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Sample records for parasitic nematode heterodera

  1. The isolation and functional analysis of parasitism genes of the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homologs of parasitism genes that encode peptides secreted from the stylet of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines are being investigated in H. schachtii to use the tractable plant model, Arabidopsis thaliana, for studies of parasitism gene function. Full-length cDNA clones encoding produ...

  2. Effects of catechin polyphenols and preparations from the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines on protease activity and behavior in three nematode species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protease activities in preparations from the plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita and the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus were inhibited by exposure to a series of 8 catechin polyphenol analogs, (+)-catechin, (-)- epicatechin (EC), (-)-gallocatechin (GC)...

  3. In vitro proteolysis of nematode FLPs by preparations from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus and two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteolytic activities in extracts from three nematodes, the plant parasites Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, and the free-living Panagrellus redivivus, were surveyed for substrate preferences using a battery of seven FRET-modified peptide substrates, all derived from members of the la...

  4. First Report of Korean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera koreana, Parasitic on Bamboo, Phyllostachys nigra, from Iran.

    PubMed

    Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Taheri, Zahra Majd

    2015-09-01

    Bamboo is grown sporadically in the north of Iran and is confined to very limited areas. The history of growing bamboo was to some extent simultaneous with the entrance, commencement, and growth of the tea industry in the north about a century ago. The bamboo was used for making baskets to transfer the harvested tea foliage from farm to the factory and other linked functions. A main area allocated for bamboo growing is located in Lahidjan Agricultural Research Station (LARS) in the north of Iran, where several species of bamboo were cultivated in an area of 5 ha. The species include five species of Phyllostachys (viz., P. aurea, P. bambusoides, P. decora, P. nigra, P. vivax) and one species of Arundinaria gigantean, Pleioblastus fortune, and Semiarundinaria fastuosa; however, only P. aurea and P. nigra have been precisely identified. A survey on plant parasitic nematodes associated with bamboo mainly on P. nigra in LARS revealed second-stage juveniles of cyst forming nematode in soil samples. Further analysis of root and soil samples led to recovery of a cyst nematode belonging to the genus Heterodera and the Afenestrata group. Cysts, vulval cone, and second-stage juveniles were studied for morphological and morphometric features. The classical identification was followed by amplification of the ribosomal RNA-ITS region and the D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S large-subunit rRNA gene; the amplified fragments were sequenced, edited, and compared with those of the corresponding published gene sequences. New D2-D3 and rRNA-ITS gene sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under the accession numbers KR818910 and KR818911, respectively. Based on the morphological and molecular data, the species of the cyst-forming nematode was identified as H. koreana (Vovlas et al., 1992; Mundo-Ocampo et al., 2008). The body contour of cysts was mainly subspherical, vey often with irregular shape (Fig. 1A), yellowish to light brown, thin cuticle with fine zigzag pattern

  5. Similarity and functional analyses of expressed parasitism genes in Heterodera schachtii and Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The secreted proteins encoded by “parasitism genes” expressed within the esophageal glands cells of cyst nematodes play important roles in plant parasitism. Homologous transcripts and encoded proteins of the Heterodera glycines pioneer parasitism genes Hgsyv46, Hg4e02 and Hg5d08 were identified and ...

  6. Bacterial rRNA Genes Associated with Soil Suppressiveness against the Plant-Parasitic Nematode Heterodera schachtii

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Bei; Valinsky, Lea; Gao, Xuebiao; Becker, J. Ole; Borneman, James

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify bacteria involved in soil suppressiveness against the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. Since H. schachtii cysts isolated from the suppressive soil can transfer this beneficial property to nonsuppressive soils, analysis of the cyst-associated microorganisms should lead to the identification of the causal organisms. Our experimental approach was to identify bacterial rRNA genes (rDNA) associated with H. schachtii cysts obtained from soil mixtures with various levels of suppressiveness. We hypothesized that we would be able to identify bacteria involved in the suppressiveness by correlating population shifts with differing levels of suppressiveness. Soil treatments containing different amounts of suppressive and fumigation-induced nonsuppressive soils exhibited various levels of suppressiveness after two nematode generations. The 10%-suppressive-soil treatment contained numbers of eggs per gram of soil similar to those of the 100%-suppressive-soil treatment, indicating that the suppressive factor(s) had been transferred. Bacterial rDNA associated with H. schachtii cysts were identified using a culture-independent method termed oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes. Bacteria from five major taxonomic groups (Actinobacteria, Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides, α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and γ-Proteobacteria) were identified. Three bacterial rDNA groups contained clones that were more prevalent in the highly suppressive soil treatments than in the less suppressive treatments, indicating a potential involvement in the H. schachtii suppressiveness. When these three groups were examined with specific PCR analyses performed on H. schachtii cysts that developed in soils treated with three biocidal compounds, only one bacterial rDNA group with moderate to high sequence identity to rDNA from several Rhizobium species and uncultured α-proteobacterial clones was consistently associated with the highly

  7. Regulation of Population Densities of Heterodera cajani and Other Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Crop Rotations on Vertisols, in Semi-Arid Tropical Production Systems in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S B; Rego, T J; Mohiuddin, M; Rao, V N

    1996-06-01

    The significance of double crop (intercrop and sequential crop), single crop (rainy season crop fallow from June to September), and rotations on densities of Heterodera cajani, Helicotylenchus retusus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis was studied on Vertisol (Typic Pellusterts) between 1987 and 1993. Cowpea (Vigna sinensis), mungbean (Phaseolus aureus), and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) greatly increased the population densities of H. cajani and suppressed the population densities of other plant-parasitic nematodes. Mean population densities of H. cajani were about 8 times lower in single crop systems than in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop. Plots planted to sorghum, safflower, and chickpea in the preceding year contained fewer H. cajani eggs and juveniles than did plots previously planted to pigeonpea, cowpea, or mungbean. Continuous cropping of sorghum in the rainy season and safflower in the post-rainy season markedly reduced the population density of H. cajani. Sorghum, safflower, and chickpea favored increased population densities of H. retusus. Adding cowpea to the system resulted in a significant increase in the densities of R. reniformis. Mean densities of total plant-parasitic nematodes were three times greater in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop than in single crop systems with rainy season fallow component. Cropping systems had a regulatory effect on the nematode populations and could be an effective nematode management tactic. Intercropping of sorghum with H. cajani tolerant pigeonpea could be effective in increasing the productivity of traditional production systems in H. cajani infested regions. PMID:19277141

  8. Regulation of Population Densities of Heterodera cajani and Other Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Crop Rotations on Vertisols, in Semi-Arid Tropical Production Systems in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S. B.; Rego, T. J.; Mohiuddin, M.; Rao, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    The significance of double crop (intercrop and sequential crop), single crop (rainy season crop fallow from June to September), and rotations on densities of Heterodera cajani, Helicotylenchus retusus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis was studied on Vertisol (Typic Pellusterts) between 1987 and 1993. Cowpea (Vigna sinensis), mungbean (Phaseolus aureus), and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) greatly increased the population densities of H. cajani and suppressed the population densities of other plant-parasitic nematodes. Mean population densities of H. cajani were about 8 times lower in single crop systems than in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop. Plots planted to sorghum, safflower, and chickpea in the preceding year contained fewer H. cajani eggs and juveniles than did plots previously planted to pigeonpea, cowpea, or mungbean. Continuous cropping of sorghum in the rainy season and safflower in the post-rainy season markedly reduced the population density of H. cajani. Sorghum, safflower, and chickpea favored increased population densities of H. retusus. Adding cowpea to the system resulted in a significant increase in the densities of R. reniformis. Mean densities of total plant-parasitic nematodes were three times greater in double crop systems, with pigeonpea as a component intercrop than in single crop systems with rainy season fallow component. Cropping systems had a regulatory effect on the nematode populations and could be an effective nematode management tactic. Intercropping of sorghum with H. cajani tolerant pigeonpea could be effective in increasing the productivity of traditional production systems in H. cajani infested regions. PMID:19277141

  9. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Minghui; Long, Hai; Zhao, Yun; Li, Lin; Xu, Delin; Zhang, Haili; Liu, Feng; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Yu, Maoqun

    2015-01-01

    One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae). These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection) juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi targets with

  10. RNA-Seq Based Identification of Candidate Parasitism Genes of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) during Incompatible Infection to Aegilops variabilis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Minghui; Long, Hai; Zhao, Yun; Li, Lin; Xu, Delin; Zhang, Haili; Liu, Feng; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Yu, Maoqun

    2015-01-01

    One of the reasons for the progressive yield decline observed in cereals production is the rapid build-up of populations of the cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae). These nematodes secrete so-call effectors into their host plant to suppress the plant defense responses, alter plant signaling pathways and then induce the formation of syncytium after infection. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism and parasitism during incompatible infection. To gain insight into its repertoire of parasitism genes, we investigated the transcriptome of the early parasitic second-stage (30 hours, 3 days and 9 days post infection) juveniles of the CCN as well as the CCN infected tissue of the host Aegilops variabilis by Illumina sequencing. Among all assembled unigenes, 681 putative genes of parasitic nematode were found, in which 56 putative effectors were identified, including novel pioneer genes and genes corresponding to previously reported effectors. All the 681 CCN unigenes were mapped to 229 GO terms and 200 KEGG pathways, including growth, development and several stimulus-related signaling pathways. Sixteen clusters were involved in the CCN unigene expression atlas at the early stages during infection process, and three of which were significantly gene-enriched. Besides, the protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed 35 node unigenes which may play an important role in the plant-CCN interaction. Moreover, in a comparison of differentially expressed genes between the pre-parasitic juveniles and the early parasitic juveniles, we found that hydrolase activity was up-regulated in pre J2s whereas binding activity was upregulated in infective J2s. RT-qPCR analysis on some selected genes showed detectable expression, indicating possible secretion of the proteins and putative role in infection. This study provided better insights into the incompatible interaction between H. avenae and the host plant Ae. varabilis. Moreover, RNAi targets with

  11. Plant resistance against the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii is mediated by MPK3 and MPK6 kinases, which are controlled by the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sidonskaya, Ekaterina; Schweighofer, Alois; Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Kammerhofer, Nina; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Meskiene, Irute

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes infect plants and form highly sophisticated feeding sites in roots. It is not known which plant cell signalling mechanisms trigger plant defence during the early stages of nematode parasitism. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are central components of protein phosphorylation cascades transducing extracellular signals to plant defence responses. MAPK phosphatases control kinase activities and the signalling outcome. The involvement and the role of MPK3 and MPK6, as well as the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1, is demonstrated during parasitism of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis. Our data reveal notable activation patterns of plant MAPKs and the induction of AP2C1 suggesting the attenuation of defence signalling in plant cells during early nematode infection. It is demonstrated that the ap2c1 mutant that is lacking AP2C1 is more attractive but less susceptible to nematodes compared with the AP2C1-overexpressing line. This implies that the function of AP2C1 is a negative regulator of nematode-induced defence. By contrast, the enhanced susceptibility of mpk3 and mpk6 plants indicates a positive role of stress-activated MAPKs in plant immunity against nematodes. Evidence is provided that phosphatase AP2C1, as well as AP2C1-targeted MPK3 and MPK6, are important regulators of plant–nematode interaction, where the co-ordinated action of these signalling components ensures the timely activation of plant defence. PMID:26438412

  12. Plant resistance against the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii is mediated by MPK3 and MPK6 kinases, which are controlled by the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sidonskaya, Ekaterina; Schweighofer, Alois; Shubchynskyy, Volodymyr; Kammerhofer, Nina; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Meskiene, Irute

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes infect plants and form highly sophisticated feeding sites in roots. It is not known which plant cell signalling mechanisms trigger plant defence during the early stages of nematode parasitism. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are central components of protein phosphorylation cascades transducing extracellular signals to plant defence responses. MAPK phosphatases control kinase activities and the signalling outcome. The involvement and the role of MPK3 and MPK6, as well as the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1, is demonstrated during parasitism of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis. Our data reveal notable activation patterns of plant MAPKs and the induction of AP2C1 suggesting the attenuation of defence signalling in plant cells during early nematode infection. It is demonstrated that the ap2c1 mutant that is lacking AP2C1 is more attractive but less susceptible to nematodes compared with the AP2C1-overexpressing line. This implies that the function of AP2C1 is a negative regulator of nematode-induced defence. By contrast, the enhanced susceptibility of mpk3 and mpk6 plants indicates a positive role of stress-activated MAPKs in plant immunity against nematodes. Evidence is provided that phosphatase AP2C1, as well as AP2C1-targeted MPK3 and MPK6, are important regulators of plant-nematode interaction, where the co-ordinated action of these signalling components ensures the timely activation of plant defence. PMID:26438412

  13. Syncytium gene expression in Glycine max [PI88788} roots undergoing a resistant reaction of the parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate Heterodera glycines feeding sites (syncytia) from the (G. max) genotype PI 88788. Syncytia at various stages of the resistant response were isolated from roots 3, 6 and 9 days post infection (dpi). At 3 dpi, the analyses revealed highly induced...

  14. Analysis and Characterization of Vitamin B Biosynthesis Pathways in the Phytoparasitic Nematode Heterodera Glycines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), "Heterodera glycines" is an obligate plant parasite that can cause devastating crop losses. To aide in the study of this pathogen, the SCN genome and the transcriptome of second stage juveniles and eggs were shotgun sequenced. A bioinformatic screen of the data revealed nine genes involved in the "de novo"…

  15. A SURVEY OF CYST NEMATODES (HETERODERA SPP.) IN NORTHERN EGYPT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria and El-Behera Governorates in northern Egypt to identify the species of cy...

  16. Analysis of a Horizontally Transferred Pathway Involved in Vitamin B6 Biosynthesis from the Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera glycines is an obligate plant parasite capable of biochemically and developmentally altering its host's cells in order to create a specialized feeding cell. Although the exact mechanism of feeding cell morphogenesis remains a mystery, the nematode's ability to manipulate the plant is thou...

  17. Oogenesis and Reproduction of the Birch Cyst Nematode, Heterodera betulae

    PubMed Central

    Triantaphyllou, A. C.

    1970-01-01

    Cytological study revealed that maturation of oocytes of Heterodera betulae is by regular meiosis and reproduction is by parthenogenesis. Restoration of the somatic chromosome number occurs after telophase II and before egg pronucleus formation, in the absence of a mitotic apparatus through a type of endomitotic division. The haploid chromosome number is 12 (2n = 24) in 95% of the female nematodes studied and 13 in the remaining 5%. The phylogenetic relationship of H. betulae with most other Heterodera species having n = 9 is not clear. PMID:19322330

  18. Enhanced resistance to soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines in transgenic soybean by silencing putative CLE receptors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoli; Chronis, Demosthenis; De La Torre, Carola M; Smeda, John; Wang, Xiaohong; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2015-08-01

    CLE peptides are small extracellular proteins important in regulating plant meristematic activity through the CLE-receptor kinase-WOX signalling module. Stem cell pools in the SAM (shoot apical meristem), RAM (root apical meristem) and vascular cambium are controlled by CLE signalling pathways. Interestingly, plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLE-like effector proteins, which act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful parasitism. Recently, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis CLE receptors CLAVATA1 (CLV1), the CLAVATA2 (CLV2)/CORYNE (CRN) heterodimer receptor complex and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2), which transmit the CLV3 signal in the SAM, are required for perception of beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii CLEs. Reduction in nematode infection was observed in clv1, clv2, crn, rpk2 and combined double and triple mutants. In an effort to develop nematode resistance in an agriculturally important crop, orthologues of Arabidopsis receptors including CLV1, CLV2, CRN and RPK2 were identified from soybean, a host for the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. For each of the receptors, there are at least two paralogues in the soybean genome. Localization studies showed that most receptors are expressed in the root, but vary in their level of expression and spatial expression patterns. Expression in nematode-induced feeding cells was also confirmed. In vitro direct binding of the soybean receptors with the HgCLE peptide was analysed. Knock-down of the receptors in soybean hairy roots showed enhanced resistance to SCN. Our findings suggest that targeted disruption of nematode CLE signalling may be a potential means to engineer nematode resistance in crop plants. PMID:25581705

  19. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Banakar, Prakash; Shukla, Rohit N; Jones, Michael G K; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction. PMID:24802510

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of the Cereal Cyst Nematode, Heterodera avenae

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mukesh; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Banakar, Prakash; Shukla, Rohit N.; Jones, Michael G. K.; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction. PMID:24802510

  1. Characterization of three novel fatty acid- and retinoid-binding protein genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the cereal cyst nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinoid-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-spe...

  2. The mitochondrial genome of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Tracey; Farrugia, Daniel; Barrett, Jeff; Chitwood, David J; Rowe, Janet; Subbotin, Sergei; Dowton, Mark

    2011-07-01

    We sequenced the entire coding region of the mitochondrial genome of Heterodera glycines. The sequence obtained comprised 14.9 kb, with PCR evidence indicating that the entire genome comprised a single, circular molecule of approximately 21-22 kb. The genome is the most T-rich nematode mitochondrial genome reported to date, with T representing over half of all nucleotides on the coding strand. The genome also contains the highest number of poly(T) tracts so far reported (to our knowledge), with 60 poly(T) tracts ≥ 12 Ts. All genes are transcribed from the same mitochondrial strand. The organization of the mitochondrial genome of H. glycines shows a number of similarities compared with Radopholus similis, but fewer similarities when compared with Meloidogyne javanica. Very few gene boundaries are shared with Globodera pallida or Globodera rostochiensis. Partial mitochondrial genome sequences were also obtained for Heterodera cardiolata (5.3 kb) and Punctodera chalcoensis (6.8 kb), and these had identical organizations compared with H. glycines. We found PCR evidence of a minicircular mitochondrial genome in P. chalcoensis, but at low levels and lacking a noncoding region. Such circularised genome fragments may be present at low levels in a range of nematodes, with multipartite mitochondrial genomes representing a shift to a condition in which these subgenomic circles predominate. PMID:21745140

  3. Molecular and morphological characterization of the corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, from Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn cyst nematode Heterodera zeae was first detected in India, where it has wide distribution. This nematode has also been reported from Pakistan, Egypt, Thailand, Nepal, the United States, and Portugal. There is limited information regarding nematodes attacking cereals in Greece, and thus far ...

  4. A gene expression analysis of syncytia isolated from the roots of the Glycine max (soybean) genotype PI 548402 (Peking) undergoing a resistant reaction after infection by Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The syncytium, a feeding cell formed by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines, is either maintained by the interaction between the nematode and the plant cell during the course of its life cycle or experiences degradation as a consequence of a disturbance between that interaction. The loc...

  5. An ANNEXIN-like protein from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae suppresses plant defense.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changlong; Liu, Shusen; Liu, Qian; Niu, Junhai; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Jianlong; Jian, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Parasitism genes encoding secreted effector proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes play important roles in facilitating parasitism. An annexin-like gene was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae (termed Ha-annexin) and had high similarity to annexin 2, which encodes a secreted protein of Globodera pallida. Ha-annexin encodes a predicted 326 amino acid protein containing four conserved annexin domains. Southern blotting revealed that there are at least two homologies in the H. avenae genome. Ha-annexin transcripts were expressed within the subventral gland cells of the pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles by in situ hybridization. Additionally, expression of these transcripts were relatively higher in the parasitic second-stage juveniles by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, coinciding with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. Knockdown of Ha-annexin by method of barley stripe mosaic virus-based host-induced gene silencing (BSMV-HIGS) caused impaired nematode infections at 7 dpi and reduced females at 40 dpi, indicating important roles of the gene in parasitism at least in early stage in vivo. Transiently expression of Ha-ANNEXIN in onion epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells showed the whole cell-localization. Using transient expression assays in N. benthamiana, we found that Ha-ANNEXIN could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic mouse protein BAX and the induction of marker genes of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in N. benthamiana. In addition, Ha-ANNEXIN targeted a point in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway downstream of two kinases MKK1 and NPK1 in N. benthamiana. PMID:25849616

  6. An ANNEXIN-Like Protein from the Cereal Cyst Nematode Heterodera avenae Suppresses Plant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changlong; Liu, Shusen; Liu, Qian; Niu, Junhai; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Jianlong; Jian, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Parasitism genes encoding secreted effector proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes play important roles in facilitating parasitism. An annexin-like gene was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae (termed Ha-annexin) and had high similarity to annexin 2, which encodes a secreted protein of Globodera pallida. Ha-annexin encodes a predicted 326 amino acid protein containing four conserved annexin domains. Southern blotting revealed that there are at least two homologies in the H. avenae genome. Ha-annexin transcripts were expressed within the subventral gland cells of the pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles by in situ hybridization. Additionally, expression of these transcripts were relatively higher in the parasitic second-stage juveniles by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, coinciding with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. Knockdown of Ha-annexin by method of barley stripe mosaic virus-based host-induced gene silencing (BSMV-HIGS) caused impaired nematode infections at 7 dpi and reduced females at 40 dpi, indicating important roles of the gene in parasitism at least in early stage in vivo. Transiently expression of Ha-ANNEXIN in onion epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells showed the whole cell-localization. Using transient expression assays in N. benthamiana, we found that Ha-ANNEXIN could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic mouse protein BAX and the induction of marker genes of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in N. benthamiana. In addition, Ha-ANNEXIN targeted a point in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway downstream of two kinases MKK1 and NPK1 in N. benthamiana. PMID:25849616

  7. Assessment of Parasitic Activity of Fusarium Strains Obtained from a Heterodera schachtii-Suppressive Soil

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuebiao; Yin, Bei; Borneman, James; Becker, J. Ole

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the potential impact of various Fusarium strains on the population development of sugarbeet cyst nematodes. Fungi were isolated from cysts or eggs of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt that were obtained from a field suppressive to that nematode. Twenty-six strains of Fusarium spp. were subjected to a phylogenic analysis of their rRNA-ITS nucleotide sequences. Seven genetically distinct Fusarium strains were evaluated for their ability to influence population development of H. schachtii and crop performance in greenhouse trials. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) seedlings were transplanted into fumigated field soil amended with a single fungal strain at 1,000 propagules/g soil. One week later, the soil was infested with 250 H. schachtii J2/100 cm3 soil. Parasitized eggs were present in all seven Fusarium treatments at 1,180 degree-days after fungal infestation. The percentage of parasitism ranged from 17 to 34%. Although the most efficacious F. oxysporum strain 471 produced as many parasitized eggs as occurred in the original suppressive soil, none of the Fusarium strains reduced the population density of H. schachtii compared to the conducive check. This supports prior results that Fusarium spp. were not the primary cause of the population suppression of sugarbeet cyst nematodes at this location. PMID:19259511

  8. Role of stress-related hormones in plant defence during early infection of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Radakovic, Zoran; Regis, Jully M A; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Heterodera schachtii, a plant-parasitic cyst nematode, invades host roots and induces a specific syncytial feeding structure, from which it withdraws all required nutrients, causing severe yield losses. The system H. schachtii–Arabidopsis is an excellent research model for investigating plant defence mechanisms. Such responses are suppressed in well-established syncytia, whereas they are induced during early parasitism. However, the mechanisms by which the defence responses are modulated and the role of phytohormones are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of hormone-based defence responses at the onset of nematode infection. First, concentrations of main phytohormones were quantified and the expression of several hormone-related genes was analysed using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR or GeneChip. Further, the effects of individual hormones were evaluated via nematode attraction and infection assays using plants with altered endogenous hormone concentrations. Our results suggest a pivotal and positive role for ethylene during nematode attraction, whereas jasmonic acid triggers early defence responses against H. schachtii. Salicylic acid seems to be a negative regulator during later syncytium and female development. We conclude that nematodes are able to impose specific changes in hormone pools, thus modulating hormone-based defence and signal transduction in strict dependence on their parasitism stage. PMID:25825039

  9. Differential behavioral responses of two plant-parasitic nematodes to biogenic amines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hatching and infective juvenile (J2) behavior in two species of plant-parasitic nematodes, Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, were affected by in vitro treatment with the biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin. While the overall responses of each species to amine exposures w...

