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Sample records for parasites clonorchis sinensis

  1. Current status of Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis in China.

    PubMed

    Lai, De-Hua; Hong, Xiao-Kun; Su, Bi-Xiu; Liang, Chi; Hide, Geoff; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Xinbing; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2016-01-01

    The oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, a pathogen causing clonorchiasis, is of major socio-economic importance in East Asia, including China, Korea and Vietnam. This parasite is now recognized as a biocarcinogen strongly linked to cholangiocarcinoma in humans. Here, we describe the status of clonorchiasis in China, where it has been estimated that more than 15 million patients are affected. This paper also summarizes the major advances in the field of clonorchiasis research during last decade, including diagnosis techniques, pathogenesis and genome/transcriptome/proteome studies in the last years. We strongly hope that our work can stimulate the governments of the countries or regions where clonorchiasis is endemic to pay more attention to this disease and establish related guidelines to prevent and control it. PMID:26740359

  2. Current status and perspectives of Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, omics, prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ze-Li; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is an important food-borne parasitic disease and one of the most common zoonoses. Currently, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of C. sinensis infection, and over 15 million are infected worldwide. C. sinensis infection is closely related to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), fibrosis and other human hepatobiliary diseases; thus, clonorchiasis is a serious public health problem in endemic areas. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the epidemiology, disease burden and treatment of clonorchiasis as well as summarizes the techniques for detecting C. sinensis infection in humans and intermediate hosts and vaccine development against clonorchiasis. Newer data regarding the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis and the genome, transcriptome and secretome of C. sinensis are collected, thus providing perspectives for future studies. These advances in research will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis. PMID:27384714

  3. Painless Jaundice Caused by Clonorchis sinensis Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yuhua; Bao, Wanguo; Jin, Meishan; Li, Yuxiang; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A man with only yellowing of the skin and eye sclera was diagnosed with clonorchiasis, which rarely manifested jaundice as the initial symptom. However, because of a lack of evidence for a diagnostic gold standard, the time until definitive diagnosis was more than a week. The diagnostic process relied on inquiring about the patient’s history, including the place of residence, dietary habits, and symptoms, as well as on serological findings, an imaging examination, and pathological findings. MRCP and CT results showed mild dilatation of intrahepatic ducts and increased periductal echogenicity. The eggs were ultimately found in stool by water sedimentation method after the negative report through direct smear. DNA sequencing of PCR production of the eggs demonstrated 98-100% homology with ITS2 of Clonorchis sinensis. After anti-parasite medical treatment, the patient’s symptoms were gradually relieved. Throughout the diagnostic procedure, besides routine examinations, the sedimentation method or concentration method could be used as a sensitive way for both light and heavy C. sinensis infection in the definite diagnosis. PMID:27417088

  4. Cell-Free Expression and In Situ Immobilization of Parasite Proteins from Clonorchis sinensis for Rapid Identification of Antigenic Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jung Won; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Shin, Hyun-Il; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2015-01-01

    Progress towards genetic sequencing of human parasites has provided the groundwork for a post-genomic approach to develop novel antigens for the diagnosis and treatment of parasite infections. To fully utilize the genomic data, however, high-throughput methodologies are required for functional analysis of the proteins encoded in the genomic sequences. In this study, we investigated cell-free expression and in situ immobilization of parasite proteins as a novel platform for the discovery of antigenic proteins. PCR-amplified parasite DNA was immobilized on microbeads that were also functionalized to capture synthesized proteins. When the microbeads were incubated in a reaction mixture for cell-free synthesis, proteins expressed from the microbead-immobilized DNA were instantly immobilized on the same microbeads, providing a physical linkage between the genetic information and encoded proteins. This approach of in situ expression and isolation enables streamlined recovery and analysis of cell-free synthesized proteins and also allows facile identification of the genes coding antigenic proteins through direct PCR of the microbead-bound DNA. PMID:26599101

  5. Clonorchis sinensis a new report in Egyptian employees returning back from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Ayman T A; Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M

    2011-04-01

    Clonorchis sinensis, or Chinese liver fluke, is a parasite of the fish-eating mammals endemic in the East Asia, Far East, particularly in China, Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Korea and among immigrant refugees to European Union and Eastern Mediterranean Countries. This paper reported infection among Egyptian family who practice consumption of imported fishes from the Far East. Diagnosed was based on detection of its characteristic eggs, positive specific ELISA, radiological and family behavior and feeding habit history. Patients were successfully treated. PMID:21634255

  6. Clonorchis sinensis Co-infection Could Affect the Disease State and Treatment Response of HBV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Chen, Tingjin; Kong, Xiangzhan; Sun, Hengchang; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is considered to be an important parasitic zoonosis because it infects approximately 35 million people, while approximately 15 million were distributed in China. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health issue. Two types of pathogens have the potential to cause human liver disease and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with HBV and C. sinensis is often observed in some areas where C. sinensis is endemic. However, whether C. sinensis could impact HBV infection or vice versa remains unknown. Principal Findings Co-infection with C. sinensis and HBV develops predominantly in males. Co-infected C. sinensis and HBV patients presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA titers. Combination treatment with antiviral and anti-C. sinensis drugs in co-infected patients could contribute to a reduction in viral load and help with liver function recovery. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) may, in some ways, increase HBV viral replication in vitro. A mixture of ESP and HBV positive sera could induce peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce higher level of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to HBV alone, it seems that due to presence of ESP, the cytokine production shift towards Th2. C. sinensis/HBV co-infected patients showed higher serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower serum IFN-γ levels. Conclusions/Significance Patients with concomitant C. sinensis and HBV infection presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA copies. In co-infected patients, the efficacy of anti-viral treatment was better in patients who were prescribed with entecavir and praziquantel than entecavir alone. One possible reason for the weaker response to antiviral therapies in co-infected patients was the shift in cytokine production from Th1 to Th2 that may inhibit viral clearance. C. sinensis/HBV co-infection could exacerbate the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine. PMID:27348302

  7. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Parkin in Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xuelian; Kim, Tae Im; Lee, Ji-Yun; Dai, Fuhong; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis habitating in the bile duct of mammals causes clonorchiasis endemic in East Asian countries. Parkin is a RING-between-RING protein and has E3-ubiquitin ligase activity catalyzing ubiquitination and degradation of substrate proteins. A cDNA clone of C. sinensis was predicted to encode a polypeptide homologous to parkin (CsParkin) including 5 domains (Ubl, RING0, RING1, IBR, and RING2). The cysteine and histidine residues binding to Zn2+ were all conserved and participated in formation of tertiary structural RINGs. Conserved residues were also an E2-binding site in RING1 domain and a catalytic cysteine residue in the RING2 domain. Native CsParkin was determined to have an estimated molecular weight of 45.7 kDa from C. sinensis adults by immunoblotting. CsParkin revealed E3-ubiquitin ligase activity and higher expression in metacercariae than in adults. CsParkin was localized in the locomotive and male reproductive organs of C. sinensis adults, and extensively in metacercariae. Parkin has been found to participate in regulating mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in mammalian cells. From these results, it is suggested that CsParkin play roles in energy metabolism of the locomotive organs, and possibly in protein metabolism of the reproductive organs of C. sinensis. PMID:25748711

  8. Identification and molecular characterization of Parkin in Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuelian; Kim, Tae Im; Lee, Ji-Yun; Dai, Fuhong; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2015-02-01

    Clonorchis sinensis habitating in the bile duct of mammals causes clonorchiasis endemic in East Asian countries. Parkin is a RING-between-RING protein and has E3-ubiquitin ligase activity catalyzing ubiquitination and degradation of substrate proteins. A cDNA clone of C. sinensis was predicted to encode a polypeptide homologous to parkin (CsParkin) including 5 domains (Ubl, RING0, RING1, IBR, and RING2). The cysteine and histidine residues binding to Zn(2+) were all conserved and participated in formation of tertiary structural RINGs. Conserved residues were also an E2-binding site in RING1 domain and a catalytic cysteine residue in the RING2 domain. Native CsParkin was determined to have an estimated molecular weight of 45.7 kDa from C. sinensis adults by immunoblotting. CsParkin revealed E3-ubiquitin ligase activity and higher expression in metacercariae than in adults. CsParkin was localized in the locomotive and male reproductive organs of C. sinensis adults, and extensively in metacercariae. Parkin has been found to participate in regulating mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in mammalian cells. From these results, it is suggested that CsParkin play roles in energy metabolism of the locomotive organs, and possibly in protein metabolism of the reproductive organs of C. sinensis. PMID:25748711

  9. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. in Vietnam: current status and prospects.

    PubMed

    Doanh, Pham N; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are clinically important small liver flukes because of their known association with development of cholangiocarcinoma. In Vietnam, high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in humans was previously reported in northern provinces, and O. viverrini infection has been detected in several central provinces. However, diagnosis of C. sinensis and O. viverrini infections in the past was merely based on faecal egg examination. This method alone can lead to misidentification at the species level because of morphological similarity between the eggs of these liver flukes and minute intestinal trematodes of the family Heterophyidae. In fact, recent surveys in Vietnam revealed that infection with several minute intestinal flukes, such as Haplorchis pumilio and H. taichui, are much more common than infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini, and they often co-infect humans. Thus, previously reported prevalence of small liver fluke infection in Vietnam was likely over-estimated due to mis identification of parasites in copro-parasitological examinations. In addition, there is some confusion about identification of cercariae, metacercariae and also adults of C. sinensis and O. viverrini in intermediate and definitive hosts. The aim of this review is, therefore, to draw realistic pictures of the past and present scientific reports on the epidemiology and biology of C. sinensis and Opisthorchis spp. infection in Vietnam. PMID:26740358

  10. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Taurocyamine Kinase from Clonorchis sinensis: A Candidate Chemotherapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Jarilla, Blanca R.; Nomura, Haruka; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Jong; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK) constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development. Methology/Principal findings A cDNA clone encoding a putative polypeptide of 717 amino acids was retrieved from a C. sinensis transcriptome. This polypeptide was homologous to taurocyamine kinase (TK) of the invertebrate animals and consisted of two contiguous domains. C. sinensis TK (CsTK) gene was reported and found consist of 13 exons intercalated with 12 introns. This suggested an evolutionary pathway originating from an arginine kinase gene group, and distinguished annelid TK from the general CK phylogenetic group. CsTK was found not to have a homologous counterpart in sequences analysis of its mammalian hosts from public databases. Individual domains of CsTK, as well as the whole two-domain enzyme, showed enzymatic activity and specificity toward taurocyamine substrate. Of the CsTK residues, R58, I60 and Y84 of domain 1, and H60, I63 and Y87 of domain 2 were found to participate in binding taurocyamine. CsTK expression was distributed in locomotive and reproductive organs of adult C. sinensis. Developmentally, CsTK was stably expressed in both the adult and metacercariae stages. Recombinant CsTK protein was found to have low sensitivity and specificity toward C. sinensis and platyhelminth-infected human sera on ELISA. Conclusion CsTK is a promising anti-C. sinensis drug target since the enzyme is found only in the C. sinensis and has a substrate specificity for taurocyamine, which is different from its mammalian counterpart, creatine. PMID:24278491

  11. Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Infection among Residents along 5 Major Rivers in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Young-Il; Shin, Hee-Eun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Park, Mi Yeoun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is currently the most important parasite affecting public health problems in the Republic of Korea. We investigated the prevalence of C. sinensis infection among residents living along 5 major rivers in Korea. A total of 42,562 individual stool samples were collected from 37 localities and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Helminth eggs were detected in 4,052 (9.5%) residents and 3,586 (8.4%) were infected with C. sinensis. The egg positive rate of C. sinensis in Nakdong, Seomjin, Geum, Yeongsan, and Han River was 11.7%, 9.9%, 6.5%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively. The overall prevalence of clonorchiasis by sex was 11.2% in males and 6.2% in females. The age-prevalence was the highest in the 50-59 years band. It has been reconfirmed that the endemicity of clonorchiasis is higher in southern areas of Korea, especially along Nakdong and Seomjin Rivers. A combination of continuous control programs with health education initiatives is urgently required in these highly endemic areas of clonorchiasis in Korea. PMID:27180582

  12. In Vitro Maintenance of Clonorchis sinensis Adult Worms

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Hafiz; Li, Shunyu; Bae, Young Mee; Choi, Min-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a biological carcinogen inducing human cholangiocarcinoma, and clonorchiasis is one of the important endemic infectious diseases in East Asia. The present study investigated survival longevity of C. sinensis adult worms in various in vitro conditions to find the best way of keeping the worms longer. The worms were maintained in 0.85% NaCl, 1×PBS, 1×Locke's solution, RPMI-1640, DMEM, and IMDM media, and in 1×Locke's solution with different supplements. All of the worms died within 3 and 7 days in 0.85% NaCl and 1×PBS, respectively, but survived up to 57 days in 1×Locke's solution. The worms lived for 106 days in DMEM, and 114 days in both RPMI-1640 and IMDM media. The survival rate in RPMI-1640 medium was the highest (50%) compared to that in DMEM (20±10%) and in IMDM (33.3±25.2%) after 3 months. The 1×Locke's solution with 0.005% bovine bile supplement showed increased duration of maximum survival from 42 days to 70 days. Higher concentration of bile supplements than 0.005% or addition of glucose were disadvantageous for the worm survival. The worms died rapidly in solutions containing L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, and adenine compared to L-arginine, L-serine, and L-tryptophan. In conclusion, the 1×Locke's solution best supports the worms alive among inorganic solutions for 57 days, and the RPMI-1640 medium maintains living C. sinensis adults better and longer up to 114 days in vitro than other media. PMID:23230328

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Tribendimidine Against Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Men-Bao; Yap, Peiling; Yang, Yi-Chao; Liang, Hai; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Li, Wei; Tan, Yu-Guang; Zhou, Hui; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Keiser, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background. Clonorchiasis is of considerable public health importance, particularly in the People's Republic of China (PR China), where most of the 15 million individuals infected with Clonorchis sinensis are currently concentrated. Praziquantel is the drug of choice, but tribendimidine might be an alternative. Methods. We performed a randomized open-label trial in Guangxi, PR China, to assess the efficacy and safety of 400 mg tribendimidine once, 400 mg tribendimidine daily for 3 days, and 75 mg/kg praziquantel in 1 day divided in 3 doses against parasitological-confirmed C. sinensis infections. Cure and egg reduction rates were determined 3 weeks posttreatment using available case analysis. Clinical symptoms were documented at baseline, and adverse events were recorded and graded 3 and 24 hours after each dose. Results. A total of 74 patients were included in the final analysis. Single-dose tribendimidine achieved a cure rate of 44%, whereas cure rates of 58% and 56% were obtained for tribendimidine administered for 3 days and praziquantel, respectively. High egg reduction rates (97.6%–98.8%) were observed for all treatment regimens. Single-dose tribendimidine was the best-tolerated treatment scheme. Patients treated with praziquantel experienced significantly more adverse events than did tribendimidine recipients (P < .05). Conclusions. Tribendimidine has an efficacy comparable to praziquantel in the treatment of C. sinensis infection and resulted in fewer adverse events compared to praziquantel. Larger clinical trials are warranted among C. sinensis–infected patients to determine the potential of tribendimidine against clonorchiasis and other helminthiases. Clinical Trials Registration. Controlled-Trials.com, ISRCTN80829842. PMID:23223597

  14. Stage-specific expression, immunolocalization of Clonorchis sinensis lysophospholipase and its potential role in hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Liang, Pei; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Hu, Yue; Liang, Chi; Sun, Jiufeng; Huang, Yan; Li, Ran; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2013-02-01

    Lysophospholipase, belonging to the complex family of phospholipases, is supposed to play a vital role in virulence and pathogenesis of parasites and fungi. In the current study, the potential role of Clonorchis sinensis lysophospholipase (CslysoPLA) in hepatic fibrosis induced by C. sinensis was explored for the first time. In the liver of the cat infected with C. sinensis, CslysoPLA was recognized in the lumen between adult worms and surrounding bile duct epithelia together with some inside the cells by means of immunolocalization. Both Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay) and cell cycle analysis of human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 showed that a higher percentage of cells were at proliferation phase after incubation with lower concentrations of recombinant CslysoPLA (rCslysoPLA). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated an upregulation in fibrogenic genes of smooth muscle α-actin, collagen III, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase II in LX-2 treated with rCslysoPLA. Moreover, human biliary epithelial cell line 5100 proliferated significantly in response to rCslysoPLA. Notably, CslysoPLA was localized in the adenomatoid hyperplastic tissue within the intrahepatic bile duct of experimentally infected rats by immunolocalization analysis. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR implied that CslysoPLA was differentially expressed at the developmental stages of C. sinensis (metacercariae, adult worms and eggs), with the highest level at metacercariae stage. Immunolocalization analysis showed that CslysoPLA was distributed in the intestine, vitelline gland, tegument and eggs in the adult worms and in the tegument and vitelline gland in the metacercariae, respectively. Collectively, it suggests that CslysoPLA might be involved in the initiation and promotion of C. sinensis-related human hepatic fibrosis and advance future studies on its promotion to C. sinensis-induced cholangiocarcinogenesis. PMID:23183703

  15. Genetic diversity of the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis from Russia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Chelomina, Galina N; Tatonova, Yulia V; Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ngo, Ha Duy

    2014-10-01

    Clonorchiasis is a parasitic disease of high public health importance in many countries in southeastern Asia and is caused by the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. However, the genetic structure and demographic history of its populations has not been sufficiently studied throughout the geographic range of the species and available data are based mainly on partial gene sequencing. In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of the complete 1560 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequence for geographically isolated C. sinensis populations in Russia and Vietnam, to our knowledge for the first time. The results demonstrated low nucleotide and high haplotype differentiation within and between the two compared regions and a clear geographical vector for the distribution of genetic diversity patterns among the studied populations. These results suggest a deep local adaptation of the parasite to its environment including intermediate hosts and the existence of gene flow across the species' range. Additionally, we have predicted an amino acid substitution in the functional site of the COX1 protein among the Vietnamese populations, which were reported to be difficult to treat with praziquantel. The haplotype networks consisted of several region-specific phylogenetic lineages, the formation of which could have occurred during the most extensive penultimate glaciations in the Pleistocene Epoch. The patterns of genetic diversity and demographics are consistent with population growth of the liver fluke in the late Pleistocene following the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating the lack of a population bottleneck during the recent past in the species' history. The data obtained have important implications for understanding the phylogeography of C. sinensis, its host-parasite interactions, the ability of this parasite to evolve drug resistance, and the epidemiology of clonorchiasis under global climate change. PMID:25123068

  16. Gene expression profiling in mouse liver infected with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Min; Ko, Byung-Sam; Ju, Jung-Won; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Yang, Suk-Jin; Yeom, Young Il; Kim, Tong-Soo; Won, Yonggwan; Kim, Il-Chul

    2009-12-01

    Clonorchis sinensis, the parasite that causes clonorchiasis, is endemic in many Asian countries, and infection with the organism drives changes in the liver tissues of the host. However, information regarding the molecular events in clonorchiasis remains limited, and little is currently known about host-pathogen interactions in clonorchiasis. In this study, we assessed the gene expression profiles in mice livers via DNA microarray analysis 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after induced metacercariae infection. Functional clustering of the gene expression profile showed that the immunity-involved genes were induced in the livers of the mice at the early stage of metacercariae infection, whereas immune responses were reduced in the 6-week liver tissues after infection in which the metacercariae became adult flukes. Many genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, including Peci, Cyp4a10, Acat1, Ehhadh, Gcdh, and Cyp2 family were downregulated in the infected livers. On the other hand, the liver tissues infected with the parasite expressed Wnt signaling molecules such as Wnt7b, Fzd6, and Pdgfrb and cell cycle-regulating genes including cyclin-D1, Cdca3, and Bcl3. These investigations constitute an excellent starting point for increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interaction during the development of C. sinensis in the host liver. PMID:19902254

  17. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of Clonorchis sinensis elongation factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Yun; Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Jong Won; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2007-11-01

    Elongation factor-1 (EF-1) plays a primary role in protein synthesis, e.g., in the regulation of cell growth, aging, motility, embryogenesis, and signal transduction. The authors identified a clone CsIH23 by immunoscreening a Clonorchis sinensis cDNA library. The cDNA of CsIH23 was found to have a putative open reading frame containing 461 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 50.5 kDa. Its polypeptide sequence was highly homologous with EF-1alpha of parasites and vertebrate animals. CsIH23 polypeptide contained three GTP/GDP-binding sites, one ribosome-binding domain, one actin-binding domain, one tRNA-binding domain, and two glyceryl-phosphoryl-ethanolamine attachment sites. Based on these primary and secondary structural similarities, it was concluded that CsIH23 cDNA encodes C. sinensis EF-1alpha (CsEF-1alpha). In a molecular phylogenic tree, CsEF-1alpha clustered with the EF-1alpha of helminthic parasites. Subsequently, CsEF-1alpha recombinant protein was bacterially overexpressed and purified by Ni-NTA affinity column chromatography. Immunoblotting using CsEF-1alpha recombinant protein produced positive signals for all serum samples tested from clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis viverinii, and paragonimiasis westermani patients and normal healthy controls. These findings suggest that recombinant CsEF-1alpha is of limited usefulness as serodiagnostic antigen for clonorchiasis. PMID:17674047

  18. Development of a polymerase chain reaction applicable to rapid and sensitive detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in human stool samples.

    PubMed

    Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Choi, Kyung Mi; Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lim, Sung-Bin; Cha, Seok Ho; Park, Yun-Kyu; Pak, Jhang Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Hong, Sung-Jong; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2013-07-01

    Microscopic examination of eggs of parasitic helminths in stool samples has been the most widely used classical diagnostic method for infections, but tiny and low numbers of eggs in stool samples often hamper diagnosis of helminthic infections with classical microscopic examination. Moreover, it is also difficult to differentiate parasite eggs by the classical method, if they have similar morphological characteristics. In this study, we developed a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular diagnostic method for detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in stool samples. Nine primers were designed based on the long-terminal repeat (LTR) of C. sinensis retrotransposon1 (CsRn1) gene, and seven PCR primer sets were paired. Polymerase chain reaction with each primer pair produced specific amplicons for C. sinensis, but not for other trematodes including Metagonimus yokogawai and Paragonimus westermani. Particularly, three primer sets were able to detect 10 C. sinensis eggs and were applicable to amplify specific amplicons from DNA samples purified from stool of C. sinensis-infected patients. This PCR method could be useful for diagnosis of C. sinensis infections in human stool samples with a high level of specificity and sensitivity. PMID:23916334

  19. A tegument-specific venom allergen-like protein of Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hea Sun; Kim, Tae Yun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Venom allergen-like (VAL) proteins, members of the SCP/TAPS (sperm coating protein/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7) protein superfamily, have been reported from several parasitic helminths. As little is known about their biological functions, a VAL protein of the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis was cloned and characterized. A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a 25-kDa protein was identified from an EST database of C. sinensis. A BLAST search revealed that the protein shares 46% sequence identity with Schistosoma mansoni VAL 13 protein, and thus, the protein was named CsVAL13. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that the SCP/TAPS domain of CsVAL13 shares 39-46% sequence identity with VAL proteins from parasitic helminths. His and Tyr, which help to stabilize protein structure, were highly conserved across the VAL protein sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the SCP/TAPS domain of the CsVAL13 sequence clusters together with other group 2 VAL protein sequences. In the homology-modeled structure of CsVAL13, an α-β-α sandwich and residues for a putative active site were highly conserved. Immune sera were obtained from BALB/c mice immunized with the recombinant CsVAL13 protein. Immunohistochemical localization using the immune sera revealed that CsVAL13 was distributed mainly in the tegument and intrauterine eggs of adult C. sinensis. These findings suggest that CsVAL13 may be involved in host-parasite interactions and immune stimulation on the surrounding host environments. PMID:25403376

  20. Molecular characterization of Clonorchis sinensis secretory myoglobin: Delineating its role in anti-oxidative survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clonorchiasis is a globally important, neglected food-borne disease caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), and it is highly related to cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Increased molecular evidence has strongly suggested that the adult worm of C. sinensis continuously releases excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs), which play important roles in the parasite-host interactions, to establish successful infection and ensure its own survival. Myoglobin, a hemoprotein, is present in high concentrations in trematodes and ESPs. To further understand the biological function of CsMb and its putative roles in the interactions of C. sinensis with its host, we explored the molecular characterization of CsMb in this paper. Methods We expressed CsMb and its mutants in E. coli BL21 and identified its molecular characteristics using bioinformatics analysis and experimental approaches. Reverse transcription PCR analysis was used to measure myoglobin transcripts of C. sinensis with different culture conditions. The peroxidase activity of CsMb was confirmed by spectrophotometry. We co-cultured RAW264.7 cells with recombinant CsMb (rCsMb), and we then measured the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in addition to the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in activated RAW264.7 cells. Results In the in vitro culture of adult worms, the transcripts of CsMb increased with the increase of oxygen content. Oxidative stress conditions induced by H2O2 increased the levels of CsMb transcripts in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CsMb catalyzed oxidation reactions in the presence of H2O2, and amino acid 34 of CsMb played an essential role in its reaction with H2O2. In addition, CsMb significantly reduced H2O2 and NO levels in LPS-activated macrophages, and CsMb downregulated iNOS and SOD expression in activated macrophages. Conclusion The present study

  1. Clonorchis sinensis Infestation Promotes Three-Dimensional Aggregation and Invasion of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jihee; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Sun Min; Shin, Yoojin; Chung, Seok; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infestation and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the role of C. sinensis in the increased invasiveness and proliferation involved in the malignancy of CCA has not been addressed yet. Here, we investigated the possibility that C. sinensis infestation promotes expression of focal and cell-cell adhesion proteins in CCA cells and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Adhesion proteins help maintain cell aggregates, and MMPs promote the three-dimensional invasion of cells into the neighboring extracellular matrix (ECM). Using a novel microfluidic assay, we quantitatively addressed the role of excretory-secretory products (ESPs) gradients from C. sinensis in promoting the invasion of cells into the neighboring ECM. PMID:25340585

  2. Interleukin-13 is involved in the formation of liver fibrosis in Clonorchis sinensis-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanquan; Liang, Pei; Bian, Meng; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Jinsi; Shang, Mei; Qu, Hongling; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-07-01

    Clonorchiasis is a chronic infection disease often accompanied by formation of liver fibrosis. Previous study has identified that Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs) infection and CsRNASET2 (a member of CsESPs) immunization can drive Th2 immune response. IL-13, a multifunctional Th2 cytokine, has been widely confirmed to be profibrotic mediator. We want to determine whether IL-13 is involved in the generation of liver fibrosis during C. sinensis infection. A part of mice were infected with C. sinensis or immunized with CsRNASET2, respectively. Another part of mice were intravenously injected with rIL-13. Liver tissues of C. sinensis-infected mice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome, respectively. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of infected mice and rIL-13-treated mice were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, splenocytes of C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice were isolated, respectively. The levels of IL-13 in splenocytes were detected by ELISA. Our results displayed that the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice had serious chronic inflammation and collagen deposition. The transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1 in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice were obviously increased. Splenocytes from both C. sinensis-infected and CsRNASET2-immunized mice expressed high levels of IL-13. Moreover, rIL-13 treatment markedly promoted the transcriptional levels of collagen-I, collagen-III, α-SMA, and TIMP-1. These data implied that hepatic fibrosis was formed in the livers of C. sinensis-infected mice, and IL-13 induced by C. sinensis infection and CsRNASET2 immunization might favor this progression. PMID:26993324

  3. Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones improves rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing

    2013-08-01

    To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were "fresh" and in the gallbladder stones were "old." Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:23698535

  4. Carcinogenesis associated with parasites other than Schistosoma, Opisthorchis and Clonorchis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Machicado, Claudia; Marcos, Luis A

    2016-06-15

    Only three helminths (Schistosoma haematobium, Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis) are directly associated with carcinogenesis in humans whereas the role of other parasites in cancer remains unclear. This study aimed to perform a systematic review to identify recent insights in the role of other parasite infections in carcinogenesis. We conducted systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE on July 2015. Our primary outcome was the association between parasitic infections and carcinogenesis. Out of 1,266 studies, 19 were selected for detailed evaluation (eight for helminths and 11 for protozoa). The mechanisms of helminth-induced cancer included chronic inflammation, sustained proliferation, modulation of the host immune system, reprogramming of glucose metabolism and redox signaling, induction of genomic instability and destabilization of suppressor tumor proteins, stimulation of angiogenesis, resisting cell death, and activation of invasion and metastasis. In addition to the current knowledge, the following parasites were found in cancers or tumors: Echinococcus, Strongyloides, Fasciola, Heterakis, Platynosomum and Trichuris. Additional parasites were found in this systematic review that could potentially be associated with cancers or tumors but further evidence is needed to elaborate a cause-effect relationship. PMID:26840624

  5. [Epidemiological studies of Clonorchis sinensis prevailed in the peoples of Kyungpook Province

    PubMed

    Shin, Dae Shik

    1964-06-01

    The author studied the infection rates of Clonorchiis sinensis in the inhabitants of Kyungpook Province, and surveyed infestation rates of Clonorchis metacercarias in the twelve kinds of fresh water fishes for the purpose of the eradication. plan of clonorchiasis of Kyungpook Province. The examination was continued from April 1960 to October 1962 with 24,252 inhabitants ranging from four months to over sixty aged. All the family were tested intradermally with Clonorchis antigen and then confirmed the eggs by M.G.L. technique. The results of the examination were summarized as follows. I. The infection rate of the inhabitants; 1) In the people tested, 27.7 per cent was infected with Clonorchis sinensis. 2) There were no remarkable differences in the infection rates among each Districts; River side inhabitants(Yungchun-Gun 23.6 percent, Andong-Gun 27.4 %), paddy field inhabitants(Yungchun-Gun 23.6 %, Sangchu-Gun 29.1 %) and mountain side inhabitants (Chungsong-Gun 23.8 %, Yungyang-Gun 27.7%). However, the infection rates of the river side peoples were slightly higher than that of the districts far from the river. 3) The infection rate of the male was 34.98 percent (4,628 out of 12,230), while the female was 18.96 per cent (2,090 out of 11,022). 4) The maximum infection rate of the male group was observed in the 35-39 age group (73.8 %) and in female, 55-59 age group (34.l percent) respectively, however it was gradually decreased in the senile group. II. The infection rates of the family group; 1) Those infected in both husband and wife were 28 percent(357 out of 1,289), husband only was 52 percent (672 out of 1,289) and wife only was 4 percent (50 out of 1,289). 2) The children of the infected parents revealed higher morbidity than that of the non-infected parents. 3) The children of the infected father revealed much morbidity than that of the mother's side. On the contrary, children's morbidity rate of the infected widow was higher than that of the widower. III. The

  6. Differential Activation of Diverse Glutathione Transferases of Clonorchis sinensis in Response to the Host Bile and Oxidative Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-An; Ahn, Do-Whan; Lee, Eung-Goo; Kim, Seon-Hee; Cai, Guo-Bin; Kang, Insug; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kong, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis causes chronic cumulative infections in the human hepatobiliary tract and is intimately associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected and 600 million people are at risk of infections worldwide. C. sinensis excretory-secretory products (ESP) constitute the first-line effector system affecting the host-parasite interrelationship by interacting with bile fluids and ductal epithelium. However, the secretory behavior of C. sinensis in an environment close to natural host conditions is unclear. C. sinensis differs from Fasciola hepatica in migration to, and maturation in, the hepatic bile duct, implying that protein profile of the ESP of these two trematodes might be different from each other. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted systemic approaches to analyze the C. sinensis ESP proteome and the biological reactivity of C. sinensis glutathione transferases (GSTs), such as global expression patterns and induction profiles under oxidative stress and host bile. When we observed ex host excretion behavior of C. sinensis in the presence of 10% host bile, the global proteome pattern was not significantly altered, but the amount of secretory proteins was increased by approximately 3.5-fold. Bioactive molecules secreted by C. sinensis revealed universal/unique features in relation to its intraluminal hydrophobic residing niche. A total of 38 protein spots identified abundantly included enzymes involved in glucose metabolism (11 spots, 28.9%) and diverse-classes of glutathione transferases (GSTs; 10 spots, 26.3%). Cathepsin L/F (four spots, 10.5%) and transporter molecules (three spots, 7.9%) were also recognized. The universal secretory proteins found in other parasites, such as several enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and oxygen transporters, were commonly detected. C. sinensis secreted less cysteine proteases and fatty acid binding proteins compared to other tissue-invading or intravascular

  7. Molecular characterization of cathepsin B from Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products and assessment of its potential for serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cathepsin cysteine proteases play multiple roles in the life cycle of parasites such as food uptake, immune invasion and pathogenesis, making them valuable targets for diagnostic assays, vaccines and drugs. The purpose of this study was to identify a cathepsin B of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCB) and to investigate its diagnostic value for human helminthiases. Results The predicted amino acid sequence of the cathepsin B of C. sinensis shared 63%, 52%, 50% identity with that of Schistosoma japonicum, Homo sapiens and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Sequence encoding proenzyme of CsCB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Reverse transcription PCR experiments revealed that CsCB transcribed in both adult worm and metacercaria of C. sinensis. CsCB was identified as a C. sinensis excretory/secretory product by immunoblot assay, which was consistent with immunohistochemical localization showing that CsCB was especially expressed in the intestine of C. sinensis adults. Both ELISA and western blotting analysis showed recombinant CsCB could react with human sera from clonorchiasis and other helminthiases. Conclusions Our findings revealed that secreted CsCB may play an important role in the biology of C. sinensis and could be a diagnostic candidate for helminthiases. PMID:21794140

  8. The importance of wild fish in the epidemiology of Clonorchis sinensis in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Ngoc; Pham, Thanh Thi; Nguyen, Nguyen Thi; Nguyen, Ha Van; Murrell, Darwin; Phan, Van Thi

    2016-09-01

    Preliminary findings of a high prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis in wild-caught fish in a North Vietnam reservoir (Thac Ba reservoir, Yen Bai Province) prompted a longitudinal epidemiological study of fish infections. Monthly collections of fish from September 2014 to August 2015 were processed for recovery of metacercariae; 1219 fish, representing 22 species, were examined. Seven species were infected with C. sinensis metacercariae. Four species, Toxabramis houdemeri, Hemiculter leucisculus, Cultrichthys erythropterus, and Culter recurvirostris, had high prevalence (31.1 to 76.7 %); metacercarial intensities ranged from 3.9 to 65.7 metacercariae/fish. A seasonal variation of C. sinensis prevalence was observed in T. houdemeri. Variation in intensity of infection occurred in C. erythropterus and H. leucisculus. Intensity and prevalence of C. sinensis in the most highly infected species, T. houdemeri, varied by fish size; prevalence was higher in fish weighing more than 3 g, and intensity was higher in fish weighing more than 5 g. The distribution of metacercariae in the body region of T. houdemeri was significantly higher in the caudal fin (14.7 metacercariae/g), compared to the body and head regions (0.7 and 1.4 metacercariae/g, respectively). Further epidemiological investigations on C. sinensis in this reservoir region should include assessing the relative risk of the different fish species for humans based on the latter's food preferences, and the prevalence of C. sinensis in the community. The snail intermediate host(s) in the reservoir should also be identified along with the ecological factors influencing its exposure to C. sinensis eggs and its subsequent transmission of cercariae to fish. Also needed are investigations on the relative importance of wild and domestic reservoir hosts as sources of egg contamination of the reservoir. PMID:27160330

  9. Investigation on the epidemiological factors of Clonorchis sinensis infection in an area of south China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rui; Li, Xueming; Lan, Chungeng; Yu, Senhai; Kawanaka, Masanori

    2005-09-01

    To detect the epidemiological factors of Clonorchis sinensis infection in Hengxian County, one of counties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region where Schistosoma japonicum was endemic but eliminated in the late 1980s, a questionnaire was designed with 37 questions covering socioeconomic conditions and human behavior, contamination of the environment and fish ponds, inadequate farming/fishery practices; and the formalin-ether sedimentation technique was used to examine the feces of cats, dogs and pigs for the eggs of C. sinensis. Fresh fish was sliced and digested to detect the metacercariae of C. sinensis under a stereomicroscope. Of 1,521 people interviewed, 64% of the interviewees did not know about fluke disease or its transmission route, 46% of those who knew about the fluke believed that the infection caused no harm or only slight harm to their health. More than half of the interviewees (51%) ate raw fish at least 1-2 times per month, more among the middle-aged males. Eight percent of them used the same utensils for both raw fish and cooked food. When advice was given not to eat raw fish, 73% of the interviewees thought it was not feasible. In relation to pisciculture, 25% and 9% of the owners of fish ponds fed their fish with feces of domestic animals and human feces, respectively. The prevalences of C. sinensis infection in cats, dogs and pigs were 70, 50 and 27%, respectively, and the infection rate in fish was 40%. These results indicate the poor knowledge, and beliefs, and unhealthy behaviors in the human population. They also show poor environmental hygiene and inappropriate farming/fishery practices are important in the increase of C. sinensis prevalence in humans. Combined interventions, including health education, environmental modification, reform of traditional farming/fishery practices, mass screening and chemotherapy for humans, and the management of domestic animals are needed in developing control strategies to decrease C. sinensis infection in

  10. Microscopic Examination of Gallbladder Stones Improves Rate of Detection of Clonorchis sinensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing

    2013-01-01

    To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were “fresh” and in the gallbladder stones were “old.” Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:23698535

  11. Molecular characterization of an α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Ro; Yoo, Won Gi; Kim, Yu-Jung; Kim, Dae-Won; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Ju, Jung-Won; Lee, Won-Ja

    2012-11-01

    The α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (α-NAGAL) is an exoglycosidase that selectively cleaves terminal α-linked N-acetylgalactosamines from a variety of sugar chains. A complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding a novel Clonorchis sinensis α-NAGAL (Cs-α-NAGAL) was identified in the expressed sequence tags database of the adult C. sinensis liver fluke. The complete coding sequence was 1,308 bp long and encoded a 436-residue protein. The selected glycosidase was manually curated as α-NAGAL (EC 3.2.1.49) based on a composite bioinformatics analysis including a search for orthologues, comparative structure modeling, and the generation of a phylogenetic tree. One orthologue of Cs-α-NAGAL was the Rattus norvegicus α-NAGAL (accession number: NP_001012120) that does not exist in C. sinensis. Cs-α-NAGAL belongs to the GH27 family and the GH-D clan. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the GH27 family of Cs-α-NAGAL was distinct from GH31 and GH36 within the GH-D clan. The putative 3D structure of Cs-α-NAGAL was built using SWISS-MODEL with a Gallus gallus α-NAGAL template (PDB code 1ktb chain A); this model demonstrated the superimposition of a TIM barrel fold (α/β) structure and substrate binding pocket. Cs-α-NAGAL transcripts were detected in the adult worm and egg cDNA libraries of C. sinensis but not in the metacercaria. Recombinant Cs-α-NAGAL (rCs-α-NAGAL) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified rCs-α-NAGAL was recognized specifically by the C. sinensis-infected human sera. This is the first report of an α-NAGAL protein in the Trematode class, suggesting that it is a potential diagnostic or vaccine candidate with strong antigenicity. PMID:22926676

  12. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a glucose transporter (CsGLUT) in Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seong Kyu; Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Hong, Sung-Jong; Nam, Ho-Woo; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Ardelli, Bernadette F; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Tong-Soo; Cha, Seok Ho

    2016-01-01

    A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a glucose transporter of Clonorchis sinensis (CsGLUT) was isolated from the adult C. sinensis cDNA library. The open reading frame of CsGLUT cDNA consists of 1653 base pairs that encode a 550-amino acid residue protein. Hydropathy analysis suggested that CsGLUT possess 12 putative membrane-spanning domains. The Northern blot analysis result using poly(A)(+)RNA showed a strong band at ~2.1 kb for CsGLUT. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, CsGLUT mediated the transport of radiolabeled deoxy-D-glucose in a time-dependent but sodium-independent manner. Concentration-dependency results showed saturable kinetics and followed the Michaelis-Menten equation. Nonlinear regression analyses yielded a Km value of 588.5 ± 53.0 μM and a Vmax value of 1500.0 ± 67.5 pmol/oocyte/30 min for [1,2-(3)H]2-deoxy-D-glucose. No trans-uptakes of bile acid (taurocholic acid), amino acids (tryptophan and arginine), or p-aminohippuric acid were observed. CsGLUT-mediated transport of deoxyglucose was significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited by radio-unlabeled deoxyglucose and D-glucose. 3-O-Methylglucose at 10 and 100 μM inhibited deoxyglucose uptake by ~50 % without concentration dependence. No inhibitory effects by galactose, mannose, and fructose were observed. This work may contribute to the molecular biological study of carbohydrate metabolism and new drug development of C. sinensis. PMID:26450594

  13. Pathological Lesions and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expressions in the Liver of Mice Experimentally Infected with Clonorchis sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qing-Li; Shen, Ji-Qing; Xue, Yan; Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Yi-Chao; Chen, Ying-Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) formation and intrinsic nitrosation may be involved in the possible mechanisms of liver fluke-associated carcinogenesis. We still do not know much about the responses of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) induced by Clonorchis sinensis infection. This study was conducted to explore the pathological lesions and iNOS expressions in the liver of mice with different infection intensity levels of C. sinensis. Extensive periductal inflammatory cell infiltration, bile duct hyperplasia, and fibrosis were commonly observed during the infection. The different pathological responses in liver tissues strongly correlated with the infection intensity of C. sinensis. Massive acute spotty necrosis occurred in the liver parenchyma after a severe infection. The iNOS activity in liver tissues increased, and iNOS-expressing cells with morphological differences were observed after a moderate or severe infection. The iNOS-expressing cells in liver tissues had multiple origins. PMID:26797449

  14. The Dynamics of Treg/Th17 and the Imbalance of Treg/Th17 in Clonorchis sinensis-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Hui; Li, Bo; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Qian; Li, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Ying; Pan, Wei; Liu, Xiang-Ye; Tang, Ren-Xian; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, is a chronic parasitic infection regulated by T cell subsets. An imbalance of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+regulatory T (Treg) and interleukin (IL)-17-secreting T cells (Th17) may control inflammation and play an important role in the pathogenesis of immune evasion. In the present study, we assessed the dynamics of Treg/Th17 and determined whether the Treg/Th17 ratio is altered in C. sinensis-infected mice. The results showed that the percentages of splenic Treg cells in CD4+ T cells were suppressed on day 14 post-infection (PI) but increased on day 56 PI, while Th17 cells were increased on day 56 PI compared with normal control (NC) mice. The Treg/Th17 ratio steadily increased from day 28 to day 56 PI. The hepatic levels of their specific transcription factors (Foxp3 for Treg and RORγt for Th17) were increased in C. sinensis-infected mice from day 14 to 56 PI, and significantly higher than those in NC mice. Meanwhile, serum levels of IL-2 and IL-17 were profoundly increased in C. sinensis-infected mice throughout the experiment; while the concentrations of IL-6 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) peaked on day 14 PI, but then decreased on day 28 and 56 PI. Our results provide the first evidence of an increased Treg/Th17 ratio in C. sinensis-infected mice, suggesting that a Treg/Th17 imbalance may play a role in disease outcomes of clonorchiasis. PMID:26599407

  15. Characterization and identification of differentially expressed microRNAs during the process of the peribiliary fibrosis induced by Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chao; Shen, Li-Ping; Ma, Rui; Li, Bo; Li, Xiang-Yang; Hua, Hui; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Qian; Wang, Yu-Gang; Tang, Ren-Xian; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection can lead to biliary fibrosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of genes expression in the liver diseases. However, the differential expression of miRNAs that probably regulates the portal fibrogenesis caused by C. sinensis has not yet been investigated. Hepatic miRNAs expression profiles from C. sinensis-infected mice at different time-points were analyzed by miRNA microarray and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). 349 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the liver of the C. sinensis-infected mice at 2, 8 or 16weeks post infection (p.i.), compared with those at 0week p.i., and there were 143 down-regulated and 206 up-regulated miRNAs among them. These all dysregulated miRNAs were potentially involved in the pathological processes of clonorchiasis by regulation of cancer-related signaling pathway, TGF-β signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, PI3K /AKT signaling pathway, etc. 169 of these dysregulated miRNAs were predicted to be involved in the TGF/Smads signaling pathway which plays an important role in the biliary fibrosis caused by C. sinensis. Additionally, miRNA-32, miRNA-34a, miRNA-125b and miRNA-497 were negatively correlated with Smad7 expression, indicating these miRNAs may specifically down-regulate Smad7 expression and participate in regulation of biliary fibrosis caused by C. sinensis. The results of the present study for the first time demonstrated that miRNAs were differentially expressed in the liver of mice infected by C. sinensis, and these miRNAs may play important roles in regulation of peribiliary fibrosis caused by C. sinensis, which may provide possible therapeutic targets for clonorchiasis. PMID:27267304

  16. Clonorchis sinensis ova in bile juice cytology from a patient with severe hyperbilirubinemia and portal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fujiya, Keiichi; Ganno, Hideaki; Ando, Masayuki; Chong, Ja-Mun

    2016-03-01

    Infection with the trematode Clonorchis sinensis is the most common human fluke infection in East Asian populations. Although this infection is associated with obstructive jaundice or choledocholithiasis, portal vein thrombosis has not been reported. Here, we report the first case of a 60-year-old man who had both C. sinensis infection and portal vein thrombosis with severe hyperbilirubinemia (75.4 mg/dl). He initially presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. Computed tomography revealed gallstones, common bile duct calculus, and thrombus in the left main branch of the portal vein. A nasobiliary tube was inserted under endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cytology of the bile juice revealed many C. sinensis eggs. The abdominal pain and jaundice improved following choledocholithotomy and combination treatment with a chemotherapeutic agent and anti-coagulant. This case suggests that inflammation around the portal vein as a result of C. sinensis infection has the potential to evoke portal vein thrombosis. Such cases should be treated with both a chemotherapeutic agent and anti-coagulant therapy. In conclusion, the possibility of infection with C. sinensis should be considered in patients presenting with hyperbilirubinemia and portal vein thrombosis, particularly in East Asian populations. PMID:26663478

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Praziquantel, Tribendimidine and Mebendazole in Patients with Co-infection of Clonorchis sinensis and Other Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Li; Jiang, Bin; Duan, Ji-Hui; Zhuang, Shi-Feng; Liu, Yong-Chun; Zhu, Shi-Qiao; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Hao-Bing; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Background Both tribendimidine and mebendazole are broad-spectrum drugs for anti-intestinal nematodes. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of tribendimidine and mebendazole in patients with co-infection of Clonorchis sinensis and other helminths. Method We performed a randomized open-label trial in Qiyang, People's Republic of China. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (i) a single dose of 400 mg tribendimidine, (ii) 200 mg tribendimidine twice daily, (iii) 75 mg/kg praziquantel divided in four doses within 2 days, and (iv) a single dose of 400 mg mebendazole. Cure rates and egg reduction rates were assessed, and adverse events were monitored after treatments. Uncured patients accepted the second treatment with the same drugs after the first treatment. Results 156 patients were eligible for the study. Results from the first treatment showed that the cure rates of single-dose tribendimidine and praziquantel against C. sinensis were 50% and 56.8%, respectively; the single-dose tribendimidine achieved the cure rate of 77.8% in the treatment for hookworm, which was significantly higher than that of praziquantel; Low cure rates were obtained in the treatment of single-dose tribendimidine against Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura (28.6% and 23.1%). Results of the second treatment illustrated the cure rates of tribendimidine and praziquantel against C. sinensis were 78.1% and 75%, respectively. Most adverse events were mild and transient. Adverse events caused by tribendimidine were significantly less than praziquantel. Conclusion Single-dose tribendimidine showed similar efficacy against C. sinensis as praziquantel with less adverse events, and achieved significantly higher cure rate in the treatment for hookworm than those of praziquantel and mebendazole. Low cure rates, which were still higher than other drugs, were obtained in the treatment of single-dose tribendimidine against Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris

  18. Effect of artemether, artesunate, OZ78, praziquantel, and tribendimidine alone or in combination chemotherapy on the tegument of Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Jennifer; Vargas, Mireille

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the morphological effects of half-strength treatments with praziquantel, artemether, artesunate, OZ78 and tribendimidine as well as combinations of praziquantel with artemether, artesunate, OZ78 and tribendimidine and an artesunate-tribendimidine combination in rats harboring adult Clonorchis sinensis. Rats were infected with C. sinensis, dosed orally with single agents or combination treatments and flukes recovered at 3 or 5 days post-treatment. The number of flukes was counted, the viability recorded and surface changes monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Drug effects induced by the individual drugs at sub-curative doses 3 days post-treatment were minor with the exception of flukes recovered from rats treated with artemether and tribendimidine. Treatment with the praziquantel combinations of artesunate, OZ78 and tribendimidine did not produce a greater disruption of the tegument than the individual drugs 3 days post-treatment. On the other hand, at this time point many worms treated with artemether-praziquantel had died and eruptions, roughening or blebbing were observed on all worms examined. Five days post-treatment flukes exposed to any of the praziquantel combinations in rats had died. Rats treated with an artesunate-tribendimidine combination resulted in a rapid death of flukes, 3 days post-treatment all worms had been expelled. In conclusion, we have confirmed the promising clonorchicidal properties of different drug combinations in rats. Differences in the extent and time-scale of tegumental disruption have been observed. The effect of drug combinations against C. sinensis requires further scientific inquiry, e.g. in transmission electron microscopy studies and in the C. sinensis-rabbit model. PMID:20416396

  19. C3H/He Mice as an Incompatible Cholangiocarcinoma Model by Clonorchis sinensis, Dicyclanil and N-Nitrosodimethylamine

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Hafiz; Li, Shunyu; Jin, Yan; Choi, Min-Ho; Jang, Ja June; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a Group-I bio-carcinogen, associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The hamster is the only experimental model of C. sinensis-mediated CCA, but we oblige another animal model. The present study intended to develop a C. sinensis (Cs) mediated CCA model using C3H/He mice, co-stimulated with N-nitrosodimethyl-amine (NDMA) and dicyclanil (DC). The mice were divided into 8 groups with different combinations of Cs, NDMA, and DC. Six months later the mice were sacrificed and subjected to gross and histopathological examination. The body weights were significantly reduced among the groups treated with 2 or more agents (eg. Cs+NDMA, Cs+DC, NDMA+DC, and Cs+NDMA+DC). In contrast, liver weight percentages to body weight were increased in above groups by 4.1% to 4.7%. A Change of the spleen weight was observed only in Cs+NDMA group. Though C. sinensis infection is evident from hyperplastic changes, only 1 worm was recovered. T wo mice, 1 from Cs and the other from Cs+DC group, showed mass forming lesions; 1 (281.2 mm3) from the Cs group was a hepatocellular adenoma and the other (280.6 mm3) from the Cs+DC group was a cystic mass (peliosis). Higher prevalence of gray-white nodules was observed in Cs group (42.9%) followed by Cs+NDMA+DC group (21.4%). The mice of the Cs+NDMA+DC group showed hyper-proliferation of the bile duct with fibrotic changes. No characteristic change for CCA was recognized in any of the groups. In conclusion, C3H/He mice produce no CCA but extensive fibrosis when they are challenged by Cs, NDMA, and DC together. PMID:27417082

  20. Rapid detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in human fecal samples using a duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Van Hien, Hoang; Dung, Do Trung; Maleewong, Wanchai; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2012-07-01

    We developed a single step duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR merged with melting curve analysis for the fast detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in human fecal samples. Two species of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad2) DNA elements, the 165-bp nad2 product of C. sinensis and the 209-bp nad2 product of O. viverrini, were amplified by species-specific primers, and the fluorescence melting curve analyses were generated from hybrid of amplicons and two pairs of species-specific fluorophore-labeled probes. By their different fluorescence channels and melting temperatures, both C. sinensis and O. viverrini eggs in infected human fecal samples were detected and differentiated with high (100%) sensitivity and specificity. Detection limit was as little as a single C. sinensis egg and two O. viverrini eggs in 100 mg of fecal sample. The assay could distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of negative fecal samples and fecal samples with other parasitosis, as well as from the well-defined genomic DNA of human leukocytes and other parasites. It can reduce labor time of microscopic examination and is not prone to carry over contamination of agarose electrophoresis. Our duplex real-time FRET PCR method would be useful to determine the accurate range of endemic areas and/or to discover the co-endemic areas of two liver flukes, C. sinensis and O. viverrini, in Asia. This method also would be helpful for the differential diagnosis of the suspected cases of liver fluke infections among travelers who had visited the endemic countries of those parasites. PMID:22246366

  1. Detection of Clonorchis sinensis Circulating Antigen in Sera from Chinese Patients by Immunomagnetic Bead ELISA Based on IgY

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ge; Wang, Ting; Lu, Shengjun; Liu, Wenqi; Li, Yonglong; Lei, Jiahui

    2014-01-01

    Background Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is widely distributed in Southeast Asia including China. Clonorchiasis is included in control programs of neglected tropical diseases by World Health Organization (WHO) because it is one of the major health problems in most endemic areas. Diagnosis of clonorchiasis plays a key role in the control programs. However, so far, there is no satisfactory method for clonorchiasis because of low sensitivity, poor practicality and high false positivity of available diagnostic tools. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an immunomagnetic bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on IgY (egg yolk immunoglobulin) against cysteine proteinase of C. sinensis for detection of circulating antigen in serum samples of patients infected with C. sinensis. The polyclonal IgY, coated with magnetic beads, was used as a capture antibody and a monoclonal IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase as a detection antibody in the IgY-based immunomagnetic bead ELISA system (IgY-IMB-ELISA). The results showed that the sensitivity of IgY-IMB-ELISA was 93.3% (14 of 15) in cases of heavy infection (5000 to 9999 eggs per gram feces, i.e, EPG 5000–9999), 86.7% (13 of 15) in cases of moderate infection (EPG 1000–4999) and 75.0% (9 of 12) in cases of light infection (EPG <1000) of clonorchiasis. Together 36 of total 42 (85.7%) serum samples of human clonorchiasis gave a positive reaction. There was a significant correlation between ELISA optical density and egg counts (EPG) with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 in total 42 patients. There were no positive results in patients with trichinosis (n = 10) or cysticercosis (n = 10). Cross-reactivity was 6.7% (2 of 30) with schistosomiasis japonica and 10.0% (3 of 30) with paragonimiasis, respectively. No positive reaction was found in 20 healthy persons. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IgY-IMB-ELISA appears to be a sensitive and specific assay for detection of

