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Sample records for parasitic diseases diagnosed

  1. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  2. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  3. How Is Kawasaki Disease Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Kawasaki Disease Diagnosed? Kawasaki disease is diagnosed based on your child's signs ... are the first to suspect a child has Kawasaki disease. Pediatricians are doctors who specialize in treating ...

  4. Parasitic Roundworm Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... The eggs or larvae also can enter the human body directly through the skin. With the exception of the parasitic roundworm that causes trichinosis, mature adult roundworms eventually end up or live in human intestines and cause infection and disease. In trichinosis, ...

  5. [Emerging parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Weibel Galluzzo, C; Wagner, N; Michel, Y; Jackson, Y; Chappuis, F

    2014-05-01

    Travels, migration and circulation of goods facilitate the emergence of new infectious diseases often unrecognized outside endemic areas. Most of emerging infections are of viral origin. Muscular Sarcocystis infection, an acute illness acquired during short trips to Malaysia, and Chagas disease, a chronic illness with long incubation period found among Latin American migrants, are two very different examples of emerging parasitic diseases. The former requires a preventive approach for travelers going to Malaysia and must be brought forth when they return with fever, myalgia and eosinophilia, while the latter requires a proactive attitude to screen Latin American migrant populations that may face difficulties in accessing care. PMID:24908745

  6. Malaria diseases and parasites.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, A

    1999-09-01

    The milestones in the discovery of malaria parasites and their relationships with malaria diseases are presented and discussed with particular reference to the contribution of the Italian scientists. Laveran's discovery (1880) of the malaria parasite produced some schepticism among the Roman scientists who were under the influence of Tommasi-Crudeli, the discoverer of the supposed Bacillus malariae. However, Marchiafava and Celli confirmed soon Laveran's observations and, between 1883 and 1885, improved the description of the parasite adding important details. They described, then, the aestivo-autumnal tertian fever as a distinct disease from the 'primaverile' or benign tertian. This work influenced Golgi who went on to analyse the features that distinguish the benign tertian parasite from that of the quartan. The fact that in North Italy the aestivo-autumnal tertian fever was hardly ever found, whereas it was common in the Roman Campagna and the Pontin marshes, explains why it was Celli and Marchiafava and later Bignami and Bastianelli, and Marchiafava and Bignami--but not Golgi--who were committed to work on this pernicious form of malaria. By the early 1890s the Italian scientists came to define the three malaria parasites, presently known as Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae, and P. falciparum, and to associate them with precise anatomo-pathological and clinical features. By the middle 1890s the Italian school was prepared to contribute also to the discovery of the mosquito cycle in human malaria, clearly hypothesized by Bignami in 1896 and experimentally proved in 1898 by Bignami, Bastianelli and Grassi. PMID:10697831

  7. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases. PMID:27621348

  8. Gaucher's disease diagnosed by splenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Adas, Mine; Adas, Gokhan; Karatepe, Oguzhan; Altiok, Merih; Ozcan, Deniz

    2009-01-01

    Context: Splenectomy continues to find common therapeutic indications for hematologic disorders. In addition, recently it is also performed in surgical clinics to assist diagnose of some illnesses. Gaucher's disease, especially Type I, is the most frequently encountered lysosomal storage disorder in man. Manifestations of it are highly variable. The most frequently found symptoms include splenomegaly with anaemia and thrombocytopenia, mostly due to hypersplenism, hepatomegaly and bone disease. Cases: Four patients were reported in the present study. Three of them were easily diagnosed with Gaucher's disease via bone marrow cytology, and one with Gaucher's disease was detected by pathological examination following the splenectomy. Conclusions: For the pouse of diagnosis of the Gaucher's disease, performing surgery is generally not necessary. However, for the cases of difficult to diagnose by classical methods, the corect diagnosis of Gaucher's disease can only be made by a special operation. PMID:22666685

  9. NLR proteins and parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Clay, Gwendolyn M; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Wilson, Mary E

    2014-08-01

    Parasitic diseases are a serious global health concern. Many of the most common and most severe parasitic diseases, including Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis, are also classified as neglected tropical diseases and are comparatively less studied than infectious diseases prevalent in high income nations. The NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich-repeat-containing proteins) are cytosolic proteins known to be involved in pathogen detection and host response. The role of NLRs in the host response to parasitic infection is just beginning to be understood. The NLR proteins NOD1 and NOD2 have been shown to contribute to immune responses during Trypanosoma cruzi infection, Toxoplasma gondii infection, and murine cerebral malaria. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by T. cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis but also induces pathology during infection with schistosomes or malaria. Both the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes respond to T. gondii infection. The NLRs may play crucial roles in human immune responses during parasitic infection, usually acting as innate immune sensors and driving the inflammatory response against invading parasites. However, this inflammatory response can either kill the invading parasite or be responsible for destructive pathology. Therefore, understanding the role of the NLR proteins will be critical to understanding the host defense against parasites as well as the fine balance between homeostasis and parasitic disease. PMID:24989828

  10. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay References and Resources How to Find A ... days, be examined. This test looks for ova (eggs) or the parasite. Your health care provider may ...

  11. Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Trelis, Maria; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Osuna, Antonio; Bernal, Dolores; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Almeida, Igor C.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasite–parasite inter-communication as well as in parasite–host interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens. PMID:25536932

  12. Molecular diagnostics and parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-09-01

    Molecular parasitology represents an emerging field in microbiology diagnostics. Although most assays use nonstandardized, laboratory-developed methods, a few commercial systems have recently become available and are slowly being introduced into larger laboratories. In addition, a few methodologies show promise for use in field settings in which parasitic infections are endemic. This article reviews the available techniques and their applications to major parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trichomoniasis. PMID:23931835

  13. Parasitic diseases and urban development.

    PubMed Central

    Mott, K. E.; Desjeux, P.; Moncayo, A.; Ranque, P.; de Raadt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and epidemiology of parasitic diseases in both urban and periurban areas of endemic countries have been changing as development progresses. The following different scenarios involving Chagas disease, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis are discussed: (1) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas without vectors; (2) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas with vectors; (3) infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (4) non-infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (5) urbanization or domestication of natural zoonotic foci; and (6) vectors entering nonendemic urban areas. Cultural and social habits from the rural areas, such as type of house construction and domestic water usage, are adopted by migrants to urban areas and increase the risk of disease transmission which adversely affects employment in urban populations. As the urban health services must deal with the rise in parasitic diseases, appropriate control strategies for the urban setting must be developed and implemented. PMID:2127380

  14. [Munchausen disease diagnosed ten years after debut].

    PubMed

    Mrgan, Monija; Taasti, Lena Merete

    2013-09-01

    Munchausen disease is difficult to diagnose especially because it is often an exclusion diagnosis. We present a case of skin ulcers in a young woman, who was eventually diagnosed with Munchausen disease. PMID:23992908

  15. Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Parasitic Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  17. A syndromic approach to common parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Stephen D.; Chow, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Standard textbooks discuss parasitic disease according to specific organisms. In contrast, patients with parasitic infections present to physicians with a variety of clinical manifestations that may involve any of several organ systems and that often mimic nonparasitic diseases. A syndromic approach to the clinical situation may help the physician in considering the most important parasitic agents. Many parasitic infections can be acquired in temperate climates. While often considered tropical or exotic, other parasitic diseases are now seen more frequently in developed countries because of immigration and increased world travel. In this review the clinical syndromes associated with common parasitic diseases in North America are discussed, with an emphasis on risk factors and diagnosis of specific infections. PMID:4042057

  18. Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization Approach as Effective Tool for Diagnosing Human Intestinal Parasites from Scarce Archaeological Remains

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694

  19. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Taenia infection fascioliasis Vector-borne Transmission More Common malaria leishmaniasis Less Common Chagas disease lymphatic filariasis African ... source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria Notice: Linking to a non-federal site does ...

  20. [Hydatid disease diagnosed following a pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Menassa-Moussa, L; Braidy, C; Riachy, M; Tabet, G; Smayra, T; Haddad-Zebouni, S; Ghossain, M; Aoun, N

    2009-11-01

    Hydatidosis is a parasitic disease found worldwide, particularly in Mediterranean countries, caused by Echinococcus granulosis infection. Humans are an intermediate and accidental host in the cycle of this parasite. The hydatid pulmonary arterial embolism is extremely rare, usually arising in the heart or the liver. We report a case of hydatid pulmonary embolism explored with multidetector scanner and MRI, and confirmed at pathology of the operative specimen. To our knowledge, this is the first case of inaugural hydatid pulmonary arterial embolism found on CT scan establishing the diagnosis of the disease in a patient who had no other location of hydatid cyst. PMID:19615835

  1. Water-Related Parasitic Diseases in China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shan; Tian, Li-Guang; Liu, Qin; Qian, Men-Bao; Fu, Qing; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Jia-Xu; Yang, Guo-Jing; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized. PMID:23685826

  2. How Is Wilson Disease Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connect with Wilson Disease Association Send Email Physician Contacts List of Physicians and Institutions in Your Area View Contacts Support Contacts Individuals who can offer Support and Information View ...

  3. How Is Hodgkin Disease Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... she will recommend a biopsy of the area. Biopsies Many of the symptoms of Hodgkin disease are ... also tell what type it is. Types of biopsies There are different types of biopsies. Doctors choose ...

  4. Climate change and parasitic disease: farmer mitigation?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Eric R; Wall, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Global climate change predictions suggest that far-ranging effects might occur in the population dynamics and distributions of livestock parasites, provoking fears of widespread increases in disease incidence and production loss. However, several biological mechanisms (including increased parasite mortality and more rapid acquisition of immunity), in tandem with changes in husbandry practices (including reproduction, housing, nutrition, breed selection, grazing patterns and other management interventions), might act to mitigate increased parasite development rates, preventing dramatic rises in overall levels of disease. Such changes might, therefore, counteract predicted climate-driven increases in parasite challenge. Optimum mitigation strategies will be highly system specific and depend on detailed understanding of interactions between climate, parasite abundance, host availability and the cues for and economics of farmer intervention. PMID:19540163

  5. [Treatment of parasitic liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Lecuna, V

    1989-01-01

    Most of primary and secondary parasitic liver diseases, at present can be property treated with drugs. Venezuelan pharmaceutic market has some peculiarities that have determined the disappearance from the market of many drugs such as emetine, thiabendazole, quinacrine and niclosamide. Diloxanide never appeared. Venezuela has no commercial international treatises that protect international patents in the pharmaceutical area. In addition, government regulation of cost of drugs is very strict. This is particularly true with old drugs (such as emetine or quinacrine) which had such a low price that is non-commercial for the maker of the drug, usually a large transnational, and is withdrawn from the market. Flexibility of prices is quite easy for new antibiotics which are very expensive. Frequently small national companies import the drug from Italy and Japan which sell the drug independently from international treats. Such companies frequently produce the drug for the government social system, but are unreliable and also frequently they withdraw the drug a variable period of time. The government, through the Ministry of Public Health administer free treatment with drugs for malaria, tuberculosis and leprosy. The severe economic crisis of the country has severely impaired the preventive programs and there is an increase of malaria due to gold mining in the south of the country and falciparum chloroquine resistance and an increase of schistosomiasis in a previous free area. Also administration of drugs for malaria has been severely impaired, mainly for economic reasons. The establishment of a National Government Laboratory is an old (as far as 1946) political goal, but has remained in the political intention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2535455

  6. Drug repurposing and human parasitic protozoan diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Katherine T.; Fisher, Gillian; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases have an enormous health, social and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 1.1 million combined deaths annually. The global burden of these diseases is exacerbated by the lack of licensed vaccines, making safe and effective drugs vital to their prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, where drugs are available, their usefulness is being increasingly threatened by parasite drug resistance. The need for new drugs drives antiparasitic drug discovery research globally and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. In this review we discuss one of these approaches, drug repurposing or repositioning, with a focus on major human parasitic protozoan diseases such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and leishmaniasis. PMID:25057459

  7. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised. PMID:25317697

  8. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.). PMID:20111855

  9. Immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases with synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Noya, O; Patarroyo, M E; Guzmán, F; Alarcón de Noya, B

    2003-08-01

    Parasitic diseases remain as a major public health problem worldwide, not only based on their historically high morbidity and mortality rates, but also because risk factors associated with their transmission are increasing. Laboratory diagnosis and particularly immunodiagnosis is a basic tool for the demonstration, clinical management and control of these infections. Classically, the serological tests for the detection of antibodies or antigens are based on the use of crude and purified antigens. Synthetic peptides have opened a new field and perspectives, as the source of pure epitopes and molecules for diagnosis of malaria, Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, hidatidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis based on the detection of antibodies and circulating antigens. Herein, are critically reviewed the relevant advances and applications of the synthetic peptides on immunodiagnosis of parasitic diseases. A variety of sequences, constructs (monomers, polymers, MAPs), immunological methods and samples have been used, demonstrating their diagnostic potential. However, in most parasitic infections it is necessary to use more than a single peptide in order to avoid the genetic restriction against certain epitopes, as well as to test them in well characteized groups of patients, in order to confirm their sensitivity and specificity. The concept of multidiagnosis with synthetic peptides, using a novel multi-dot blot assay is introduced. Finally, the chemical imitation of antigens, offers a tremendous posibilities in the diagnosis of parasitic infections in developing countries since this strategy is cheaper, simpler, reproducible, useful for large scale testing and in most cases, specific and sensitive. PMID:14529537

  10. Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing periodontal disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Everett, Matthew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Otis, Linda L.; Nathel, Howard

    1997-05-01

    We have, in this preliminary study, investigated the use of optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of periodontal disease. We took in vitro OCT images of the dental and periodontal tissues from a young pig and compared them to histological sections. These images distinguish tooth and soft tissue relationships that are important in diagnosing and assessing periodontal disease. We have imaged the attachment of gingiva to the tooth surface and located the cemento-enamel junction. This junction is an important reference point for defining attachment level in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. the boundary between enamel and dentin is also visible for most of the length of the anatomical crown, allowing quantitation of enamel thickness and character.

  11. Bacterial and parasitic diseases of parrots.

    PubMed

    Doneley, Robert J T

    2009-09-01

    As wild-caught birds become increasingly rare in aviculture, there is a corresponding decline in the incidence of bacterial and parasitic problems and an increase in the recognition of the importance of maintaining health through better nutrition and husbandry. Nevertheless, the relatively close confines of captivity mean an increased pathogen load in the environment in which companion and aviary parrots live. This increased pathogen load leads to greater exposure of these birds to bacteria and parasites, and consequently a greater risk of infection and disease. This article discusses bacterial and parasitic infections in companion and aviary parrots. It includes the origins, pathogens, diagnosis, treatment, and some of the associated risk factors. PMID:19732702

  12. Parasitic diarrheal disease: drug development and targets

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Amir; Peerzada, Mudasir N.; Ahmad, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is the manifestation of gastrointestinal infection and is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity specifically among the children of less than 5 years age worldwide. Moreover, in recent years there has been a rise in the number of reports of intestinal infections continuously in the industrialized world. These are largely related to waterborne and food borne outbreaks. These occur by the pathogenesis of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms like bacteria and parasites. The parasitic intestinal infection has remained mostly unexplored and under assessed in terms of therapeutic development. The lack of new drugs and the risk of resistance have led us to carry out this review on drug development for parasitic diarrheal diseases. The major focus has been depicted on commercially available drugs, currently synthesized active heterocyclic compounds and unique drug targets, that are vital for the existence and growth of the parasites and can be further exploited for the search of therapeutically active anti-parasitic agents. PMID:26617574

  13. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Menkes Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose Menkes disease? Skip sharing on social ... 3 months old. To diagnose Menkes disease, a health care provider will order blood tests to measure the ...

  14. Parasites

    MedlinePlus

    ... CME and CNE for clinicians... Parasitic Disease and Malaria Strategic Priorities: 2015—2020... Cyclosporiasis: Most U.S. cases ... R S T U V W X Y Z Malaria An ancient disease that affects millions of people ...

  15. Diagnosing Parkinson's Diseases Using Fuzzy Neural System

    PubMed Central

    Abiyev, Rahib H.; Abizade, Sanan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the design of the recognition system that will discriminate between healthy people and people with Parkinson's disease. A diagnosing of Parkinson's diseases is performed using fusion of the fuzzy system and neural networks. The structure and learning algorithms of the proposed fuzzy neural system (FNS) are presented. The approach described in this paper allows enhancing the capability of the designed system and efficiently distinguishing healthy individuals. It was proved through simulation of the system that has been performed using data obtained from UCI machine learning repository. A comparative study was carried out and the simulation results demonstrated that the proposed fuzzy neural system improves the recognition rate of the designed system. PMID:26881009

  16. Automated diagnostic kiosk for diagnosing diseases

    DOEpatents

    Regan, John Frederick; Birch, James Michael

    2014-02-11

    An automated and autonomous diagnostic apparatus that is capable of dispensing collection vials and collections kits to users interesting in collecting a biological sample and submitting their collected sample contained within a collection vial into the apparatus for automated diagnostic services. The user communicates with the apparatus through a touch-screen monitor. A user is able to enter personnel information into the apparatus including medical history, insurance information, co-payment, and answer a series of questions regarding their illness, which is used to determine the assay most likely to yield a positive result. Remotely-located physicians can communicate with users of the apparatus using video tele-medicine and request specific assays to be performed. The apparatus archives submitted samples for additional testing. Users may receive their assay results electronically. Users may allow the uploading of their diagnoses into a central databank for disease surveillance purposes.

  17. [Views for research development of control of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin-Ping; Dong, Hui-Fen; Jiang, Ming-Sen

    2013-12-01

    With the social and technological development, new understandings have been emerged for the research development of the control of parasitic diseases. The present review argues that: the traditional point of view for the control of parasitic diseases, eliminating parasites/media, should be updated. For the long-term interests of science and human perspective, biological diversity, including the parasite biodiversity, and ecological environment should be paid much more attention during the control of parasitic diseases. The leading role of society, economy and culture should be fully developed in the control of parasitic diseases with the progress of scientific and technology, to find a final way of sustainable development in the control of parasitic diseases. PMID:24490386

  18. How to Diagnose Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    de Alwis, Nimantha M W; Anstee, Quentin M; Day, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are asymptomatic and present with either unexplained abnormal liver blood tests or a bright liver on ultrasonography. Some patients will have normal liver blood tests raising the issue of whether patients with risk factors for NAFLD (diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome [MS]) should be screened for its presence with biomarkers, such as the fatty liver index (FLI). The diagnosis of NAFLD requires the exclusion of other causes of chronic liver disease and steatosis, especially heavy alcohol consumption and viral hepatitis particularly HCV genotype 3. Diagnostic work-up should include evaluation of family and personal history of components of the MS and assessment of liver tests, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and HDL levels. A drug history is important due to a number being associated with steatosis. To confirm the diagnosis of NAFLD and quantify steatosis, ultrasound (US) and MRI-based techniques are available but none are in routine use outside clinical trials. Standard US is no more accurate than biomarkers such as FLI. The accurate staging of NAFLD requires liver biopsy; however, this is clearly impractical for such a prevalent disease. Accordingly, a number of imaging and blood-based biomarker tests have been evaluated. While none have proved reliable for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, several have proved accurate in diagnosing the presence of stage 3 or 4 fibrosis, including the NAFLD fibrosis score, fibrosis-4 and the enhanced liver fibrosis test. Of the imaging techniques, elastography has received the most attention and is being used in routine clinical practice. US acoustic radiation force impulse imaging, and MR-based elastography have recently been described but none are sufficiently accurate to replace liver biopsy for clinical trials as yet or are cost effective for use in routine clinical settings. PMID:27547937

  19. The study of parasite sharing for surveillance of zoonotic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Maxwell J.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    Determining the factors that influence the transmission of parasites among hosts is important for directing surveillance of animal parasites before they successfully emerge in humans, and increasing the efficacy of programs for the control and management of zoonotic diseases. Here we present a review of recent advances in the study of parasite sharing, wildlife ecology, and epidemiology that could be extended and incorporated into proactive surveillance frameworks for multi-host infectious diseases. These methods reflect emerging interdisciplinary techniques with significant promise for the identification of future zoonotic parasites and unknown reservoirs of current zoonoses, strategies for the reduction of parasite prevalence and transmission among hosts, and decreasing the burden of infectious diseases.

  20. Whirling disease revisited: pathogenesis, parasite biology and disease intervention.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Subhodeep; Kallert, Dennis Marc; Hedrick, Ronald P; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2015-05-21

    Whirling disease (WD) is an ecologically and economically debilitating disease of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss caused by the actinosporean spores of the parasite Myxobolus cerebralis. M. cerebralis has a complex, 2-host life cycle alternating between salmonid fish and the oligochaete host Tubifex tubifex. The parasite alternates between 2 spore forms as transmission stages: an actinosporean triactinomyxon spore that is produced in the oligochaete host and a myxosporean spore that develops in the salmonid host. Waterborne triactinomyxon spores released from infected T. tubifex oligochaetes attach to the salmonid host by polar filament extrusion elicited by chemical (nucleoside) and mechanical (thigmotropy) stimuli-a process which is rapidly followed by active penetration of the sporoplasms into the fish epidermis. Upon penetration, sporoplasms multiply and migrate via peripheral nerves and the central nervous system to reach the cartilage where they form trophozoites which undergo further multiplication and subsequent sporogenesis. M. cerebralis myxospores are released into the aquatic environment when infected fish die and autolyse, or when they are consumed and excreted by predators. Myxospores released into the water are ingested by susceptible T. tubifex where they develop intercellularly in the intestine over a period of 3 mo through 4 developmental stages to give rise to mature actinospores. In this article, we review our current understanding of WD-the parasite and its alternate hosts, life cycle and development of the parasite in either host, disease distribution, susceptibility and resistance mechanisms in salmonid host and strategies involved in diagnosis, prevention and control of WD. PMID:25993890

  1. Concurrent Infections (Parasitism and Bacterial Disease) in Tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most laboratory disease studies in tilapia to date have focused on a single parasite or a single bacterial pathogen. In intensive tilapia aquaculture, the reality of a single disease agent resulting in death-loss may be small. More likely, multiple disease agents are present (i.e., parasites, bacter...

  2. How Is von Willebrand Disease Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your von Willebrand factor. The test helps your doctor diagnose what type of VWD you have. Platelet function test. This test measures how well your platelets are working. You may have these tests ...

  3. Parasitic diseases in marine cage culture--an example of experimental evolution of parasites?

    PubMed

    Nowak, Barbara F

    2007-05-01

    Rapid development of fish culture in marine cages has been associated with an emergence of parasitic diseases. There is a general trend to an increase in infections with ectoparasites with direct life cycles and a reduced diversity of parasites in aquaculture. Some mariculture creates conditions that are similar to serial passage experiments, which are used to study adaptation during experimental evolution of pathogens. In particular, increased density of fish, repeated introduction of naive hosts, homogenous host populations, fast growth and a potential decrease in genetic diversity are attributes of both aquaculture and serial passage experiments. Some free-living organisms, for example Neoparamoeba spp. and Uronema spp. parasitise fish in culture, but have not been reported from wild populations. Farming fish in marine cages can increase the risk of outbreaks of parasitic diseases, including those caused by opportunistic parasites. However, aquaculture has the potential to control parasitic diseases through selective breeding, vaccination and general fish health management. PMID:17316650

  4. A comparison of mini-FLOTAC and FLOTAC with classic methods to diagnosing intestinal parasites of dogs from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Victor Fernando Santana; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Monteiro, Maria Fernanda Melo; Calado, Andréa Maria Campos; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Meira-Santos, Patrícia Oliveira; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2015-09-01

    Dogs may be affected by different species of gastrointestinal parasites which present great importance in veterinary medicine and public health. Several techniques to diagnosing these parasites have been proposed, but different performances achieved by each method make difficult the choice of the best technique to be used. In this study, the performance of two classic methods (i.e., Willis and Hoffman techniques) and two recent techniques (i.e., FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC) to diagnosing gastrointestinal parasites of dogs was evaluated. Fecal samples (n = 127) of dogs divided in pools (n = 30) were collected and analyzed using four different techniques (see above). Eggs and/or oocysts of gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 93.3 % (28/30) of the samples. In particular, 20 % (6/30) were detected through the method of Hoffman, 53.3 % (16/30) by the Willis technique, and 63.3 % (19/30) and 90 % (27/30) by Mini-FLOTAC and FLOTAC, respectively. Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Toxocara canis were the most frequent parasites herein detected. The FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC techniques were the most efficient tools to detect eggs and/or oocysts of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs, therefore their use is recommended in the laboratorial routine of veterinary medicine. This study is the first report of the use of both techniques (i.e., FLOTAC and Mini-FLOTAC) to diagnosing parasites of dogs in Brazil. PMID:26122998

  5. [Late diagnosed celiac disease in a mother and thre doughters].

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Barbara; Kosmowska-Miśków, Agnieszka; Musiał, Dorota

    2014-09-01

    A family of seven members with lately diagnosed celiac disease in mother and three doughters was described in the present work. In mother, atypical celiac disease was diagnosed at the age of 39 yers. In two twin dughters potential celiac disease was diagnosed at the age of 4,5 years and in 18-years old daughter- atypical celiac disease. In father and two sons celiac disease was excluded. In genetic studies, in mother and three daughters the presence of HLA DQ2 or DQ8 was confirmed. In father and one son HLA DQ8 was present and in the remaining son HLA DQ2/DQ8 haplotyp was absent. In all family members with diagnosed celiac disease free-gluten diet was introduced. PMID:25345277

  6. Applying New Methods to Diagnose Coral Diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Zawada, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Coral disease, one of the major causes of reef degradation and coral death, has been increasing worldwide since the 1970s, particularly in the Caribbean. Despite increased scientific study, simple questions about the extent of disease outbreaks and the causative agents remain unanswered. A component of the U.S. Geological Survey Coral Reef Ecosystem STudies (USGS CREST) project is focused on developing and using new methods to approach the complex problem of coral disease.