  10. Life cycle and control of the cyst nematode Heterodera goldeni on rice in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life cycle and methods for control of the cyst nematode Heterodera goldeni on rice (Oryza sativa) were examined in the greenhouse. Three tests were conducted to study the effects of soil treatments with some plant materials, stems of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus), the biocontrol agent Ba...

  11. Functional analysis of nematode secreted CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-like peptides of the genus Heterodera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyst nematodes of the genus Heterodera are obligate, sedentary endoparasites that have developed highly evolved relationships with specific host plant species. We have identified two H. glycines CLAVATA3/ESR(CLE)-like genes, HgCLEA and HgCLEB, that encode secreted peptides with similarity to plant ...

  12. First report of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi on winter wheat in Montana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the cereal cyst nematode complex, three species-Heterodera avenae, H. filipjevi and H. latipons-are the most destructive for wheat. Although H. avenae occurs in several U.S. states, H. filipjevi was discovered in the United States in Oregon in 2008 and has since been reported only in Washingto...

  13. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ARGININE KINASES IN THE SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE (HETERODERA GLYCINES).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a phosphagen kinase that plays a key role in energy mobilization in invertebrates. Alignment of ESTs in the public database for soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) produced two separate contiguous sequences (contigs) and three singletons encoding peptides with h...

  14. Top 10 plant-parasitic nematodes in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, John T; Haegeman, Annelies; Danchin, Etienne G J; Gaur, Hari S; Helder, Johannes; Jones, Michael G K; Kikuchi, Taisei; Manzanilla-López, Rosa; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Wesemael, Wim M L; Perry, Roland N

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review was to undertake a survey of researchers working with plant-parasitic nematodes in order to determine a 'top 10' list of these pathogens based on scientific and economic importance. Any such list will not be definitive as economic importance will vary depending on the region of the world in which a researcher is based. However, care was taken to include researchers from as many parts of the world as possible when carrying out the survey. The top 10 list emerging from the survey is composed of: (1) root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.); (2) cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.); (3) root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.); (4) the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis; (5) Ditylenchus dipsaci; (6) the pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus; (7) the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis; (8) Xiphinema index (the only virus vector nematode to make the list); (9) Nacobbus aberrans; and (10) Aphelenchoides besseyi. The biology of each nematode (or nematode group) is reviewed briefly. PMID:23809086

  15. Functional response of the fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis to the nematode, Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chi; Lai, YiLing; Yang, EnCe; Chen, SenYu; Xiang, MeiChun; Liu, XingZhong

    2015-07-01

    Functional response is a key index in determining the population fluctuation in predation. However, the lack of operable research system limits the studies on functional response of fungal predators. Hirsutella rhossiliensis is a dominant parasite of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. In a soil microcosm bioassay, we determined fungal biomass at different days within 21 days after inoculation, and parasitism rate of H. glycines by the fungus was determined. The functional response of H. rhossiliensis to H. glycines was established and found to be Holling's type III, which was influenced by mycelial densities. Meanwhile, we conducted anti-fungal analysis of metabolic fractions extracted from H. rhossiliensis to explain the potential mechanism of the intraspecific competition illustrated by functional response. The result of anti-fungal experiments indicated that the fungal predators had more complicated interaction at population level than expected, which might be regulated by self-inhibition metabolite(s). This study was the first functional response study of fungal predators in microcosm. With the increasing recognition of emerging fungal threats to animal, plant, and ecosystem health, the methodologies and hypotheses proposed in this study might inspire further research in fungal ecology. PMID:26032589

  16. Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Maine Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, W N.; Francl, L. J.; Henn, A.; Bourgoin, T.

    1990-01-01

    In a survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with agricultural crops in nine Maine counties, 744 soil samples from 26 potential host plants were analyzed between November 1987 and January 1989. The most commonly encountered nematode genus was Pratylenchus, occurring in 85% of the samples from most crops, except blueberries and onions. Pratylenchus penetrans and P. crenatus were found commonly as species mixtures, with P. penetrans composing 40-80% of the mixture. Meloidogyne hapla was encountered in 16% of the samples in four counties, generally in potato rotations. Other nematodes encountered were Aphelenchoides spp., Criconemella curvature, Ditylenchus spp., Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, H. digonicus, Heterodera trifolii, Paratylenchus projectus, Trichodorus spp., Tylenchorhynchus maximus, and Xiphinema americanum. Potato fields were the most heavily sampled and thus weighted the statewide results. PMID:19287791

  17. The Geological Record of Parasitic Nematode Evolution.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the evolutionary history of nematode parasites of invertebrates, vertebrates and plants based on fossil remains in amber, stone and coprolites dating from the Palaeozoic to the Holocene. The earliest parasitic nematode is a primitive plant parasite from the Devonian. Fossil invertebrate-parasitic nematodes first appeared in the Early Cretaceous, while the earliest fossil vertebrate-parasitic nematodes are from Upper Triassic coprolites. Specific examples of fossil nematode parasites over time are presented, along with views on the origin and evolution of nematodes and their hosts. PMID:26597065

  18. Interactions of microfungi and plant parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant parasitic nematodes and microfungi inhabit many of the same ecological habitats and interact in almost every conceivable way. Nematodes can feed on fungi, and conversely fungi can use nematodes as a food source. Fungi have been widely studied as biological controls of plant parasitic nematod...

  19. Sequence mining and transcript profiling to explore cyst nematode parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Elling, Axel A; Mitreva, Makedonka; Gai, Xiaowu; Martin, John; Recknor, Justin; Davis, Eric L; Hussey, Richard S; Nettleton, Dan; McCarter, James P; Baum, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    Background Cyst nematodes are devastating plant parasites that become sedentary within plant roots and induce the transformation of normal plant cells into elaborate feeding cells with the help of secreted effectors, the parasitism proteins. These proteins are the translation products of parasitism genes and are secreted molecular tools that allow cyst nematodes to infect plants. Results We present here the expression patterns of all previously described parasitism genes of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, in all major life stages except the adult male. These insights were gained by analyzing our gene expression dataset from experiments using the Affymetrix Soybean Genome Array GeneChip, which contains probeset sequences for 6,860 genes derived from preparasitic and parasitic H. glycines life stages. Targeting the identification of additional H. glycines parasitism-associated genes, we isolated 633 genes encoding secretory proteins using algorithms to predict secretory signal peptides. Furthermore, because some of the known H. glycines parasitism proteins have strongest similarity to proteins of plants and microbes, we searched for predicted protein sequences that showed their highest similarities to plant or microbial proteins and identified 156 H. glycines genes, some of which also contained a signal peptide. Analyses of the expression profiles of these genes allowed the formulation of hypotheses about potential roles in parasitism. This is the first study combining sequence analyses of a substantial EST dataset with microarray expression data of all major life stages (except adult males) for the identification and characterization of putative parasitism-associated proteins in any parasitic nematode. Conclusion We have established an expression atlas for all known H. glycines parasitism genes. Furthermore, in an effort to identify additional H. glycines genes with putative functions in parasitism, we have reduced the currently known 6,860 H

  20. Novel Pectate Lyase Genes of Heterodera glycines Play Key Roles in the Early Stage of Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan; Cui, Jiangkuan; Long, Haibo; Huang, Wenkun; Kong, Lingan; Liu, Shiming; He, Wenting; Hu, Xianqi; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Pectate lyases are known to play a key role in pectin degradation by catalyzing the random cleavage of internal polymer linkages (endo-pectinases). In this paper, four novel cDNAs, designated Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7, that encode pectate lyases were cloned and characterized from the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The predicted protein sequences of HG-PEL-3, HG-PEL-4 and HG-PEL-6 differed significantly in both their amino acid sequences and their genomic structures from other pectate lyases of H. glycines (HG-PEL-1, HG-PEL-2 and HG-PEL-7). A phylogenetic study revealed that the pectate lyase proteins of H. glycines are clustered into distinct clades and have distinct numbers and positioning of introns, which suggests that the pectate lyase genes of H. glycines may have evolved from at least two ancestral genes. A Southern blot analysis revealed that multiple Hg-pel-6-like genes were present in the H. glycines genome. In situ hybridization showed that four novel pectate lyases (Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7) were actively transcribed in the subventral esophageal gland cells. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay supported the finding that the expression of these genes was strong in the egg, pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile (J2) and early parasitic J2 stages and that it declined in further developmental stages of the nematode. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins play a role in the migratory phase of the nematode life cycle. Knocking down Hg-pel-6 using in vitro RNA interference resulted in a 46.9% reduction of the number of nematodes that invaded the plants and a 61.5% suppression of the development of H. glycines females within roots compared to the GFP-dsRNA control. Plant host-derived RNAi induced the silencing of the Hg-pel-6gene, which significantly reduced the nematode infection levels at 7 Days post inoculation (dpi). Similarly, this procedure reduced the number of female adults at 40 dpi, which suggests

  1. Novel Pectate Lyase Genes of Heterodera glycines Play Key Roles in the Early Stage of Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Huan; Cui, Jiangkuan; Long, Haibo; Huang, Wenkun; Kong, Lingan; Liu, Shiming; He, Wenting; Hu, Xianqi; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Pectate lyases are known to play a key role in pectin degradation by catalyzing the random cleavage of internal polymer linkages (endo-pectinases). In this paper, four novel cDNAs, designated Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7, that encode pectate lyases were cloned and characterized from the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines. The predicted protein sequences of HG-PEL-3, HG-PEL-4 and HG-PEL-6 differed significantly in both their amino acid sequences and their genomic structures from other pectate lyases of H. glycines (HG-PEL-1, HG-PEL-2 and HG-PEL-7). A phylogenetic study revealed that the pectate lyase proteins of H. glycines are clustered into distinct clades and have distinct numbers and positioning of introns, which suggests that the pectate lyase genes of H. glycines may have evolved from at least two ancestral genes. A Southern blot analysis revealed that multiple Hg-pel-6-like genes were present in the H. glycines genome. In situ hybridization showed that four novel pectate lyases (Hg-pel-3, Hg-pel-4, Hg-pel-6 and Hg-pel-7) were actively transcribed in the subventral esophageal gland cells. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay supported the finding that the expression of these genes was strong in the egg, pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile (J2) and early parasitic J2 stages and that it declined in further developmental stages of the nematode. This expression pattern suggests that these proteins play a role in the migratory phase of the nematode life cycle. Knocking down Hg-pel-6 using in vitro RNA interference resulted in a 46.9% reduction of the number of nematodes that invaded the plants and a 61.5% suppression of the development of H. glycines females within roots compared to the GFP-dsRNA control. Plant host-derived RNAi induced the silencing of the Hg-pel-6gene, which significantly reduced the nematode infection levels at 7 Days post inoculation (dpi). Similarly, this procedure reduced the number of female adults at 40 dpi, which suggests

  2. Isolation and characterization of a fatty acid- and retinoid-binding protein from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae.

    PubMed

    Le, Xiuhu; Wang, Xuan; Guan, Tinglong; Ju, Yuliang; Li, Hongmei

    2016-08-01

    A gene encoding fatty acid- and retinoid-binding protein was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae and the biochemical function of the protein that it encodes was analysed. The full-length cDNA of the Ha-far-1 gene is 827 bp long and includes a 22- nucleotide trans-spliced leader sequence (SL1) at its 5-end. The genomic clone of Ha-far-1 consists of eight exons separated by seven introns, which range in size from 48 to 186 bp. The Ha-far-1 cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a 191 amino acid protein, with a predicted secretory signal peptide. Sequence analysis showed that Ha-FAR-1 has highest similarity to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida and that the protein was grouped with all homologues from other plant-parasitic nematodes in a phylogenetic analysis. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis confirmed that the recombinant Ha-FAR-1 protein was able to bind fatty acids and retinol. Spatial and temporal expression assays showed that the transcripts of Ha-far-1 accumulated mainly in the hypodermis and that the gene is most highly expressed in third-stage juveniles of H. avenae. Fluorescence immunolocalization showed that the Ha-FAR-1 protein was present on the surface of the infective second-stage juveniles of H. avenae. Nematodes treated with dsRNA corresponding to Ha-far-1 showed significantly reduced reproduction compared to nematodes exposed to dsRNA from a non-endogenous gene, suggesting that Ha-far-1 may be an effective target gene for control of H. avenae using an RNAi strategy. PMID:27240755

  3. Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, R H

    1984-07-01

    The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is due largely to movement of cysts by wind during dust storms. The fungus Rhizoctonia solani frequently is associated with the nematode in a disease complex in wheat, and disease symptoms are most severe on lighter or well structured soils. Crop rotations which include periods of fallow, or of nonhost crop reduce population levels of H. avenae and improve yields. Early-sown crops (April-May) are less severely damaged than late-sown crops (June-July). The resowing of damaged wheat crops or the application of nitrogenous fertilizers rarely improve grain yields. 'Katyil,' the world's first wheat cultivar bred specifically with resistance to H. avenae, has been released in Victoria. Chemical control of the nematode in cereals is now commercially feasible, and five nematicides are registered for use by growers. PMID:19294014

  4. Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitism.

    PubMed

    Hallem, Elissa A; Rengarajan, Michelle; Ciche, Todd A; Sternberg, Paul W

    2007-05-15

    More than a quarter of the world's population is infected with nematode parasites, and more than a hundred species of nematodes are parasites of humans [1-3]. Despite extensive morbidity and mortality caused by nematode parasites, the biological mechanisms of host-parasite interactions are poorly understood, largely because of the lack of genetically tractable model systems. We have demonstrated that the insect parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, its bacterial symbiont Photorhabdus luminescens, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster constitute a tripartite model for nematode parasitism and parasitic infection. We find that infective juveniles (IJs) of Heterorhabditis, which contain Photorhabdus in their gut, can infect and kill Drosophila larvae. We show that infection activates an immune response in Drosophila that results in the temporally dynamic expression of a subset of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes, and that this immune response is induced specifically by Photorhabdus. We also investigated the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying IJ recovery, the developmental process that occurs in parasitic nematodes upon host invasion and that is necessary for successful parasitism. We find that the chemosensory neurons and signaling pathways that control dauer recovery in Caenorhabditis elegans also control IJ recovery in Heterorhabditis, suggesting conservation of these developmental processes across free-living and parasitic nematodes. PMID:17475494

  5. Heterodera betulae n. sp. (Heteroderidae), a Cyst-forming Nematode from River Birch

    PubMed Central

    Hirschmann, H.; Riggs, R. D.

    1969-01-01

    A new species of the genus Heterodera A. Schmidt, 1871 parasitic on river birch, Betula nigra L., is described and illustrated. Females and cysts are lemon-shaped to almost spherical with slight vulval protrusion. Female cuticles have a thick subcrystalline layer. The average cyst size is 763 by 616 [mu]. They are circumfenestrate with small anal opening and lack a yellow phase. The cyst wall pattern is typically network-like. All eggs are retained in the cyst, although a well-developed matrix is formed. The egg shell is without markings. The second-stage larvae average 462 [mu] in length and have 3 incisures in the lateral field. The tail terminal is shorter than the stylet. Males are rare. They have 4 incisures in the lateral field and bifid spicules. The relationship of H. betulae n. sp. to other Heterodera species is obscure. PMID:19325672

  6. Exploring the host parasitism of the migratory plant-parasitic nematode Ditylenchus destuctor by expressed sequence tags analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan; Gao, Bing-li; Kong, Ling-an; Yu, Qing; Huang, Wen-kun; He, Xu-feng; Long, Hai-bo; Peng, De-liang

    2013-01-01

    The potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor, is a very destructive nematode pest on many agriculturally important crops worldwide, but the molecular characterization of its parasitism of plant has been limited. The effectors involved in nematode parasitism of plant for several sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes such as Heterodera glycines, Globodera rostochiensis and Meloidogyne incognita have been identified and extensively studied over the past two decades. Ditylenchus destructor, as a migratory plant parasitic nematode, has different feeding behavior, life cycle and host response. Comparing the transcriptome and parasitome among different types of plant-parasitic nematodes is the way to understand more fully the parasitic mechanism of plant nematodes. We undertook the approach of sequencing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a mixed stage cDNA library of D. destructor. This is the first study of D. destructor ESTs. A total of 9800 ESTs were grouped into 5008 clusters including 3606 singletons and 1402 multi-member contigs, representing a catalog of D. destructor genes. Implementing a bioinformatics' workflow, we found 1391 clusters have no match in the available gene database; 31 clusters only have similarities to genes identified from D. africanus, the most closely related species to D. destructor; 1991 clusters were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO); 1550 clusters were assigned enzyme commission (EC) numbers; and 1211 clusters were mapped to 181 KEGG biochemical pathways. 22 ESTs had similarities to reported nematode effectors. Interestedly, most of the effectors identified in this study are involved in host cell wall degradation or modification, such as 1,4-beta-glucanse, 1,3-beta-glucanse, pectate lyase, chitinases and expansin, or host defense suppression such as calreticulin, annexin and venom allergen-like protein. This result implies that the migratory plant-parasitic nematode D. destructor secrets similar effectors to those of sedentary

  7. Exploring the Host Parasitism of the Migratory Plant-Parasitic Nematode Ditylenchus destuctor by Expressed Sequence Tags Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Huan; Gao, Bing-li; Kong, Ling-an; Yu, Qing; Huang, Wen-kun; He, Xu-feng; Long, Hai-bo; Peng, De-liang

    2013-01-01

    The potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor, is a very destructive nematode pest on many agriculturally important crops worldwide, but the molecular characterization of its parasitism of plant has been limited. The effectors involved in nematode parasitism of plant for several sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes such as Heterodera glycines, Globodera rostochiensis and Meloidogyne incognita have been identified and extensively studied over the past two decades. Ditylenchus destructor, as a migratory plant parasitic nematode, has different feeding behavior, life cycle and host response. Comparing the transcriptome and parasitome among different types of plant-parasitic nematodes is the way to understand more fully the parasitic mechanism of plant nematodes. We undertook the approach of sequencing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a mixed stage cDNA library of D. destructor. This is the first study of D. destructor ESTs. A total of 9800 ESTs were grouped into 5008 clusters including 3606 singletons and 1402 multi-member contigs, representing a catalog of D. destructor genes. Implementing a bioinformatics' workflow, we found 1391 clusters have no match in the available gene database; 31 clusters only have similarities to genes identified from D. africanus, the most closely related species to D. destructor; 1991 clusters were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO); 1550 clusters were assigned enzyme commission (EC) numbers; and 1211 clusters were mapped to 181 KEGG biochemical pathways. 22 ESTs had similarities to reported nematode effectors. Interestedly, most of the effectors identified in this study are involved in host cell wall degradation or modification, such as 1,4-beta-glucanse, 1,3-beta-glucanse, pectate lyase, chitinases and expansin, or host defense suppression such as calreticulin, annexin and venom allergen-like protein. This result implies that the migratory plant-parasitic nematode D. destructor secrets similar effectors to those of sedentary

  8. Soybean GeneChip hybridizations to RNA isolated from root pieces colonized by soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The roots of susceptible 14 day-old soybean plants (cv. Williams) were inoculated with J2 soybean cyst nematodes, Heterodera glycines. After 8, 12 and 16 dpi the roots were placed under a stereomicroscope and root pieces (1 to 5 mm) that displayed 1 to many swollen SCN females were dissected out, l...