  2. Accuracy of the Kato-Katz method and formalin-ether concentration technique for the diagnosis of Clonorchis sinensis, and implication for assessing drug efficacy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clonorchiasis is a chronic neglected disease caused by a liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of control and treatment efficacy is usually determined by microscopic examination of fecal samples. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the Kato-Katz method and the formalin-ether concentration technique (FECT) for C. sinensis diagnosis, and studied the effect of diagnostic approach on drug efficacy evaluation. Methods Overall, 74 individuals aged ≥18 years with a parasitological confirmed C. sinensis infection at baseline were re-examined 3 weeks after treatment. Before and after treatment, two stool samples were obtained from each participant and each sample was subjected to triplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and a single FECT examination. Results Thirty-eight individuals were still positive for C. sinensis according to our diagnostic ‘gold’ standard (six Kato-Katz thick smears plus two FECT). Two FECT had a significantly lower sensitivity than six Kato-Katz thick smears (44.7% versus 92.1%; p <0.001). Examination of single Kato-Katz and single FECT considerably overestimated cure rates. Conclusions In settings where molecular diagnostic assays are absent, multiple Kato-Katz thick smears should be examined for an accurate diagnosis of C. sinensis infection and for assessing drug efficacy against this liver fluke infection. PMID:24499644

  3. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Seung Hyun; Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja; Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min; Lee, Sang Eun

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. {yields} Induction of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. {yields} C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical

  4. Advanced Enzymology, Expression Profile and Immune Response of Clonorchis sinensis Hexokinase Show Its Application Potential for Prevention and Control of Clonorchiasis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zeli; Xie, Zhizhi; Lin, Zhipeng; Sun, Hengchang; Wan, Shuo; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 35 million people are infected with Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) globally, of whom 15 million are in China. Glycolytic enzymes are recognized as crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for vaccine and drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK), as the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was investigated in the current study. Principal Findings There were differences in spatial structure and affinities for hexoses and phosphate donors between CsHK and HKs from humans or rats, the definitive hosts of C. sinensis. Effectors (AMP, PEP, and citrate) and a small molecular inhibitor regulated the enzymatic activity of rCsHK, and various allosteric systems were detected. CsHK was distributed in the worm extensively as well as in liver tissue and serum from C. sinensis infected rats. Furthermore, high-level specific IgG1 and IgG2a were induced in rats by immunization with rCsHK. The enzymatic activity of CsHK was suppressed by the antibody in vitro. Additionally, the survival of C. sinensis was inhibited by the antibody in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Due to differences in putative spatial structure and enzymology between CsHK and HK from the host, its extensive distribution in adult worms, and its expression profile as a component of excretory/secretory products, together with its good immunogenicity and immunoreactivity, as a key glycolytic enzyme, CsHK shows potential as a vaccine and as a promising drug target for Clonorchiasis. PMID:25799453

  5. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Seung Hyun; Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja; Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min; Lee, Sang Eun

    2011-04-22

    Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naïve T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical relationship between the allergic immune response and helminth infection. PMID:21440530

  6. Sequence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Clonorchis sinensis Hexokinase, an Unusual Trimeric 50-kDa Glucose-6-Phosphate-Sensitive Allosteric Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tingjin; Ning, Dan; Sun, Hengchang; Li, Ran; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Liang, Chi; Li, Wenfang; Mao, Qiang; Li, Ye; Deng, Chuanhuan; Wang, Lexun; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, which is induced by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is highly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Because the available examination, treatment and interrupting transmission provide limited opportunities to prevent infection, it is urgent to develop integrated strategies to prevent and control clonorchiasis. Glycolytic enzymes are crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK), the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was characterized in this study. The calculated molecular mass (Mr) of CsHK was 50.0 kDa. The obtained recombinant CsHK (rCsHK) was a homotrimer with an Mr of approximately 164 kDa, as determined using native PAGE and gel filtration. The highest activity was obtained with 50 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 10 and 100 mM Tris-HCl at pH 8.5 and 10. The kinetics of rCsHK has a moderate thermal stability. Compared to that of the corresponding negative control, the enzymatic activity was significantly inhibited by praziquantel (PZQ) and anti-rCsHK serum. rCsHK was homotropically and allosterically activated by its substrates, including glucose, mannose, fructose, and ATP. ADP exhibited mixed allosteric effect on rCsHK with respect to ATP, while inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) displayed net allosteric activation with various allosteric systems. Fructose behaved as a dose-dependent V activator with the substrate glucose. Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) displayed net allosteric inhibition on rCsHK with respect to ATP or glucose with various allosteric systems in a dose-independent manner. There were differences in both mRNA and protein levels of CsHK among the life stages of adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis, suggesting different energy requirements during different development stages. Our study furthers the understanding of the biological functions of CsHK and supports the need to screen for small molecule inhibitors

  7. Involvement of PSMD10, CDK4, and Tumor Suppressors in Development of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma of Syrian Golden Hamsters Induced by Clonorchis sinensis and N-Nitrosodimethylamine

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Hafiz; Choi, Min-Ho; Kim, Woo Ho; Jang, Ja-June; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis is a group-I bio-carcinogen for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Although the epidemiological evidence links clonorchiasis and CCA, the underlying molecular mechanism involved in this process is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, including PSMD10, CDK4, p53 and RB in C. sinensis induced hamster CCA model. Methods Different histochemical/immunohistochemical techniques were performed to detect CCA in 4 groups of hamsters: uninfected control (Ctrl.), infected with C. sinensis (Cs), ingested N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and both Cs infected and NDMA introduced (Cs+NDMA). The liver tissues from all groups were analyzed for gene/protein expressions by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blotting. Principal Findings CCA was observed in all hamsters of Cs+NDMA group with well, moderate, and poorly differentiated types measured in 21.8% ± 1.5%, 13.3% ± 1.3%, and 10.8% ± 1.3% of total tissue section areas respectively. All CCA differentiations progressed in a time dependent manner, starting from the 8th week of infection. CCA stroma was characterized with increased collagen type I, mucin, and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The qPCR analysis showed PSMD10, CDK4 and p16INK4 were over-expressed, whereas p53 was under-expressed in the Cs+NDMA group. We observed no change in RB1 at mRNA level but found significant down-regulation of RB protein. The apoptosis related genes, BAX and caspase 9 were found downregulated in the CCA tissue. Gene/protein expressions were matched well with the pathological changes of different groups except the NDMA group. Though the hamsters in the NDMA group showed no marked pathological lesions, we observed over-expression of Akt/PKB and p53 genes proposing molecular interplay in this group which might be related to the CCA initiation in this animal model. Conclusions/Significance The present findings suggest that oncogenes, PSMD10 and CDK4

  8. Serine protease inhibitors of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Molehin, Adebayo J; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P

    2012-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are a superfamily of structurally conserved proteins that inhibit serine proteases and play key physiological roles in numerous biological systems such as blood coagulation, complement activation and inflammation. A number of serpins have now been identified in parasitic helminths with putative involvement in immune regulation and in parasite survival through interference with the host immune response. This review describes the serpins and smapins (small serine protease inhibitors) that have been identified in Ascaris spp., Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum Onchocerca volvulus, Haemonchus contortus, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Anisakis simplex, Trichuris suis, Schistosoma spp., Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Echinococcus spp. and discusses their possible biological functions, including roles in host-parasite interplay and their evolutionary relationships. PMID:22310379

  9. Helminth parasites of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examinations of 102 specimens of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic (South Bohemia and South Moravia) were carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) in the years 1987-1992. In them, a total of 19 species of helminth parasites was found, including Trematoda (11 species), Cestoda (2), Nematoda (4) and Acanthocephala (2), which can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.) (37%), those parasitic mainly in cormorants (16%) and non-specific parasites (47%). Of the 19 species recorded, 100% were found in South Moravia, but only 47% of these 19 species in South Bohemia. The higher number of helminth species in cormorants from South Moravia and a higher proportion of non-specific species may be associated with the presence of the large Nové Mlýny water reservoir, in addition to better ecological and environmental conditions in this warmer region. Scanning electron microscopical examination of three common nematode species parasitising cormorants, Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Desmidocercella incognita Solonitsin, 1932 and Syncuaria squamata (von Linstow, 1883), revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported morphological features, such as the cephalic structures, numbers and distribution of male caudal papillae or the shapes of spicules. PMID:27312270

  10. Review of Zoonotic Parasites in Medical and Veterinary Fields in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  11. Review of zoonotic parasites in medical and veterinary fields in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Heejeong

    2009-10-01

    Zoonotic parasites are animal parasites that can infect humans. The major zoonotic protozoa in the Republic of Korea are Babesia bovis, Chilomastix mesnili, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hitolytica, Giardia lamblia, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Pneumocystis carinii, Sarcocystis cruzi, and Toxoplasma gondii. The major zoonotic helminths in Korea include trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes. Trematodes are Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma spp., Fasciola hepatica, Heterophyes nocens, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Paragonimus westermani. Cestodes are Diphyllobothrium latum, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Raillietina tetragona, sparganum (Spirometra spp.), Taenia saginata, T. solium, and T. asiatica. Nematodes are Ancylostoma caninum, Brugia malayi, Capillaria hepatica, Dirofilaria immitis, Gnathostoma dololesi, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Loa loa, Onchocerca gibsoni, Strongyloides stercoralis, Thelazia callipaeda, Trichinella spiralis, Trichostrongylus orientalis, Trichuris trichiura, and Trichuris vulpis. The one arthropod is Sarcoptes scabiei. Many of these parasites have disappeared or were in decline after the 1990's. Since the late 1990's, the important zoonotic protozoa have been C. parvum, E. nana, E. coli, E. hitolytica, G. lamblia, I. buetschlii, P. carinii and T. gondii. The important zoonotic helminths have been C. sinensis, H. nocens, M. yokogawai, P. westermani, D. latum, T. asiatica, sparganum, B. malayi, T. orientalis, T. callipaeda and T. spiralis. However, outbreaks of these parasites are only in a few endemic areas. The outbreaks of Enterobius vermicularis and head lice, human parasites, have recently increased in the kindergartens and primary schools in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19885329

  12. Specific diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting parasite microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Arimatsu, Yuji; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini and other food-borne trematode infections are major health problems in Thailand, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Cambodia. Differential diagnosis of O. viverrini based on the microscopic observation of parasite eggs is difficult in areas where Clonorchis sinensis and minute intestinal flukes coexist. Recently, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used for detection and identification of trematode for its simple method that is useful in low-resource or field settings. We have reported ITS1-LAMP assay to detect O. viverrini infection from human feces. The sensitivity and specificity of the test was 100% and 61.5%. The sensitivity of the test appeared to be higher than microscopic egg examination; however non-specific amplification from other parasites could not be ruled out. We therefore targeted microsatellites of O. viverrini that is a species specific sequence. By using hydroxyl naphthol blue (HNB)-LAMP, O. viverrini microsatellite 6 (OVMS6) could specifically amplify DNA from O. viverrini genome, but not other parasites such as C. sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus, Centrocestus caninus, Haplorchis taichui, Fasciola gigantica and Haplorchoodes sp. The detection limit of the test is 1 ng genomic DNA, which was 1000 times lower than the ITS1-LAMP, but targeting microstellites showed more specific detection of O. viverrini. In addition, the colorimetric LAMP assay was simple and effective; this makes it potentially applicable for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:25268466

  13. [A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population].

    PubMed

    2005-10-30

    In order to understand the current status and trends of the important parasitic diseases in human population, to evaluate the effect of control activities in the past decade and provide scientific base for further developing control strategies, a national survey was carried out in the country (Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau not included) from June, 2001 to 2004 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health. The sample sizes of the nationwide survey and of the survey in each province (autonomous region and municipality, P/A/M) were determined following a calculating formula based on an estimation of the sample size of random sampling to the rate of population. A procedure of stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in each province based on geographical location and economical condition with three strata: county/city, township/town, and spot, each spot covered a sample of 500 people. Parasitological examinations were conducted for the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes, Taenia spp, and Clonorchis sinensis, including Kato-Katz thick smear method, scotch cellulose adhesive tape technique and test tube-filter paper culture (for larvae). At the same time, another sampled investigation for Clonorchis sinensis infection was carried out in the known endemic areas in 27 provinces. Serological tests combined with questionnaire and/or clinical diagnosis were applied for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis. A total sampled population of 356 629 from the 31 P/A/M was examined by parasitological methods and 26 species of helminth were recorded. Among these helminth, human infections of Metorchis orientalis and Echinostoma aegypti were detected in Fujian Province which seemed to be the first report in the world, and Haplorchis taichui infection in Guangxi Region was the first human infection record in the country. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 21.74%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19

  14. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF GASTRIC WALL IN CHINESE ALLIGATOR ALLIGATOR SINENSIS INFECTED WITH ORTLEPPASCARIS SINENSIS (NEMATODA: ASCARIDOIDEA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinhong; Wang, Shaosheng; Tu, Genjun; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing; Li, Chaopin

    2015-01-01

    Crocodiles are susceptible to infection with a wide array of external and internal gastrointestinal helminths, yet little is known on the histopathology following infection or the effects of these parasites. The present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of infection by Ortleppascaris sinensis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) on the stomach of captive Alligator sinensis. The histological examination of the stomach revealed presence of superficial ulcer in mucous layer and granulomatous inflammation in submucous layer at entire gastric walls of the Alligator sinensis. Our findings also confirm that development of Ortleppascaris sinensis is in close association with the wall of the stomach. PMID:26319836

  15. A Nationwide Survey on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in the Republic of Korea, 2004

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tong-Soo; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Huh, Sun; Kong, Yoon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Park, Yun-Kyu; Oh, Dae-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    National surveys on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections have been carried out every 5-7 years since 1971 in the Republic of Korea in order to establish control measures. The present nationwide survey was conducted from June to December 2004. The 10% population sampling data of Population and Housing Census by the Korean government in 2000 was used as the survey population. One sample was selected randomly from each of the 22,858 registered subjects, and a total of 20,541 people were ultimately included in this survey. Fecal examinations were performed by the cellophane thick smear and saturated brine flotation techniques. Pinworm infection was examined by cello-tape anal swab method. This survey also included a questionnaire study for a socioeconomic analysis. The total helminth egg positive rate was 3.7%, and the estimated total positive number among nationwide people was 1,780,000. The rates in urban and rural areas were 3.1% and 6.8%, respectively. As the total egg positive rate in the 6th survey in 1997 was 2.4%, the present survey showed that there was a considerable degree of increase in the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections over the 7-year period following the 6th survey. The largest increases occurred in the egg positive rates of Clonorchis sinensis and heterophyids including Metagonimus yokogawai. PMID:19290090

  16. Parasites

    MedlinePlus

    ... CME and CNE for clinicians... Parasitic Disease and Malaria Strategic Priorities: 2015—2020... Cyclosporiasis: Most U.S. cases ... R S T U V W X Y Z Malaria An ancient disease that affects millions of people ...

  17. Cryphodera sinensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a non-cyst-forming parasitic nematode from the root of ramie Boehmeria nivea in China.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, K; Wang, H H; Ye, W; Peng, D L; Liao, J L

    2014-12-01

    Cryphodera sinensis n. sp. is described from ramie (Boehmeria nivea) based on the morphology and molecular analyses of rRNA small subunit (SSU), D2D3 expansion domains of large subunit (LSU D2D3) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). This new species is characterized by oval females with a distinct subcrystalline layer and pronounced and protruding vulval lip, distinctly concave vulva-anus profile and a vulva-anus distance of 29.5-35.8 μm. Males possess two annuli in the lip region, a stylet 27-32.5 μm in length with round knobs sloping slightly posteriorly, lateral fields with three lines, spicules 20-28 μm long and the presence of a short cloacal tube. Second-stage juveniles possess three lip annuli, a stylet 28-31 μm in length with well-developed knobs projected anteriorly and three lines along the lateral field. The pointed tail, 52-65 μm long, possesses a mucro-like tip and a hyaline region, 24.5-35 μm long. Large phasmids with a lens-like structure are located 2-6 annuli posterior to the anus. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the species has unique SSU, LSU D2D3 and ITS rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships of the three rDNA sequences of C. sinensis n. sp. and other cystoid/cyst nematodes are analysed together with a comparison of other species within the genus Cryphodera. PMID:23782683

  18. Intestinal Parasite Co-infection among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Rural County in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47–6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17–5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03–10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  19. Structural analysis and immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Meng, Meng; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Yang; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-03-01

    The parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces sinensis, is used to produce Cordyceps materials as a succedaneum of natural Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) in China. In this work, a glycopeptide (CPS-II) was isolated and purified from Paecilomyces sinensis. The result of HPLC indicated that CPS-II was a glycopeptide. The estimated average molecular weight of CPS-II was 2 × 10(6) Da. FTIR, methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and CD were used for its structural analysis. The glycopeptide CPS-II was mainly composed of (1 → 3), (1 → 4) connected glucose and galactose as the backbone, there are (1 → 2,3,6) connected glucose, (1 → 3,6) connected mannose, and (1 → 6) connected galactose. Cell proliferation assay and morphological observations indicated that in a certain range of concentrations and time, CPS-II can significantly improve the proliferation activity of RAW264.7 cells. PMID:26912165

  20. Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Liang; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2011-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡ Cordyceps sinensis) is one of the most valued medicinal fungi in China, used for its invigorating effects in strengthening the body and restoring energy. The fungus parasitizes larvae of moths and converts them into sclerotia from which the fungus fruiting body grows. Since the late 1950s, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of host insects related to the fungus. In the present paper, the research history of insect species associated with Ophiocordyceps sinensis is briefly reviewed and an extensive literature survey is presented. Ninety-one insect names, spanning 13 genera, related to host insects of Ophiocordyceps sinensis are investigated. The relationships between the reported insect species and Ophiocordyceps sinensis are analyzed. Fifty-seven of these are considered as recognizable potential host species of the fungus distributed throughout the Tibetan Plateau, whilst eight are considered as indeterminate hosts and 26 as non-hosts. Among the names of recognizable potential host insects, three are invalid (nomen nudum) and require further study. This work provides basic information for management of the insect resources and for the conservation and sustainable use of Ophiocordyceps sinensis. PMID:21998547

  1. Current status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Hian, Y E; Lay-Hoon, C

    1991-12-01

    Parasitic infections adopt a rather low profile in the highly urbanized setting in Singapore. Very few food-borne parasitic infections are encountered. Apart from a few reports of infections with Clonorchis/Opisthorchis, Taenia spp. and hydatid disease, there are no other citations of such helminthic infections. Seroprevalence surveys have shown the presence of toxoplasmosis in local meat animals (sheep, pigs and cattle) and Toxoplasma strains have been isolated from the pig, tree shrew (Tupaia glis), slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) and guinea pigs. Human toxoplasmosis is prevalent in Singapore. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies are found in the normal population as well as in clinical cases (cervical lymphadenopathy, ocular disease and congenital toxoplasmosis). Carcasses/organs from meat animals (sheep, pigs, cattle) slaughtered at local abattoirs were examined for parasites. The main parasites found were Ascaris suum, Dictyocaulus, Metastrongylus, Cysticercus ovis, Fasciola hepatica and Sarcocystis spp. Pigs were also examined for trichinosis and, thus far, these have all been negative. PMID:1822903

  2. [Chemical constituents from Spatholobus sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yin, Ting; Liu, Hua; Wang, Bin; Tu, Guang-Zhong; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Spatholobus sinensis is a plant of the Spatholobus genus (Leguminosae family). Its caulis are used as "ji-xue-teng" regionally. However, to our knowledge, no phytochemical investigation on S. sinensis has been reported to date. In this study, eight compounds were isolated from the ethanol extract of the caulis of S. sinensis, by solvents extraction and column chromatography methods. By analysis of their physic-chemical constants and spectral data, the structures of 8 compounds were identified as spatholosineside A (1), 2',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyisoflavone (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), lupinalbin A (4), coumestrol (5), naringenin (6), protocatechuic acid (7), leonuriside A (8). Compound 1 is a new compound. PMID:18357735

  3. Investigation and analysis of microbiological communities in natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Guo, Lian-Xian; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2015-02-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a fungus that parasitizes caterpillars, and more than 30 species of filamentous fungi have been isolated from its fruiting body. However, its microbiological diversity remains unclear. Based on the clone library and quantitative PCR techniques, the bacterial flora and mycobiota of 3 different samples (larva, stromata/sclerotia, and surface soil) from natural O. sinensis specimens were investigated using primer sets that targeted the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. The results showed that the abundance of bacterial and fungal communities in the soil attached to the surface of O. sinensis was (6.4 ± 1.4) × 10(6) and (6.0 ± 0.3) × 10(7) copies/g dry matter, respectively, which was the highest compared with that in the larva and stromal samples. The main groups of bacteria in the O. sinensis samples were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while Ascomycota was the most dominant fungal group in the 3 samples. At the genus level, Geomyces, Phoma, and Trichocladium were the dominant genera in the larval sample, while Geomyces and Cladosporium were the dominant genera in the stromal sample. In conclusion, a great number of bacterial and fungal species were present in naturally occurring O. sinensis specimens, and there was a high diversity of bacterial and fungal communities. These findings contribute to the understanding of the bacterial and fungal community structure of this valuable medicinal fungus and lay the foundation for the future discovery of new medicinal microorganism resources. PMID:25578897

  4. Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the critically endangered crocodile Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jin-Hong; Li, Liang; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel (Reptilia: Crocodylia) is considered as one of the most critically endangered species of the 23 extant crocodiles. However, our knowledge of the helminth parasites of this rare animal is completely lacking. During a helminthological survey of reptiles in China, we found a new ascaridoid nematode, Dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. from A. sinensis. The morphology of D. gigantea sp. n. was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species was also characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing the small ribosomal DNA (18S) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2). PMID:24924435

  5. Immune-Modulating Activity of Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Jang, Hyonseok; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild O. sinensis is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitats, and its price is out of reach for clinical practice. For these reasons, development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of O. sinensis as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild O. sinensis, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vivo immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 in mice. Oral administration of CBG-CS-2 supported splenocyte stimulation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression from the splenocytes. Importantly, the same treatment significantly enhanced the natural killer cell activity of the splenocytes. Finally, oral administration of CBG-CS-2 enhanced the potential for inflammatory responses. Together, these findings indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from O. sinensis exhibited immune-modulating activity and suggest its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function. PMID:26854106

  6. Review of Naturopathy of Medical Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps Sinensis, in Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions including desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders are increasing worldwide due to etiological factors and aging. Several types of treatment are claimed in modern medicine, but they have serious side effects and higher costs. In fact, alternative approaches, such as the intake of plants, fungi, and insects, or their extracts, have also been practiced to enhance sexuality and ameliorate illness with notable successes. However, the scientific evidence related to the mechanisms and efficacy of these alternative medicines is both scarce and all too often unconvincing. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is an Ascomycetes fungus parasitic to Lepidoptera larvae, and has long been used as medicine to treat many illnesses and promote longevity in Chinese society. Previous investigations have shown that O. sinensis has many pharmacological activities. This review has focused on illustrating that O. sinensis can enhance libido and sexual performance, and can restore impaired reproductive functions, such as impotency or infertility, in both sexes. PMID:27041868

  7. Review of Naturopathy of Medical Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps Sinensis, in Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Jiraungkoorskul, Kanitta; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions including desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders are increasing worldwide due to etiological factors and aging. Several types of treatment are claimed in modern medicine, but they have serious side effects and higher costs. In fact, alternative approaches, such as the intake of plants, fungi, and insects, or their extracts, have also been practiced to enhance sexuality and ameliorate illness with notable successes. However, the scientific evidence related to the mechanisms and efficacy of these alternative medicines is both scarce and all too often unconvincing. Ophiocordyceps sinensis is an Ascomycetes fungus parasitic to Lepidoptera larvae, and has long been used as medicine to treat many illnesses and promote longevity in Chinese society. Previous investigations have shown that O. sinensis has many pharmacological activities. This review has focused on illustrating that O. sinensis can enhance libido and sexual performance, and can restore impaired reproductive functions, such as impotency or infertility, in both sexes. PMID:27041868

  8. Development of Ophiocordyceps sinensis through Plant-Mediated Interkingdom Host Colonization.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wei; Zhang, Guren; Peng, Qingyun; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a well-known entomogenous and medicinal fungus. After its anamorphs parasitize the larvae of the genus Thitarodes, fruit-bodies may form to be used as medicine. However, its developmental mechanisms remain unknown. The distribution of O. sinensis was determined in different tissues of the Thitarodes larvae and the dominant plant species using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, respectively. We found that more fungal material was located in plants than in larvae, especially in Ranunculus tanguticus. A considerable amount was detected in larval intestinal-wall and plant roots. It is suggested that plants are the potential hosts of O. sinensis, which modifies our understanding of the life cycle of O. sinensis and indicates that the phytophagous larvae may become infected as they feed. Our research may contribute to the study of systematic evolution and population ecology of O. sinensis, elucidate its developmental mechanism and promote sustainable harvesting. PMID:26263972

  9. Transcriptome analysis of Ophiocordyceps sinensis before and after infection of Thitarodes larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xin; Gu, Li; Li, Shao-Song; Kan, Xu-Tian; Zhang, Gu-Ren; Liu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis, also referred to as the Chinese caterpillar fungus, is a rare entomopathogenic fungus found in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau that is used as a traditional Chinese medicine. O. sinensis parasitizes the larvae of the ghost moth Thitarodes. Characterization of the transcriptome of O. sinensis before and after host infection may provide novel insight into the process by which the fungus interacts with Thitarodes and may help researchers understand how to sustain this valuable resource. In this study, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) using Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 technology to generate gene expression profiles of two developmental stages of O. sinensis. Thread-like hyphae before infection and yeast-like hyphal bodies after infection of host larvae were collected for transcriptome analysis. We found that 1640 genes were differentially expressed (q-value < 0.05), of which 818 were upregulated (49.878 %) and 822 were downregulated (50.122 %). Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were especially enriched in terms associated with Biological Process and Molecular Function. Several genes encoding transporter and permease proteins, three glycoside hydrolases, two mycotoxin-related proteins, an antigen protein, and an allergen were identified as being significantly up- or downregulated. Collectively, our findings provide a novel resource for understanding O. sinensis during two critical developmental stages, and offer the opportunity to further investigate the functional mechanisms underlying these stage-specific molecular differences. PMID:27268242

  10. Development of Ophiocordyceps sinensis through Plant-Mediated Interkingdom Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei; Zhang, Guren; Peng, Qingyun; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a well-known entomogenous and medicinal fungus. After its anamorphs parasitize the larvae of the genus Thitarodes, fruit-bodies may form to be used as medicine. However, its developmental mechanisms remain unknown. The distribution of O. sinensis was determined in different tissues of the Thitarodes larvae and the dominant plant species using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, respectively. We found that more fungal material was located in plants than in larvae, especially in Ranunculus tanguticus. A considerable amount was detected in larval intestinal-wall and plant roots. It is suggested that plants are the potential hosts of O. sinensis, which modifies our understanding of the life cycle of O. sinensis and indicates that the phytophagous larvae may become infected as they feed. Our research may contribute to the study of systematic evolution and population ecology of O. sinensis, elucidate its developmental mechanism and promote sustainable harvesting. PMID:26263972

  11. The changing pattern of parasitic infection among Korean populations by paleoparasitological study of Joseon Dynasty mummies.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min; Oh, Chang Seok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jeong, Mi Sook; Hong, Sung Woo; Seo, Young-Min; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2014-02-01

    In the coprolites of 4 recently discovered Joseon mummies of Korea, we found Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , Metagonimus yokogawai , Paragonimus westermani , and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. The current finding was compared with previous paleoparasitological data, and with recent national survey data from Korea. For A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura , similar patterns of infection prevalence were observed between the national survey of 1961 and our current Joseon data. Some of the trematode species (C. sinenesis and P. westermani) showed much higher infection prevalences among the Joseon Koreans than among their 1960s descendants. The present results indicate that the decrease in trematode infection rates might have begun earlier than was the case for nematode infection. PMID:24011353