  7. Fascioliasis: a worldwide parasitic disease of importance in travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Keyhan; Bargues, M Dolores; O'Neill, Sandra; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic disease caused by the two parasite species Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This trematodiasis has never been claimed special relevance for travellers and migrants. However, the situation has drastically changed in the last two decades, in a way that fascioliasis should today be included in the list of diseases to be enhanced in Travel Medicine. Different kind of travellers have been involved in human infection reports: business travellers, tourists, migrants, expatriated workers, military personnel, religious missionaries, and refugees. Europe is the continent where more imported cases have been reported in many countries. More cases would have been probably reported in Europe if fascioliasis would be a reportable disease. In the Americas, most of the reports concern cases diagnosed in USA. Relative few patients have been diagnosed in studies on travellers performed in Asia. In Africa, most cases were reported in Maghreb countries. Blood eosinophilia and the ingestion of watercress or any other suggestive freshwater plant in anamnesis are extremely useful in guiding towards a fascioliasis diagnosis in a developed country, although may not be so in human endemic areas of developing countries. Several suggestive clinical presentation aspects may be useful, although the clinical polymorphism may be misleading in many cases. Non-invasive techniques are helpful for the diagnosis, although images may lead to confusion. Laparoscopic visualization should assist and facilitate procurement of an accurately guided biopsy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first choice in patients in the chronic phase. ERCP and sphincterotomy are used to extract parasites from the biliary tree. Fluke egg finding continues to be the gold standard and enables for burden quantification and establishing of the drug dose. Many serological and stool antigen detection tests have been developed. Immunological techniques present

  8. Role of parasitic vaccines in integrated control of parasitic diseases in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Veer; Shyma, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic infections adversely affect animal’s health and threaten profitable animal production, thus affecting the economy of our country. These infections also play a major role in the spread of zoonotic diseases. Parasitic infections cause severe morbidity and mortality in animals especially those affecting the gastrointestinal system and thus affect the economy of livestock owner by decreasing the ability of the farmer to produce economically useful animal products. Due to all these reasons proper control of parasitic infection is critically important for sustained animal production. The most common and regularly used method to control parasitic infection is chemotherapy, which is very effective but has several disadvantages like drug resistance and drug residues. Integrated approaches to control parasitic infections should be formulated including grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts, and parasitic vaccines. India ranks first in cattle and buffalo population, but the majority of livestock owners have fewer herds, so other measures like grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts are not much practical to use. The most sustainable and economical approach to control parasitic infection in our country is to vaccinate animals, although vaccines increase the initial cost, but the immunity offered by the vaccine are long lived. Thus, vaccination of animals for various clinical, chronic, subclinical parasitic infections will be a cheaper and effective alternative to control parasitic infection for long time and improve animal production. PMID:27047140

  9. How Is Paget's Disease of Bone Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bone. Blood test (measurement of serum alkaline phosphatase) . Sometimes blood test results are what first alert ... level of a chemical substance called serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP), it is a sign that the disease ...

  10. Questions of diagnosing and treating Meniere's disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khechinashvili, S. N.

    1980-01-01

    The possibilities of diagnosis and treatment of Meniere's disease are considered. Attention is given to the use of dehydration tests which are based on glycerol administration or intravenous injection of furosemide. The risks of bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment in prolonged conservative treatment is emphasized. The data of auditory function study before and following endolymphatic sac surgery are presented.

  11. How Is Diabetic Heart Disease Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure , and/or diabetic cardiomyopathy . Initially, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following tests. Blood Pressure Measurement To measure your blood pressure, your doctor or nurse will use some type of a gauge, a stethoscope (or electronic sensor), ...

  12. Adult Hirschsprung's disease diagnosed during forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Denis; Manaouil, Cécile; Marc, Bernard; Ricard, Jannick; Brevet, Marie; Montpellier, Dominique; Defouilloy, Christian; Jardé, Olivier

    2006-09-01

    We report a case of fatal Hirschsprung's disease (HD) discovered at autopsy. A 20-year-old man collapsed at home. Emergency medical personnel found him in cardiac arrest and all resuscitative efforts failed. He had a past history of chronic constipation since infancy. Forensic autopsy revealed a megacolon full of gas and stools. Microscopic examination showed absence of ganglion cells in a short segment of the rectum and enterocolitis in the left and transverse colon. HD is rarely described in adults. In many cases, patients complained of constipation since infancy but the affection remained misdiagnosed. The relative good tolerance of the disease is usually due to a short aganglionic bowel segment. Enterocolitis is a frequent and severe complication of HD in children but is rarely described in adults. This case suggests the importance of HD diagnosis in childhood in order to avoid fatal complications with forensic consequences. PMID:17018101

  13. Diagnosing cardiac disease during pregnancy: imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Ntusi, Ntobeko A; Samuels, Petronella; Moosa, Sulaiman; Mocumbi, Ana O

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant women with known or suspected cardiovascular disease (CVD) often require cardiovascular imaging during pregnancy. The accepted maximum limit of ionising radiation exposure to the foetus during pregnancy is a cumulative dose of 5 rad. Concerns related to imaging modalities that involve ionising radiation include teratogenesis, mutagenesis and childhood malignancy. Importantly, no single imaging study approaches this cautionary dose of 5 rad (50 mSv or 50 mGy). Diagnostic imaging procedures that may be used in pregnancy include chest radiography, fluoroscopy, echocardiography, invasive angiography, cardiovascular computed tomography, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear techniques. Echocardiography and CMR appear to be completely safe in pregnancy and are not associated with any adverse foetal effects, provided there are no general contra-indications to MR imaging. Concerns related to safety of imaging tests must be balanced against the importance of accurate diagnosis and thorough assessment of the pathological condition. Decisions about imaging in pregnancy are premised on understanding the physiology of pregnancy, understanding basic concepts of ionising radiation, the clinical manifestations of existent CVD in pregnancy and features of new CVD. The cardiologist/physician must understand the indications for and limitations of, and the potential harmful effects of each test during pregnancy. Current evidence suggests that a single cardiovascular radiological study during pregnancy is safe and should be undertaken at all times when clinically justified. In this article, the different imaging modalities are reviewed in terms of how they work, how safe they are and what their clinical utility in pregnancy is. Furthermore, the safety of contrast agents in pregnancy is also reviewed. PMID:27213857

  14. Trypanosomatid comparative genomics: Contributions to the study of parasite biology and different parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Santuza M.; de Paiva, Rita Márcia Cardoso; Kangussu-Marcolino, Monica M.; DaRocha, Wanderson D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, draft sequences of the genomes of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major, also known as the Tri-Tryp genomes, were published. These protozoan parasites are the causative agents of three distinct insect-borne diseases, namely sleeping sickness, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, all with a worldwide distribution. Despite the large estimated evolutionary distance among them, a conserved core of ~6,200 trypanosomatid genes was found among the Tri-Tryp genomes. Extensive analysis of these genomic sequences has greatly increased our understanding of the biology of these parasites and their host-parasite interactions. In this article, we review the recent advances in the comparative genomics of these three species. This analysis also includes data on additional sequences derived from other trypanosmatid species, as well as recent data on gene expression and functional genomics. In addition to facilitating the identification of key parasite molecules that may provide a better understanding of these complex diseases, genome studies offer a rich source of new information that can be used to define potential new drug targets and vaccine candidates for controlling these parasitic infections. PMID:22481868

  15. Sushi in pregnancy, parasitic diseases - obstetrician survey.

    PubMed

    Jones, J L; Anderson, B; Schulkin, J; Parise, M E; Eberhard, M L

    2011-03-01

    Parasites from raw fish can lead to a wide range of clinical manifestations and can be challenging to treat in pregnancy as result of medication exposure of the foetus. We surveyed obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) in the U.S. to determine their knowledge about the consumption of raw fish during pregnancy. In March 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) randomly selected to represent all members. Non-responding physicians were sent two additional mailings. Of the 606 ACOG members surveyed, 305 (50%) responded. Most (82%) respondents indicated that eating raw fish is not safe during pregnancy. However, few (19%) knew that thorough freezing kills parasites in fish. Nearly all (94%) respondents thought that parasitic infections can be more challenging to treat in pregnancy. U.S. ob-gyns believe that eating raw fish during pregnancy is not safe; most would benefit from information about how to prevent infection and about treatment. PMID:20042060

  16. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H

    2006-01-01

    The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and

  17. [Screening of parasitic diseases in the asymptomatic immigrant population].

    PubMed

    Goterris, Lidia; Bocanegra, Cristina; Serre-Delcor, Núria; Moure, Zaira; Treviño, Begoña; Zarzuela, Francesc; Espasa, Mateu; Sulleiro, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants. PMID:27474244

  18. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Case Report and Differential Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Tatsuno, Brent K; Inaba, Michiko; Velligas, Stephanie; Masaki, Kamal; Liow, Kore K

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology that causes rapidly progressive dementia. This disease is uniformly fatal and most patients die within 12 months. Clinical findings include myoclonus, visual disturbances, and cerebellar and pyramidal/extrapyramidal signs in addition to rapidly progressive cognitive and functional impairment. These findings are all non-specific and it is often difficult and challenging to diagnose premortem because of low awareness and clinical suspicion. We present a 66-year-old woman with a 5-month history of rapidly progressive dementia. After a series of extensive diagnostic examinations and continuous follow-up, she was diagnosed with probable sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria, with key findings of rapidly progressive dementia, blurry vision, extrapyramidal signs (cogwheel rigidity), and abnormal hyperintensity signals on diffusion-weighted MRI. Her symptoms progressively worsened and she died 7 months after the onset. The postmortem brain autopsy demonstrated the presence of abnormal protease-resistant prion protein by Western Blot analysis. A literature review was performed on differential diagnoses that present with rapidly progressive dementia and thereby mimic sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. These include Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy Bodies, frontotemporal dementia, meningoencephalitis, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, CADASIL, and paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. PMID:23795314

  19. Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

    2006-06-01

    Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387

  20. One world health: socioeconomic burden and parasitic disease control priorities.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Paul R

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic diseases present a considerable socio-economic impact to society. Zoonotic parasites can result in a considerable burden of disease in people and substantive economic losses to livestock populations. Ameliorating the effects of these diseases may consist of attempts at eradicating specific diseases at a global level, eliminating them at a national or local level or controlling them to minimise incidence. Alternatively with some parasitic zoonoses it may only be possible to treat human and animal cases as they arise. The choice of approach will be determined by the potential effectiveness of a disease control programme, its cost and the cost effectiveness or cost benefit of undertaking the intervention. Furthermore human disease burden is being increasingly measured by egalitarian non-financial measures which are difficult to apply to livestock. This adds additional challenges to the assessment of socio-economic burdens of zoonotic diseases. Using examples from the group of neglected zoonotic diseases, information regarding the socio-economic effects is reviewed together with how this information is used in decision making with regard to disease control and treatment. PMID:23628712

  1. [Intestinal parasitic diseases as a global health problem].

    PubMed

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2013-03-01

    In today's world, parasitic disease agents are not restricted by geography or economy, and have become a significant global threat. The increasing globalization of the fresh produce market and greater international trade and travels, have contributed to the spread of these organisms in the industrialized world. Parasitic protozoa cause waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrhea. The unprecedented flow of people introduces cultural and behavior patterns around the world; the increasing tendency to eat raw or undercooked meat and seafood, favors the dissemination of several parasitic pathogens. Climate changes are predicted to cause a global increase in soil-transmitted helminthiases. The multidisciplinary study of these agents, and the interaction among scientists, global health organizations and governments are imperative to reduce the burden of these diseases and improve the life of a large segment of the world population. PMID:23781708

  2. Differential Spleen Remodeling Associated with Different Levels of Parasite Virulence Controls Disease Outcome in Malaria Parasite Infections

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ximei; Huang, Sha; Ong, Lai Chun; Lim, Jason Chu-Shern; Hurst, Rebecca Joan Mary; Mushunje, Annals Tatenda; Matsudaira, Paul Thomas; Han, Jongyoon

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infections by malaria parasites can lead to very different clinical outcomes, ranging from mild symptoms to death. Differences in the ability of the spleen to deal with the infected red blood cells (iRBCs) are linked to differences in virulence. Using virulent and avirulent strains of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii, we investigated how parasite virulence modulates overall spleen function. Following parasite invasion, a difference in parasite virulence was observed in association with different levels of spleen morphology and iRBC rigidity, both of which contributed to enhanced parasite clearance. Moreover, iRBC rigidity as modulated by the spleen was demonstrated to correlate with disease outcome and thus can be used as a robust indicator of virulence. The data indicate that alterations in the biomechanical properties of iRBCs are the result of the complex interaction between host and parasite. Furthermore, we confirmed that early spleen responses are a key factor in directing the clinical outcome of an infection. IMPORTANCE The spleen and its response to parasite infection are important in eliminating parasites in malaria. By comparing P. yoelii parasite lines with different disease outcomes in mice that had either intact spleens or had had their spleens removed, we showed that upon parasite infection, the spleen exhibits dramatic changes that can affect parasite clearance. The spleen itself directly impacts RBC deformability independently of parasite genetics. The data indicated that the changes in the biomechanical properties of malaria parasite-infected RBCs are the result of the complex interaction between host and parasite, and RBC deformability itself can serve as a novel predictor of clinical outcome. The results also suggest that early responses in the spleen are a key factor directing the clinical outcome of an infection. PMID:27303680

  3. Natural Products as a Source for Treating Neglected Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ndjonka, Dieudonné; Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Silber, Ariel M.; Liebau, Eva; Wrenger, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases caused by parasites are a major threat for the entire mankind, especially in the tropics. More than 1 billion people world-wide are directly exposed to tropical parasites such as the causative agents of trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which represent a major health problem, particularly in impecunious areas. Unlike most antibiotics, there is no “general” antiparasitic drug available. Here, the selection of antiparasitic drugs varies between different organisms. Some of the currently available drugs are chemically de novo synthesized, however, the majority of drugs are derived from natural sources such as plants which have subsequently been chemically modified to warrant higher potency against these human pathogens. In this review article we will provide an overview of the current status of plant derived pharmaceuticals and their chemical modifications to target parasite-specific peculiarities in order to interfere with their proliferation in the human host. PMID:23389040

  4. Alfalfa diseases 101: diagnosing common and emerging disease problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 50 pathogens have been identified that cause significant damage to alfalfa and prevent it from reaching its full potential for producing high yields of quality forage. There has been excellent progress by plant breeders and plant pathologists in developing cultivars with multiple disease a...

  5. Criticality of Parasitic Disease Transmission in a Diffusive Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Min-Hua; Zhang, Duan-Ming; Pan, Gui-Jun; Yin, Yan-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Yuan

    2008-12-01

    Through using the methods of finite-size effect and short time dynamic scaling, we study the critical behavior of parasitic disease spreading process in a diffusive population mediated by a static vector environment. Through comprehensive analysis of parasitic disease spreading we find that this model presents a dynamical phase transition from disease-free state to endemic state with a finite population density. We determine the critical population density, above which the system reaches an epidemic spreading stationary state. We also perform a scaling analysis to determine the order parameter and critical relaxation exponents. The results show that the model does not belong to the usual directed percolation universality class and is compatible with the class of directed percolation with diffusive and conserved fields.

  6. Parasitic diseases of remote Indigenous communities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James S; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-08-15

    Indigenous Australians suffer significant disadvantage in health outcomes and have a life expectancy well below that of non-Indigenous Australians. Mortality rates of Indigenous Australians are higher than that of Indigenous populations in developed countries elsewhere in the world. A number of parasitic diseases which are uncommon in the rest of the Australian population contribute to the high burden of disease in many remote Indigenous communities. High rates of infection with enteric parasites such as Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris have been recorded and infection of the skin with the ecto-parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei is also a substantial problem. Secondary infection of scabies lesions, including with Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus, can produce serious sequelae such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Transmission of many parasites in many remote communities is facilitated by overcrowded living conditions and infrastructure problems which result in poor sanitation and hygiene. Improvements in environmental health conditions must accompany medical initiatives to achieve sustainable improvement in the health of Indigenous Australians. PMID:20412810

  7. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites....

  8. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites....

  9. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites....

  10. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites....

  11. Host genetics and population structure effects on parasitic disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Criscione, Charles D.; VandeBerg, John L.; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Williams, Kimberly D.; Subedi, Janardan; Kent, Jack W.; Williams, Jeff; Kumar, Satish; Blangero, John

    2012-01-01

    Host genetic factors exert significant influences on differential susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In addition, population structure of both host and parasite may influence disease distribution patterns. In this study, we assess the effects of population structure on infectious disease in two populations in which host genetic factors influencing susceptibility to parasitic disease have been extensively studied. The first population is the Jirel population of eastern Nepal that has been the subject of research on the determinants of differential susceptibility to soil-transmitted helminth infections. The second group is a Brazilian population residing in an area endemic for Trypanosoma cruzi infection that has been assessed for genetic influences on differential disease progression in Chagas disease. For measures of Ascaris worm burden, within-population host genetic effects are generally more important than host population structure factors in determining patterns of infectious disease. No significant influences of population structure on measures associated with progression of cardiac disease in individuals who were seropositive for T. cruzi infection were found. PMID:22312056

  12. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases: Old and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ndao, Momar

    2009-01-01

    Methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases have stagnated in the last 20–30 years. Few major advances in clinical diagnostic testing have been made since the introduction of PCR, although new technologies are being investigated. Many tests that form the backbone of the “modern” microbiology laboratory are based on very old and labour-intensive technologies such as microscopy for malaria. Pressing needs include more rapid tests without sacrificing sensitivity, value-added tests, and point-of-care tests for both high- and low-resource settings. In recent years, research has been focused on alternative methods to improve the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. These include immunoassays, molecular-based approaches, and proteomics using mass spectrometry platforms technology. This review summarizes the progress in new approaches in parasite diagnosis and discusses some of the merits and disadvantages of these tests. PMID:20069111

  13. How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ouladsaiad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: How to manage a late diagnosed Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and how to avoid calibre discrepancy? Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with HD over 2 years in our hospital from January 2009 to December 2012. Data were analysed for clinical presentations, investigations, surgical procedures and post-operative outcome. Results: Fifteen patients, operated by one single surgeon, were included in this study. The mean age was 6 years (2-16 years). Patients had an ultra-short segment type in 4 cases, rectosigmoid type in 9 cases and descending colonic aganglionosis in 2 cases. Rectal wash out was effective in 12 patients. A blowhole transverse colostomy was performed in 2 patients. Twelve patients underwent one single stage endorectal pull-through. Anastomosis incongruence was avoided by a plication procedure never described before. The assessment of post-operative outcomes by the paediatric incontinence and constipation scoring system revealed a normal continence function in all our patients, but 3 patients suffered from soiling secondary to constipation. Conclusion: One single stage pull-through can be safe and effective in children with late diagnosed HD. Routine rectal washout is a good way to prepare the colon. In some cases, blowhole colostomy can be an option. Anastomosis incongruence is a challenge; we describe a plication procedure to avoid it. PMID:27251658

  14. [Imported arthropod-borne parasites and parasitic arthropods in dogs. Species spectrum and epidemiologic analysis of the cases diagnosed in 1995/96].

    PubMed

    Glaser, B; Gothe, R

    1998-02-01

    Between January 1995 and December 1996 nonendemic or only regionally occurring arthropodborne parasites including ehrlichiae and parasitic arthropods in Germany were detected in 484 dogs, whereby at least 15 species were involved. Listed in decreasing order, Leishmania infections occurred most frequently, followed by infections/infestations with Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dirofilaria immitis and Dermacentor reticulatus. The other species, namely Babesia gibsoni, Trypanosoma congolense, Hepatozoon canis, Ehrlichia platys, Dirofilaria repens, Dipetalonema reconditum, Dermacentor marginatus, Boophilus microplus and Cordylobia anthropophaga were demonstrated in a few or single dogs. Irrespective of the pathogen-species, most of the dogs had travelled with their owners to Mediterranean countries or to Portugal or had been imported from there. Infections with B. canis were diagnosed very frequently in dogs returning from Hungary. Of the 28 dogs with previous residence in Germany only, twelve and four animals were infected with B. canis and E. canis, respectively, and seven and five dogs were infested with R. sanguineus and D. marginatus, respectively. PMID:9531673

  15. Parasite control practices and public perception of parasitic diseases: A survey of dog and cat owners.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Owen, Sinclair Patrick; Nunes, Telmo; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2015-11-01

    Drugs used in the control of internal and external parasites in companion animals play a crucial role in Animal and Public Health. To ensure continuing protection, these drugs should be administered regularly and in intervals, as suggested by the manufacturers. To assess parasite control practices and other related factors, including the degree of public awareness on the topic, 312 dog and cat owners were surveyed while attending the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University. Results showed that 89.7% of the dogs were currently being treated with endoparasitic drugs. Of these, 74.3% were dewormed every four months or longer and merely 11.8% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). In cats, 63.6% were being treated with endoparasitic drugs and 85.7% of these were irregularly dewormed every four months or longer and merely 5.5% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). Combinations of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel were the most commonly used drugs in dogs, whereas macrocyclic lactones were more frequently used in cats. Regarding external parasitic control, 92.2% of the dogs were being treated, 50.5% of these at monthly intervals (all-year round or seasonally). The most common ectoparasitic drug formulation used on dogs was the spot-on imidacloprid+permethrin (89%). Only 28.4% of the dogs were uninterruptedly protected throughout the year from the main canine vector borne diseases transmitted by fleas, ticks, sandflies and mosquitoes. Merely 63.6% of the cats were being controlled with ectoparasitic drugs, most at infrequent drug intervals and imidacloprid was the most frequently used drug on cats (44.4%). Additionally, 85% of the respondents had never heard of the word "zoonosis" and 37% of them did not collect their dog's faeces in all public places. Scabies, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were the most frequent parasitic diseases identified by the public in this survey. Although the

  16. Pathogenesis of Chagas' Disease: Parasite Persistence and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Hecht, Mariana M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Nitz, Nadjar

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infections can be asymptomatic, but chronically infected individuals can die of Chagas' disease. The transfer of the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle to the genome of chagasic patients can explain the pathogenesis of the disease; in cases of Chagas' disease with evident cardiomyopathy, the kDNA minicircles integrate mainly into retrotransposons at several chromosomes, but the minicircles are also detected in coding regions of genes that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and immune responses. An accurate evaluation of the role played by the genotype alterations in the autoimmune rejection of self-tissues in Chagas' disease is achieved with the cross-kingdom chicken model system, which is refractory to T. cruzi infections. The inoculation of T. cruzi into embryonated eggs prior to incubation generates parasite-free chicks, which retain the kDNA minicircle sequence mainly in the macrochromosome coding genes. Crossbreeding transfers the kDNA mutations to the chicken progeny. The kDNA-mutated chickens develop severe cardiomyopathy in adult life and die of heart failure. The phenotyping of the lesions revealed that cytotoxic CD45, CD8+ γδ, and CD8α+ T lymphocytes carry out the rejection of the chicken heart. These results suggest that the inflammatory cardiomyopathy of Chagas' disease is a genetically driven autoimmune disease. PMID:21734249

  17. [Diagnosing and expertizing asbestos-induced occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Schneider, J; Woitowitz, H-J

    2011-11-01

    Due to latency periods that can last for decades, asbestos-related diseases show 18 years after the enforcement of the prohibition of asbestos application in Germany their highest numbers. In the centre of attention are asbestos-induced pleural fibroses, mesotheliomas, asbestoses, lung and laryngeal cancer. Diagnosing and expertizing these diseases causes difficulties, is hitherto non-uniform and does frequently not correspond to the current medico-scientific expertise. This induced the German Respiratory Society as well as the German Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine in cooperation with the German Society of Pathology, the German Radiology Society and the German Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Cervical Surgery, to develop the above mentioned guideline during seven meetings moderated by AWMF. The required thorough diagnosis is based on the detailed recording of a qualified occupational history. Since the sole radiological and pathological-anatomical findings cannot sufficiently contribute to the causal relationship the occupational history recorded by a general physician and a specialist is of decisive importance. These physicians have to report suspected occupational diseases and to advise patients on social and medical questions. Frequently, problems occur if the recognition of an occupational disease is neglected due to a supposedly too low exposure or too few ferruginous bodies or low fibre concentrations in lung tissue. The new S2k directive summarizing the current medico-scientific knowledge is for this reason, for diagnoses and expert opinions as well as for the determination of a reduced capacity for work a very important source of information. PMID:22048939

  18. Impact of vectorborne parasitic neglected tropical diseases on child health.

    PubMed

    Barry, Meagan A; Murray, Kristy O; Hotez, Peter J; Jones, Kathryn M

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are all vectorborne neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are responsible for significant disease burden in impoverished children and adults worldwide. As vectorborne parasitic diseases, they can all be targeted for elimination through vector control strategies. Examples of successful vector control programmes for these diseases over the past two decades have included the Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease, the Kala-azar Control Scheme against leishmaniasis, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme and the lymphatic filariasis control programme in The Gambia. A common vector control component in all of these programmes is the use of adulticides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and newer synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against the insect vectors of disease. Household spraying has been used against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, and insecticide-treated bed nets have helped prevent leishmaniasis and lymphatic filariasis. Recent trends in vector control focus on collaborations between programmes and sectors to achieve integrated vector management that addresses the holistic vector control needs of a community rather than approaching it on a disease-by-disease basis, with the goals of increased efficacy, sustainability and cost-effectiveness. As evidence of vector resistance to currently used insecticide regimens emerges, research to develop new and improved insecticides and novel control strategies will be critical in reducing disease burden. In the quest to eliminate these vectorborne NTDs, efforts need to be made to continue existing control programmes, further implement integrated vector control strategies and stimulate research into new insecticides and control methods. PMID:26921274

  19. Tungiasis - A Janus-faced parasitic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, Hermann; Keysers, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease caused by the penetration of female sand fleas (Tunga penetrans). It is acquired when people walk barefoot or rest on soil, where sand fleas have completed the off-host cycle. Tungiasis is a classic poverty-associated disease which belongs to the family of neglected tropical diseases (NTD). It has a Janus-face: while in travellers tungiasis usually is a benign self-limiting skin disease, inhabitants of endemic areas suffer from heavy infestations and severe, frequently debilitating and incapacitating morbidity. We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of travel-associated tungiasis and compare these features to the situation in resource-poor communities in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24211240

  20. Positron emission tomography in patients with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    McGeer, P L; Kamo, H; Harrop, R; Li, D K; Tuokko, H; McGeer, E G; Adam, M J; Ammann, W; Beattie, B L; Calne, D B

    1986-01-01

    Fourteen patients who had clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease with mild to severe dementia (mean age 69.1 years) were evaluated by calculation of local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMR-gl) based on uptake of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) detected with positron emission tomography (PET). PET scanning showed that the patients had significantly lower LCMR-gl values than 11 age-matched neurologically normal volunteers (mean age 66.3 years). The differences were most marked in the temporal cortex, followed by the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex. In each case the LCMR-gl value was below the lowest control value in at least one cortical area and usually in several; the reduction in LCMR-gl and the number of regions involved in the patients increased with the severity of the dementia. Deficits noted in neuropsychologic testing generally correlated with those predicted from loss of regional cortical metabolism. The patients with Alzheimer's disease were also examined with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography or both; the degree of atrophy found showed only a poor correlation with the neuropsychologic deficit. Significant atrophy was also noted in some of the controls. A detailed analysis of LCMR-gl values in selected cerebral regions of various sizes refuted the hypothesis that the reduction in cortical glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease is due to the filling by metabolically inert cerebrospinal fluid of space created by tissue atrophy. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:3512063

  1. Insights into Population Health Management Through Disease Diagnoses Networks

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Keith; Stiglic, Gregor; Dasgupta, Dipanwita; Kricheff, Mark; Obradovic, Zoran; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of electronic health care records has provided remarkable progress in the field of population health. In particular the identification of disease risk factors has flourished under the surge of available data. Researchers can now access patient data across a broad range of demographics and geographic locations. Utilizing this Big healthcare data researchers have been able to empirically identify specific high-risk conditions found within differing populations. However to date the majority of studies approached the issue from the top down, focusing on the prevalence of specific diseases within a population. Through our work we demonstrate the power of addressing this issue bottom-up by identifying specifically which diseases are higher-risk for a specific population. In this work we demonstrate that network-based analysis can present a foundation to identify pairs of diagnoses that differentiate across population segments. We provide a case study highlighting differences between high and low income individuals in the United States. This work is particularly valuable when addressing population health management within resource-constrained environments such as community health programs where it can be used to provide insight and resource planning into targeted care for the population served. PMID:27461860

  2. Insights into Population Health Management Through Disease Diagnoses Networks.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Keith; Stiglic, Gregor; Dasgupta, Dipanwita; Kricheff, Mark; Obradovic, Zoran; Chawla, Nitesh V

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of electronic health care records has provided remarkable progress in the field of population health. In particular the identification of disease risk factors has flourished under the surge of available data. Researchers can now access patient data across a broad range of demographics and geographic locations. Utilizing this Big healthcare data researchers have been able to empirically identify specific high-risk conditions found within differing populations. However to date the majority of studies approached the issue from the top down, focusing on the prevalence of specific diseases within a population. Through our work we demonstrate the power of addressing this issue bottom-up by identifying specifically which diseases are higher-risk for a specific population. In this work we demonstrate that network-based analysis can present a foundation to identify pairs of diagnoses that differentiate across population segments. We provide a case study highlighting differences between high and low income individuals in the United States. This work is particularly valuable when addressing population health management within resource-constrained environments such as community health programs where it can be used to provide insight and resource planning into targeted care for the population served. PMID:27461860

  3. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour–parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour–parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. PMID:27053751

  4. Host behaviour-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-04-13

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. PMID:27053751

  5. Major parasitic diseases of poverty in mainland China: perspectives for better control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Huang, Si-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the prevention, control, and elimination of human parasitic diseases in China in the past 60 years. However, parasitic diseases of poverty remain major causes of morbidity and mortality, and inflict enormous economic costs on societies.In this article, we review the prevalence rates, geographical distributions, epidemic characteristics, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of parasitic diseases of poverty listed in the first issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty on 25 October 2012. We also address the challenges facing control of parasitic diseases of poverty and provide suggestions for better control. PMID:27476746

  6. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  7. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  8. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  9. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  10. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  11. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723 Section 700.723 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected...

