. How and when plume zonation appeared during the 132 Myr evolution of the Tristan Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Hoernle, Kaj; Rohde, Joana; Hauff, Folkmar; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Homrighausen, Stephan; Werner, Reinhard; Morgan, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, spatial geochemical zonation, present as geographically distinct, subparallel trends, is observed along hotspot tracks, such as Hawaii and the Galapagos. The origin of this zonation is currently unclear. Recently zonation was found along the last ∼70 Myr of the Tristan-Gough hotspot track. Here we present new Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotope data from the older parts of this hotspot track (Walvis Ridge and Rio Grande Rise) and re-evaluate published data from the Etendeka and Parana flood basalts erupted at the initiation of the hotspot track. We show that only the enriched Gough, but not the less-enriched Tristan, component is present in the earlier (70–132 Ma) history of the hotspot. Here we present a model that can explain the temporal evolution and origin of plume zonation for both the Tristan-Gough and Hawaiian hotspots, two end member types of zoned plumes, through processes taking place in the plume sources at the base of the lower mantle. PMID:26213112

  3. Effect of irradiation on Brazilian honeys' consistency and their acceptability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, A. H.; Sabato, S. F.

    2004-09-01

    Contamination of bee products may occur during packing or even during the process of collection. Gamma irradiation was found to decrease the number of bacteria and fungi. However, little information is available on the effects of gamma irradiation on viscosity which is an important property of honey. In this work the viscosity of two varieties of Brazilian honey was measured when they were irradiated at 5 and 10 kGy. The viscosity was measured at four temperatures (25°C, 30°C, 35°C and 40°C) for both samples and compared with control and within the doses. The sensory evaluation was carried on for the parameters color, odor, taste and consistency, using a 9-point hedonic scale. All the data were treated with a statistical tool (Statistica 5.1, StatSoft, 1998). The viscosity was not impaired significantly by gamma irradiation in doses 5 and 10 kGy ( p<0.05). The effect of gamma irradiation on sensorial characteristics (odor, color, taste and consistency) is presented. The taste for Parana type indicated a significant difference among irradiation doses ( p<0.05) but the higher value was for 5 kGy dose, demonstrating the acceptability for this case. The Organic honey presented the taste parameter for 10 kGy, significantly lower than the control mean but it did not differ significantly from the 5 kGy value.

  4. Doppler RAdar Observations of Convection from the NASA/TOGA C-band Radar During TRMM-LBA in Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickenbach, T. M.; Amitai, Eyal; Atkinson, Lester; Boccippio, Dennis; Bowie, Robert; Cifelli, Robert; Dunnemann, Neil; Frostram, Gregg; Gears, Nathan; Gerlach, John

    1999-01-01

    The Tropcial RAinfall Measuring Mission-Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (TRMM-LBA) was conducted near Ji Parana, Rondonia, Brazil during the 1999 Amazonian wet season (Jan-Feb). TRMM-LBA provided detailed observations of precipitating systems from surface and aircraft instrumentation which may be compared to measurements from the TRMM satellite. The surface-based platforms included two scanning Doppler radars (the NASA TOGA C-band radar and the NCAR SPOL S-band dual polarization radar) which collected continuous dual-Doppler measurements of precipitating convection.This paper focuses on data from the TOGA radar to provide a preliminary overview of general properties of convective organization observed during TRMM-LBA. These include squall line evolution and morphology, diurnal variation of precipitation, and the vertical intensity of convection. Mesoscale squall lines were most commonly observed in the afternoon, with associated regions of stratiform precipitation persisting into the evening. Nocturnal widespread stratiform rain often formed before sunrise, with no apparent source region of deep convection and very weak radar bright band. Reflectivity values in deep convective cells typically decreased rapidly above the melting level, reminiscent of tropical oceanic convection, and consistent with the relative scarcity of lightning (with respect to other tropical continental regions). Vertically developed electrified convection, though infrequent, did occur regularly.

  5. Ground Radar Polarimetric Observations of High-Frequency Earth-Space Communication Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.; Benjamin, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Strategic roadmaps for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS) enterprise support near-term high-frequency communication systems that provide moderate to high data rates with dependable service. Near-earth and human planetary exploration will baseline Ka-Band, but may ultimately require the use of even higher frequencies. Increased commercial demand on low-frequency earth-space bands has also led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like K u - and K,- band. Data is taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), which operates at 13.8 GHz, and the true radar reflectivity profile is determined along the PR beam via low-frequency ground based polarimetric observations. The specific differential phase (Kdp) is measured along the beam and a theoretical model is used to determine the expected specific attenuation (k). This technique, called the k-Kdp method, uses a Fuzzy-Logic model to determine the hydrometeor type along the PR beam from which the appropriate k-Kdp relationship is used to determine k and, ultimately, the total path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on PR measurements. Measurements from PR and the NCAR S-POL radar were made during the TEFLUN-B experiment that took place near Melbourne, FL in 1998, and the TRMM-LBA campaign near Ji-Parana, Brazil in 1999.

  6. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNA Sequences in Five Species of Astyanax (Characiformes, Characidae) Reveals Independent Location of U1 and U2 snRNA Sites and Association of U1 snRNA and 5S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Silva, Duilio M Z A; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Oliveira, Cláudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Astyanax is a genus of Characidae fishes currently composed of 155 valid species. Previous cytogenetic studies revealed high chromosomal diversification among them, and several studies have been performed using traditional cytogenetic techniques to investigate karyotypes and chromosomal locations of 18S and 5S rDNA genes. However, only a few studies are currently available about other repetitive sequences. Here, the chromosomal location of small nuclear RNA genes, identified as U1 and U2 snRNA clusters, was established and compared to the distribution of 5S rDNA and histone clusters in 5 Astyanax species (A. paranae, A. fasciatus, A. bockmanni, A. altiparanae, and A. jordani) using FISH. The cytogenetic mapping of U1 and U2 snRNA demonstrated a conserved pattern in the number of sites per genome independent of the location in Astyanax species. The location of the U1 snRNA gene was frequently associated with 5S rDNA sequences, indicating a possible interaction between the distinct repetitive DNA families. Finally, comparisons involving the location of U1 and U2 snRNA clusters in the chromosomes of Astyanax species revealed a very diverse pattern, suggesting that many rearrangements have occurred during the diversification process of this group. PMID:26329975

  7. Basin-Scale Freshwater Storage Trends from GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J.; Kiel, B.; Frappart, F.; Syed, T. H.; Rodell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Four years have passed since the GRACE satellite tandem began recording variations in Earth's gravitational field. On monthly to annual timescales, variations in the gravity signal for a given location correspond primarily to changes in water storage. GRACE thus reveals, in a comprehensive, vertically-integrated manner, which areas and basins have experienced net increases or decreases in water storage. GRACE data (April 2002 to November 2005) released by the Center for Space Research at the University of Texas at Austin (RL01) is used for this study. Model-based data from GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) is integrated into this study for comparison with the CSR GRACE data. Basin-scale GLDAS storage trends are similar to those from GRACE, except in the Arctic, likely due to the GLDAS snow module. Outside of the Arctic, correlation of GRACE and GLDAS data confirms significant basin-scale storage trends across the GRACE data collection period. Sharp storage decreases are noted in the Congo, Zambezi, Mekong, Parana, and Yukon basins, among others. Significant increases are noted in the Niger, Lena, and Volga basins, and others. Current and future work involves assessment of these trends and their causes in the context of hydroclimatological variability.

  8. Analysis of Vlasov Antenna as a Load for High Power Microwave Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Aimee N.; Luginsland, John W.

    1998-11-01

    The Magnetically Insulated Line Oscillator (MILO) and the Relativistic Klystron Oscillator (RKO) both produce microwave radiation at gigawatt power levels. In each case, the presence of a structure capable of radiating at this power is critical for efficient operation of the source. Furthermore, design of such a structure is an interesting and challenging problem. One radiating structure candidate is the Vlasov antenna, which consists of a cylindrical waveguide with a slant cut. The simple design allows immediate use, and the surface electric field is typically sufficently small to prevent electrical breakdown, thereby enhancing reliability. Computational analysis of the antenna is performed using the Phased ARray ANtenna Analysis (PARANA) software, which is based on a hybrid finite element method with integral radiation boundary conditions. Simulations of several design variations are performed, including various cut angles and a ``snubbed'' design that is used in current experiments because it satisfies certain length constraints. Results indicate that for certain frequencies, corresponding to MILO operation, use of the ``snubbed'' design results in regions of high electric field in the antenna aperture. Simulations are compared to experimental results.

  9. Multiple resistance of acetolactate synthase and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors in Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes.

    PubMed

    Trezzi, Michelangelo M; Felippi, C L; Mattei, D; Silva, H L; Nunes, A L; Debastiani, C; Vidal, R A; Marques, A

    2005-01-01

    Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in Brazil has been documented for six species. The probability to select biotypes of Euphorbia heterophylla (EPPHL) with multiple resistance increases in the same order of magnitude as the use of other herbicides belonging to only one mechanism of action. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the distribution of resistant populations (R) in the states of the Parana and Santa Catarina; to determine the existence of populations of EPHHL with multiple resistance to ALS and PROTOX inhibitors, and to confirm the occurrence of cross resistance to compounds of these mechanisms of action. Seeds of EPHHL of areas with suspected resistance had been sampled in 97 places during 2003. In the greenhouse experiment samples of each population were sprayed with imazethapyr or fomesafen, at only one rate. To identify the resistant ones they were sprayed with different levels of the herbicides imazethapyr and fomesafen. Later they were sprayed with diverse herbicides of the same mechanisms of action to confirm the multiple/cross resistance. There is widespread distribution in the region of populations with resistance to ALS inhibitors. Some biotypes demonstrated resistance to herbicides from the two mechanisms of action. The resistance factor (FR), or the relation of resistance between R and susceptible biotypes, confirms the existence of two biotypes of EPHHL with cross resistance to several herbicides inhibitors of ALS and PROTOX. PMID:15656167

  10. Molecular detection of bovine coronavirus in a diarrhea outbreak in pasture-feeding Nellore steers in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country. PMID:26712361

  11. Coming: 12,600 megawatts at Itaipu Island

    SciTech Connect

    de Moraes, J.

    1983-08-01

    This paper describes the hydroelectric plant being constructed jointly by Brazil and Paraguay on Itaipu Island in the Parana River. The planned generating capacity of 12,600 MW will make the Itaipu plant the world's largest. It will employ the most powerful hydrogenerators and turbines yet built, the world's largest concentration of 500-kilovolt gas-insulated switchgear, the highest dc transmission voltages and power--600 kV and 6300 MW--ever used, about 1000 kilometers of 765-kV ac transmission, and an extensive computer-based digital supervisory system in which continuous diagnostic evaluation of equipment is emphasized. To maintain national standards, nine generators will operate at 60 hertz for Brazil and nine at 50 hertz for Paraguay. Initially, any excess electricity available from the Paraguay generators will be routed to Brazil, but Paraguay is ultimately expected to share in half the Itaipu generation. The paper discusses the plant from its original feasibility studies to the newly created technologies which its size necessitated. The environmental impact on forests, farmlands and wildlife resulting from the construction of the Itaipu dam and the loss of the 1400 square kilometers which it flooded--including the popular Seven Waterfalls--is addressed. References to other papers as well as a symposium on the Itaipu project are cited.

  12. [Banality of urbanism: the lesson of Curitiba].

    PubMed

    Piccinato, G

    1996-01-01

    Curitiba, the capital of the predominantly agricultural Brazilian state of Parana, is described as a smoothly functioning city where daily life is pleasant, nature and architecture are in harmony, and public spaces are neither deserted nor congested. The events permitting its satisfactory development are described in this article. Since rapid growth began in the 1960s, Curitiba has become an important commercial and industrial center and node for transportation and transformation of agricultural products. A city plan proposed in 1942 established a system of specialized zones for commerce, industry, housing and agriculture, tied together by a system of roads. The plan was modified in the 1960s to incorporate a series of innovations and has remained in force since, with periodic adjustments. The plan replaced a nodal structure with a lineal one, with a close integration of land use and transportation systems. The plan was designed to decongest the central area, define physical limits of growth, provide economic aid for urban development, and distribute resources equitably. The plan is similar to many others; much of Curitiba's success as a city is due to the plan's actually having been followed. Coherent urban policies based on the plan were directed by the Institute of Research and Urban Planning of Curitiba. PMID:12348996

  13. Atmospheric gamma-ray lines at low latitudes in the energy range : 0.3-8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azcarate, I. N.