  12. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  13. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  14. Meroterpenoid enantiomers from Ganoderma sinensis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wen-Wen; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Yong-Xian; Wang, Shu-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Zizhines A-F (1-6), six pairs of new meroterpenoid enantiomers and a known meroterpenoid (7) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sinensis. The structures and absolute configurations of the new substances were assigned by spectroscopic and computational methods. All the compounds apart from 7 were evaluated for their inhibition on extracellular matrix component (fibronectin) generation by using TGF-β1-induced rat kidney tubular epithelial cells. Although none of them was found to be active in these cells, the present findings add new facets for the chemistry of Ganoderma. PMID:26947249

  15. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  16. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  17. Seasonal trends, sampling plans and parasitoid complex of the Chinese wax scale, Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio (Hemiptera: Coccidae), in Mediterranean citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ferrer, M T; Campos-Rivela, J M; Verdú, M J

    2015-02-01

    Seasonal trends and the parasitoid complex of Chinese wax scale (Ceroplastes sinensis) was studied from July 2010 to February 2013. Six commercial citrus groves located in northeastern Spain were sampled fortnightly. Chinese wax scale completed a single annual generation. Egg oviposition started in May and continued until mid-July. Egg hatching began in mid-June, and in the first quarter of August, the maximum percentage of hatched eggs was reached. In the same groves, the parasitoid species of C. sinensis were determined together with their seasonal trends, relative abundance and occurrence on C. sinensis. Four hymenoptera were found parasitizing C. sinensis, mainly on third instars and females: Coccophagus ceroplastae (Aphelinidae), Metaphycus helvolus (Encyrtidae), Scutellista caerulea (Pteromalidae) and Aprostocetus ceroplastae (Eulophidae). The most abundant species was A. ceroplastae, corresponding to 54% of the parasitoids emerged. Coccophagus ceroplastae and M. helvolus represented 19%, whereas S. caerulea comprised 8% of the total. This study is the first published record of C. ceroplastae in Spain and the first record of M. helvolus on C. sinensis in Spain. Concerning the economical thresholds normally used, sampling plans developed for the management of C. sinensis in citrus groves should target population densities of around 12-20% of invaded twigs, equivalent to 0.2-0.5 females per twig. The sample size necessary to achieve the desired integrated pest management precision is 90-160 twigs per grove for the enumerative plan and about 160-245 twigs per grove for the binomial plan. PMID:25335514

  18. Parasitic colitis.

    PubMed

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; McQuade, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  19. Parasitic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; McQuade, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  20. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  1. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  2. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:27072414

  3. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; González-Santiago, Omar; Ramírez-Cabrera, Mónica A; Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Camacho-Corona, María del Rayo

    2016-01-01

    Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs. PMID:26907240

  4. Sarcocystis sinensis is the most prevalent thick-walled Sarcocystis species in beef on sale for consumers in Germany.

    PubMed

    Moré, G; Pantchev, A; Skuballa, J; Langenmayer, M C; Maksimov, P; Conraths, F J; Venturini, M C; Schares, G

    2014-06-01

    Bovines are intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, and Sarcocystis hominis, which use canids, felids, or primates as definitive hosts, respectively. Cattle represent also intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis, but the definitive hosts of this parasite are not yet known. Sarcocystosis in cattle is frequently asymptomatic. The infection is characterized by the presence of thin-walled (S. cruzi) or thick-walled muscle cysts or sarcocysts (S. hominis, S. sinensis, and S. hirsuta). Recent reports suggest high prevalence of the zoonotic S. hominis in beef in Europe. We therefore aimed at differentiating Sarcocystis spp. in beef offered to consumers in Germany using molecular and microscopical methods, focusing on those species producing thick-walled sarcocysts. A total of 257 beef samples were obtained from different butcheries and supermarkets in Germany and processed by conventional and multiplex real-time PCR. In addition, 130 of these samples were processed by light microscopy and in 24.6% thick-walled cysts were detected. Transmission electron microscopical analysis of six of these samples revealed an ultrastructural cyst wall pattern compatible with S. sinensis in five samples and with S. hominis in one sample. PCR-amplified 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments of 28 individual thick-walled cysts were sequenced, and sequence identities of ≥98% with S. sinensis (n = 22), S. hominis (n = 5) and S. hirsuta (n = 1) were observed. Moreover, nine Sarcocystis sp. 18S rDNA full length gene sequences were obtained, five of S. sinensis, three of S. hominis, and one of S. hirsuta. Out of all samples (n = 257), 174 (67.7%) tested positive by conventional PCR and 179 (69.6%) by multiplex real-time PCR for Sarcocystis spp. Regarding individual species, 134 (52%), 95 (37%), 17 (6.6%), and 16 (6.2%) were positive for S. cruzi, S. sinensis, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis, respectively. In conclusion, S. sinensis is the most prevalent thick

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Shrew Gymnure, Neotetracus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Tu, Feiyun; Yan, Chaochao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Zeng, Tao

    2013-06-01

    The Shrew Gymnure Neotetracus sinensis belongs to family Erinaceidae, and distributes in China, Myanmar, and northern Vietnam. In this study, the whole mitochondrial genome of N. sinensis was first sequenced and characterized. The genome is 16,982 bases in length. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees based on 12 concatenated protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. Phylogenetic analyses further confirm the subfamily Galericinae diverged prior to the subfamily Erinaceinae, support the species N. sinensis was in distinct genus Neotetracus rather than Hylomys, and N. sinensis diverged later than Echinosorex gymnura. PMID:23206249

  6. Parasitic Apologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galatolo, Renata; Ursi, Biagio; Bongelli, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The action of apologizing can be accomplished as the main business of the interaction or incidentally while participants are doing something else. We refer to these apologies as "parasitic apologies," because they are produced "en passant" (Schegloff, 2007), and focus our analysis on this type of apology occurring at the…

  7. Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Certain foodborne ...

  8. First case of hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in pond-reared Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, associated with microsporidian.

    PubMed

    Ding, Z; Meng, Q; Liu, H; Yuan, S; Zhang, F; Sun, M; Zhao, Y; Shen, M; Zhou, G; Pan, J; Xue, H; Wang, W

    2016-09-01

    An epidemic of hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (HPND) with a high mortality rate (40%-50%) recently occurred in the cultured Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, which is a very important economic crustacean species in China. Histology revealed infection by a microsporidian parasite within the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas. Numerous discrete inclusions in the infected cells and presumably free parasite spores were also observed. By negative staining using electron microscopy, a typical morphology of spores was observed with a protuberant front of the anchoring disc. Infection was confined to the epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas, with no other organ implicated. By sequencing the PCR products using specific primers based on conserved regions of microsporidian small subunit (18S) ribosomal DNA, it was revealed that the parasite from HPND ponds had 99% sequence identity to that of Hepatospora eriocheir. Phylogentic analysis also placed the microsporidian in the same lineage as H. eriocheir. This study reported the first case of widespread infections of H. eriocheir associated with HPND found in the pond-reared Chinese mitten crab, E. sinensis. The description of microsporidian in this important commercial host is fundamental for future consideration of factors affecting stock health and sustainability. PMID:26850704

  9. Light response of native and introduced Miscanthus sinensis seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Miscanthus sinensis is an Asian grass introduced to the U.S. for ornamental purposes, which has formed naturalized populations across the Eastern and Midwest regions. In both its native and exotic ranges M. sinensis is found in open habitats with high light levels. Within its exotic range M. sinen...

  10. Molecular screening for bacteria and protozoa in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) nesting in Slovakia, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Hurníková, Zuzana; Turčeková, Ĺudmila

    2016-09-01

    This study brings the data about the occurrence of bacterial and protozoan pathogens in 32 great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), representing approximately 20% of the population nesting in the surroundings of water basin Liptovská Mara (northern part of Central Slovakia). A survey revealed the presence of tick-borne bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (6.25%) and parasitic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii (3.1%). These data indicate an infectious status of the great cormorant population nesting in Slovakia; they might suggest a degree of environmental contamination by infectious agents and demonstrate the role of migratory seabirds in the circulation and dispersal of pathogens with zoonotic potential. PMID:27447224

  11. In vitro Stimulation of NK Cells and Lymphocytes Using an Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Park, Jisang; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild Ophiocordyceps is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitat, and its price limits its use in clinical practice. Therefore, the development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of Ophiocordyceps as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild Ophiocordyceps, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 on natural killer cells and B and T lymphocytes. CBG-CS-2 stimulated splenocyte proliferation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression in the mouse splenocytes. Importantly, in vitro CBG-CS-2 treatment enhanced the killing activity of the NK-92MI natural killer cell line. These results indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from Ophiocordyceps exhibits immune-modulating activity, as was observed in vivo and this suggests its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function. PMID:27162531

  12. In vitro Stimulation of NK Cells and Lymphocytes Using an Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Park, Jisang; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2016-04-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild Ophiocordyceps is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitat, and its price limits its use in clinical practice. Therefore, the development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of Ophiocordyceps as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild Ophiocordyceps, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 on natural killer cells and B and T lymphocytes. CBG-CS-2 stimulated splenocyte proliferation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression in the mouse splenocytes. Importantly, in vitro CBG-CS-2 treatment enhanced the killing activity of the NK-92MI natural killer cell line. These results indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from Ophiocordyceps exhibits immune-modulating activity, as was observed in vivo and this suggests its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function. PMID:27162531

  13. Anticancer and antimetastatic effects of cordycepin, an active component of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, a fungus that parasitizes on the larva of Lepidoptera, has been used as a valued traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the effects of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS), and particularly focused on its anticancer and antimetastatic actions. Based on in vitro studies, we report that WECS showed an anticancer action, and this action was antagonized by an adenosine A3 receptor antagonist. Moreover, this anticancer action of WECS was promoted by an adenosine deaminase inhibitor. These results suggest that one of the components of WECS with an anticancer action might be an adenosine or its derivatives. Therefore, we focused on cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) as one of the active ingredients of WECS. According to our experiments, cordycepin showed an anticancer effect through the stimulation of adenosine A3 receptor, followed by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activation and cyclin D1 suppression. Cordycepin also showed an antimetastatic action through inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by cancer cells and suppressing the invasiveness of cancer cells via inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and accelerating the secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 from cancer cells. In conclusion, cordycepin, an active component of WECS, might be a candidate anticancer and antimetastatic agent. PMID:25704018

  14. Hydroxylated gedunin derivatives from Cedrela sinensis.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Kumiko; Saito, Hiroaki; Yamamura, Ryota; Fukaya, Haruhiko; Hitotsuyanagi, Yukio; Takeya, Koichi

    2006-09-01

    Four new limonoids, 11alpha-hydroxygedunin (1), 11beta-hydroxygedunin (2), 7-deacetoxy-7alpha,11alpha-dihydroxygedunin (3), and 7-deacetoxy-7alpha,11beta-dihydroxygedunin (4), were isolated from the cortex of Cedrela sinensis, together with three known compounds, gedunin (5), 7-deacetoxy-7alpha-hydroxygedunin (6), and 11-oxogedunin (7). The structures of 1-4 were determined by a combination of 2D NMR experiments and chemical methods and by X-ray crystallography of 1 and 2. PMID:16989525

  15. A new hydrochalcone from Miliusa sinensis.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Tran Thi Thanh; Quan, Tran Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Van Sung, Tran

    2011-08-01

    A new dihydrochalcone 4',6'-dihydroxy-2',3',4-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (1) along with nine known compounds, pashanone (2), dihydropashanone (3), pinostrobin (4), 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (5), 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone (6), 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone (7), 24-methylencycloartane-3β,21-diol (8), liriodenine (9) and 3,5-dihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (10), were isolated from the extracts, exhibiting cytotoxic activity (n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts) of Miliusa sinensis. The structure of (1) was elucidated by the analysis of spectral data (IR, HR-MS, EI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). PMID:21859261

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J H; Wang, S S; Tu, G J; Zhou, Y K; Wu, X B

    2016-05-01

    A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. PMID:25882968

  19. Protozoan Parasites.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Haidee

    2016-02-01

    • Stool antigen detection for Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are now commercially available, have better sensitivity and specificity than the traditional stool microscopy, and are less dependent on personnel skill. Tests employing newer techniques with faster turnaround time are also available for diagnosing trichomoniasis.• Nitazoxanide, the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for therapy of cryptosporidiosis, is effective among immunocompetent patients. However, on the basis of strong evidence from multiple clinical trials, nitazoxanide is considered ineffective among immunocompromised patients. (14) • Giardiasis can be asymptomatic or have a chronic course leading to malabsorption and failure to thrive. It can be treated with metronidazole, tinidazole, or nitazoxanide. On the basis of growing observational studies, postinfectious and extraintestinal manifestations of giardiasis occur, but the mechanisms are unclear. Given the high prevalence of giardiasis, public health implications need to be defined. (16) • Eradicating E histolytica from the gastrointestinal tract requires only intraluminal agent therapy. Therapy for invasive illnesses requires use of imidazole followed by intraluminal agents to eliminate persistent intraluminal parasites. • Malaria is considered the most lethal parasitic infection, with Plasmodium falciparum as the predominant cause of mortality. P vivax and P ovale can be dormant in the liver, and primaquine is necessary to resolve infection by P vivax and P ovale. • Among immunocompetent patients, infection with Toxoplasma gondii may be asymptomatic, involve localized lymphadenopathy, or cause ocular infection. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation or severe infection is not uncommon. On the basis of limited observational studies (there are no well-controlled randomized trials), therapy is recommended for acute infection during pregnancy to prevent transmission to the

  20. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Citrus sinensis, Citrus paradisi, and their combinations

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Neelam; Khan, Rafeeq Alam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. Several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effects of C. sinensis and C. paradisi in rats receiving diet rich in cholesterol. Materials and Methods: All rats were divided into 11 groups each comprising 10 animals: Normal control group and hyperlipidemic control. C. sinensis treated three groups, C. paradisi treated three groups, C. sinensis and C. paradisi combination treated two groups, and group treated atorvastatin. All rats in the respective groups were treated orally with sterile water, juices, and standard drug for 8 weeks and lipid profile was estimated at the end of dosing. Results: Cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were decreased at all the three doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi but rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was only significant at 8 ml/kg, and 0.3 ml/kg, respectively. Animals received the combination doses of C. sinensis and C. paradisi also showed a highly significant fall in cholesterol, LDL, and TGs, however HDL level was significantly elevated by SPJ-2 combination. Conclusion: Results suggest that C. sinensis and C. paradisi possess antihyperlipidemic activity due to phytochemicals and other essential nutrients, hence may serve as cardioprotective by preventing thrombosis. PMID:27134462

  1. A survey of the geographic distribution of Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Jiao, Lei; Jiang, Yi; Li, Hui; Jiang, Si-Ping; Lhosumtseiring, Ngarong; Fu, Shen-Zhan; Dong, Cai-Hong; Zhan, Yu; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2011-12-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the best known fungi in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Many efforts have been devoted to locating the production areas of this species resulting in various reports; however, its geographic distribution remains incompletely understood. Distribution of O. sinensis at the county level is clarified in this work based on both a literature search and fieldwork. More than 3600 publications related to O. sinensis were investigated, including scientific papers, books, and online information. Herbarium specimens of O. sinensis and field collections made by this research group during the years 2000-2010 were examined to verify the distribution sites. A total of 203 localities for O. sinensis have been found, of which 106 are considered as confirmed distribution sites, 65 as possible distribution sites, 29 as excluded distribution sites and three as suspicious distribution sites. The results show that O. sinensis is confined to the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions, including Tibet, Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces in China and in certain areas of the southern flank of the Himalayas, in the countries of Bhutan, India and Nepal, with 3,000 m as the lowest altitude for the distribution. The fungus is distributed from the southernmost site in Yulong Naxi Autonomous County in northwestern Yunnan Province to the northernmost site in the Qilian Mountains in Qilian County, Qinghai Province, and from the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau in Wudu County, Gansu Province to the westernmost site in Uttarakhand, India. The clarification of the geographic distribution of O. sinensis will lay the foundation for conservation and sustainable use of the species. PMID:22203553

  2. Antiaging effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract.

    PubMed

    Ji, Deng-Bo; Ye, Jia; Li, Chang-Ling; Wang, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Jiong; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2009-01-01

    This experiment studied the effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract (CSE) on mice aged by d-galactose and castrated rats to analyse its antiaging effect. Water maze and step-down type avoidance tests were used to examine the effect of CSE on learning and memory. CSE shortened escape latency, prolonged step-down latency and decreased the number of errors in mice aged by d-galactose. The effect of CSE on the sexual function of castrated rats was evaluated by measuring the penis erection latency, mount latency and ejaculation latency. CSE appeared to shorten penis erection latency and mount latency in castrated rats. The study also measured the effect of CSE on the activity of age-related enzymes. The results showed that CSE improved the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and lowered the level of lipid peroxidation and monoamine oxidase activity in the aged mice. The study demonstrated that CSE can improve the brain function and antioxidative enzyme activity in mice with d-galactose-induced senescence and promote sexual function in castrated rats. All of these findings suggest that CSE has an antiaging effect. PMID:18803231

  3. HPLC Estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, G V; Unnikrishnan, K P; Rema Shree, A B; Balachandran, Indira

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80 degrees ). The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:water (10:90 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min and with UV detection at 266 nm. TLC and HPLC comparison of both the species revealed significant variation in the chemical constitution of the two species. This observation becomes important in the context of the use of T. sinensis in place of the genuine drug T. cordifolia. PMID:20390090

  4. HPLC Estimation of berberine in Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, G. V.; Unnikrishnan, K. P.; Rema Shree, A. B.; Balachandran, Indira

    2008-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of berberine in the stem of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hook.f. and Thoms. and Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is described. The dried stems of T. cordifolia and T. sinensis were defatted with petroleum ether (60-80°). The marc was dried and further extracted with methanol. The concentration of berberine in methanol extract was determined using a C-18 reverse phase column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:water (10:90 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min and with UV detection at 266 nm. TLC and HPLC comparison of both the species revealed significant variation in the chemical constitution of the two species. This observation becomes important in the context of the use of T. sinensis in place of the genuine drug T. cordifolia. PMID:20390090

  5. Application of Differential Proteomic Analysis to Authenticate Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiwei; Lai, Xintian; Li, Bifang; Wu, Cong; Wang, Shifeng; Chen, Xuejian; Huang, Jingmin; Yang, Guowu

    2016-03-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is one of the most well-known fungi in traditional Chinese medicine and is attracting attention because of its nutritious and medicinal properties. The present study aimed to produce a proteomic map to identify common O. sinensis proteins. The caterpillar body and stroma of O. sinensis collected from five locations and four fungal specimens of similar appearance were examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Five proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF--TOF/MS, and the 2-DE identification pattern was provided. OCS_04585 and β-lactamase domain-containing protein, the two abundant and characteristic proteins, were separated and purified using liquid-phase isoelectric focusing. The products were high-quality materials that can be used for future protein-function studies and immunoassay development. PMID:26660081

  6. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  7. Pharmacological effects of Radix Angelica Sinensis (Danggui) on cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Radix Angelica Sinensis, the dried root of Angelica sinensis (Danggui), is a herb used in Chinese medicine to enrich blood, promote blood circulation and modulate the immune system. It is also used to treat chronic constipation of the elderly and debilitated as well as menstrual disorders. Research has demonstrated that Danggui and its active ingredients, as anti-arthrosclerotic, anti-hypertensive, antioxidant anti-inflammatory agents which would limit platelet aggregation, are effective in reducing the size of cerebral infarction and improving neurological deficit scores. PMID:21867503

  8. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Catechins

    PubMed Central

    Paveto, Cristina; Güida, María C.; Esteva, Mónica I.; Martino, Virginia; Coussio, Jorge; Flawiá, Mirtha M.; Torres, Héctor N.

    2004-01-01

    The trypanocidal action of green tea catechins against two different developmental stages of Trypanosoma cruzi is reported for the first time. This activity was assayed with the nonproliferative bloodstream trypomastigote and with the intracellular replicative amastigote parasite forms. An ethyl acetate fraction from Camellia sinensis green tea leaves, which contains most of the polyphenolic compounds and the maximal trypanocidal activity, was obtained by fractionation of the aqueous extract with organic solvents. The active compounds present in this extract were further purified by LH-20 column chromatography and were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with a photo diode array detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. The following flavan-3-ols derivatives, known as catechins, were identified: catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate. The purified compounds lysed more than 50% of the parasites present in the blood of infected BALB/c mice at concentrations as low as 0.12 to 85 pM. The most active compounds were gallocatechin gallate and epigallocatechin gallate, with minimal bactericidal concentrations that inhibited 50% of isolates tested of 0.12 and 0.53 pM, respectively. The number of amastigotes in infected Vero cells decreased by 50% in the presence of each of these compounds at 100 nM. The effects of the catechins on the recombinant T. cruzi arginine kinase, a key enzyme in the energy metabolism of the parasite, were assayed. The activity of this enzyme was inhibited by about 50% by nanomolar concentrations of catechin gallate or gallocatechin gallate, whereas the other members of the group were less effective. On the basis of these results, we suggest that these compounds could be used to sterilize blood and, eventually, as therapeutic agents for Chagas' disease. PMID:14693520

  9. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. PMID:27105933

  10. The Japanese ladybirds, Coccinula crotchi and Coccinula sinensis, are infected with very closely related strains of male-killing Flavobacterium.

    PubMed

    Elnagdy, Sherif; Messing, Susan; Majerus, Michael E N

    2014-12-01

    Male-killing is 1 of 4 known strategies that inherited parasitic endosymbionts have evolved to manipulate their host's reproduction. In early male-killing, infected male offspring are killed early in embryogenesis. Within the Insecta, male-killing bacteria have been found in a wide range of hosts. The Coccinellidae families of beetles, better known as ladybirds, are particularly prone to male-killer invasion. In samples of the coccinellid, Coccinula crotchi, from Japan, a new male-killing bacterium was revealed by phenotypic assay. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the identity to be a tetracycline-sensitive Flavobacterium that causes female-biased offspring sex ratio. Furthermore, that Flavobacterium strain was found to be closely related to the Flavobacterium causing male-killing in the congeneric Japanese coccinellid, Coccinula sinensis, which was collected from the same region. However, we found slightly different Flavobacterium strains infecting C. sinensis from regions with different environmental conditions. This may be an indication of horizontal transmission of male-killing Flavobacterium between these 2 ladybird spices. Finally, environmental conditions may affect the spread of male-killing bacteria among their hosts. PMID:24124002

  11. Parasites and supernormal manipulation.

    PubMed

    Holen, Ø H; Saetre, G P; Slagsvold, T; Stenseth, N C

    2001-12-22

    Social parasites may exploit their hosts by mimicking other organisms that the hosts normally benefit from investing in or responding to in some other way. Some parasites exaggerate key characters of the organisms they mimic, possibly in order to increase the response from the hosts. The huge gape and extreme begging intensity of the parasitic common cuckoo chick (Cuculus canorus) may be an example. In this paper, the evolutionary stability of manipulating hosts through exaggerated signals is analysed using game theory. Our model indicates that a parasite's signal intensity must be below a certain threshold in order to ensure acceptance and that this threshold depends directly on the rate of parasitism. The only evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) combination is when hosts accept all signallers and parasites signal at their optimal signal intensity, which must be below the threshold. Supernormal manipulation by parasites is only evolutionarily stable under sufficiently low rates of parasitism. If the conditions for the ESS combination are not satisfied, rejector hosts can invade using signal intensity as a cue for identifying parasites. These qualitative predictions are discussed with respect to empirical evidence from parasitic mimicry systems that have been suggested to involve supernormal signalling, including evicting avian brood parasites and insect-mimicking Ophrys orchids. PMID:11749709

  12. Alernaria undulata, a new species from Citrus sinensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species belonging to the Alternaria infectoria species-group, A undulata, is described from imported fruit of Citrus sinensis (navel Orange). A. undulata was associated with visible lesions that appeared to originate from the peduncular scars of several fruits purchased from a retail display ...

  13. Identification Guide for Diseases of Tea (Camellia sinensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this guide on diseases associated with tea (Camellia sinensis) is to assist with p;roblem identification and raise awareness of serious plant disease pathogens not yet present in Hawaii. Blister bligtht, horse-hair blight, and twig dieback/stem canker are very destructive diseases fo...

  14. [Cordyceps sinensis, a fungi used in the Chinese traditional medicine].

    PubMed

    Illana Esteban, Carlos

    2007-12-31

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is an ascomycete fungus known in China since antiquity, which is still being used today. A summary, showing relevant papers about this fungus, regarding habitat, history, marketing, consumption, nomenclature, pharmacological composition, culture and medical use, is presented. PMID:18095756

  15. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  16. Cultivation of parasites

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nishat Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Parasite cultivation techniques constitute a substantial segment of present-day study of parasites, especially of protozoa. Success in establishing in vitro and in vivo culture of parasites not only allows their physiology, behavior and metabolism to be studied dynamically, but also allows the nature of the antigenic molecules in the excretory and secretory products to be vigorously pursued and analyzed. The complex life-cycles of various parasites having different stages and host species requirements, particularly in the case of parasitic helminths, often make parasite cultivation an uphill assignment. Culturing of parasites depends on the combined expertise of all types of microbiological cultures. Different parasites require different cultivation conditions such as nutrients, temperature and even incubation conditions. Cultivation is an important method for diagnosis of many clinically important parasites, for example, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and free-living amoebae. Many commercial systems like InPouch TV for T. vaginalis, microaerophilous stationary phase culture for Babesia bovis and Harada-Mori culture technique for larval-stage nematodes have been developed for the rapid diagnosis of the parasitic infections. Cultivation also has immense utility in the production of vaccines, testing vaccine efficacy, and antigen - production for obtaining serological reagents, detection of drug-resistance, screening of potential therapeutic agents and conducting epidemiological studies. Though in vitro cultivation techniques are used more often compared with in vivo techniques, the in vivo techniques are sometimes used for diagnosing some parasitic infections such as trypanosomiasis and toxoplasmosis. Parasite cultivation continues to be a challenging diagnostic option. This review provides an overview of intricacies of parasitic culture and update on popular methods used for cultivating parasites. PMID

  17. Sphingolipids in parasitic protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Bangs, James D.; Beverley, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    The surface of most protozoan parasites relies heavily upon lipid-anchored molecules, to form protective barriers and play critical functions required for infectivity. Sphingolipids (SLs) play important roles through their abundance and involvement in membrane microdomain formation, as well as serving as the lipid anchor for many of these molecules, and in some but possibly not all species, as important signaling molecules. Interactions of parasite sphingolipid metabolism with that of the host may potentially contribute to parasite survival and/or host defense. In this chapter we summarize current knowledge of SL structure, synthesis and function in several of the major parasitic protozoan groups. PMID:20919659

  18. Intracellular Parasite Invasion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, L. D.

    2004-04-01

    Intracellular parasites use various strategies to invade cells and to subvert cellular signaling pathways and, thus, to gain a foothold against host defenses. Efficient cell entry, ability to exploit intracellular niches, and persistence make these parasites treacherous pathogens. Most intracellular parasites gain entry via host-mediated processes, but apicomplexans use a system of adhesion-based motility called ``gliding'' to actively penetrate host cells. Actin polymerization-dependent motility facilitates parasite migration across cellular barriers, enables dissemination within tissues, and powers invasion of host cells. Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.