  12. The Impact of Cultural Behaviours, Local Beliefs, and Practices on Emerging Parasitic Diseases in Tropical Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuliri, Celestine O. E.; Anosike, Jude C.; Oguoma, Chibuzor; Onwuliri, Viola A.; Nwoke, Betram E. B.; Dozie, Ikechukwu, N. S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.

    2005-01-01

    The scourge of emerging parasitic diseases (e.g., urinary schistosomiasis, ascariasis, malaria, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trachoma, trichiuriasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, sleeping sickness, filariasis) causes tremendous pain, suffering, and eventually death in tropical African communities. Patterns of transmission of these emerging…

  13. Integrated Approaches and Empirical Models for Investigation of Parasitic Diseases in Northern Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Polley, Lydden; Jenkins, Emily J.; Kutz, Susan J.; Veitch, Alasdair M.; Elkin, Brett T.

    2008-01-01

    The North is a frontier for exploration of emerging infectious diseases and the large-scale drivers influencing distribution, host associations, and evolution of pathogens among persons, domestic animals, and wildlife. Leading into the International Polar Year 2007–2008, we outline approaches, protocols, and empirical models derived from a decade of integrated research on northern host–parasite systems. Investigations of emerging infectious diseases associated with parasites in northern wildlife involved a network of multidisciplinary collaborators and incorporated geographic surveys, archival collections, historical foundations for diversity, and laboratory and field studies exploring the interface for hosts, parasites, and the environment. In this system, emergence of parasitic disease was linked to geographic expansion, host switching, resurgence due to climate change, and newly recognized parasite species. Such integrative approaches serve as cornerstones for detection, prediction, and potential mitigation of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and persons in the North and elsewhere under a changing global climate. PMID:18258071

  14. [Use of geographical information systems in parasitic diseases and the importance of animal health economics].

    PubMed

    Ciçek, Hasan; Ciçek, Hatice; Senkul, Cetin; Tandoğan, Murat

    2008-01-01

    In the world, economical losses due to the parasitic diseases reach enormous ratios in animal production. Both developed and developing countries set aside a considerable budget to control these parasitic diseases. This situation aids in the improvement of control methods of parasitic diseases. Also, it causes new ways of investigation that includes observation, evaluation and prevention of parasitic diseases. The Geographical Information System (GIS) has recently become one of the most common methods utilized to provide disease information technology with computer supported technology in many countries. The most important qualities of GIS are the formation of a powerful database, continual updating and rapid provision of coordination related to units. Many factors are evaluated at the same time by the system and also, results from analysis of data related to disease and their causes could reduce or prevent economical losses due to parasitic disease. In this study, possible uses of Geographical Information Systems against parasitic diseases and an approach in terms of animal health economics were presented. PMID:18985590

  15. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Preliminarily Diagnosed as Hypochondriasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael Jay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A case in which a dental student with hand, foot, and mouth disease was told he had "medical student disease" (MSD), or hypochondriasis, is related; literature pertaining to the occurrence and treatment of MSD is reviewed, and the importance of care in approaches to both students and patients are discussed. (MSE)

  16. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L.; Parkhouse, R. M. E.; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control. PMID:26894629

  17. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L; Parkhouse, R M E; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-04-01

    Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control. PMID:26894629

  18. Tests for diagnosing subacromial impingement syndrome and rotator cuff disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Clinical examination techniques need to allow the physician to determine the underlying pathology of a patient’s condition with confidence. This review examines the evidence for two common conditions: impingement and rotator cuff disease

  19. Parasitic infestation of lung: An unusual cause of interstitial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parth; Kate, Arvind H; Nester, Nora; Patole, Kamlakar; Leuppi, Joerg D; Chhajed, Prashant N

    2016-01-01

    Parasite infections are increasing worldwide due to increasing migration and traveling. Parasitic infections can affect lungs and present as a focal or diffuse lung diseases. High index of suspicion and detailed history are most important. We present a case of interstitial pneumonitis caused by parasite infestation, which was diagnosed on transbronchial lung biopsy. PMID:27051117

  20. [Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease: from research to clinical practice and ethics].

    PubMed

    Tarquini, Daniela; Pucci, Eugenio; Gasparini, Maddalena; Zullo, Silvia; Tiraboschi, Pietro; Bonito, Virginio; Defanti, Carlo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the so-called Dubois criteria introduced the use of biomarkers in research (in particular, brain amyloid positron emission tomography imaging and the cerebrospinal fluid levels of tau/fosfo-tau and beta-amyloid 1-42) for the early or preclinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Even so, we are looking at an increased use of these markers in clinical practice. In the 1960s, Alzheimer's disease was considered a rare form of presenile dementia, but gradually it has been recognized as the prevalent form of old-age dementia. As a consequence, what was once regarded as an inevitable outcome of old age is now recognized as a true disease. Several factors contributed to this paradigm shift, in particular a longer lifespan, new techniques of in vivo study of the central nervous system, and the pressure exerted by the pharmaceutical industry and patient groups. The current lack of disease-modifying therapies and the high incidence of mild cognitive impairment, which is a risk factor for dementia, raise a series of clinical ethical problems ranging from how diagnosis is communicated to how resources are used. This article offers a conceptual scheme through which these issues can be addressed. PMID:25072545

  1. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  2. Diagnosing the dead: the retrospective analysis of genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rushton, A R

    2013-01-01

    The suspected presence of hereditary disease in important historical and political figures has interested researchers for many decades. Whether Abraham Lincoln suffered from Marfan syndrome, if George III became 'mad' because he inherited variegate porphyria, and if the Romanov dynasty collapsed because the heir Alexei inherited haemophilia are important questions; physical illness can adversely affect the ability of leaders to function within the social and political realm of their day. This article will outline an approach to such a medical-historical analysis including assessment of hereditary predisposition, family history and the use of DNA technology to confirm or deny the clinical suspicions of the investigator. PMID:23516684

  3. Application of plant impedance for diagnosing plant disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Jiang, Xuesong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Biological cells have components acting as electrical elements that maintain the health of the cell by regulation of the electrical charge content. Plant impedance is decided by the state of plant physiology and pathology. Plant physiology and pathology can be studies by measuring plant impedance. The effect of Cucumber Mosaic Virus red bean isolate (CMV-RB) on electrical resistance of tomato leaves was studied by the method of impedance measurement. It was found that the value of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB was smaller than that in sound plant leaves. This decrease of impedances in leaf tissue was occurred with increased severity of disease. The decrease of resistance of tomato leaves infected with CMV-RB could be detected by electrical resistance detecting within 4 days after inoculation even though significant visible differences between the control and the infected plants were not noted, so that the technique for measurement of tomato leaf tissue impedance is a rapid, clever, simple method on diagnosis of plant disease.

  4. A systematic review of pentacyclic triterpenes and their derivatives as chemotherapeutic agents against tropical parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Isah, Murtala Bindawa; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Mohammed, Aminu; Aliyu, Abubakar Babando; Masola, Bubuya; Coetzer, Theresa H T

    2016-09-01

    Parasitic infections are among the leading global public health problems with very high economic and mortality burdens. Unfortunately, the available treatment drugs are beset with side effects and continuous parasite drug resistance is being reported. However, new findings reveal more promising compounds especially of plant origin. Among the promising leads are the pentacyclic triterpenes (PTs) made up of the oleanane, ursane, taraxastane, lupane and hopane types. This paper reviews the literature published from 1985 to date on the in vitro and in vivo anti-parasitic potency of this class of phytochemicals. Of the 191 natural and synthetic PT reported, 85 have shown high anti-parasitic activity against various species belonging to the genera of Plasmodium, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, as well as various genera of Nematoda. Moreover, structural modification especially at carbon 3 (C3) and C27 of the parent backbone of PT has led to improved anti-parasitic activity in some cases and loss of activity in others. The potential of this group of compounds as future alternatives in the treatment of parasitic diseases is discussed. It is hoped that the information presented herein will contribute to the full exploration of this promising group of compounds as possible drugs for parasitic diseases. PMID:27240847

  5. Cell Culture, Technology: Enhancing the Culture of Diagnosing Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Alshrari, Ahmed Subeh; Syahida, Ahmad; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture involves a complex of processes of cell isolation from their natural environment (in vivo) and subsequent growth in a controlled environmental artificial condition (in vitro). Cells from specific tissues or organs are cultured as short term or established cell lines which are widely used for research and diagnosis, most specially in the aspect of viral infection, because pathogenic viral isolation depends on the availability of permissible cell cultures. Cell culture provides the required setting for the detection and identification of numerous pathogens of humans, which is achieved via virus isolation in the cell culture as the “gold standard” for virus discovery. In this review, we summarized the views of researchers on the current role of cell culture technology in the diagnosis of human diseases. The technological advancement of recent years, starting with monoclonal antibody development to molecular techniques, provides an important approach for detecting presence of viral infection. They are also used as a baseline for establishing rapid tests for newly discovered pathogens. A combination of virus isolation in cell culture and molecular methods is still critical in identifying viruses that were previously unrecognized. Therefore, cell culture should be considered as a fundamental procedure in identifying suspected infectious viral agent. PMID:27134874

  6. Cell Culture, Technology: Enhancing the Culture of Diagnosing Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hudu, Shuaibu Abdullahi; Alshrari, Ahmed Subeh; Syahida, Ahmad; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2016-03-01

    Cell culture involves a complex of processes of cell isolation from their natural environment (in vivo) and subsequent growth in a controlled environmental artificial condition (in vitro). Cells from specific tissues or organs are cultured as short term or established cell lines which are widely used for research and diagnosis, most specially in the aspect of viral infection, because pathogenic viral isolation depends on the availability of permissible cell cultures. Cell culture provides the required setting for the detection and identification of numerous pathogens of humans, which is achieved via virus isolation in the cell culture as the "gold standard" for virus discovery. In this review, we summarized the views of researchers on the current role of cell culture technology in the diagnosis of human diseases. The technological advancement of recent years, starting with monoclonal antibody development to molecular techniques, provides an important approach for detecting presence of viral infection. They are also used as a baseline for establishing rapid tests for newly discovered pathogens. A combination of virus isolation in cell culture and molecular methods is still critical in identifying viruses that were previously unrecognized. Therefore, cell culture should be considered as a fundamental procedure in identifying suspected infectious viral agent. PMID:27134874

  7. Diagnosing and treating renal disease in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Florence

    2016-09-01

    Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis is mostly related to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI), precipitated by either an acute disturbance of hemodynamics, or acute structural damage to the kidneys. The incidence of chronic renal failure is rising, due to increasing prevalence of conditions such as diabetes, viral hepatitis, which can be associated with renal damage. AKI is defined as a rise in serum creatinine of 0.3 mg/dL in <48 hours or by 50% from baseline within the past 3 months without setting a threshold for the final serum creatinine. Stages 1, 2, and 3 of AKI are defined as 150%, 200% and 300% of baseline serum creatinine respectively, which allows for assessment of AKI progression. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min for >3 months. Treatment of AKI consists of removal of precipitating factors and replenishment of the intravascular volume using colloids such as albumin. Frequently, AKI can be reversed using these measures alone. Non-responders to removal of precipitating factors and volume challenge can receive vasoconstrictors such as terlipressin or norepinephrine together with albumin. Midodrine is inferior in efficacy as a vasoconstrictor when compared to terlipressin. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome with liver failure. Delay in receiving a liver transplant can result in non-recovery of renal function post transplant. Treatment of CKD in cirrhosis is unsatisfactory, mostly aimed at optimizing management of comorbid conditions, or treating the underlying refractory ascites in patients with type 2 hepatorenal syndrome. PMID:27096702

  8. [SWOT Analysis of the National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China].

    PubMed

    ZHU, Hui-hui; ZHOU, Chang-hai; CHEN, Ying-dan; ZANG, Wei; XIAO, Ning; ZHOU, Xiao-nong

    2015-10-01

    The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China has been carried out since 2014 under the organization of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD, China CDC) provided technical support and was responsible for quality control in this survey. This study used SWOT method to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that were encountered by he NIPD, China CDC during the completion of the survey. Accordingly, working strategies were proposed to facilitate the future field work. PMID:26931045

  9. The impact of climate change on the parasites and infectious diseases of aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Marcogliese, D J

    2008-08-01

    Climate change is predicted to have important effects on parasitism and disease in freshwater and marine ecosystems, with consequences for human health and socio-economics. The distribution of parasites and pathogens will be directly affected by global warming, but also indirectly, through effects on host range and abundance. To date, numerous disease outbreaks, especially in marine organisms, have been associated with climatic events such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. In general, transmission rates of parasites and pathogens are expected to increase with increasing temperature. Evidence suggests that the virulence of some pathogens and parasites may also increase with global warming. The effects of climate change on parasites and pathogens will be superimposed onto the effects of other anthropogenic stressors in ecosystems, such as contaminants, habitat loss and species introductions. This combination of stressors may work cumulatively or synergistically to exacerbate negative effects on host organisms and populations. Climatic effects on parasites and diseases of key species may cascade through food webs, with consequences for entire ecosystems. PMID:18819673

  10. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  11. Diagnosing coronary artery disease with a backpropagation neural network: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.D.; Holmes, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    The SPECT (single photon emitted computed tomography) procedure, while widely used for diagnosing coronary artery disease, is not a perfect technology. We have investigated using a backpropagation neural network to diagnose patients suffering from coronary artery disease that is independent from the SPECT procedure. The raw thallium-201 scintigrams produced before the SPECT tomographic reconstruction were used as input patterns for the backpropagation neural network, and the diagnoses resulting mainly from cardiac catheterization as the desired outputs for each pattern. Several preprocessing techniques were applied to the scintigrams, in an attempt to improve the information to noise ratio. After using the a procedure that extracted a subimage containing the heart from each scintigram, we used a data reduction technique, thereby encoding the scintigram in 12 values, which were the inputs to the backpropagation neural network. The network was then trained. This network per-formed superbly for patients suffering from inferolateral disease (classifying 10 out of 10 correctly), but performance was less than optimal for cases involving other coronary zones. While the scope of this project was limited to diagnosing coronary artery disease, this initial work can be extended to other medical imaging procedures, such as diagnosing breast cancer from a mammogram and evaluating lung perfusion studies.

  12. Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-11-01

    Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance. PMID:23106703

  13. [Wilson-Konovalov disease in 3 sisters: a radical change in prognosis if timely diagnosed].

    PubMed

    Rozina, T P; Ignatova, T M; Solov'eva, O V

    2014-01-01

    Wilson-Konovalov disease is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder in which copper accumulates in the liver, brain and other target organs. The paper describes a family case of the abdominal form of the disease in three sisters, the eldest of them died from fulminant liver failure at the age of 18 years. The second sister aged 16 years was diagnosed as having the disease at the stage of decompensated liver cirrhosis; her treatment with D-penicillamine resulted in complete disease remission. The youngest sister was diagnosed with the disease at the preclinical stage, which could expect its good prognosis. However, the patient's refusal of treatment led to death from liver failure. This case demonstrates the importance of timely diagnosis and the possibility of dramatic improvement in prognosis even at the stage of decompensated liver cirrhosis. PMID:24864473

  14. Differential diagnoses of the heart disease program have better sensitivity than resident physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, H. S.; Long, W. J.; Naimi, S.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a prospective clinical evaluation of a computer program to assist with the diagnosis of heart disease. The Heart Disease Program (HDP) is a large diagnostic program covering most areas of heart disease and some related areas of general medicine. The program's output is a set of differential diagnoses with explanations and it can be deployed in a clinical setting using a web interface. A framework for assessing the complex diagnostic summaries generated by the HDP was developed and the program's diagnostic accuracy in a clinical setting was assessed. The diagnoses used for comparison came from the physician entering the case, a "gold standard" assigned by review of patient charts and investigations, and the opinions of expert cardiologists. The data collection, methods of comparison, example analyses and results on 114 cases are presented here. The HDP had a significantly higher sensitivity for both the gold standard (60%) and the cardiologist's diagnoses (58%) than the physicians did (39%, 34%). These findings were consistent in the 2 collection cohorts and for the more serious diagnoses alone. The significance of these findings and the many challenges in comparing these different diagnoses and minimizing bias are discussed. Images Figure 2 PMID:9929294

  15. [A case of lyme disease requiring over 1 year to diagnose at an infectious-disease clinic].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kentaro; Shimada, Tomoe; Kawabata, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman presenting with years of fever and vague symptoms could not be satisfactorily diagnosed in physical examination or conventional workups. She was presumptively diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome and treated symptomatically. Fourteen months after the initial visit, she developed left facial palsy. Lyme disease serology was positive. Four weeks of oral amoxicillin ameliorated symptoms. Only 5 to 15 cases of Lyme disease are reported annually in Japan, mostly from the northeastern-most island of Hokkaido. It may occur anywhere in Japan, however; probably is underdiagnosed. Lyme disease may cause fevers of unknown origin. Astute clinical suspicion and appropriate workups are thus needed to diagnose this infection. PMID:23484378

  16. Lived Experiences of Adult Children Who Have a Parent Diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Amy; Hodgson, Jennifer; Lamson, Angela; Dosser, David

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the experience among adult children who have a parent with Parkinson's Disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to explore, appreciate, and describe their experiences using a phenomenological methodology. Narratives were collected from seven participants who have a parent diagnosed with PD and analyzed according to…

  17. Role of Experience and Context in Learning To Diagnose Lyme Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Lori L.

    2002-01-01

    Using grounded theory, the learning processes used by nine physicians to diagnose Lyme Disease were investigated. Repetition and counterexperiences served to frame the problem along a continuum of familiarity. Results suggest ways to prepare case studies that include variety, repetition, and counterexperiences to teach diagnosis. (Contains 28…

  18. Cutaneous aseptic neutrophilic abscesses and Yersinia enterocolitica infection in a case subsequently diagnosed as Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Safa, G; Loppin, M; Tisseau, L; Lamoril, J

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a man who presented cutaneous aseptic abscesses, a rare form of neutrophilic disease, associated with Yersinia enterocolitica infection and who was later diagnosed as having Crohn's disease (CD). Genetic analysis showed that the patient had a mutation in the caspase activation recruitment domain 15/nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 gene (R702W heterozygote). This case is in keeping with recent evidence in the literature which suggests that CD is a disease linked to abnormal immune responses to enteric bacteria in genetically susceptible individuals. Further understanding of the innate immune system should provide new insights into the pathogenesis of these inflammatory diseases. PMID:18799880

  19. Capillary electrophoresis based on nucleic acid detection for diagnosing human infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Lian, Dong-Sheng; Zhao, Shu-Jin

    2016-05-01

    Rapid transmission, high morbidity, and mortality are the features of human infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. These diseases may lead within a short period of time to great personal and property losses, especially in regions where sanitation is poor. Thus, rapid diagnoses are vital for the prevention and therapeutic intervention of human infectious diseases. Several conventional methods are often used to diagnose infectious diseases, e.g. methods based on cultures or morphology, or biochemical tests based on metabonomics. Although traditional methods are considered gold standards and are used most frequently, they are laborious, time consuming, and tedious and cannot meet the demand for rapid diagnoses. Disease diagnosis using capillary electrophoresis methods has the advantages of high efficiency, high throughput, and high speed, and coupled with the different nucleic acid detection strategies overcomes the drawbacks of traditional identification methods, precluding many types of false positive and negative results. Therefore, this review focuses on the application of capillary electrophoresis based on nucleic detection to the diagnosis of human infectious diseases, and offers an introduction to the limitations, advantages, and future developments of this approach. PMID:26352354

  20. Epidemiology and detection as options for control of viral and parasitic foodborne disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jaykus, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    Human enteric viruses and protozoal parasites are important causes of emerging food and waterborne disease. Epidemiologic investigation and detection of the agents in clinical, food, and water specimens, which are traditionally used to establish the cause of disease outbreaks, are either cumbersome, expensive, and frequently unavailable or unattempted for the important food and waterborne enteric viruses and protozoa. However, the recent introduction of regulatory testing mandates, alternative testing strategies, and increased epidemiologic surveillance for food and waterborne disease should significantly improve the ability to detect and control these agents. We discuss new methods of investigating foodborne viral and parasitic disease and the future of these methods in recognizing, identifying, and controlling disease agents. PMID:9366607

  1. Immunodominance: a new hypothesis to explain parasite escape and host/parasite equilibrium leading to the chronic phase of Chagas' disease?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M M; Alencar, B C G de; Claser, C; Tzelepis, F

    2009-03-01

    Intense immune responses are observed during human or experimental infection with the digenetic protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The reasons why such immune responses are unable to completely eliminate the parasites are unknown. The survival of the parasite leads to a parasite-host equilibrium found during the chronic phase of chagasic infection in most individuals. Parasite persistence is recognized as the most likely cause of the chagasic chronic pathologies. Therefore, a key question in Chagas' disease is to understand how this equilibrium is established and maintained for a long period. Understanding the basis for this equilibrium may lead to new approaches to interventions that could help millions of individuals at risk for infection or who are already infected with T. cruzi. Here, we propose that the phenomenon of immunodominance may be significant in terms of regulating the host-parasite equilibrium observed in Chagas' disease. T. cruzi infection restricts the repertoire of specific T cells generating, in some cases, an intense immunodominant phenotype and in others causing a dramatic interference in the response to distinct epitopes. This immune response is sufficiently strong to maintain the host alive during the acute phase carrying them to the chronic phase where transmission usually occurs. At the same time, immunodominance interferes with the development of a higher and broader immune response that could be able to completely eliminate the parasite. Based on this, we discuss how we can interfere with or take advantage of immunodominance in order to provide an immunotherapeutic alternative for chagasic individuals. PMID:19287899

  2. [SWOT analysis of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan-hong; Zheng, Bin

    2014-04-01

    This study analyzes the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases by SWOT analysis comprehensively, and it puts forward some development strategies specifically, in order to provide some indicative references for the further development. PMID:25051844

  3. Cardiac Involvement with Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hidron, Alicia; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Santos-Preciado, José I.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rassi, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Parasitic infections previously seen only in developing tropical settings can be currently diagnosed worldwide due to travel and population migration. Some parasites may directly or indirectly affect various anatomical structures of the heart, with infections manifested as myocarditis, pericarditis, pancarditis, or pulmonary hypertension. Thus, it has become quite relevant for clinicians in developed settings to consider parasitic infections in the differential diagnosis of myocardial and pericardial disease anywhere around the globe. Chagas' disease is by far the most important parasitic infection of the heart and one that it is currently considered a global parasitic infection due to the growing migration of populations from areas where these infections are highly endemic to settings where they are not endemic. Current advances in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis offer hope to prevent not only the neurological complications but also the frequently identified cardiac manifestations of this life-threatening parasitic infection. The lack of effective vaccines, optimal chemoprophylaxis, or evidence-based pharmacological therapies to control many of the parasitic diseases of the heart, in particular Chagas' disease, makes this disease one of the most important public health challenges of our time. PMID:20375355

  4. Environmental change and the dynamics of parasitic diseases in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Margonari, Carina; Quintão, Ana Flávia

    2014-01-01

    The Amazonian environment is changing rapidly, due to deforestation, in the short term, and, climatic change is projected to alter its forest cover, in the next few decades. These modifications to the, environment have been altering the dynamics of infectious diseases which have natural foci in the, Amazonian biome, especially in its forest. Current land use practices which are changing the, epidemiological profile of the parasitic diseases in the region are road building; logging; mining; expansion of agriculture and cattle ranching and the building of large dams. Malaria and the cutaneous, leishmaniasis are the diseases best known for their rapid changes in response to environmental, modifications. Others such as soil-transmitted helminthiases, filarial infections and toxoplasmosis, which have part of their developmental cycles in the biophysical environment, are also expected to, change rapidly. An interdisciplinary approach and an integrated, international surveillance are needed, to manage the environmentally-driven changes in the Amazonian parasitic diseases in the near future. PMID:24056199

  5. Dropping the bomb: the experience of being diagnosed with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lorraine J

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive study examined the advice people with Parkinson's disease have for someone newly diagnosed. Qualitative content analysis of interview data from 11 persons with Parkinson's resulted in 1 major theme: "Dropping the Bomb." This theme signified sorting through the rubble and picking up the pieces of lives shattered by the diagnosis. Four subthemes emerged: Guarded Anticipation, Becoming Informed, Disease Dynamics, and Negotiating with Mr. Parkinson. In planning and implementing interventions, nurses might ease the impact of the diagnosis and the context of the disease if they contextualize their interventions within the preferences of the persons living with it. PMID:17174742

  6. Imported parasitic infections in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Dakić, Z.; Nikolić, A.; Lavadinović, L.; Pelemiš, M.; Klun, I.; Dulović, O.; Milošević, B.; Stevanović, G.; Ofori-Belić, I.; Poluga, J.; Pavlović, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed. Results Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis. Conclusions Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account. PMID:24466436

  7. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed. PMID:26061370

  8. Diagnosing Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: Accuracy of CSF 14-3-3 Protein Test of the Spinal Fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... JAKOB DISEASE: ACCURACY OF THE 14-3-3 PROTEIN TEST OF THE SPINAL FLUID This information sheet ... help you understand how the 14-3-3 protein test helps in diagnosing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease ( ...