    2003-12-01

    An experiment carried out with a collimated gamma-ray detector is described. The detector system was transported by an stratospheric balloon, that was launched from Parana, Provincia de Entre Rios, Argentina, on 18 November 1992 ( geomagnetic cut-off 11.1 GV). The presence of a peak was observed, as a characteristic feature of the energy-loss spectrum in the detector. That peak corresponds to the 511 keV line produced by positron annihilation in both the atmopsphere and the lead collimator. The contribution to the counting rate ``below" the peak due to the 511 keV photons produced in the lead is computed. The resulting flux for the atmospheric 511 keV line, at an atmospheric depth of 4.5 g.cm-2, is (9 ± 0.07) x 10-2 phot. cm-2.s-1, which is compatible with measurements performed at other geomagnetic latitudes. Upper limits for other atmospheric gamma-ray lines fluxes are obtained. Acknowledgements : This research was partially supported by grant PIP 0430/98 from CONICET, from Argentina. I.N. Azcarate is a member of the Carrera del Investigador Cientifico y Tecnologico from CONICET, Argentina.

  14. How and when plume zonation appeared during the 132 Myr evolution of the Tristan Hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hoernle, Kaj; Rohde, Joana; Hauff, Folkmar; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Homrighausen, Stephan; Werner, Reinhard; Morgan, Jason P

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, spatial geochemical zonation, present as geographically distinct, subparallel trends, is observed along hotspot tracks, such as Hawaii and the Galapagos. The origin of this zonation is currently unclear. Recently zonation was found along the last ∼70 Myr of the Tristan-Gough hotspot track. Here we present new Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data from the older parts of this hotspot track (Walvis Ridge and Rio Grande Rise) and re-evaluate published data from the Etendeka and Parana flood basalts erupted at the initiation of the hotspot track. We show that only the enriched Gough, but not the less-enriched Tristan, component is present in the earlier (70-132 Ma) history of the hotspot. Here we present a model that can explain the temporal evolution and origin of plume zonation for both the Tristan-Gough and Hawaiian hotspots, two end member types of zoned plumes, through processes taking place in the plume sources at the base of the lower mantle. PMID:26213112

  15. STS-55 Earth observation of agricultural development in northern Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of agricultural development in northern Argentina. This photograph is from a mapping strip of photographs acquired by the STS-55 crew. This mapping strip runs from the 'eyelash forests' of the Bolivian Andes, southeast across the Chaco Plains, and into the upper Parana River Basin of north-central Argentina. The formerly densely forested areas between the upper Rio Pilcomayo and the Rio Teuco of NW Argentina rest on deep, rich alluvial and loess deposits. These modern soils were carried into the region by rivers from the Andes and by dust storms from large playa areas of the Altiplano (high plains) of Peru and Boliva. In this scene, representative of the long mapping strip, the process of converting forests to agriculture is far advanced. The original road network, a series of grids laid out in the forest, has nearly coalesced into a farm and ranch landscape. Some few relict forests are still visible as distin

  16. Concordance of phenotypic expression and gender identity in a large kindred with a mutation in the androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Hooper, H T; Figueiredo, B C; Pavan-Senn, C C; De Lacerda, L; Sandrini, R; Mengarelli, J K; Japp, K; Karaviti, L P

    2004-03-01

    A 14-year-old female presented to the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic, Universidade Federal o Parana Curitiba, Brazil, for obesity. A few years later, despite normal breast development, the patient had failed to menstruate and lacked pubic and axillary hair. Laboratory analyses revealed high levels of testosterone. Karyotype analysis was XY. Direct sequencing of her genomic DNA showed a G to T transition at nucleotide 2089 at exon 2 in the androgen receptor gene, resulting in a substitution of Phe for Cys at position 576. This mutation disrupts the first Zn finger critical to DNA binding and transcriptional activity and results in complete androgen-insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). This individual was part of 700-member multigenerational kindred of German origin living in small villages in Southern Brazil. Family members who gave informed consent were screened using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. Nineteen CAIS-affected individuals and carriers were identified. All presented with infertility and lack of or sparse pubic hair. The prevalence of common AIS within the kindred greatly exceeds that of the general population and is due in part to their isolated familial and community structures. All individuals are genuinely feminine in their appearance, sex behavior, gender identity, and integration within their communities. We conclude that CAIS leads to complete feminization of XY individuals and results in individuals who are psychologically and socially established and integrated as women within the familial and cultural contexts of their communities. PMID:14756668

  17. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sgarioni, Sônia Aparecida; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; de Andrade Leite, Sergio Roberto; Filho, Dirceu Vedovello; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw) from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5–10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25%) raw and 2 (4%) pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum). M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil. PMID:25242962

  18. {sup 222}Rn Measurements at Federal University of Technology (UTFPR, Curitiba, PR, Brazil)

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Fior, Loriane; Schelin, Hugo R.; Flores da Silva, Ruben D.; Poettker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-08-07

    Numerous studies and reports indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has to be considered as the main source of radiological hazard and probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after that of smoking. During the last decades, many countries have put considerable efforts into direct measurements and monitoring of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny exposure, as well as {sup 222}Rn concentration mapping. Present measurements were performed with an aim to study possible correlation between used construction materials and {sup 222}Rn indoor concentration levels. For this purpose, 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor) during two months (June and July) within the central region of Curitiba and Campo Largo (Parana St., Brazil). Since this period of the year is usually rather cold in the South of Brazil, exposition time was chosen to prevent possible saturation of alpha tracks. The second step of measurements was performed during the months of November, December and January, when 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor and outdoor) within the same urban area. Achieved results are being compared with other experimental data.

  19. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo. PMID:11332848

  20. Clinical significance in COPD patients followed in a real practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important public health issue in many countries which is estimated to become the fifth cause of disability and the third cause of mortality in the world within 2020. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics in the real clinical practice of a sample of patients with COPD followed in a pulmonology clinic. Methods The initial sample contained 207 subjects with respiratory claims that searched for specialized treatment and initiated regular monitoring between 2004 and 2009 in a private clinic localized in Cascavel, in the state of Parana, Brazil. Demographic data (weight, height, body mass index - BMI), history of comorbidities, use of respiratory and non respiratory drugs were also registered. Results The main cause related to the development of COPD was current or prior smoking (92.0%); the most frequently reported symptom was dyspnea (95.0%), followed by cough (86.1%), wheezing (69.4%) and sputum production (40.0%). During the follow up, 51 patients developed the need for oxygen therapy (28.3%). In 96 patients, there were periods of acute exacerbation, resulting in 37 hospitalizations. In addition to COPD, a significant number of comorbidities were identified, being cardiovascular disease and neurological disorders the most prevalent ones. Conclusions Based on the data collected, we could outline the profile of patients with COPD, showing characteristics of an elderly population, with multiple comorbidities, suggesting a health related quality of life lower than expected. PMID:23806051

  1. Social vulnerability and climate variability in southern Brazil: a TerraPop case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, S. B.; Fitch, C. A.; Kugler, T.; Doxsey-Whitfield, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability is an inherent characteristic of the Earth's climate, including but not limited to climate change. It affects and impacts human society in different ways, depending on the underlying socioeconomic vulnerability of specific places, social groups, households and individuals. This differential vulnerability presents spatial and temporal variations, and is rooted in historical patterns of development and relations between human and ecological systems. This study aims to assess the impact of climate variability on livelihoods and well-being, as well as their changes over time and across space, and for rural and urban populations. The geographic focus is Southern Brazil-the states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul-- and the objectives include (a) to identify and map critical areas or hotspots of exposure to climate variability (temperature and precipitation), and (b) to identify internal variation or differential vulnerability within these areas and its evolution over time (1980-2010), using newly available integrated data from the Terra Populus project. These data include geo-referenced climate and agricultural data, and data describing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, households and places.

  2. Emission of methane and other trace gases from the Amazon Varzea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Jeffrey E.; Devol, Allan H.

    1986-01-01

    Researchers measured the distributions and fluxes of methane and other trace gases from the various Amazon floodplain environments. These were determined during both a large scale, quasi-synoptic survey along a 2000 km reach of the Amazon river and an intensive local study (by J. Melack, R. Harriss et al.) covering a six-week period. The environments studied included the major rivers, connecting channels (paranas), floating macrophyte beds, flooded forests, open lakes and recently wetted soils. The results are summarized. Measured rates of methane emission averaged about 300 mg m-2 d-1, but with considerable variance, and were comparable to or higher than previously reported emissions from similar temperature zone environments. In general, areas covered by floating macrophytes showed the highest emissions. Individual hotspots had among the highest rates ever observed, over 10 g m-2 d-1. The high methane emissions appear to result because about 50% of the organic matter fixed on the floodplain (either terrestrial or aquatic) that is oxidized in the water is decomposed anaerobically via methanogensis. Measured fluxes of methane to the atmosphere appear to be significantly correlated with surface water dissolved methane concentrations.

  3. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning through Concept Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cássia Veiga Marriott, Rita; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of “concept mapping”. An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an understanding of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  4. Enhancing Collaborative and Meaningful Language Learning Through Concept Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, Rita De Cássia Veiga; Torres, Patrícia Lupion

    This chapter aims to investigate new ways of foreign-language teaching/learning via a study of how concept mapping can help develop a student's reading, writing and oral skills as part of a blended methodology for language teaching known as LAPLI (Laboratorio de Aprendizagem de LInguas: The Language Learning Lab). LAPLI is a student-centred and collaborative methodology which encourages students to challenge their limitations and expand their current knowledge whilst developing their linguistic and interpersonal skills. We explore the theories that underpin LAPLI and detail the 12 activities comprising its programme with specify reference to the use of "concept mapping". An innovative table enabling a formative and summative assessment of the concept maps is formulated. Also presented are some of the qualitative and quantitative results achieved when this methodology was first implemented with a group of pre-service students studying for a degree in English and Portuguese languages at the Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR) in Brazil. The contribution of concept mapping and LAPLI to an under standing of language learning along with a consideration of the difficulties encountered in its implementation with student groups is discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  5. Reconnaissance for radioactive materials in the southern part of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Charles T.; Haynes, Donald D.; Filho, Evaristo Ribeiro

    1957-01-01

    During 1954-1956 a reconnaissance for radioactive minerals was made with carborne, airborne and handborne scintillation equipment in the southern Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. During the traverse covering more than 5,000 kilometers the authors checked the radioactivity of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and Mesozoic alkalic intrusive and basaltic extrusive rocks. The 22 samples collected contained from 0.003 to 0.029 percent equivalent uranium oxide and from 0.10 to 0.91 percent equivalent thorimn; two samples were taken from radioactive pegmati tes for mineralogic studies. None of the localities is at present a commercial source of uranium or thorium; however, additional work should be done near the alkalic stock at Lages in the State of Santa Catarina and at the Passo das Tropas fossil plant locality near Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Near Lages highly altered alkalic rock from a dike contained 0.026 percent uranium oxide. At Passo das Tropas highly altered, limonite-impregnated sandstone from the Rio do Rasto group of sedimentary rocks contained 0.029 percent uranium oxide.

  6. First Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the Fresh Leafs of Vegetables in South America.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, Ariella A; Tiyo, Bruna T; Colli, Cristiane M; de Souza, Carla Z; Garcia, João L; Gomes, Mônica L; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the high dispersion of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment, there are few studies investigating their presence in vegetables consumed by the general population. This has led us to investigate its occurrence in raw vegetables. A total of 238 samples of vegetables were collected, including crisp lettuce, regular lettuce, chicory, rocket, and parsley, both organic and nonorganic, locally in northwestern Parana, Southern Brazil. Each sample (50 g) was washed and filtered separately. A PCR was performed to detect the parasite DNA from the sediment of each sample, using B1 (B22-23) and Toxo4-5 primers. We found contamination in 3.8% of the samples, 0.8% with the primer Toxo4-5 and 2.9% with B22-B23. The results were positive in 0.6% (1/62) of the samples of smooth lettuce, 3.7% (4/106) of crisp head lettuce, 5.0% (2/40) of chicory, 14.3% (1/7) of rocket, and 20% (1/5) of parsley. These data show the contamination by T. gondii in raw vegetables directly from production sites and stores, in both organic and nonorganic samples. PMID:27421086

  7. Climatic and anthropogenic factors affecting river discharge to the global ocean, 1951-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milliman, John D.; Farnsworth, K.L.; Jones, P.D.; Xu, K.H.; Smith, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    During the last half of the 20th century, cumulative annual discharge from 137 representative rivers (watershed areas ranging from 0.3 to 6300 ?? 103??km2) to the global ocean remained constant, although annual discharge from about one-third of these rivers changed by more than 30%. Discharge trends for many rivers reflected mostly changes in precipitation, primarily in response to short- and longer-term atmospheric-oceanic signals; with the notable exception of the Parana, Mississippi, Niger and Cunene rivers, few of these "normal" rivers experienced significant changes in either discharge or precipitation. Cumulative discharge from many mid-latitude rivers, in contrast, decreased by 60%, reflecting in large part impacts due to damming, irrigation and interbasin water transfers. A number of high-latitude and high-altitude rivers experienced increased discharge despite generally declining precipitation. Poorly constrained meteorological and hydrological data do not seem to explain fully these "excess" rivers; changed seasonality in discharge, decreased storage and/or decreased evapotranspiration also may play important roles. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 222Rn Measurements at Federal University of Technology (UTFPR, Curitiba, PR, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Fior, Loriane; Schelin, Hugo R.; da Silva, Ruben D. Flores; Pöttker, Fabiana; de Paula Melo, Vicente

    2008-08-01

    Numerous studies and reports indicate that the indoor radon inhalation by humans has to be considered as the main source of radiological hazard and probably the second most important cause of lung cancer after that of smoking. During the last decades, many countries have put considerable efforts into direct measurements and monitoring of 222Rn and its progeny exposure, as well as 222Rn concentration mapping. Present measurements were performed with an aim to study possible correlation between used construction materials and 222Rn indoor concentration levels. For this purpose, 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor as well as outdoor) during two months (June and July) within the central region of Curitiba and Campo Largo (Parana St., Brazil). Since this period of the year is usually rather cold in the South of Brazil, exposition time was chosen to prevent possible saturation of alpha tracks. The second step of measurements was performed during the months of November, December and January, when 50 Lexan track detectors were exposed in the air (indoor and outdoor) within the same urban area. Achieved results are being compared with other experimental data.