  19. Cordyceps sinensis prevents apoptosis in mouse liver with D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Teng, Yi-Hsien; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Shin-Da

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) has long been considered to be an herbal medicine and has been used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the cytoprotective properties of C. sinensis on D(+)-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were randomly assigned into control, GalN/LPS, CS 20 mg and CS 40 mg groups (C. sinensis, oral gavage, five days/week, four weeks). After receiving saline or C. sinensis, mice were intraperitoneally given GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (10 μg/kg). The effects of C. sinensis on TNF-α, IL-10, AST, NO, SOD, and apoptoticrelated proteins after the onset of endotoxin intoxication were determined. Data demonstrated that GalN/LPS increased hepatocyte degeneration, circulating AST, TNF-α, IL-10, and hepatic apoptosis and caspase activity. C. sinensis pre-treatment reduced AST, TNF-α, and NO and increased IL-10 and SOD in GalN/LPS induced fulminant hepatic failure. C. sinensis attenuated the apoptosis of hepatocytes, as evidenced by the TUNEL and capase-3, 6 activity analyses. In summary, C. sinensis alleviates GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by modulating the cytokine response and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24707872

  20. Where are the parasites?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Review by E. Post et al. (“Ecological dynamics across the Arctic associated with recent climate change,” 11 September, p. 1355) paid little heed to parasites and other pathogens. The rapidly growing literature on parasites in arctic and subarctic ecosystems provides empirical and observational e...

  1. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Vespertilio sinensis from China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunzhu; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Shuai; Liu, Furong; Jin, Wenjie; Dou, Huashan

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Vespertilio sinensis was determined using long PCR. The genome was 17,146 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 control region. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A (32.73%), C (23.64%), T (29.72%), and G (13.91%). The base compositions present clearly the A-T skew, which is most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of V. sinensis. PMID:25242183

  3. The mitochondrial genome of Pseudolaubuca sinensis (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Huijuan; Wang, Dengqiang; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Pseudolaubuca sinensis was determined using PCR amplificationand DNA sequencing, which contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,617 bp. Except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand. The codon usage followed the typical vertebrate mitochondrial pattern (ATG or GTG for start codon and TAA or TAG for stop codon). There are 6 regions of gene share totaling 22 bp and 14 intergenic spacer regions totaling 66 bp. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is useful for phylogenetic analysis and studies of population genetics of Pseudolaubuca sinensis. PMID:25714142

  4. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Swain, Kailash Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended. PMID:21731381

  5. Heterocyclic compounds and aromatic diglycosides from Bretschneidera sinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Mei; Li, Bo; Shen, Yun-Heng; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2010-09-24

    Two new heterocyclic compounds, bretschneiderazines A and B (1, 2), three new aromatic diglycosides, bretschneiderosides A-C (3-5), and three known aromatic diglycosides, 6-8, were isolated from Bretschneidera sinensis. The structure of bretschneiderazine A (1) was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bretschneiderazine A (1) showed moderate activity against the NCI-H446 cell line. PMID:20722446

  6. Thesis Abstract Fermented milk elaborated with Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, O A S; Silva, M I A; Boari, C A

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and to characterize fermented dairy beverage formulated with Camellia sinensis. The infusion was elaborated with the addiction of dehydrated leaves of C. sinensis in whey (1g/100g) which added in sweetened milk (10% sucrose w/w) coagulated by Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus in proportions of 10, 20, 30 and 40% (v/w). The control treatment consisted of yogurt added with sucrose (10% w/w). Analysis were performed to quantify dry mass, moisture, ash, protein, fat, sodium, acidity, total quantification of lactic acid bacteria, total antioxidant activity and viscosity at the initial time of production and at 15 and 30 days of storage. Chromatographic determination of volatile compounds and sensory tests of acceptance and consumption intention were conducted at the initial time of production. Dry matter content, moisture, ash and total count of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milk drink formulations were not significantly affected by the amount of infusion of C. sinensis. However, the content of protein, fat and sodium were significantly lower with the increase of the proportion of infusion incorporated into the product. Significant reduction in apparent viscosity occurs with the increase in the amount of infusion added. The total antioxidant activity of the formulations was significantly higher as higher were the amount of added infusion. The addition of infusion contributed to the diversification of volatile aroma and taste makers in the product. The formulation of fermented dairy drink with addition of 30% infusion C. sinensis was better evaluated in sensory tests, with greater acceptance and greater consumer intent of consumption. PMID:27323046

  7. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Amanda P; Alvim Kamei, Claire L; Torres, Andres F; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G; Trindade, Luisa M; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Hu, Xiao-Di; Yang, Rui-Heng; Hsiang, Tom; Wang, Ke; Liang, De-Quan; Liang, Fan; Cao, De-Ming; Zhou, Fan; Wen, Ge; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2015-01-01

    As part of a genome sequencing project for Ophiocordyceps sinensis, strain 1229, a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome was assembled as a single circular dsDNA of 157,510 bp, one of the largest reported for fungi. Conserved genes including the large and small rRNA subunits, 27 tRNA and 15 protein-coding genes, were identified. In addition, 58 non-conserved open reading frames (ncORFs) in the intergenic and intronic regions were also identified. Transcription analyses using RNA-Seq validated the expression of most conserved genes and ncORFs. Fifty-two introns (groups I and II) were found within conserved genes, accounting for 68.5% of the genome. Thirty-two homing endonucleases (HEs) with motif patterns LAGLIDADG (21) and GIY-YIG (11) were identified in group I introns. The ncORFs found in group II introns mostly encoded reverse transcriptases (RTs). As in other hypocrealean fungi, gene contents and order were found to be conserved in the mt genome of O. sinensis, but the genome size was enlarged by longer intergenic regions and numerous introns. Intergenic and intronic regions were composed of abundant repetitive sequences usually associated with mobile elements. It is likely that intronic ncORFs, which encode RTs and HEs, may have contributed to the enlarged mt genome of O. sinensis. PMID:26370521

  9. How cell wall complexity influences saccharification efficiency in Miscanthus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Amanda P.; Kamei, Claire L. Alvim; Torres, Andres F.; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Hahn, Michael G.; Trindade, Luisa M.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioenergy from grasses has been developing quickly during the last decade, with Miscanthus being among the most important choices for production of bioethanol. However, one of the key barriers to producing bioethanol is the lack of information about cell wall structure. Cell walls are thought to display compositional differences that lead to emergence of a very high level of complexity, resulting in great diversity in cell wall architectures. In this work, a set of different techniques was used to access the complexity of cell walls of different genotypes of Miscanthus sinensis in order to understand how they interfere with saccharification efficiency. Three genotypes of M. sinensis displaying different patterns of correlation between lignin content and saccharification efficiency were subjected to cell wall analysis by quantitative/qualitative analytical techniques such as monosaccharide composition, oligosaccharide profiling, and glycome profiling. When saccharification efficiency was correlated negatively with lignin, the structural features of arabinoxylan and xyloglucan were found to contribute positively to hydrolysis. In the absence of such correlation, different types of pectins, and some mannans contributed to saccharification efficiency. Different genotypes of M. sinensis were shown to display distinct interactions among their cell wall components, which seem to influence cell wall hydrolysis. PMID:25908240

  10. Hypolipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis root in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishnu; Singh, Pradyumn; Chander, Ramesh; Mahdi, Farzana; Singh, Sushma; Singh, Ranjana; Khanna, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2009-12-01

    The hypolipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (family Malvaceae) root extract was studied on triton and cholesterol-rich high fat diet (HFD) induced models of hyperlipidemia in rats. In triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia, feeding with root extract (500 mg/kg body wt/day p.o.) exerted lipid-lowering effect, as assessed by reversal of plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), phospholipids (PL) and triglycerides (TG) and reactivation of post-heparin lipolytic activity (PHLA) of plasma. The other model was fed with cholesterol-rich HFD and root extract (500 mg/kg body wt/ day p.o.) simultaneously for 30 days. This also caused lowering of lipid levels in plasma and liver homogenate and reactivation of plasma PHLA and hepatic total lipoprotein lipase activity. The hypolipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis root was compared with a standard drug guggulipid (200 mg/kg body wt/day p.o.), a known lipid- lowering agent in both models. Histopathological findings in rat liver supported the protective role of H. rosa sinensis root extract in preventing cholesterol-rich HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. PMID:20361715

  11. Reduction of parasitic lasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storm, Mark E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A technique was developed which carefully retro-reflects precisely controlled amounts of light back into a laser system thereby intentionally forcing the laser system components to oscillate in a new resonator called the parasitic oscillator. The parasitic oscillator uses the laser system to provide the gain and an external mirror is used to provide the output coupling of the new resonator. Any change of gain or loss inside the new resonator will directly change the lasing threshold of the parasitic oscillator. This change in threshold can be experimentally measured as a change in the absolute value of reflectivity, provided by the external mirror, necessary to achieve lasing in the parasitic oscillator. Discrepancies between experimental data and a parasitic oscillator model are direct evidence of optical misalignment or component performance problems. Any changes in the optical system can instantly be measured as a change in threshold for the parasitic oscillator. This technique also enables aligning the system for maximum parasitic suppression with the system fully operational.

  12. Peroxiredoxins in Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Gretes, Michael C.; Poole, Leslie B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Parasite survival and virulence relies on effective defenses against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by the host immune system. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous enzymes now thought to be central to such defenses and, as such, have potential value as drug targets and vaccine antigens. Recent Advances: Plasmodial and kinetoplastid Prx systems are the most extensively studied, yet remain inadequately understood. For many other parasites our knowledge is even less well developed. Through parasite genome sequencing efforts, however, the key players are being discovered and characterized. Here we describe what is known about the biochemistry, regulation, and cell biology of Prxs in parasitic protozoa, helminths, and fungi. At least one Prx is found in each parasite with a sequenced genome, and a notable theme is the common patterns of expression, localization, and functionality among sequence-similar Prxs in related species. Critical Issues: The nomenclature of Prxs from parasites is in a state of disarray, causing confusion and making comparative inferences difficult. Here we introduce a systematic Prx naming convention that is consistent between organisms and informative about structural and evolutionary relationships. Future Directions: The new nomenclature should stimulate the crossfertilization of ideas among parasitologists and with the broader redox research community. The diverse parasite developmental stages and host environments present complex systems in which to explore the variety of roles played by Prxs, with a view toward parlaying what is learned into novel therapies and vaccines that are urgently needed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 608–633. PMID:22098136

  13. Metabolic characterization of natural and cultured Ophicordyceps sinensis from different origins by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianshuang; Zhong, Xin; Li, Shaosong; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2015-11-10

    Ophicordyceps sinensis is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and cultured mycelium is a substitute for wild O. sinensis. Metabolic profiles of wild O. sinensis from three geographical locations and cultivated mycelia derived from three origins were investigated using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis combined with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 56 primary metabolites were identified and quantified from O. sinensis samples. The principle component analysis (PCA) showed significant differences between natural O. sinensis and fermentation mycelia. Seven metabolites responsible for differentiation were screened out by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The concentrations of mannitol, trehalose, arginine, trans-4-hydroxyproline, alanine and glucitol were significantly different between wild and cultured groups. The variation in metabolic profiling among artificial mycelia was greater than that among wild O. sinensis. Furthermore, wild samples from different origins were clearly distinguished by the levels of mannitol, trehalose and some amino acids. This study indicates that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is useful for fingerprinting and discriminating O. sinensis of different geographical regions and cultivated mycelia of different strains. The present study provided an efficient approach for investigating chemical compositions and evaluating the quality of medicine and health food derived from O. sinensis. PMID:26279370

  14. Angelica sinensis induces hair regrowth via the inhibition of apoptosis signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

    2014-01-01

    Hair loss is accompanied by keratinocyte apoptosis-regression during catagen and prolonged telogen. Angelica sinensis was reported to promote hair growth in vitro. Based on previous studies, we explored the hair growth effect and the mechanism of A. sinensis related to keratinocyte apoptosis-regression during catagen in mice. The 70% Ethanol extract of A. sinensis was applied topically at doses of 1 and 100 mg/mL to the dorsa of C57BL/6 mice for 2 weeks. The A. sinensis-treated group showed noticeable hair regrowth. Treatment with A. sinensis restored the lengths of hair shafts and size of hair follicles. In addition, mice treated with A. sinensis showed notably decreased apoptotic cells, along with a significant change in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and the ratio of a pair of apoptosis-associated proteins: Bcl-2 and Bax. Also, A. sinensis inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, the phosphorylation of IκB-α, the phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein MAP kinases, and the activation of c-Jun with decreased TNF-α. These findings reveal a role of A. sinensis as an alternative treatment for hair loss that acts through hair cycle pathways associated with apoptosis regression during catagen. PMID:25004889

  15. Polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis alleviate neuronal cell injury caused by oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Tao; Li, Haifeng; Fang, Zhen; Lin, Junbin; Wang, Shanshan; Xiao, Lingyun; Yang, Fan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Junjian; Huang, Zebo; Liao, Weijing

    2014-01-01

    Angelica sinensis has antioxidative and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of polysaccharides isolated from Angelica sinensis. In a preliminary experiment, Angelica sinensis polysaccharides not only protected PC12 neuronal cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, but also reduced apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, and increased the mitochondrial membrane potential induced by H2O2 treatment. In a rat model of local cerebral ischemia, we further demonstrated that Angelica sinensis polysaccharides enhanced the antioxidant activity in cerebral cortical neurons, increased the number of microvessels, and improved blood flow after ischemia. Our findings highlight the protective role of polysaccharides isolated from Angelica sinensis against nerve cell injury and impairment caused by oxidative stress. PMID:25206810

  16. The artificial cultivation of medicinal Caterpillar Fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): a review.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kai; Ye, Meng; Lin, Xiao; Zhou, Zuji

    2013-01-01

    Caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), is highly valued in China as a dietary supplement or tonic food and natural remedy. The combination of the fungus and dead insect has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for centuries, and evidence shows its efficacy on immunomodulatory potentials. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the last few years due to growing worldwide demand, driving research to determine methods of artificial cultivation to make O. sinensis a more affordable material for commercial trade. This study highlights many aspects of artificial cultivation of O. sinensis, including separation of the anamorph, culture of the mycelium, cultivation of the fruiting bodies, bioecological characteristics of the host insect, and two patterns of artificial cultivation. In addition, this review discusses the current state, limitations, remedies, and future prospects, aiming to draw researchers' attention to the new frontier of research needs in this context. PMID:24266368

  17. Pets and Parasites

    MedlinePlus

    ... make me sick? Household pets such as dogs, cats, birds and reptiles can carry diseases or parasites ... might be used as litter boxes by neighborhood cats. Keep your children out of the dirt in ...

  18. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay References and Resources How to Find A ... days, be examined. This test looks for ova (eggs) or the parasite. Your health care provider may ...

  19. Evolution: predator versus parasite.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin

    2014-05-19

    Both predators and brood parasites can be major threats to the reproduction of many birds. A new study shows that some cuckoo chicks can help deter nest predators, potentially improving host reproductive success when predation risks are high. PMID:24845665

  20. Parasites in marine food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Most species interactions probably involve parasites. This review considers the extent to which marine ecologists should consider parasites to fully understand marine communities. Parasites are influential parts of food webs in estuaries, temperate reefs, and coral reefs, but their ecological importance is seldom recognized. Though difficult to observe, parasites can have substantial biomass, and they can be just as common as free-living consumers after controlling for body mass and trophic level. Parasites have direct impacts on the energetics of their hosts and some affect host behaviors, with ecosystem-level consequences. Although they cause disease, parasites are sensitive components of ecosystems. In particular, they suffer secondary extinctions due to biodiversity loss. Some parasites can also return to a system after habitat restoration. For these reasons, parasites can make good indicators of ecosystem integrity. Fishing can indirectly increase or decrease parasite populations and the effects of climate change on parasites are likely to be equally as complex.

  1. Phthalide Derivatives with Anticoagulation Activities from Angelica sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lai-Bin; Lv, Jie-Li; Liu, Jun-Wei

    2016-07-22

    Two new phthalide derivatives, angesinenolides A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from the roots of Angelica sinensis. Their structures were elucidated using HRMS, NMR, and X-ray crystallographic data. Compound 1 is the first example of a phthalide trimer presumably formed through two [2+2] cycloaddition reactions. Compound 2 is a unique dimeric phthalide with a peroxy bridge between C-3a and C-6. Both phthalides were evaluated for in vitro anticoagulation activities. Compound 1 reduced the level of fibrinogen (FIB). Compound 2 significantly extended thrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, as well as markedly reduced the content of FIB. PMID:27400088

  2. Mexicanolide-Type Limonoids from the Roots of Trichilia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shou-Bai; Mei, Wen-Li; Chen, Hui-Qin; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Dai, Hao-Fu; Wang, Zhu-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Four new mexicanolide-type limonoids 1-4, along with two known limonoids 5-6, were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of roots of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Trichilia sinensis. Their structures were unambiguously determined by analysis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR as well as MS, and by comparison with literature data. In addition, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of compounds 1-6 was evaluated by the Ellman method. All these compounds showed weak AChE inhibitory activity, with the inhibition percentages ranging from 18.5% to 27.8%. PMID:27589710

  3. Bioactivities of major constituents isolated from Angelica sinensis (Danggui)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Danggui, also known as Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Apiaceae), has been used in Chinese medicine to treat menstrual disorders. Over 70 compounds have been isolated and identified from Danggui. The main chemical constituents of Angelica roots include ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, butylidenephthalide and various polysaccharides. Among these compounds, ferulic acid exhibits many bioactivities especially anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory effects; Z-ligustilide exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, neuroprotective and anti-hepatotoxic effects; n-butylidenephthalide exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-cardiovascular effects. PMID:21851645

  4. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  5. Fruiting Body Production of the Medicinal Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes), in Artificial Medium.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li; Ye, Yunshou; Han, Richou

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), regarded as the "Himalayan Viagra", is widely used for medicinal treatment and health foods. The price of O. sinensis has continued to increase over the past few years because of the growing worldwide demand and resource limitations. Artificial cultivation of the fruiting bodies to substitute natural O. sinensis is urgently needed for the effective protection of a valuable bioresource and environment in the Tibetan plateau, and for commercial trade. In this study, the anamorph of 3 isolates was separated from natural O. sinensis and identified by molecular markers as Hirsutella sinensis. These fungal isolates were cultured in a rice-based medium at 9-13 °C for 50 days for mycelial growth, at 4 °C for 100 days for stromatal induction, and at 13 °C for 40 days for fruiting body formation. The mature fruiting bodies with mature perithecium were harvested in about 140 days. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of stable fruiting body production of O. sinensis by artificial media in the low-altitude area outside the Tibetan plateau. PMID:26853966

  6. Parasites alter community structure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Byers, James E; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Altman, Irit; Donahue, Megan J; Blakeslee, April M H

    2007-05-29

    Parasites often play an important role in modifying the physiology and behavior of their hosts and may, consequently, mediate the influence hosts have on other components of an ecological community. Along the northern Atlantic coast of North America, the dominant herbivorous snail Littorina littorea structures rocky intertidal communities through strong grazing pressure and is frequently parasitized by the digenean trematode Cryptocotyle lingua. We hypothesized that the effects of parasitism on host physiology would induce behavioral changes in L. littorea, which in turn would modulate L. littorea's influence on intertidal community composition. Specifically, we hypothesized that C. lingua infection would alter the grazing rate of L. littorea and, consequently, macroalgal communities would develop differently in the presence of infected versus uninfected snails. Our results show that uninfected snails consumed 40% more ephemeral macroalgal biomass than infected snails in the laboratory, probably because the digestive system of infected snails is compromised by C. lingua infection. In the field, this weaker grazing by infected snails resulted in significantly greater expansion of ephemeral macroalgal cover relative to grazing by uninfected snails. By decreasing the per-capita grazing rate of the dominant herbivore, C. lingua indirectly affects the composition of the macroalgal community and may in turn affect other species that depend on macroalgae for resources or habitat structure. In light of the abundance of parasites across systems, we suggest that, through trait-mediated indirect effects, parasites may be a common determinant of structure in ecological communities. PMID:17517667

  7. Niche metabolism in parasitic protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Ginger, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    Complete or partial genome sequences have recently become available for several medically and evolutionarily important parasitic protozoa. Through the application of bioinformatics complete metabolic repertoires for these parasites can be predicted. For experimentally intractable parasites insight provided by metabolic maps generated in silico has been startling. At its more extreme end, such bioinformatics reckoning facilitated the discovery in some parasites of mitochondria remodelled beyond previous recognition, and the identification of a non-photosynthetic chloroplast relic in malarial parasites. However, for experimentally tractable parasites, mapping of the general metabolic terrain is only a first step in understanding how the parasite modulates its streamlined, yet still often puzzlingly complex, metabolism in order to complete life cycles within host, vector, or environment. This review provides a comparative overview and discussion of metabolic strategies used by several different parasitic protozoa in order to subvert and survive host defences, and illustrates how genomic data contribute to the elucidation of parasite metabolism. PMID:16553311

  8. On the reliability of fungal materials used in studies on Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Dong, C-H; Yao, Y-J

    2011-08-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡Cordyceps sinensis) is one of the best known traditional Chinese medicines, with great benefits to human health and huge economic value. The reliability of fungal materials used in studies of the species is particularly important because contradictory results have been found in various studies in the past decades. Examination of fungal materials specified in reports on O. sinensis showed great variation in both sources and culture conditions of living strains. To test the reliability of the materials used, experiments were carried out to study the effect of culture conditions on the growth of living strains of O. sinensis by using six reliable strains representing the major production regions of the fungus on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that O. sinensis is a slow-growing fungus at comparatively low temperature, and that temperature and growth period are crucial factors which can be verified by experiment. Analyses of fungal materials used in 152 papers on O. sinensis from PubMed since 1998 showed that 41 papers lacked detailed information on the fungal materials; 26 used natural products, 11 used artificially cultivated fruit bodies, and 80 used fermentation products from living strains. Of the latter category (using fermentation products), 64 of the papers were found to use unreliable (45) or uncertain (19) strains for fermentation products based on the temperature and growth period for O. sinensis strains verified in this study. Apart from the natural products of O. sinensis, which require scientific identification, a total of at least 116 papers (over three-quarters) used unreliable, uncertain or unspecified materials, including so-called cultivated fruit bodies which were apparently from other species. The reliability of materials or living strains used in studies on O. sinensis is discussed in this paper, and suggestions are made for use of reliable fungal materials in further studies of this fungus. PMID:20922458

  9. [EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR THE LABORATORY IDENTIFICATION OF THE PATHOGENS OF PARASITIC DISEASES AS AN ELEMENT FOR IMPROVING THE POSTGRADUATE TRAINING OF SPECIALISTS].

    PubMed

    Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Yu; Malakhov, V N; Serdyuk, A P; Imamkuliev, K D; Gorbunova, Yu P; Pautova, E A; Prodeus, T V; Semenova, T A; Fedyanina, L V

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the Federal External Quality Assessment (EQA) System and in the context of postgraduate training improvement for health workers in 2010-2014, specialists from the laboratories of the therapeutic-prophylactic organizations and institutions of the Russian Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare were examined for their professional competence in microscopically identifying the pathogens of parasitic diseases in feces. The virtual remote educational computer technology tools that included different combinations of 16 helminthic species, 5 intestinal protozoan species, and a number of artefacts, were used. The specialists from 984 laboratories of multidisciplinary therapeutic-prophylactic organizations and hygiene and epidemiology centers in all Federal Districts of the Russian Federation were covered. A total of 8245 replies were analyzed. The detection rate for helminths was 64.0%, including those by a taxonomic group (nematodes, 65.0%; cestodes, 72.0%; trematodes, 55.1%). There was a dynamic decrease in the above indicators. There were low detection rates for trematodes parasitizing the small intestine (Metagonimus, 10.2%; Nanophyetus, 26.2%) and hepatobiliary organs (Fasciola, 59.6%; Clonorchis, 34.9%). The similar trend was seen in the detection rates for the pathogens of geohelminthisms (ascariasis, trichocephaliasis, etc.) and contagious helminthisms (enterobiasis, hymenolepiasis). The level of competence in detecting and identifying intestinal protozoa was much lower than the similar rates for helminthism pathogens. EQA for the laboratory diagnosis of the pathogens of parasitic diseases, by using the virtual tools is a leading element of the postgraduate training system for laboratory specialists. The results of EQA for the laboratory diagnosis of the pathogens of parasitic diseases are a basic material for the development, and improvement of training modernization programs, by applying a modular

  10. Internal parasites of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Sokół, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a growing number of exotic reptiles are kept as pets. The aim of this study was to determine the species of parasites found in reptile patients of veterinary practices in Poland. Fecal samples obtained from 76 lizards, 15 turtles and 10 snakes were examined by flotation method and direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine. In 63 samples (62.4%) the presence of parasite eggs and oocysts was revealed. Oocysts of Isospora spp. (from 33% to 100% of the samples, depending on the reptilian species) and Oxyurids eggs (10% to 75%) were predominant. In addition, isolated Eimeria spp. oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts were found, as well as Strongylus spp. and Hymenolepis spp. eggs. Pet reptiles are often infected with parasites, some of which are potentially dangerous to humans. A routine parasitological examination should be done in such animals. PMID:26342508

  11. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on the hemocyte apoptosis of Eriocheir sinensis *

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai-sheng; Lyu, Sun-jian; Xu, Jie-hao; Lu, Bin-jie; Zhao, Jing; Li, Song; Li, Yi-qun; Chen, Yu-yin

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the possible toxicity mechanism of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from Gram-negative bacteria in Eriocheir sinensis hemocytes. Apoptotic hemocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by the LPS were monitored by the combination of flow cytometry and microscope observation. It was shown that LPS induced serious damage on the DNA and morphological changes in hemocytes, including cell shrinkage, fracture of nucleus membrane, margination, condensation and fragmentation of chromatin, and formation of apoptotic bodies indicating obvious hemocyte apoptosis. As compared with the control group, the apoptotic cell ratio increased to 30.61% and 39.01% after 1-h exposure and 57.72% and 75.01% after 2-h exposure to 1 and 10 μg/ml LPS, respectively (P<0.05). Significant outburst of ROS production was observed in LPS-treated hemocytes with approximately 176.6% of relative dichlorofluorescein mean fluorescence at 1-h exposure, followed by a drastic decline (P<0.05). These results indicated that LPS would induce oxidative stress on hemocytes from E. sinensis and cause ROS burst, DNA damage, and subsequently apoptosis. The process of ROS-mediated apoptosis might be one of the potential toxicity mechanisms of LPS on crustacean hemocytes. PMID:26642180

  12. [Discrimination of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ji, Peng; Wei, Yan-Ming; Hua, Yong-Li; Zhang, Wen-quan

    2014-05-01

    A new rapid and nondestructive method for identifying polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products was developed, and this method was based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In the clinic of traditional Chinese medicine, unprocessed Angelica sinensis(UAS) is of ten used after processed, the common processed products are Angelica sinensis parched with wine(WAS), Angelica sinensis parched with soil(SAS), Angelica sinensis parched with oil(OAS) and Charred Angelica sinensis(CAS). In order to use polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its processed products effectively and reasonably in clinic, it is very necessary to identify them. FTIR of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products was determined, and then it was decomposed by discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The high frequency information in scale 2, 3 and 4 was selected as feature information, from which the each wavelet entropy was extracted as characteristic value. BP neural network was trained with these characteristic values. The trained BP neural network was used to identify polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products. According to 30 prediction samples, the correct rate for recognition was 93. 3%, which indicates that: it has better feasibility to identify polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis and its different processed products by this method, which is based on FTIR, discrete wavelet transform and BP neural network PMID:25095420

  13. Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Embil, Juan A.; Embil, John M.