  9. The parasite that causes whirling disease, Myxobolus cerebralis, is genetically variable within and across spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Lodh, Nilanjan; Kerans, Billie L; Stevens, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of parasite populations on the natural landscape can reveal important aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology and can indicate parasite dispersal across the landscape. Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), the causative agent of whirling disease in the definitive host Tubifex tubifex, is native to Eurasia and has spread to more than 25 states in the USA. The small amounts of data available to date suggest that M. cerebralis has little genetic variability. We examined the genetic variability of parasites infecting the definitive host T. tubifex in the Madison River, MT, and also from other parts of North America and Europe. We cloned and sequenced 18S ribosomal DNA and the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) gene. Five oligochaetes were examined for 18S and five for ITS-1, only one individual was examined for both genes. We found two different 18S rRNA haplotypes of M. cerebralis from five worms and both intra- and interworm genetic variation for ITS-1, which showed 16 different haplotypes from among 20 clones. Comparison of our sequences with those from other studies revealed M. cerebralis from MT was similar to the parasite collected from Alaska, Oregon, California, and Virginia in the USA and from Munich, Germany, based on 18S, whereas parasite sequences from West Virginia were very different. Combined with the high haplotype diversity of ITS-1 and uniqueness of ITS-1 haplotypes, our results show that M. cerebralis is more variable than previously thought and raises the possibility of multiple introductions of the parasite into North America. PMID:22151695

  10. The Challenges of Diagnosing and Following Wilson Disease in the Presence of Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Soofia; Schilsky, Michael; Silber, Gary; Morgenstern, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of Wilson disease with Alport syndrome has not previously been reported. The diagnosis of Wilson disease and its ongoing monitoring is challenging when associated with an underlying renal disease such as Alport syndrome. Proteinuria can lead to low ceruloplasmin since it is among serum proteins inappropriately filtered by the damaged glomerulus, and can also lead to increased urinary loss of heavy metals such as zinc and copper. Elevated transaminases may be attributed to dyslipidemia or drug induced hepatotoxicity. The accurate diagnosis of Wilson disease is essential for targeted therapy and improved prognosis. We describe a patient with a diagnosis of Alport syndrome who has had chronic elevation of transaminases eventually diagnosed with Wilson disease based on liver histology and genetics. PMID:27437191

  11. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Torgerson, Paul R.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Willingham, Arve Lee; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Fèvre, Eric M.; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Fürst, Thomas; Budke, Christine M.; Carabin, Hélène; Kirk, Martyn D.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Havelaar, Arie; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background Foodborne diseases are globally important, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Parasitic diseases often result in high burdens of disease in low and middle income countries and are frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated food. This study presents the first estimates of the global and regional human disease burden of 10 helminth diseases and toxoplasmosis that may be attributed to contaminated food. Methods and Findings Data were abstracted from 16 systematic reviews or similar studies published between 2010 and 2015; from 5 disease data bases accessed in 2015; and from 79 reports, 73 of which have been published since 2000, 4 published between 1995 and 2000 and 2 published in 1986 and 1981. These included reports from national surveillance systems, journal articles, and national estimates of foodborne diseases. These data were used to estimate the number of infections, sequelae, deaths, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), by age and region for 2010. These parasitic diseases, resulted in 48.4 million cases (95% Uncertainty intervals [UI] of 43.4–79.0 million) and 59,724 (95% UI 48,017–83,616) deaths annually resulting in 8.78 million (95% UI 7.62–12.51 million) DALYs. We estimated that 48% (95% UI 38%-56%) of cases of these parasitic diseases were foodborne, resulting in 76% (95% UI 65%-81%) of the DALYs attributable to these diseases. Overall, foodborne parasitic disease, excluding enteric protozoa, caused an estimated 23.2 million (95% UI 18.2–38.1 million) cases and 45,927 (95% UI 34,763–59,933) deaths annually resulting in an estimated 6.64 million (95% UI 5.61–8.41 million) DALYs. Foodborne Ascaris infection (12.3 million cases, 95% UI 8.29–22.0 million) and foodborne toxoplasmosis (10.3 million cases, 95% UI 7.40–14.9 million) were the most common foodborne parasitic diseases. Human cysticercosis with 2.78 million DALYs (95% UI 2.14–3.61 million), foodborne trematodosis with 2.02 million DALYs (95

  12. Newly Diagnosed Anemia Increases Risk of Parkinson's disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chien Tai; Huang, Yao Hsien; Liu, Hung Yi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chan, Lung; Chien, Li-Nien

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and low hemoglobin have been identified to increase Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. This population-based cohort study investigated PD risk in newly diagnosed anemic patients by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All newly diagnosed anemic patients (n = 86,334) without a history of stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, major operations, or blood loss diseases were enrolled. A cohort of nonanemic controls, 1:1 matched with anemic patients on the basis of the demographics and pre-existing medical conditions, was also included. Competing risk analysis was used to evaluate PD risk in anemic patients compared with that in their matched controls. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of PD risk in the anemic patients was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.52, p < 0.001). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients tended to exhibit a higher PD risk (aHR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24-1.79, p < 0.001). Furthermore, Iron supplement did not significantly affect the PD risk: the aHRs for PD risk were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.07-1.63, p < 0.01) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.46-2.35, p < 0.001) in IDA patients with and without iron supplementation, respectively. The population-based cohort study indicated newly diagnosed anemia increases PD risk. PMID:27412825

  13. Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Individuals Diagnosed as Children with Atypical Autism: A Danish Register Study Based on Hospital Diagnoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Isager, Torben; Rich, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of diseases (International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, 10th Edition codes K20-K93) relating to the gastrointestinal tract in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism/pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified…

  14. Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal disorders- eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases and parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pooja; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The gastrointestinal tract provides an intriguing organ for considering the eosinophil’s role in health and disease. The normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract, except for the esophagus, is populated by eosinophils that are present throughout the mucosa in varying numbers. This latter fact raises the possibility that eosinophils participate in innate mechanisms of defense. In contrast, a number of clinical studies provide a wealth of data that associates increased numbers of eosinophils with inflammatory GI diseases; these findings prompt concerns that eosinophils may have a deleterious effect on the gut. In this article we present clinical features of 4 disease processes that have been associated with eosinophilia and suggest areas requiring investigation as to their clinical significance and scientific relevance. PMID:26209893

  15. Gaucher's Disease: A Rare Case, Diagnosed By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Rashmi Rani; Kumar, Bipin

    2016-03-01

    Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is a simple, inexpensive and innocuous diagnostic tool. It is increasingly accepted in daily medical practice. We report a case of Gaucher's disease diagnosed by FNA of enlarged spleen in a seven-year-old male presented with complaints of fever, on and off irregular bowel habits, abdominal distension and asymmetric gaze for four years and decreased vision in night for last one year. The diagnosis was based on the finding of large, macrophage like cells with abundant, pale, fibrillary cytoplasm and small nuclei. The patient had no family history of Gaucher's disease, and the diagnosis was not suspected clinically. PMID:27134885

  16. Gaucher’s Disease: A Rare Case, Diagnosed By Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Rashmi Rani

    2016-01-01

    Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is a simple, inexpensive and innocuous diagnostic tool. It is increasingly accepted in daily medical practice. We report a case of Gaucher’s disease diagnosed by FNA of enlarged spleen in a seven-year-old male presented with complaints of fever, on and off irregular bowel habits, abdominal distension and asymmetric gaze for four years and decreased vision in night for last one year. The diagnosis was based on the finding of large, macrophage like cells with abundant, pale, fibrillary cytoplasm and small nuclei. The patient had no family history of Gaucher’s disease, and the diagnosis was not suspected clinically. PMID:27134885

  17. Disease dynamics of honeybees with Varroa destructor as parasite and virus vector.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun; Blanco, Krystal; Davis, Talia; Wang, Ying; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria

    2016-05-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses carried by Varroa mites. In this paper, we propose a honeybee-mite-virus model that incorporates (1) parasitic interactions between honeybees and the Varroa mites; (2) five virus transmission terms between honeybees and mites at different stages of Varroa mites: from honeybees to honeybees, from adult honeybees to the phoretic mites, from brood to the reproductive mites, from the reproductive mites to brood, and from adult honeybees to the phoretic mites; and (3) Allee effects in the honeybee population generated by its internal organization such as division of labor. We provide completed local and global analysis for the full system and its subsystems. Our analytical and numerical results allow us have a better understanding of the synergistic effects of parasitism and virus infections on honeybee population dynamics and its persistence. Interesting findings from our work include: (a) due to Allee effects experienced by the honeybee population, initial conditions are essential for the survival of the colony. (b) Low adult honeybees to brood ratios have destabilizing effects on the system which generate fluctuating dynamics that lead to a catastrophic event where both honeybees and mites suddenly become extinct. This catastrophic event could be potentially linked to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) of honeybee colonies. (c) Virus infections may have stabilizing effects on the system, and parasitic mites could make disease more persistent. Our model illustrates how the synergy between the parasitic mites and virus infections consequently generates rich dynamics including multiple attractors where all species can coexist or go extinct depending on initial conditions. Our findings may provide important insights on honeybee viruses and parasites and how to best control them. PMID

  18. Baseline and longitudinal grey matter changes in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: ICICLE-PD study.

    PubMed

    Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B; Firbank, Michael J; Lawson, Rachael A; Yarnall, Alison J; Duncan, Gordon W; Owen, Adrian M; Khoo, Tien K; Brooks, David J; Rowe, James B; Barker, Roger A; Burn, David J; O'Brien, John T

    2015-10-01

    Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is associated with progression to dementia (Parkinson's disease dementia) in a majority of patients. Determining structural imaging biomarkers associated with prodromal Parkinson's disease dementia may allow for the earlier identification of those at risk, and allow for targeted disease modifying therapies. One hundred and five non-demented subjects with newly diagnosed idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 37 healthy matched controls had serial 3 T structural magnetic resonance imaging scans with clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, which were repeated after 18 months. The Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria were used to classify the Parkinson's disease subjects into Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (n = 39) and Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment (n = 66). Freesurfer image processing software was used to measure cortical thickness and subcortical volumes at baseline and follow-up. We compared regional percentage change of cortical thinning and subcortical atrophy over 18 months. At baseline, cases with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated widespread cortical thinning relative to controls and atrophy of the nucleus accumbens compared to both controls and subjects with Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment. Regional cortical thickness at baseline was correlated with global cognition in the combined Parkinson's disease cohort. Over 18 months, patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated more severe cortical thinning in frontal and temporo-parietal cortices, including hippocampal atrophy, relative to those with Parkinson's disease and no cognitive impairment and healthy controls, whereas subjects with Parkinson's disease and no cognitive impairment showed more severe frontal cortical thinning compared to healthy controls. At baseline, Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment

  19. Interactions Between Trypanosoma cruzi the Chagas Disease Parasite and Naturally Infected Wild Mepraia Vectors of Chile.

    PubMed

    Campos-Soto, Ricardo; Ortiz, Sylvia; Cordova, Ivan; Bruneau, Nicole; Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Solari, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    Chagas disease, which ranks among the world's most neglected diseases, is a chronic, systemic, parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Mepraia species are the wild vectors of this parasite in Chile. Host-parasite interactions can occur at several levels, such as co-speciation and ecological host fitting, among others. Thus, we are exploring the interactions between T. cruzi circulating in naturally infected Mepraia species in all areas endemic of Chile. We evaluated T. cruzi infection rates of 27 different haplotypes of the wild Mepraia species and identified their parasite genotypes using minicircle PCR amplification and hybridization tests with genotype-specific DNA probes. Infection rates were lower in northern Chile where Mepraia gajardoi circulates (10-35%); in central Chile, Mepraia spinolai is most abundant, and infection rates varied in space and time (0-55%). T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) TcI, TcII, TcV, and Tc VI were detected. Mixed infections with two or more DTUs are frequently found in highly infected insects. T. cruzi DTUs have distinct, but not exclusive, ecological and epidemiological associations with their hosts. T. cruzi infection rates of M. spinolai were higher than in M. gajardoi, but the presence of mixed infection with more than one T. cruzi DTU was the same. The same T. cruzi DTUs (TcI, TcII, TcV, and TcVI) were found circulating in both vector species, even though TcI was not equally distributed. These results suggest that T. cruzi DTUs are not associated with any of the two genetically related vector species nor with the geographic area. The T. cruzi vectors interactions are discussed in terms of old and recent events. By exploring T. cruzi DTUs present in Mepraia haplotypes and species from northern to central Chile, we open the analysis on these invertebrate host-parasite interactions. PMID:26771702

  20. Rose Angina Questionnaire: Validation with cardiologists' diagnoses to detect coronary heart disease in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Spurrier, Nicola; Mahmood, Mohammad Afzal; Rahman, Mahmudur; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Leeder, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Aim/objectives The study aimed to validate the Rose Angina Questionnaire (RAQ) to detect coronary heart disease (CHD) by comparing with cardiologists' diagnoses in Bangladesh. Methods Patients aged 40–75 years attending to two cardiac hospitals were diagnosed as either CHD positive or CHD negative by cardiologists. The RAQ was used to reclassify them into CHD positive [RAQ] and CHD negative [RAQ]. Findings There were 302 CHD positive [cardiologists] and 302 CHD negative [cardiologists] individuals. The RAQ reclassified 194 individuals as CHD positive [RAQ] and 409 individuals as CHD negative [RAQ]. Therefore, the RAQ had 53% sensitivity and 89% specificity. There was no difference in sensitivity and specificity during subgroup analyzes by age and gender; the sensitivity was higher among people from lower socio-economic status. Conclusion The RAQ, having moderate sensitivity but high specificity to detect CHD, can be used to screen individuals at risk of CHD in large-scale epidemiological surveys. PMID:23438610

  1. Centrality in primate–parasite networks reveals the potential for the transmission of emerging infectious diseases to humans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, José María; Nunn, Charles L.; Verdú, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans have arisen from animals. Identifying high-risk hosts is therefore vital for the control and surveillance of these diseases. Viewing hosts as connected through the parasites they share, we use network tools to investigate predictors of parasitism and sources of future EIDs. We generated host–parasite networks that link hosts when they share a parasite, using nonhuman primates as a model system because—owing to their phylogenetic proximity and ecological overlap with humans—they are an important source of EIDs to humans. We then tested whether centrality in the network of host species—a measurement of the importance of a given node (i.e., host species) in the network—is associated with that host serving as a potential EID source. We found that centrality covaries with key predictors of parasitism, such as population density and geographic range size. Importantly, we also found that primate species having higher values of centrality in the primate–parasite network harbored more parasites identified as EIDs in humans and had parasite communities more similar to those found in humans. These relationships were robust to the use of different centrality metrics and to multiple ways of controlling for variation in how well each species has been studied (i.e., sampling effort). Centrality may therefore estimate the role of a host as a source of EIDs to humans in other multispecific host–parasite networks. PMID:23610389

  2. Parasitic Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jarque, Isidro; Salavert, Miguel; Pemán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic infections are rarely documented in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. However they may be responsible for fatal complications that are only diagnosed at autopsy. Increased awareness of the possibility of parasitic diseases both in autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant patients is relevant not only for implementing preventive measures but also for performing an early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy for these unrecognized but fatal infectious complications in hematopoietic transplant recipients. In this review, we will focus on parasitic diseases occurring in this population especially those with major clinical relevance including toxoplasmosis, American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, and strongyloidiasis, among others, highlighting the diagnosis and management in hematopoietic transplant recipients. PMID:27413527

  3. Parasitic Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jarque, Isidro; Salavert, Miguel; Pemán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic infections are rarely documented in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. However they may be responsible for fatal complications that are only diagnosed at autopsy. Increased awareness of the possibility of parasitic diseases both in autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant patients is relevant not only for implementing preventive measures but also for performing an early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy for these unrecognized but fatal infectious complications in hematopoietic transplant recipients. In this review, we will focus on parasitic diseases occurring in this population especially those with major clinical relevance including toxoplasmosis, American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, and strongyloidiasis, among others, highlighting the diagnosis and management in hematopoietic transplant recipients. PMID:27413527

  4. P300 in newly diagnosed non-dementing Parkinson's disease: effect of dopaminergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, S; Syal, P; Srivastava, T

    2000-09-01

    Changes in cognitive function are an integral part of the clinical presentation of Parkinson's Disease (PD). P300 potential studies in early stages of Parkinson's disease are lacking and effect of L-dopa therapy on these potentials is controversial. In this study, changes in P300 potentials in early stages of PD and effects of dopaminergic therapy were investigated. P300 waves were elicited by standard auditory 'odd ball' paradigm and were recorded before the start of therapy and 15 days, 3 and 6 months after the start of L-dopa therapy in 25 newly diagnosed patients with idiopathic PD. All patients were classified according to Hoehn and Yahr scale. Minimental status examination (MMSE) was done in all. Control group had 20 normal subjects. The P300 latency was not significantly increased in early Parkinson's disease. This latency was reduced with dopaminergic therapy on 15th day, but increased later. Implications of the data are discussed. PMID:11025627

  5. A novel image recuperation approach for diagnosing and ranking retinopathy disease level using diabetic fundus image.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Somasundaram; Alli, P

    2015-01-01

    Retinal fundus images are widely used in diagnosing and providing treatment for several eye diseases. Prior works using retinal fundus images detected the presence of exudation with the aid of publicly available dataset using extensive segmentation process. Though it was proved to be computationally efficient, it failed to create a diabetic retinopathy feature selection system for transparently diagnosing the disease state. Also the diagnosis of diseases did not employ machine learning methods to categorize candidate fundus images into true positive and true negative ratio. Several candidate fundus images did not include more detailed feature selection technique for diabetic retinopathy. To apply machine learning methods and classify the candidate fundus images on the basis of sliding window a method called, Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation (DFIR) is designed in this paper. The initial phase of DFIR method select the feature of optic cup in digital retinal fundus images based on Sliding Window Approach. With this, the disease state for diabetic retinopathy is assessed. The feature selection in DFIR method uses collection of sliding windows to obtain the features based on the histogram value. The histogram based feature selection with the aid of Group Sparsity Non-overlapping function provides more detailed information of features. Using Support Vector Model in the second phase, the DFIR method based on Spiral Basis Function effectively ranks the diabetic retinopathy diseases. The ranking of disease level for each candidate set provides a much promising result for developing practically automated diabetic retinopathy diagnosis system. Experimental work on digital fundus images using the DFIR method performs research on the factors such as sensitivity, specificity rate, ranking efficiency and feature selection time. PMID:25974230

  6. A Novel Image Recuperation Approach for Diagnosing and Ranking Retinopathy Disease Level Using Diabetic Fundus Image

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Retinal fundus images are widely used in diagnosing and providing treatment for several eye diseases. Prior works using retinal fundus images detected the presence of exudation with the aid of publicly available dataset using extensive segmentation process. Though it was proved to be computationally efficient, it failed to create a diabetic retinopathy feature selection system for transparently diagnosing the disease state. Also the diagnosis of diseases did not employ machine learning methods to categorize candidate fundus images into true positive and true negative ratio. Several candidate fundus images did not include more detailed feature selection technique for diabetic retinopathy. To apply machine learning methods and classify the candidate fundus images on the basis of sliding window a method called, Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation (DFIR) is designed in this paper. The initial phase of DFIR method select the feature of optic cup in digital retinal fundus images based on Sliding Window Approach. With this, the disease state for diabetic retinopathy is assessed. The feature selection in DFIR method uses collection of sliding windows to obtain the features based on the histogram value. The histogram based feature selection with the aid of Group Sparsity Non-overlapping function provides more detailed information of features. Using Support Vector Model in the second phase, the DFIR method based on Spiral Basis Function effectively ranks the diabetic retinopathy diseases. The ranking of disease level for each candidate set provides a much promising result for developing practically automated diabetic retinopathy diagnosis system. Experimental work on digital fundus images using the DFIR method performs research on the factors such as sensitivity, specificity rate, ranking efficiency and feature selection time. PMID:25974230

  7. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994 - December 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia. The infecti...

  8. Adult polyglucosan body disease in a patient originally diagnosed with Fabry's disease.

    PubMed

    Sagnelli, A; Savoiardo, M; Marchesi, C; Morandi, L; Mora, M; Morbin, M; Farina, L; Mazzeo, A; Toscano, A; Pagliarani, S; Lucchiari, S; Comi, G P; Salsano, E; Pareyson, D

    2014-03-01

    Adult polyglucosan body disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by glycogen branching enzyme gene mutations, characterised by urinary dysfunction, spastic paraplegia with vibration sense loss, peripheral neuropathy, and cognitive impairment. Fabry's disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by α-galactosidase A gene mutations; neurological manifestations include cerebrovascular accidents, small-fibre neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old Sicilian male with stroke-like episodes, hypohidrosis and mild proteinuria, which led to the diagnosis of Fabry's disease after a hemizygous mutation (p.Ala143Thr) in α-galactosidase A gene was detected. Subsequently, he developed progressive walking difficulties and dementia, which were considered atypical for Fabry's disease. Therefore, we performed additional investigations that eventually led to the diagnosis of adult polyglucosan body disease caused by two novel missense mutations (p.Asp413His and p.Gly534Val) in the glycogen branching enzyme gene. Recently, the pathogenic role of the p.Ala143Thr mutation in causing Fabry's disease has been questioned. This case underlines the importance of performing further investigations when facing with atypical features even in the presence of a genetic diagnosis of a rare disease. PMID:24380807

  9. Newly Diagnosed Anemia Increases Risk of Parkinson’s disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chien Tai; Huang, Yao Hsien; Liu, Hung Yi; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chan, Lung; Chien, Li-Nien

    2016-01-01

    Anemia and low hemoglobin have been identified to increase Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk. This population-based cohort study investigated PD risk in newly diagnosed anemic patients by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. All newly diagnosed anemic patients (n = 86,334) without a history of stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury, major operations, or blood loss diseases were enrolled. A cohort of nonanemic controls, 1:1 matched with anemic patients on the basis of the demographics and pre-existing medical conditions, was also included. Competing risk analysis was used to evaluate PD risk in anemic patients compared with that in their matched controls. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of PD risk in the anemic patients was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–1.52, p < 0.001). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients tended to exhibit a higher PD risk (aHR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.24–1.79, p < 0.001). Furthermore, Iron supplement did not significantly affect the PD risk: the aHRs for PD risk were 1.32 (95% CI: 1.07–1.63, p < 0.01) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.46–2.35, p < 0.001) in IDA patients with and without iron supplementation, respectively. The population-based cohort study indicated newly diagnosed anemia increases PD risk. PMID:27412825

  10. [The Endemic Situation and Challenges of Major Parasitic Diseases in China].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Hu, Tao; Lei, Zheng-long

    2015-12-01

    During the twelfth "Five-year Plan" period, the Chinese government further strengthened the implementation of several medium and long-term plans on disease control, which resulted in the acceleration of the control of schistosomiasis, malaria and echinococcosis. To further elucidate the endemic status and control experience during the stage, this article described current situation on the major parasitic diseases and put forward the challenges and consequent countermeasures for planning the control programs in the next five years and laying a foundation for the next Five-year Planning. PMID:27089769

  11. [Parasitic diseases in domestic dogs and cats in the megalopolis of Moscow].

    PubMed

    Kurnosova, O P

    2009-01-01

    In Moscow, 7 species of helminths and 5 species of protozoa were found in domestic dogs and 6 species of helminths and 6 species of protozoa were detected in domestic cats. Such a great variety in pararistic diseases is distinguished for a low, but steady-state extensity of invasion. The change in socioeconomic relations accompanied by a gradual rise in the number of domestic and stray dogs in the megalopolis may create prerequisites for not only the spread, but also occurrence of parasitic diseases that have not been earlier notified in the city. PMID:20120374

  12. A case of the Behcet's disease diagnosed by the panniculits after mesotherapy.

    PubMed

    Babacan, Taner; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Comez, Gazi; Tutar, Ediz

    2010-11-01

    We herein report a case of 32-year-old woman who developed erythematous, indurated plaques, nodules on her lower back, hips and inguinal areas which had started after immunotherapy on the injection sites. She had a history of recurrent oral aphthous-like ulcers for 2 years and also had abdominal pain for 2 months. Colonoscopy revealed multiple aphthous ulcers on intestine. Diagnosis of lobular panniculitis was confirmed by histopathological finding of the skin biopsy and she was diagnosed as Behcet's disease. Eruptions due to mesotherapy accepted as hypersensitivity reaction. Before employing this technique, patients should be carefully examined for Behcet's pathognomonic clinical findings. PMID:20401486

  13. Parasitic disease screening among HIV patients from endemic countries in a Toronto clinic

    PubMed Central

    Costiniuk, Cecilia T; Cooper, Curtis L; Doucette, Steve; Kovacs, Colin M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many North American-based HIV patients originate from parasitic disease-endemic regions. Strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis are important due to their wide distribution and potential for severe morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, as determined by serological screening, of strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis and filariasis among patients in an HIV-focused, primary care practice in Toronto, Ontario. A secondary objective was to determine factors associated with positive serological screens. METHODS: A retrospective review of electronic patient records was conducted. Results of serological screens for parasites and relevant laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were identified. The patients’ mean CD4+ count was 0.45×109/L, median viral load was undetectable and 68% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Most originated from Africa (37%) and South America (35%). Of the 97 patients, 10.4% and 8.3% had positive or equivocal screening results for strongyloidiasis, respectively, 7.4% and 4.2% had positive or equivocal screening results for schistosomiasis and 5.5% and 6.8% had positive or equivocal screens for filariasis. Persons with positive parasitic serologies were more often female (28% versus 9%, P=0.03), younger in age (36 versus 43 years of age, P<0.01), had been in Canada for a shorter duration (5 versus 12 years, P<0.0001) and had a higher viral load (10,990 copies/mL versus <50 copies/mL, P <0.001). All patients were asymptomatic. Eosinophilia was not associated with positive screening results. CONCLUSIONS: Using symptoms and eosinophilia to identify parasitic infection was not reliable. Screening for strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis among patients with HIV from parasite-endemic countries is simple and benign, and may prevent future complications. The clinical benefits of screening for filariasis require further elucidation, but this practice appears to be the least warranted

  14. Cerebral Arterial Variations Associated with Moyamoya Disease Diagnosed by MR Angiography.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kurita, Hiroki; Ishihara, Shoichiro

    2014-12-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare progressive cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease associated with different variations of the cerebral arteries. We evaluated the types and prevalence of such variations among patients with moyamoya disease. In our institution during the past seven years, we diagnosed 72 patients (24 male, 48 female; aged 6 to 75 years, mean, 42 years) with moyamoya disease by magnetic resonance (MR) angiography using either a 3-Tesla or one of two 1.5-T imagers and a standard time-of-flight technique without contrast media. An experienced neuroradiologist retrospectively reviewed the images. There were 15 cerebral arterial variations in 13 of 72 patients with moyamoya disease (18.1%), including four basilar artery fenestrations, three ophthalmic arteries arising from the middle meningeal artery, two intracranial vertebral artery fenestrations, two persistent first cervical intersegmental arteries, two persistent trigeminal arteries, one extracranial origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and one persistent stapedial artery. Although our number of patients was small, moyamoya disease was frequently associated with variations of the cerebral arteries, especially fenestrations in the vertebrobasilar system and persistent trigeminal artery. PMID:25489893

  15. Problems in Diagnosing Scabies, a Global Disease in Human and Animal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Shelley F.; Currie, Bart J.