  9. Selectivity of neem to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Celso L; Silva, Flávia A C; Novaes, Tanara G de

    2010-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis are commonly found in avocado and persimmon orchards in northern Parana state. However, their abundance depends on whether insecticides are used or not to control the key lepidopteran pests Stenoma catenifer (Wals.) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and Hypocala andremona (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), respectively. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous neem seed extract (ANSE) at 15, 3 and 1.5%, and of an emulsifiable concentrate neem oil (ECNO) at 2.5, 0.5 and 0.25% on lifetime parameters of these trichogrammatids as a way of testing the feasibility of integrating the biological and chemical control methods. Chemicals were applied on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs before or after parasitization (one, three or five days). ANSE was more deleterious to both parasitoid species than ECNO, regardless of the concentration and the time of application. The chemicals acted on a concentration and time dependent manner. Treating the host with neem before parasitism was less deleterious to wasp emergence, especially for T. annulata. Pre-treatments (24h) of the host eggs with ECNO at concentrations varying from 0.5% to 0.25% did not affect T. pretiosum longevity, but 2.5% reduced T. annulata survival. Feeding wasps with honey mixed with 0.25% ECNO negatively affected T. annulata survival. PMID:21271068

  10. A barrier to upstream migration in the fish passage of Itaipu Dam (Canal da Piracema), Paraná River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore R Castro-Santos; Fontes Júnior, Hélio Martins; Makrakis, Sergio; Gomes, Luiz Carlos; Latini, João Dirço

    2012-01-01

    The majority of the fish passages built in the Neotropical region are characterised by low efficiency and high selectivity; in many cases, the benefits to fish populations are uncertain. Studies conducted in the Canal da Piracema at Itaipu dam on the Parana River indicate that the system component designated as the Discharge channel in the Bela Vista River (herein named Canal de deságue no rio Bela Vista or CABV), a 200 m long technical section, was the main barrier to the upstream migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of restriction imposed by the CABV on upstream movements of Prochilodus lineatus and Leporinus elongatus, Characiformes. Fish were tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) and released both downstream and upstream of this critical section. Individuals of both species released downstream of the CABV took much more time to reach the upper end of the system (43.6 days vs. 15.9 days), and passed in much lower proportions (18% vs. 60.8%) than those tagged upstream of this component. Although more work is needed to differentiate between fishway effects and natural variation in migratory motivation, the results clearly demonstrate passage problems at the CABV.

  11. Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in schoolchildren from Paranavaí-Parana, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey, carried out in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 279 girls) from 6th to 9th grade, aged 10 to 14 years, from public and private schools of Paranavaí - PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity through a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis, the U Mann-Whitney and Student's t tests were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). RESULTS: There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise for body composition control and weight reduction. PMID:25623726

  12. Immature mosquitoes from groundwater habitats in a temperate wetland of Argentina: environmental associations and seasonal variation of community attributes.

    PubMed

    Cardo, Maria Victoria; Vezzani, Dario; Carbajo, Anibal Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    We studied the seasonal patterns of 3 community attributes (breeding site index, richness, and diversity) of groundwater mosquito immatures and their associations with meso- and microhabitat factors in the Parana Lower Delta, Argentina, from December 2009 to November 2010. Monthly collections at 4 sites yielded 2,313 mosquito immatures, belonging to 19 species assigned to 6 genera. Immatures developed in a wide range of microenvironmental conditions (water temperature 4.0-30.2 degrees C, pH 5.4-9.1, electrical conductivity 0.02-6.33 mS/cm, and dissolved oxygen 0-235.6%), and their occurrence was significantly associated with lower water temperature and dissolved oxygen values. Most frequently captured species were Culex dolosus s.l. (58.6%), Aedes crinifer (22.9%), and Cx. intrincatus (19.0%). Breeding site index was highest in winter (0.76) and lowest in spring (0.54). Species richness and diversity varied significantly among seasons (peaking in summer), land uses, and habitat types. PMID:23833894

  13. Collection of relevant results obtained with the ERTS-1 satellite images by the Institute for Space Research (INPE), volume 2. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demendonca, F.; Amaral, G.; Gamadealmeida, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Soil resource studies in Brazil have concluded that: areas with agricultural activities appear surrounding urban centers; some areas are suffering a strong erosion action; there exist two drainage systems near Paraguai River and Parana River; and this region possesses great variety of soil types. It is possible to count the number of lakes and sluices as well as their superficial area using a channel 7 photographic enlargement. The great concentration of water bodies along the Jacui River determines the large rice crops. Data concerning regions around Teresina City, Presidente Prudente, Piracicaba City, Dourados, and Tres Marias Dam revealed several characteristics concerning the soil and water resources. Two basic maps were made of the natural vegetation distribution over central eastern Brazil from data ERTS-1 data. One map shows the drainage system, the road system, and cities; while the second shows the natural vegetation. It was possible to identify old reforestation, new reforestation, natural forest in flat lands, and natural forest in rolling lands from the ERTS images. Different pasture plant species could be identified by multispectral remote sensing. Data obtained along different wavelength bands provide essential data for the range manager to evaluate his range and to establish a suitable policy. Hydrographic mapping was done using the ERTS images.

  14. Opportunities from low-resolution modelling of river morphology in remote parts of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nones, M.; Guerrero, M.

    2013-10-01

    The study of rivers morphodynamics requires modelling of a variety of processes ranging from the typical small scale of fluid mechanics (e.g. flow turbulence dissipation) to the large scale of landscape evolution (e.g. fan deposition). However, simplifications inherent in the long-term modelling of large rivers derive from limited computational resource and the high level of processes detail (i.e. spatial and temporal resolution). These modelling results depend on processes parameterization and calibration over detailed field data (e.g. initial morphology). Thus, in these cases, simplified tools are attractive. Here, a simplified 1-D code is used for the modelling of very large rivers. A synthetic description of the variation of cross-sections shape is implemented on the basis of satellite images, typically available also in remote parts of the world. The model's flexibility is highlighted here, by presenting two applications. In the first case the model is used for analysing the long-term evolution of the Lower Zambezi (Africa) related to the construction of two reservoirs for hydropower exploitation; while, in the second case, the same code is applied for studying the evolution of the Middle and Lower Parana (Argentina) in light of climate variability. In both cases, having only basic data for boundary and initial conditions, the 1-D model provides results that are in agreement with past studies and that may be used to assist sediment management at watershed scale or at boundaries of more detailed modelling.

  15. Style of rifting and the stages of Pangea breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Fourdan, Brendan; Leleu, Sophie; Leparmentier, François; Clarens, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Pangea results from the progressive amalgamation of continental blocks achieved at 320 Ma. Assuming that the ancient concept of "active" versus "passive" rifting remains pertinent as end-members of more complex processes, we show that the progressive Pangea breakup occurred through a succession of rifting episodes characterized by different tectonic evolutions. A first episode of passive continental rifting during the Upper Carboniferous and Permian led to the formation of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. Then at the beginning of Triassic times, two short episodes of active rifting associated to the Siberian and Emeishan large igneous provinces (LIPs) failed. The true disintegration of Pangea resulted from (1) a Triassic passive rifting leading to the emplacement of the central Atlantic magmatic province (200 Ma) LIP and the subsequent opening of the central Atlantic Ocean during the lowermost Jurassic and from (2) a Lower Jurassic active rifting triggered by the Karoo-Ferrar LIP (183 Ma), which led to the opening of the West Indian Ocean. The same sequence of passive then active rifting is observed during the Lower Cretaceous with, in between, the Parana-Etendeka LIP at 135 Ma. We show that the relationships between the style of rifts and their breakdown or with the type of resulting margins (as magma poor or magma dominated) are not straightforward. Finally, we discuss the respective role of mantle global warming promoted by continental agglomeration and mantle plumes in the weakening of the continental lithosphere and their roles as rifting triggers.

  16. How predictable are water resources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, P.

    2010-10-01

    Peter Mason, technical director of international dams and hydropower at MWH, explains how some water resources might be more predictable than generally supposed. Some years ago the writer examined the levels of Lake Victoria in east Africa as part of a major refurbishment project. This revealed a clear cyclic behavior in lake level and hence in discharges from the lake down the Nile system and up into Egypt. A recent study by the writer demonstrated that 20-year mean flows in the Kafue River in Zambia corresponded well to reconstructed rainfall records based on regional tree ring records. The Rio Parana has a catchment area of 3,100,000km 2 and a mean stream flow of 21,300m 3/sec. In the wider context an improved understanding of apparent periodicities in the natural record would seem to offer at least one planning scenario to be considered in terms of investment and even for the long term planning of aid and famine relief.

  17. Far tails of the density of states in amorphous organic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, S. V.

    2015-10-28

    Far tails of the density of state (DOS) are calculated for the simple models of organic amorphous material, the model of dipolar glass and model of quadrupolar glass. It was found that in both models far tails are non-Gaussian. In the dipolar glass model, the DOS is symmetric around zero energy, while for the model of quadrupolar glass, the DOS is generally asymmetric and its asymmetry is directly related to the particular geometry of quadrupoles. Far tails of the DOS are relevant for the quasi-equilibrium transport of the charge carriers at low temperature. Asymmetry of DOS in quadrupolar glasses means a principal inequivalence of the random energy landscape for the transport of electrons and holes. Possible effect of the non-Gaussian shape of the far tails of the DOS on the temperature dependence of carrier drift mobility is discussed.

  18. Singularity of density of states induced by random bond disorder in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Wang, Xu

    2016-06-01

    We re-investigate the effect of random bond disorder on the density of states (DOS) in graphene. Our large-scale calculation supports that there exists a critical disorder value gbc dividing the DOS into two distinct structures. In the regime gb < gbc (gb is randomness of bond disorder), the DOS away from the Dirac point behaves like a power-law with positive exponent (α > 0): ρ (E) ∼ρ1 | E|α (E is Fermi energy with respect to the Dirac point, ρ1 is a constant). In the regime gb > gbc, it is observed that DOS develops a peak structure at the Dirac point E = 0. Through the finite-size scaling analysis, we elucidate that the DOS at the Dirac point diverges in the thermodynamics limit. Furthermore, it is found that the divergent behavior of DOS is sensitive to any on-site disorder which violates the chiral symmetry in graphene.

  19. 28 CFR 1100.27 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manner appropriate to their status as crime victims, afforded proper medical care and other assistance... enforcement personnel, immigration officials and DOS officials, insofar as their duties involve...

  20. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.

    2007-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author) [Spanish] La tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) es una tecnologia de control de plagas favorable para el medio ambiente con una aplicacion de un control integrado de plagas claves para toda la area, incluyendo la supresion o eliminacion de poblaciones introducidas y la exclusion de nuevas introducciones. La esterilidad reproductiva es normalmente inducida por radiacion ionizada, un metodo conveniente y consistente que mantiene un grado razonable para la capacidad de competencia en insectos liberados. El costo y la eficacia de un programa de control que incluye TIE dependen en tener un balance entre la esterilidad y la capacidad para competir, pero parece que los programas operacionales corrientes con TIS como un componente no estan logrando el tener un balance apropiado. En esta publicacion, nosotros discutimos la optimizacion del proceso de esterilizacion y presentamos un modelo y procedimiento sencillos para determinar la dosis optima. (author)

  1. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  2. Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

  3. Attenuation of Ultraviolet Radiation by Dust in Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalante, V.

    1994-07-01

    Se han obtenido soluciones de la ecuación de transporte para la dispersión coherente, no conservativa y anisotrópica para estimar la precisión de métodos aproximados, usados en modelos de nubes en que la luz es atenuada principalmente por el polvo. En los cálculos se ha aplicado el metodo de armónicos esféricos para distintos parámetros del polvo. Se ha explorado la posibilidad de descubrir cambios en las caracterísiticas del polvo mediante observaciones de regiones fotodisociadas. Se muestra que para altos valores del albedo de dispersión simple y del parametro de asimetria de Ia función de fase que son adecuados para el polvo galáctico, no es posible determinar variaciones de más de un factor de 2 en el cociente de gas a polvo. Solutions to the transfer equation for coherent, non-conservative, anisotropic scattering have been obtained in order to estimate the accuracy of approximate methods used in models of clouds where light is attenuated mostly by dust. In the calculations the spherical harmonic method has been applied for different grain parameters. The possibility of discovering changes of dust characteristics through observations of photodissociation regions has been considered. It is shown that for the high values of the single scattering albedo and the asymmetry parameter of the phase function for redistribution that appear to be appropriate for galactic dust, it is not possible to determine variations of more than a factor of 2 in the gas to dust ratio.