  9. Morphological and molecular observations on the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi from the Volga and South Ural regions of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2010-2012, a survey was conducted to determine the distribution and species diversity of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi within the Volga and South Ural regions of the Russian Federation. A total of 270 soil samples were collected. Seven populations of CCN were found in the rhiz...

  10. Evaluation of protein extraction methods suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide. In this study, three different protein extraction methods including phenol/ammonium acetate (phenol method), thiourea/urea solublization (lysis method) and trichloroaceti...

  11. Effects of soil solarization on nematodes parasitic to chickpea and pigeonpea.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S B; Nene, Y L

    1990-10-01

    Solarization by covering the soil with transparent polyethylene sheets during the summer months (April, May, June) in 1984 and 1985 significantly (P = 0.01) reduced the population densities of nematodes (Heterodera cajani, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Helicotylenchus retusus, Pratylenchus sp., and Tylenchorhynchus sp.) parasitic to chickpea and pigeonpea. Population density reductions of 93% of Heterodera cajani eggs and juveniles, 99% ofHelicotylenchus retusus, 98% of Pratylenchus sp., and 100% of R. reniformis were achieved by solarization in 1984. Irrigation before covering soil with polyethylene improved (P = 0.01) the effects of solarization in reducing the population densities of Heterodera cajani. Similar trends in population density reductions were observed in 1985, but the solarization effects were not the same. Nematode population reductions in the 1984-85 season were evident until near crop harvest, but in the 1985-86 season the effects on nematode populations were not as great and did not last until harvest. Factors such as rains during the solarization, duration of solarization, and sunshine hours may have influenced the efficacy of solarization. Solarization for two seasons reduced the population densities each year about the same as single season solarization, and residual effects of solarization on nematode populations did not last for more than a crop season. PMID:19287776

  12. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. PMID:27211240

  13. Parasitic Nematodes - From Genomes to Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases caused by parasitic nematodes in domestic and companion animals are major factors that decrease production and quality of the agricultural products. Methods available for the control of the parasitic nematode infections are mainly based on chemical treatment, non-chemical management pra...

  14. A time-course comparative microarray analysis of an incompatible and compatible response by Glycine max (soybean) to Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of infection in soybean cv. Peking roots by compatible or incompatible races of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode [SCN]) was assayed by microarray analyses. Using three time-points, one as nematodes penetrate the root prior to feeding site selection; a second as the nematode...

  15. SOME ASPECTS OF THE NATURAL CONTROL OF PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES IN SOIL UNDER BROAD BEAN VICIA FABA L. CULTIVATED IN CROP ROTATION AND LONG-TERM MONOCULTURE.

    PubMed

    Skwiercz, A T; Damszel, M; Stefanovska, T; Rychcik, B

    2015-01-01

    Observations on population density of plant parasitic nematodes occurring in rhizosphere of broad bean cultivated in the crop rotation and long-term monoculture were performed during 2013-2014. 13 species were observed: Trichodorus primitivus, T. viruliferus, Paratrichodorus pachydermus, Criconema annuliferum, Paratylenchus projectus, Bitylenchus dubius, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus fallax, P. flakkensis, P. neglectus, Heterodera triffolii, H. goettingiana, and Ditylenchus dipsaci. In monoculture plots 70-80% of eggs inside Heterodera cysts were colonized by pathogenic fungi (v.s. 50-62% of cysts from crop rotation). 12-18% of specimens of Pratylenchus species were colonized by the nematode-pathogenic bacteria: Bacillus penetrans. PMID:27145570

  16. The transcriptome of syncytia induced by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots

    PubMed Central

    Szakasits, Dagmar; Heinen, Petra; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Hofmann, Julia; Wagner, Florian; Kreil, David P; Sykacek, Peter; Grundler, Florian M W; Bohlmann, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is a host for the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Juvenile nematodes invade the roots and induce the development of a syncytium, which functions as a feeding site for the nematode. Here, we report on the transcriptome of syncytia induced in the roots of Arabidopsis. Microaspiration was employed to harvest pure syncytium material, which was then used to prepare RNA for hybridization to Affymetrix GeneChips. Initial data analysis showed that the gene expression in syncytia at 5 and 15 days post-infection did not differ greatly, and so both time points were compared together with control roots. Out of a total of 21 138 genes, 18.4% (3893) had a higher expression level and 15.8% (3338) had a lower expression level in syncytia, as compared with control roots, using a multiple-testing corrected false discovery rate of below 5%. A gene ontology (GO) analysis of up- and downregulated genes showed that categories related to high metabolic activity were preferentially upregulated. A principal component analysis was applied to compare the transcriptome of syncytia with the transcriptome of different Arabidopsis organs (obtained by the AtGenExpress project), and with specific root tissues. This analysis revealed that syncytia are transcriptionally clearly different from roots (and all other organs), as well as from other root tissues. PMID:18980640

  17. [Trichostrongyloidea nematodes, parasites of Microchiroptera].

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, M C; Chabaud, A G

    1975-01-01

    1. a) List of Nematodes collected by Professor Aellen in european Microchiroptera. Additionnal morphological data to the study of Molinostrongylus alatus, M. panousei, M. skrjabini. Description of M. aelleni n. sp. b) Description of M. richardae n. sp., M. benexae n. sp. et M. bauchoti n. sp., parasites of malagasian Molossidae. c) Description of M. colleyi n. sp. and M. owyangi n. sp., parasites of Malaysian Vespertilioninae, and of Allintoschius dunni n. sp., discovered in Myotis mystacinus from Malaysia and Pipistrellus nanus from Africa. 2. Taking into account the characteristics of the synlophe, the 17 species of the genus Molinostrongylus may be divided into five groups, each one being reasonably well characteristic of the genus of their Chiropteran host. 3. The composition of the Trichostrongyloidea fauna of Chiroptera and its relationship with Trichostrongyloidea from other Mammals (Tupaiidae, Pholidotes, Primates, Sciuridés) are analysed. Six groups are separated and divided into two well defined lines: 1) genus Strongylacantha, and 2) 12 genera stemming more or less directly from the Molineinae, 4. The three conical outgrowths at the tip of the female tail which differenciate presently the Anoplostrogylinae from the Molineinae appear to be an unreliable characteristic. The two subfamilies form a complex group which will be better understood if the evolution of the synlophe and that of the caudal bursa of the males are taken into account. PMID:1211768

  18. Development of PrimeTime-Real-Time PCR for Species Identification of Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, 1952) in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Ye, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is an obligate, sedentary parasite that is a major pathogen of soybean and accounts for an estimated 1 billion dollars in production losses annually in the United States of America. This paper describes the development of a real-time PCR method for rapid, sensitive, species-specific and accurate identification of SCN alone or on mixed populations with other nematodes in North Carolina. The 83-bp DNA fragment of PrimeTime-real-time PCR was designed based on a 477-bp-SCN-SCAR marker previously proved to be SCN-specific. A total of 44 populations including cyst forming nematodes (Heterodera glycines, H. fici, H. schachtii, H. trifolii, Cactodera weissi, Globodera tabacum, Meloidodera floridensis and other unidentified cyst nematodes) and non-cyst forming nematodes (Ditylenchus dipsaci, Meloidogyne incognita and Xiphinema chambersi) were tested in this study, all SCN populations are tested positive and non-SCN populations negative. This assay for the detection and identification has been successfully applied for testing a single SCN cyst, a 2(nd)-stage-SCN juvenile, a single SCN egg, up to ten SCN cysts, a 10-fold dilution of a single 2(nd)-stage-SCN juvenile and 20-fold dilution of one SCN cyst. The assay is not SCN-race specific. It gave an accurate positive result when SCN is mixed with other cyst species. Also, nematode universal primers/probes for real-time PCR amplification as a nematode endogenous control to detect the presence of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene were employed in this assay, so that a SCN-negative sample can be tested to exclude false negative. This method will be very useful for a broad range of research programs as well as the regulatory response and management of SCN in North Carolina and other region of the southeastern U.S.A. PMID:23481469

  19. Interaction Among a Nematode (Heterodera glycines), an Insect, and Three Weeds in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Robbins, R T; Oliver, L R; Mueller, A J

    1990-10-01

    A 2 x 3 x 4 factorial field experiment was established to determine the interaction among a nematode, an insect, and three weed species on soybean in 1983-86. Low (nematicide treated) or high (untreated) population densities of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and 0, 30, or 70% main stem girdling by the threecornered alfalfa hopper (TCAH), Spissistilus festinus, were combined with no weeds, one common cocklebur (CC), Xanthium strumarium, one sicklepod (SP), Cassia obtusifolia, or one pitted morningglory (PMG), Ipomoea lacunosa, per meter of row in all possible combinations. Most of the losses from the pests were significant (P

  20. Pochonia chlamydosporia: Advances and Challenges to Improve Its Performance as a Biological Control Agent of Sedentary Endo-parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla-López, Rosa H; Esteves, Ivania; Finetti-Sialer, Mariella M; Hirsch, Penny R; Ward, Elaine; Devonshire, Jean; Hidalgo-Díaz, Leopoldo

    2013-03-01

    The nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological control agents against plant (semi-) endo-parasitic nematodes of the genera Globodera, Heterodera, Meloidogyne, Nacobbus and, more recently, Rotylenchulus. In this paper we present highlights from more than three decades of worldwide research on this biological control agent. We cover different aspects and key components of the complex plant-fungus-nematode tri-trophic interaction, an interaction that needs to be addressed to ensure the efficient use of P. chlamydosporia as a biopesticide as part of an integrated pest management approach. PMID:23589653

  1. Pochonia chlamydosporia: Advances and Challenges to Improve Its Performance as a Biological Control Agent of Sedentary Endo-parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Manzanilla-López, Rosa H.; Esteves, Ivania; Finetti-Sialer, Mariella M.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Ward, Elaine; Devonshire, Jean; Hidalgo-Díaz, Leopoldo

    2013-01-01

    The nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological control agents against plant (semi-) endo-parasitic nematodes of the genera Globodera, Heterodera, Meloidogyne, Nacobbus and, more recently, Rotylenchulus. In this paper we present highlights from more than three decades of worldwide research on this biological control agent. We cover different aspects and key components of the complex plant-fungus-nematode tri-trophic interaction, an interaction that needs to be addressed to ensure the efficient use of P. chlamydosporia as a biopesticide as part of an integrated pest management approach. PMID:23589653

  2. Towards sustainable nematode parasite control of livestock.

    PubMed

    Waller, P J

    1993-06-01

    Farmers worldwide have come to expect, and rely almost exclusively on, broad-spectrum anthelmintics to effectively control nematode parasites amongst their livestock. However, the threats of resistance, residues and ecotoxicity are of increasing concern to the future of chemotherapy. It is imperative that sustainable parasite control schemes be developed and implemented which will integrate a range of techniques to minimise anthelmintic use and still maintain high levels of profitability of the farming enterprise. At present, these need to focus on the better use of existing drugs to maximise their effectiveness and minimise the selection for resistance and impact on the environment. New drugs should also be used according to these principles. In the future it is expected that other non-chemotherapeutic options will become available, e.g. helminth vaccines, resistant hosts, biological control, nematode growth regulators, which will revolutionize the current thinking on nematode parasite control of livestock. PMID:8346643

  3. Investigations of the Host Range of the Corn Cyst Nematode, Heterodera zeae, from Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Ringer, Chloe E.; Sardanelli, Sandra; Krusberg, Lorin R.

    1987-01-01

    The host range of the corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, recently detected in Maryland, was investigated. A total of 269 plant entries, representing 68 families, 172 genera, and 204 species, was inoculated with cysts or a mixture of eggs and second-stage juveniles of H. zeae. The host range of the Maryland population of H. zeae was limited to plants of the Gramineae and included 11 tribes, 33 genera, 42 species, and 77 entries. All 22 corn (Zea mays) cultivars tested were hosts. Other economic hosts included certain cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Arena sativa), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), sugar cane (Saccharum interspecific hybrid), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum), a weed species common to cultivated fields in Maryland, was also a host for H. zeae. Other hosts included meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis), Calamagrostis eipgeios, Job's tears (Coix Lachryma-Jobi), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), witchgrass (Panicum capillare), broomcorn (Panicum miliaceum), fountain grass (Pennisetum rueppeli), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), common reed (Phragmites australis), eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides), corn (Zea mays), and teosinte (Zea mexicana). PMID:19290286

  4. Bacteria Associated with Cysts of the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Sarah M.; Lawrence, John R.; Zhu, Hong; Swerhone, George D. W.; Welsh, Martha; Welacky, Tom W.; Topp, Edward

    2003-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, causes economically significant damage to soybeans (Glycine max) in many parts of the world. The cysts of this nematode can remain quiescent in soils for many years as a reservoir of infection for future crops. To investigate bacterial communities associated with SCN cysts, cysts were obtained from eight SCN-infested farms in southern Ontario, Canada, and analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent means. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observations of cyst contents revealed a microbial flora located on the cyst exterior, within a polymer plug region and within the cyst. Microscopic counts using 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazine-2-yl)aminofluorescein staining and in situ hybridization (EUB 338) indicated that the cysts contained (2.6 ± 0.5) × 105 bacteria (mean ± standard deviation) with various cellular morphologies. Filamentous fungi were also observed. Live-dead staining indicated that the majority of cyst bacteria were viable. The probe Nile red also bound to the interior polymer, indicating that it is lipid rich in nature. Bacterial community profiles determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis were simple in composition. Bands shared by all eight samples included the actinobacterium genera Actinomadura and Streptomyces. A collection of 290 bacteria were obtained by plating macerated surface-sterilized cysts onto nutrient broth yeast extract agar or on actinomycete medium. These were clustered into groups of siblings by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting, and representative isolates were tentatively identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Thirty phylotypes were detected, with the collection dominated by Lysobacter and Variovorax spp. This study has revealed the cysts of this important plant pathogen to be rich in a variety of bacteria, some of which could presumably play a role in the ecology of SCN or have potential as biocontrol agents. PMID:12514048

  5. Effect of Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) on Yield of Resistant and Susceptible Soybean Cultivars Grown in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T A; Pierson, P E; Young, C E; Riedel, R M; Willson, H R; Eisley, J B; Schmitthenner, A F; Lipps, P E

    1997-12-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) producers in Ohio rarely use soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN)-resistant cultivars because of concerns over limited yield potential and lack of resistance to Phytophthora sojae. A two-year study was initiated to determine grain yield and nematode population increase on soybean cyst nematode-resistant cultivars in maturity groups II and III in production fields. Sites differed in soil texture, nematode densities, and P. sojae infestation at a number of locations in Ohio. Soil was assayed for nematode densities before planting and at harvest. Yields of resistant cultivars averaged 0% to 18% higher than those of susceptible cultivars in fine-textured soils with average preplant populations ranging from 463 to 14,330 SCN eggs/100 cm(3) soil. In coarse-textured soils, yields of susceptible cultivars were 21% to 56% less than the resistant cultivars with average preplant densities ranging from 1,661 to 15,558 SCN eggs/100 cm(3) soil. The reproductive index ranged from 0.1 to 5.5 for resistant cultivars and 0.4 to 112 for susceptible cultivars. In 1993, yield of P. sojae-susceptible, nematode-resistant 'Asgrow A 3431' was as high as yield of the P. sojae-resistant, nematode-susceptible cultivar 'Resnik' in a Phytophthora-infested field. The nematode-resistant cultivars Madison Experimental 131527 and Asgrow A3431 had higher yields than AgVenture AV1341 and susceptible cultivars Resnik and Kenwood when compared over five nematode-infested sites. Nematode-resistant cultivars were found to be excellent alternatives to currently grown susceptible cultivars for managing SCN where group III cultivars are used. However, better cultivar alternatives may be needed for sites with combined Phytophthora root rot and cyst nematode problems. PMID:19274272

  6. Effect of Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) on Yield of Resistant and Susceptible Soybean Cultivars Grown in Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, T. A.; Pierson, P. E.; Young, C. E.; Riedel, R. M.; Willson, H. R.; Eisley, J. B.; Schmitthenner, A. F.; Lipps, P. E.

    1997-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) producers in Ohio rarely use soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN)-resistant cultivars because of concerns over limited yield potential and lack of resistance to Phytophthora sojae. A two-year study was initiated to determine grain yield and nematode population increase on soybean cyst nematode-resistant cultivars in maturity groups II and III in production fields. Sites differed in soil texture, nematode densities, and P. sojae infestation at a number of locations in Ohio. Soil was assayed for nematode densities before planting and at harvest. Yields of resistant cultivars averaged 0% to 18% higher than those of susceptible cultivars in fine-textured soils with average preplant populations ranging from 463 to 14,330 SCN eggs/100 cm³ soil. In coarse-textured soils, yields of susceptible cultivars were 21% to 56% less than the resistant cultivars with average preplant densities ranging from 1,661 to 15,558 SCN eggs/100 cm³ soil. The reproductive index ranged from 0.1 to 5.5 for resistant cultivars and 0.4 to 112 for susceptible cultivars. In 1993, yield of P. sojae-susceptible, nematode-resistant 'Asgrow A 3431' was as high as yield of the P. sojae-resistant, nematode-susceptible cultivar 'Resnik' in a Phytophthora-infested field. The nematode-resistant cultivars Madison Experimental 131527 and Asgrow A3431 had higher yields than AgVenture AV1341 and susceptible cultivars Resnik and Kenwood when compared over five nematode-infested sites. Nematode-resistant cultivars were found to be excellent alternatives to currently grown susceptible cultivars for managing SCN where group III cultivars are used. However, better cultivar alternatives may be needed for sites with combined Phytophthora root rot and cyst nematode problems. PMID:19274272

  7. Plant-parasitic Nematode Communities and Their Associations with Soil Factors in Organically Farmed Fields in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. Y.; Sheaffer, C. C.; Wyse, D. L.; Nickel, P.; Kandel, H.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the assemblage and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes and their associations with soil factors in organically farmed fields in Minnesota. A total of 31 soil samples were collected from southeast (SE), 26 samples from southwest (SW), 28 from west-central (WC), and 23 from northwest (NW) Minnesota. The assemblage and abundance of plant-parasitic nematodes varied among the four regions. The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, the most destructive pathogen of soybean, was detected in 45.2, 88.5, 10.7, and 0% of organically farmed fields with relative prominence (RP) values of 10.3, 26.5, 0.6, and 0 in the SE, SW, WC, and NW regions, respectively. Across the four regions, other common genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were Helicotylenchus (42.6, RP value, same below), Pratylenchus (26.9), Tylenchorhynchus and related genera (9.4), Xiphinema (5.6), and Paratylenchus (5.3). Aphelenchoides, Meloidogyne, Hoplolaimus, Mesocriconema, and Trichodorus were also detected at low frequencies and/or low population densities. The similarity index of plant-parasitic nematodes between two regions ranged from 0.44 to 0.71 and the similarity increased with decreasing distance between regions. The densities of most plant-parasitic nematodes did not correlate with measured soil factors (organic matter, pH, texture). However, the densities of Pratylenchus correlated negatively with % sand, and Xiphinema was correlated negatively with soil pH. PMID:23482641

  8. The Arabidopsis immune regulator SRFR1 dampens defences against herbivory by Spodoptera exigua and parasitism by Heterodera schachtii.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong Dung T; Pike, Sharon; Wang, Jianying; Nepal Poudel, Arati; Heinz, Robert; Schultz, Jack C; Koo, Abraham J; Mitchum, Melissa G; Appel, Heidi M; Gassmann, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Plants have developed diverse mechanisms to fine tune defence responses to different types of enemy. Cross-regulation between signalling pathways may allow the prioritization of one response over another. Previously, we identified SUPPRESSOR OF rps4-RLD1 (SRFR1) as a negative regulator of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1)-dependent effector-triggered immunity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 expressing avrRps4. The use of multiple stresses is a powerful tool to further define gene function. Here, we examined whether SRFR1 also impacts resistance to a herbivorous insect in leaves and to a cyst nematode in roots. Interestingly, srfr1-1 plants showed increased resistance to herbivory by the beet army worm Spodoptera exigua and to parasitism by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii compared with the corresponding wild-type Arabidopsis accession RLD. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure the transcript levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate/ethylene (JA/ET) pathway genes, we found that enhanced resistance of srfr1-1 plants to S. exigua correlated with specific upregulation of the MYC2 branch of the JA pathway concurrent with suppression of the SA pathway. In contrast, the greater susceptibility of RLD was accompanied by simultaneously increased transcript levels of SA, JA and JA/ET signalling pathway genes. Surprisingly, mutation of either SRFR1 or EDS1 increased resistance to H. schachtii, indicating that the concurrent presence of both wild-type genes promotes susceptibility. This finding suggests a novel form of resistance in Arabidopsis to the biotrophic pathogen H. schachtii or a root-specific regulation of the SA pathway by EDS1, and places SRFR1 at an intersection between multiple defence pathways. PMID:26310916