    2007-01-01

    Scabies is a worldwide disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries, related primarily to poverty and overcrowding. In remote Aboriginal communities in northern Australia, prevalences of up to 50% among children have been described, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy. Sarcoptic mange is also an important veterinary disease engendering significant morbidity and mortality in wild, domestic, and farmed animals. Scabies is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the host epidermis. Clinical symptoms include intensely itchy lesions that often are a precursor to secondary bacterial pyoderma, septicemia, and, in humans, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Although diagnosed scabies cases can be successfully treated, the rash of the primary infestation takes 4 to 6 weeks to develop, and thus, transmission to others often occurs prior to therapy. In humans, the symptoms of scabies infestations can mimic other dermatological skin diseases, and traditional tests to diagnose scabies are less than 50% accurate. To aid early identification of disease and thus treatment, a simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific test for routine diagnosis of active scabies is essential. Recent developments leading to the expression and purification of S. scabiei recombinant antigens have identified a number of molecules with diagnostic potential, and current studies include the investigation and assessment of the accuracy of these recombinant proteins in identifying antibodies in individuals with active scabies and in differentiating those with past exposure. Early identification of disease will enable selective treatment of those affected, reduce transmission and the requirement for mass treatment, limit the potential for escalating mite resistance, and provide another means of controlling scabies in populations in areas of endemicity. PMID:17428886

  16. Comparison of methods used to diagnose generalized inflammatory disease in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harr, K.E.; Harvey, J.W.; Bonde, R.K.; Murphy, D.; Lowe, Mark; Menchaca, M.; Haubold, E.M.; Francis-Floyd, R.

    2006-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are afflicted with inflammatory and infectious disease secondary to human interaction, such as boat strike and entanglement, as well as “cold stress syndrome” and pneumonia. White-blood-cell count and fever, primary indicators of systemic inflammation in most species, are insensitive in diagnosing inflammatory disease in manatees. Acute phase-response proteins, such as haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, have proven to be sensitive measures of inflammation/infection in domestic large animal species. This study assessed diagnosis of generalized inflammatory disease by different methods including total white-blood-cell count, albumin: globulin ratio, gel electrophoresis analysis, C-reactive protein, alpha1 acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, and serum amyloid A. Samples were collected from 71 apparently healthy and 27 diseased animals during diagnostic medical examination. Serum amyloid A, measured by ELISA, followed by albumin:globulin ratio, measured by plasma gel electrophoresis, were most sensitive in diagnosing inflammatory disease, with diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of approximately 90%. The reference interval for serum amyloid A is <10–50 μg/ml with an equivocal interval of 51–70 μg/ml. The reference interval for albumin:globulin ratio by plasma gel electrophoresis is 0.7–1.1. Albumin: globulin ratio, calculated using biochemical techniques, was not accurate due to overestimation of albumin by bromcresol green dye-binding methodology. Albumin:globulin ratio, measured by serum gel electrophoresis, has a low sensitivity of 15% due to the lack of fibrinogen in the sample. Haptoglobin, measured by hemoglobin titration, had a reference interval of 0.4–2.4 mg/ml, a diagnostic sensitivity of 60%, and a diagnostic specificity of 93%. The haptoglobin assay is significantly affected by hemolysis. Fibrinogen, measured by heat precipitation, has a reference interval of 100–400 mg/dl, a diagnostic

  17. Comparison of methods used to diagnose generalized inflammatory disease in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Harr, Kendal; Harvey, John; Bonde, Robert; Murphy, David; Lowe, Mark; Menchaca, Maya; Haubold, Elsa; Francis-Floyd, Ruth

    2006-06-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are afflicted with inflammatory and infectious disease secondary to human interaction, such as boat strike and entanglement, as well as "cold stress syndrome" and pneumonia. White-blood-cell count and fever, primary indicators of systemic inflammation in most species, are insensitive in diagnosing inflammatory disease in manatees. Acute phase-response proteins, such as haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, have proven to be sensitive measures of inflammation/infection in domestic large animal species. This study assessed diagnosis of generalized inflammatory disease by different methods including total white-blood-cell count, albumin: globulin ratio, gel electrophoresis analysis, C-reactive protein, alpha, acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, and serum amyloid A. Samples were collected from 71 apparently healthy and 27 diseased animals during diagnostic medical examination. Serum amyloid A, measured by ELISA, followed by albumin:globulin ratio, measured by plasma gel electrophoresis, were most sensitive in diagnosing inflammatory disease, with diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of approximately 90%. The reference interval for serum amyloid A is <10-50 microg/ml with an equivocal interval of 51-70 microg/ml. The reference interval for albumin:globulin ratio by plasma gel electrophoresis is 0.7-1.1. Albumin: globulin ratio, calculated using biochemical techniques, was not accurate due to overestimation of albumin by bromcresol green dye-binding methodology. Albumin:globulin ratio, measured by serum gel electrophoresis, has a low sensitivity of 15% due to the lack of fibrinogen in the sample. Haptoglobin, measured by hemoglobin titration, had a reference interval of 0.4-2.4 mg/ml, a diagnostic sensitivity of 60%, and a diagnostic specificity of 93%. The haptoglobin assay is significantly affected by hemolysis. Fibrinogen, measured by heat precipitation, has a reference interval of 100-400 mg/dl, a diagnostic sensitivity

  18. Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues

    PubMed Central

    Heukelbach, Jorg

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) are a heterogeneous category of infectious diseases in which parasite–host interactions are confined to the upper layer of the skin. The six major EPSD are scabies, pediculosis (capitis, corporis and pubis), tungiasis and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. We summarize the current knowledge on EPSD and show that these diseases are widespread, polyparasitism is common, and significant primary and secondary morbidity occurs. We show that poverty favours the presence of animal reservoirs, ensures ongoing transmission, facilitates atypical methods of spreading infectious agents and increases the chances of exposure. This results in an extraordinarily high prevalence and intensity of infestation of EPSD in resource-poor populations. Stigma, lack of access to health care and deficient behaviour in seeking health care are the reasons why EPSD frequently progress untreated and why in resource-poor populations severe morbidity is common. The ongoing uncontrolled urbanization in many developing countries makes it likely that EPSD will remain the overriding parasitic diseases for people living in extreme poverty. We advocate integrating control of EPSD into intervention measures directed against other neglected diseases such as filariasis and intestinal helminthiases. PMID:19274368

  19. Specialized tools are needed when searching the web for rare disease diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Dragusin, Radu; Petcu, Paula; Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Cox, Ingemar J; Hansen, Lars Kai; Ingwersen, Peter; Winther, Ole

    2013-01-01

    In our recent paper, we study web search as an aid in the process of diagnosing rare diseases. To answer the question of how well Google Search and PubMed perform, we created an evaluation framework with 56 diagnostic cases and made our own specialized search engine, FindZebra (findzebra.com). FindZebra uses a set of publicly available curated sources on rare diseases and an open-source information retrieval system, Indri. Our evaluation and the feedback received after the publication of our paper both show that FindZebra outperforms Google Search and PubMed. In this paper, we summarize the original findings and the response to FindZebra, discuss why Google Search is not designed for specialized tasks and outline some of the current trends in using web resources and social media for medical diagnosis. PMID:25002998

  20. Encysted parasitic larvae in the mouth.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L S; Allard, R H

    1984-04-01

    Oral appearances of intestinal parasitic disease are rare. One such appearance is the presence in oral tissues of encysted or encapsulated larvae of organisms from the classes Cestoidea and Nematoda. Cestode larvae form cyst-like lesions that are often clinically diagnosed as mucoceles. In these lesions, the cyst cavity is lined by fibrous tissue with inflammatory cells, and contains fluid and the larval stage of a parasite. The diagnosis of these parasitic cysts is more frequently made in younger persons. The cysts may be treated by simple excision, but care must be taken that the cyst does not rupture, as in some parasites this may result in new cyst formation. Nematode infection in the oral cavity, the most common of which appears to be trichinosis, is rarely reported. Patients with oral or maxillofacial (or both) parasitic disease must undergo a thorough medical investigation to exclude possible life-threatening involvement in other parts of the body. PMID:6586809

  1. Incidence of Clinician-Diagnosed Lyme Disease, United States, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Shubhayu; Kugeler, Kiersten J.; Delorey, Mark J.; Shankar, Manjunath B.; Hinckley, Alison F.; Mead, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    National surveillance provides important information about Lyme disease (LD) but is subject to underreporting and variations in practice. Information is limited about the national epidemiology of LD from other sources. Retrospective analysis of a nationwide health insurance claims database identified patients from 2005–2010 with clinician-diagnosed LD using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes and antimicrobial drug prescriptions. Of 103,647,966 person-years, 985 inpatient admissions and 44,445 outpatient LD diagnoses were identified. Epidemiologic patterns were similar to US surveillance data overall. Outpatient incidence was highest among boys 5–9 years of age and persons of both sexes 60–64 years of age. On the basis of extrapolation to the US population and application of correction factors for coding, we estimate that annual incidence is 106.6 cases/100,000 persons and that ≈329,000 (95% credible interval 296,000–376,000) LD cases occur annually. LD is a major US public health problem that causes substantial use of health care resources. PMID:26291194

  2. Incidence of Clinician-Diagnosed Lyme Disease, United States, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christina A; Saha, Shubhayu; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Delorey, Mark J; Shankar, Manjunath B; Hinckley, Alison F; Mead, Paul S

    2015-09-01

    National surveillance provides important information about Lyme disease (LD) but is subject to underreporting and variations in practice. Information is limited about the national epidemiology of LD from other sources. Retrospective analysis of a nationwide health insurance claims database identified patients from 2005-2010 with clinician-diagnosed LD using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes and antimicrobial drug prescriptions. Of 103,647,966 person-years, 985 inpatient admissions and 44,445 outpatient LD diagnoses were identified. Epidemiologic patterns were similar to US surveillance data overall. Outpatient incidence was highest among boys 5-9 years of age and persons of both sexes 60-64 years of age. On the basis of extrapolation to the US population and application of correction factors for coding, we estimate that annual incidence is 106.6 cases/100,000 persons and that ≈329,000 (95% credible interval 296,000-376,000) LD cases occur annually. LD is a major US public health problem that causes substantial use of health care resources. PMID:26291194

  3. Newly diagnosed rheumatic heart disease among indigenous populations in the Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Mirabel, Mariana; Tafflet, Muriel; Noël, Baptiste; Parks, Tom; Axler, Olivier; Robert, Jacques; Nadra, Marie; Phelippeau, Gwendolyne; Descloux, Elodie; Cazorla, Cécile; Missotte, Isabelle; Gervolino, Shirley; Barguil, Yann; Rouchon, Bernard; Laumond, Sylvie; Jubeau, Thierry; Braunstein, Corinne; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains the leading acquired heart disease in the young worldwide. We aimed at assessing outcomes and influencing factors in the contemporary era. Methods Hospital-based cohort in a high-income island nation where RHD remains endemic and the population is captive. All patients admitted with newly diagnosed RHD according to World Heart Federation echocardiographic criteria were enrolled (2005–2013). The incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACEs) including heart failure, peripheral embolism, stroke, heart valve intervention and cardiovascular death was calculated, and their determinants identified. Results Of the 396 patients, 43.9% were male with median age 18 years (IQR 10–40)). 127 (32.1%) patients presented with mild, 131 (33.1%) with moderate and 138 (34.8%) with severe heart valve disease. 205 (51.8%) had features of acute rheumatic fever. 106 (26.8%) presented with at least one MACE. Among the remaining 290 patients, after a median follow-up period of 4.08 (95% CI 1.84 to 6.84) years, 7 patients (2.4%) died and 62 (21.4%) had a first MACE. The annual incidence of first MACE and of heart failure were 59.05‰ (95% CI 44.35 to 73.75) and 29.06‰ (95% CI 19.29 to 38.82), respectively. The severity of RHD at diagnosis (moderate vs mild HR 3.39 (0.95 to 12.12); severe vs mild RHD HR 10.81 (3.11 to 37.62), p<0.001) and ongoing secondary prophylaxis at follow-up (HR 0.27 (0.12 to 0.63), p=0.01) were the two most influential factors associated with MACE. Conclusions Newly diagnosed RHD is associated with poor outcomes, mainly in patients with moderate or severe valve disease and no secondary prophylaxis. PMID:26537732

  4. Plasma Concentration of Parasite DNA as a Measure of Disease Severity in Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Imwong, Mallika; Woodrow, Charles J.; Hendriksen, Ilse C. E.; Veenemans, Jacobien; Verhoef, Hans; Faiz, M. Abul; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj; Mtove, George; Gesase, Samwel; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; White, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed whether the plasma Plasmodium falciparum DNA concentration is a useful datum for distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 224 African children (111 with uncomplicated malaria and 113 with severe malaria) and 211 Asian adults (100 with uncomplicated malaria and 111 with severe malaria) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 for children and 0.788 for adults, similar to that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 levels and substantially superior to that of parasite densities (P < .0001). The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations plus plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations was significantly greater than that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations alone (0.904 for children [P = .004] and 0.847 for adults [P = .003]). Quantitative real-time PCR measurement of parasite DNA in plasma is a useful method for diagnosing severe falciparum malaria on fresh or archived plasma samples. PMID:25344520

  5. Disease, parasite, and commensal prevalences for blue crab Callinectes sapidus at shedding facilities in Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Schott, Eric J; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-01-15

    Blue crab diseases, parasites, and commensals are not well studied in the Gulf of Mexico, and their prevalence rates have only been sporadically determined. Commercial soft shell shedding facilities in Louisiana experience high mortality rates of pre-molt crabs, and some of these deaths may be attributable to diseases or parasites. During the active shedding season in 2013, we determined the prevalence of shell disease, Vibrio spp., Lagenophrys callinectes, and Hematodinium perezi at 4 commercial shedding facilities along the Louisiana coast. We also detected Ameson michaelis and reo-like virus infections. Shell disease was moderately prevalent at rates above 50% and varied by shedding facility, collection month, and crab size. Vibrio spp. bacteria were prevalent in the hemolymph of 37% of the pre-molt crabs. Lagenophrys callinectes was highly prevalent in the pre-molt crabs, but because it is a commensal species, it may not cause high mortality rates. Hematodinium perezi was absent in all pre-molt crabs. PMID:25590771

  6. Role in Allergic Diseases of Immunological Cross-Reactivity between Allergens and Homologues of Parasite Proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Nutman, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Implied under the rubric of the hygiene hypothesis is that helminth infection can protect against allergic disease. It is well known that helminths induce processes associated with type 2 immune responses, but they also induce important regulatory responses that can modulate these type 2-associated responses-modulation that influences responses to bystander antigens including allergens. Indeed, most epidemiological studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of helminth infection on atopy, but there are also convincing data to demonstrate that helminth infection can precipitate or worsen allergic inflammation/disease. Reasons for these disparate findings are much debated, but there is a school of thought that suggests that helminth-triggered type 2-associated responses, including IgE to cross-reactive aeroallergens, can offset the regulatory effects imposed by the same organisms. The cross-reactivity among helminths and allergenic tropomyosins dominated the antigen/allergen cross-reactivity field, but recent data suggest that cross-reactivity is much more common than previously appreciated. It has been demonstrated that a high degree of molecular similarity exists between allergens and helminth proteins. Thus, an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response induced by helminth infection and their impact on the induction of allergic disease in the host are critical for designing therapies using iatrogenic infections or parasite products to treat inflammatory diseases and for developing vaccines against helminth parasites. PMID:27480900

  7. Parasitic colitis.

    PubMed

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; McQuade, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  8. Parasitic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; McQuade, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  9. Method and system for the diagnosis of disease using retinal image content and an archive of diagnosed human patient data

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Kenneth W; Karnowski, Thomas P; Chaum, Edward

    2013-08-06

    A method for diagnosing diseases having retinal manifestations including retinal pathologies includes the steps of providing a CBIR system including an archive of stored digital retinal photography images and diagnosed patient data corresponding to the retinal photography images, the stored images each indexed in a CBIR database using a plurality of feature vectors, the feature vectors corresponding to distinct descriptive characteristics of the stored images. A query image of the retina of a patient is obtained. Using image processing, regions or structures in the query image are identified. The regions or structures are then described using the plurality of feature vectors. At least one relevant stored image from the archive based on similarity to the regions or structures is retrieved, and an eye disease or a disease having retinal manifestations in the patient is diagnosed based on the diagnosed patient data associated with the relevant stored image(s).

  10. The distribution of parasite strains among hosts affects disease spread in a social insect.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Yuko; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Social insects present highly interesting and experimentally amenable systems for the study of disease transmission because they naturally live in dense groups of frequently interacting individuals. Using experimental inoculations of five trypanosomatid strains into groups of its natural host, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, we investigate the effects of the initial parasite strain distribution across group members on the establishment and transmission success of the different strains to new hosts. For a given number of parasite strains circulating within a host group, transmission to new hosts was increased when the strains were initially inoculated as mixed infections (as opposed to separate single infections), presumably because mixed infections generally favored fast replicating strains. In contrast, separate single infections reduced transmission at least in part through a precedence effect, whereby weak strains appeared to persist by making their host unavailable to superinfection. These results suggest that host groups could benefit from 'compartmentalizing' infections by different parasite strains across different group members, which might be achieved in social insects, for example, by division of labor. PMID:25858120

  11. Bone marrow examination in newly diagnosed Hodgkin's disease: current practice in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, M. R.; Taylor, P. R.; Lucraft, H. H.; Taylor, M. J.; Proctor, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    In the UK Hodgkin's disease is usually treated by either clinical oncologists or haematologists. A national study of the performance of bone marrow examination in newly diagnosed Hodgkin's disease was undertaken to establish current practice. A total of 620 questionnaires were despatched, and replies were received from 60% of consultants (45% of clinical oncologists and 70% of haematologists). Bone marrow examination was performed in all new cases significantly more often by haematologists than by clinical oncologists (74% vs 40%, P < 0.001). Among haematologists, there was no correlation between the number of new patients seen annually and practice, however clinical oncologists were even less likely to perform routine bone marrow biopsies if they saw more than ten patients per year (P < 0.02). Where bone marrow examination was performed selectively, the most common criteria used were peripheral blood cytopenia and advanced-stage disease. These criteria were applied in the same way by both clinical oncologists and haematologists. Bone marrow biopsy, an invasive and often painful procedure, is currently performed more frequently in Hodgkin's disease than can be recommended on the basis of recent studies in the literature and associated guidelines. There is a significant difference in practice between clinical oncologists and haematologists, and this raises the wider issue of the influence of hospital specialisation on patient management. PMID:7819042

  12. Usefulness of anterior uveitis as an additional tool for diagnosing incomplete Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Jin; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Min Jae; Yoon, Ji Hong; Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Jae Young; Oh, Jin Hee; Lee, Soon Ju; Lee, Kyung Yil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There are no specific tests for diagnosing Kawasaki disease (KD). Additional diagnostic criteria are needed to prevent the delayed diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease (IKD). This study compared the frequency of coronary artery lesions (CALs) in IKD patients with and without anterior uveitis (AU) and elucidated whether the finding of AU supported the diagnosis of IKD. Methods This study enrolled patients diagnosed with IKD at The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital from January 2010 to December 2014. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients with IKD having AU; and group 2 included patients with IKD without AU. We analyzed the demographic and clinical data (age, gender, duration of fever, and the number of diagnostic criteria), laboratory results, and echocardiographic findings. Results Of 111 patients with IKD, 41 had uveitis (36.98%, group 1) and 70 did not (63.02%, group 2). Patients in group 1 had received a diagnosis and treatment earlier, and had fewer CALs (3 of 41, 1.7%) than those in group 2 (20 of 70, 28.5%) (P=0.008). All 3 patients with CALs in group 1 had coronary dilatation, while patients with CALs in group 2 had CALs ranging from coronary dilatation to giant aneurysm. Conclusion The diagnosis of IKD is challenging but can be supported by the presence of features such as AU. Group 1 had a lower risk of coronary artery disease than group 2. Therefore, the presence of AU is helpful in the early diagnosis and treatment of IKD and can be used as an additional diagnostic tool. PMID:27186227

  13. Interspecific competition in honeybee intracellular gut parasites is asymmetric and favours the spread of an emerging infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Natsopoulou, Myrsini E.; McMahon, Dino P.; Doublet, Vincent; Bryden, John; Paxton, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing appreciation that hosts in natural populations are subject to infection by multiple parasite species. Yet the epidemiological and ecological processes determining the outcome of mixed infections are poorly understood. Here, we use two intracellular gut parasites (Microsporidia), one exotic and one co-evolved in the western honeybee (Apis mellifera), in an experiment in which either one or both parasites were administered either simultaneously or sequentially. We provide clear evidence of within-host competition; order of infection was an important determinant of the competitive outcome between parasites, with the first parasite significantly inhibiting the growth of the second, regardless of species. However, the strength of this ‘priority effect’ was highly asymmetric, with the exotic Nosema ceranae exhibiting stronger inhibition of Nosema apis than vice versa. Our results reveal an unusual asymmetry in parasite competition that is dependent on order of infection. When incorporated into a mathematical model of disease prevalence, we find asymmetric competition to be an important predictor of the patterns of parasite prevalence found in nature. Our findings demonstrate the wider significance of complex multi-host–multi-parasite interactions as drivers of host–pathogen community structure. PMID:25429014

  14. Direct medical cost of newly diagnosed stable coronary artery disease in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vivian W Y; Lam, Yat Yin; Yuen, Amy C M; Cheung, Shuk Yan; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Yan, Bryan P Y

    2013-01-01

    Background Stable coronary artery disease (CAD) affects approximately 7% of the population of Hong Kong and is associated with substantial healthcare costs. Objective We aimed to evaluate the first-year direct medical cost for a patient with newly diagnosed stable CAD at a tertiary care public hospital in Hong Kong and to identify CAD-related resource consumption pattern among different patient subgroups. Methods 89 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed stable CAD at our institution from January 2007 to December 2009 were retrospectively analysed. Direct medical costs including hospitalisation, clinic visits, diagnostic tests, laboratory tests, invasive procedures and medications were calculated for 1 year after diagnosis. Mann-Whitney tests were performed to compare median costs in patients with and without hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia, and in patients undergoing coronary intervention and those who were not. Results The mean first-year total direct medical cost of newly diagnosed stable CAD per patient was US$11 477. Hospitalisation was the dominant cost item accounting for 29.2% of the total cost. The total cost for patients who underwent invasive coronary procedure was higher than those treated medically alone (US$14 787 vs US$6121, p<0.001). Hyperlipidaemia was associated with higher incremental costs than hypertension and diabetes mellitus (p<0.001). (1US$=7.8HK$). Conclusions Huge healthcare expenses are incurred in the first year of stable CAD diagnosis from the perspective of the local public healthcare system. Healthcare costs are highest among patients with hyperlipidaemia and those undergoing invasive coronary procedures (even discounting costs for procedural consumables). Strategies for cost saving and preventive measures should be implemented to lower healthcare expenditure associated with CAD. PMID:27326062

  15. Clinical Correlates of Apathy in Patients Recently Diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease: The ANIMO Study

    PubMed Central

    Cubo, Esther; Benito-León, Julián; Coronell, Carlos; Armesto, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about apathy in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). We determined the clinical correlates of apathy in a large representative sample of patients recently diagnosed with PD (ANIMO study). Methods PD patients, diagnosed within 2 years of inclusion, were recruited in 102 outpatient clinics situated in 82 populations throughout Spain. Apathy was quantified using the Lille Apathy Rating Scale (LARS). Clinical comparisons and correlations were performed using nonparametric tests. Regression analyses were used to test the association of clinical variables with apathy. Results We recruited 557 PD patients (60.3% men) with a mean age of 68.8 ± 9.7 years, and UPDRS motor score of 21.1 ± 10.8. Apathy only was diagnosed in 186 (33.4%), and apathy and depression in 215 patients (38.6%). Patients with higher comorbidity (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.01−1.20, p = 0.001), motor impairment (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03−1.10, p < 0.0001), and lower education (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.21−;3.85, p = 0.009) had higher odds of having apathy, in contrast to patients living in a rural environment (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.32–0.85, p = 0.01), and left predominant PD motor laterality (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.88, p = 0.01). LARS scores were significantly correlated with UPDRS motor scores (rs = 0.44, p < 0.001), predominantly with axial score (rs = 0.43, p < 0.001). Conclusions In PD, apathy is a very common and disabling nonmotor symptom separable from depression. Patients living in a rural environment, with lower comorbidity and motor impairment, higher education background, and left predominant PD motor laterality are at lower risk of suffering from apathy. PMID:22236943

  16. Onchocerciasis in Yemen: Time to take action against a neglected tropical parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Beier, John C