  4. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  5. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  6. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    radicular, deve estar exposta ao fósforo para suprir as necessidades das plantas. Ademais, há um determinado valor de concentração de fósforo, na solução do solo, acima da qual a taxa de absorção não é aumentada. Essas considerações suscitam a possibilidade de questionar se a aplicação de fósforo em sulcos seria a forma mais eficiente de usá-lo quando se pretende alcancar elevadas produções. Deve-se lembrar entretanto, que solos tropicais, ainda com baixos teores fósforo e alta capacidade de adsorção, seria necessária dose muito elevada de P, quando aplicada á lanço, em todo o terreno. Se a aplicação localizada do fósforo pode, em parte, ser explicada, a do nitrogênio e potássio não são facilmente justificadas sob o aspecto de eficiéncia de utilização. Pelo contrário, ela pode ser questionada, principalmente pelas suas caracteristicas de difusão, pelo efeito que altas concentração de amónio e cloreto podem ter sobre a pressão osmotica da solução do solo junto aos tubérculos plantados, pelo efeito negativo do cloreto sobre a absorção de fósforo e também sobre a capacidade produtiva das plantas. Portanto, existe a possibilidade de ocorrer toxidez de amónio e de cloreto ao se aplicar doses altas dos fertilizantes nos sulcos de plantios. Isto pode determinar uma menor eficiéncia no uso dos fertilizantes. Materiais e Metodos: Nos desenvolverémos os três experimentos (i.e.: 1., 2., 3.) para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação com diferentes doságens do latossolo vermelho novo, do esterco de curral e do adubo fórmula 4N:14P:8K no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças, da Brazília-DF no 1990. Caracteristicas agroquímicas do solo em faixa arado (dados estimados), e conteudos N, P2O5, K2O do esterco de curral e palha de arroz queimado (dados estimados): a., caracteristicas agroquímicas do solo

  7. Layered Crust Resistivity Model for Windfarm Grounding Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, P. F.; Pane, E.; Costanzo, A.; Yoshinaga, S.

    2013-12-01

    This work presents the development of layered crust models for the study of the grounding system of Agua Doce Windfarm Complex, localized north of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This complex has 6 windfarms with a total of 86 aerogenerators, distributed by an area of about 220 km2. Agua Doce Complex is located at the top border of Santa Catarina state, directly over the basalts of Serra Geral Formation, upper layer of the Parana Sedimentar Basin, which lays over the huge confined Guarani Aquifer, formed by varied sediments accumulated over 250 my (from Ordovician to Triassic Period). Below Agua Doce, the Serra Geral Formation is around 1km deep, being the Parana crystalline basement about 3.6 km deep. Windfarms are extensive power plants, occupying wide areas. The grounding of each tower is composed by the huge amount of steel rebars, inside the tower foundations, and complemented by buried cooper cable rings. The tower groundings are interconnected by means of buried cooper cable or by aerial steel cables, the latter fixed on top of the distribution lines that connect the aerogenerators to the main substation. The steel cables of the aerial lines are also grounded by means of spaced grounding rods. For the simulation of this wide grounding system, it is essential the previous development of a layered electrical resistivity crust model. This model will be dependent on the quantity and quality of resistivity measurements, and also on the adopted technique to reduce the large amount of measured values to an average apparent resistivity curve, which shall be representative of the initial data set. The desired crust model should represent the different resistivity values for at least 10 km deep, including a detailed representation of near-surface soil layers, down to 100 meters, considering that this is the medium where the ground electrodes will be buried. For this project, soil resistivity measurements were made close to each of the 86 aerogenerators, by means of

  8. A Guide to Selecting Large Print/Enhanced Image Computer Access Hardware/Software for Persons with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, J. C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Large print/enhanced image computer access products for low-vision individuals are reviewed. The products ("DP-11/Plus,""Large Print DOS,""Lyon Large Print,""PC Lens,""Vista/Vista 2," and "ZoomText") work interactively with most application programs and DOS in IBM environments. Features evaluated include: documentation, set-up, hardware/software…

  9. 48 CFR 652.219-71 - Section 8(a) Direct Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration (SBA) and the Department of State (DOS). SBA retains responsibility for 8(a) certification, 8(a... under the 8(a) program. The cognizant SBA district office is: (b) The DOS contracting officer is... shall give advance notice to the SBA before it issues a final notice terminating performance, either...

  10. 48 CFR 652.219-71 - Section 8(a) Direct Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration (SBA) and the Department of State (DOS). SBA retains responsibility for 8(a) certification, 8(a... under the 8(a) program. The cognizant SBA district office is: (b) The DOS contracting officer is... shall give advance notice to the SBA before it issues a final notice terminating performance, either...

  11. 76 FR 76476 - Notice of Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Notice 7658; Cyprus Docket No. DOS-2011-0135; Peru Docket No. DOS-2011-0136] Notice of Meeting of the... with Peru Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Peru Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on...

  12. Yours, Mine or Ours: What Counts as Innovation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooksey, Ray W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that research and development organizations (R&DOs) have particular perspectives on what counts as an innovation whereas the potential adopting users usually have quite different often diverse perspectives. If these "worldviews" do not overlap or speak to each other, then what R&DOs consider innovative might constitute a…

  13. Choosing the Right Database Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vockell, Edward L.; Kopenec, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Provides a comparison of four database management programs commonly used in schools: AppleWorks, the DOS 3.3 and ProDOS versions of PFS, and MECC's Data Handler. Topics discussed include information storage, spelling checkers, editing functions, search strategies, graphs, printout formats, library applications, and HyperCard. (LRW)

  14. 77 FR 14581 - Notice of Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7767; Guatemala Docket No. DOS-2012-0011; Mali Docket No. DOS-2012-0012] Notice of Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee There will be a meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee April 24-27, 2012, at the Department...

  15. 75 FR 33883 - Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period for the Proposed Keystone XL Pipeline Project; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) until Friday, July 2, 2010. On April 20, 2010, the DOS provided Federal Register notice (75 FR 20653) of the availability of the DEIS and notice of nineteen public comment..., June 16, 2010 (75 FR 22890). As noted, the DOS is now extending the public comment period for a...

  16. Clearing a Path: The 16-Bit Operating System Jungle Offers Confusion, Not Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pournelle, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the design and limited uses of the Pascal, MS-DOS, CP/M, and PC-DOS operating systems as standard operating systems for 16-bit microprocessors, especially with the more sophisticated microcomputers currently being developed. Advantages and disadvantages of Unix--a multitasking, multiuser operating system--as a standard operating system…

  17. 8 CFR 212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... apply for a new card as provided for in the DOS regulations found at 22 CFR 41.32 and 22 CFR 41.103. ... Application, to obtain a Form DSP-150 in accordance with the applicable DOS regulations at 22 CFR 41.32 and/or... border crossing card (or similar stamp in a passport). (i) A Canadian citizen or other person...

  18. RESPSYST: An Interactive Microcomputer Program for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph

    1985-01-01

    RESPSYST is a computer program (written in BASICA and using MS-DOS/PC-DOS microcomputers) incorporating more than 20 of the factors that determine gas transport by the cardio-respiratory system. The five-part program discusses most of these factors, provides several question/answer sections, and relies heavily on graphics to demonstrate…

  19. Measuring Student Learning in Social Justice Courses: The Diversity and Oppression Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Shorkey, Clay; Battle, DuWayne

    2015-01-01

    The Diversity and Oppression Scale (DOS) is a standardized instrument measuring self-reported student learning about diversity and oppression based on requirements of the Council on Social Work Education. DOS was tested with social work students in 2 major North American universities. Factor structure was examined using exploratory factor analysis…

  20. The Challenges for Physicians of Demonstrating Continuing Competence in the Changing World of Medical Regulation: Osteopathic Pediatrician Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenau, Erik E.; Gimpel, John R.

    2012-01-01

    The current system of continuing medical education, maintenance of certification, and renewal of medical licenses can be quite burdensome and inefficient for all practicing physicians: medical doctors (M.D.s) and doctors of osteopathic medicine (D.O.s). D.O.s have opportunities for residency training and specialty certification which are not…

  1. 77 FR 36329 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Scoping Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... responsible for international relations of the United States, is to shape and sustain a peaceful, prosperous... American people and people around the world. DOS has a number of domestic and international... Columbia. In response, pursuant to the International Chancery Act of 1968, Congress authorized DOS...

  2. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  3. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist and Metabolic Abnormalities in Brazilian Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Hintze, Luzia Jaeger; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and its association with metabolic abnormalities in schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 241 students aged 10 to 14 years from public schools (4 schools) and private (2 schools) from Paranavai town, in Parana State, Brazil. Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference) and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, non-HDL and LDL-C were analyzed. In statistical tests of Pearson partial correlation and multivariate logistic regression, considering p<0,05. Results The prevalence of HTW was 20,7% among schoolchildren, 14,1% in males and 6,6% among females with higher proportions aged 10–12 years old. Multivariate analysis indicated that the students who attended private schools were nearly three times more likely (95% CI: 1,2–5,6), to be diagnosed with HTW compared with those who attended public schools (p = 0,006), and LDL-C was the only metabolic variable positively associated with the outcome (p = 0,001), where the students categorized with elevated serum levels had odds 4,2 times (95% CI: 1,6–10,9) having the HTW compared to students in appropriate levels. Conclusion This study showed higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in students when compared to prospective studies in Brazil and worldwide. It also showed that the only metabolic alteration associated with HTW phenotype was LDL-C (low density lipoprotein). PMID:25397885

  4. How Well Do Neodymium Isotopes Trace AMOC Mixing? A Test in the Southwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Goldstein, S. L.; Pena, L.; Hartman, A. E.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; De Baar, H. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Neodymium (Nd) isotope ratios are used to trace past AMOC circulation, based on observations that seawater Nd isotope ratios effectively "fingerprint" water masses, and that over long water mass transport distances in deep seawater they reflect values expected from water mass mixing. Over the past several years, studies have increasingly focused on the potential of external addition of Nd along water mass transport paths (for example through "boundary exchange" with particulates or addition from groundwaters), thus challenging the idea that Nd isotopes behave "quasi-conservatively" in the oceans. The SW Atlantic, with the major water masses involved in the AMOC (southward flowing NADW, northward flowing AAIW and AABW), is arguably the best place on Earth to evaluate how well Nd isotopes trace water mass mixing, in order to clarify its value for following the AMOC through time. We will report Nd isotope ratios of seawater collected on the SW Atlantic meridional transect of the NIOZ West Atlantic GEOTRACES Cruise Leg 3 (RRS James Cook 057), which sampled seawater profiles and the sediment surface at 18 stations between 0-50°S. Most stations are sampled in the open ocean, providing a test of whether Nd isotopes show quasi-conservative mixing systematics away from continental margins. The cruise section also provides several opportunities to test the potential effects of external Nd input. For example, it transects the continental shelf in the far south, the Rio Grande Rise, volcanic seamounts, and the major geological age boundaries of South America. It also crosses the major Southern Hemisphere wind zones, allowing us to test the impacts of aeolian input, and inputs from major rivers (Parana-Paraguay, Sao Francisco, Amazon). All of these features have the potential to modify the seawater Nd isotope ratios, allowing us to determine if they add significant external Nd.

  5. Radiocarbon measurements at LAC-UFF: Recent performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, Roberto; Macario, Kita D.; Santos, Guaciara M.; Carvalho, Carla; dos Santos, Hellen C.; Gomes, Paulo R. S.; Castro, Maikel D.; Oliveira, Fabiana M.; Alves, Eduardo Q.