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys the most important gastrointestinal parasites that affect humans. The modes of acquisition, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment are all briefly examined. Gastrointestinal parasites have become increasingly important in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, as a result of a number of circumstances. These circumstances include: increasing travel to developing countries; increased numbers, for one reason or another, of immunocompromised individuals; increased consumption of raw or partially cooked ethnic delicacies; more crowding in day-care centres; increased immigration from developing countries; and an endemic pocket of individuals with certain unhygienic or unsanitary practices. PMID:21253148

  14. Parasite-related diarrhoeas*

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews available knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, immunology, diagnosis, and therapy of parasite-related diarrhoeas of public health importance, primarily amoebiasis, giardiasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, balantidiasis, coccidioses, schistosomiasis, and capillariasis. Research priorities are recommended in each of these fields with the aim of developing better means of prevention and treatment. PMID:6971185

  15. Ungulate malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Thomas J.; Asada, Masahito; Jiratanh, Montakan; Ishikawa, Sohta A.; Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Namangala, Boniface; Takeda, Mika; Mohkaew, Kingdao; Ngamjituea, Supawan; Inoue, Noboru; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Inagaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Haemosporida parasites of even-toed ungulates are diverse and globally distributed, but since their discovery in 1913 their characterization has relied exclusively on microscopy-based descriptions. In order to bring molecular approaches to bear on the identity and evolutionary relationships of ungulate malaria parasites, we conducted Plasmodium cytb-specific nested PCR surveys using blood from water buffalo in Vietnam and Thailand, and goats in Zambia. We found that Plasmodium is readily detectable from water buffalo in these countries, indicating that buffalo Plasmodium is distributed in a wider region than India, which is the only area in which buffalo Plasmodium has been reported. Two types (I and II) of Plasmodium sequences were identified from water buffalo and a third type (III) was isolated from goat. Morphology of the parasite was confirmed in Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears for the Type I sample. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were isolated and used to infer a phylogeny in which ungulate malaria parasites form a monophyletic clade within the Haemosporida, and branch prior to the clade containing bird, lizard and other mammalian Plasmodium. Thus it is likely that host switching of Plasmodium from birds to mammals occurred multiple times, with a switch to ungulates independently from other mammalian Plasmodium. PMID:26996979

  16. A Passion for Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Englund, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    I knew nothing and had thought nothing about parasites until 1971. In fact, if you had asked me before then, I might have commented that parasites were rather disgusting. I had been at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine for three years, and I was on the lookout for a new project. In 1971, I came across a paper in the Journal of Molecular Biology by Larry Simpson, a classmate of mine in graduate school. Larry's paper described a remarkable DNA structure known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), isolated from a parasite. kDNA, the mitochondrial genome of trypanosomatids, is a DNA network composed of several thousand interlocked DNA rings. Almost nothing was known about it. I was looking for a project on DNA replication, and I wanted it to be both challenging and important. I had no doubt that working with kDNA would be a challenge, as I would be exploring uncharted territory. I was also sure that the project would be important when I learned that parasites with kDNA threaten huge populations in underdeveloped tropical countries. Looking again at Larry's paper, I found the electron micrographs of the kDNA networks to be rather beautiful. I decided to take a chance on kDNA. Little did I know then that I would devote the next forty years of my life to studying kDNA replication. PMID:25336639

  17. Ungulate malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Thomas J; Asada, Masahito; Jiratanh, Montakan; Ishikawa, Sohta A; Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Namangala, Boniface; Takeda, Mika; Mohkaew, Kingdao; Ngamjituea, Supawan; Inoue, Noboru; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Inagaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Kaneko, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Haemosporida parasites of even-toed ungulates are diverse and globally distributed, but since their discovery in 1913 their characterization has relied exclusively on microscopy-based descriptions. In order to bring molecular approaches to bear on the identity and evolutionary relationships of ungulate malaria parasites, we conducted Plasmodium cytb-specific nested PCR surveys using blood from water buffalo in Vietnam and Thailand, and goats in Zambia. We found that Plasmodium is readily detectable from water buffalo in these countries, indicating that buffalo Plasmodium is distributed in a wider region than India, which is the only area in which buffalo Plasmodium has been reported. Two types (I and II) of Plasmodium sequences were identified from water buffalo and a third type (III) was isolated from goat. Morphology of the parasite was confirmed in Giemsa-reagent stained blood smears for the Type I sample. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were isolated and used to infer a phylogeny in which ungulate malaria parasites form a monophyletic clade within the Haemosporida, and branch prior to the clade containing bird, lizard and other mammalian Plasmodium. Thus it is likely that host switching of Plasmodium from birds to mammals occurred multiple times, with a switch to ungulates independently from other mammalian Plasmodium. PMID:26996979

  18. Parasitic Roundworm Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... The eggs or larvae also can enter the human body directly through the skin. With the exception of the parasitic roundworm that causes trichinosis, mature adult roundworms eventually end up or live in human intestines and cause infection and disease. In trichinosis, ...

  19. Parasitic suppressing circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowler, J. T.; Raposa, F. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A circuit for suppressing parasitic oscillations across an inductor operating in a resonant mode is described. The circuit includes a switch means and resistive means connected serially across the inductor. A unidirectional resistive-capacitive network is also connected across the inductor and to the switch means to automatically render the switch means conducting when inductive current through the inductor ceases to flow.

  20. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  1. [Assessment of Antitumor Effect of Submerged Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris].

    PubMed

    Avtonomova, A V; Krasnopolskaya, L M; Shuktueva, M I; Isakova, E B; Bukhman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris metabolites showed a high potential in the treatment of tumors as well as some other diseases. Antitumor properties of O. sinensis and C. militaris submerged mycelium were investigated. It was found that the O. sinensis dry biomass in a dose of 50 mg/kg administered once a day to the mice with subcutaneously inoculated P388 lympholeucosis lowered the tumor growth by 65% vs. 54% for the C. militaris dry biomass. The water extract of O. sinensis submerged culture however accelerated the growth of the P388 lympholeucosis tumor node in the mice almost two times, compared to the control. A greater caution in using this fungus as a source of biologically active substances is required since unwanted tumor-stimulating effects can arise. PMID:26863737

  2. Molecular characterization and expression pattern of dmrt1 in the immature Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis.

    PubMed

    Leng, X Q; Du, H J; Li, C J; Cao, H

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the cDNA of dmrt1 gene from the Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis was isolated and its expression pattern was characterized in different tissues of immature A. sinensis. By real-time quantitative PCR (qrtPCR) analysis, the A. sinensis dmrt1 mRNA was detected mainly in gonad and with a higher level in the testis than the ovary, especially in 3 and 4 year-old samples. This indicated that the dmrt1 expression exhibited gradual testis specificity with development. The subcellular localization analysis indicated that the Dmrt1 protein exists only in germ cells and not in somatic cells. These results suggest that A. sinensis dmrt1 might be a highly specific sex differentiation gene for testis development and spermatogenesis. PMID:26706998

  3. Malaria diseases and parasites.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, A

    1999-09-01

    The milestones in the discovery of malaria parasites and their relationships with malaria diseases are presented and discussed with particular reference to the contribution of the Italian scientists. Laveran's discovery (1880) of the malaria parasite produced some schepticism among the Roman scientists who were under the influence of Tommasi-Crudeli, the discoverer of the supposed Bacillus malariae. However, Marchiafava and Celli confirmed soon Laveran's observations and, between 1883 and 1885, improved the description of the parasite adding important details. They described, then, the aestivo-autumnal tertian fever as a distinct disease from the 'primaverile' or benign tertian. This work influenced Golgi who went on to analyse the features that distinguish the benign tertian parasite from that of the quartan. The fact that in North Italy the aestivo-autumnal tertian fever was hardly ever found, whereas it was common in the Roman Campagna and the Pontin marshes, explains why it was Celli and Marchiafava and later Bignami and Bastianelli, and Marchiafava and Bignami--but not Golgi--who were committed to work on this pernicious form of malaria. By the early 1890s the Italian scientists came to define the three malaria parasites, presently known as Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, and P. falciparum, and to associate them with precise anatomo-pathological and clinical features. By the middle 1890s the Italian school was prepared to contribute also to the discovery of the mosquito cycle in human malaria, clearly hypothesized by Bignami in 1896 and experimentally proved in 1898 by Bignami, Bastianelli and Grassi. PMID:10697831

  4. Foodborne and waterborne parasites.

    PubMed

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2003-01-01

    More than 72 species of protozoan and helminth parasites can reach humans by food and water, and most of these infections are zoonoses. Some parasites show a cosmopolitan distribution, others a more restricted distribution due to their complex life cycles, which need the presence of one or more intermediate hosts. Of this large number of pathogens, only Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted to humans by two different ways, i.e., by cysts present in infected meat and by oocysts contaminating food and water. Eleven helminthic species (Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, Trichinella spiralis, Tr. nativa, Tr. britovi, Tr. pseudospiralis, Tr. murrelli, Tr nelsoni, Tr. papuae and Tr. zimbabwensis) can grow in meat of different animal species and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw meat or meat products. Twenty trematode species, four cestode species and seven nematode species can infect humans through the consumption of raw sea- and/or fresh-water food (fishes, molluscs, frogs, tadpoles, camarons, crayfishes). Six species of Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar can contaminate food and water. Among the helminths, seven trematode species, seven cestode species and five species of nematodes can reach humans by contaminated food and water. Diagnostic and detection methods that can be carried out routinely on food and water samples are available only for few parasites (Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp., Anisakidae, Trichinella sp., Taenia sp.), i.e., for parasites which represent a risk to human populations living in industrialised countries. The majority of food and waterborne infections of parasitic origin are related to poverty, low sanitation, and old food habits. PMID:15058817

  5. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg and Evolution Analysis within the Malvales Order

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Zhan, Di-Feng; Jia, Xian; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg is an important medicinal woody plant producing agarwood, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. High-throughput sequencing of chloroplast (cp) genomes enhanced the understanding about evolutionary relationships within plant families. In this study, we determined the complete cp genome sequences for A. sinensis. The size of the A. sinensis cp genome was 159,565 bp. This genome included a large single-copy region of 87,482 bp, a small single-copy region of 19,857 bp, and a pair of inverted repeats (IRa and IRb) of 26,113 bp each. The GC content of the genome was 37.11%. The A. sinensis cp genome encoded 113 functional genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 27 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Seven genes were duplicated in the protein-coding genes, whereas 11 genes were duplicated in the RNA genes. A total of 45 polymorphic simple-sequence repeat loci and 60 pairs of large repeats were identified. Most simple-sequence repeats were located in the noncoding sections of the large single-copy/small single-copy region and exhibited high A/T content. Moreover, 33 pairs of large repeat sequences were located in the protein-coding genes, whereas 27 pairs were located in the intergenic regions. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome bias ended with A/T on the basis of codon usage. The distribution of codon usage in A. sinensis cp genome was most similar to that in the Gonystylus bancanus cp genome. Comparative results of 82 protein-coding genes from 29 species of cp genomes demonstrated that A. sinensis was a sister species to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. Aquilaria sinensis cp genome presented the highest sequence similarity of >90% with the G. bancanus cp genome by using CGView Comparison Tool. This finding strongly supports the placement of A. sinensis as a sister to G. bancanus within the Malvales order. The complete A. sinensis cp genome information will be highly beneficial for further studies on this traditional medicinal

  6. Stool ova and parasites exam

    MedlinePlus

    Parasites and stool ova exam ... order this test if you have signs of parasites, diarrhea that does not go away, or other ... There are no parasites or eggs in the stool sample. Talk to your health care provider about the meaning of your specific test ...

  7. Cordyceps sinensis attenuates renal fibrosis and suppresses BAG3 induction in obstructed rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Du, Feng; Li, Si; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Du, Zhen-Xian; Li, De-Tian; Wang, Hua-Qin; Liu, Bo; Miao, Jia-Ning; Bian, Xiao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    BAG3 regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of BAG3 in renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the dynamic expression of BAG3 during renal fibrosis, and to investigate the efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) on renal fibrosis. A rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was established, and the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, and the efficacy of C. sinensis on renal fibrosis induced by UUO were examined. The results showed that UUO led to collagen accumulation, which was significantly suppressed by C. sinensis. UUO increased the expression of BAG3 and α-SMA, a mesenchymal marker, while UUO induced BAG3 and α-SMA expression was significantly inhibited by C. sinensis. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that BAG3 immunoreactivity was restricted to tubular epithelium. In conclusion, BAG3 is a potential target for the prevention and/or treatment of renal fibrosis, and C. Sinensis is a promising agent for renal fibrosis. PMID:26175854

  8. [Cloning and tissue expression of 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene in Angelica sinensis].

    PubMed

    Wen, Sui-chao; Wang, Yin-quan; Luo, Jun; Xia, Qi; Fan, Qin; Li, Shu-nan; Wang, Zhen-heng

    2015-12-01

    4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in higher plant and may regulate the biosynthesis of ferulic acid in Angelica sinensis. In this study, the homology-based cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique were used to clone a full length cDNA encoding 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase gene (4CL), and then qRT-PCR was taken for analyzing 4CL gene expression levels in the root, stem and root tissue at different growth stages of seedlings of A. sinensis. The results showed that a full-length 4CL cDNA (1,815 bp) was obtained (GenBank accession number: KT880508) which shares an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 632 bp, encodes 544 amino acid polypeptides. We found 4CL gene was expressed in all tissues including leaf, stem and root of seedlings of A. sinensis. The expressions in the leave and stem were increased significantly with the growth of seedlings of A. sinensis (P < 0.05), while it in the root showed little change. It indicates a time-space pattern of 4CL gene expression in seedlings of A. sinensis. These findings will be useful for establishing an experiment basis for studying the structure and function of 4CL gene and elucidating mechanism of ferulic acid biosynthesis and space-time regulation in A. sinensis. PMID:27245029

  9. Sixteen Polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat Markers from Expressed Sequence Tags of the Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang-Gang; Li, Hong-Jun; Li, Yun-Feng; Sui, Li-Jun; Zhu, Bao; Liang, Yu; Liu, Wei-Dong; He, Chong-Bo

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is an economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we developed and evaluated simple sequence repeat markers from expressed sequence tags of E. sinensis. Among the 40 wild E. sinensis individuals tested, 16 loci were polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to ten. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.0667 to 0.9667, whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.0661 to 0.9051. These markers have the potential for use in genetic studies of population structure and intraspecific variation in E. sinensis. PMID:21152289

  10. Evolutionary Origins of Rhizarian Parasites.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Roberto; Cañas-Duarte, Silvia J; Burki, Fabien; Schwelm, Arne; Fogelqvist, Johan; Dixelius, Christina; González-García, Laura N; Gile, Gillian H; Slamovits, Claudio H; Klopp, Christophe; Restrepo, Silvia; Arzul, Isabelle; Pawlowski, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The SAR group (Stramenopila, Alveolata, Rhizaria) is one of the largest clades in the tree of eukaryotes and includes a great number of parasitic lineages. Rhizarian parasites are obligate and have devastating effects on commercially important plants and animals but despite this fact, our knowledge of their biology and evolution is limited. Here, we present rhizarian transcriptomes from all major parasitic lineages in order to elucidate their evolutionary relationships using a phylogenomic approach. Our results suggest that Ascetosporea, parasites of marine invertebrates, are sister to the novel clade Apofilosa. The phytomyxean plant parasites branch sister to the vampyrellid algal ectoparasites in the novel clade Phytorhiza. They also show that Ascetosporea + Apofilosa + Retaria + Filosa + Phytorhiza form a monophyletic clade, although the branching pattern within this clade is difficult to resolve and appears to be model-dependent. Our study does not support the monophyly of the rhizarian parasitic lineages (Endomyxa), suggesting independent origins for rhizarian animal and plant parasites. PMID:26681153

  11. Cordycepin is an immunoregulatory active ingredient of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoxia; Luo, Liping; Dressel, Waike; Shadier, Gulibahaer; Krumbiegel, Doreen; Schmidtke, Peter; Zepp, Fred; Meyer, Claudius U

    2008-01-01

    We have reported that cordycepin, an adenosine derivative from the fungus Cordyceps, increased interleukin (IL)-10 expression, decreased IL-2 expression and suppressed T lymphocyte activity. In the present study, we further characterized the regulatory effects of cordycepin on human immune cells. Moreover, a traditional Chinese drug, Cordyceps sinensis (CS) that contains cordycepin, was also investigated. Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) was used to determine the concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The results showed that both cordycepin and CS up-regulated IL-10, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha; at the same time, they suppressed phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IFN-gamma and IL-12. As compared to cordycepin, CS displayed its regulatory effects on IL-2 and IL-10 in a similar dose-dependent manner even with higher efficiency. The binding activity of transcription factors in a human monocytic cell line THP-1 was tested by the trans-AM method, and a higher binding activity of SP1 and SP3 was observed in cordycepin or CS treated cells compared to the control. These results led to the opinion that cordycepin and CS pleiotropically affected the actions of immune cells and cytokine network in a similar fashion. Cordycepin could be an important immunoregulatory active ingredient in Cordyceps sinensis. In addition, CS may contain substances which possess synergism with cordycepin, as CS showed a higher efficiency in the production of IL-10 and IL-2 than cordycepin. However, merits of these effects in pharmacology and clinical medicine have yet to be proven and the precise mechanism of these immune regulatory actions should be researched. PMID:19051361

  12. MARveling at parasite invasion.

    PubMed

    Hager, Kristin M; Carruthers, Vern B

    2008-02-01

    Micronemal proteins (MICs) are key mediators of cytoadherence and invasion for Toxoplasma gondii. Emerging evidence indicates that carbohydrate binding facilitates Toxoplasma entry into host cells. The recently solved Toxoplasma MIC1s (TgMIC1s) structure reveals the presence of novel specialized domains that can discriminate between glycan residues. Comparison with Plasmodium erythrocyte-binding antigen 175 reveals that terminal sialic acid residues might represent a shared but tailored invasion pathway among apicomplexan parasites. PMID:18203663

  13. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Drulžić, Jasmina; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Gugić, Mirko; Jokić, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), α-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of β-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:26411039

  14. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn; Hilali, Mosaad

    2016-08-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8-10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3-100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. PMID:27075117

  15. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding ribosome inactivating protein from Dianthus sinensis L.

    PubMed

    Cho, H J; Lee, S J; Kim, S; Kim, B D

    2000-04-30

    To isolate a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) gene, six plant species were surveyed for antiviral activity. Crude proteins extracted from these plants were tested for the antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Nicotiana glutinosa. All the plants, Spinacia oleracea, Amaranthus lividus, Dianthus superbus, Dianthus sinensis and Celosia cristata, with an exception of Oenanthe stolonifera, presented 70-90% inhibition of viral infectivity. In an attempt to search for the RIP gene from D. sinensis, partial cDNA was obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the poly(A)+ RNA from D. sinensis leaves. DNA gel blot analysis showed that D. sinensis has multi-copy RIP genes. The expression of RIP gene was investigated in the flower, leaf, root and stem of D. sinensis, and was found to be most abundant in the leaf. Using the partial cDNA as a probe, seven full-length cDNAs were isolated from a library prepared from D. sinensis leaves. They were divided into three groups on the basis of their nucleotide sequence homology. The three representative clones, cDsRIP1, cDsRIP2 and cDsRIP3 were completely sequenced. They all had an open reading frame of 882 bp. The cDsRIP2 showed 79% homology with dianthin 30 and saporin genes; 59% with PAP and Mirabilis antiviral protein MAP genes. From the analysis of deduced amino acid sequences, it was predicted that D. sinensis RIP cDNAs might have a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues at their N-terminus. When the cDNA was expressed in E. coli, the bacteria was unable to grow upon IPTG induction, suggesting that expression of the gene renders toxicity to E. coli cells. PMID:10850653

  16. Domestic cats (Felis catus) are definitive hosts for Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    GJERDE, Bjørn; HILALI, Mosaad

    2016-01-01

    The definitive hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis in water buffaloes have hitherto been unknown, but the close similarity of this species to the cat-transmitted Sarcocystis bovifelis in cattle suggested they were felids. In a previous study, two domestic cats were fed macroscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis contained within or dissected from the esophageal muscles of water buffaloes, while no microscopic sarcocysts of S. sinensis were noticed. Both cats started shedding small numbers of sporocysts 8–10 days post infection (dpi) and were euthanized 15 dpi. Using a PCR-based molecular assay targeting the mitochondrial cox1 gene of S. fusiformis, both cats were shown to act as definitive hosts for this species. In the present study, DNA samples derived from oocysts/sporocysts in the intestinal mucosa of both cats were further examined by PCR for the presence of S. sinensis using 2 newly designed primers selectively targeting the cox1 gene of this species. All 6 DNA samples examined from each cat tested positive for S. sinensis. A 1,038-bp-long portion of cox1 was amplified and sequenced as 2 overlapping fragments from 5 of these DNA samples. The 5 sequences shared 99.3–100% identity with 7 previous cox1 sequences of S. sinensis obtained from sarcocysts in water buffaloes. Additionally, amplification of the ITS1 region with primers targeting various Sarcocystis spp., yielded amplicons of 2 different lengths, corresponding to those obtained from sarcocyst isolates of S. sinensis and S. fusiformis, respectively. This is the first study to show that cats act as definitive hosts for S. sinensis. PMID:27075117

  17. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42–3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22–1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  18. The languages of parasite communication.

    PubMed

    Roditi, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Although it is regarded as self-evident that parasites interact with their hosts, with the primary aim of enhancing their own survival and transmission, the extent to which unicellular parasites communicate with each has been severely underestimated. Recent publications show that information is commonly exchanged between parasites of the same species and that this can govern their decisions to divide, to differentiate or to migrate as a group. Communication can take the form of soluble secreted factors, extracellular vesicles or contact between cells. Extracellular parasites can do this directly, while intracellular parasites use the infected host cell - or components derived from it - as an intermediary. By emitting signals that can be dispersed within the host, parasites can also have long-distance effects on the course of an infection and its pathology. This article presents an overview of recent developments in this field and draws attention to some older work that merits re-examination. PMID:27211242

  19. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases. PMID:27621348

  20. [Emerging parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Weibel Galluzzo, C; Wagner, N; Michel, Y; Jackson, Y; Chappuis, F

    2014-05-01

    Travels, migration and circulation of goods facilitate the emergence of new infectious diseases often unrecognized outside endemic areas. Most of emerging infections are of viral origin. Muscular Sarcocystis infection, an acute illness acquired during short trips to Malaysia, and Chagas disease, a chronic illness with long incubation period found among Latin American migrants, are two very different examples of emerging parasitic diseases. The former requires a preventive approach for travelers going to Malaysia and must be brought forth when they return with fever, myalgia and eosinophilia, while the latter requires a proactive attitude to screen Latin American migrant populations that may face difficulties in accessing care. PMID:24908745

  1. [Parasitic dead-end: update].

    PubMed

    Magnaval, J F

    2006-08-01

    Parasitic dead-ends occur when a parasite is unable to establish a permanent interaction in an unnatural host. Although the likelihood of successful reproduction by the pathogenic agent is nul, parasitic dead-end heralds capture of new parasites and therefore expansion of the host range. Angiostrongyliasis due to A. cantonensis or A. costaricensis, anisakiasis, Ancylostoma caninum infection, gnathostomiasis and sparganosis are undoubtedly emerging zoonoses of particular medical interest. Prevention of these diseases relies on abstinence from eating raw meat from invertebrates or cold-blooded (poikilotherm) vertebrates (e.g. used in exotic dishes). These guidelines must be included in recommendations to travelers. PMID:16999036

  2. Digestive enzyme activities in mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris and Chinese black sleeper Bostrichthys sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renxie; Hong, Wanshu; Zhang, Qiyong

    2010-07-01

    The mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris and Chinese black sleeper Bostrichthys sinensis occupy the intertidal zone. However, both species have their own unique diet. The former is an herbivore and the latter is a carnivore. In order to reveal the relationship between digestive enzyme activities and diets in the two species, the activities of protease (P), non-specific bile salt-activated lipase (BAL) and α-amylase (A) were determined in the stomach and intestine of adult mudskipper B. pectinirostris and Chinese black sleeper B. sinensis. The results showed that the activities of protease, BAL and α-amylase in the intestine of B. pectinirostris were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those in the stomach. In B. sinensis, gastric protease activity was not different from the intestinal protease ( P>0.05), while BAL and α-amylase activities of the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those of the stomach. The activity of gastric protease in B. sinensis was significantly ( P<0.05) higher than that in B. pectinirostris, while the activities of intestinal protease were not different between the two fish species ( P>0.05). BAL activities of the stomach and intestine in B. sinensis were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those in B. pectinirostris, while α-amylase activities of the stomach and intestine in B. pectinirostris were significantly ( P<0.05) higher than those in B. sinensis. The ratios of P/BAL, A/P and A/BAL of the digestive tract in B. pectinirostris were 1.5, 107.3 and 158.6, respectively; and those in B. sinensis were 0.2, 1.6 and 0.2, respectively. It can be concluded that food digestion in the adult B. pectinirostris is mainly carried out in the intestine, whereas in the adult B. sinensis it is initiated in the stomach and finishes in the intestine. The activities of BAL and α-amylase in B. pectinirostris and B. sinensis are well correlated with their diets. However, a clear-cut correlation between protease activity and diets is

  3. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) INTRODUCED TO THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a globally invasive organism, with established non-native populations in Europe and California, USA. Since 1965, there have been sixteen confirmed catches of E. sinensis in the North American Great Lakes and their associated waterw...

  4. Genetic structure of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus in Japan indicates a gradient of bidirectional but asymmetric introgression

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Lindsay V.; Stewart, J. Ryan; Nishiwaki, Aya; Toma, Yo; Kjeldsen, Jens Bonderup; Jørgensen, Uffe; Zhao, Hua; Peng, Junhua; Yoo, Ji Hye; Heo, Kweon; Yu, Chang Yeon; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral introgression from diploids to tetraploids has been hypothesized to be an important evolutionary mechanism in plants. However, few examples have been definitively identified, perhaps because data of sufficient depth and breadth were difficult to obtain before the advent of affordable high-density genotyping. Throughout Japan, tetraploid Miscanthus sacchariflorus and diploid Miscanthus sinensis are common, and occasionally hybridize. In this study, 667 M. sinensis and 78 M. sacchariflorus genotypes from Japan were characterized using 20 704 SNPs and ten plastid microsatellites. Similarity of SNP genotypes between diploid and tetraploid M. sacchariflorus indicated that the tetraploids originated through autopolyploidy. Structure analysis indicated a gradient of introgression from diploid M. sinensis into tetraploid M. sacchariflorus throughout Japan; most tetraploids had some M. sinensis DNA. Among phenotypically M. sacchariflorus tetraploids, M. sinensis ancestry averaged 7% and ranged from 1–39%, with introgression greatest in southern Japan. Unexpectedly, rare (~1%) diploid M. sinensis individuals from northern Japan were found with 6–27% M. sacchariflorus ancestry. Population structure of M. sinensis in Japan included three groups, and was driven primarily by distance, and secondarily by geographic barriers such as mountains and straits. Miscanthus speciation is a complex and dynamic process. In contrast to limited introgression between diploid M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis in northern China, selection for adaptation to a moderate maritime climate probably favoured cross-ploidy introgressants in southern Japan. These results will help guide the selection of Miscanthus accessions for the breeding of biomass cultivars. PMID:25618143

  5. [The mechanical wound transcriptome of three-year-old Aquilaria sinensis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Gao, Zhi-hui; Wei, Jian-he; Xu, Yan-hong; Li, Ying; Yang, Yun; Meng, Hui; Sui, Chun; Wang, Meng-xi

    2012-08-01

    Chinese agarwood is formed in the aromatic resinous wood formed in Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg (botanical family: Thymelaeaceae). Only when suffering stress of wound, etc, can A. sinensis produce sesquiterpenes etc. compounds of agarwood around wounds. However, little is known about how wound induced the biosynthesis pathway of sesquiterpenes. To reveal the molecular mechanism of wound-induced agarwood formation, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was used to investigate the profile of gene expression in A. sinensis treated by mechanical wounding and elucidate its functional gene. A total of 40,295 ESTs with an average read length of 305 bp were generated and 22 095 unigenes were formed by initial gene splicing. 61.6% of these unigenes (13 611) were annotated using BLAST searches against the SwissProt, KEGG, Nr and Nt databases. Twenty-six unigenes (encoding 7 enzymes) were found to be involved in sesquiterpene of agarwood biosynthesis by bioinformatic tools of Gene Ontology and KEGG. Novel genes that are potentially involved in sesquiterpenes biosynthesis were identified in A. sinensis, providing data for further sesquiterpenes biosynthesis pathway by molecular methods and the EST data establish a foundation for future studies in the molecular mechanisms of wound-induce agarwood formation in A. sinensis. PMID:23162911

  6. [Cordyceps sinensis enhances lymphocyte proliferation and CD markers expression in simulated microgravity environment].