  9. Sustainable Approaches to the Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes and Disease Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological factors of soil may reduce damage caused by plant-parasitic nematodes. Suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes is particularly challenging in soils in which there are short crop sequences, sequential susceptible host crops, or infestations of multiple nematode species. In southern Indiana, a watermelon production system involving rotations with soybean and corn does not suppress Meloidogyne incognita, but several aspects of such systems can be modified to reduce nematode damage in an integrated management approach. Cash crops with resistance to M. incognita can be used to reduce population densities of M. incognita. Small grains as cover crops can be replaced by cover crops with resistance to M. incognita or by crops with biofumigation potential. Mycorrhizal fungal inoculations of potting mixes during transplanting production of watermelon seedlings may improve early crop establishment. Other approaches to nematode management utilize soil suppressiveness. One-year rotations of soybean with corn neither reduced the soil-borne complex of sudden death syndrome (SDS) nor improved soybean root health over that in soybean monoculture. Reduced tillage combined with crop rotation may reduce the activity of soil-borne pathogens in some soils. For example in a long-term trial, numbers of Heterodera glycines and severity of foliar SDS symptoms were reduced under minimum tillage. Thus, sustainable management strategies require holistic approaches that consider entire production systems rather than focus on a single crop in its year of production. PMID:22791923

  10. Sustainable approaches to the management of plant-parasitic nematodes and disease complexes.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological factors of soil may reduce damage caused by plant-parasitic nematodes. Suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes is particularly challenging in soils in which there are short crop sequences, sequential susceptible host crops, or infestations of multiple nematode species. In southern Indiana, a watermelon production system involving rotations with soybean and corn does not suppress Meloidogyne incognita, but several aspects of such systems can be modified to reduce nematode damage in an integrated management approach. Cash crops with resistance to M. incognita can be used to reduce population densities of M. incognita. Small grains as cover crops can be replaced by cover crops with resistance to M. incognita or by crops with biofumigation potential. Mycorrhizal fungal inoculations of potting mixes during transplanting production of watermelon seedlings may improve early crop establishment. Other approaches to nematode management utilize soil suppressiveness. One-year rotations of soybean with corn neither reduced the soil-borne complex of sudden death syndrome (SDS) nor improved soybean root health over that in soybean monoculture. Reduced tillage combined with crop rotation may reduce the activity of soil-borne pathogens in some soils. For example in a long-term trial, numbers of Heterodera glycines and severity of foliar SDS symptoms were reduced under minimum tillage. Thus, sustainable management strategies require holistic approaches that consider entire production systems rather than focus on a single crop in its year of production. PMID:22791923

  11. Transcript analysis of parasitic females of the sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis.

    PubMed

    Wubben, Martin J; Callahan, Franklin E; Scheffler, Brian S

    2010-07-01

    Rotylenchulus reniformis, the reniform nematode, is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode capable of infecting >300 plant species, including a large number of crops such as cotton, soybean, and pineapple. In contrast to other economically important plant-parasitic nematodes, molecular genetic data regarding the R. reniformis transcriptome is virtually nonexistant. Herein, we present a survey of R. reniformis ESTs that were sequenced from a sedentary parasitic female cDNA library. Cluster analysis of 2004 high quality ESTs produced 123 contigs and 508 singletons for a total of 631 R. reniformis unigenes. BLASTX analyses revealed that 39% of all unigenes showed similarity to known proteins (Eparasitism genes were identified and included beta-1,4-endoglucanase, fatty acid- and retinol-binding proteins, and an esophageal gland cell-specific gene from Heterodera glycines. Furthermore, a putative ortholog of an enzyme involved in thiamin biosynthesis, thought to exist solely in prokaryotes, fungi, and plants, was identified. Lastly, 114 R. reniformis unigenes orthologous to RNAi-lethal Caenorhabditis elegans genes were discovered. The work described here offers a glimpse into the transcriptome of a sedentary semi-endoparasitic nematode which (i) provides the transcript sequence data necessary for investigating engineered resistance against R. reniformis and (ii) hints at the existance of a thiamin biosynthesis pathway in an animal. PMID:20346373

  12. New soybean accessions identified with resistance to Heterodera glycines populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious root-parasite of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], in USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in USA are estimated to be nearly $1 billion. These losses have remained stable at current levels with the use of resistant cultivars bu...

  13. Phenotypic characterization of roots responding to Heterodera glycines CLE peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitism genes coding for secreted CLAVATA3/ESR(CLE)-like peptides are expressed in the dorsal gland cell of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, during syncytium induction and maintenance. Recent data indicate that there are two predominant forms of SCN CLEs, HgCLEA and HgCLEB, ...

  14. A parasitic nematode releases cytokinin that controls cell division and orchestrates feeding site formation in host plants

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Shahid; Radakovic, Zoran S.; De La Torre, Carola M.; Chronis, Demosthenis; Novák, Ondřej; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Holbein, Julia; Matera, Christiane; Hütten, Marion; Gutbrod, Philipp; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Habash, Samer; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, Thomas; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Grundler, Florian M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary plant-parasitic cyst nematodes are biotrophs that cause significant losses in agriculture. Parasitism is based on modifications of host root cells that lead to the formation of a hypermetabolic feeding site (a syncytium) from which nematodes withdraw nutrients. The host cell cycle is activated in an initial cell selected by the nematode for feeding, followed by activation of neighboring cells and subsequent expansion of feeding site through fusion of hundreds of cells. It is generally assumed that nematodes manipulate production and signaling of the plant hormone cytokinin to activate cell division. In fact, nematodes have been shown to produce cytokinin in vitro; however, whether the hormone is secreted into host plants and plays a role in parasitism remained unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatiotemporal activation of cytokinin signaling during interaction between the cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and Arabidopsis using cytokinin-responsive promoter:reporter lines. Our results showed that cytokinin signaling is activated not only in the syncytium but also in neighboring cells to be incorporated into syncytium. An analysis of nematode infection on mutants that are deficient in cytokinin or cytokinin signaling revealed a significant decrease in susceptibility of these plants to nematodes. Further, we identified a cytokinin-synthesizing isopentenyltransferase gene in H. schachtii and show that silencing of this gene in nematodes leads to a significant decrease in virulence due to a reduced expansion of feeding sites. Our findings demonstrate the ability of a plant-parasitic nematode to synthesize a functional plant hormone to manipulate the host system and establish a long-term parasitic interaction. PMID:26417108

  15. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) and comparative microarray expression analysis of syncytial cells isolated from incompatible and compatible soybean roots infected by soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Syncytial cells in soybean (Glycine max cultivar [cv.] Peking) roots infected by incompatible (I) and compatible (C) populations of soybean cyst nematode [SCN] (Heterodera glycines) were collected using laser capture microdissection. Gene transcript abundance was assayed using an Affymetrix® soybean...

  16. Evaluation of Legumes Common to the Pacific Northwest as Hosts for the Pea Cyst Nematode, Heterodera goettingiana.

    PubMed

    Tedford, E C; Inglis, D A

    1999-06-01

    Seventeen leguminous species common to the Pacific Northwest were evaluated as potential hosts of the pea cyst nematode, Heterodera goettingiana, in both greenhouse and field experiments. In all experiments, juveniles of H. goettingiana penetrated roots of these 17 species with the exception of greenhouse-grown chickpea. Nematodes molted and developed into swollen third-stage or fourth-stage juveniles in many of the plants, but cyst development occurred only in the field on green pea, edible dry pea, and faba bean. More H. goettingiana cysts developed on fava bean than on green pea or edible dry pea. In H. goettingiana-infested soils, cropping sequences that include fava bean and pea should be avoided. However, certain legumes, such as winter vetch, may have the potential of serving as trap crops for H. goettingiana in this region. PMID:19270885

  17. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  18. NEMBASE: a resource for parasitic nematode ESTs.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, John; Whitton, Claire; Schmid, Ralf; Thomson, Marian; Blaxter, Mark

    2004-01-01

    NEMBASE (available at http://www.nematodes.org) is a publicly available online database providing access to the sequence and associated meta-data currently being generated as part of the Edinburgh-Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute parasitic nematode EST project. NEMBASE currently holds approximately 100 000 sequences from 10 different species of nematode. To facilitate ease of use, sequences have been processed to generate a non-redundant set of gene objects ('partial genome') for each species. Users may query the database on the basis of BLAST annotation, sequence similarity or expression profiles. NEMBASE also features an interactive Java-based tool (SimiTri) which allows the simultaneous display and analysis of the relative similarity relationships of groups of sequences to three different databases. NEMBASE is currently being expanded to include sequence data from other nematode species. Other developments include access to accurate peptide predictions, improved functional annotation and incorporation of automated processes allowing rapid analysis of nematode-specific gene families. PMID:14681449

  19. Behaviour of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juveniles exposed to nematode FMRFamide-like peptides in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes depend upon a family of neuropeptides, the FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), to regulate locomotion and behavior. To exploit FLPs as leads to novel nematode control agents, an understanding of how specific FLPs affect behavior, and what differences exist between species, is i...

  20. The global importance of the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera spp.) on wheat and international approaches to its control.

    PubMed

    Nicol, J M; Elekçioğlu, I H; Bolat, N; Rivoal, R

    2007-01-01

    The Cereal Cyst Nematodes (CCNs) are a group of several closely related species which have been documented to cause economic yield loss on rainfed wheat production systems in several part of the world including North Africa, West Asia, China, India, Australia, America and several countries in Europe. The most commonly reported species is Heterodera avenae, however there are at least two other species H. filipjevi and H. latipons are implicated. It is well appreciated that plants under water and nutrient stress suffer greater yield loss. Control of CCNs requires maintaining nematode populations below economic thresholds. Chemicals are not environmentally sustainable or economic and the major emphasis on control has been with host genetic resistance applied with other integrated pest managent options. Unfortunately due to the number of species and pathotype variation genetic control of Cereal Cyst Nematode with plant resistance is complex. Turkey is one of the top ten wheat producers in the world and has identified these nematode as a major biotic constraint in their rainfed wheat systems. In 2001 a new joint intiative was established between CIMMYT International, the Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and (Ukurova University in Adana to understand i) the distribution of cereal nematodes on wheat; ii) assess the economic importance and improve our understanding of the population dynamics iii) culture, screen and assess known sources of resistance and identify new sources to both groups of nematodes; iv) integrate new sources of resistance into bread wheat cultivars for Turkey and International germplasm using conventional and molecular tools; v) investigate other integrated control options such as rotation and different wheat management strategies and finally vi) capacity build scientists to work in this important area. Some highlights of this work will be presented and the newly formed ICCNI - International Cereal Cyst Nematode Initative introduced. PMID:18399504

  1. Genomics of reproduction in nematodes: prospects for parasite intervention?

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Alasdair J; Cottee, Pauline A; Gasser, Robin B

    2008-02-01

    Understanding reproductive processes in parasitic nematodes has the potential to lead to the informed design of new anthelmintics and control strategies. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanisms underlying sex determination, gametogenesis and reproductive physiology for most parasitic nematodes. Together with comparative analyses of data for the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, molecular investigations are beginning to provide insights into the processes involved in reproduction and development in parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent developments, focusing on technological aspects and on molecules associated with sex-specific differences in adult nematodes. PMID:18182326

  2. The syntaxin 31-induced gene, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1), functions in Glycine max defense to the root parasite Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Pant, Shankar R; Krishnavajhala, Aparna; McNeece, Brant T; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P

    2015-01-01

    Experiments show the membrane fusion genes α soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP) and syntaxin 31 (Gm-SYP38) contribute to the ability of Glycine max to defend itself from infection by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Accompanying their expression is the transcriptional activation of the defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) that function in salicylic acid (SA) signaling. These results implicate the added involvement of the antiapoptotic, environmental response gene LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) in defense. Roots engineered to overexpress the G. max defense genes Gm-α-SNAP, SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BOTRYTIS INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced Gm-LSD1 (Gm-LSD1-2) transcriptional activity. In reciprocal experiments, roots engineered to overexpress Gm-LSD1-2 in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced levels of SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BIK1 and XTH, but not α-SNAP prior to infection. In tests examining the role of Gm-LSD1-2 in defense, its overexpression results in ∼52 to 68% reduction in nematode parasitism. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) of Gm-LSD1-2 in the resistant genotype G. max[Peking/PI 548402] results in an 3.24-10.42 fold increased ability of H. glycines to parasitize. The results identify that Gm-LSD1-2 functions in the defense response of G. max to H. glycines parasitism. It is proposed that LSD1, as an antiapoptotic protein, may establish an environment whereby the protected, living plant cell could secrete materials in the vicinity of the parasitizing nematode to disarm it. After the targeted incapacitation of the nematode the parasitized cell succumbs to its targeted demise as the infected root region is becoming fortified. PMID:25530246

  3. The syntaxin 31-induced gene, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1), functions in Glycine max defense to the root parasite Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Shankar R; Krishnavajhala, Aparna; McNeece, Brant T; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P

    2015-01-01

    Experiments show the membrane fusion genes α soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP) and syntaxin 31 (Gm-SYP38) contribute to the ability of Glycine max to defend itself from infection by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Accompanying their expression is the transcriptional activation of the defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) that function in salicylic acid (SA) signaling. These results implicate the added involvement of the antiapoptotic, environmental response gene LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) in defense. Roots engineered to overexpress the G. max defense genes Gm-α-SNAP, SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BOTRYTIS INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced Gm-LSD1 (Gm-LSD1–2) transcriptional activity. In reciprocal experiments, roots engineered to overexpress Gm-LSD1–2 in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced levels of SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BIK1 and XTH, but not α-SNAP prior to infection. In tests examining the role of Gm-LSD1–2 in defense, its overexpression results in ∼52 to 68% reduction in nematode parasitism. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) of Gm-LSD1–2 in the resistant genotype G. max[Peking/PI 548402] results in an 3.24–10.42 fold increased ability of H. glycines to parasitize. The results identify that Gm-LSD1–2 functions in the defense response of G. max to H. glycines parasitism. It is proposed that LSD1, as an antiapoptotic protein, may establish an environment whereby the protected, living plant cell could secrete materials in the vicinity of the parasitizing nematode to disarm it. After the targeted incapacitation of the nematode the parasitized cell succumbs to its targeted demise as the infected root region is becoming fortified. PMID:25530246

  4. Benzyl isothiocyanate affects development, hatching and reproduction of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) applied at micromolar doses decreased Heterodera glycines J2 movement, H. glycines hatching, and reproduction of H. glycines on soybean, Glycine max. Direct exposure of J2 to 30 microM BITC caused an immediate decrease (17%; P < 0.05) in J2 movement relative to 1% methan...

  5. Two-dimensional proteome reference maps for the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) reference maps of Heterodera glycines were constructed. After in-gel digestion with trypsin, 803 spots representing 426 proteins were subsequently identified by LC-MS/MS. Proteins with annotated function were further categorized by Gene Ontology. Results showed...

  6. Nematode parasite genes: what's in a name?

    PubMed

    Beech, Robin N; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Neveu, Cédric; Dent, Joseph A

    2010-07-01

    The central theme of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is that names are meaningless, artificial constructs, detached from any underlying reality. By contrast, we argue that a well chosen gene name can concisely convey a wealth of relevant biological information. A consistent nomenclature adds transparency that can have a real impact on our understanding of gene function. Currently, genes in parasitic nematodes are often named ad hoc, leading to confusion that can be resolved by adherence to a nomenclature standard adapted from Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate this with ligand-gated ion-channels and propose that the flood of genome data and differences between parasites and the free living C. elegans will require modification of the standard. PMID:20478743

  7. Effect of different potting systems; inoculation time; nematode density and sources of cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera filipjevi) on juvenile penetration into wheat root system.

    PubMed

    Pariyar, S R; Dababat, A A; Nicol, J M; Sikora, R A

    2010-01-01

    Investigations were designed to optimize testing systems for screening wheat breeding lines for resistance to Heterodera filipjevi. The effects of: 1) plant potting systems 2) inoculum level and time of inoculation 3) and type of inoculum of H. filipjevi on detection accuracy were examined in growth chamber experiments in Turkey. The rate of nematode penetration in the highly susceptible variety Bezostaya was used as the base measurement of efficacy. The results showed that the highest level of penetration coupled with high level of germination was obtained in plastic tubes (13 cm long x 3 cm in diam.) when compared to both small flower pots (400 cm3) and smaller plastic tubes (10.2 cm long x 0.8 cm in diam.). The highest rate of nematode penetration into wheat root system was obtained by inoculating the seedlings with 1000 J2 per plant. However, inoculation with 200 J2 at sowing or 200 J2 at sowing plus an additional 200 J2 after germination improved percent penetration when compared to inoculation with 600 or 1000 J2/plant at sowing. The test on the optimum form of inoculum showed that inoculating the seedling with J2's gave the highest rate of nematode penetration over inoculum with eggs or cysts. The results of these experiments demonstrated that screening wheat for resistance can be optimized by raising the seedlings in plastic tubes and inoculating them with 400 J2. PMID:21539268

  8. Nematode.net: a tool for navigating sequences from parasitic and free-living nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Todd; Martin, John C.; Dante, Michael; Mitreva, Makedonka Dautova; Clifton, Sandra W.; Chinwalla, Asif; Waterston, Robert H.; Wilson, Richard K.; McCarter, James P.

    2004-01-01

    Nematode.net (www.nematode.net) is a web- accessible resource for investigating gene sequences from nematode genomes. The database is an outgrowth of the parasitic nematode EST project at Washington University’s Genome Sequencing Center (GSC), St Louis. A sister project at the University of Edinburgh and the Sanger Institute is also underway. More than 295 000 ESTs have been generated from >30 nematodes other than Caenorhabditis elegans including key parasites of humans, animals and plants. Nematode.net currently provides NemaGene EST cluster consensus sequence, enhanced online BLAST search tools, functional classifications of cluster sequences and comprehensive information concerning the ongoing generation of nematode genome data. The long-term goal of nematode.net is to provide the scientific community with the highest quality sequence information and tools for studying these diverse species. PMID:14681448

  9. RNAi and functional genomics in plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Rosso, M N; Jones, J T; Abad, P

    2009-01-01

    Plant nematology is currently undergoing a revolution with the availability of the first genome sequences as well as comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries from a range of nematode species. Several strategies are being used to exploit this wealth of information. Comparative genomics is being used to explore the acquisition of novel genes associated with parasitic lifestyles. Functional analyses of nematode genes are moving toward larger scale studies including global transcriptome profiling. RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to reduce expression of a range of plant parasitic nematode genes and is a powerful tool for functional analysis of nematode genes. RNAi-mediated suppression of genes essential for nematode development, survival, or parasitism is revealing new targets for nematode control. Plant nematology in the genomics era is now facing the challenge to develop RNAi screens adequate for high-throughput functional analyses. PMID:19400649

  10. The cyst nematode effector protein 10A07 targets and recruits host posttranslational machinery to mediate its nuclear trafficking and to promote parasitism in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hewezi, Tarek; Juvale, Parijat S; Piya, Sarbottam; Maier, Tom R; Rambani, Aditi; Rice, J Hollis; Mitchum, Melissa G; Davis, Eric L; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J

    2015-03-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes synthesize and secrete effector proteins that are essential for parasitism. One such protein is the 10A07 effector from the sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, which is exclusively expressed in the nematode dorsal gland cell during all nematode parasitic stages. Overexpression of H. schachtii 10A07 in Arabidopsis thaliana produced a hypersusceptible phenotype in response to H. schachtii infection along with developmental changes reminiscent of auxin effects. The 10A07 protein physically associates with a plant kinase and the IAA16 transcription factor in the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively. The interacting plant kinase (IPK) phosphorylates 10A07 at Ser-144 and Ser-231 and mediates its trafficking from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Translocation to the nucleus is phosphorylation dependent since substitution of Ser-144 and Ser-231 by alanine resulted in exclusive cytoplasmic accumulation of 10A07. IPK and IAA16 are highly upregulated in the nematode-induced syncytium (feeding cells), and deliberate manipulations of their expression significantly alter plant susceptibility to H. schachtii in an additive fashion. An inactive variant of IPK functioned antagonistically to the wild-type IPK and caused a dominant-negative phenotype of reduced plant susceptibility. Thus, exploitation of host processes to the advantage of the parasites is one mechanism by which cyst nematodes promote parasitism of host plants. PMID:25715285

  11. The Cyst Nematode Effector Protein 10A07 Targets and Recruits Host Posttranslational Machinery to Mediate Its Nuclear Trafficking and to Promote Parasitism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Hewezi, Tarek; Juvale, Parijat S.; Piya, Sarbottam; Maier, Tom R.; Rambani, Aditi; Rice, J. Hollis; Mitchum, Melissa G.; Davis, Eric L.; Hussey, Richard S.; Baum, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes synthesize and secrete effector proteins that are essential for parasitism. One such protein is the 10A07 effector from the sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, which is exclusively expressed in the nematode dorsal gland cell during all nematode parasitic stages. Overexpression of H. schachtii 10A07 in Arabidopsis thaliana produced a hypersusceptible phenotype in response to H. schachtii infection along with developmental changes reminiscent of auxin effects. The 10A07 protein physically associates with a plant kinase and the IAA16 transcription factor in the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively. The interacting plant kinase (IPK) phosphorylates 10A07 at Ser-144 and Ser-231 and mediates its trafficking from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Translocation to the nucleus is phosphorylation dependent since substitution of Ser-144 and Ser-231 by alanine resulted in exclusive cytoplasmic accumulation of 10A07. IPK and IAA16 are highly upregulated in the nematode-induced syncytium (feeding cells), and deliberate manipulations of their expression significantly alter plant susceptibility to H. schachtii in an additive fashion. An inactive variant of IPK functioned antagonistically to the wild-type IPK and caused a dominant-negative phenotype of reduced plant susceptibility. Thus, exploitation of host processes to the advantage of the parasites is one mechanism by which cyst nematodes promote parasitism of host plants. PMID:25715285