    2016-10-01

    Onchocerciasis is a neglected parasitic disease affecting the poorest underserved people in Yemen. A national control programme with goals to eliminate onchocerciasis has yet to be launched due to the current upheaval and social unrest in the country. The disease, locally termed as sowda, is unique in its clinicopathologic pattern, being of the localized, non-blinding, hyperreactive onchocercal skin disease. Although early reports identified endemic foci along seasonal watercourses, there is a need to redefine its epidemiologic patterns as well as health and socioeconomic impacts. Laboratory diagnosis of sowda among Yemeni patients is difficult due to the low load of microfilariae in skin snips and the presence of asymptomatic itching-free microfilaria carriers. Adoption of ivermectin use at three-month intervals as a control strategy has not been evaluated because the drug is mostly used in clinics and distributed to only a few affected communities. This paper addresses key aspects of onchocerciasis in Yemen and highlights the need for screening at-risk populations using highly sensitive techniques and mapping the distributions of the parasite in human and vector populations of blackflies. The new research should be integrated with the launch of a national onchocerciasis control programme to achieve onchocerciasis elimination. PMID:27325293

  17. Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sandeep; Chang, Shih Chieh; Nguyen, Hai M.; Huq, Redwan; Tanner, Mark R.; Londono, Luz M.; Estrada, Rosendo; Dhawan, Vikas; Chauhan, Satendra; Upadhyay, Sanjeev K.; Gindin, Mariel; Hotez, Peter J.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Swarbrick, James D.; Wulff, Heike; Iadonato, Shawn P.; Gutman, George A.; Beeton, Christine; Pennington, Michael W.; Norton, Raymond S.; Chandy, K. George

    2014-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium (Kv) 1.3 channel is widely regarded as a therapeutic target for immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases. ShK-186, a selective inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels, ameliorates autoimmune diseases in rodent models, and human phase 1 trials of this agent in healthy volunteers have been completed. In this study, we identified and characterized a large family of Stichodactyla helianthus toxin (ShK)–related peptides in parasitic worms. Based on phylogenetic analysis, 2 worm peptides were selected for study: AcK1, a 51-residue peptide expressed in the anterior secretory glands of the dog-infecting hookworm Ancylostoma caninum and the human-infecting hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum, and BmK1, the C-terminal domain of a metalloprotease from the filarial worm Brugia malayi. These peptides in solution adopt helical structures closely resembling that of ShK. At doses in the nanomolar–micromolar range, they block native Kv1.3 in human T cells and cloned Kv1.3 stably expressed in L929 mouse fibroblasts. They preferentially suppress the proliferation of rat CCR7− effector memory T cells without affecting naive and central memory subsets and inhibit the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response caused by skin-homing effector memory T cells in rats. Further, they suppress IFNγ production by human T lymphocytes. ShK-related peptides in parasitic worms may contribute to the potential beneficial effects of probiotic parasitic worm therapy in human autoimmune diseases.—Chhabra, S., Chang, S. C., Nguyen, H. M., Huq, R., Tanner, M. R., Londono, L. M., Estrada, R., Dhawan, V., Chauhan, S., Upadhyay, S. K., Gindin, M., Hotez, P. J., Valenzuela, J. G., Mohanty, B., Swarbrick, J. D., Wulff, H., Iadonato, S. P., Gutman, G. A., Beeton, C., Pennington, M. W., Norton, R. S., Chandy, K. G. Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases. PMID:24891519

  18. Health and disease: exploring the relation between parasitic infections, child nutrition status, and markets.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Research in bioarchaeology and among living people provides insight into the biological and biocultural consequences of subsistence, political, and economic transitions. Central to this effort is examining infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections because they are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in both past and current groups. Although infection may not always result in overt disease, frequent exposure results in biological stress with a negative effect on child growth and, by extension, health. The goal of this article is to examine the association between a common class of infectious disease, soil-transmitted helminth worms, and nutritional status among youth living in communities that vary with respect to their distance from a commercial center. In 2007, anthropometric measurements and parasitological surveys were collected for 338 2-14-year-old children and adolescents living in lowland Bolivia as part of the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study. Associations between the presence of helminth infections and markers of both short- and long-term nutritional status were overall weak. Youth living in communities distant from the commercial center were more likely to be positive for multiple parasite species than youth in near communities, but youth in mid-distance communities had lower infection rates. This article demonstrates the challenge of identifying associations between nutritional and disease stress when individual and household factors are nested in a larger context of socioeconomic and environmental change. Increased collaboration between bioarchaeology and human biology should continue to examine the connections between stress and disease across time. PMID:25059318

  19. DIAGNOSING LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASE VIRUS IN LIVE WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) USING WHOLE BLOOD.

    PubMed

    Alger, Katrina; Bunting, Elizabeth; Schuler, Krysten; Jagne, Jarra; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is a retrovirus that infects wild and domestic turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ). The first cases of LPDV in the United States were diagnosed in 2009, and subsequent surveillance has revealed the virus to be widespread in wild turkey populations throughout the eastern half of the country. More research is needed to determine whether LPDV is having a negative effect on turkey populations, but progress has been impeded by the lack of a simple method for diagnosing the virus in living birds. Infected animals may appear asymptomatic, and diagnostics currently rely on tissue or bone marrow, which can be difficult to obtain. This study investigated the reliability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect LPDV in whole blood, compared with previous methods using buffy coat (concentrated white blood cells) and bone marrow. Paired samples of whole blood and buffy coat were collected from 137 live turkeys and paired samples of whole blood and bone marrow were collected from 32 turkeys postmortem. Compared with buffy coat, whole blood had 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity. When compared with bone marrow, whole blood had 100% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Both comparisons had a high degree of agreement using Cohen's kappa statistic. Based on these results, PCR of whole blood provides detection of LPDV in living birds that is on par with both buffy coat and bone marrow. PMID:26667537

  20. Profiling the erythrocyte membrane proteome isolated from patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Bruno M; Charro, Nuno; Blonder, Josip; Lopes, Carlos; Azevedo, Pilar; Bugalho de Almeida, António; Chan, King C; Prieto, DaRue A; Issaq, Haleem; Veenstra, Timothy D; Penque, Deborah

    2012-12-01

    Structural and metabolic alterations in erythrocytes play an important role in the pathophysiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Whether these dysfunctions are related to the modulation of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients diagnosed with COPD remains to be determined. Herein, a comparative proteomic profiling of the erythrocyte membrane fraction isolated from peripheral blood of smokers diagnosed with COPD and smokers with no COPD was performed using differential (16)O/(18)O stable isotope labeling. A total of 219 proteins were quantified as being significantly differentially expressed within the erythrocyte membrane proteomes of smokers with COPD and healthy smokers. Functional pathway analysis showed that the most enriched biofunctions were related to cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, hematological system development, immune response, oxidative stress and cytoskeleton. Chorein (VPS13A), a cytoskeleton related protein whose defects had been associated with the presence of cell membrane deformation of circulating erythrocytes was found to be down-regulated in the membrane fraction of erythrocytes obtained from COPD patients. Methemoglobin reductase (CYB5R3) was also found to be underexpressed in these cells, suggesting that COPD patients may be at higher risk for developing methemoglobinemia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics. PMID:22538302

  1. Risk of parasite transmission influences perceived vulnerability to disease and perceived danger of disease-relevant animals.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Fancovicová, Jana

    2010-09-01

    Adaptationist view proposes that emotions were shaped by natural selection and their primary function is to protect humans against predators and/or disease threat. This study examined cross-cultural and inter-personal differences in behavioural immune system measured by disgust, fear and perceived danger in participants from high (Turkey) and low (Slovakia) pathogen prevalence areas. We found that behavioural immune system in Turkish participants was activated more than those of Slovakian participants when exposed to photographs depicting disease-relevant cues, but not when exposed to disease-irrelevant cues. However, participants from Slovakia, where human to human disease transmission is expected to be more prevalent than in Turkey, showed lower aversion in Germ Aversion subscale supporting hypersensitiveness of the behavioural immune system. Having animals at home was less frequent both in Turkey and in participants who perceived higher danger about disease relevant animals. Participants more vulnerable to diseases reported higher incidence of illness last year and considered perceived disease-relevant animals more dangerous than others. Females showed greater fear, disgust and danger about disease-relevant animals than males. Our results further support the finding that cultural and inter-personal differences in human personality are influenced by parasite threat. PMID:20558257

  2. Zinc monotherapy is effective in Wilson’s disease patients with mild liver disease diagnosed in childhood: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wilson’s disease (WD) evolves rapidly and is fatal if untreated. The treatment of WD patients with mild liver disease is not clearly defined. To address this issue, we evaluated long-term outcomes of three treatment regimens (D-penicillamine, zinc or both) in patients diagnosed in childhood. Methods We retrospectively evaluated efficacy, compliance and reasons for treatment discontinuation in 42 WD patients (median age at diagnosis: 6 years; median follow-up: 12 years) with mild liver disease. Treatment duration for each treatment block until a medication change or completion of follow-up was analyzed. Events of change of treatment were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Total discontinuations due to treatment failure or adverse events were more frequent in patients receiving D-penicillamine (45%) or combination (36%) therapy than in patients receiving zinc (12%) (P = .001 and P = .02, respectively). Treatment failure was more frequent on D-penicillamine (28%) and combination therapy (36%) than on zinc (12%); the difference was statistically significant only between zinc and combination therapy (P = .03). First-line zinc monotherapy controlled WD-related liver disease in 13/15 patients (87%); the two subjects that failed on zinc were poor adherent. Zinc was effective in 3/5 (60%) patients that failed on D-penicillamine and combination regimens. All 15 D-penicillamine responders that switched to zinc had good control of liver disease at a median follow-up of 13.1 years. Among 6 D-penicillamine non-responders that switched to zinc, 4 (67%) responded. At follow-up completion, only 5/42 (12%) patients failed. Adverse event-induced discontinuation was significantly more frequent in patients on D-penicillamine than in patients receiving zinc (P = .03). Conclusions Zinc monotherapy is effective in controlling WD-related liver disease both as first-line and as maintenance treatment in patients with mild liver disease diagnosed in

  3. Diagnosing and Ranking Retinopathy Disease Level Using Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, K.; Alli Rajendran, P.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal fundus images are widely used in diagnosing different types of eye diseases. The existing methods such as Feature Based Macular Edema Detection (FMED) and Optimally Adjusted Morphological Operator (OAMO) effectively detected the presence of exudation in fundus images and identified the true positive ratio of exudates detection, respectively. These mechanically detected exudates did not include more detailed feature selection technique to the system for detection of diabetic retinopathy. To categorize the exudates, Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation (DFIR) method based on sliding window approach is developed in this work to select the features of optic cup in digital retinal fundus images. The DFIR feature selection uses collection of sliding windows with varying range to obtain the features based on the histogram value using Group Sparsity Nonoverlapping Function. Using support vector model in the second phase, the DFIR method based on Spiral Basis Function effectively ranks the diabetic retinopathy disease level. The ranking of disease level on each candidate set provides a much promising result for developing practically automated and assisted diabetic retinopathy diagnosis system. Experimental work on digital fundus images using the DFIR method performs research on the factors such as sensitivity, ranking efficiency, and feature selection time. PMID:25945362

  4. CLIPPERS among patients diagnosed with non-specific CNS neuroinflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Kerrn-Jespersen, B M; Lindelof, M; Illes, Zsolt; Blaabjerg, Morten; Lund, E L; Klausen, C; Christiansen, I; Sellebjerg, F; Kondziella, D

    2014-08-15

    Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory CNS disorder characterized by 1) subacute onset of cerebellar and brainstem symptoms, 2) peripontine contrast-enhancing perivascular lesions with a "salt-and-pepper" appearance on MRI, and 3) angiocentric, predominantly T-lymphocytic infiltration as revealed by brain biopsy. Inflammatory diseases including neuroinfections, CNS lymphoma and neurosarcoidosis must be excluded. Since CLIPPERS was described in 2010, many patients might have been misdiagnosed in the past. We therefore searched medical records from a large tertiary neurological center, the Department of Neurology at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, for patients discharged between 1999 and 2013 with a diagnosis of "sarcoidosis with other localization", "other acute disseminating demyelination", "other demyelinating disease in the CNS" or "encephalitis, myelitis or encephalomyelitis". Of 206 identified patients, 24 had been examined by brain biopsy and were included for further evaluation. Following clinical, neuroradiological and neuropathological review, 3 patients (12.5%) were reclassified as having CLIPPERS. Median long-term follow-up was 75 months. The present results suggest that clinical re-evaluation of patients previously diagnosed with unspecified inflammatory demyelinating CNS disease or atypical neurosarcoidosis may increase the detection rate of CLIPPERS. Further, potentially severe neurological deficits and progressive parenchymal atrophy on MRI may suggest neurodegenerative features, which emphasizes the need for early immunomodulatory treatment. PMID:24954086

  5. Nanocarriers as pulmonary drug delivery systems to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Smola, Malgorzata; Vandamme, Thierry; Sokolowski, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the impact of nanocarriers administered by pulmonary route to treat and to diagnose respiratory and non respiratory diseases. Indeed, during the past 10 years, the removal of chlorofluorocarbon propellants from industrial and household products intended for the pulmonary route has lead to the developments of new alternative products. Amongst these ones, on one hand, a lot of attention has been focused to improve the bioavailability of marketed drugs intended for respiratory diseases and to develop new concepts for pulmonary administration of drugs and, on the other hand, to use the pulmonary route to administer drugs for systemic diseases. This has led to some marketed products through the last decade. Although the introduction of nanotechnology permitted to step over numerous problems and to improve the bioavailability of drugs, there are, however, unresolved delivery problems to be still addressed. These scientific and industrial innovations and challenges are discussed along this review together with an analysis of the current situation concerning the industrial developments. PMID:18488412

  6. Bayesian comparison of cost-effectiveness of different clinical approaches to diagnose coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.E.; Eng, C.; Horowitz, S.F.; Gorlin, R.; Goldstein, S.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four clinical policies (policies I to IV) in the diagnosis of the presence or absence of coronary artery disease. A model based on Bayes theorem and published clinical data was constructed to make these comparisons. Effectiveness was defined as either the number of patients with coronary disease diagnosed or as the number of quality-adjusted life years extended by therapy after the diagnosis of coronary disease. The following conclusions arise strictly from analysis of the model and may not necessarily be applicable to all situations. As prevalence of coronary disease in the population increased, it caused a linear increase in cost per patient tested, but a hyperbolic decrease in cost per effect, that is, increased cost-effectiveness. Thus, cost-effectiveness of all policies (I to IV) was poor in populations with a prevalence of disease below 10%. Analysis of the model also indicates that at prevalences less than 80%, exercise thallium scintigraphy alone as a first test (policy II) is a more cost-effective initial test than is exercise electrocardiography alone as a first test (policy I) or exercise electrocardiography first combined with thallium imaging as a second test (policy IV). Exercise electrocardiography before thallium imaging (policy IV) is more cost-effective than exercise electrocardiography alone (policy I) at prevalences less than 80%. 4) Noninvasive exercise testing before angiography (policies I, II and IV) is more cost-effective than using coronary angiography as the first and only test (policy III) at prevalences less than 80%. 5) Above a threshold value of prevalence of 80% (for example patients with typical angina), proceeding to angiography as the first test (policy III) was more cost-effective than initial noninvasive exercise tests (policies I, II and IV).

  7. Disease ecology across soil boundaries: effects of below-ground fungi on above-ground host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Tao, Leiling; Gowler, Camden D; Ahmad, Aamina; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2015-10-22

    Host-parasite interactions are subject to strong trait-mediated indirect effects from other species. However, it remains unexplored whether such indirect effects may occur across soil boundaries and connect spatially isolated organisms. Here, we demonstrate that, by changing plant (milkweed Asclepias sp.) traits, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) significantly affect interactions between a herbivore (the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus) and its protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha), which represents an interaction across four biological kingdoms. In our experiment, AMF affected parasite virulence, host resistance and host tolerance to the parasite. These effects were dependent on both the density of AMF and the identity of milkweed species: AMF indirectly increased disease in monarchs reared on some species, while alleviating disease in monarchs reared on other species. The species-specificity was driven largely by the effects of AMF on both plant primary (phosphorus) and secondary (cardenolides; toxins in milkweeds) traits. Our study demonstrates that trait-mediated indirect effects in disease ecology are extensive, such that below-ground interactions between AMF and plant roots can alter host-parasite interactions above ground. In general, soil biota may play an underappreciated role in the ecology of many terrestrial host-parasite systems. PMID:26468247

  8. The use of light- and electron microscopy for studies on the cell- and molecular biology of parasites and parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hehl, A B; Hemphill, A

    2006-09-01

    Lightmicroscopical (LM) and electron microscopi cal (EM) techniques, have had a major influence on the development and direction of cell biology, and particularly also on the investigation of complex host-parasite relationships. Earlier, microscopy has been rather descriptive, but new technical and scientific advances have changed the situation. Microscopy has now become analytical, quantitative and three-dimensional, with greater emphasis on analysis of live cells with fluorescent markers. The new or improved techniques that have become available include immunocytochemistry using immunogold labeling techniques or fluorescent probes, cryopreservation and cryosectioning, in situ hybridization, fluorescent reporters for subcellular localization, micro-analytical methods for elemental distribution, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and live-imaging. Taken together, these tools are providing both researchers and students with a novel and multidimensional view of the intricate biological processes during parasite development in the host. PMID:17024976

  9. Environmental effects on parasitic disease transmission exemplified by schistosomiasis in western China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Seto, Edmund Y. W.; Remais, Justin V.; Zhong, Bo; Yang, Changhong; Hubbard, Alan; Davis, George M.; Gu, Xueguang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Spear, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental effects on the transmission of many parasitic diseases are well recognized, but the role of specific factors like climate and agricultural practices in modulating transmission is seldom characterized quantitatively. Based on studies of Schistosoma japonicum transmission in irrigated agricultural environments in western China, a mathematical model was used to quantify environmental impacts on transmission intensity. The model was calibrated by using field data from intervention studies in three villages and simulated to predict the effects of alternative control options. Both the results of these interventions and earlier epidemiological findings confirm the central role of environmental factors, particularly those relating to snail habitat and agricultural and sanitation practices. Moreover, the findings indicate the inadequacy of current niclosamide-praziquantel strategies alone to achieve sustainable interruption of transmission in some endemic areas. More generally, the analysis suggests a village-specific index of transmission potential and how this potential is modulated by time-varying factors, including climatological variables, seasonal water-contact patterns, and irrigation practices. These time-variable factors, a village's internal potential, and its connectedness to its neighbors provide a framework for evaluating the likelihood of sustained schistosomiasis transmission and suggest an approach to quantifying the role of environmental factors for other parasitic diseases. PMID:17438266

  10. Are general practitioners able to accurately diagnose dementia and identify Alzheimer's disease? A comparison with an outpatient memory clinic.

    PubMed Central

    van Hout, H; Vernooij-Dassen, M; Poels, P; Hoefnagels, W; Grol, R

    2000-01-01

    Since the introduction of agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and in order to increase understanding of a patient's changed behaviour, it has become particularly important that dementia is both diagnosed at an early stage and differentiated into its subtypes. This study aims to ascertain whether GPs were able to diagnose dementia and identify the type of dementia accurately and confidently. GPs were well able to assess the firmness of their own dementia diagnoses, which supposes that they are able to make appropriate selection for referral. Diagnostic support from a specialised team can particularly contribute to identifying the type of dementia. PMID:10897518

  11. Acute Schistosomiasis in Brazilian Traveler: The Importance of Tourism in The Epidemiology of Neglected Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guiguet Leal, Diego Averaldo; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Neves, Maria Francisca; Simões, Luciana Franceschi; Bastos, Letícia Aparecida Duart; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Zanotti-Magalhães, Eliana Maria; Magalhães, Luiz Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infectious diseases acquired in tourist areas may pose a challenge to physicians and to travel medicine practitioners. Acute schistosomiasis may be seen in returning travelers and migrants after primary infection. This form of schistosomiasis is frequently misdiagnosed due to its temporal delay and its nonspecific presentation and might occur even in countries where the disease is endemic, such as in Brazil. The patient developed the acute phase of schistosomiasis with severe clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 240 eggs per gram of stool. The treatment was administered with oxamniquine, and the control of cure of the patient was monitored and was favorable. The present paper aims to emphasize the importance of a detailed clinical history including information regarding travel history. PMID:22844623

  12. Increased prevalence of prior malignancies and autoimmune diseases in patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, N; Höglund, M; Stenke, L; Wållberg-Jonsson, S; Sandin, F; Björkholm, M; Dreimane, A; Lambe, M; Markevärn, B; Olsson-Strömberg, U; Wadenvik, H; Richter, J; Själander, A

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported an increased incidence of second malignancies in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). To elucidate whether this increase may be linked, not to TKI but rather to a hereditary or acquired susceptibility to develop cancer, we estimated the prevalence of malignancies, autoimmune disease (AD) and chronic inflammatory disease (CID) in CML patients prior to their CML diagnosis. Nationwide population-based registers were used to identify patients diagnosed with CML in Sweden 2002-2012 and to estimate the prevalence of other malignancies, AD and CID prior to their CML diagnosis. For each patient with CML, five matched controls were selected from the general population. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR). Nine hundred and eighty-four CML patients were assessed, representing more than 45 000 person-years of follow-up. Compared with matched controls, the prevalence of prior malignancies and AD was elevated in CML patients: OR 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-1.82) and 1.55 (95% CI 1.21-1.98), respectively. No associations were detected between CML and previous CID. An increased prevalence of other malignancies and AD prior to the diagnosis of CML suggest that a hereditary or acquired predisposition to cancer and/or autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of CML. PMID:27080811

  13. Evasion and Immuno-Endocrine Regulation in Parasite Infection: Two Sides of the Same Coin in Chagas Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Morrot, Alexandre; Villar, Silvina R.; González, Florencia B.; Pérez, Ana R.

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a serious illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Nearly 30% of chronically infected people develop cardiac, digestive, or mixed alterations, suggesting a broad range of host-parasite interactions that finally impact upon chronic disease outcome. The ability of T. cruzi to persist and cause pathology seems to depend on diverse factors like T. cruzi strains, the infective load and the route of infection, presence of virulence factors, the parasite capacity to avoid protective immune response, the strength and type of host defense mechanisms and the genetic background of the host. The host-parasite interaction is subject to a constant neuro-endocrine regulation that is thought to influence the adaptive immune system, and as the infection proceeds it can lead to a broad range of outcomes, ranging from pathogen elimination to its continued persistence in the host. In this context, T. cruzi evasion strategies and host defense mechanisms can be envisioned as two sides of the same coin, influencing parasite persistence and different outcomes observed in Chagas disease. Understanding how T. cruzi evade host's innate and adaptive immune response will provide important clues to better dissect mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Chagas disease. PMID:27242726

  14. Bayesian comparison of cost-effectiveness of different clinical approaches to diagnose coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R E; Eng, C; Horowitz, S F; Gorlin, R; Goldstein, S R

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of four clinical policies (policies I to IV) in the diagnosis of the presence or absence of coronary artery disease. A model based on Bayes' theorem and published clinical data was constructed to make these comparisons. Effectiveness was defined as either the number of patients with coronary disease diagnosed or as the number of quality-adjusted life years extended by therapy after the diagnosis of coronary disease. The following conclusions arise strictly from analysis of the model and may not necessarily be applicable to all situations. As prevalence of coronary disease in the population increased, it caused a linear increase in cost per patient tested, but a hyperbolic decrease in cost per effect, that is, increased cost-effectiveness. Thus, cost-effectiveness of all policies (I to IV) was poor in populations with a prevalence of disease below 10%, for example, asymptomatic people with no risk factors. Analysis of the model also indicates that at prevalences less than 80%, exercise thallium scintigraphy alone as a first test (policy II) is a more cost-effective initial test than is exercise electrocardiography alone as a first test (policy I) or exercise electrocardiography first combined with thallium imaging as a second test (policy IV). Exercise electrocardiography before thallium imaging (policy IV) is more cost-effective than exercise electrocardiography alone (policy I) at prevalences less than 80%. 4) Noninvasive exercise testing before angiography (policies I, II and IV) is more cost-effective than using coronary angiography as the first and only test (policy III) at prevalences less than 80%. 5) Above a threshold value of prevalence of 80% (for example patients with typical angina), proceeding to angiography as the first test (policy III) was more cost-effective than initial noninvasive exercise tests (policies I, II and IV). One advantage of this quantitative model is that it estimates a

  15. Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

    2014-05-01

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential. PMID:23912715

  16. Validation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnoses in healthcare databases: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rimland, Joseph M; Abraha, Iosief; Luchetta, Maria Laura; Cozzolino, Francesco; Orso, Massimiliano; Cherubini, Antonio; Dell'Aquila, Giuseppina; Chiatti, Carlos; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Montedori, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Healthcare databases are useful sources to investigate the epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), to assess longitudinal outcomes in patients with COPD, and to develop disease management strategies. However, in order to constitute a reliable source for research, healthcare databases need to be validated. The aim of this protocol is to perform the first systematic review of studies reporting the validation of codes related to COPD diagnoses in healthcare databases. Methods and analysis MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases will be searched using appropriate search strategies. Studies that evaluated the validity of COPD codes (such as the International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision and 10th Revision system; the Real codes system or the International Classification of Primary Care) in healthcare databases will be included. Inclusion criteria will be: (1) the presence of a reference standard case definition for COPD; (2) the presence of at least one test measure (eg, sensitivity, positive predictive values, etc); and (3) the use of a healthcare database (including administrative claims databases, electronic healthcare databases or COPD registries) as a data source. Pairs of reviewers will independently abstract data using standardised forms and will assess quality using a checklist based on the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy (STARD) criteria. This systematic review protocol has been produced in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required. Results of this study will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. The results from this systematic review will be used for outcome research on COPD and will serve as a guide to identify appropriate case definitions of COPD, and reference standards, for researchers involved in validating

  17. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics in children with clinically diagnosed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Diana R; Ling, Simon; Roberts, Eve A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Childhood obesity is currently approaching epidemic proportions worldwide. Various chronic diseases are associated with obesity, but nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has received little attention from paediatricians. AIM To examine anthropometric and metabolic variables relevant to NAFLD disease mechanism and severity. METHODS A retrospective review of 53 consecutive paediatric patients clinically diagnosed with NAFLD was performed between 1997 and 2004. Variables studied included ethnicity, body mass index, acanthosis nigricans, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine amino-transferase levels, and fasting levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. Insulin resistance was quantified by validated models (the homeostasis model of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index [QUICKI]). RESULTS The cohort was comprised of 34 boys and 19 girls; there was a 2:1 male predominance. The mean age of the children was 13.5 years (median 14.2 years; range 5.6 to 18.9 years), and 13 were 11 years of age or younger. Forty-five per cent were Caucasian, 30% Asian and 21% Hispanic. Thirty-eight children (72%) were classified as obese and 11 children (21%) were classified as overweight, with a mean ideal body weight percentage of 150.9±4.2 (range 67% to 226%) and a BMI Z score of 1.9±0.1 (range −1.2 to 3.2). Hyperinsulinemia was present in 35 children (66%). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 9.8±2.6, abnormal if greater than 3) was associated with increased plasma triglyceride (P=0.03) and total cholesterol (P=0.04) levels. These parameters were significant irrespective of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase levels. CONCLUSIONS Hyperlipidemia with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in overweight and obese children with fatty liver may be important signs of liver dysfunction in childhood NAFLD, irrespective of serum aminotransferases. In overweight or obese children with hyperlipidemia or insulin resistance

  18. Mycobacterium chelonae infection presenting as recurrent cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules--a presentation previously diagnosed as Weber Christian disease.