    PubMed

    Hao, Tong; Li, Jun-Jie; Du, Zhi-Yan; Duan, Cui-Mi; Wang, Yan-Meng; Wang, Chang-Yong; Song, Jing-Ping; Wang, Lin-Jie; Li, Ying-Hui; Wang, Yan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of cordyceps sinensis enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and surface CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. The splenic lymphocytes were separated from mice and cultured in the rotary cell culture system simulated microgravity environment. The cells were treated with different concentration of cordyceps sinensis solution (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 µg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 h respectively, then the cells were harvested, and analyzed for cell proliferation and the expression of cell surface markers (CD4 and CD8). The results showed that under simulated microgravity environment, the lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited. When the concentration of cordyceps sinensis was 25 or 50 µg/ml, the lymphocyte proliferation, CD4 and CD8 expressions all increased, but 50 µg/ml cordyceps sinensis could inhibit the proliferation ability with the time prolonging. It is concluded that the suitable concentration of cordyceps sinensis displayed the ability to enhance the lymphocyte proliferation and CD marker expression in simulated microgravity environment. These results may be valuable for screening drugs which can be potentially against immunosuppression under simulated microgravity. PMID:23114150

  7. Biosynthetic Pathway Analysis for Improving the Cordycepin and Cordycepic Acid Production in Hirsutella sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xue, Ya-Ping; Baker, Peter James; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Teng, Yi; Brathwaite, Mgavi Elombe; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-06-01

    Hirsutella sinensis is considered as the only correct anamorph of Ophiocordyceps sinensis. To improve cordycepin and cordycepic acid production in H. sinensis, the biosynthetic pathways of cordycepin and cordycepic acid were predicted, and verified by cloning and expressing genes involved in these pathways, respectively. Then, 5'-nucleotidase participating in biosynthetic pathway of cordycepin, hexokinase, and glucose phosphate isomerase involved in biosynthetic pathway of cordycepic acid, were demonstrated playing important roles in the corresponding biosynthetic pathway by real-time PCR, accompanying with significantly up-regulated 15.03-, 5.27-, and 3.94-fold, respectively. Moreover, the metabolic regulation of H. sinensis was performed. As expected, cordycepin production reached 1.09 mg/g when additional substrate of 5'-nucleotidase was 4 mg/mL, resulting in an increase of 201.1 % compared with the control. In the same way, cordycepic acid production reached 26.6 and 23.4 % by adding substrate of hexokinase or glucose phosphate isomerase, leading to a rise of 77.3 and 55.1 %, respectively. To date, this is the first time to improve cordycepin and cordycepic acid production through metabolic regulation based on biosynthetic pathway analysis, and metabolic regulation is proved as a simple and effective way to enhance the output of cordycepin and cordycepic acid in submerged cultivation of H. sinensis. PMID:26922724

  8. Genomic Analysis of Detoxification Supergene Families in the Mosquito Anopheles sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dan; Liu, Xianmiao; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and the emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control programs. The recently published An. sinensis genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to understand the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Analysis of the An. sinensis genome revealed 174 detoxification genes, including 93 cytochrome P450s (P450s), 31 glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and 50 choline/carboxylesterases (CCEs). The gene number was similar to that in An. gambiae, but represented a decrease of 29% and 42% compared with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The considerable contraction in gene number in Anopheles mosquitoes mainly occurred in two detoxification supergene families, P450s and CCEs. The available An. sinensis transcriptome was also re-analyzed to further identify key resistance-associated detoxification genes. Among 174 detoxification genes, 124 (71%) were detected. Several candidate genes overexpressed in a deltamethrin-resistant strain (DR-strain) were identified as belonging to the CYP4 or CYP6 family of P450s and the Delta GST class. These generated data provide a basis for identifying the resistance-associated genes of An. sinensis at the molecular level. PMID:26588704

  9. The inhibitory effect of Camellia sinensis extracts against the neuromuscular blockade of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Reis Rosa, Luana; Silva, Gleidy Ana Araujo; Filho, Jorge Amaral; Silva, Magali Glauzer; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    In geographically isolated populations where intensive medical care or serum therapy is not easily accessible snake envenomation is a major cause for concern. The aim of the present study was to test Camellia sinensis extracts, theaflavin and epigallocatechin (two of the main C. sinensis components) against the irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus venom in mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparations. A quantitative histological study was also performed. The venom (20µg/ml) completely decreased twitch tension after 70min and 5µg/ml venom abolished 50% of twitch amplitude after 60min. C. sinensis extract induced intense facilitatory effect in the preparation activity at 0.2mg/ml and slightly facilitatory effect at 0.05mg/ml. Both 0.05mg/ml C. sinensis extract and 0.05mg/ml commercial theaflavin maintained partial muscular activity in presence of 5µg/ml venom. The histological data confirms that Cs is able to protect the muscle from the myotoxic activity of the venom. Commercial epigallocatechin gallate did not show pre-synaptic nor post-synaptic activities. C. sinensis extract was able to protect the mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm against the irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by C. durissus terrificus venom. PMID:21544176

  10. Isolation, characterization, and antitumor activity of a novel heteroglycan from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yu-xia; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Pei-xin; Peng, Nan; Zhu, Hai; Liang, Yun-xiang

    2014-08-01

    A novel heteroglycan, Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide 1 (molecular weight 1 17 × 10(5) Da), was isolated and purified from mycelia of the fungus C. sinensis obtained by solid-state culture. Structural characterization by chemical analysis, GC-MS, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopy showed that C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 was mainly composed of (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Glc and α-D-Gal, with minor β-(1 → 4)-D-Xyl and β-(1 → 4)-D-Man residues probably located in the side chains with a trace amount of α-(1 → 3)-L-Rha residue. In biological assays, C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 significantly inhibited proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies will elucidate the antitumor mechanism of C. sinensis polysaccharide 1 and promote its utilization for the development of novel, effective anticancer drugs. PMID:25127022

  11. Partial Sequence of a Novel Virus Isolated from Pelodiscus sinensis Hemorrhagic Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Cao, Zheng; Lin, Feng; Ye, Xue-ping; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome-like disease with high mortality rates have frequently occurred in Pelodiscus sinensis farms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogen through challenge infection assays and partial sequencing of the genome of the pathogen. A 453-bp amplicon was obtained by random PCR using the nucleic acid extracted from the tissue homogenate filtrate and showed 32% identity at the amino acid level with the replicase polyprotein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by Blastx. Multiple alignments indicated the putative protein sequence has some similarities to the replicase polyprotein of Arteriviridae, and the phylogenetic tree showed it was closely related to equine arteritis virus. This sequence was found in the lung of the diseased P. sinensis by in situ hybridization. Dot blot hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the lung had the highest content of virus. The peak replication of P. sinensis hemorrhagic syndrome virus (TSHSV) in the lung occurred 4 days after infection. The ribonucleic nature of the viral genome was confirmed by RNase A or DNase I treatments. We named the virus TSHSV in this study as P. sinensis is also known as Trionyx sinensis. These results provide a fundamental basis for further understanding the biology and the molecular mechanisms of TSHSV. PMID:26279281

  12. Limnoithona sinensis as refuge for bacteria: protection from UV radiation and chlorine disinfection in drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Cai, Bo; Chen, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we tested the potential of Limnoithona sinensis to provide its attached bacteria refuge against disinfection. The experimental results indicated that in water devoid of zooplankton, both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection significantly decreased the viability of free-living bacteria. In the presence of L. sinensis, however, the attached bacteria could survive and rapidly recover from disinfection. This demonstrated that L. sinensis provided protection from external damage to various aquatic bacteria that were attached to its body. The surviving bacteria remained on L. sinensis after disinfection exposure, which enabled a rapid increase in the bacterial population followed by their subsequent release into the surrounding water. Compared with UV radiation, chlorine disinfection was more effective in terms of inactivating attached bacteria. Both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection had little effect in terms of preventing the spread of undesirable bacteria, due to the incomplete inactivation of the bacteria associated with L. sinensis. PMID:25322149

  13. Novel tirucallane triterpenoids from the stem bark of Toona sinensis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Wen-Yuan; Xie, Ning; Chen, Lei; Feng, Feng; Qu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the stem bark of Toona sinensis was carried out by various chromatographic techniques resulting in the isolation and elucidation of two novel tirucallane triterpenoids, named (20S)-3-oxo-tirucalla-25-nor-7-en-24-oic acid (1) and (20S)-5α,8α-epidioxy-3-oxo-24-nor-6.9(11)-dien-23-oic acid (2), along with fifteen known triterpenoids (3-17), their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS experiments. Compound 2 is uncommon in nature, which possesses a peroxide bridge cross C-5 and C-8 in the triterpenoid skeleton. All isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines (A-549, Hela, HepG2, SGC-7901 and SW-480), among them, compound 17 displayed strongest cytotoxic activity against A-549 cells and the results indicated that its cytotoxicity against A-549 cells was mediated by the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, ROS production-inhibitory activities were also evaluated, but none of them was active. PMID:27215130

  14. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants. PMID:27254458

  15. Milk-clotting mechanism of Dregea sinensis Hemsl. protease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Wang, Hongyan; Tao, Liang; Huang, Ai-xiang

    2015-12-01

    Dregea sinensis Hemsl. is used as a milk coagulant to produce goat milk cakes in Yunnan, China. However, the composition of milk-clotting compounds and the related mechanism have not been reported. Crude protease was extracted from the stem, purified, and then separated with a Millipore ultrafiltration centrifuge tube. Cysteine protease (procerain B) was identified as the main milk-clotting protein through electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and its molecular weight was 23.8 kDa. The protease can partially degrade α-casein (CN) and completely degrade β- and κ-CN, and κ-CN degradation resulted in milk clotting. The molecular weight and AA sequence of the peptide fractions were determined through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and a peptide sequencer, respectively. The enzyme cleaved κ-CN at Ala90-Gln91 and produced deputy κ-CN and caseinomacropeptide with molecular weights of 12 and 6.9 kDa, respectively. This cleavage site differed from the majority of chymosins cleaved at Phe105-Met106. PMID:26506540

  16. Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

  17. Neuroprotective and Cytotoxic Phthalides from Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenxia; Zhou, Yuzhi; Li, Xiao; Gao, Xiaoxia; Tian, Junsheng; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Seven phthalides, including a new dimeric one named tokinolide C (7), were isolated from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and characterized. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with literature data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against the A549, HCT-8, and HepG2 cancer cell lines. Riligustilide (4) showed cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 13.82, 6.79, and 7.92 μM, respectively. Tokinolide A (6) and tokinolide C (6) exerted low cytotoxicity in these cancer cell lines, while the remaining compounds were inactive. Flow cytometry analysis was employed to evaluate the possible mechanism of cytotoxic action of riligustilide (4). We observed that compound 4 was able to arrest the cell cycle in the G1, S phases and induce apoptosis in a time-dependent manner in HCT-8 cell lines. In addition, these compounds were evaluated for neuroprotective effect against SH-SY5Y cells injured by glutamate. The result showed that ligustilide (1), Z-butylidenephthalide (3) and tokinolide A (6) exhibited significant neuroprotective effects. PMID:27128890

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese bamboo rat, Rhizomys sinensis and species divergence comparison.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Liu, Xiaohua; Tu, Feiyun

    2016-05-01

    The Chinese bamboo rat Rhizomys sinensis belongs to family Spalacidae, and is distributed in China, Myanmar, and Vietnam. In this study, the entire mitochondrial genome of R. sinensis was firstly determined. The genome is 16,564 bases in length, containing 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a putative control region. The composition and arrangement of its genes are identical to most other mammals. The whole base composition of the mitogenome is A 31.9%, G 12.0%, T 31.2% and C 24.9%, with an A+T rich pattern. The species divergence between R. sinensis and R. pruinosus is 0.113, in accordance with a "10× rule", as the intraspecific barcode variation averaged 1%. The mitogenome data of R. sumatrensis is required to better understand the phylogenetic relationships within Rhizomys. PMID:25264842

  19. Short Communication Development of microsatellite markers and genetic diversity analysis for Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Zhao, J; Li, W; Shi, Y; Hong, X Y; Zhu, X P

    2016-01-01

    Pelodiscus sinensis is a common freshwater soft-shell turtle found in China, and is an important aquaculture species. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite primers were developed from the transcriptome. The genetic diversity of three populations of P. sinensis was evaluated, using 72 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 26. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.208 to 0.958, and from 0.302 to 0.963, respectively. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.283 to 0.953. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected. These markers will be useful for future population genetic studies and molecular breeding of P. sinensis. PMID:27525890

  20. Imported parasitic infections in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Dakić, Z.; Nikolić, A.; Lavadinović, L.; Pelemiš, M.; Klun, I.; Dulović, O.; Milošević, B.; Stevanović, G.; Ofori-Belić, I.; Poluga, J.; Pavlović, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed. Results Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis. Conclusions Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account. PMID:24466436

  1. Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Trelis, Maria; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Osuna, Antonio; Bernal, Dolores; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Almeida, Igor C.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasite–parasite inter-communication as well as in parasite–host interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens. PMID:25536932

  2. Parasitic Weeds, a Scientific Challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent issue of the SCI journal Pest Management Science (May, 2009) was devoted to an overview of the problem of parasitic weeds and to the research that is being done to alleviate it. These papers are from an OECD-sponsored conference entitled Managing Parasitic Weeds that recently brought the b...

  3. NLR proteins and parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Clay, Gwendolyn M; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Wilson, Mary E

    2014-08-01

    Parasitic diseases are a serious global health concern. Many of the most common and most severe parasitic diseases, including Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis, are also classified as neglected tropical diseases and are comparatively less studied than infectious diseases prevalent in high income nations. The NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich-repeat-containing proteins) are cytosolic proteins known to be involved in pathogen detection and host response. The role of NLRs in the host response to parasitic infection is just beginning to be understood. The NLR proteins NOD1 and NOD2 have been shown to contribute to immune responses during Trypanosoma cruzi infection, Toxoplasma gondii infection, and murine cerebral malaria. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by T. cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis but also induces pathology during infection with schistosomes or malaria. Both the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes respond to T. gondii infection. The NLRs may play crucial roles in human immune responses during parasitic infection, usually acting as innate immune sensors and driving the inflammatory response against invading parasites. However, this inflammatory response can either kill the invading parasite or be responsible for destructive pathology. Therefore, understanding the role of the NLR proteins will be critical to understanding the host defense against parasites as well as the fine balance between homeostasis and parasitic disease. PMID:24989828

  4. Serine proteases of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-02-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  5. Serine Proteases of Parasitic Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  6. Navigating parasite webs and parasite flow: emerging and re-emerging parasitic zoonoses of wildlife origin.

    PubMed

    Polley, Lydden

    2005-10-01

    Wildlife are now recognised as an important source of emerging human pathogens, including parasites. This paper discusses the linkages between wildlife, people, zoonotic parasites and the ecosystems in which they co-exist, revisits definitions for 'emerging' and 're-emerging', and lists zoonotic parasites that can be acquired from wildlife including, for some, estimates of the associated global human health burdens. The paper also introduces the concepts of 'parasite webs' and 'parasite flow', provides a context for parasites, relative to other infectious agents, as causes of emerging human disease, and discusses drivers of disease emergence and re-emergence, especially changes in biodiversity and climate. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Caribbean and the southern United States, Baylisascaris procyonis in California and Georgia, Plasmodium knowlesi in Sarawak, Malaysia, Human African Trypanosomiasis, Sarcoptes scabiei in carnivores, and Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Toxoplasma in marine ecosystems are presented as examples of wildlife-derived zoonotic parasites of particular recent interest. An ecological approach to disease is promoted, as is a need for an increased profile for this approach in undergraduate and graduate education in the health sciences. Synergy among scientists and disciplines is identified as critical for the study of parasites and parasitic disease in wildlife populations. Recent advances in techniques for the investigation of parasite fauna of wildlife are presented and monitoring and surveillance systems for wildlife disease are discussed. Some of the limitations inherent in predictions for the emergence and re-emergence of infection and disease associated with zoonotic parasites of wildlife are identified. The importance of public awareness and public education in the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic infection and disease are emphasised. Finally, some thoughts for the future are presented. PMID:16168994

  7. Identification of chemical markers in Cordyceps sinensis by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hankun; Xiao, Ling; Zheng, Baogen; Wei, Xin; Ellis, Alexis; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Authentication and quality assessment of Cordyceps sinensis, a precious and pricey natural product that offers a variety of health benefits, is highly significant. To identify effective chemical markers, authentic C. sinensis was thoroughly screened by using HPLC-MS/MS. In addition to many previously reported ingredients, two glycosides, i.e., cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose and Phe-o-glucose, were detected for the first time in this material. Six ingredients detected, including cordycepin, D-mannitol, Phe, Phe-o-glucose, cyclo-Gly-Pro, and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were selected as a collection of chemical markers. An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously quantify them with sensitivity and specificity. The method had limits of detection ranging from 0.008 μg mL(-1) for cordycepin to 0.75 μg mL(-1) for cyclo-Gly-Pro. Recovery was found between 96 and 103 % in all tests. To evaluate the effectiveness of the marker collection proposed, five authentic C. sinensis samples and five samples of its substitutes were analyzed. Cordycepin, D-mannitol, and Phe were found present in all samples. The contents ranged from 0.0076 to 0.029 % (w/w) for cordycepin, 0.33 to 18.9 % for mannitol, and 0.0013 to 0.642 % for Phe. Interestingly, the two glycosides, Phe-o-glucose and cyclo-Ala-Leu-rhamnose, were detected only in authentic C. sinensis samples. These results indicated that the proposed protocol based on HPLC-MS/MS quantification of the markers might have a great potential in authentication and quality assessment of C. sinensis. Graphical abstract Chemical markers of C. sinensis identified in this work. PMID:26302964

  8. Transcriptome Sequencing of Chemically Induced Aquilaria sinensis to Identify Genes Related to Agarwood Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wei; Wu, Hongqing; He, Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Weimin; Li, Haohua; Fan, Yunfei; Tan, Guohui; Liu, Taomei; Gao, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Background Agarwood is a traditional Chinese medicine used as a clinical sedative, carminative, and antiemetic drug. Agarwood is formed in Aquilaria sinensis when A. sinensis trees are threatened by external physical, chemical injury or endophytic fungal irritation. However, the mechanism of agarwood formation via chemical induction remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the transcriptome of different parts of a chemically induced A. sinensis trunk sample with agarwood. The Illumina sequencing platform was used to identify the genes involved in agarwood formation. Methodology/Principal Findings A five-year-old Aquilaria sinensis treated by formic acid was selected. The white wood part (B1 sample), the transition part between agarwood and white wood (W2 sample), the agarwood part (J3 sample), and the rotten wood part (F5 sample) were collected for transcriptome sequencing. Accordingly, 54,685,634 clean reads, which were assembled into 83,467 unigenes, were obtained with a Q20 value of 97.5%. A total of 50,565 unigenes were annotated using the Nr, Nt, SWISS-PROT, KEGG, COG, and GO databases. In particular, 171,331,352 unigenes were annotated by various pathways, including the sesquiterpenoid (ko00909) and plant–pathogen interaction (ko03040) pathways. These pathways were related to sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis and defensive responses to chemical stimulation. Conclusions/Significance The transcriptome data of the different parts of the chemically induced A. sinensis trunk provide a rich source of materials for discovering and identifying the genes involved in sesquiterpenoid production and in defensive responses to chemical stimulation. This study is the first to use de novo sequencing and transcriptome assembly for different parts of chemically induced A. sinensis. Results demonstrate that the sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis pathway and WRKY transcription factor play important roles in agarwood formation via chemical induction. The comparative analysis of

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat Vespertilio sinensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Lee, Jin Hong; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat, Vespertilio sinensis, was determined. The genome organization, gene contents, and codon usage conformed to those of other bat mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitogenome of Vespertilio sinensis is 16,971 bp with a total base composition of 32.6% A, 29.6% T, 23.7% C and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. PMID:24660937

  10. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Mohammad M.; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L−1 sucrose, 0.1 g·L−1 l-glutamine and 5 g·L−1 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L−1 sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties. PMID:27428960

  11. Effect of Medium Supplements on Agrobacterium rhizogenes Mediated Hairy Root Induction from the Callus Tissues of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis.

    PubMed

    Rana, Mohammad M; Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Song, Da-Peng; Liu, Guo-Feng; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Karthikeyan, Alagarsamy; Wei, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation largely due to the bactericidal effects of tea polyphenols and phenolics oxidation induced by necrosis of explant tissue over the process of transformation. In this study, different antioxidants/adsorbents were added as supplements to the co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media to overcome these problems for the transformation improvement. Tea-cotyledon-derived calli were used as explants and Agrobacterium rhizognes strain ATCC 15834 was used as a mediator. Results showed that Agrobacterium growth, virulence (vir) gene expression and browning of explant tissue were greatly influenced by different supplements. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salts medium supplemented with 30 g·L(-1) sucrose, 0.1 g·L(-1) l-glutamine and 5 g·L(-1) polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) as co-cultivation and post co-cultivation media could maintain these parameters better that ultimately led to significant improvement of hairy root generation efficiency compared to that in the control (MS + 30 g·L(-1) sucrose). Additionally, the reporter genes β-glucuronidase (gusA) and cyan fluorescent protein (cfp) were also stably expressed in the transgenic hairy roots. Our study would be helpful in establishing a feasible approach for tea biological studies and genetic improvement of tea varieties. PMID:27428960

  12. How have fisheries affected parasite communities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    To understand how fisheries affect parasites, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that contrasted parasite assemblages in fished and unfished areas. Parasite diversity was lower in hosts from fished areas. Larger hosts had a greater abundance of parasites, suggesting that fishing might reduce the abundance of parasites by selectively removing the largest, most heavily parasitized individuals. After controlling for size, the effect of fishing on parasite abundance varied according to whether the host was fished and the parasite's life cycle. Parasites of unfished hosts were more likely to increase in abundance in response to fishing than were parasites of fished hosts, possibly due to compensatory increases in the abundance of unfished hosts. While complex life cycle parasites tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, directly transmitted parasites tended to increase. Among complex life cycle parasites, those with fished hosts tended to decline in abundance in response to fishing, while those with unfished hosts tended to increase. However, among directly transmitted parasites, responses did not differ between parasites with and without fished hosts. This work suggests that parasite assemblages are likely to change substantially in composition in increasingly fished ecosystems, and that parasite life history and fishing status of the host are important in predicting the response of individual parasite species or groups to fishing.

  13. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  14. Cardiac Involvement with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hidron, Alicia; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rassi, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Parasitic infections previously seen only in developing tropical settings can be currently diagnosed worldwide due to travel and population migration. Some parasites may directly or indirectly affect various anatomical structures of the heart, with infections manifested as myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, or pulmonary hypertension. Thus, it has become quite relevant for clinicians in developed settings to consider parasitic infections in the differential diagnosis of myocardial and pericardial disease anywhere around the globe. Chagas' disease is by far the most important parasitic infection of the heart and one that it is currently considered a global parasitic infection due to the growing migration of populations from areas where these infections are highly endemic to settings where they are not endemic. Current advances in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis offer hope to prevent not only the neurological complications but also the frequently identified cardiac manifestations of this life-threatening parasitic infection. The lack of effective vaccines, optimal chemoprophylaxis, or evidence-based pharmacological therapies to control many of the parasitic diseases of the heart, in particular Chagas' disease, makes this disease one of the most important public health challenges of our time. PMID:20375355

  15. Immunomodulation by Hibiscus rosa-sinensis: effect on the humoral and cellular immune response of Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nidhi; Tandon, Vijay Lakshmi; Gupta, Rekha

    2012-03-15

    In West India, the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) is traditionally used as tea as a natural diuretic. Extract of this plant contains Vitamin C and is used traditionally as a mild medicine. In spite of a long history of traditional medicinal value of H. rosa-sinensis still no data are available for immunomodulatory activity. In present investigation, aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis (AEHrs) (500 mg kg(-1) BW) was intraperitoneally (IP) injected to the male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) to evaluate the immunomodulatory property of extract. In addition for evaluation of phytochemical constituents of flowers of H. rosa-sinensis HPTLC was performed. The crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis has immunomodulatory activity. After the 15 days treatment, the number of plaque forming cells increased by 0.6%, antibody titre was increased 38.15% and significant increase of 52% was observed in DTH response. At the same concentration of dose the level of serum IL-1alpha enhanced significantly (14.27%) whereas a considerable decrease (32.70%) in the concentration of IL-2 was observed among AEHrs treated mice in comparison to the control mice. HPTLC chromatogram revealed that H. rosa-sinensis posses alkaloid (Rf 0.93) and flavonoids (Rf 0.02, 0.06, 0.14) on the basis of Rf values. Results of investigation supports for the immunomodulatory activity of H. rosa-sinensis aqueous extract. PMID:24175424

  16. Diversity of parasite complex II.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shigeharu; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Ohmori, Junko; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Parasites have developed a variety of physiological functions necessary for completing at least part of their life cycles in the specialized environments of surrounding the parasites in the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is essential for survival, parasites adapt to the low oxygen environment in mammalian hosts by using metabolic systems that are very different from those of the hosts. In many cases, the parasite employs aerobic metabolism during the free-living stage outside the host but undergoes major changes in developmental control and environmental adaptation to switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. Parasite mitochondria play diverse roles in their energy metabolism, and in recent studies of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, the mitochondrial complex II plays an important role in anaerobic energy metabolism of parasites inhabiting hosts by acting as a quinol-fumarate reductase. In Trypanosomes, parasite complex II has been found to have a novel function and structure. Complex II of Trypanosoma cruzi is an unusual supramolecular complex with a heterodimeric iron-sulfur subunit and seven additional non-catalytic subunits. The enzyme shows reduced binding affinities for both substrates and inhibitors. Interestingly, this structural organization is conserved in all trypanosomatids. Since the properties of complex II differ across a wide range of parasites, this complex is a potential target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. In this regard, structural information on the target enzyme is essential for the molecular design of drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease. PMID:23333273

  17. Glomerulopathy Associated with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    van Velthuysen, M.-L. F.; Florquin, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although parasitic infections do not usually present with disturbance in renal function, glomerular lesions can be seen in most of these infections. The glomerular lesions observed in parasitic infections cover the whole range of glomerular lesions known, but most of them are proliferative. Little is known of the exact pathogenic mechanisms. In this review, we try to explain the glomerular lesions associated with parasitic infections in terms of the specific immunologic events observed during these diseases against the background of recent developments in the general knowledge of the pathogenesis of glomerular disease. PMID:10627491

  18. Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

  19. Evaluation of Hirsutella sinensis mycelium for antifatigue effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lung-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Fang; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Liu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Chen, Yung-Liang; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Yeh, Chun; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Jia-You; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM) has any antifatigue effect, using a forced swimming model in rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups, each containing eight animals. The control group received 2 ml/kg body weight of distilled water and a positive control group was administered 1.13 ml/kg Quaker Essence of Chicken. The treated swimming groups were administered HSM powder manufactured by Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation, Ltd., at doses of 63 mg/kg, 189 mg/kg or 378 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively for a period of six weeks. The above experiment was repeated with another 40 rats but for a period of eight weeks. At the end of the experiments, rats were placed in a swimming apparatus and the total swimming time until exhaustion was recorded. Pre-/post-exercise concentrations of serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid were also determined. There were no deaths during the study. Physical and behavioral examinations did not reveal any treatment-related adverse effects after dosing. Changes in lactate levels were dose-dependent for the 8- but not the 6-week treatment. BUN levels were more affected by the 8-week treatment of HSM but not significantly altered in the 6-week treatment groups. The 8-week treatment groups showed a significant increase in swimming time to exhaustion compared to the control groups, which was not dose-dependent. For the 6-week treatment, only the middle and high doses increased swimming time to exhaustion. Conjugated diene contents were significantly higher in rats treated at any HSM dose for 8-weeks than the control groups. Swimming did not alter levels of liver glycogen when compared to the control sub-groups. Results of this study demonstrate that HSM improves physical endurance, which may be beneficial in treating conditions where fatigue is a factor and other antifatigue treatments are contraindicated. PMID:25792655

  20. [Bioassay for enrich-blood bioactivity of Agelicae Sinensis Radix].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-xiao; Zhang, Li-hong; Li, Xi; Wang, Ye; Rong, Zu-yuan; Wei, Hong-ping; Song, Qi-rui; Lv, Guang-hua

    2015-04-01

    Danggui, Agelicae Sinensis Radix, is a widely used Chinese herb to enrich blood, but its quality cannot be effectively assessed by the known chemical markers such as ferulic acid, ligustilide, polysaccharides, etc. A new bioassay was therefore developed to quantify the Enrich-Blood Bioactivity (EBB) for the quality assessment of Danggui raw materials. Danggui sample was first extracted with ethanol and water, respectively. Then the ethanolic extract and water extract were mixed as a test sample to quantify the amount of EBB by mice experiment. The blood deficiency mode in mice was developed by intraperitoneal injecting cyclophospharmide and phenylhdrazine hydrochloride. The quantity of red blood cell was chosen as EBB marker. Cyclosporine A was chosen as a control substance. EBB in analytes was quantified by the amount reaction of parallel line analysis (3, 3') method. The results indicated that the reliability test for quantifying EBB was passed through and the measured value was valid. The analytes showed the significant EBB (P < 0.05). The correlation coefficient was 0.9984 (n=5) between the amount of cyclosporine A (0.035-0.56 g x kg(-1)) and the increased number of red blood cell. The relative standard deviation (RSY) on the amount of EBB was estimated to be 6.15% (n = 6) by six replicated tests, and the confidence limit rate was 26.68% (n = 6). Five Danggui samples, which were collected from different cultivation areas with various morphological characters, showed the variety of EBB in the range of 21.95-44.16 U x g(-1). It is concluded that the developed method is accurate to quantify the EBB of Danggui raw materials, and is therefore suitable to assess its quality. PMID:26281565

  1. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.