  12. Evolutionary and functional analysis of fructose bisphosphate aldolase of plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Cvs Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Kumar, Himansu; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-01-01

    The essential and ubiquitous enzyme fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) has been a good target for controlling the various types of infections caused by pathogens and parasites. The parasitic infections of nematodes are the major concern of scientific community, leading to biochemical characterization of this enzyme. In this work we have developed a small dataset of all types of FBPA sequences collected from publically available databases (EMBL, NCBI and Uni-Port). The Phylogenetic study shows that evolutionary relationships among sequences of FBPA are clustered into three main groups. FBPA sequences of Globodera rostochiensis (FBPA_GR) and Heterodera glycines (FBPA_HG) are placed in group II, sharing the similar evolutionary relationship. The catalytic mechanism of these enzymes depends upon which class of aldolase, it belongs. The class of enzyme has been confirmed on the basis of sequences and structural similarity with template structure of class I FBPA. To confirm catalytic mechanism of above said model structures, the known substrate fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate (FBP) and competitive inhibitor Mannitol-1, 6 bisphosphate (MBP) were docked at known catalytic site of enzyme of interest. The comparative docking analysis shows that enzyme-substrate complex is forming similar Schiff base intermediate and conducts C(3)-C(4) bond cleavage by forming Hydrogen bonding with reaction catalyzing Glu-191, reactive Lys-150, and Schiff base forming Lys-233. On the other hand enzymeinhibitor noncovalent complex is forming cabinolamine precursor and the proton transfer by the formation of hydrogen bond between MBP O(2) with Glu191 enabling stabilization of cabinolamine transition state, which confirms the similar inhibition mechanism. Thus we conclude that Plant Parasitic Nematodes (PPNs) have evolutionary and functional relationship with the class I aldolase enzyme. Hence, FBPA can be targeted to control plant parasitic nematodes. PMID:23390337

  13. Evolutionary and functional analysis of fructose bisphosphate aldolase of plant parasitic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, CVS Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Kumar, Himansu; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-01-01

    The essential and ubiquitous enzyme fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) has been a good target for controlling the various types of infections caused by pathogens and parasites. The parasitic infections of nematodes are the major concern of scientific community, leading to biochemical characterization of this enzyme. In this work we have developed a small dataset of all types of FBPA sequences collected from publically available databases (EMBL, NCBI and Uni-Port). The Phylogenetic study shows that evolutionary relationships among sequences of FBPA are clustered into three main groups. FBPA sequences of Globodera rostochiensis (FBPA_GR) and Heterodera glycines (FBPA_HG) are placed in group II, sharing the similar evolutionary relationship. The catalytic mechanism of these enzymes depends upon which class of aldolase, it belongs. The class of enzyme has been confirmed on the basis of sequences and structural similarity with template structure of class I FBPA. To confirm catalytic mechanism of above said model structures, the known substrate fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate (FBP) and competitive inhibitor Mannitol-1, 6 bisphosphate (MBP) were docked at known catalytic site of enzyme of interest. The comparative docking analysis shows that enzyme-substrate complex is forming similar Schiff base intermediate and conducts C3–C4 bond cleavage by forming Hydrogen bonding with reaction catalyzing Glu-191, reactive Lys-150, and Schiff base forming Lys-233. On the other hand enzymeinhibitor noncovalent complex is forming cabinolamine precursor and the proton transfer by the formation of hydrogen bond between MBP O2 with Glu191 enabling stabilization of cabinolamine transition state, which confirms the similar inhibition mechanism. Thus we conclude that Plant Parasitic Nematodes (PPNs) have evolutionary and functional relationship with the class I aldolase enzyme. Hence, FBPA can be targeted to control plant parasitic nematodes. PMID:23390337

  14. Signatures of adaptation to plant parasitism in nematode genomes.

    PubMed

    Bird, David McK; Jones, John T; Opperman, Charles H; Kikuchi, Taisei; Danchin, Etienne G J

    2015-02-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause considerable damage to global agriculture. The ability to parasitize plants is a derived character that appears to have independently emerged several times in the phylum Nematoda. Morphological convergence to feeding style has been observed, but whether this is emergent from molecular convergence is less obvious. To address this, we assess whether genomic signatures can be associated with plant parasitism by nematodes. In this review, we report genomic features and characteristics that appear to be common in plant-parasitic nematodes while absent or rare in animal parasites, predators or free-living species. Candidate horizontal acquisitions of parasitism genes have systematically been found in all plant-parasitic species investigated at the sequence level. Presence of peptides that mimic plant hormones also appears to be a trait of plant-parasitic species. Annotations of the few genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes available to date have revealed a set of apparently species-specific genes on every occasion. Effector genes, important for parasitism are frequently found among those species-specific genes, indicating poor overlap. Overall, nematodes appear to have developed convergent genomic solutions to adapt to plant parasitism. PMID:25656361

  15. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive tree (Olea europaea L.) with a focus on the Mediterranean Basin: a review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadine; Chapuis, Elodie; Tavoillot, Johannes; Mateille, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea ssp. europaea.) is one of the most ancient cultivated trees. It is an emblematic species owing to its ecological, economic and cultural importance, especially in the Mediterranean Basin. Plant-parasitic nematodes are major damaging pests on olive trees, mainly in nurseries. They significantly contribute to economic losses in the top-ten olive-producing countries in the world. However, the damages they induce in orchards and nurseries are specifically documented only in a few countries. This review aims to update knowledge about the olive-nematode pathosystem by: (1) updating the list of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees; (2) analysing their diversity (taxonomic level, trophic groups, dominance of taxa), which allowed us (i) to assess the richness observed in each country, and (ii) to exhibit and describe the most important taxa able to induce damages on olive trees such as: Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Tylenchulus, Rotylenchulus, Heterodera (distribution especially in the Mediterranean Basin, pathogenicity and reactions of olive trees); (3) describing some management strategies focusing on alternative control methods; (4) suggesting new approaches for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on the management of the diversity of their communities, which are structured by several environmental factors such as olive diversity (due to domestication of wild olive in the past, and to breeding now), cropping systems (from traditional to high-density orchards), irrigation, and terroirs. PMID:25103828

  16. Bacterial endosymbionts of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several groups of bacteria have been reported as endosymbionts of various orders of nematodes including the filarial nematodes (Brugia malayi, Wucheria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus (Spiruida)), the entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp., and Heterorhabditis spp. (Rhabditida)), and plant-p...

  17. RESPONSES OF HETERODERA GLYCINES AND MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA TO EXOGENOUSLY APPLIED NEUROMODULATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine and serotonin each have significant but differing effects on behavior in juveniles of the plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita. Body movement frequency was increased 2-fold in H. glycines by 5mM dopamine (P = 0.00013), while...

  18. Soybean Yield and Heterodera glycines Responses to Liquid Swine Manure in Nematode Suppressive Soil and Conducive Soil

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yong; Chen, Senyu; Vetsch, Jeffery; Randall, Gyles

    2013-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major factor limiting soybean yield. Experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 to determine the effects of liquid swine manure and chemical fertilizer PK on soybean and corn yields, and on SCN population in an SCN-suppressive field (S-Site) and an SCN-conducive field (C-Site) in Minnesota. The experiment was a split-plot design with crop sequences as main plots and fertilizer treatments as subplots. The 2-yr crop sequences were Sus-Sus, Res-Sus, and Corn-Sus, where Sus was SCN-susceptible soybean, and Res was SCN-resistant soybean. The fertilizer treatments were manure, PK, and a nonfertilizer as control. Manure did not reduce SCN egg population density but resulted in 31% lower SCN second-stage juvenile (J2) population density at the S-Site at 45 d after planting (DAP) in 2009. Manure also reduced spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus spp.) population density by 52% compared with PK and nonfertilizer treatments at S-Site at 45 DAP in 2009. The crop sequence of Corn-Sus and Res-Sus reduced the SCN egg and J2 but increased spiral nematode population density at both sites. An increase of 1.4 Mg/ha and 0.5 Mg/ha in yield of susceptible soybean was observed in manure and PK treatments, respectively, at the C-Site in 2009. Corn yield was 2.8 Mg/ha and 5.0 Mg/ha greater when treated with manure than nonfertilizer at the S-Site and C-Site, respectively. This study suggests that soil fertility management may be a useful strategy to alleviate the SCN damage to soybean. PMID:23589656

  19. Heterozygote deficits in cyst plant-parasitic nematodes: possible causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Montarry, Josselin; Jan, Pierre-Loup; Gracianne, Cecile; Overall, Andrew D J; Bardou-Valette, Sylvie; Olivier, Eric; Fournet, Sylvain; Grenier, Eric; Petit, Eric J

    2015-04-01

    Deviations of genotypic frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) expectations could reveal important aspects of the biology of populations. Deviations from HWE due to heterozygote deficits have been recorded for three plant-parasitic nematode species. However, it has never been determined whether the observed deficits were due (i) to the presence of null alleles, (ii) to a high level of consanguinity and/or (iii) to a Wahlund effect. The aim of the present work was, while taking into the possible confounding effect of null alleles, to disentangle consanguinity and Wahlund effect in natural populations of those three economically important cyst nematodes using microsatellite markers: Globodera pallida, G. tabacum and Heterodera schachtii, pests of potato, tobacco and sugar beet, respectively. The results show a consistent pattern of heterozygote deficiency in the three nematode species sampled at the spatial scale of the host plant. We demonstrate that the prevalence of null alleles is weak and that heterozygote deficits do not have a single origin. Our results suggested that it is restricted dispersal that leads to heterozygote deficits through both consanguinity and substructure, which effects can be linked to soil movement, cyst density, and the number of generations per year. We discuss potential implications for the durability of plant resistances that are used to protect crops against parasites in which mating between relatives occur. While consanguineous mating leads to homozygosity at all loci, including loci governing avirulence/virulence, which favours the expression of virulence when recessive, the Wahlund effect is expected to have no particular effect on the adaptation of nematodes to resistances. PMID:25735762

  20. Plant actin cytoskeleton re-modeling by plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Engler, Janice de Almeida; Rodiuc, Natalia; Smertenko, Andrei; Abad, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The cytoskeleton is an important component of the plant's defense mechanism against the attack of pathogenic organisms. Plants however, are defenseless against parasitic root-knot and cyst nematodes and respond to the invasion by the development of a special feeding site that supplies the parasite with nutrients required for the completion of its life cycle. Recent studies of nematode invasion under treatment with cytoskeletal drugs and in mutant plants where normal functions of the cytoskeleton have been affected, demonstrate the importance of the cytoskeleton in the establishment of a feeding site and successful nematode reproduction. It appears that in the case of microfilaments, nematodes hijack the intracellular machinery that regulates actin dynamics and modulate the organization and properties of the actin filament network. Intervening with this process reduces the nematode infection efficiency and inhibits its life cycle. This discovery uncovers a new pathway that can be exploited for the protection of plants against nematodes. PMID:20038822

  1. Orthologs of macrophage migration inhibitory factor from parasitic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Jon J.; Cho, Yoonsang; Lolis, Elias; Bucala, Richard; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Chronic helminth infections are associated with modulation of host cellular immune responses, presumably to prolong parasite survival within the mammalian host. This phenomenon is attributed, at least in part, to the elaboration of parasite molecules, including orthologs of host cytokines and receptors, at the host–parasite interface. This review describes recent progress in the characterization of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) orthologs from parasitic nematodes. The roles of these molecules in parasite developmental biology and pathogenesis are discussed. Further knowledge of the species-specific activities and three-dimensional structures of human and parasitic nematode MIF molecules should make them ideal targets for drug- and/or vaccine-based strategies aimed at nematode disease control. PMID:18603473

  2. Directional movement of parasitic nematodes in response to electrical current

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steinernematid nematodes are parasites that are important natural regulating agents of insect populations. The infective juvenile nematodes respond to a variety of stimuli that aid in survival and host finding. Host finding strategies among steinernematids differ along a continuum from ambush (sit...

  3. Fungal Parasitism of Heterodera glycines Eggs as Influenced by Egg Age and Pre-colonization of Cysts by Other Fungi.

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y; Chen, F J

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of egg age and pre-colonization of cysts by a saprophytic or parasitic fungus on parasitism of Heterodera glycines eggs by other parasitic fungi. In agar and in soil tests, fungi generally parasitized more eggs in early developmental stages than eggs containing a juvenile. The effect of pre-colonization of cysts by a fungus on parasitism of eggs by other fungi depended on the fungi involved. In most cases, pre-colonization of cysts by an unidentified, saprophytic fungal isolate (A-1-24) did not affect parasitism of eggs in the cysts subsequently treated with other fungi. However, pre-colonization of cysts by A-1-24 reduced fungal parasitism of eggs in cysts subsequently treated with Cylindrocarpon destructans isolate 3. In agar tests, pre-colonization of cysts by Chaetomium cochliodes, a saprophytic or weakly parasitic fungus, reduced parasitism of eggs in cysts subsequently treated with Verticillium chlamydosporium Florida isolate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, ARF18, and another sterile fungus. However, in soil tests, pre-colonization of cysts by C. cochliodes had no effect on parasitism of eggs by subsequent fungal parasites. In another test, parasitism of eggs by V. chlamydosporium in cysts was not affected by pre-colonizing fungi C. destructans, F. oxysporum, and F. solani but was reduced by Mortierella sp., Pyrenochaeta terrestris, and C. cochliodes. Parasitism of eggs in cysts by ARF18 was reduced by pre-colonizing fungi C. destructans, F. oxysporum, F. solani, P. terrestris, and C. cochliodes but not Mortierella sp. PMID:19262761

  4. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...

  5. Soil Organic Matter and Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, T. L.; Mitkowski, N. A.; Abawi, G. S.

    2002-01-01

    Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops. PMID:19265946

  6. Soil organic matter and management of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Widmer, T L; Mitkowski, N A; Abawi, G S

    2002-12-01

    Organic matter and its replenishment has become a major component of soil health management programs. Many of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties are a function of organic matter content and quality. Adding organic matter to soil influences diverse and important biological activities. The diversity and number of free-living and plant-parasitic nematodes are altered by rotational crops, cover crops, green manures, and other sources of organic matter. Soil management programs should include the use of the proper organic materials to improve soil chemical, physical, and biological parameters and to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens. It is critical to monitor the effects of organic matter additions on activities of major and minor plant-parasitic nematodes in the production system. This paper presents a general review of information in the literature on the effects of crop rotation, cover crops, and green manures on nematodes and their damage to economic crops. PMID:19265946

  7. The transcriptomes of the cattle parasitic nematode Ostertagia ostartagi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ostertagia ostertagi is a gastrointestinal parasitic nematode that affects cattle and leads to a loss of production. In this study, we present the first large-scale genomic survey of O. ostertagi by the analysis of expressed transcripts from three stages of the parasite: third-stage larvae, fourth-s...

  8. Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very little is known about the impacts of plant-parasitic nematodes on commercial production of blueberries (Vaccinium spp.). We conducted field surveys in the Pacific Northwest and Canada, as well as controlled experiments in microplots and in the greenhouse, to understand which plant-parasitic ne...

  9. Plant-parasitic Nematodes Associated with Cotton in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Kinlock, R. A.; Sprenkel, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    A sampling of 15% of the cotton hectarage in each Florida county was assayed for nematodes and soil particle components following the 1990 harvest. The distribution of juveniles of Meloidogyne spp., which were found in 61% of the 178 fields sampled statewide, was not influenced by soil type. Rotylenchulus reniformis was more prevalent in the heavier soils and occurred in 15% of the sampled fields. In fields with concomitant infestations (9% of the sampled fields), densities of root-knot juveniles per 10 cm³ soil wer e negatively related to those of reniform nematodes (R² =-0.32; P < 0.02; df = 14). Gall ratings of cotton plants, assayed in sampled soils, were positively related to the densities of root-knot juveniles per 100 cm³ soil (R² = 0.23; P < 0.01; df = 175). Other nematode genera and their frequency of occurrence were Helicotylenchus (76%), Paratrichodorus (57%), Criconemella (53%), Pratylenchus (42%), Xiphinema (7%), Heterodera (2%), and Hoplolaimus (1%). PMID:19279958

  10. A sensory code for host seeking in parasitic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Hallem, Elissa A.; Dillman, Adler R.; Hong, Annie V.; Zhang, Yuanjun; Yano, Jessica M.; DeMarco, Stephanie F.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Nematodes comprise a large phylum of both free-living and parasitic species that show remarkably diverse lifestyles, ecological niches, and behavioral repertoires. Parasitic species in particular often display highly specialized host-seeking behaviors that reflect their specific host preferences. Many host-seeking behaviors can be triggered by the presence of host odors, yet little is known about either the specific olfactory cues that trigger these behaviors or the neural circuits that underlie them. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae are phylogenetically distant insect-parasitic nematodes whose host-seeking and host-invasion behavior resembles that of some of the most devastating human- and plant-parasitic nematodes. Here we compare the olfactory responses of H. bacteriophora and S. carpocapsae infective juveniles (IJs) to those of Caenorhabditis elegans dauers, which are analogous life stages [1]. We show that the broad host range of these parasites results from their ability to respond to the universally-produced signal carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as a wide array of odors, including host-specific odors that we identified using TD-GC-MS. We show that CO2 is attractive for the parasitic IJs and C. elegans dauers despite being repulsive for C. elegans adults [2–4], and we identify an ancient and conserved sensory neuron that mediates CO2 response in both parasitic and free-living species regardless of whether CO2 is an attractive or a repulsive cue. Finally, we show that the parasites’ odor response profiles are more similar to each other than to that of C. elegans despite their greater phylogenetic distance, likely reflecting evolutionary convergence to insect parasitism. Our results suggest that the olfactory responses of parasitic versus free-living nematodes are highly diverse and that this diversity is critical to the evolution of nematode behavior. PMID:21353558

  11. DNA barcoding of parasitic nematodes: is it kosher?

    PubMed

    Siddall, Mark E; Kvist, Sebastion; Phillips, Anna; Oceguera-Figuero, Alejandro

    2012-06-01

    Nematode parasites were encountered in kosher-certified fish meat and roe, and the question was raised as to whether or not these food products were kosher as concerns food preparation standards-a matter that pertains to the identity and, by extension, the life cycle of the parasites. To ascertain the identities of parasitic nematodes, given the distorted or damaged nature of the specimens, molecular techniques were applied in the form of DNA barcoding. To our knowledge, this is the first application of this technique to an obviously cultural concern as opposed to one of health or economic significance. Results, based both on cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II, suggested that the parasite species found in the fish products are anisakine species that do not inhabit the intestinal lumen of the fish hosts examined. Thus, there was no evidence of failure to adhere to food preparation practices consistent with the proscriptions of Orthodox Judaism. Notwithstanding the success of DNA barcoding in determining at least the higher taxonomic identities of the parasites, some shortcomings of the DNA barcoding pipeline as it pertains to nematode parasites were encountered; specifically, the paucity of data available for the DNA barcoding locus, even for very common nematode taxa. PMID:22300283

  12. Microarray detection calls as a means to compare transcripts within syncytial cells isolated from incompatible and compatible soybean (Glycine max) roots infected by the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate pericycle and syncytial cells in soybean (Glycine max cultivar [cv.] Peking) roots infected by incompatible or compatible populations of soybean cyst nematode (SCN [Heterodera glycines]). Gene transcript detection calls were assayed using the A...

  13. Incidence and influence of plant-parasitic nematodes in southern Illinois peach orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency, distribution and impact of plant-parasitic nematodes in southern Illinois peach orchards were determined. Nine plant parasitic nematode genera were detected comprising 11 different species: Helicotylenchus platyurus, Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus, Hoplolaimus spp., Meloidogyne spp., ...