    2015-10-01

    In 2012 a single stage accelerator mass spectrometer from NEC was installed at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF), Niterói, Brazil. Here, we present a status report of our facility. We discuss some modifications applied to our combustion protocol in an attempt to reduce our procedural blank, mostly to processed organic samples. Measurements of reference materials indicate low precision and accuracy that are partially related to beam optics through the acceleration tube. We observed that once the beam current intensity increases the measured 13C+/12C+ becomes erratic. Therefore, in order to maintain the AMS-δ13C values within reasonable values, so that fractionation corrections using the spectrometer 13C+/12C+ values does not affect the final 14C results, we are forced to limit the 12C- beam intensity to ⩽30 μA. This requirement was confirmed during our accuracy tests, when measuring selected annual tree-rings wood samples from a Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia) between 1927 and 1997 previously measured at the Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility (KCCAMS), at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). At the LAC-UFF tree-ring wood samples were processed and measured in 4 different batches during a period of about 5 months. The 14C results were later compared to the high-precision data obtained at KCCAMS/UCI and reached a good agreement. Recently a problem associated with graphitization yield were finally identified and new measurements with secondary standards are promising.

  6. Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of Bolivia and adjacent regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sempere, T. )

    1993-02-01

    Phaneorozoic sequence stratigraphy of the Pacific margin of western South America, particularly the Bolivian section, has been completed and new interpretations and hypotheses have been proposed as a result of data analyses of this information. The Paleozoic margin was initially passive (late Cambrian-Llanvirn, [open quotes]Puna aulacogen[close quotes]), but became active during a middle Ordovician compressional episode. Most of late Cambrian to early Triassic Bolivian rocks are of marine origin, with dark shale units recording sea level rises, whereas middle Triassic to Recent rocks were mainly deposited in continental environments (except six restricted-marine ingressions in the late Cretaceous-Danian, and one in the late Miocene, all with hydrocarbon potential). A noteworthy similarity exists between the Devonian to Jurassic stratigraphies of Bolivia and the Parana basin, suggesting that Bolivia behaved as part of the Brazilian craton from late Cambrian to late Jurassic, when it was captured into the Pacific margin geotectonic system. Organic-rich units correlate with Paleozoic highstand deposits and younger ingressions. The Bolivian Phanerozoic strata is characterized by thick layers, partly due to middle Ordovician-Carboniferous and late Cretaceous-Cenozoic foreland basins. Paleozoic foreland geometries include northeastern onlaps and, potentially, stratigraphic traps. Hydrocarbon generation, migration and trapping mainly depended on Cenozoic structural loading and burial and on propagation of Andean deformation which are comprised of Paleozoic shale decollements. Precise knowledge of the evolution of the Phanerozoic geodynamic contexts and basin geometries through sedimentation and subsequent deformations is crucial for hydrocarbon exploration strategies in these regions.

  7. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  8. Sharing the opportunity cost among power companies to support hydropower-to-environment water transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    Among the environmental impacts caused by dams, the alteration of flow regimes is one of the most critical to river ecosystems given its influence in long river reaches and its continuous pattern. Provided it is technically feasible, the reoperation of hydroelectric reservoir systems can, in principle, mitigate the impacts on degraded freshwater ecosystems by recovering some of the natural flow regime. The typical approach to implement hydropower-to-environment water transfers focuses on the reoperation of the dam located immediately upstream of the environmentally sensitive area, meaning that only one power station will bear the brunt of the benefits forgone for the power sector. By ignoring the contribution of upstream infrastructures to the alteration of the flow regime, the opportunity cost associated with the restoration of a flow regime is not equitably distributed among the power companies in the river basin, therefore slowing the establishment of environmental flow programs. Yet, there is no criterion, nor institutional mechanisms, to ensure a fair distribution of the opportunity cost among power stations. This paper addresses this issue by comparing four rules to redistribute the costs faced by the power sector when environmental flows must be implemented in a multireservoir system. The rules are based on the the installed capacity of the power plants, the live storage capacity of the reservoirs, the ratio between the incremental flows and the live storage capacity, and the extent of the storage services; that is, the volume of water effectively transferred by each reservoir. The analysis is carried out using the Parana River Basin (Brazil) as a case study.

  9. Biogeography of the Lizard Genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): Distribution, Endemism, and Area Relationships in South America

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, André Luiz Gomes; de Britto, Marcelo Ribeiro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva

    2013-01-01

    Based on comprehensive distributional records of the 23 species currently assigned to the lizard genus Tropidurus, we investigated patterns of endemism and area relationships in South America. Two biogeographic methods were applied, Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). Two areas of endemism were detected by PAE: the first within the domains of the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga, which includes seven endemic species, and the second in the region of the Serranía de Huanchaca, eastern Bolivia, in which three endemic species are present. The area cladograms recovered a close relationship between the Atlantic Forest and areas of the South American open corridor. The results revealed a close relationship among the provinces Caatinga (Cerrado, Parana Forest (Pantanal+Chaco)). The uplift of the Brazilian Central Plateau in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene (4-2 Myr BP) has been interpreted as a major event responsible for isolation and differentiation of biotas along these areas. However, we emphasize that without the establishment of a temporal framework concerning the diversification history of Tropidurus it is premature to correlate cladogenetic events with specific time periods or putative vicariant scenarios. The limiting factors hampering the understanding of the biogeographic history of this genus include (1) the absence of temporal references in relation to the diversification of distinct clades within Tropidurus; (2) the lack of an appropriate taxonomic resolution of the species complexes currently represented by widely distributed forms; and (3) the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. We suggest that these three important aspects should be prioritized in future investigations. PMID:23527261

  10. Ambient Noise in Emergency Rooms and Its Health Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Filus, Walderes; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira de; Albizu, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The occupational risk due to high levels of noise in the hospital environment has been recognized, and the National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance of the Ministry of Health recommends evaluation and control of noise in hospital areas. Objectives To assess the sound environment in the emergency ward of a general trauma reference hospital in the city of Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. Methods In this descriptive study, noise levels were assessed on mornings, afternoons, and evenings using an integrating Bruel & Kjaer (Denmark) calibrated sound level meter, type 2230. Ten indoor points in the emergency ward were assessed; the helicopter as well as several available pieces of equipment in the ward were assessed individually. Results Noise levels in sound pressure level ambiance [dBA] ranged from 56.6 to 68.8. The afternoon period was the noisiest. The helicopter at 119 dBA and the cast saw at 90 dBA were the noisiest equipment, and the lowest noise level found was the activated oximeter at 61.0 dBA. Conclusion In all assessed points, noise levels were above the comfort levels recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (1987), which may harm users' and professionals' health as well as influence professional performance in the emergency ward. Sound pressure levels of the helicopter and cast saw reach high hearing hazard levels, requiring professionals to use individual protection equipment, and point to the need for creation and implementation of effective control measures of noise levels in emergency wards. PMID:26157493

  11. Ambient Noise in Emergency Rooms and Its Health Hazards.

    PubMed

    Filus, Walderes; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira de; Albizu, Evelyn

    2015-07-01

    Introduction The occupational risk due to high levels of noise in the hospital environment has been recognized, and the National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance of the Ministry of Health recommends evaluation and control of noise in hospital areas. Objectives To assess the sound environment in the emergency ward of a general trauma reference hospital in the city of Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. Methods In this descriptive study, noise levels were assessed on mornings, afternoons, and evenings using an integrating Bruel & Kjaer (Denmark) calibrated sound level meter, type 2230. Ten indoor points in the emergency ward were assessed; the helicopter as well as several available pieces of equipment in the ward were assessed individually. Results Noise levels in sound pressure level ambiance [dBA] ranged from 56.6 to 68.8. The afternoon period was the noisiest. The helicopter at 119 dBA and the cast saw at 90 dBA were the noisiest equipment, and the lowest noise level found was the activated oximeter at 61.0 dBA. Conclusion In all assessed points, noise levels were above the comfort levels recommended by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (1987), which may harm users' and professionals' health as well as influence professional performance in the emergency ward. Sound pressure levels of the helicopter and cast saw reach high hearing hazard levels, requiring professionals to use individual protection equipment, and point to the need for creation and implementation of effective control measures of noise levels in emergency wards. PMID:26157493

  12. An experiment to determine atmospheric CO concentrations of tropical South Atlantic air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Aires, C. B.; Alvala, P. C.

    2003-04-01

    New observations of atmospheric carbon monoxide, CO, are described, from tropical South Atlantic air samples. A new observational site, Maxaranguape, was set up in a clean remote environment right next to the ocean on the north-east coast of Brazil, to obtain CO mixing ratios and auxiliary data (meteorological parameters, ozone (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4)) during three sequential seasonal cycles. The seasonal variations of temperature, humidity and precipitation are shown for the new site. Chromatographic separation followed by mercury oxide detection is used to measure CO. The seasonality of the CO data was clearly established. Minima are seen during April, May and June showing wet-period averages of 56.1 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), with standard deviation 8.7 ppbv; during dry-period months, August to November, the average was 77.7 ± 16.5 ppbv. For comparison, CO concentrations were also measured over continental areas in Brazil. Much larger values have been found in moderate 'burning' regions, such as the south of the state of Mato Grosso and the north-western part of the state of Parana, where 200 ppbv in the dry season has been observed. Since normally the air masses have travelled for several days over the ocean, the air masses over the site present low chemical activity. Daily variations of CO2 are very small, of the order of a few percent relative to the diurnal mean. Only on rare occasions, when the wind direction changes, is the sampled air contaminated from flowing over the inhabited shoreline to the south, and then CO2 varies inversely with O3. The monthly mean CH4 data does not show a clear seasonal variation, possibly because the amplitude of the CH4 variation is only of the order of 1%, which is close to the precision of the measuring instrument.

  13. Differential cross-sections for elastic and inelastic electron scattering from fundamental polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakoo, Murtadha A.

    2011-10-01

    The near-threshold scattering of electrons from polyatomic molecules of fundamental interest, e.g. water, primary alcohols and ring molecules e.g. furan, benzene are important in plasma fuel processes, plasmas used in biological processes e.g. in the treatment of skin diseases, astrophysical plasmas, etc. The determination of cross-sections for such molecules has gathered impetus because of the increasing number of applications industrial plasma and biomedical processes and the need to understand and model these complex processes. It is now possible to determine accurate differential cross-sections for electron scattering from these polyatomic molecules. We will present recent normalized, absolute low energy electron scattering differential cross-sections for near-threshold elastic and inelastic scattering from water, primary alcohols, furan and benzene using a well-tested electron spectrometer apparatus. We will also compare our results with those of other experiments and available theoretical models, which show an encouragingly overall improved picture in terms of agreement between the different research groups. Funded by the National Science Foundation Research in an Undergraduate Institution Grant #s 0653452 and 1135203. This work was done collaboratively with Drs. V. Mckoy and C. Winstead, Caltech, USA (National Science Foundation Grant # 0653396 and Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE Grant) and Dr. M. C. A. Lopes, U. Fed. de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Dr. M. H. F. Bettega, U. Fed. do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil Drs. R. F. da Costa and M. A. P. Lima, Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP and CTBE, Campinas, Brazil (CNPq, FAPESP, FAPEMG, Finep, CENAPAD-SP and CAPES grants). Funded by US-NSF Grant #s 0653452 and 1135203.

  14. Distribution of antibodies against influenza virus in pigs from farrow-to-finish farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Alessandra S; Costa, Érica A; Rajão, Daniela S; Guedes, Roberto M C; Ciacci Zanella, Janice R; Lobato, Zélia I P

    2015-01-01

    Background Swine influenza virus (SIV) is the cause of an acute respiratory disease that affects swine worldwide. In Brazil, SIV has been identified in pigs since 1978. After the emergence of pandemic H1N1 in 2009 (H1N1pdm09), few studies reported the presence of influenza virus in Brazilian herds. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the serological profile for influenza virus in farrow-to-finish pig farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods Thirty farms with no SIV vaccination history were selected from the four larger pig production areas in Minas Gerais state (Zona da Mata, Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, South/Southwest and the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area). At each farm, blood samples were randomly collected from 20 animals in each production cycle category: breeding animals (sows and gilts), farrowing crate (2–3 weeks), nursery (4–7 weeks), grower pigs (8–14 weeks), and finishing pigs (15–16 weeks), with 100 samples per farm and a total of 3000 animals in this study. The samples were tested for hemagglutination inhibition activity against H1N1 pandemic strain (A/swine/Brazil/11/2009) and H3N2 SIV (A/swine/Iowa/8548-2/98) reference strain. Results The percentages of seropositive animals for H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 were 26·23% and 1·57%, respectively, and the percentages of seropositive herds for both viruses were 96·6% and 13·2%, respectively. Conclusions The serological profiles differed for both viruses and among the studied areas, suggesting a high variety of virus circulation around the state, as well as the presence of seronegative animals susceptible to influenza infection and, consequently, new respiratory disease outbreaks. PMID:25648743

  15. Habitat of petroleum in the Paleozoic basins of Brazil: A look back, a comparison, a look forward

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, E.M.; Campos, J.N.P.; Filho, C.B.; Brazil, I.R.; Neves, C.A.O.; Goes, A.M.O.; Milani, E.J. )

    1991-03-01

    It took almost a century of intermittent petroleum exploration in Brazil's vast Paleozoic basins before continuous production of about 5000 bbl per day of light oil, together with gas, could be established in one of them. Proved volumes of oil equivalent in place so far discovered in Paleozoic reservoirs amount to only 0.6% of the domestic total, but hopes of substantial new finds are great. In the Rio Urucu field of Solimoes basin (Upper Amazon), hydrocarbons are being produced from Early Carboniferous Monte Alegre formation sandstones roofed by evaporites and carbonates of the Carboniferous Itaituba formation which were intruded by thick Juro-Triassic igneous sills and folded during a Cretaceous reactivation event into the present-day shape of gentle anticlinal trends controlled by reverse faulting. The widespread occurrence of igneous intrusions and extrusions in the Solimoes, Amazonas, Parnaiba, and Parana basins is a major problem met by explorationists throughout the years but can be faced with presently available technology, seismic and other. Further investigations in these four basins are needed in order to better define details of basin architecture, configuration of basement, location of the oil kitchens, main carrier beds, windows in the dyke walls through which hydrocarbons could find their way to the traps, etc. Examples from the various basins, along with a comparison to some successful exploration cases in the USA, suggest that the habitat of other commercial oil and gas in the Paleozoic basins of Brazil may be localized in the deeper basinal positions - like in the Rio Urucu trend - but also in the shallow flank areas, where igneous rocks tend to be scarcer and exploration baroquely started.