    PubMed

    Maverakis, Emanual; He, Yong; Patel, Forum B; Fitzmaurice, Sarah; Fung, Maxwell A

    2014-06-01

    Although the dermatologic community rarely uses "Weber-Christian Disease" as a diagnosis, it still appears in the internal medicine literature. Herein we present a patient with recurrent cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules who was initially treated with aggressive immunosupression for a presumptive diagnosis of Weber-Christian Disease. After more than a decade the patient was diagnosed with cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonea. This case is an excellent example of the difficulty in diagnosing mycobacterial infections and underscores the importance of having a high suspicion for infectious etiologies for unresponsive cutaneous eruptions in patients on immunosuppressive medications. PMID:24945648

  19. A Case of Nasu-Hakola Disease without Fractures or Consanguinity Diagnosed Using Exome Sequencing and Treated with Sodium Valproate

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Kiyohiro; Yoshino, Yuta; Mori, Yoko; Ochi, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Taku; Ishimaru, Takashi; Ueno, Shu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare autosomal recessive neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by bone cysts, fractures, and cognitive impairment. Two genes are responsible for the development of NHD; TYROBP and TREM2. Although it presents with typical signs and symptoms, diagnosing this disease remains difficult. This case report describes a male with NHD with no family or past history of bone fractures who was diagnosed using exome sequencing. His frontal lobe psychiatric symptoms recovered partially following treatment with sodium valproate, but not with an antipsychotic. PMID:26598595

  20. Chagas’ disease parasite-derived neurotrophic factor activates cholinergic gene expression in neuronal PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Nsikan; Caradonna, Kacey; Chuenkova, Marina V.; PereiraPerrin, Mercio

    2008-01-01

    A parasite-derived neurotrophic factor (PDNF) produced by the Chagas’ disease parasite Trypanosoma cruzi binds nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor TrkA, increasing receptor autophosphorylation, activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/Erk) pathways, and transcription factor CREB. The end-result is enhanced survival and neuritogenesis of various types of neurons. PDNF also enhances the expression and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine and other catecholamine neurotransmitters. It remains unknown, however, if PDNF alters expression and metabolism of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter thought to play a role in Chagas’ disease progression. Here we demonstrate that PDNF stimulates mRNA and protein expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), which are critical for synthesis and storage of ACh. Stimulation requires functional TrkA because it did not occur in cell mutants that lack the receptor and in TrkA-expressing wild-type cells treated with K252a, an inhibitor of TrkA kinase activity. It also requires TrkA-dependent PI3K and MAPK/Erk signaling pathways because PDNF stimulation of cholinergic transcripts is abolished by specific pharmacological inhibitors. Furthermore, the cholinergic actions of PDNF were reproduced by PDNF-expressing extracellular T. cruzi trypomastigotes at the start of host cell invasion. In contrast, host cells bearing intracellular T. cruzi showed decreased, rather than increased, cholinergic gene expression. These results suggest that T. cruzi invasion of the nervous system alters cholinergic gene expression and that could play a role in neuropathology, and/or lack thereof, in Chagas’ disease patients. PMID:18502403

  1. Chagas' disease parasite-derived neurotrophic factor activates cholinergic gene expression in neuronal PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Nsikan; Caradonna, Kacey; Chuenkova, Marina V; PereiraPerrin, Mercio

    2008-06-27

    A parasite-derived neurotrophic factor (PDNF) produced by the Chagas' disease parasite Trypanosoma cruzi binds nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor TrkA, increasing receptor autophosphorylation, and activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/Erk) pathways, and transcription factor CREB. The end-result is enhanced survival and neuritogenesis of various types of neurons. PDNF also enhances the expression and activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine and other catecholamine neurotransmitters. It remains unknown, however, if PDNF alters expression and metabolism of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter thought to play a role in Chagas' disease progression. Here we demonstrate that PDNF stimulates mRNA and protein expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), which are critical for synthesis and storage of ACh. Stimulation requires functional TrkA because it did not occur in cell mutants that lack the receptor and in TrkA-expressing wild-type cells treated with K252a, an inhibitor of TrkA kinase activity. It also requires TrkA-dependent PI3K and MAPK/Erk signaling pathways because PDNF stimulation of cholinergic transcripts is abolished by specific pharmacological inhibitors. Furthermore, the cholinergic actions of PDNF were reproduced by PDNF-expressing extracellular T. cruzi trypomastigotes at the start of host cell invasion. In contrast, host cells bearing intracellular T. cruzi showed decreased, rather than increased, cholinergic gene expression. These results suggest that T. cruzi invasion of the nervous system alters cholinergic gene expression and that could play a role in neuropathology, and/or lack thereof, in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:18502403

  2. Crassicaudosis: a parasitic disease threatening the health and population recovery of large baleen whales.

    PubMed

    Lambertsen, R H

    1992-12-01

    This communication briefly reviews knowledge of the systemic disease caused by Crassicauda boopis in blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus), fin whales (B. physalus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Infections with this giant nematode characteristically incite a chronic inflammatory reaction of the blood vessels which drain the kidneys. In this critical location, the parasite-induced lesion can cause complete vascular occlusion and kidney failure. Whale calves and juveniles typically suffer the heaviest parasite burdens following transplacental infection of the developing whale foetus. There is also probable whale-to-whale transmission post-partum, involving urinary contamination of the environment with C. boopis eggs and larvae. The frequency of the infection can exceed 95%. Haematological findings suggest that systemic pathological effects are typical at the population level. Gradual development of occlusive lesions in the renal veins appears to correlate with a major peak in natural mortality at about one year of age. To date, all findings support the conclusion that premature death caused by C. boopis infection is potentially a major impediment to population recovery of affected whale species. This suggests the interesting possibility of actively encouraging the population recovery of three species of large baleen whales. Such a restoration effort would entail remotely-deployed anthelminthic therapy administered, at sea, to infected whale cows and calves. PMID:1305859

  3. Vitamin D and Sunlight Exposure in Newly-Diagnosed Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Deyu; Yu, Yu; Shao, Gaohai; Wang, Qunbo

    2016-01-01

    Circulating vitamin D has previously been found to be lower in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), while the effects of sunlight exposure have not yet been fully investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the associations between serum vitamin D, vitamin D intake, sunlight exposure, and newly-diagnosed PD patients in a Chinese population. This case-control study measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and sunlight exposure in 201 patients with newly-diagnosed PD and 199 controls without neurodegenerative diseases. Data on vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure were obtained using a self-report questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed to evaluate the associations between serum 25(OH)D levels, sunlight exposure, and PD. Adjustments were made for sex, age, smoking, alcohol use, education, BMI, and vitamin D intake. There were significantly lower levels of serum 25(OH)D (20.6 ± 6.5 ng/mL), daily vitamin D intake (8.3 ± 3.7 g/day), and sunlight exposure (9.7 ± 4.1 h/week) in patients with PD compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). Crude odds ratios (ORs) for PD in the quartiles of serum 25(OH)D were 1 (reference), 0.710 (0.401, 1.257), 0.631 (0.348, 1.209), and 0.483 (0.267, 0.874), respectively. Crude ORs for PD in quartiles of sunlight exposure were 1 (reference), 0.809 (0.454, 1.443), 0.623 (0.345, 1.124) and 0.533 (0.294, 0.966), respectively. A significant positive correlation between serum 25(OH)D and sunlight exposure was found, but serum 25(OH)D was not correlated with daily vitamin D intake. This study indicates that lower levels of serum 25(OH)D and sunlight exposure are significantly associated with an increased risk for PD. PMID:26959053

  4. [A case diagnosed with chronic granulomatous disease after disseminated infection following BCG vaccination].

    PubMed

    Delibalta, Güler; Seringeç, Murat; Öncül, Oral

    2015-07-01

    BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a widely used vaccine with the recommendation of World Health Organization to protect children against miliary tuberculosis (TB) and TB meningitis. Severe side effects related to this vaccine mostly manifest in the presence of underlying immunosuppressive disease. In this report, an infant case with unknown chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) who developed disseminated BCG infection after administration of BCG vaccine, was presented. High fever, left axillary lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly have developed in a 3-month 28-day female infant, without a known health problem, following BCG vaccination. The acid-fast bacilli (ARB) was isolated from the material of excised lymph node cultivated in Löwenstein-Jensen medium, and the isolate was identified as Mycobacterium bovis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA was detected in the axillary lymph node sample by polymerase chain reaction. Anti-tuberculous treatment included 20 mg/kg of rifampicin+10 mg/kg of isoniazid+15 mg/kg of ethambutol+30 mg/kg of streptomycin was started. The patient was then further evaluated for immunodeficiency and on the basis of the results of dihydroamine and LAD (lymphocyte adhesion defect) tests, diagnosed as autosomal recessive CGD. Based on the anamnesis, there was no known immunodeficiency history both in the case during neonatal period and her family members. Interferon-gamma therapy, which is recommended for the patients with CGD living in endemic areas, was initiated. Our patient's fever dropped at the 15th day of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and she was discharged on the 35th day and continued to receive treatment at home. The patient was followed up at outpatient clinic and had no additional complaints; her hepatosplenomegaly was back to normal at the third month. As a result, since BCG vaccine is contraindicated in CGD carriers, newborns with a family history of CGD should be immunologically examined and BCG vaccine should be

  5. The Interplay of Host Microbiota and Parasitic Protozoans at Mucosal Interfaces: Implications for the Outcomes of Infections and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Jully; Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Infections by parasitic protozoans are largely neglected, despite threatening millions of people, particularly in developing countries. With descriptions of the microbiota in humans, a new frontier of investigation is developing to decipher the complexity of host–parasite–microbiota relationships, instead of the classic reductionist approach, which considers host–parasite in isolation. Here, we review with specific examples the potential roles that the resident microbiota can play at mucosal interfaces in the transmission of parasitic protozoans and in the progress of infection and disease. Although the mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood, some examples provide compelling evidence that specific components of the microbiota can potentially alter the outcomes of parasitic infections and diseases in humans. Most findings suggest a protective role of the microbiota, which might lead to exploratory research comprising microbiota-based interventions to prevent and treat protozoal infections in the future. However, these infections are often accompanied by an unbalanced microbiota and, in some specific cases, apparently, these bacteria may contribute synergistically to disease progression. Taken together, these findings provide a different perspective on the ecological nature of protozoal infections. This review focuses attention on the importance of considering polymicrobial associations, i.e., parasitic protozoans and the host microbiota, for understanding these human infections in their natural microbial context. PMID:26658061

  6. Characterization of peripartum rumination and activity of cows diagnosed with metabolic and uterine diseases.

    PubMed

    Liboreiro, Daniela N; Machado, Karine S; Silva, Paula R B; Maturana, Milton M; Nishimura, Thiago K; Brandão, Alice P; Endres, Márcia I; Chebel, Ricardo C

    2015-10-01

    delivering live calves (499.3 ± 16.2 vs. 461.3 ± 4.1 arbitrary unit). Occurrence of retained fetal membrane tended to and was associated with reduced prepartum (444.3 ± 11.0 vs. 466.5 ± 4.3 arbitrary unit) and postpartum (488.2 ± 14.5 vs. 538.8 ± 5.7 arbitrary unit) activity, respectively. Cows diagnosed with metritis had reduced postpartum DRT (415.9 ± 10.1 vs. 441.0 ± 5.2 min/d) and activity (512.5 ± 11.5 vs. 539.2 ± 6.0 arbitrary unit). Postpartum activity was reduced among cows that were diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (502.20 ± 16.5 vs. 536.6 ± 6.2 arbitrary unit). Although differences in DRT and activity between populations of cows that developed periparturient diseases and healthy cows were observed, further experiments are necessary to determine how DRT and activity data may be used to precociously diagnose individuals that will develop such periparturient diseases. PMID:26233440

  7. Extension materials for meat-borne parasitic diseases in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rimm, Mogens

    2003-06-01

    In support of a project on porcine cysticercosis in Tanzania, an educational video was prepared to inform the rural communities on the health risks and prevention of the parasitic disease. This paper describes the process involved in making the video, especially the importance of establishing a good understanding between veterinary public health officials and the video producer. Important steps in the process include determining the target audience, the film's core message, the construction of the "story", script development, the filming and editing activities, and, importantly, the development of strategies for production and use of the film as extension material. Suggestions on logistical and technical aspects of filming and viewing are also discussed. The experience gained in Tanzania will be of value to others planning similar projects elsewhere. PMID:12781393

  8. Skin Disease in the Uninsured: Diagnoses, Management Decisions, and Referral Outcomes of an Urban Free Clinic.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Brooke E; Freitas, Derek; Nosal, Sarah C; Meydani, Ahou

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of the burden of skin disease in the uninsured population is needed to address the unique barriers they face to access dermatologic care. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients seen for skin conditions over three years at the New York City (NYC) Free Clinic, a weekly primary care clinic operated by the NYU School of Medicine and the Institute for Family Health. Main outcomes of this study were descriptive analyses of demographic characteristics, diagnoses, management strategies, and referral outcomes, as well as key factors influencing referral to a dermatologist and referral attendance. Diagnosis was a significant predictor of referral (p<.000). The referral attendance rate was 52.5%. Patients older than 50 years were more likely to attend their appointments than younger patients (p=.025). Gender, wait time, and travel distance had no significant association with non-attendance. While demand for dermatologic care by uninsured patients in NYC is high, referral non-attendance remains a substantial barrier to care. PMID:27180711

  9. Pulse oximetry screening: a review of diagnosing critical congenital heart disease in newborns

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Melissa S; Kochilas, Lazaros K

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects, with an incidence of nine out of every 1,000 live births. The mortality of infants with CHD has decreased over the past 3 decades, but significant morbidity and mortality continue to occur if not diagnosed shortly after birth. Pulse oximetry was recommended as a screening tool to detect critical CHD in 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Heart Association. Pulse oximetry is a tool to measure oxygen saturation, and based on the presence of hypoxemia, many cardiac lesions are detected. Due to its ease of application to the patient, providing results in a timely manner and without the need for calibrating the sensor probe, pulse oximetry offers many advantages as a screening tool. However, pulse oximetry has also important limitations of which physicians should be aware to be able to assess the significance of the pulse oximetry measurement for a given patient. This review aims to highlight the benefits and shortcomings of pulse oximetry within the context of screening for critical CHD and suggests future avenues to cover existing gaps in current practices. PMID:27468253

  10. Early-onset Alzheimer's disease versus frontotemporal dementia: resolution with genetic diagnoses?

    PubMed

    Sha, Sharon J; Khazenzon, Anna M; Ghosh, Pia M; Rankin, Katherine P; Pribadi, Mochtar; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H; Rabinovici, Gil D; Miller, Bruce L; Lee, Suzee E

    2016-01-01

    We report a diagnostically challenging case of a 64-year-old man with a history of remote head trauma who developed mild behavioral changes and dyscalculia. He was diagnosed with clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), with additional features consistent with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging revealed atrophy in bilateral frontal and parietal cortices and hippocampi on visual inspection and left frontal pole and bilateral anterior temporal encephalomalacia, suspected to be due to head trauma. Consistent with the diagnosis of Alzheimer's pathology, positron emission tomography (PET) with Pittsburgh compound B suggested the presence of beta-amyloid. Fluorodeoxyglucose PET demonstrated hypometabolism in bilateral frontal and temporoparietal cortices. Voxel-based morphometry showed atrophy predominant in ventral frontal regions (bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, pregenual anterior cingulate/medial superior frontal gyrus), bilateral mid cingulate, bilateral lateral temporal cortex, and posterior insula. Bilateral caudate, thalamus, hippocampi, and cerebellum were prominently atrophied. Unexpectedly, a pathologic hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 was identified in this patient. This report underscores the clinical variability in C9ORF72 expansion carriers and the need to consider mixed pathologies, particularly when imaging studies are inconsistent with a single syndrome or pathology. PMID:26304661

  11. Vector-borne parasitic diseases--an overview of recent changes.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, D H

    1998-06-01

    This paper summarises the impact of different changes (environmental, ecological, developmental) on the one hand, with the impact of control measures on the other. The former group of changes have tended to exacerbate the incidence and prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases while the reduced public funds available for the health sector have reduced disease surveillance systems. However, some vector control/eradication programmes have been successful. Vector control in onchocerciasis and Chagas' disease and immediate host control in Guinea worm have reduced the public health importance of these disease. This contrasts, with malaria, where the complexity of different ecological situations and the variable vector ecology have made control difficult and epidemics frequent and unpredictable. Advances in our knowledge of how to implement and sustain insecticide-impregnated bednets which reduce morbidity and mortality in under 5-year olds will be a key issue for the coming years. In African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, where control is dependent on effective diagnosis and surveillance followed by high-cost drug treatment, the health services are faced with major challenges--lack of drug availability and diagnostics no vector control--the diseases in some areas assuming epidemic status yet health services are unable to respond. Human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis are fatal if untreated, and require an emergency response approach. Changing vector distribution of Glossina is related to the ability of riverine flies of Glossina palpalis group to adapt to new vegetation patterns. In leishmaniasis changes have occurred in the distribution of the disease associated with development impact, urbanisation, civil unrest and changed agroforestry practice. PMID:9673871

  12. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

  13. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

  14. Genetic variants of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida), a flounder parasite causing foodborne disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, F; Ogasawara, Y; Kato, K; Sekizuka, T; Nozaki, T; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T; Kuroda, M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by raw olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) parasitized with Kudoa septempunctata have been reported in Japan. Origins of olive flounders consumed in Japan vary, being either domestic or imported, and aquaculture-raised or natural. Although it is unknown whether different sources are associated with different outcomes, it is desirable to identify whether this is the case by determining whether unique K. septempunctata strains occur and if so, whether some are associated with foodborne illness. We here developed an intraspecific genotyping method, using the sequence variation of mitochondrial genes. We collected olive flounder samples from foodborne disease outbreaks, domestic fish farms or quarantine offices and investigated whether K. septempunctata genotype is associated with pathogenicity or geographic origin. The 104 samples were classified into three genotypes, ST1, ST2 and ST3. Frequency of symptomatic cases differed by genotypes, but the association was not statistically significant. Whereas K. septempunctata detected from aquaculture-raised and natural fish from Japan were either ST1 or ST2, those from fish inspected at quarantine from Korea to Japan were ST3. Our method can be applied to phylogeographic analysis of K. septempunctata and contribute to containing the foodborne disease. The genotype database is hosted in the PubMLST website (http://pubmlst.org/kseptempunctata/). PMID:26096292

  15. Ecto-Nucleotidase Activities of Promastigotes from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Relates to Parasite Infectivity and Disease Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Luís C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important

  16. Prognostic factors and disease-specific survival among immigrants diagnosed with cutaneous malignant melanoma in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Simberg-Danell, Caroline; Lyth, Johan; Månsson-Brahme, Eva; Frohm-Nilsson, Margareta; Carstensen, John; Hansson, Johan; Eriksson, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) among immigrants in Europe. We aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and disease-specific survival among first- and second-generation immigrants in Sweden. This nationwide population-based study included 27,235 patients from the Swedish Melanoma Register diagnosed with primary invasive CMM, 1990-2007. Data were linked to nationwide, population-based registers followed up through 2013. Logistic regression and Cox regression models were used to determine the association between immigrant status, stage and CMM prognosis, respectively. After adjustments for confounders, first generation immigrants from Southern Europe were associated with significantly more advanced stages of disease compared to Swedish-born patients [Stage II vs. I: Odds ratio (OR) = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.61-3.50. Stage III-IV vs I: OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.08-5.37]. The ORs of stage II-IV versus stage I disease were increased among men (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1-3.3; p = 0.020), and women (OR = 4.8; 95% CI = 2.6-9.1; p < 0.001) in a subgroup of immigrants from former Yugoslavia compared to Swedish-born patients. The CMM-specific survival was significantly decreased among women from former Yugoslavia versus Swedish-born women [hazard ratio (HR)=2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.2; p = 0.043]. After additional adjustments including stage, the survival difference was no longer significant. No survival difference between the second generation immigrant group and Swedish-born patients were observed. In conclusion, a worse CMM-specific survival in women from former Yugoslavia was associated with more advanced stages of CMM at diagnosis. Secondary prevention efforts focusing on specific groups may be needed to further improve the CMM prognosis. PMID:27004457

  17. Re: Treatment of Parasitic Skin Diseases with Dimeticones A New Family of Compounds with a Purely Physical Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The article on use of dimeticone for treatment of epidermal parasitic skin diseases is potentially confusing and misleading because, in a practical sense, only head louse infestation can be treated with this material. Scabies mites are unaffected by silicones and use of dimeticone against other ectoparasites may have unwanted side effects such as anaphylactiform reactions or increased risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26060419

  18. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI, IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994-Dec. 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, that set on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia, in Augus...

  19. Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2014-06-01

    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea. PMID:25031479

  20. Evolution of maple syrup urine disease in patients diagnosed by newborn screening versus late diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Couce, M L; Ramos, F; Bueno, M A; Díaz, J; Meavilla, S; Bóveda, M D; Fernández-Marmiesse, A; García-Cazorla, A

    2015-11-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disorder for which the newborn screening (NBS) is possible but it has not been yet implemented for most Spanish regions. In the present study, we assess the clinical features and outcome of 14 MSUD Spanish patients with similar treatment protocol diagnosed either by NBS or by clinical symptoms. Eight patients were detected by NBS, four classic and four moderate MSUD. The average age at detection was 4.6 days, the mean plasmatic concentration of leucine at diagnosis was 1807 μM; the average number of days with leucine >1000 μM was 0.7 (0-4) and the mean number of total hospitalizations was 1.6 (0-5). Mean follow-up time was 70 months. They had good evolution: all remain asymptomatic, but 2 patients have attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Six patients with late diagnosis of classic MSUD were followed during 41 months. All presented with acute encephalopathy during the first month of life, mean leucine levels of 2355 μM, mean number of days with leucine >1000 μM of 6.6 (1-13) and mean number of total hospitalizations of 5.3 (4-7). Only two patients have a psychomotor development index in the lower limit (80 and 83). For all patients a good genotype-phenotype correlation was found and four novel mutations were identified: p.A311H, p.T84S, p.T397L, pL398P. Our study support that NBS improves prognosis of MSUD patients. But early diagnosis and an aggressive treatment together with a close monitoring of leucine levels improve neurological evolution in MSUD patients, even for those not detected by NBS. PMID:26232051

  1. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies Are Highly Prevalent in Newly Diagnosed Celiac Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wierdsma, Nicolette J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Berkenpas, Marijke; Mulder, Chris J. J.; van Bodegraven, Ad A.