  14. Exploitation of FTA cartridges for the sampling, long-term storage, and DNA-based analyses of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Marek, Martin; Zouhar, Miloslav; Douda, Ondřej; Maňasová, Marie; Ryšánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    The use of DNA-based analyses in molecular plant nematology research has dramatically increased over recent decades. Therefore, the development and adaptation of simple, robust, and cost-effective DNA purification procedures are required to address these contemporary challenges. The solid-phase-based approach developed by Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) has been shown to be a powerful technology for the preparation of DNA from different biological materials, including blood, saliva, plant tissues, and various human and plant microbial pathogens. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that this FTA-based technology is a valuable, low-cost, and time-saving approach for the sampling, long-term archiving, and molecular analysis of plant-parasitic nematodes. Despite the complex structure and anatomical organization of the multicellular bodies of nematodes, we report the successful and reliable DNA-based analysis of nematode high-copy and low-copy genes using the FTA technology. This was achieved by applying nematodes to the FTA cards either in the form of a suspension of individuals, as intact or pestle-crushed nematodes, or by the direct mechanical printing of nematode-infested plant tissues. We further demonstrate that the FTA method is also suitable for the so-called "one-nematode-assay", in which the target DNA is typically analyzed from a single individual nematode. More surprisingly, a time-course experiment showed that nematode DNA can be detected specifically in the FTA-captured samples many years after initial sampling occurs. Collectively, our data clearly demonstrate the applicability and the robustness of this FTA-based approach for molecular research and diagnostics concerning phytonematodes; this research includes economically important species such as the stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci), the sugar beet nematode (Heterodera schachtii), and the Northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla). PMID:24093923

  15. Molecular mechanisms of nematode-nematophagous microbe interactions: basis for biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ji, Xinglai; Niu, Xuemei; Yang, Jinkui; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant damage to a broad range of vegetables and agricultural crops throughout the world. As the natural enemies of nematodes, nematophagous microorganisms offer a promising approach to control the nematode pests. Some of these microorganisms produce traps to capture and kill the worms from the outside. Others act as internal parasites to produce toxins and virulence factors to kill the nematodes from within. Understanding the molecular basis of microbe-nematode interactions provides crucial insights for developing effective biological control agents against plant-parasitic nematodes. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the interactions between nematodes and nematophagous microorganisms, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which nematophagous microorganisms infect nematodes and on the nematode defense against pathogenic attacks. We conclude by discussing several key areas for future research and development, including potential approaches to apply our recent understandings to develop effective biocontrol strategies. PMID:25938277

  16. Nucleic acid transfection and transgenesis in parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Lok, James B

    2012-04-01

    Transgenesis is an essential tool for assessing gene function in any organism, and it is especially crucial for parasitic nematodes given the dwindling armamentarium of effective anthelmintics and the consequent need to validate essential molecular targets for new drugs and vaccines. Two of the major routes of gene delivery evaluated to date in parasitic nematodes, bombardment with DNA-coated microparticles and intragonadal microinjection of DNA constructs, draw upon experience with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Bombardment has been used to transiently transfect Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi and Litomosoides sigmodontis with both RNA and DNA. Microinjection has been used to achieve heritable transgenesis in Strongyloides stercoralis, S. ratti and Parastrongyloides trichosuri and for additional transient expression studies in B. malayi. A third route of gene delivery revisits a classic method involving DNA transfer facilitated by calcium-mediated permeabilization of recipient cells in developing B. malayi larvae and results in transgene inheritance through host and vector passage. Assembly of microinjected transgenes into multi-copy episomal arrays likely results in their transcriptional silencing in some parasitic nematodes. Methods such as transposon-mediated transgenesis that favour low-copy number chromosomal integration may remedy this impediment to establishing stable transgenic lines. In the future, stable transgenesis in parasitic nematodes could enable loss-of-function approaches by insertional mutagenesis, in situ expression of inhibitory double-stranded RNA or boosting RNAi susceptibility through heterologous expression of dsRNA processing and transport proteins. PMID:21880161

  17. Selecting soybean resistant to the cyst nematode Heterodera glycines using simple sequence repeat (microssatellite) markers.

    PubMed

    Espindola, S M C G; Hamawaki, O T; Oliveira, A P; Hamawaki, C D L; Hamawaki, R L; Takahashi, L M

    2016-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major cause of soybean yield reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of marker-assisted selection to identify genotypes resistant to SCN race 3 infection, using Sat_168 and Sat-141 resistance quantitative trait loci. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, using soybean populations originated from crosses between susceptible and resistant parent stock: CD-201 (susceptible) and Foster IAC (resistant), Conquista (susceptible) and S83-30 (resistant), La-Suprema (susceptible) and S57-11 (resistant), and Parecis (susceptible) and S65-50 (resistant). Plants were inoculated with SCN and evaluated according to the female index (FI), those with FI < 10% were classified as resistant to nematode infection. Plants were genotyped for SCN resistance using microsatellite markers Sat-141 and Sat_168. Marker selection efficiency was analyzed by a contingency table, taking into account genotypic versus phenotypic evaluations for each line. These markers were shown to be useful tool for selection of SCN race 3. PMID:26985946

  18. Ups and downs of RNA interference in parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Britton, Collette; Samarasinghe, Buddhini; Knox, David P

    2012-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used in Caenorhabiditis elegans to identify essential gene function. In parasitic nematodes RNAi has been reported to result in transcript knockdown of some target genes, but not others, thus limiting its use as a potential functional genomics tool. We recently extended work in Haemonchus contortus to examine why only some genes seem to be susceptible to RNAi and to test RNAi effects in vivo. Here we review our findings, which suggest that site of gene expression influences silencing. This most likely reflects limited uptake of dsRNA from the environment, a phenomenon also observed in other free-living nematodes. We discuss new technologies to improve dsRNA delivery, such as nanoparticles being developed for therapeutic siRNA delivery, and methods to monitor RNAi effects. Alternative approaches will be important in progressing the application of RNAi to identify essential gene function in parasitic nematodes. PMID:21854774

  19. Nematode parasites of waterfowl (Anseriformes) from western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, M.E.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-four species of nematodes were found in 415 Anseriformes (Anatidae) of 27 species; 93.7% of birds over 4 weeks old were infected. Data on prevalence, host specificity, age of host, and geographic distribution are given. Infections were more intense in sick birds and birds in poor physical condition. Accidental or abnormal infection was more likely in sick than in normal birds. From 1 to 13 species of nematodes are reported from each host species, including 118 new host records, 3 nematodes new for North America, and 1 new species. Multiple infections were present in 76.5% of birds parasitized; eight species of nematodes were found in one whistling swan (Olor columbianus).

  20. Resistance of Grape Rootstocks to Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year screening process, 13 selections emerged with either almost complete or complete combined resistance to M. incognita Race 3, M. incognita pathotype Harmony C, M. arenaria pathotype Harmony A, and X. index, important nematode pests of grapevines. Durability of this broad resistance was tested by challenging the selections with the target nematodes in combination and with the target nematodes in combinations with species not included in the screening process. Durability of resistance of the candidate rootstocks was also tested by exposure to the nematode communities of infested field soils from different locations. Breadth of resistance was determined on the basis of their host status to non-target nematodes, including Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus vulnus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans and Paratylenchus hamatus. After a total of 204 separate trials, the rootstocks were released to the grape industry as UCD GRN1, UCD GRN2, UCD GRN3, UCD GRN4, and UCD GRN5. We provide a compilation of current knowledge of the host status of these five newly released rootstocks and of 27 other rootstock cultivars to plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482972

  1. Isolation of nematicidal compounds from Tagetes patula L. yellow flowers: structure-activity relationship studies against cyst nematode Heterodera zeae infective stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Faizi, Shaheen; Fayyaz, Shahina; Bano, Samina; Iqbal, Erum Yawar; Lubna; Siddiqi, Humaira; Naz, Aneela

    2011-09-14

    Bioassay-guided isolation studies on the extracts of yellow flowers of Tagetes patula L. against the Heterodera zeae were carried out to identify phytochemicals lethal to this economically important cyst nematode. In vitro investigation of a polar extract and fractions showing activity led to the isolation of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids). In the nonpolar extract, a few fatty acids, their methyl esters, and thiophenes (including α-terthienyl) were detected. In studies of compounds obtained commercially, α-terthienyl and gallic and linoleic acids showed 100% mortality at concentrations of 0.125% after 24 h. Assessment of structure-activity relationships revealed that an increase in the number of hydroxyl groups in phenolic acids increased the activity; with fatty acids, activity depended on chain length and the number and position of double bonds. Crude extracts of the flowers of different colors also have promising activity. PMID:21780738

  2. Mechanisms of molecular mimicry of plant CLE peptide ligands by the parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes that parasitize plant roots cause huge economic losses and have few mechanisms for control. Many parasitic nematodes infect plants by reprogramming root development to drive the formation of feeding structures. How nematodes take control of plant development is largely unknown. The CLE ...

  3. The Beet Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii Modulates the Expression of WRKY Transcription Factors in Syncytia to Favour Its Development in Arabidopsis Roots

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Kreil, David P.; Bohlmann, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Cyst nematodes invade the roots of their host plants as second stage juveniles and induce a syncytium which is the only source of nutrients throughout their life. A recent transcriptome analysis of syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots has shown that thousands of genes are up-regulated or down-regulated in syncytia as compared to root segments from uninfected plants. Among the down-regulated genes are many which code for WRKY transcription factors. Arabidopsis contains 66 WRKY genes with 59 represented by the ATH1 GeneChip. Of these, 28 were significantly down-regulated and 6 up-regulated in syncytia as compared to control root segments. We have studied here the down-regulated genes WRKY6, WRKY11, WRKY17 and WRKY33 in detail. We confirmed the down-regulation in syncytia with promoter::GUS lines. Using various overexpression lines and mutants it was shown that the down-regulation of these WRKY genes is important for nematode development, probably through interfering with plant defense reactions. In case of WRKY33, this might involve the production of the phytoalexin camalexin. PMID:25033038

  4. Chemical Communicators in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical signals released by one organism and perceived by another organism are classified as semiochemicals. Semiochemicals are divided into pheromones, which elicit intraspecific responses, and allelochemics, which elicit interspecific responses. Nematodes utilize and (or) recognize signals from both categories of semiochemicals. The existence of pheromones, specifically sex and aggregation pheromones, has been demonstrated in numerous plant and animal parasitic and free-living nematodes. Sex pheromones have been isolated and purified from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heterodera glycines, and epidietic pheromones have been shown to be responsible for initiation of dauer juvenile formation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Allelochemics cause interspecific responses in insects and other invertebrates but are only postulated to occur in nematodes. Food-finding behavior of nematodes is almost certainly caused by host-released allelochemic messengers. Understanding of the behavioral responses and the chemical messengers that affect bioregulation of various processes in nematodes will influence future management strategies. PMID:19294130

  5. Infection with parasitic nematodes confounds vaccination efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of IL-12 and IFN-' resulting from exposure to many bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens is responsible for Th1-derived protective responses that also can inhibit development of Th2-cells expressing IL-4-dependent immunity to extra cellular helminth parasites and vice versa. In a ...

  6. Can parasites halt the invader? Mermithid nematodes parasitizing the yellow-legged Asian hornet in France

    PubMed Central

    Zuccon, Dario; Rome, Quentin; Muller, Franck; Poinar Jr, George O.; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in France 10 years ago, the yellow-legged Asian bee-hawking hornet Vespa velutina has rapidly spread to neighboring countries (Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Italy, and Germany), becoming a new threat to beekeeping activities. While introduced species often leave behind natural enemies from their original home, which benefits them in their new environment, they can also suffer local recruitment of natural enemies. Three mermithid parasitic subadults were obtained from V. velutina adults in 2012, from two French localities. However, these were the only parasitic nematodes reported up to now in Europe, in spite of the huge numbers of nests destroyed each year and the recent examination of 33,000 adult hornets. This suggests that the infection of V. velutina by these nematodes is exceptional. Morphological criteria assigned the specimens to the genus Pheromermis and molecular data (18S sequences) to the Mermithidae, due to the lack of Pheromermis spp. sequences in GenBank. The species is probably Pheromermis vesparum, a parasite of social wasps in Europe. This nematode is the second native enemy of Vespa velutina recorded in France, after a conopid fly whose larvae develop as internal parasitoids of adult wasps and bumblebees. In this paper, we provide arguments for the local origin of the nematode parasite and its limited impact on hornet colony survival. We also clarify why these parasites (mermithids and conopids) most likely could not hamper the hornet invasion nor be used in biological control programs against this invasive species. PMID:26038716

  7. Can parasites halt the invader? Mermithid nematodes parasitizing the yellow-legged Asian hornet in France.

    PubMed

    Villemant, Claire; Zuccon, Dario; Rome, Quentin; Muller, Franck; Poinar, George O; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in France 10 years ago, the yellow-legged Asian bee-hawking hornet Vespa velutina has rapidly spread to neighboring countries (Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Italy, and Germany), becoming a new threat to beekeeping activities. While introduced species often leave behind natural enemies from their original home, which benefits them in their new environment, they can also suffer local recruitment of natural enemies. Three mermithid parasitic subadults were obtained from V. velutina adults in 2012, from two French localities. However, these were the only parasitic nematodes reported up to now in Europe, in spite of the huge numbers of nests destroyed each year and the recent examination of 33,000 adult hornets. This suggests that the infection of V. velutina by these nematodes is exceptional. Morphological criteria assigned the specimens to the genus Pheromermis and molecular data (18S sequences) to the Mermithidae, due to the lack of Pheromermis spp. sequences in GenBank. The species is probably Pheromermis vesparum, a parasite of social wasps in Europe. This nematode is the second native enemy of Vespa velutina recorded in France, after a conopid fly whose larvae develop as internal parasitoids of adult wasps and bumblebees. In this paper, we provide arguments for the local origin of the nematode parasite and its limited impact on hornet colony survival. We also clarify why these parasites (mermithids and conopids) most likely could not hamper the hornet invasion nor be used in biological control programs against this invasive species. PMID:26038716

  8. The activation and suppression of plant innate immunity by parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their host plants, often involving complex alterations in host cell morphology and function. It is puzzling how nematodes can achieve this, seemingly without activating the innate immune system of their hosts. Secretions released by infective juvenile nematodes are thought to be crucial for host invasion, for nematode migration inside plants, and for feeding on host cells. In the past, much of the research focused on the manipulation of developmental pathways in host plants by plant-parasitic nematodes. However, recent findings demonstrate that plant-parasitic nematodes also deliver effectors into the apoplast and cytoplasm of host cells to suppress plant defense responses. In this review, we describe the current insights in the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the activation and suppression of host innate immunity by plant-parasitic nematodes along seven critical evolutionary and developmental transitions in plant parasitism. PMID:24906126

  9. The expression of a naturally occuriing truncated allele of an alpha-SNAP gene suppresses plant parasitic nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    rhg1, defined within a 67 kb region of DNA on chromosome 18, is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) in Glycine max (soybean) providing defense to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Transcriptional mapping experiments identified an alpha soluble NSF attachment protein (alpha-SNAP) wi...

  10. Limiting opportunities for cheating stabilizes virulence in insect parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Shapiro-Ilan, David; Raymond, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative secretion of virulence factors by pathogens can lead to social conflict when cheating mutants exploit collective secretion, but do not contribute to it. If cheats outcompete cooperators within hosts, this can cause loss of virulence. Insect parasitic nematodes are important biocontrol tools that secrete a range of significant virulence factors. Critically, effective nematodes are hard to maintain without live passage, which can lead to virulence attenuation. Using experimental evolution, we tested whether social cheating might explain unstable virulence in the nematode Heterorhabditis floridensis by manipulating relatedness via multiplicity of infection (MOI), and the scale of competition. Passage at high MOI, which should reduce relatedness, led to loss of fitness: virulence and reproductive rate declined together and all eight independent lines suffered premature extinction. As theory predicts, relatedness treatments had more impact under stronger global competition. In contrast, low MOI passage led to more stable virulence and increased reproduction. Moreover, low MOI lineages showed a trade-off between virulence and reproduction, particularly for lines under stronger between-host competition. Overall, this study indicates that evolution of virulence theory is valuable for the culture of biocontrol agents: effective nematodes can be improved and maintained if passage methods mitigate possible social conflicts. PMID:26989437

  11. Plant-parasitic Nematode Problems in the Pacific Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, John

    1988-01-01

    The Pacific islands have a diverse range of food and cash crops with indigenous and introduced nematode problems. The staple food crops have serious nematode pests, such as Meloidogyne spp. on sweet potato, Hirschmanniella miticausa causing corm rot of taro, and Pratylenchus coffeae and Radopholus sp. producing tuber dry rot of yams. Bananas are infested with P. coffeae or R. similis, citrus with Tylenchulus semipenetrans, rice with Aphelenchoides besseyi, and ginger with Meloidogyne spp. and R. similis. Rotylenchulus reniformis, P. zeae, P. brachyurus, and Helicotylenchus spp. are important on all of these and other crops, such as sugarcane, passion fruit, pawpaw, and cassava. Meloidogyne spp. cause serious damage to local and introduced leaf and fruit vegetables and other crops, such as tobacco, sugarcane, pawpaw, black pepper, and pyrethrum. Many other plant-parasitic genera and species, some undescribed, occur in the Pacific, and there are many islands still to be investigated. PMID:19290200

  12. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Huan; Luo, Shujie; Huang, Wenkun; Cui, Jiangkuan; Li, Xin; Kong, Lingan; Jiang, Daohong; Chitwood, David J.; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more than Ha-far-2 in

  13. Characterization of Three Novel Fatty Acid- and Retinoid-Binding Protein Genes (Ha-far-1, Ha-far-2 and Hf-far-1) from the Cereal Cyst Nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fen; Luo, Lilian; Peng, Huan; Luo, Shujie; Huang, Wenkun; Cui, Jiangkuan; Li, Xin; Kong, Lingan; Jiang, Daohong; Chitwood, David J; Peng, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi are major parasites of wheat, reducing production worldwide. Both are sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, and their development and parasitism depend strongly on nutrients obtained from hosts. Secreted fatty acid- and retinol-binding (FAR) proteins are nematode-specific lipid carrier proteins used for nutrient acquisition as well as suppression of plant defenses. In this study, we obtained three novel FAR genes Ha-far-1 (KU877266), Ha-far-2 (KU877267), Hf-far-1 (KU877268). Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 were cloned from H. avenae, encoding proteins of 191 and 280 amino acids with molecular masses about 17 and 30 kDa, respectively and sequence identity of 28%. Protein Blast in NCBI revealed that Ha-FAR-1 sequence is 78% similar to the Gp-FAR-1 protein from Globodera pallida, while Ha-FAR-2 is 30% similar to Rs-FAR-1 from Radopholus similis. Only one FAR protein Hf-FAR-1was identified in H. filipjevi; it had 96% sequence identity to Ha-FAR-1. The three proteins are alpha-helix-rich and contain the conserved domain of Gp-FAR-1, but Ha-FAR-2 had a remarkable peptide at the C-terminus which was random-coil-rich. Both Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 had casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, while Ha-FAR-2 had predicted N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three proteins clustered together, though Ha-FAR-1 and Hf-FAR-1 adjoined each other in a plant-parasitic nematode branch, but Ha-FAR-2 was distinct from the other proteins in the group. Fluorescence-based ligand binding analysis showed the three FAR proteins bound to a fluorescent fatty acid derivative and retinol and with dissociation constants similar to FARs from other species, though Ha-FAR-2 binding ability was weaker than that of the two others. In situ hybridization detected mRNAs of Ha-far-1 and Ha-far-2 in the hypodermis. The qRT-PCR results showed that the Ha-far-1and Ha-far-2 were expressed in all developmental stages; Ha-far-1 expressed 70 times more than Ha-far-2 in

  14. Parasite-induced aposematism” protects entomopathogenic nematode parasites against invertebrate enemies

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Andy; Speed, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Aposematism is a well-known strategy in which prey defend themselves from predation by pairing defenses such as toxins, with warning signals that are often visually conspicuous color patterns. Here, we examine the possibility that aposematism can be induced in a host by colonies of infectious parasites in order to protect the parasites from the consequences of attacks on the host. Earlier studies show that avian predators are reluctant to feed on carcasses of host prey that are infected with the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. As the age of infection increases, the parasites kill and preserve the host and subsequently cause its color to change, becoming bright pink then red. Nematode colonies in dead hosts may also be vulnerable, however, to nocturnally active foragers that do not use vision in prey detection. Here, then we test a novel hypothesis that the nematode parasites also produce a warning odor, which functions to repel nocturnally active predators (in this case, the beetle Pterostichus madidus). We show that beetles decrease their feeding on infected insect prey as the age of infection increases and that olfactory cues associated with the infections are effective mechanisms for deterring beetle predation, even at very early stages of infection. We propose that “parasite-induced aposematism” from the nematodes serves to replace the antipredator defenses of the recently killed host. Because sessile carcasses are exposed to a greater range of predators than the live hosts, several alternative defense mechanisms are required to protect the colony, hence aposematic signals are likely diverse in such “parasite-induced aposematism.” PMID:27004015

  15. Chemical ecology and isolation of biologically active compounds from parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp) are possibly the economically most important and best-studied species of plant parasitic nematodes. However, for Meloidogyne spp and the intensely studied nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, very little is known about signaling within and in-between species. It h...

  16. Microsporidia Are Natural Intracellular Parasites of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Troemel, Emily R; Félix, Marie-Anne; Whiteman, Noah K; Barrière, Antoine; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2008-01-01

    For decades the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been an important model system for biology, but little is known about its natural ecology. Recently, C. elegans has become the focus of studies of innate immunity and several pathogens have been shown to cause lethal intestinal infections in C. elegans. However none of these pathogens has been shown to invade nematode intestinal cells, and no pathogen has been isolated from wild-caught C. elegans. Here we describe an intracellular pathogen isolated from wild-caught C. elegans that we show is a new species of microsporidia. Microsporidia comprise a large class of eukaryotic intracellular parasites that are medically and agriculturally important, but poorly understood. We show that microsporidian infection of the C. elegans intestine proceeds through distinct stages and is transmitted horizontally. Disruption of a conserved cytoskeletal structure in the intestine called the terminal web correlates with the release of microsporidian spores from infected cells, and appears to be part of a novel mechanism by which intracellular pathogens exit from infected cells. Unlike in bacterial intestinal infections, the p38 MAPK and insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathways do not appear to play substantial roles in resistance to microsporidian infection in C. elegans. We found microsporidia in multiple wild-caught isolates of Caenorhabditis nematodes from diverse geographic locations. These results indicate that microsporidia are common parasites of C. elegans in the wild. In addition, the interaction between C. elegans and its natural microsporidian parasites provides a system in which to dissect intracellular intestinal infection in vivo and insight into the diversity of pathogenic mechanisms used by intracellular microbes. PMID:19071962

  17. Large Particle Sorting to Isolate Live Parasitic Nematode Eggs.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alfonso; Bouchery, Tiffany; Le Gros, Graham; Price, Kylie M

    2016-01-01

    Traditional jet-in-air cell sorters have been designed and optimized to isolate small particles such as mammalian lymphocytes with an average diameter of 10 μm. We discuss the practical considerations of setting up a conventional jet-in-air cell sorter, using a 200-μm nozzle, to isolate the large parasitic nematode eggs of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, with a maximum size of 60 μm. The eggs were separated based on light scattering properties, no fluorescent dye or molecule was required. PMID:27037578

  18. Cyst nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis thaliana is inhibited by salicylic acid (SA) and elicits uncoupled SA-independent pathogenesis-related gene expression in roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compatible interactions between plants and sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, including Heterodera and Meloidogyne spp., require the formation of elaborate feeding sites in proximity to the root vasculature. Feeding site development involves a signal exchange between the host and the nematode and i...