  16. Paleogeographic evolution of the central segment of the South Atlantic during Early Cretaceous times: Paleotopographic and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaboureau, Anne-Claire; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Rohais, Sébastien; Moulin, Maryline; Aslanian, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The geodynamic processes that control the opening of the central segment of the South Atlantic Ocean (between the Walvis Ridge and the Ascension FZ) are debated. In this paper, we discuss the timing of the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Early Cretaceous rift by drawing eight paleogeographic and geodynamic maps from the Berriasian to the Middle-Late Aptian, based on a biostratigraphic (ostracodes and pollen) chart recalibrated on absolute ages (chemostratigraphy, interstratified volcanics, Re-Os dating of the organic matter). The central segment of the South Atlantic is composed of two domains, with a two phases evolution of the pre-drift ("rifting") times: a rift phase characterized by tilted blocks and growth strata, followed by a sag basin. The southern domain includes the Namibe, Santos and Campos Basins. The northern domain extends from the Espirito Santo and North Kwanza Basins, in the south, to the Sergipe-Alagoas and North Gabon Basins to the north. Extension started in the northern domain during the Late Berriasian (Congo-Camamu Basin to the Sergipe-Alagoas-North Gabon Basins) and migrated southward. At that time, the southern domain was not a subsiding domain (emplacement of the Parana-Etendeka Trapp). Extension started in this southern domain during the Early Barremian. The rift phase is shorter in the south (5-6 Ma, Barremian to base Aptian) than in the north (19 to 20 Myr, Upper Berriasian to base Aptian). The sag phase is of Middle to Late Aptian age. In the northern domain, this transition corresponds to a hiatus of Early to Middle Aptian age. From the Late Berriasian to base Aptian, the northern domain evolves from a deep lake with lateral highs to a shallower organic-rich one with no more highs. The lake migrates southward in two steps, until the Valanginian at the border between the northern and southern domains, until the Early Barremian, north of Walvis Ridge.

  17. Diabase dikes of the Midcontinent Rift in Minnesota: a record of Keweenawan magmatism and tectonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.C.; Chandler, V.C.

    1985-01-01

    Swarms of both reversed-polarity (R, older) and normal-polarity (N, younger) basaltic dikes help to define the evolution of the Minnesota portion of the Midcontinent Rift of North America. Each swarm, representing fissure-feeders for a package of overlying plateau lavas now eroded away, shows the direction of least principal stress at that time and place in the complex evolution of this abortive but nearly-successful rift. Paleomagnetic pole determinations for Carlton county (CC) and Grand Portage (GP) R dikes are coincident along the Logan Loop of the Proterozoic track, showing essential contemporaneity, though their trends are different (N.30/sup 0/E vs. N. 70-90/sup 0/E.) and they are 250 km apart. These poles match that of the R lavas of the North Shore Volcanic Group (NSVG) and imply a younger age than the R Logan sills and dikes. The geochemistry of the dikes (71 analyses) also correlates well with NSVG flows, ranging from olivine tholeiites to transitional basalts and basaltic andesites and is similar to tholeiites of Columbia River, Parana, and Tertiary No. Atlantic provinces. Though each swarm shows a range of compositions, some are dominantly more evolved, whereas others contain more primitive dikes with higher Al, Mg/Fe, Cr and Ni and lower Fe, Ti, P and LIL's. An early major episode of rifting during the R polarity interval was followed by at least one major N episode in Minnesota before the final one along the present Lake Superior syncline axis. Rifting directions and mantle sources were different for each episode as shown by cross-trending dike sets, indicating complex rift development.

  18. The influence of igneous intrusions on the peak temperatures of host rocks: Finite-time emplacement, evaporation, dehydration, and decarbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayong; Song, Yongchen; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Minglong; Qi, Tian; Liu, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    Using a 13-m-thick basic sill and its limestone host rocks of the Permian Irati Formation from the Parana Basin, South America, as an example, this paper presents a numerical investigation based on heat conduction models on the effect of the emplacement mechanism of igneous intrusions, pore-water evaporation, and dehydration and decarbonation of host rocks on the peak temperature ( Tpeak) of host rocks. Our results demonstrate that: (1) the finite-time intrusion mechanism of magma can lower the predicted Tpeak of host rocks by up to 100 °C relative to the instantaneous intrusion mechanism, and although pore-water evaporation together with dehydration and decarbonation reactions can also depress the thermal effect of the sill on its host rocks, the maximum effect of these mechanisms on Tpeak only reaches approximately 50 °C. (2) The effect of pore-water evaporation on Tpeak is obviously greater than that of the dehydration and decarbonation reactions: the former can cause a maximum deviation of 40 °C in the predicted Tpeak, whereas the deviation due to the latter is less than 20 °C. Further, the effect of the dehydration and decarbonation reactions on Tpeak is less than 10 °C if pore-water evaporation is allowed simultaneously in the models and can hence be ignored in thermal modeling. (3) The finite-time intrusion mechanism of magma probably represents the natural condition of the sill. Pore-water evaporation and dehydration and decarbonation of host rocks are also likely to play important roles in lowering the thermal effect of the sill.

  19. Cytotaxonomy in distinct populations of Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Characiformes, Erythrinidae) from lower Paranapanema River basin.

    PubMed

    Rosa, R; Caetano-Filho, M; Shibatta, O A; Giuliano-Caetano, L

    2009-12-01

    Cytogenetic and morphometric analyses were carried out in Hoplias aff. malabaricus specimens from six distinct populations from the lower Paranapanema River basin, located between the states of Paraná and São Paulo, Brazil. Measurements were also taken from a specimen collected in Surinam. In a population from a fish farm station at Universidade do Norte do Parana (EPUNOPAR), two sympatric cytotypes (2n = 40 and 2n = 42 chromosomes) are found. A population from a fish farm station at Universidade Estadual de Londrina (EPUEL) shows 2n = 42 meta-submetacentric chromosomes for males and females with a simple sex chromosome system of XX/XY type. Populations from the Vermelho and Rancho Alegre Rivers, Três Bocas Stream and Paranapanema River have 2n = 39 chromosomes in males and 2n = 40 chromosomes in females, showing a multiple sex chromosome system of X(1)X(1)X(2)X(2)/X(1)X(2)Y type. Twenty morphological variables were studied. These measurements were used for an analysis of the canonical variables and standard analysis of proportional measurements. The most variable measurements among the specimens are the maxilla length (MXL) and the pre-dorsal distance (PDD). Analysis of canonical variables indicates three distinct groups in the first canonical axis formed by: (1) Três Bocas Stream, (2) Rancho Alegre + Vermelho River + EPUNOPAR and (3) EPUEL + Paranapanema River. This axis retained 79.4% of information from the original matrix. Analysis of morphometrics reveals differences among populations from the Paranapanema River basin and between these and the specimen from Surinam. The morphometric and cytogenetic differences among the studied populations suggest a species complex. PMID:20738516

  20. Nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services in the Brazilian La Plata Basin: anthropogenic influence and climate change.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Ortega, E; Bergier, I; Silva, J S V

    2012-08-01

    The increasing human demand for food, raw material and energy has radically modified both the landscape and biogeochemical cycles in many river basins in the world. The interference of human activities on the Biosphere is so significant that it has doubled the amount of reactive nitrogen due to industrial fertiliser production (Haber-Bosch), fossil fuel burning and land-use change over the last century. In this context, the Brazilian La Plata Basin contributes to the alteration of the nitrogen cycle in South America because of its huge agricultural and grazing area that meets the demands of its large urban centres - Sao Paulo, for instance - and also external markets abroad. In this paper, we estimate the current inputs and outputs of anthropogenic nitrogen (in kg N.km(-2).yr(-1)) in the basin. In the results, we observe that soybean plays a very important role in the Brazilian La Plata, since it contributes with an annual entrance of about 1.8 TgN due to biological nitrogen fixation. Moreover, our estimate indicates that the export of soybean products accounts for roughly 1.0 TgN which is greater than the annual nitrogen riverine exports from Brazilian Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers together. Complimentarily, we built future scenarios representing changes in the nitrogen cycle profile considering two scenarios of climate change for 2070-2100 (based on IPCC's A2 and B2) that will affect land-use, nitrogen inputs, and loss of such nutrients in the basin. Finally, we discuss how both scenarios will affect human well-being since there is a connection between nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services that affect local and global populations, such as food and fibre production and climate regulation. PMID:23011299

  1. Regional Disparities in Mortality after Ischemic Heart Disease in a Brazilian State from 2006 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Luciano; Zanini, Vanessa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; de Carvalho, Elias Cesar Araujo; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Nihei, Oscar Kenji; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva

    2013-01-01

    Background High technology in the field of interventional cardiology applied in tertiary hospitals has brought enormous benefits in the treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, IHD mortality rates remain high. We analyzed the relationship between IHD mortality rate and the socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic conditions in 399 cities in Parana state, Brazil, from 2006 to 2010. Methods and Results Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and evaluated through Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis. GeoDa™ was used to analyze 29.351 deaths across 399 cities. We found a positive spatial autocorrelation regarding IHD mortality (I = 0.5913, p = 0.001). There was a significant positive association between each of three socioeconomic and demographic indicators and IHD mortality rate: Population Elderly Index (I = 0.3436), Illiteracy Rate (I = 0.1873) and City Development Index (I = 0.0900). In addition, two indicators presented significant negative association with IHD mortality rate: Adjusted Population Size (I = −0.1216) and Gross Domestic Product (I = −0.0864). We also found a positive association between IHD mortality rates and the geographic distances between patients’ city of residence and their corresponding regional referral centers in interventional cardiology (I = 0.3368). Cities located within Regional Health Units with Reference Interventional Cardiology Center presented a significantly lower average specific mortality rate by IHD. The high mortality rate by IHD within the Regional Health Units was not restricted to socioeconomic and demographic variables, but dependent on the distance between each city and their reference interventional cardiology center. Conclusions We conclude that geographic factors play a significant role in IHD mortality within cities. These findings have important policy implications regarding the geographic

  2. Fixed Hot-spots Gone With Wind? Clues From Paleomagnetic Investigations of Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Ernesto, M.

    2013-05-01

    Paleomagnetic studies of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) 197 on samples from the Emperor-Hawaiian seamount chain suggested that these rocks formed much farther north than the hotspot currently beneath Hawaii. These findings indicate that the hotspot, once thought to be fixed beneath the Earth's crust, actually jumped southward rapidly. Here we report paleomagnetic evidence that is consistence with these findings and suggests that rapid hotspots motion (also southward jumps) occurred while the massive Ontong Java (OJP), Kerguelen Plateau (KP), and Parana Magmatic Province (PMP) large igneous provinces formed. The paleomagnetic paleolatitude for the OJP is ~20 farther north than those predicted by the Louisville hotspot model. The difference between the paleomagnetic and hotspot calculated paleolatitudes cannot be explained by true polar wander estimates derived from other lithospheric plates. Our results are therefore consistent with and extend the Emperor-Hawaiian hotspot features in the northern Pacific Ocean that suggest Late Cretaceous to Eocene motion of Pacific hotspots. Compared to the latitude of the Kerguelen hotspot, the paleolatitudes of the central and northern Kerguelen Plateau obtained by ODP Leg 183 are further north. This difference also indicates a southward movement of the Kerguelen hotspot since the Cretaceous relative to the spin axis of the Earth. Numerical modeling of plume conduit motion in a large-scale mantle flow also predicts southward motion of the Kerguelen hotspot, which is consistent with paleomagnetic results. Likewise, paleomagnetic results from PMP reveal significant southward movement of the Tristan da Cunha hotspot in the Cretaceous. Elucidating how large igneous province formation and mantle dynamics are related and whether hotspots moved at comparable rates during other times are challenges for future research.