    2013-01-01

    Malabsorption, weight loss and vitamin/mineral-deficiencies characterize classical celiac disease (CD). This study aimed to assess the nutritional and vitamin/mineral status of current “early diagnosed” untreated adult CD-patients in the Netherlands. Newly diagnosed adult CD-patients were included (n = 80, 42.8 ± 15.1 years) and a comparable sample of 24 healthy Dutch subjects was added to compare vitamin concentrations. Nutritional status and serum concentrations of folic acid, vitamin A, B6, B12, and (25-hydroxy) D, zinc, haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin were determined (before prescribing gluten free diet). Almost all CD-patients (87%) had at least one value below the lower limit of reference. Specifically, for vitamin A, 7.5% of patients showed deficient levels, for vitamin B6 14.5%, folic acid 20%, and vitamin B12 19%. Likewise, zinc deficiency was observed in 67% of the CD-patients, 46% had decreased iron storage, and 32% had anaemia. Overall, 17% were malnourished (>10% undesired weight loss), 22% of the women were underweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) < 18.5), and 29% of the patients were overweight (BMI > 25). Vitamin deficiencies were barely seen in healthy controls, with the exception of vitamin B12. Vitamin/mineral deficiencies were counter-intuitively not associated with a (higher) grade of histological intestinal damage or (impaired) nutritional status. In conclusion, vitamin/mineral deficiencies are still common in newly “early diagnosed” CD-patients, even though the prevalence of obesity at initial diagnosis is rising. Extensive nutritional assessments seem warranted to guide nutritional advices and follow-up in CD treatment. PMID:24084055

  2. Hsp90 Inhibitors as New Leads To Target Parasitic Diarrheal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shahinas, Dea; Bryant, Clifford; Hirata, Ken; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Hwang, Grace; Gut, Jiri; Renslo, Adam R.; Pillai, Dylan R.; Eckmann, Lars; Reed, Sharon L.; McKerrow, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are anaerobic protozoan parasites that cause amebiasis and giardiasis, two of the most common diarrheal diseases worldwide. Current therapy relies on metronidazole, but resistance has been reported and the drug has significant adverse effects. Therefore, it is critical to search for effective, better-tolerated antiamebic and antigiardial drugs. We synthesized several examples of a recently reported class of Hsp90 inhibitors and evaluated these compounds as potential leads for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Several of these inhibitors showed strong in vitro activity against both E. histolytica and G. lamblia trophozoites. The inhibitors were rescreened to discriminate between amebicidal and giardicidal activity and general cytotoxicity toward a mammalian cell line. No mammalian cytotoxicity was found at >100 μM for 48 h for any of the inhibitors. To understand the mechanism of action, a competitive binding assay was performed using the fluorescent ATP analogue bis-ANS (4,4′-dianilino-1,1′-binaphthyl-5,5′-disulfonic acid dipotassium salt) and recombinant E. histolytica Hsp90 preincubated in both the presence and absence of Hsp90 inhibitors. There was significant reduction in fluorescence compared to the level in the control, suggesting that E. histolytica Hsp90 is a selective target. The in vivo efficacy and safety of one Hsp90 inhibitor in a mouse model of amebic colitis and giardiasis was demonstrated by significant inhibition of parasite growth at a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 days and 10 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Considering the results for in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy, Hsp90 inhibitors represent a promising therapeutic option for amebiasis and giardiasis. PMID:24820073

  3. Screening of coeliac disease in undetected adults and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman S

    2016-07-01

    The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD) among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College) were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs) and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs) and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20-39-years) and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40-59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable. PMID:27298578

  4. Tungiasis (sand flea disease): a parasitic disease with particular challenges for public health.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H; Sentongo, E; Krantz, I

    2013-01-01

    Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is caused by the penetration of females of Tunga penetrans into the skin of the feet. Within 2 weeks of penetration the burrowed flea increases its volume by a factor of 2,000. This is paralleled by intense inflammation of the surrounding tissue. Acute and chronic inflammation leads to the development of painful and debilitating clinical pathology. This results in impaired physical fitness and mobility. The social implications of tungiasis-associated morbidity are multifold. Children with tungiasis are teased and ridiculed, adults feel ashamed and stigmatized. There is anecdotal evidence that tungiasis negatively affects educational achievements. Impaired mobility and physical fitness will have a negative impact on household economics. Sand flea disease is common in resource-poor communities in South America and in sub-Saharan Africa with prevalence in the general population of up to 60%. In East Africa, it has re-emerged in epidemic dimensions in recent years. Hitherto, no effective drug treatment has been at hand. Traditional treatment, i.e., the manipulation of burrowed sand fleas with blunt and inappropriate instruments may facilitate the transmission of blood-derived pathogens. Prevention is feasible through regular application of a repellent based on coconut oil. Owing to its strong association with poverty, sand flea disease would be an excellent starting point for a community-based fight against rural poverty. PMID:22941398

  5. Severity of coronary artery disease and retinal microvascular signs in patients with diagnosed versus undiagnosed diabetes: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Mitchell, Paul; Liew, Gerald; Plant, Adam J.; Wang, Sarah B.; Xu, Joshua; Chiha, Joseph; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Burlutsky, George

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that a considerable proportion of patients with diabetes remain undiagnosed and untreated, however, it is unclear whether this is associated with more severe coronary artery disease (CAD) and microvasculature changes compared with diagnosed patients. We assessed CAD extent and severity, along with changes to the retinal microvascular structure in participants with undiagnosed versus diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Methods Participants of the Australian Heart Eye Study were stratified into participants with previously diagnosed diabetes (n=489), undiagnosed diabetes (n=76) and no diabetes (n=1,112). Retinal vessel caliber was measured from digital retinal images. Extent and severity of CAD was assessed using Extent and Gensini scores from angiography findings, respectively. Results Participants with undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes versus those with no diabetes (reference group) had increased odds of being in the highest quartile of Gensini scores, multivariate adjusted odds ratios (OR) =7.02 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.04–24.1] and OR =2.76 (95% CI, 1.67–4.55), respectively. Participants with undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes versus those with no diabetes also had increased odds of being in the highest quartile of Extent scores, multivariate adjusted OR =7.63 (95% CI, 2.15–27.10) and OR =3.72 (95% CI, 2.22–6.27), respectively. No significant differences were observed in retinal vessel caliber between participants with undiagnosed versus diagnosed diabetes. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that participants with undiagnosed diabetes compared to those with previously diagnosed diabetes, had a stronger likelihood of having more severe and extensive CAD. However, retinal microvascular signs did not differ by diabetes status. PMID:27499940

  6. Comparison between Two Decades of Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Diseases and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Urban Centre

    PubMed Central

    Alves de Oliveira Serra, Maria Aparecida; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Branco Coêlho, Zirlane Castelo; de Castro Rodrigues, Naya Lúcia; Martins Vale, Josias; Teixeira, Maria Jânia; de Oliveira, Francisco Josemar Alves; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Coelho, Ivo Castelo Branco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study's objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992–1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated. It was observed that, in the period 1992–1996, playing out in the streets was associated with a higher risk for acquiring intestinal parasites. Over the 2010-2011 period, the characteristics of more than five residents per household, houses with dirt floors, children who live in homes without piped water, and children who play out in the streets were associated with a higher risk of intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion. The study showed a reduction of intestinal parasitic diseases to 23.8% in 2010-2011 from 81.3% in 1992–1996 and improvement of the social-sanitary conditions of the population between the decades analyzed. PMID:26692338

  7. Comparison between Two Decades of Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Diseases and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Urban Centre.

    PubMed

    Alves de Oliveira Serra, Maria Aparecida; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Branco Coêlho, Zirlane Castelo; de Castro Rodrigues, Naya Lúcia; Martins Vale, Josias; Teixeira, Maria Jânia; de Oliveira, Francisco Josemar Alves; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Coelho, Ivo Castelo Branco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study's objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992-1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated. It was observed that, in the period 1992-1996, playing out in the streets was associated with a higher risk for acquiring intestinal parasites. Over the 2010-2011 period, the characteristics of more than five residents per household, houses with dirt floors, children who live in homes without piped water, and children who play out in the streets were associated with a higher risk of intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion. The study showed a reduction of intestinal parasitic diseases to 23.8% in 2010-2011 from 81.3% in 1992-1996 and improvement of the social-sanitary conditions of the population between the decades analyzed. PMID:26692338

  8. Guide to the identification of fish protozoan and metazoan parasites in stained tissue sections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    The identification of protozoan and metazoan parasites is traditionally carried out using a series of classical keys based upon the morphology of the whole organism. However, in stained tissue sections prepared for light microscopy, taxonomic features will be missing, thus making parasite identification difficult. This work highlights the characteristic features of representative parasites in tissue sections to aid identification. The parasite examples discussed are derived from species affecting finfish, and predominantly include parasites associated with disease or those commonly observed as incidental findings in disease diagnostic cases. Emphasis is on protozoan and small metazoan parasites (such as Myxosporidia) because these are the organisms most likely to be missed or mis-diagnosed during gross examination. Figures are presented in colour to assist biologists and veterinarians who are required to assess host/parasite interactions by light microscopy.

  9. Quantitative computed tomography measurements of emphysema for diagnosing asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mengshuang; Wang, Wei; Dou, Shuang; Cui, Liwei; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Quantitative CT measurements of emphysema may help in diagnosing ACOS. PMID:27226711

  10. Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

    2012-01-01

    Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163

  11. The Chagas disease domestic transmission cycle in Guatemala: Parasite-vector switches and lack of mitochondrial co-diversification between Triatoma dimidiata and Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations suggest non-vectorial parasite dispersal across the Motagua valley.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Pamela M; Messenger, Louisa Alexandra; Reina, Jeffrey; Juárez, José G; Lawrence, Gena G; Dotson, Ellen M; Llewellyn, Martin S; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2015-11-01

    Parasites transmitted by insects must adapt to their vectors and reservoirs. Chagas disease, an American zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted by several species of triatomines. In Central America, Triatoma dimidiata is a widely dispersed vector found in sylvatic and domestic habitats, with distinct populations across the endemic region of Guatemala. Our aim was to test the strength of association between vector and parasite genetic divergence in domestic environments. Microsatellite (MS) loci were used to characterize parasites isolated from T. dimidiata (n=112) collected in domestic environments. Moderate genetic differentiation was observed between parasites north and south of the Motagua Valley, an ancient biogeographic barrier (FST 0.138, p=0.009). Slightly reduced genotypic diversity and increased heterozygosity in the north (Allelic richness (Ar)=1.00-6.05, FIS -0.03) compared to the south (Ar=1.47-6.30, FIS 0.022) suggest either a selective or demographic process during parasite dispersal. Based on parasite genotypes and geographic distribution, 15 vector specimens and their parasite isolates were selected for mitochondrial co-diversification analysis. Genetic variability and phylogenetic congruence were determined with mitochondrial DNA sequences (10 parasite maxicircle gene fragments and triatomine ND4+CYT b). A Mantel test as well as phylogenetic, network and principal coordinates analyses supported at least three T. dimidiata haplogroups separated by geographic distance across the Motagua Valley. Maxicircle sequences showed low T. cruzi genetic variability (π nucleotide diversity 0.00098) with no evidence of co-diversification with the vector, having multiple host switches across the valley. Sylvatic Didelphis marsupialis captured across the Motagua Valley were found to be infected with T. cruzi strains sharing MS genotypes with parasites isolated from domiciliated triatomines. The current parasite distribution in domestic environments

  12. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Non-Communicable Diseases Prevalence in India: Disparities between Self-Reported Diagnoses and Standardized Measures

    PubMed Central

    Vellakkal, Sukumar; Subramanian, S. V.; Millett, Christopher; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are diseases of poverty or affluence in low-and-middle income countries has been vigorously debated. Most analyses of NCDs have used self-reported data, which is biased by differential access to healthcare services between groups of different socioeconomic status (SES). We sought to compare self-reported diagnoses versus standardised measures of NCD prevalence across SES groups in India. Methods We calculated age-adjusted prevalence rates of common NCDs from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. We compared self-reported diagnoses to standardized measures of disease for five NCDs. We calculated wealth-related and education-related disparities in NCD prevalence by calculating concentration index (C), which ranges from −1 to +1 (concentration of disease among lower and higher SES groups, respectively). Findings NCD prevalence was higher (range 5.2 to 19.1%) for standardised measures than self-reported diagnoses (range 3.1 to 9.4%). Several NCDs were particularly concentrated among higher SES groups according to self-reported diagnoses (Csrd) but were concentrated either among lower SES groups or showed no strong socioeconomic gradient using standardized measures (Csm): age-standardised wealth-related C: angina Csrd 0.02 vs. Csm −0.17; asthma and lung diseases Csrd −0.05 vs. Csm −0.04 (age-standardised education-related Csrd 0.04 vs. Csm −0.05); vision problems Csrd 0.07 vs. Csm −0.05; depression Csrd 0.07 vs. Csm −0.13. Indicating similar trends of standardized measures detecting more cases among low SES, concentration of hypertension declined among higher SES (Csrd 0.19 vs. Csm 0.03). Conclusions The socio-economic patterning of NCD prevalence differs markedly when assessed by standardized criteria versus self-reported diagnoses. NCDs in India are not necessarily diseases of affluence but also of poverty, indicating likely under-diagnosis and

  13. Ecomorphology and disease: cryptic effects of parasitism on host habitat use, thermoregulation, and predator avoidance.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Brett A; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2011-03-01

    Parasites can cause dramatic changes in the phenotypes of their hosts, sometimes leading to a higher probability of predation and parasite transmission. Because an organism's morphology directly affects its locomotion, even subtle changes in key morphological traits may affect survival and behavior. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in natural communities, few studies have incorporated parasites into ecomorphological research. Here, we evaluated the effects of parasite-induced changes in host phenotype on the habitat use, thermal biology, and simulated predator-escape ability of Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) in natural environments. Frogs with parasite-induced limb malformations were more likely to use ground microhabitats relative to vertical refugia and selected less-angled perches closer to the ground in comparison with normal frogs. Although both groups had similar levels of infection, malformed frogs used warmer microhabitats, which resulted in higher body temperatures. Likely as a result of their morphological abnormalities, malformed frogs allowed a simulated predator to approach closer before escaping and escaped shorter distances relative to normal frogs. These data indicate that parasite-induced morphological changes can significantly alter host behavior and habitat use, highlighting the importance of incorporating the ubiquitous, albeit cryptic, role of parasites into ecomorphological research. PMID:21608461

  14. Interleukin 2 receptor in patients with localized and systemic parasitic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Josimovic-Alasevic, O; Feldmeier, H; Zwingenberger, K; Harms, G; Hahn, H; Shrisuphanunt, M; Diamantstein, T

    1988-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify soluble interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) in the serum of patients with helminthic and protozoal infections. The results demonstrated that levels of IL-2R were normal in patients with helminthic infections limited to the intestinal tract (ascariasis, trichuriasis), but significantly elevated in patients with systemic or long-lasting infections (strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, opisthorchiasis). In patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni levels of IL-2R were higher in those with the hepatosplenic than in those with the intestinal form of the disease. Patients with malaria also showed increased serum levels of IL-2R, irrespective whether the infection was caused by Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax. No difference was observed between patients with acute or history of malaria. The highest levels of IL-2R were observed in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Interestingly, in these patients the concentration of IL-2R correlated to specific antibody titre. The results are discussed in the context of preferential activation of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and/or macrophages during the course of the different parasitic infections investigated. PMID:3136958

  15. Inferring host-parasite relationships using stable isotopes: implications for disease transmission and host specificity.

    PubMed

    Stapp, Paul; Salkeld, Daniel J

    2009-11-01

    Identifying the roles of different hosts and vectors is a major challenge in the study of the ecology of diseases caused by multi-host pathogens. Intensive field studies suggested that grasshopper mice (Onychomys leucogaster) help spread the bacterium that causes plague (Yersinia pestis) in prairie dog colonies by sharing fleas with prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus); yet conclusive evidence that prairie dog fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta) feed on grasshopper mice is lacking. Using stable nitrogen isotope analysis, we determined that many blood-engorged O. hirsuta collected from wild grasshopper mice apparently contained blood meals of prairie dogs. These results suggest that grasshopper mice may be infected with Y. pestis via mechanisms other than flea feeding, e.g., early phase or mechanical transmission or scavenging carcasses, and raise questions about the ability of grasshopper mice to maintain Y. pestis in prairie dog colonies during years between plague outbreaks. They also indicate that caution may be warranted when inferring feeding relationships based purely on the occurrence of fleas or other haematophagous ectoparasites on hosts. Stable-isotope analysis may complement or provide a useful alternative to immunological or molecular techniques for identifying hosts of cryptically feeding ectoparasites, and for clarifying feeding relationships in studies of host-parasite interactions. PMID:19967881

  16. Onchocerciasis: the Role of Wolbachia Bacterial Endosymbionts in Parasite Biology, Disease Pathogenesis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tamarozzi, Francesca; Halliday, Alice; Gentil, Katrin; Hoerauf, Achim; Pearlman, Eric; Taylor, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The discovery of Wolbachia intracellular bacteria within filarial nematodes, including Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis or “river blindness,” has delivered a paradigm shift in our understanding of the parasite's biology, to where we now know that the bacterial endosymbionts are essential for normal development of larvae and embryos and may support the long-term survival of adult worms. The apparent mutualistic dependency has also offered a novel approach to the treatment of onchocerciasis through the use of antibiotics to eliminate Wolbachia, delivering for the first time a treatment which has significant macrofilaricidal efficacy. Studies with other filarial nematode species have also highlighted a role for Wolbachia in transmission and infection of the mammalian host through a fascinating manipulation of mast cell-mediated vasodilation to enhance infectivity of vector-borne larvae. Wolbachia has also been identified as the principal driver of innate and adaptive Th1 inflammatory immunity, which can either contribute to disease pathogenesis or, with the Wolbachia-mediated recruitment of mast cells, enhance infectivity. The Wolbachia activation of innate inflammation also drives inflammatory adverse events in response to chemotherapy with either diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin. In this review we summarize the experimental and field trial data which have uncovered the importance of Wolbachia symbiosis in onchocerciasis. PMID:21734243

  17. Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Certain foodborne ...

  18. [A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population].

    PubMed

    2005-10-30

    In order to understand the current status and trends of the important parasitic diseases in human population, to evaluate the effect of control activities in the past decade and provide scientific base for further developing control strategies, a national survey was carried out in the country (Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau not included) from June, 2001 to 2004 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health. The sample sizes of the nationwide survey and of the survey in each province (autonomous region and municipality, P/A/M) were determined following a calculating formula based on an estimation of the sample size of random sampling to the rate of population. A procedure of stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in each province based on geographical location and economical condition with three strata: county/city, township/town, and spot, each spot covered a sample of 500 people. Parasitological examinations were conducted for the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes, Taenia spp, and Clonorchis sinensis, including Kato-Katz thick smear method, scotch cellulose adhesive tape technique and test tube-filter paper culture (for larvae). At the same time, another sampled investigation for Clonorchis sinensis infection was carried out in the known endemic areas in 27 provinces. Serological tests combined with questionnaire and/or clinical diagnosis were applied for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis. A total sampled population of 356 629 from the 31 P/A/M was examined by parasitological methods and 26 species of helminth were recorded. Among these helminth, human infections of Metorchis orientalis and Echinostoma aegypti were detected in Fujian Province which seemed to be the first report in the world, and Haplorchis taichui infection in Guangxi Region was the first human infection record in the country. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 21.74%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19

  19. Impact of apathy on health-related quality of life in recently diagnosed Parkinson's disease: the ANIMO study.

    PubMed

    Benito-León, Julián; Cubo, Esther; Coronell, Carlos

    2012-02-01

    The impact of apathy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in recently diagnosed Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been systematically investigated. The objective of this cross-sectional survey (ANIMO study) was to examine the contribution of apathy to HRQOL in a Spanish sample of recently diagnosed PD patients. PD patients, diagnosed within 2 years of inclusion, were recruited at 102 outpatient clinics in 82 communities throughout Spain. Apathy was quantified using the Lille Apathy Rating Scale and HRQOL with the EuroQol-5D questionnaire. A mean EuroQol-5D index score of 0.89 obtained from population references in Spain was used as the cutoff for this study. The relationship between apathy and the dichotomized EuroQol-5D index score (<0.89 [lower HRQOL] vs ≥0.89 [reference]) was examined using multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables. We consecutively recruited 557 patients (60.3% men) with a mean age of 68.8 ± 9.7 years. Apathy was diagnosed in 291 (52.2%) and was related to problems in each of the EuroQoL dimensions. Apathetic PD patients showed EuroQol-5D index scores significantly lower than those without apathy (0.64 vs 0.83). In an adjusted model, apathetic PD patients were 2.49 times more likely to have lower HRQOL than nonapathetic patients (odds ratio, 2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-4.15, P < 0.01). Apathy is very common in those with recently diagnosed PD and is one of the major clinical determinants of HRQOL in this disease. It should be one of the primary concerns among clinicians who provide treatment to individuals affected by PD. PMID:21780179

  20. Diseases and parasites of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Lake Huron basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLain, Alberton L.

    1952-01-01

    Sea lampreys from the Lake Huron basin carried no external parasites and showed a fairly low degree of infection by internal parasites. The material examined represented three life-history stages of the sea lamprey. Recently transformed downstream migrants (215 specimens) harbored only nematodes belonging to the genus Camallanus. The percentage of infection was 2.3. Active feeders from the lake (29 lampreys) revealed the highest degree of parasitism (31.0 percent) with the following parasites present: Echinorhynchus coregoni Linkins; Triaenophorus crassus Forel; and Camallanus sp. Among the 257 sexually mature upstream migrants (14.8 percent infected) Echinorhynchus coregoni and E. leidyi Van Cleave were the most common. Only occasional nematodes and cestodes were found, which fact indicates a failure of the lamprey to carry these parasites to the end of its natural life. Of the parasites observed, only the nematodes gave evidence of serious damage to the host. The study suggests that the role played by parasites in the natural control of the sea lamprey in its new habitat in the upper Great Lakes is of minor importance.

  1. Long-Term Disease Dynamics for a Specialized Parasite of Ant Societies: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Elliot, Simon L.; Freitas, Mayara L. R.; Pereira, Thairine M.; Hughes, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated how social insects behave when a parasite is introduced into their colonies. These studies have been conducted in the laboratory, and we still have a limited understanding of the dynamics of ant-parasite interactions under natural conditions. Here we consider a specialized parasite of ant societies (Ophiocordyceps camponoti-rufipedis infecting Camponotus rufipes) within a rainforest. We first established that the parasite is unable to develop to transmission stage when introduced within the host nest. Secondly, we surveyed all colonies in the studied area and recorded 100% prevalence at the colony level (all colonies were infected). Finally, we conducted a long-term detailed census of parasite pressure, by mapping the position of infected dead ants and foraging trails (future hosts) in the immediate vicinity of the colonies over 20 months. We report new dead infected ants for all the months we conducted the census – at an average of 14.5 cadavers/month/colony. Based on the low infection rate, the absence of colony collapse or complete recovery of the colonies, we suggest that this parasite represents a chronic infection in the ant societies. We also proposed a “terminal host model of transmission” that links the age-related polyethism to the persistence of a parasitic infection. PMID:25133749

  2. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer. PMID:6644934

  3. Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

  4. Amplicon-Based Pyrosequencing Reveals High Diversity of Protistan Parasites in Ships' Ballast Water: Implications for Biogeography and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pagenkopp Lohan, K M; Fleischer, R C; Carney, K J; Holzer, K K; Ruiz, G M

    2016-04-01

    Ships' ballast water (BW) commonly moves macroorganisms and microorganisms across the world's oceans and along coasts; however, the majority of these microbial transfers have gone undetected. We applied high-throughput sequencing methods to identify microbial eukaryotes, specifically emphasizing the protistan parasites, in ships' BW collected from vessels calling to the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia and Maryland, USA) from European and Eastern Canadian ports. We utilized tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with two general primer sets, amplifying either the V4 or V9 domain of the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene complex, from total DNA extracted from water samples collected from the ballast tanks of bulk cargo vessels. We detected a diverse group of protistan taxa, with some known to contain important parasites in marine systems, including Apicomplexa (unidentified apicomplexans, unidentified gregarines, Cryptosporidium spp.), Dinophyta (Blastodinium spp., Euduboscquella sp., unidentified syndinids, Karlodinium spp., Syndinium spp.), Perkinsea (Parvilucifera sp.), Opisthokonta (Ichthyosporea sp., Pseudoperkinsidae, unidentified ichthyosporeans), and Stramenopiles (Labyrinthulomycetes). Further characterization of groups with parasitic taxa, consisting of phylogenetic analyses for four taxa (Cryptosporidium spp., Parvilucifera spp., Labyrinthulomycetes, and Ichthyosporea), revealed that sequences were obtained from both known and novel lineages. This study demonstrates that high-throughput sequencing is a viable and sensitive method for detecting parasitic protists when present and transported in the ballast water of ships. These data also underscore the potential importance of human-aided dispersal in the biogeography of these microbes and emerging diseases in the world's oceans. PMID:26476551

  5. Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Infectious Disease Hospital Kano, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, Ebenezer Feyisayo; Oyeyi, Esther Tinuade Ibijoke; Bichi, ArmaYau Hamisu; Mbah, Henry Akwen; Torpey, Kwasi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of morbidity in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites and its association with immunological status and risk factors among HIV infected patients in Kano, Nigeria. Methods 105 HIV+ subjects and 50 HIV- controls were recruited into the studies from June to December 2010. Clinical information was collected using a questionnaire. Single stool and venous blood samples were collected from each subject. Stool examination and CD4+ count were performed. Results Prevalence of intestinal parasites was 11.4% and 6% among the HIV+ and control subjects respectively with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.389). Specifically, the following intestinal parasites were isolated from HIV+ subjects: Entamoebahistolytica (5.7%), hookworm (3.8%), Entamoeba coli (1%), Blastocystishominis (1%). Only Entamoebahistolytica was isolated among the control subjects. The mean CD4+ count of HIV+ and control subjects was 287 cells/ul and 691 cells/µlrespectively while the median was 279(Q1-120, Q3-384) cell/µl and 691(Q1-466, Q3-852) cell/µlrespectively with statistically significant difference (P= 0.021). Diarrhea and the absence of anti-parasitic therapy seem to be important risk factors associated with the occurrence of intestinal parasites among HIV+ subjects. A higher prevalence (14.5%) of intestinal parasites was observed in subject with CD4+ count 350cell/µl. Conclusion Routine examination for intestinal parasites should be carried out for better management of HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:25328591

  7. Baseline and longitudinal grey matter changes in newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease: ICICLE-PD study

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B.; Firbank, Michael J.; Lawson, Rachael A.; Yarnall, Alison J.; Duncan, Gordon W.; Owen, Adrian M.; Khoo, Tien K.; Brooks, David J.; Rowe, James B.; Barker, Roger A.; Burn, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease is associated with progression to dementia (Parkinson’s disease dementia) in a majority of patients. Determining structural imaging biomarkers associated with prodromal Parkinson’s disease dementia may allow for the earlier identification of those at risk, and allow for targeted disease modifying therapies. One hundred and five non-demented subjects with newly diagnosed idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and 37 healthy matched controls had serial 3 T structural magnetic resonance imaging scans with clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, which were repeated after 18 months. The Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria were used to classify the Parkinson’s disease subjects into Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment (n = 39) and Parkinson’s disease with no cognitive impairment (n = 66). Freesurfer image processing software was used to measure cortical thickness and subcortical volumes at baseline and follow-up. We compared regional percentage change of cortical thinning and subcortical atrophy over 18 months. At baseline, cases with Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated widespread cortical thinning relative to controls and atrophy of the nucleus accumbens compared to both controls and subjects with Parkinson’s disease with no cognitive impairment. Regional cortical thickness at baseline was correlated with global cognition in the combined Parkinson’s disease cohort. Over 18 months, patients with Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated more severe cortical thinning in frontal and temporo-parietal cortices, including hippocampal atrophy, relative to those with Parkinson’s disease and no cognitive impairment and healthy controls, whereas subjects with Parkinson’s disease and no cognitive impairment showed more severe frontal cortical thinning compared to healthy controls. At baseline, Parkinson’s disease with no

  8. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer. PMID:27407276

  9. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer. PMID:27407276

  10. Children followed in the TEDDY study are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at an early stage of disease

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Helena Elding; Vehik, Kendra; Gesualdo, Patricia; Akolkar, Beena; Hagopian, William; Krischer, Jeffery; Lernmark, Åke; Rewers, Marian; Simell, Olli; She, Jin-Xiong; Ziegler, Anette; Haller, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study is designed to identify environmental exposures triggering islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes (T1D) in genetically high-risk children. We describe the first 100 participants diagnosed with T1D, hypothesizing that 1) they are diagnosed at an early stage of disease, 2) a high proportion are diagnosed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 3) risk for early T1D is related to country, population, HLA-genotypes and immunological markers. Methods Autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2) and insulin (IAA) were analysed from 3 months of age in children with genetic risk. Symptoms and laboratory values at diagnosis were obtained and reviewed for ADA criteria. Results The first 100 children to develop T1D, 33 first-degree relatives (FDRs), with a median age 2.3 years (0.69–6.27), were diagnosed between 9/2005 and 11/2011. Although young, 36% had no symptoms and ketoacidosis was rare (8%). An OGTT diagnosed 9/30 (30%) children above 3 years of age but only 4/70 (5.7%) below the age of 3 years. FDRs had higher cumulative incidence than children from the general population (p<0.0001). Appearance of all three autoantibodies at seroconversion was associated with the most rapid development of T1D (HR=4.52, p<0.014), followed by the combination of GADA and IAA (HR=2.82, p=0.0001). Conclusions Close follow-up of children with genetic risk enables early detection of T1D. Risk factors for rapid development of diabetes in this young population were FDR status and initial positivity for GADA, IA-2, and IAA or a combination of GADA and IAA. PMID:24034790