  19. Molecular and functional characterization of parasitism genes of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) are quarantined pests threatening the potato industry in the United States. Secreted proteins encoded by parasitism genes expressed in the esophageal gland cells of plant-parasitic nematodes represent the primary molecules involved in pl...

  20. Research collaborations can improve the use of organic amendments for plant-parasitic nematode management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concept of utilizing organic amendments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes is not new, but the widespread implementation of this management practice has still not been realized. The use of organic amendments for plant-parasitic nematode management is a complex process requiring an understandin...

  1. Characterization of the Pseudomonas genus of bacteria for plant-parasitic nematode control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are among the most destructive plant pests, causing substantial economic losses to agronomic crops worldwide. Current methods of using bacteria as biocontrol agents for plant-parasitic nematodes have met with limited success in part due to limited knowledge about mechanism...

  2. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with grapevines, Vitis vinifera, in Washington and Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys were conducted in eastern Washington and Idaho to determine the plant-parasitic nematodes associated with wine grape (Vitis vinifera) vineyards. The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington and Idaho wine grape vineyards were Meloidogyne hapla, Paratylenchus ...

  3. PARASITISM GENES IDENTIFIED IN THE POTATO CYST NEMATODE, GLOBODERA ROSTOCHIENSIS, USING A COMPARATIVE GENOMIC APPROACH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stylet secretions are encoded by parasitism genes expressed in the esophageal gland cells of plant-parasitic nematodes. These are the primary signals that facilitate nematode migration in host roots and control the formation of the elaborate feeding cells necessary for the development and reproduct...

  4. Root transformation of Glycine max with responsive promoters to nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines), an obligate parasite of plants, is the most damaging pathogen of soybean, causing $469 to $818 million in soybean yield losses annually in the United States. However, there are no soybean cultivars available that are resistant to all SCN populati...

  5. The Ditylenchus destructor genome provides new insights into the evolution of plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinshui; Peng, Donghai; Chen, Ling; Liu, Hualin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Mengci; Ju, Shouyong; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

    2016-07-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes were found in 4 of the 12 clades of phylum Nematoda. These nematodes in different clades may have originated independently from their free-living fungivorous ancestors. However, the exact evolutionary process of these parasites is unclear. Here, we sequenced the genome sequence of a migratory plant nematode, Ditylenchus destructor We performed comparative genomics among the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and all the plant nematodes with genome sequences available. We found that, compared with C. elegans, the core developmental control processes underwent heavy reduction, though most signal transduction pathways were conserved. We also found D. destructor contained more homologies of the key genes in the above processes than the other plant nematodes. We suggest that Ditylenchus spp. may be an intermediate evolutionary history stage from free-living nematodes that feed on fungi to obligate plant-parasitic nematodes. Based on the facts that D. destructor can feed on fungi and has a relatively short life cycle, and that it has similar features to both C. elegans and sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes from clade 12, we propose it as a new model to study the biology, biocontrol of plant nematodes and the interaction between nematodes and plants. PMID:27466450

  6. Parasitic success without sex – the nematode experience.

    PubMed

    Castagnone-Sereno, P; Danchin, E G J

    2014-07-01

    Asexual reproduction is usually considered as an evolutionary dead end, and difficulties for asexual lineages to adapt to a fluctuating environment are anticipated due to the lack of sufficient genetic plasticity. Yet, unlike their sexual congeners, mitotic parthenogenetic root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne spp., are remarkably widespread and polyphagous, with the ability to parasitize most flowering plants. Although this may reflect in part the short-term stability of agricultural environments, the extreme parasitic success of these clonal species points them as an outstanding evolutionary paradox regarding current theories on the benefits of sex. The discovery that most of the genome of the clonal species M. incognita is composed of pairs of homologous but divergent segments that have presumably been evolving independently in the absence of sexual recombination has shed new light on this evolutionary paradox. Together with recent studies on other biological systems, including the closely related sexual species M. hapla and the ancient asexual bdelloid rotifers, this observation suggests that functional innovation could emerge from such a peculiar genome architecture, which may in turn account for the extreme adaptive capacities of these asexual parasites. Additionally, the higher proportion of transposable elements in M. incognita compared to M. hapla and other nematodes may also be responsible in part for genome plasticity in the absence of sexual reproduction. We foresee that ongoing sequencing efforts should lead soon to a genomic framework involving genetically diverse Meloidogyne species with various different reproductive modes. This will undoubtedly promote the entire genus as a unique and valuable model system to help deciphering the evolution of asexual reproduction in eukaryotes. PMID:25105196

  7. Overview of organic amendments for management of plant-parasitic nematodes, with case studies from Florida.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Robert

    2011-06-01

    Organic amendments have been widely used for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Relatively rapid declines in nematode population levels may occur when decomposing materials release toxic compounds, while longer-term effects might include increases in nematode antagonists. Improved crop nutrition and plant growth following amendment use may lead to tolerance of plant-parasitic nematodes. Results depend on a great variety of factors such as material used, processing/composting of material, application rate, test arena, crop rotation and agronomic practices, soil type, climate, and other environmental factors. Reasons for variable performance and interpretation of results from amendment studies are discussed. Case studies of amendments for nematode management are reviewed from Florida, where composts and crop residues are the most frequently used amendments. Plant growth was often improved by amendment application, free-living nematodes (especially bacterivores) were often stimulated, but suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes was inconsistent. Amendments were generally not as effective as soil fumigation with methyl bromide for managing root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), and often population levels or galling of root-knot nematodes in amended plots did not differ from those in non-amended control plots. While amendments may improve plant growth and stimulate soil food webs, additional study and testing are needed before they could be used reliably for management of plant-parasitic nematodes under Florida conditions. PMID:22791915

  8. Overview of Organic Amendments for Management of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes, with Case Studies from Florida

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Organic amendments have been widely used for management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Relatively rapid declines in nematode population levels may occur when decomposing materials release toxic compounds, while longer-term effects might include increases in nematode antagonists. Improved crop nutrition and plant growth following amendment use may lead to tolerance of plant-parasitic nematodes. Results depend on a great variety of factors such as material used, processing/composting of material, application rate, test arena, crop rotation and agronomic practices, soil type, climate, and other environmental factors. Reasons for variable performance and interpretation of results from amendment studies are discussed. Case studies of amendments for nematode management are reviewed from Florida, where composts and crop residues are the most frequently used amendments. Plant growth was often improved by amendment application, free-living nematodes (especially bacterivores) were often stimulated, but suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes was inconsistent. Amendments were generally not as effective as soil fumigation with methyl bromide for managing root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), and often population levels or galling of root-knot nematodes in amended plots did not differ from those in non-amended control plots. While amendments may improve plant growth and stimulate soil food webs, additional study and testing are needed before they could be used reliably for management of plant-parasitic nematodes under Florida conditions. PMID:22791915

  9. The Genomic Basis of Parasitism in the Strongyloides Clade of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Vicky L.; Tsai, Isheng J.; Coghlan, Avril; Reid, Adam J.; Holroyd, Nancy; Foth, Bernardo J.; Tracey, Alan; Cotton, James A.; Stanley, Eleanor J.; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M.; Brooks, Karen; Harsha, Bhavana; Kajitani, Rei; Kulkarni, Arpita; Harbecke, Dorothee; Nagayasu, Eiji; Nichol, Sarah; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Quail, Michael A.; Randle, Nadine; Xia, Dong; Brattig, Norbert W.; Soblik, Hanns; Ribeiro, Diogo M.; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Itoh, Takehiko; Denver, Dee R.; Grant, Warwick; Stoltzfus, Jonathan D.; Lok, James B.; Murayama, Haruhiko; Wastling, Jonathan; Streit, Adrian; Kikuchi, Taisei; Viney, Mark; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Soil transmitted nematodes, including Strongyloides, cause one of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases. Here we compare the genomes of four Strongyloides spp., including the human pathogen S. stercoralis, and their close relatives that are facultatively parasitic (Parastrongyloides trichosuri) and free-living (Rhabditophanes sp). A significant paralogous expansion of key gene families – astacin-like and SCP/TAPS coding gene families – is associated with the evolution of parasitism in this clade. Exploiting the unique Strongyloides life cycle we compare the transcriptome of its parasitic and free-living stages and find that these same genes are upregulated in the parasitic stages, underscoring their role in nematode parasitism. PMID:26829753

  10. The transcriptomes of the cattle parasitic nematode Ostertagia ostartagi

    PubMed Central

    Abubucker, Sahar; Zarlenga, Dante S.; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Wang, Zhengyuan; McCarter, James P.; Gasbarree, Louis; Wilson, Richard K.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2009-01-01

    Ostertagia ostertagi is a gastrointestinal parasitic nematode that affects cattle and leads to a loss of production. In this study, we present the first large-scale genomic survey of Ostertagia ostertagi by the analysis of expressed transcripts from three stages of the parasite: third-stage larvae, fourth-stage larvae and adult worms. Using an in silico approach, 2,284 genes were identified from over 7,000 expressed sequence tags and abundant transcripts were analyzed and characterized by their functional profile. Of the 2,284 genes, 66% had similarity to other known or predicted genes while the rest were novel and potentially represent genes specific to the species and/or stages. Furthermore, a subset of the novel proteins were structurally annotated and assigned putative function based on orthologs in C. elegans and corresponding RNA interference phenotypes. Hence, over 70% of the genes were annotated using protein sequences, domains and pathway databases. Differentially expressed transcripts from the two larval stages and their functional profiles were also studied leading to a more detailed understanding of the parasite’s life-cycle. The identified transcripts are a valuable resource for genomic studies of O. ostertagi and can facilitate the design of control strategies and vaccine programs. PMID:19346077

  11. Spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in semi-arid Vitis vinifera vineyards in Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical an...

  12. Transcript Analysis of Parasitic Females of the Sedentary Semi-Endoparasitic Nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira, is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic roundworm that infects the roots of many economically important plant species. Engineered resistance to plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) via RNA-interference (RNAi) has shown promise in providing h...

  13. USDA ARS RESEARCH PROGRAMS ON MICROBES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restrictions on use of conventional nematicides have increased the need for new methods of managing plant-parasitic nematodes. Consequently, nematode-antagonistic microbes, and active compounds produced by such organisms, are being explored as potential additions to management practices. Programs ...

  14. Role of nematode peptides and other small molecules in plant parasitism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular, genetic, and biochemical studies are demonstrating an increasingly important role of peptide signaling in nematode parasitism of plants. To date, the majority of nematode-secreted peptides identified share similarity with plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE) peptides, but bioinformatics analyses of n...

  15. USE OF MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA TO MODEL THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES AND LEGUMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are using Medicago truncatula as a model plant for examination of the interaction between plant-parasitic nematodes and legumes. One objective of this work is to identify and characterize genes from the plant that are involved in the host response to nematodes or in host resistance. Using bioinfo...

  16. The plant-parasitic nematode collections of RRIP: The realization of an ISTC project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are important pests of agricultural and wild plants throughout Russia and the world. The best strategy for management of nematode damage is an integrated approach to the problem: i.e., the use of agrotechnological approaches (crop rotation, soil amendments, etc.), reasonabl...

  17. Molecular characterization of the reniform nematode C-type lectin gene family reveals a likely role in mitigating environmental stresses during plant parasitism.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Satish; Jenkins, Johnie N; Wubben, Martin J

    2014-03-10

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is a damaging semi-endoparasitic pathogen of more than 300 plant species. Transcriptome sequencing of R. reniformis parasitic females revealed an enrichment for sequences homologous to C-type lectins (CTLs), an evolutionarily ancient family of Ca(+2)-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins that are involved in the innate immune response. To gain further insight as to the potential role of CTLs in facilitating plant parasitism by R. reniformis, we performed a comprehensive assessment of the CTL gene family. 5'- and 3'-RACE experiments identified a total of 11 R. reniformis CTL transcripts (Rr-ctl-1 through Rr-ctl-11) that ranged in length from 1083 to 1,194 bp and showed 93-99% identity with one another. An alignment of cDNA and genomic sequences revealed three introns with the first intron residing within the 5'-untranslated region. BLAST analyses showed the closest homologs belonging to the parasitic nematodes Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Heterodera glycines. Rr-ctl-1, -2, and -3 were expressed throughout the R. reniformis life cycle; whereas, the remaining Rr-ctl genes showed life stage-specific expression. Quantitative real time RT-PCR determined that Rr-ctl transcripts were 839-fold higher in sedentary female nematodes than the next most abundant life stage. Predicted Rr-CTL peptides ranged from 301 to 338 amino acids long, possessed an N-terminal signal peptide for secretion, and contained a conserved CLECT domain, including the mannose-binding motifs EPN and EPD and the conserved WND motif that is required for binding Ca(+2). In addition, Rr-CTL peptides harbored repeats of a novel 17-mer motif within their C-terminus that showed similarity to motifs associated with bacterial ice nucleation proteins. In situ hybridization of Rr-ctl transcripts within sedentary females showed specific accumulation within the hypodermis of the body regions exposed to the soil environment; those structures embedded within the

  18. Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes with a Chitin-Urea Soil Amendment and Other Materials

    PubMed Central

    Westerdahl, B. B.; Carlson, H. L.; Grant, J.; Radewald, J. D.; Welch, N.; Anderson, C. A.; Darso, J.; Kirby, D.; Shibuya, F.

    1992-01-01

    Field trials were conducted with a chitin-urea soil amendment and several other nematicides on four crop-nematode combinations: tomato-Meloidogyne incognita; potato-Meloidogyne chitwoodi; walnut-Pratylenchus vulnus; and brussels sprouts-Heterodera schachtii. Significant (P ≤ 0.10) nematode population reductions were obtained with the chitin-urea soil amendment in the trims on potato and walnut. In the trials on brussels sprouts and on tomato, phytotoxicity occurred at rates of 1,868 and 1,093 kg/ha, respectively. Significant (P ≤ 0.10) nematode reductions were also obtained with metham sodium on potato; with 1,3-D on tomato and brussels sprouts; and with sodium tetrathiocarbonate, XRM 5053, fenamiphos, ethoprop, LX1075-05, LX1075-07, and SN 109106 on tomato. The following materials did not provide significant nematode control under the conditions of the particular experiments: metham sodium, oxamyl, and Yucca extract on tomato; and dazomet granules on brussels sprouts. PMID:19283044

  19. Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes with a Chitin-Urea Soil Amendment and Other Materials.

    PubMed

    Westerdahl, B B; Carlson, H L; Grant, J; Radewald, J D; Welch, N; Anderson, C A; Darso, J; Kirby, D; Shibuya, F

    1992-12-01

    Field trials were conducted with a chitin-urea soil amendment and several other nematicides on four crop-nematode combinations: tomato-Meloidogyne incognita; potato-Meloidogyne chitwoodi; walnut-Pratylenchus vulnus; and brussels sprouts-Heterodera schachtii. Significant (P nematode population reductions were obtained with the chitin-urea soil amendment in the trims on potato and walnut. In the trials on brussels sprouts and on tomato, phytotoxicity occurred at rates of 1,868 and 1,093 kg/ha, respectively. Significant (P nematode reductions were also obtained with metham sodium on potato; with 1,3-D on tomato and brussels sprouts; and with sodium tetrathiocarbonate, XRM 5053, fenamiphos, ethoprop, LX1075-05, LX1075-07, and SN 109106 on tomato. The following materials did not provide significant nematode control under the conditions of the particular experiments: metham sodium, oxamyl, and Yucca extract on tomato; and dazomet granules on brussels sprouts. PMID:19283044

  20. Gastrointestinal nematode species diversity in Soay sheep kept in a natural environment without active parasite control.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rona; Melville, Lynsey; Sargison, Fiona; Kenyon, Fiona; Nussey, Dan; Watt, Kathryn; Sargison, Neil

    2016-08-30

    Molecular methods based on ITS2 sequence analysis were used to identify strongylid parasites and describe their diversity in a management intervention and anthelmintic drug treatment-free sheep flock. Fourteen different nematode parasite species were identified in the flock and the results showed a greater level of nematode species diversity than is normally reported in managed farmed flocks, with the presence of parasites such as Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Spiculopteragia houdemeri and Trichostrongylus retortaeformis that are considered to be absent or rare in sheep kept in comparable localities. The implied prevalences of Haemonchus contortus in lambs, and of Trichostrongylus axei in lambs, ewes and rams, were higher than those in farmed sheep kept in similar regions, while those of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus vitrinus were lower. Comparison of the patterns of nematode parasite infection between the summer and autumn sampling periods showed differences from the scenarios that are commonplace in comparable managed flocks; with T. vitrinus burdens of the lambs being higher in the summer than in the winter, and Oesophagostomum venulosum being the predominant nematode species in the adult sheep during the summer, while more-or-less absent from these groups during the winter. Rams played an important role in the epidemiology of certain parasitic nematode species. The relatively non-pathogenic O. venulosum was the only parasitic nematode species to predominate in any group during the study. This preliminary characterisation of the nematode parasite burdens of sheep extensively grazed on diverse unimproved pastures will aid in the understanding of the parasitological consequences of intensive grazing management and of the manner in which modern agriculture upsets the equilibrium between parasites and their hosts. These factors must be accounted for when defining the concept of sustainable parasite control and informing

  1. Targeting internal processes of plant-parasitic nematodes in the pursuit of novel agents for their control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The success of plant-parasitic nematodes as competitors with humans for crops is evidenced by the parasites' significant and continuous economic drain on global agriculture. Scientific efforts dedicated to the control of plant-parasitic nematodes employ strategies from the environmental to molecular...

  2. Seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep in Northern region of Nile Delta, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khalafalla, Reda E; Elseify, Mahmoud A; Elbahy, Nasr M

    2011-02-01

    Over 1 year, from January to December 1999, a total of 173 slaughtered sheep at Al-Mahala abattoir were examined for presence of nematode parasites. Eighteen sheep (10.4%) were infected with eight different species of nematodes. The prevalence rates of detected nematode parasites were; Haemonchus contortus (3.5%), Haemonchus placei (1.7%), Trichuris ovis (5.8%), Parabronema skrjabini (2.9%), Ostertagia trifurcata (1.2%), Chabertia ovina (0.6%) and Strongyloides papillosus (0.6%), and Graphidiops species (2.9%). The seasonal prevalence of the infection with the nematode parasites was studied and the highest rate was during autumn (15.2%) followed by summer (11.1%) and winter (9.4%) while the lowest rate was during spring (5.6%). PMID:20922430

  3. Spatial analysis of soybean canopy response to soybean cyst nematodes (Heterodera glycines) in eastern Arkansas: An approach to future precision agriculture technology application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Subodh

    2008-10-01

    Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, commonly known as soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a serious widespread pathogen of soybean in the US. Present research primarily investigated feasibility of detecting SCN infestation in the field using aerial images and ground level spectrometric sensing. Non-spatial and spatial linear regression analyses were performed to correlate SCN population densities with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Green NDVI (GNDVI) derived from soybean canopy spectra. Field data were obtained from two fields; Field A and B under different nematode control strategies in 2003 and 2004. Analysis of aerial image data from July 18, 2004 from the Field A showed a significant relationship between SCN population at planting and the GNDVI (R2=0.17 at p=0.0006). Linear regression analysis revealed that SCN had a little effect on yield (R2 =0.14, at p=0.0001, RMSEP=1052.42 kg ha-1) and GNDVI (R 2=0.17 at p=0.0006, RMSEP=0.087) derived from the aerial imagery on a single date. However, the spatial regression analysis based on spherical semivariogram showed that the RMSEP was 0.037 for the GNDVI on July 18, 2004 and 427.32 kg ha-1 for yield on October 14, 2003 indicating better model performance. For July 18, 2004 data from Field B, a relationship between NDVI and the cyst counts at planting was significant (R2=0.5 at p=0.0468). Non-spatial analyses of the ground level spectrometric data for the first field showed that NDVI and GNDVI were correlated with cyst counts at planting (R 2=0.34 and 0.27 at p=0.0015 and 0.0127, respectively), and GNDVI was correlated with eggs count at planting (R2= 0.27 at p=0.0118). Both NDVI and GNDVI were correlated with egg counts at flowering (R 2=0.34 and 0.27 at p=0.0013 and 0.0018, respectively). However, paired T test to validate the above relationships showed that, predicted values of NDVI and GNDVI were significantly different. The statistical evidences suggested that variability in vegetation indices was caused

  4. Microsporidia-nematode associations in methane seeps reveal basal fungal parasitism in the deep sea

    PubMed Central

    Sapir, Amir; Dillman, Adler R.; Connon, Stephanie A.; Grupe, Benjamin M.; Ingels, Jeroen; Mundo-Ocampo, Manuel; Levin, Lisa A.; Baldwin, James G.; Orphan, Victoria J.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    The deep sea is Earth's largest habitat but little is known about the nature of deep-sea parasitism. In contrast to a few characterized cases of bacterial and protistan parasites, the existence and biological significance of deep-sea parasitic fungi is yet to be understood. Here we report the discovery of a fungus-related parasitic microsporidium, Nematocenator marisprofundi n. gen. n. sp. that infects benthic nematodes at methane seeps on the Pacific Ocean floor. This infection is species-specific and has been temporally and spatially stable over 2 years of sampling, indicating an ecologically consistent host-parasite interaction. A high distribution of spores in the reproductive tracts of infected males and females and their absence from host nematodes' intestines suggests a sexual transmission strategy in contrast to the fecal-oral transmission of most microsporidia. N. marisprofundi targets the host's body wall muscles causing cell lysis, and in severe infection even muscle filament degradation. Phylogenetic analyses placed N. marisprofundi in a novel and basal clade not closely related to any described microsporidia clade, suggesting either that microsporidia-nematode parasitism occurred early in microsporidia evolution or that host specialization occurred late in an ancient deep-sea microsporidian lineage. Our findings reveal that methane seeps support complex ecosystems involving interkingdom interactions between bacteria, nematodes, and parasitic fungi and that microsporidia parasitism exists also in the deep-sea biosphere. PMID:24575084

  5. Msp40 effector of root-knot nematode manipulates plant immunity to facilitate parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junhai; Liu, Pei; Liu, Qian; Chen, Changlong; Guo, Quanxin; Yin, Junmei; Yang, Guangsui; Jian, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) are obligate biotrophic parasites that invade plant roots and engage in prolonged and intimate relationships with their hosts. Nematode secretions, some of which have immunosuppressing activity, play essential roles in successful parasitism; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the RKN-specific gene MiMsp40, cloned from Meloidogyne incognita, is expressed exclusively in subventral oesophageal gland cells and is strongly upregulated during early parasitic stages. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing MiMsp40 were more susceptible to nematode infection than were wild type plants. Conversely, the host-derived MiMsp40 RNAi suppressed nematode parasitism and/or reproduction. Moreover, overexpression of MiMsp40 in plants suppressed the deposition of callose and the expression of marker genes for bacterial elicitor elf18-triggered immunity. Transient expression of MiMsp40 prevented Bax-triggered defence-related programmed cell death. Co-agroinfiltration assays indicated that MiMsp40 also suppressed macroscopic cell death triggered by MAPK cascades or by the ETI cognate elicitors R3a/Avr3a. Together, these results demonstrate that MiMsp40 is a novel Meloidogyne-specific effector that is injected into plant cells by early parasitic stages of the nematode and that plays a role in suppressing PTI and/or ETI signals to facilitate RKN parasitism. PMID:26797310

  6. Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Renčo, M.; Kováčik, P.