  3. Ecology of the interaction between Ixodes loricatus (Acari: Ixodidae) and Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Criceridae).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-10-01

    The present study explores associations of different factors (i.e. host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites and [mainly biotic] environmental factors) with burdens of Ixodes loricatus immature stages in one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. For 2 years, rodents were trapped and sampled monthly at 16 points located in four different sites in the Parana River Delta region. Data were analysed with generalized linear mixed models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were (a) environmental: trapping year, presence of cattle, type of vegetation, rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length, sex, body condition, blood cell counts, natural antibody titers and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Most of the associations investigated were found significant, but in general, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent. An exception was the presence of cattle, which was consistently negatively associated with both larvae and nymphs independently of all other variables considered and had the strongest effect on tick burdens. Mites, fleas and Amblyomma triste were also significantly associated (mostly positively) with larval and nymph burdens, and in many cases, they influenced associations with environmental or host factors. Our findings strongly support that raising cattle may have a substantial impact on the dynamics of I. loricatus and that interactions within the ectoparasite community may be an important-but generally ignored-driver of tick dynamics. PMID:26122994

  4. Global land water storage change from GRACE over 2002-2009; Inference on sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovel, William; Becker, Mélanie; Cazenave, Anny; Crétaux, Jean-François; Ramillien, Guillaume

    2010-03-01

    Global change in land water storage and its effect on sea level is estimated over a 7-year time span (August 2002 to July 2009) using space gravimetry data from GRACE. The 33 World largest river basins are considered. We focus on the year-to-year variability and construct a total land water storage time series that we further express in equivalent sea level time series. The short-term trend in total water storage adjusted over this 7-year time span is positive and amounts to 80.6 ± 15.7 km 3/yr (net water storage excess). Most of the positive contribution arises from the Amazon and Siberian basins (Lena and Yenisei), followed by the Zambezi, Orinoco and Ob basins. The largest negative contributions (water deficit) come from the Mississippi, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Aral, Euphrates, Indus and Parana. Expressed in terms of equivalent sea level, total water volume change over 2002-2009 leads to a small negative contribution to sea level of -0.22 ± 0.05 mm/yr. The time series for each basin clearly show that year-to-year variability dominates so that the value estimated in this study cannot be considered as representative of a long-term trend. We also compare the interannual variability of total land water storage (removing the mean trend over the studied time span) with interannual variability in sea level (corrected for thermal expansion). A correlation of ˜0.6 is found. Phasing, in particular, is correct. Thus, at least part of the interannual variability of the global mean sea level can be attributed to land water storage fluctuations.

  5. A new in vitro method to evaluate radio-opacity of endodontic sealers

    PubMed Central

    Malka, V B; Hochscheidt, G L; Larentis, N L; Grecca, F S; Kopper, P M P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate a new method for assessing the radio-opacity of endodontic sealers and to compare radio-opacity values with a well-established standard method. Methods: The sealers evaluated in this study were AH Plus® (Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany), Endo CPM Sealer (EGEO SRL, Buenos Aires, Argentina) and MTA Fillapex® (Angelus Dental Products Industry S/A, Londrina, Parana, Brazil). Two methods were used to evaluate radio-opacity: (D) standard discs and (S) a tissue simulator. For (D), ten standard discs were prepared for each sealer and were radiographed using Digora® phosphor storage plates (Soredex; Orion Corporation, Helsinki, Finland), alongside an aluminium stepwedge. For (S), polyethylene tubes filled with sealer (n = 10 for each) were radiographed inside the simulator as described. The digital images were analysed using Adobe Photoshop® software v. 10.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA). To compare the radio-opacity among the sealers, the data were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey's test, and to compare methods, they were analysed by the Mann–Whitney U test. To compare the data obtained from dentin and sealers in method (S), Student's paired t-test was used (=0.05). Results: In both methods, the sealers showed significant differences, according to the following decreasing order: AH Plus, MTA Fillapex and Endo CPM. In (D), MTA Fillapex and Endo CPM showed less radio-opacity than aluminium. For all of the materials, the radio-opacity was higher in (S) than in (D). Compared with dentin, all of the materials were more radio-opaque. Conclusions: The comparison of the two assessment methods for sealer radio-opacity testing validated the use of a tissue simulator block. PMID:25651275

  6. Radial velocity fitting challenge. I. Simulating the data set including realistic stellar radial-velocity signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumusque, X.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Stellar signals are the main limitation for precise radial-velocity (RV) measurements. These signals arise from the photosphere of the stars. The m s-1 perturbation created by these signals prevents the detection and mass characterization of small-mass planetary candidates such as Earth-twins. Several methods have been proposed to mitigate stellar signals in RV measurements. However, without precisely knowing the stellar and planetary signals in real observations, it is extremely difficult to test the efficiency of these methods. Aims: The goal of the RV fitting challenge is to generate simulated RV data including stellar and planetary signals and to perform a blind test within the community to test the efficiency of the different methods proposed to recover planetary signals despite stellar signals. Methods: In this first paper, we describe the simulation used to model the measurements of the RV fitting challenge. Each simulated planetary system includes the signals from instrumental noise, stellar oscillations, granulation, supergranulation, stellar activity, and observed and simulated planetary systems. In addition to RV variations, this simulation also models the effects of instrumental noise and stellar signals on activity observables obtained by HARPS-type high-resolution spectrographs, that is, the calcium activity index log (R'HK) and the bisector span and full width at half maximum of the cross-correlation function. Results: We publish the 15 systems used for the RV fitting challenge including the details about the planetary systems that were injected into each of them. Based on observations collected at the La Silla Parana Observatory, ESO (Chile), with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m telescope.The simulated data sets are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/593/A5 and at the wiki of the RV fitting challenge http://https://rv-challenge.wikispaces.com.

  7. Chemical composition and glycemic index of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; De Menezes Wenzel, Elizabete; Genovese, Maria Inés; Colli, Célia; De Souza Gonçalves, Alessandra; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2004-06-01

    The seeds of Parana pine (Araucaria brasiliensis syn. Araucaria angustifolia), named pinhão, are consumed after cooking and posterior dehulling, or they are used to prepare a flour employed in regional dishes. Native people that live in the South of Brazil usually consume baked pinhão. As a result of cooking, the white seeds become brown on the surface due to the migration of some tinted compounds present in the seed coat. In this work, the proximate composition, minerals, flavonoids, and glycemic index (GI) of cooked and raw pinhão seeds were compared. No differences in moisture, lipids, soluble fiber, and total starch after boiling were found. However, the soluble sugars and P, Cu, and Mg contents decreased, probably as a consequence of leaching in the cooking water. Also, the boiling process modified the profile of the phenolic compounds in the seeds. No flavonols were detected in raw pinhão seeds. The internal seed coat had a quercetin content five times higher than that of the external seed coat; also, quercetin migrated into the seed during cooking. The internal seed coat had a high content of total phenolics, and seeds cooked in normal conditions (with the seed coat) showed a total phenolics content five times higher than that of seeds cooked without the seed coat. Cooking was then extremely favorable to pinhão seeds bioactive compounds content. The carbohydrate availability was evaluated in a short-term assay in humans by the GI. The GI of pinhão seeds cooked with the coat (67%) was similar to that of the seeds cooked without a coat (62%) and lower than bread, showing that cooking does not interfere with starch availability. The low glycemic response can be partly due to its high content of resistant starch (9% of the total starch). PMID:15161207

  8. Nain geochemistry reviewed: anorthosite parent liquids and contamination problems

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sr-An relations of PLAG and candidate natural LIQ (dikes, chills) agree with partition coefficients derived from Kiglapait in predicting parent LIQuids like rift basalts (Servilleta) and flood basalt (Keweenaw, Parana). All LIQ are richer in Sr than consistent with proposed lower crust or MORB. Many diverse parent LIQS had 275-675 ppm Sr, with mean 430 ppm Sr, 8 ppm Rb. Referred to 1.4 Gry, Archean crust (ARCH) at Lost Channel has I(Sr) = 0.717, R = Rb/Sr = 0.4. Minimum melt granites (GR) 2.3-1.3 Gyr old average Sr = 190, Rb = 160 ppm at I(Sr) = 0.753. By contrast, Nain feldspars have R from 0.001 to 0.01, implying liquids 0.003 - 0.02. Neither GR nor ARCH can contaminate normal mantle-derived magmas (I= 0.7028) to achieve the I(Sr) 0.703-0.708 observed, without adding 15-50 ppm Rb, not observed. Therefore, the I(Sr) signature is either from an old, enriched mantle source later depleted, or form assimilation of Rb-poor supracrustals (marble.) with huge I(Sr), ppm Sr values. The latter are not yet demonstrated to exist. Proximal contaminants should show up in local Sr-isotopic heterogeneity (as at Rhum). Local isotopic uniformity could arise for mold deeper-seated, multi-cycle or conceivably lower mantle source component, brought up in a rift setting and degassed with exit of LIL as per Galer and O'Nions (J. Petrol., submitted). Rb-rich GR of all ages show the regional persistence of undepleted crust available for melting. Either ANORTH plumbing was very restricted or new crustal slices of GR source were delivered to the hot spot on a regular basis to yield new GR melts.

  9. Lithospheric mantle evolution monitored by overlapping large igneous provinces: Case study in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, F.; Bertrand, H.; Féraud, G.; Le Gall, B.; Watkeys, M. K.

    2009-02-01

    Most of the studies on the large igneous provinces (LIPs) focus on Phanerozoic times, and in particular, those related to the disruption of Pangea (e.g. CAMP, Karoo, Parana-Etendeka) while Precambrian LIPs (e.g. Ventersdorpf, Fortescue) remain less studied. Although the investigation of Precambrian LIPs is difficult because they are relatively poorly preserved, assessment of their geochemical characteristics in parallel with younger overlapping LIP is fundamental for monitoring the evolution of the mantle composition through time. Recent 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the Okavango giant dyke swarm (and related sills) in southern Africa showed that ~ 90% of the dykes were emplaced at 179 ± 1 Ma and belong to the Karoo large igneous province whereas ~ 10% of dykes yielded Proterozoic ages (~ 1-1.1 Ga). Here, we provide new major, trace and rare earth elements analyses of the low-Ti Proterozoic Okavango dyke swarm (PODS) that suggest, combined with age data, a cognate origin with the 1.1 Ga Umkondo large igneous province (UIP), southern Africa. The geochemical characteristics of the PODS and UIP basalts are comparable to those of overlapping low-Ti Karoo basalts, and suggest that both LIPs were derived from similar enriched mantle sources. A mantle plume origin for these LIPs is not easily reconciled with the geochemical dataset and the coincidence of two compositionally similar mantle plumes acting 900 Myr apart is unlikely. Instead, we propose that the Umkondo and Karoo large igneous provinces monitored the slight evolution of a shallow enriched lithospheric mantle from Proterozoic to Jurassic.