    PubMed

    Mamta; Mehrotra, Shubhi; Amitabh; Kirar, Vandana; Vats, Praveen; Nandi, Shoma Paul; Negi, P S; Misra, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities and also quantified bioactive nucleoside using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of five extracts of Indian Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis prepared with different solvents employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique. The phytochemical potential of these extracts was quantified in terms of total phenolic and total flavonoid content while antioxidant activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total reducing power (TRP) was determined by converting iron (III) into iron (II) reduction assay. CS(50%Alc) (15.1 ± 0.67mg/g of dry extract) and CS(100%Alc) (19.3 ± 0.33 mg/g of dry extract) showed highest phenolic and flavonoid content, respectively while CS(Aq) extract showed maximum antioxidant activity and the highest concentration of the three nucleosides (adenine 12.8 ± 0.49 mg/g, adenosine 0.36 ± 0.28 mg/g and uracil 0.14 ± 0.36 mg/g of dry extract) determined by HPTLC. The evaluation of extracts for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains showed CS(25%Alc), CS(75%Alc) and CS(100%Alc) extract to be more effective against E. coli, P. aerugenosa and B. subtilis giving 9, 7 and 6.5 mm of zone of inhibition (ZOI) in 93.75, 93.75 and 45 μg concentration, respectively, whereas CS(Aq) extract showed minimal inhibition against these. PMID:25675710

  2. Parasites in pet reptiles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles), belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (4)) of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3%) of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (6)) of endoparasites in 252 (76.1%) of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1) and Protozoa (2)) of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5%) animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners. PMID:21624124

  3. Myxozoan parasitism in waterfowl.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Jerri L; Atkinson, Stephen D; Hallett, Sascha L; Lowenstine, Linda J; Garner, Michael M; Gardiner, Chris H; Rideout, Bruce A; Keel, M Kevin; Brown, Justin D

    2008-08-01

    Myxozoans are spore-forming, metazoan parasites common in cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates, especially fishes, with alternate life cycle stages developing in invertebrates. We report nine cases of infection in free-flying native and captive exotic ducks (Anseriformes: Anatidae) from locations across the United States and describe the first myxozoan in birds, Myxidium anatidum n. sp. We found developmental stages and mature spores in the bile ducts of a Pekin duck (domesticated Anas platyrhynchos). Spores are lens-shaped in sutural view, slightly sigmoidal in valvular view, with two polar capsules, and each valve cell has 14-16 longitudinal surface ridges. Spore dimensions are 23.1 microm x 10.8 microm x 11.2 microm. Phylogenetic analysis of the ssrRNA gene revealed closest affinity with Myxidium species described from chelonids (tortoises). Our novel finding broadens the definition of the Myxozoa to include birds as hosts and has implications for understanding myxozoan evolution, and mechanisms of geographical and host range extension. The number of infection records indicates this is not an incidental occurrence, and the detection of such widely dispersed cases suggests more myxozoans in birds will be encountered with increased surveillance of these hosts for pathogens. PMID:18342316

  4. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels-derived dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Sun, Jianghao; Yu, Liangli (Lucy); Chen, Pei

    2013-01-01

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (“Danggui” in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and cardiovascular diseases. There are a number of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements in the U. S. markets. However, no study has been conducted to investigate the quality of these dietary supplements. In this paper, high-performance liquid chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric fingerprints were both evaluated to assess the consistency of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements. Similarity analysis was carried out on the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprints. Meanwhile, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data obtained from flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints, which cananalyze each sample in 2 min, compared to 30 min required for the chromatographic fingerprint. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the FIMS fingerprints was performed. Both methods show significant chemical differences between samples that may be due to differences in growing locations, growing conditions, harvesting times, and/or botanical processing. The loading plots obtained from PCA singled out the discriminatory ions that were responsible for chemical differences of A. sinensis-derived dietary supplements. PMID:23314619

  5. Gleditsia sinensis: Transcriptome Sequencing, Construction, and Application of Its Protein-Protein Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liucun; Zhang, Ying; Guo, Wenna; Wang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gleditsia sinensis is a genus of deciduous tree in the family Caesalpinioideae, native to China, and is of great economic importance. However, despite its economic value, gene sequence information is strongly lacking. In the present study, transcriptome sequencing of G. sinensis was performed resulting in approximately 75.5 million clean reads assembled into 142155 unique transcripts generating 58583 unigenes. The average length of the unigenes was 900 bp, with an N50 of 549 bp. The obtained unigene sequences were then compared to four protein databases to include NCBI nonredundant protein (NRDB), Swiss-prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG). Using BLAST procedure, 31385 unigenes (53.6%) were generated to have functional annotations. Additionally, sequence homologies between identified unigenes and genes of known species in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network facilitated G. sinensis PPI network construction. Based on this network construction, new stress resistance genes (including cold, drought, and high salinity) were predicted. The present study is the first investigation of genome-wide gene expression in G. sinensis with the results providing a basis for future functional genomic studies relating to this species. PMID:24982878

  6. Morphological alterations of all stages of spermatogenesis and acrosome reaction in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Li; Sun, Wen-Juan; He, Lin; Li, Qing; Wang, Qun

    2015-05-01

    The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a seasonally breeding species and its reproductive system comprises paired symmetrical structures: testes, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, accessory glands and ejaculatory ducts. Histological examination of the testis of mature males reveals regression of the gonads and inhibition of the process of spermatogenesis during December to April of the following year, the regeneration of the gonads during June to July and the occurrence of the highest level of spermatogenesis during August to October. Microscopic assessments and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were used to describe all spermatogenic stages (spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoids). To observe the morphological changes during spermiogenesis, we successfully initiated primary cell culture using testis tissue of E. sinensis, which will lay a solid foundation for further work on the immortalization of crab cells. During the interaction between the sperm and oocyte, the fertilizing spermatozoon must undergo a series of terminal morphological changes, called the acrosome reaction (AR). This study also provides a detailed description of the structural alterations of the acrosome reaction of E. sinensis. The acrosome complex and cup-shaped nucleus are located at the anterior and posterior of the spermatozoon, respectively. Male germ cell development involves a tightly controlled sequence of differentiation switches. The purpose of this study is to increase our knowledge of the morphological alterations during spermatogenesis and the acrosome reaction, whose changes are a fundamental requirement for fertilization of E. sinensis. PMID:25648553

  7. De Novo Assembly and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Provide Insight into Lysine Biosynthesis in Toona sinensis Roem

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xia; Song, Zhenqiao; Liu, Tian; Guo, Linlin; Li, Xingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Toona sinensis Roem is a popular leafy vegetable in Chinese cuisine and is also used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, leaf samples were collected from the same plant on two development stages and then used for high-throughput Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). 125,884 transcripts and 54,628 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly. A total of 25,570 could be annotated with known biological functions, which indicated that the T. sinensis leaves and shoots were undergoing multiple developmental processes especially for active metabolic processes. Analysis of differentially expressed unigenes between the two libraries showed that the lysine biosynthesis was an enriched KEGG pathway, and candidate genes involved in the lysine biosynthesis pathway in T. sinensis leaves and shoots were identified. Our results provide a primary analysis of the gene expression files of T. sinensis leaf and shoot on different development stages and afford a valuable resource for genetic and genomic research on plant lysine biosynthesis. PMID:27376077

  8. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U.; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates.” We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens PMID:25719410

  9. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric fingerprinting analyses of angelica sinensis (Oliv.) diels dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (“Danggui” in Chinese) is one of the most commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). It has been used to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of anemia, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and cardiovascular diseases. There are a lo...

  10. Inflorescence architecture affects pollinator behaviour and mating success in Spiranthes sinensis (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Iwata, Tatsunori; Nagasaki, Osamu; Ishii, Hiroshi S; Ushimaru, Atushi

    2012-01-01

    • Despite the wide inflorescence diversity among angiosperms, the effects of inflorescence architecture (three-dimensional flower arrangement) on pollinator behaviour and mating success have not been sufficiently studied in natural plant populations. • Here, we investigated how inflorescence architecture affected inter- and intra-plant pollinator movements and consequent mating success in a field population of Spiranthes sinensis var. amoena (S. sinensis). In this species, the flowers are helically arranged around the stem, and the degree of twisting varies greatly among individuals. The large variation in inflorescence architecture in S. sinensis results from variation in a single structural parameter, the helical angle (the angular distance between neighbour-flower directions). • The numbers of visits per inflorescence and successive probes per visit by leaf-cutting bees decreased with helical angle, indicating that individual flowers of tightly twisted inflorescences received less visitations. As expected from pollinator behaviour, pollinia removal and fruit set of individual flowers decreased with helical angle. Meanwhile, geitonogamy decreased in tightly twisted inflorescences. • Our novel findings demonstrate that natural variation in inflorescence architecture significantly affects pollinator behaviour and reproductive success, suggesting that inflorescence architecture can evolve under pollinator-mediated natural selection in plant populations. We also discuss how diverse inflorescence architectures may have been maintained in S. sinensis populations. PMID:21919912

  11. Atypical parasitic ischiopagus conjoined twins.

    PubMed

    Corona-Rivera, J Román; Corona-Rivera, Enrique; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Acosta-León, Jorge; Aguila-Dueñas, Virginia; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2003-02-01

    Occurrence of asymmetrical or parasitic conjoined twins (CT) is rare, and currently they are classified analogically to the common unions of symmetrical CT. The authors report on an infant with a parasitic third limb attached to the left lateral aspect of the autosite trunk, in whom male gonadal tissue was found histologically. Parasite parts included complete left lower limb, hemipelvis, lumbosacral vertebral column, spinal cord, and one kidney with ureter and adrenal gland. Autosite anomalies comprised a small left diaphragmatic defect, omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, and lumbar meningomyelocele. The authors considered this case to be a rare atypical parasitic ischiopagus CT. The differential diagnosis of the type of twining and other entities with caudal duplications is analyzed briefly. PMID:12596123

  12. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-07-11

    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain. PMID:27404242

  13. Climate change and Arctic parasites.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Andy; Molnár, Péter K; Kutz, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Climate is changing rapidly in the Arctic. This has important implications for parasites of Arctic ungulates, and hence for the welfare of Arctic peoples who depend on caribou, reindeer, and muskoxen for food, income, and a focus for cultural activities. In this Opinion article we briefly review recent work on the development of predictive models for the impacts of climate change on helminth parasites and other pathogens of Arctic wildlife, in the hope that such models may eventually allow proactive mitigation and conservation strategies. We describe models that have been developed using the metabolic theory of ecology. The main strength of these models is that they can be easily parameterized using basic information about the physical size of the parasite. Initial results suggest they provide important new insights that are likely to generalize to a range of host-parasite systems. PMID:25900882

  14. Vaccination against helminth parasite infections.

    PubMed

    Hewitson, James P; Maizels, Rick M

    2014-04-01

    Helminth parasites infect over one fourth of the human population and are highly prevalent in livestock worldwide. In model systems, parasites are strongly immunomodulatory, but the immune system can be driven to expel them by prior vaccination. However, no vaccines are currently available for human use. Recent advances in vaccination with recombinant helminth antigens have been successful against cestode infections of livestock and new vaccines are being tested against nematode parasites of animals. Numerous vaccine antigens are being defined for a wide range of helminth parasite species, but greater understanding is needed to define the mechanisms of vaccine-induced immunity, to lay a rational platform for new vaccines and their optimal design. With human trials underway for hookworm and schistosomiasis vaccines, a greater integration between veterinary and human studies will highlight the common molecular and mechanistic pathways, and accelerate progress towards reducing the global health burden of helminth infection. PMID:24606541

  15. Pervasiveness of parasites in pollinators.

    PubMed

    Evison, Sophie E F; Roberts, Katherine E; Laurenson, Lynn; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Hui, Jeffrey; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Smith, Judith E; Budge, Giles; Hughes, William O H

    2012-01-01

    Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the parasites afflicting most other pollinators, or the extent of interspecific transmission or vectoring of parasites. Here we carry out a preliminary screening of pollinators (honey bees, five species of bumblebee, three species of wasp, four species of hoverfly and three genera of other bees) in the UK for parasites. We used molecular methods to screen for six honey bee viruses, Ascosphaera fungi, Microsporidia, and Wolbachia intracellular bacteria. We aimed simply to detect the presence of the parasites, encompassing vectoring as well as actual infections. Many pollinators of all types were positive for Ascosphaera fungi, while Microsporidia were rarer, being most frequently found in bumblebees. We also detected that most pollinators were positive for Wolbachia, most probably indicating infection with this intracellular symbiont, and raising the possibility that it may be an important factor in influencing host sex ratios or fitness in a diversity of pollinators. Importantly, we found that about a third of bumblebees (Bombus pascuorum and Bombus terrestris) and a third of wasps (Vespula vulgaris), as well as all honey bees, were positive for deformed wing virus, but that this virus was not present in other pollinators. Deformed wing virus therefore does not appear to be a general parasite of pollinators, but does interact significantly with at least three species of bumblebee and wasp. Further work is needed to establish the identity of some of the parasites, their spatiotemporal variation, and whether they are infecting the various pollinator species or being vectored. However, these results provide a first insight into the diversity, and potential exchange, of parasites in pollinator communities. PMID:22347356

  16. Carbohydrate metabolism of malarial parasites

    PubMed Central

    Homewood, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for the pathways involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates by malarial parasites is critically reviewed. In all species studied, glucose is catabolized mainly by glycolysis with little participation of the pentose—phosphate pathway. It has not been proved conclusively that there is a functioning citric acid cycle in the intraerythrocytic stages of avian plasmodia, nor is it certain that these stages of any malarial parasites use oxygen. PMID:338181

  17. Pervasiveness of Parasites in Pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Sophie E. F.; Roberts, Katherine E.; Laurenson, Lynn; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Hui, Jeffrey; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Smith, Judith E.; Budge, Giles; Hughes, William O. H.

    2012-01-01

    Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the parasites afflicting most other pollinators, or the extent of interspecific transmission or vectoring of parasites. Here we carry out a preliminary screening of pollinators (honey bees, five species of bumblebee, three species of wasp, four species of hoverfly and three genera of other bees) in the UK for parasites. We used molecular methods to screen for six honey bee viruses, Ascosphaera fungi, Microsporidia, and Wolbachia intracellular bacteria. We aimed simply to detect the presence of the parasites, encompassing vectoring as well as actual infections. Many pollinators of all types were positive for Ascosphaera fungi, while Microsporidia were rarer, being most frequently found in bumblebees. We also detected that most pollinators were positive for Wolbachia, most probably indicating infection with this intracellular symbiont, and raising the possibility that it may be an important factor in influencing host sex ratios or fitness in a diversity of pollinators. Importantly, we found that about a third of bumblebees (Bombus pascuorum and Bombus terrestris) and a third of wasps (Vespula vulgaris), as well as all honey bees, were positive for deformed wing virus, but that this virus was not present in other pollinators. Deformed wing virus therefore does not appear to be a general parasite of pollinators, but does interact significantly with at least three species of bumblebee and wasp. Further work is needed to establish the identity of some of the parasites, their spatiotemporal variation, and whether they are infecting the various pollinator species or being vectored. However, these results provide a first insight into the diversity, and potential exchange, of parasites in pollinator communities. PMID:22347356

  18. Parasitic Effects on Memristor Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Makoto; Chua, Leon O.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we show that parasitic elements have a significant effect on the dynamics of memristor circuits. We first show that certain 2-terminal elements such as memristors, memcapacitors, and meminductors can be used as nonvolatile memories, if the principle of conservation of state variables hold by open-circuiting, or short-circuiting, their terminals. We also show that a passive memristor with a strictly-increasing constitutive relation will eventually lose its stored flux when we switch off the power if there is a parasitic capacitance across the memristor. Similarly, a memcapacitor (resp., meminductor) with a positive memcapacitance (resp., meminductance) will eventually lose their stored physical states when we switch off the power, if it is connected to a parasitic resistance. We then show that the discontinuous jump that circuit engineers assumed to occur at impasse points of memristor circuits contradicts the principles of conservation of charge and flux at the time of the discontinuous jump. A parasitic element can be used to break an impasse point, resulting in the emergence of a continuous oscillation in the circuit. We also define a distance, a diameter, and a dimension, for each circuit element in order to measure the complexity order of the parasitic elements. They can be used to find higher-order parasitic elements which can break impasse points. Furthermore, we derived a memristor-based Chua’s circuit from a three-element circuit containing a memristor by connecting two parasitic memcapacitances to break the impasse points. We finally show that a higher-order parasitic element can be used for breaking the impasse points on two-dimensional and three-dimensional constrained spaces.

  19. Molecular diagnostics and parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-09-01

    Molecular parasitology represents an emerging field in microbiology diagnostics. Although most assays use nonstandardized, laboratory-developed methods, a few commercial systems have recently become available and are slowly being introduced into larger laboratories. In addition, a few methodologies show promise for use in field settings in which parasitic infections are endemic. This article reviews the available techniques and their applications to major parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trichomoniasis. PMID:23931835

  20. Lipids and the malarial parasite*

    PubMed Central

    Holz, George G.

    1977-01-01

    Merozoite endocytosis initiates Plasmodium development in a vacuole bounded by an erythrocyte-derived membrane, whose asymmetrical distribution of lipids and proteins is reversed in its orientation with respect to the parasite plasma membrane. Reorientation may accompany the proliferation of the membrane associated with the parasite's growth and phagocytic and pinocytic feeding. Increases in the membrane surface area of the parasite, and in some cases of the erythrocyte, parallel parasite growth and segmentation. Augmentation of all the membrane systems of the infected erythrocyte causes the lipid content to rise rapidly, but the parasite lipid composition differs from that of the erythrocyte in many respects: it is higher in diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, polyglycerol phosphatides, diacylglycerols, unesterified fatty acids, triacylglycerols, and hexadecanoic and octadecenoic fatty acids and lower in sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, alkoxy phosphatidylethanolamine, cholesterol, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Active lipid metabolism accompanies the membrane proliferation associated with feeding, growth, and reproduction. Plasmodium is incapable of de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol; however, it can fabricate its glycerides and phosphoglycerides with host-supplied fatty acids, nitrogenous bases, alcohols, ATP, and coenzyme A, and can generate the glyceryl moiety during glycolysis. Cholesterol is obtained from the host but nothing is known of sphingolipid origins. Lipid metabolism of the parasite may be associated with alterations in the amounts of octadecenoic fatty acids and cholesterol in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, which in turn are responsible for changes in permeability and fragility. PMID:412602

  1. Parasitic Pneumonia and Lung Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches. PMID:24995332

  2. Birds are islands for parasites.

    PubMed

    Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

  3. Birds are islands for parasites

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Jennifer A. H.; DeMatteo, Karen E.; Parker, Patricia G.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host–parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

  4. Hosts and parasites as aliens.

    PubMed

    Taraschewski, H

    2006-06-01

    Over the past decades, various free-living animals (hosts) and their parasites have invaded recipient areas in which they had not previously occurred, thus gaining the status of aliens or exotics. In general this happened to a low extent for hundreds of years. With variable frequency, invasions have been followed by the dispersal and establishment of non-indigenous species, whether host or parasite. In the literature thus far, colonizations by both hosts and parasites have not been treated and reviewed together, although both are usually interwoven in various ways. As to those factors permitting invasive success and colonization strength, various hypotheses have been put forward depending on the scientific background of respective authors and on the conspicuousness of certain invasions. Researchers who have tried to analyse characteristic developmental patterns, the speed of dispersal or the degree of genetic divergence in populations of alien species have come to different conclusions. Among parasitologists, the applied aspects of parasite invasions, such as the negative effects on economically important hosts, have long been at the centre of interest. In this contribution, invasions by hosts as well as parasites are considered comparatively, revealing many similarities and a few differences. Two helminths, the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, of cattle and sheep and the swimbladder nematode, Anguillicola crassus, of eels are shown to be useful as model parasites for the study of animal invasions and environmental global change. Introductions of F. hepatica have been associated with imports of cattle or other grazing animals. In various target areas, susceptible lymnaeid snails serving as intermediate hosts were either naturally present and/or were introduced from the donor continent of the parasite (Europe) and/or from other regions which were not within the original range of the parasite, partly reflecting progressive stages of a global biota change. In several

  5. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  6. Metal analysis in citrus sinensis fruit peel and psidium guajava leaf.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-07-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's 't' test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  7. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    PubMed

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  8. Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Gonadal Transcriptome of the Endangered Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hao; Zhang, Shuhuan; Wei, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) is endangered through anthropogenic activities including over-fishing, damming, shipping, and pollution. Controlled reproduction has been adopted and successfully conducted for conservation. However, little information is available on the reproductive regulation of the species. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly of the gonad tissue to create a comprehensive dataset for A. sinensis. Results The Illumina sequencing platform was adopted to obtain 47,333,701 and 47,229,705 high quality reads from testis and ovary cDNA libraries generated from three-year-old A. sinensis. We identified 86,027 unigenes of which 30,268 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 28,281 were annotated in the Swiss-prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 26,152 and 7,734 unigenes, respectively, were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups. In addition, 12,557 unigenes were mapped to 231 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. A total of 1,896 unigenes, potentially differentially expressed between the two gonad types, were found, with 1,894 predicted to be up-regulated in ovary and only two in testis. Fifty-five potential gametogenesis-related genes were screened in the transcriptome and 34 genes with significant matches were found. Besides, more paralogs of 11 genes in three gene families (sox, apolipoprotein and cyclin) were found in A. sinensis compared to their orthologs in the diploid Danio rerio. In addition, 12,151 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. Conclusions This study provides the first de novo transcriptome analysis currently available for A. sinensis. The transcriptomic data represents the fundamental resource for future research on the mechanism of early gametogenesis in sturgeons. The SSRs identified in this work will be valuable for assessment of genetic diversity of wild fish and genealogy

  9. The oldest record of Alligator sinensis from the Late Pliocene of Western Japan, and its biogeographic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Masaya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    The late Cenozoic fossil record of alligators in East Asia is crucial in understanding the origin and past distribution of Asian alligators that are now represented by a single species, Alligator sinensis. This study reports a partial skeleton of A. sinensis from the Late Pliocene (approximately 3.0 Ma) of western Japan. This Japanese A. sinensis is large in size (>200 cm total length), comparable to the maximum size of extant individuals. It demonstrates the oldest record of A. sinensis and wider distribution of this species in the past. Tectonic and geographic history of East Asia suggests that alligators presumably dispersed into Japan before 25 Ma or after 10 Ma, yet finally were wiped out from Japan due to the semi-isolated condition of the Japanese island arc and the deteriorated climate during the Plio-Pleistocene.

  10. Parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidioides spp. is the ethiological agent of coccidioidomycosis, an infection that can be fatal. Its diagnosis is complicated, due to that it shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with other pulmonary mycoses. Coccidioides spp. is a dimorphic fungus and, in its saprobic phase, grows as a mycelium, forming a large amount of arthroconidia. In susceptible persons, arthroconidia induce dimorphic changes into spherules/endospores, a typical parasitic form of Coccidioides spp. In addition, the diversity of mycelial parasitic forms has been observed in clinical specimens; they are scarcely known and produce errors in diagnosis. Methods We presented a retrospective study of images from specimens of smears with 15% potassium hydroxide, cytology, and tissue biopsies of a histopathologic collection from patients with coccidioidomycosis seen at a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. Results The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. observed in the clinical specimens was as follows: i) spherules/endospores in different maturation stages; ii) pleomorphic cells (septate hyphae, hyphae composed of ovoid and spherical cells, and arthroconidia), and iii) fungal ball formation (mycelia with septate hyphae and arthroconidia). Conclusions The parasitic polymorphism of Coccidioides spp. includes the following: spherules/endospores, arthroconidia, and different forms of mycelia. This knowledge is important for the accurate diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis. In earlier studies, we proposed the integration of this diversity of forms in the Coccidioides spp. parasitic cycle. The microhabitat surrounding the fungus into the host would favor the parasitic polymorphism of this fungus, and this environment may assist in the evolution toward parasitism of Coccidioides spp. PMID:24750998