  10. Genetic Variability and Population Structure of Salvia lachnostachys: Implications for Breeding and Conservation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Erbano, Marianna; Schühli, Guilherme Schnell e; dos Santos, Élide Pereira

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of Salvia lachnostachys Benth were assessed. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to investigate the restricted distribution of S. lachnostachys in Parana State, Brazil. Leaves of 73 individuals representing three populations were collected. DNA was extracted and submitted to PCR-ISSR amplification with nine tested primers. Genetic diversity parameters were evaluated. Our analysis indicated 95.6% polymorphic loci (stress value 0.02) with a 0.79 average Simpson’s index. The Nei-Li distance dendrogram and principal component analysis largely recovered the geographical origin of each sample. Four major clusters were recognized representing each collected population. Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s information index were 0.25 and 0.40 respectively. As is typical for outcrossing herbs, the majority of genetic variation occurred at the population level (81.76%). A high gene flow (Nm = 2.48) was observed with a correspondingly low fixation index. These values were generally similar to previous studies on congeneric species. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCA) and of arithmetic average (UPGMA) were consistent and all three populations appear distinct as in STRUCTURE analysis. In addition, this analysis indicated a majority intrapopulation genetic variation. Despite the human pressure on natural populations our study found high levels of genetic diversity for S. lachnostachys. This was the first molecular assessment for this endemic species with medicinal proprieties and the results can guide for subsequent bioprospection, breeding programs or conservation actions. PMID:25856679

  11. Track Analysis of the North, Central, and South American Species of the Epicauta maculata Group (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    PubMed

    Campos-Soldini, M P; García, M S; Safenraiter, M E

    2015-08-01

    We undertook a panbiogeographic analysis of 23 species of the Epicauta maculata group of America-Epicauta abeona Pinto, Epicauta adspersa (Klug), Epicauta andersoni Werner, Epicauta atomaria (Germar), Epicauta apache Pinto, Epicauta cavernosa (Courbon), Epicauta dilatipennis Pic, Epicauta fulvicornis (Burmeister), Epicauta horni Champion, Epicauta jeffersi Pinto, Epicauta koheleri Denier, Epicauta lizeri Denier, E. maculata (Say), Epicauta magnomaculata Martin, Epicauta minutepunctata Borchmann, Epicauta nigropunctata (Blanchard), Epicauta normalis Werner, Epicauta ocellata (Dugès), Epicauta pardalis LeConte, picauta phoenix Werner, Epicauta pluvialis Borchmann, Epicauta proscripta Werner, Epicauta rubella Denier, and Epicauta ventralis Werner-with the purpose of analyzing the distributional data for taxa, to establish patterns of distribution of an ancestral biota and areas where these groups have interacted. Based on the overlap of 20 individual tracks, four generalized tracks constituted by different numbers of species were identified; two of them are located in the Nearctic region and the Mexican transition zone (tracks "A" and "B"), and the other two are distributed in the Neotropical region and the South America transition zone ("C", "D"). Six nodes were recognized: Two of them are included in the Nearctic Region, node 'I' located in northern USA and node 'II' located in southwestern USA, both at the intersection of the tracks "A" and "B". The other four are included in the Neotropical Region at the intersection of the tracks "C" and "D": Node 'III' is located in Chaco province; node 'IV' is located in Parana Forest province; node 'V' is located in the northwest of Argentina in Puna province, and node 'VI' is located in Monte province. PMID:26174956

  12. Factors affecting patterns of Amblyomma triste (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitism in a rodent host.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M

    2015-07-30

    Here we offer a multivariable analysis that explores associations of different factors (i.e., environmental, host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites) with the interaction of Amblyomma triste immature stages and one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. Monthly and for two years, we captured and sampled rodents at 16 points located at 4 different sites in the Parana River Delta region. The analyses were conducted with Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were: (a) environmental: trapping year, season, presence of cattle; type of vegetation (natural grassland or implanted forest); rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length; sex; body condition; blood cell counts; natural antibody titres; and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites: other stage of A. triste; Ixodes loricatus; lice; mites; and fleas. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Larvae were affected by all environmental variables assessed and by the presence of other ectoparasites (lice, fleas and other tick species). Host factors significantly associated with larval count were sex and levels of natural antibodies. Nymphs were associated with season, presence of cattle, body condition, body length and with burdens of I. loricatus. In most cases, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent (many interaction terms were significant). The findings of greater significance and implications of our study are two. Firstly, as burdens of A. triste larvae and nymphs were greater where cattle were present, and larval tick burdens were higher in implanted forests, silvopastoral practices developing in the region may affect the population dynamics of A. triste, and consequently the eco-epidemiology of Rickettsia parkeri. Secondly, strong associations and numerous interactions with other ectoparasites suggest that

  13. Optical non-invasive 3D characterization of pottery of pre-colonial Paranaiba valley tribes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Wagner; Alves, Márcia Angelina; Costa, Manuel F.

    2014-08-01

    Optical non-invasive inspection tools and methods had expensively proven, for several decades now, their invaluable importance in the preservation of cultural heritage and artwork. In this paper we will report on an optical non-invasive microtopographic characterization work on pre-historical and pre-colonial ceramics and pottery of tribes in the Paranaiba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples object of this work were collected at the Inhazinha archeological site (19º 10'00" S / 47° 11'00" W) in the vicinity of Perdizes municipality in transition between the West mining area and the "triangle" area in the center of Brazil. It is a hilly region (850m high) traversed by a number of rivers and streams tributary of Araguari river like Quebra Anzol river and Macaúba and Olegário streams. The Inhazinha site' excavations are part of the Project Jigsaw Hook which since 1980 aimed the establishment of a chrono-cultural framework associated with the study of the socio-cultural dynamics corresponding to successive occupations of hunter-recollector-farmer' tribes in prehistoric and pre-colonial times in the Paranaíba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two groups of indigenous Indian occupations were found. Both of the pre-colonial period dated at 1,095 ± 186 years ago (TL-FATEC/SP for Zone 1) and of the early nineteenth century dated at 212 ± 19 years ago (EMS-CENA-USP/SP) and 190 ± 30 years ago (C14- BETA/USA) in Zone 2 seemingly occupied by southern Kayapós tribes. The pottery found is decorated with incisions with different geometric distributions and levels of complexity.

  14. Anthropogenic Effects on Total Water Storage from GRACE on Large South American Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, L.; Becker, M.; Cazenave, A. A.; Güntner, A.; Rotunno, O.

    2009-12-01

    Over continents, GRACE total water storage (TWS) solutions are expected to represent main surface, soil and groundwater stocks variability. Recent studies have showed that intensive groundwater resources withdrawal in India can be “captured” by GRACE. Another important anthropogenic impact on the natural water cycle is the building and operation of large dams. Even though they impact primarily the local water stock variations, one can expect subsequent changes on the water cycle and some evidence of this from GRACE. This would be particularly evident where the volume of stored water behind dams represents a significant proportion of the total TWS. In this study, we analyzed the effect on the water cycle of large dams over South American large watersheds. Most of Brazilians large dams are located in the Upper Paraná watershed, upstream the Itaipu dam. By performing a correlation analysis between the upstream integrated rainfall and the GRACE TWS series, we found a noticeable phase difference between the two quantities. The phase difference is larger over the utmost upstream region of Upper Parana watershed. We assumed that this pattern could be due to an effect of man-made reservoirs. We took into account the reservoirs storage and found that they induce an additional phase-lag of about 1 month in the TWS response to precipitation forcing. We also investigated dams’ impact on the simulations of the Water Gap Hydrological Model. The results also show a similar time delay similar, suggesting that the model correctly accounts for the dam effect. Finally we see similar lags, though smaller, over other South American river basins.

  15. Are dangerous offenders different from other offenders? A clinical profile.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian dangerous offender (DO) statute requires the assistance of psychiatrists and psychologists in evaluating offenders' potential danger and risk of future offenses, without substantive supporting empirical clinical research on the topic. The present study compared 62 men facing Canadian DO applications to 2,414 non-DO sexual and violent offenders (ACs) and 62 non-DO offenders matched on offense type (MCs). DOs differed significantly from ACs on 30 of 45 variables and from MCs only on 6. More DOs than MCs had an extensive criminal history, were psychopaths, and had more school truancy. Compared with ACs, DOs had less education and more school adjustment problems, more disturbed childhoods, and more often were diagnosed with sadism, psychopathy, and substance abuse problems. Total sexual and violent offense convictions provided the best but weak distinction of DOs from ACs. The "three strikes" law is noted and early intervention in DOs' criminal careers is discussed. PMID:23525177

  16. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de cai tien co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth

    This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…

  17. Role of cumulus cells during vitrification and fertilization of mature bovine oocytes: Effects on survival, fertilization, and blastocyst development.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Escribano, N; Smits, K; Piepers, S; Van den Abbeel, E; Woelders, H; Van Soom, A

    2016-07-15

    This study was designed to determine the role of cumulus cells during vitrification of bovine oocytes. Mature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) with many layers of cumulus cells, corona radiata oocytes (CRs), with a few layers of cumulus cells, and denuded oocytes (DOs) without cumulus cells were vitrified in 15% ethylene glycol, 15% dimethyl sulfoxide, and 0.5-M sucrose. Oocytes that survived the vitrification process were fertilized. Denuded oocytes were fertilized with or without supplementation of intact COCs (DOsCOCs). First, survival and embryo development rates were studied. Higher survival rates were obtained for DOs and DOsCOCs (94% and 95%, respectively) compared with COCs (82.7%, P < 0.05). Corona radiata oocytes showed similar survival rates when compared with DOs. The cleavage and blastocyst rates of vitrified DOs were compromised because cumulus cells were not present during the fertilization (34% and 2.7%, respectively). However, the situation could be reverted when DOs were supplemented with intact COCs (DOsCOCs; 62.7% and 12.7%, respectively, P < 0.05). Vitrified CRs showed similar cleavage and blastocyst rate (49.3% and 7.7%, respectively) compared with COCs (54.8% and 4.9%, respectively). In the second experiment, the penetration rate was analyzed. Removing cumulus cells before fertilization reduced the fertilization of vitrified DOs compared with COCs (24.3% vs. 52.8%, P < 0.05). The supplementation of DOs with intact COCs (DOsCOCs) improved the fertilization rate though (49.6%, P < 0.05). No differences in the fertilization rate were found between CRs and COCs. In the third experiment, parthenogenetic activation was examined. Interestingly, the CRs group showed higher cleavage and blastocyst rates (76.8% and 29.6%, respectively) than the COCs (39.1% and 7.5%, respectively, P < 0.05). Furthermore, oocytes from vitrified CRs had the same odds to become a blastocyst as fresh oocytes (1.1 vs. 1.5, respectively). In conclusion, our data

  18. Electronic structure and vibrational entropies of fcc Au-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, Jorge A.; Lucas, Matthew; Mauger, L; Halevy, I; Horwath, J; Semiatin, S L; Xiao, Yuming; Stone, Matthew B; Abernathy, Douglas L; Fultz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Phonon density of states (DOS) curves were measured on alloys of face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au-Fe using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The NRIXS and INS results were combined to obtain the total phonon DOS and the partial phonon DOS curves of Au and Fe atoms. The 57Fe partial phonon DOS of the dilute alloy Au0.97 57Fe0.03 shows a localized mode centered 4.3% above the cutoff energy of the phonons in pure Au. The Mannheim model for impurity modes accurately reproduced this partial phonon DOS using the fcc Au phonon DOS with a ratio of host-host to impurity-host force constants of 1.55. First-principles calculations validated the assumption of first-nearest-neighbor forces in the Mannheim model and gave a similar ratio of force constants. The high energy local mode broadens with increasing Fe composition, but this has a small effect on the composition dependence of the vibrational entropy. The main effect on the vibrational entropy of alloying comes from a stiffening of the Au partial phonon DOS with Fe concentration. This stiffening is attributed to two main effects: 1) an increase in electron density in the free-electron-like states, and 2) stronger sd-hybridization. These two effects are comparable in magnitude.

  19. Embryonic Stem Cells License a High Level of Dormant Origins to Protect the Genome against Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xin Quan; Han, Jinah; Cheng, Ee-Chun; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Shima, Naoko; Thomas, Jean-Leon; Lin, Haifan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Maintaining genomic integrity during DNA replication is essential for stem cells. DNA replication origins are licensed by the MCM2–7 complexes, with most of them remaining dormant. Dormant origins (DOs) rescue replication fork stalling in S phase and ensure genome integrity. However, it is not known whether DOs exist and play important roles in any stem cell type. Here, we show that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) contain more DOs than tissue stem/progenitor cells such as neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). Partial depletion of DOs does not affect ESC self-renewal but impairs their differentiation, including toward the neural lineage. However, reduction of DOs in NSPCs impairs their self-renewal due to accumulation of DNA damage and apoptosis. Furthermore, mice with reduced DOs show abnormal neurogenesis and semi-embryonic lethality. Our results reveal that ESCs are equipped with more DOs to better protect against replicative stress than tissue-specific stem/progenitor cells. PMID:26190528

  20. Probing Phase Coherence Via Density of States for Strongly Correlated Excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T. K.

    2015-03-01

    We present the calculation of the coherent spectral functions and density of states (DOS) for excitonic systems in the frame of the three-dimensional extended Falicov-Kimball model. Using gage-invariant U(1) transformation to the usual fermions, we represent the electron operator as a fermion attached to the U(1) phase-flux tube. The emergent bosonic gage field, related to the phase variables, is crucial for the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of excitons. Employing the path-integral formalism, we manipulate the bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom to obtain the effective actions related to fermionic and bosonic sectors. Considering the normal and anomalous excitonic Green functions, we calculate the spectral functions, which have the forms of convolutions in the reciprocal space between bosonic and fermionic counterparts. For the fermionic incoherent part of the DOS, we have found the strong evidence of the hybridization gap in DOS spectra. Furthermore, considering Bogoliubov coherence mechanism, we calculate the coherent DOS spectra. For the coherent normal fermionic DOS, there is no hybridization gap found in the system due to strong coherence effects and phase stiffness. The similar behavior is observed also for the condensate part of the anomalous excitonic DOS spectra. We show that for small values of the Coulomb interaction the fermionic DOS exhibits a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-like double-peak structure. In the BEC region of the BCS-BEC crossover, the double-peak structure disappears totally for both: coherent and incoherent DOS spectra. We discuss also the temperature dependence of DOS functions.