    2012-01-01

    In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreased number of plant parasitic nematodes and also root-fungal feeding nematodes compared to the untreated control. Sawdust applied alone had no effect on plant parasitic and root-fungal feeding nematode suppression. Free-living nematodes which were mainly bacteriovores and fungivores were significantly more abundant in soil amended with fermented pig manure, while the sawdust had no effect on these nematodes. The effect of all tested treatments on omnivores-predators was rather random, and in general, the number of these nematodes decreased after soil amendment applications compared to the untreated control. PMID:23482503

  7. Composition of the Cockroach Gut Microbiome in the Presence of Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Cláudia S. L.; Ozawa, Sota; Hasegawa, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are parasitized by thelastomatid nematodes, which live in an obligate manner in their hindgut and interact with the resident microbial community. In the present study, a composition analysis was performed on the gut microbiome of Periplaneta fuliginosa and P. americana to investigate natural and artificial infection by thelastomatid nematodes. Nine libraries of the 16S rRNA gene V3–V4 region were prepared for pyrosequencing. We examined the complete gut microbiome (fore-, mid-, and hindgut) of lab-reared P. fuliginosa naturally infected with the parasitic nematode Leidynema appendiculatum and those that were nematode-free, and complemented our study by characterizing the hindgut microbial communities of lab-reared P. americana naturally infected with Hammerschmidtiella diesingi and Thelastoma bulhoesi, artificially infected with L. appendiculatum, and those that were nematode-free. Our results revealed that the fore- and midgut of naturally infected and nematode-free P. fuliginosa have close microbial communities, which is in contrast with hindgut communities; the hindgut communities of both cockroaches exhibit higher microbial diversities in the presence of their natural parasites and marked differences were observed in the abundance of the most representative taxa, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Our results have provided basic information and encourage further studies on multitrophic interactions in the cockroach gut as well as the thelastomatid nematodes that play a role in this environment. PMID:27524304

  8. Isolation of whole esophageal gland cells from plant-parasitic nematodes for transcriptome analyses and effector identification.

    PubMed

    Maier, Tom R; Hewezi, Tarek; Peng, Jiqing; Baum, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal glands of plant-parasitic nematodes are highly specialized cells whose gene expression products include secreted effector proteins, which govern nematode parasitism of host plants. Therefore, elucidating the transcriptomes of esophageal glands with the goal of identifying nematode effectors is a promising avenue to understanding nematode parasitism and its evolutionary origins as well as to devising nematode control strategies. We have developed a method to separate and isolate individual esophageal gland cells from multiple species of plant-parasitic nematodes while preserving RNA quality. We have used such isolated gland cells for transcriptome analysis via high-throughput DNA sequencing. This method relies on the differential histochemical staining of the gland cells after homogenization of phytonematode tissues. Total RNA was extracted from whole gland cells isolated from eight different plant-parasitic nematode species. To validate this approach, the isolated RNA from three plant-parasitic nematode species-Globodera rostochiensis, Pratylenchus penetrans, and Radopholus similis-was amplified, gel purified, and used for 454 sequencing. We obtained 456,801 total reads with an average read length of 409 bp. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of homologs of previously known nematode effectors in these libraries, thus validating our approach. These data provide compelling evidence that this technical advance can be used to relatively easily and expediently discover effector repertoires of plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:22876962

  9. Novel parasitic nematode-specific protein of bovine filarial parasite Setaria digitata displays conserved gene structure and ubiquitous expression.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, W W; Dassanayake, R S; Weerasena, S J; Silva Gunawardene, Y I

    2014-09-01

    Setaria digitata is an animal filarial parasite, which can cause fatal diseases to livestock such as cattle, sheep, goat, buffaloes, horses etc. inflicting considerable economic losses to livelihood of livestock farmers. In spite of this, the biology and parasitic nature of this organism is largely unknown. As a step towards understanding these, we screened the cDNA library of S. digitata and identified an open reading frame that code for parasitic nematode-specific protein, which showed a significant homology to functionally and structurally unannotated sequences of parasitic nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa etc., suggesting its role in parasitism. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the S. digitata novel gene (SDNP) is expressed in adult female and male, and microfilariae. Southern hybridization studies revealed that this gene is a single-copy gene. Sequence analysis of the genomic region obtained from overlapping PCR amplification indicated that the size of the genomic region is 1819 bp in which four exons encoding 205 amino acids were interrupted by three introns of varying lengths of 419, 659 and 123 bp, and also the expansion of the size of the introns of S. digitata compared to its orthologues by integrating micro and mini-satellite containing sequence. Sequences around the splice junctions were conserved and agreed with the general GT-AG splicing rule. The gene was found to be AT rich with a GC content of 38.1%. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the gene structure of SDNP and its orthologues is conserved and it expressed ubiqutously in all the stages of nematode's life cycle. Therefore, taking these outcomes together, it can be concluded that SDNP is a parasitic nematode-specific, single copy gene having conserved gene structure of four exons interrupted by three introns and that the gene is expressed ubiquitously throughout nematode's life cycle. PMID:25382479

  10. Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytonematodes use a stylet and secreted effectors to invade host tissues and extract nutrients to support their growth and development. The molecular function of nematode effectors is currently the subject of intense investigation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of nematode ...

  11. Characterization of a New Species of Cyst Nematode Parasitizing Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of soil around unthrifty corn roots in northwestern Tennessee (Obion County) in 2006 revealed high population densities of juvenile nematodes and lemon-shaped cysts. This nematode resembles Cactodera spp. in possessing a circumfenestrate vulva but lacking bullae and an underbridge. These...

  12. Characterization of effector mechanisms at the host: parasite interface during the immune response to tissue-dwelling intestinal nematode parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The protective immune response that develops following infection with many tissue dwelling intestinal nematode parasites is characterized by elevations in IL-4 and IL-13 and increased numbers of CD4+ T cells, granulocytes, and macrophages. These cells accumulate at the site of infection, and in many...

  13. The novel GrCEP12 peptide from the plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis suppresses flg22-mediated PTI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is a biotrophic pathogen that secretes effector proteins into host root cells to promote successful plant parasitism. In addition to the role in generating within root tissue the feeding cells essential for nematode development, nematode secreted effe...

  14. The genomic basis of parasitism in the Strongyloides clade of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Vicky L; Tsai, Isheng J; Coghlan, Avril; Reid, Adam J; Holroyd, Nancy; Foth, Bernardo J; Tracey, Alan; Cotton, James A; Stanley, Eleanor J; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M; Brooks, Karen; Harsha, Bhavana; Kajitani, Rei; Kulkarni, Arpita; Harbecke, Dorothee; Nagayasu, Eiji; Nichol, Sarah; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Quail, Michael A; Randle, Nadine; Xia, Dong; Brattig, Norbert W; Soblik, Hanns; Ribeiro, Diogo M; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Itoh, Takehiko; Denver, Dee R; Grant, Warwick; Stoltzfus, Jonathan D; Lok, James B; Murayama, Haruhiko; Wastling, Jonathan; Streit, Adrian; Kikuchi, Taisei; Viney, Mark; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Soil-transmitted nematodes, including the Strongyloides genus, cause one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases. Here we compare the genomes of four Strongyloides species, including the human pathogen Strongyloides stercoralis, and their close relatives that are facultatively parasitic (Parastrongyloides trichosuri) and free-living (Rhabditophanes sp. KR3021). A significant paralogous expansion of key gene families--families encoding astacin-like and SCP/TAPS proteins--is associated with the evolution of parasitism in this clade. Exploiting the unique Strongyloides life cycle, we compare the transcriptomes of the parasitic and free-living stages and find that these same gene families are upregulated in the parasitic stages, underscoring their role in nematode parasitism. PMID:26829753

  15. Biological control of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes using Duddingtonia flagrans in sheep under natural conditions in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-De Gives, Pedro; Zapata Nieto, Claudia; Hernández, Enrique Liébano; Arellano, María Eugenia López; Rodríguez, David Herrera; Garduño, Roberto González

    2006-10-01

    This investigation was aimed to evaluate the use of an oral bio-preparation containing Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores for the control of sheep gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes under the Mexican cold high plateau conditions. Two groups of gastrointestinal parasitic nematode naturally infected sheep, were randomly selected and located into two free-gastrointestinal nematode larvae paddocks. Group 1 received once a week a supplement containing D. flagrans chlamydospores mixed with oats and molasses. Group 2 received a similar supplement without any fungal material. After 5 months grazing animals were discarded from the experiment and two groups of free-nematode "tracer" sheep were located into the same paddocks to collect larvae from the contaminated pastures. Animals were slaughtered and necropsied and the nematodes were obtained and counted. A screening of the number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae present on the grass was performed and compared between the two grazing areas. The results showed 56% reduction in the Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta and 94% reduction in the Nematodirus sp. population of the "tracer" sheep who grazed on the D. flagrans-treated sheep area, compared to the nematode population in animals grazed on the non-treated area. The results of the number of larvae on the grazing pastures showed a 51.1% reduction for H. contortus, and 100% for Cooperia sp. in the area with fungi. In the case of Trichostrongylus sp. no reduction was observed, when compared to the control group. PMID:17135538

  16. New soybean accessions evaluated for reaction to Heterodera glycines populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in the USA are estimated to be over $1 billion. These losses have remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over time nematode...

  17. Biocontrol: Bacillus penetrans and Related Parasites of Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Sayre, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, particularly with the genus Pasteuria, are considered. Also discussed are other soil bacterial species that are potential biocontrol agents. Products of their bacterial fermentation in soil are toxic to nematodes, making them effective biocontrol agents. PMID:19300701

  18. A combined parasitological molecular approach for noninvasive characterization of parasitic nematode communities in wild hosts.

    PubMed

    Budischak, Sarah A; Hoberg, Eric P; Abrams, Art; Jolles, Anna E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O

    2015-09-01

    Most hosts are concurrently or sequentially infected with multiple parasites; thus, fully understanding interactions between individual parasite species and their hosts depends on accurate characterization of the parasite community. For parasitic nematodes, noninvasive methods for obtaining quantitative, species-specific infection data in wildlife are often unreliable. Consequently, characterization of gastrointestinal nematode communities of wild hosts has largely relied on lethal sampling to isolate and enumerate adult worms directly from the tissues of dead hosts. The necessity of lethal sampling severely restricts the host species that can be studied, the adequacy of sample sizes to assess diversity, the geographic scope of collections and the research questions that can be addressed. Focusing on gastrointestinal nematodes of wild African buffalo, we evaluated whether accurate characterization of nematode communities could be made using a noninvasive technique that combined conventional parasitological approaches with molecular barcoding. To establish the reliability of this new method, we compared estimates of gastrointestinal nematode abundance, prevalence, richness and community composition derived from lethal sampling with estimates derived from our noninvasive approach. Our noninvasive technique accurately estimated total and species-specific worm abundances, as well as worm prevalence and community composition when compared to the lethal sampling method. Importantly, the rate of parasite species discovery was similar for both methods, and only a modest number of barcoded larvae (n = 10) were needed to capture key aspects of parasite community composition. Overall, this new noninvasive strategy offers numerous advantages over lethal sampling methods for studying nematode-host interactions in wildlife and can readily be applied to a range of study systems. PMID:25644900

  19. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals. PMID:25830367

  20. EST sequencing of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus suggests a shift in gene expression during transition to the parasitic stages.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, R; Visser, A; Otsen, M; Tibben, J; Lenstra, J A; Roos, M H

    2000-09-01

    Expressed sequence tags from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus were generated in order to identify anchor loci for comparative mapping between nematode genomes and candidate targets for future control measures. In total, 370 SL1 trans-spliced cDNAs from different developmental stages representing 195 different genes were partially sequenced. From these expressed sequence tags 50% were similar to genes with a known or predicted function and 19% were similar to nematode sequences with no ascribed function. From the first, free-living L1 and L3 stages relatively many cDNAs matched to housekeeping genes, and 11% (L1) or 23% (L3) of the encoded proteins were predicted to contain signal peptides. In contrast, no function could be ascribed to most of the cDNAs from the early L5 and adult parasitic stages, but for 30% (L5) or 55% (adult) of the encoded proteins a signal sequence was predicted. This limited analysis suggests that during the transition from the free-living to parasitic stages gene expression shifts towards the synthesis of less conserved extracellular proteins. These proteins offer the best perspectives for vaccine development and the development of anthelmintic drugs. In contrast, cDNAs from the first larval stages may be most suitable for comparative mapping with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:10989145

  1. Benthimermithid nematode parasites of the amphipod Hirondellea dubia in the Kermadec Trench.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-04-01

    Parasitic nematodes have evolved to exploit a wide variety of hosts living in a range of marine environments. Benthimermithid nematodes occur deeper than any other nematode parasites (down to 5880 m depth) but are mostly known from free-living adult stages living in the sediments, and parasitic juveniles are seldom encountered. In the present study, the benthimermithid Trophomera cf. marionensis was discovered in the body cavity of the lysianassoid amphipod Hirondellea dubia sampled between 7018 and 10,005 m depths in the Kermadec Trench. The nematode specimens, which could be readily observed through the transparent exoskeleton of freshly caught amphipods, were up to twice the length of T. marionensis specimens described from the Atlantic and East Pacific Oceans but were otherwise morphologically identical. Because of its wide geographical and water depth distribution (almost 10,000 m), T. marionensis likely consists of several cryptic species. The prevalence of Trophomera parasites among the host population was estimated to be substantially less than 1 %; such a low proportion of parasitised hosts could help explain why so few Trophomera specimens have been obtained from their host so far. The present study demonstrates that parasites can occur throughout the entire ocean depth and that they likely occur in other hadal trenches where H. dubia and other lysianassoid amphipods also dominate. PMID:26779924

  2. Parasitism of Molluscs by Nematodes: Types of Associations and Evolutionary Trends

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, P. S.; Grewal, S. K.; Tan, L.; Adams, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    Although there are no confirmed fossil records of mollusc parasitic nematodes, diverse associations of more than 108 described nematode species with slugs and snails provide a fertile ground for speculation of how mollusc parasitism evolved in nematodes. Current phylogenic resolution suggests that molluscs have been independently acquired as hosts on a number of occasions. However, molluscs are significant as hosts for only two major groups of nematodes: as intermediate hosts for metastrongyloids and as definitive hosts for a number of rhabditids. Of the 61 species of nematodes known to use molluscs as intermediate hosts, 49 belong to Metastrongyloidea (Order Strongylida); of the 47 species of nematodes that use molluscs as definitive hosts, 33 belong to the Order Rhabditida. Recent phylogenetic hypotheses have been unable to resolve whether metastrongyloids are sister taxa to those rhabditids that use molluscs as definitive hosts. Although most rhabditid nematodes have been reported not to kill their mollusc hosts prior to their reproduction, some species are pathogenic. In fact, infective juveniles of Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita vector a lethal bacterium into the slug host in which they reproduce. This life cycle is remarkably similar to the entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae. Also, the discoveries of Alloionema and Pellioditis in slugs are interesting, as these species have been speculated to represent the ancestral forms of the entomopathogenic nematodes. Development of the infective stage appears to be an important step toward the acquisition of molluscs as definitive hosts, and the association with specific bacteria may have arisen in conjunction with the evolution of necromeny. PMID:19265989

  3. Serine Protease-mediated Host Invasion by the Parasitic Nematode Steinernema carpocapsae*

    PubMed Central

    Toubarro, Duarte; Lucena-Robles, Miguel; Nascimento, Gisela; Santos, Romana; Montiel, Rafael; Veríssimo, Paula; Pires, Euclides; Faro, Carlos; Coelho, Ana V.; Simões, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae is an insect parasitic nematode used in biological control, which infects insects penetrating by mouth and anus and invading the hemocoelium through the midgut wall. Invasion has been described as a key factor in nematode virulence and suggested to be mediated by proteases. A serine protease cDNA from the parasitic stage was sequenced (sc-sp-1); the recombinant protein was produced in an Escherichia coli system, and a native protein was purified from the secreted products. Both proteins were confirmed by mass spectrometry to be encoded by the sc-sp-1 gene. Sc-SP-1 has a pI of 8.7, a molecular mass of 27.3 kDa, a catalytic efficiency of 22.2 × 104 s−1 m−1 against N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA, and is inhibited by chymostatin (IC 0.07) and PMSF (IC 0.73). Sc-SP-1 belongs to the chymotrypsin family, based on sequence and biochemical analysis. Only the nematode parasitic stage expressed sc-sp-1. These nematodes in the midgut lumen, prepared to invade the insect hemocoelium, expressed higher levels than those already in the hemocoelium. Moreover, parasitic nematode sense insect peritrophic membrane and hemolymph more quickly than they do other tissues, which initiates sc-sp-1 expression. Ex vivo, Sc-SP-1 was able to bind to insect midgut epithelium and to cause cell detachment from basal lamina. In vitro, Sc-SP-1 formed holes in an artificial membrane model (Matrigel), whereas Sc-SP-1 treated with PMSF did not, very likely because it hydrolyzes matrix glycoproteins. These findings highlight the S. carpocapsae-invasive process that is a key step in the parasitism thus opening new perspectives for improving nematode virulence to use in biological control. PMID:20656686

  4. Quantitative Detection of Double-Stranded RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing of Parasitism Genes in Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into an organism to induce sequence-specific RNA interference (RNAi) of a target transcript has become a powerful technique to investigate gene function in nematodes and many organisms. Data provided here indicate that the inclusion of 1-2 mM spermid...

  5. Systemic above- and belowground cross talk: hormone-based responses triggered by Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivores in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Egger, Barbara; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Hofmann, Julia; Schausberger, Peter; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Above- and belowground plant parts are simultaneously attacked by different pests and pathogens. The host mediates these interactions and physiologically reacts, e.g. with local and systemic alterations of endogenous hormone levels coupled with coordinated transcriptional changes. This in turn affects attractiveness and susceptibility of the plant to subsequent attackers. Here, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used to study stress hormone-based systemic responses triggered by simultaneous root parasitism by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivory by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. First, HPLC/MS and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR are used to show that nematode parasitism strongly affects stress hormone levels and expression of hormone marker genes in shoots. Previous nematode infection is then demonstrated to affect the behavioural and life history performance of both arthropods. While thrips explicitly avoid nematode-infected plants, spider mites prefer them. In addition, the life history performance of T. urticae is significantly enhanced by nematode infection. Finally, systemic changes triggered by shoot-feeding F. occidentalis but not T. urticae are shown to make the roots more attractive for H. schachtii. This work emphasises the importance of above- and belowground signalling and contributes to a better understanding of plant systemic defence mechanisms against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:26324462

  6. Systemic above- and belowground cross talk: hormone-based responses triggered by Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivores in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Egger, Barbara; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Hofmann, Julia; Schausberger, Peter; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Above- and belowground plant parts are simultaneously attacked by different pests and pathogens. The host mediates these interactions and physiologically reacts, e.g. with local and systemic alterations of endogenous hormone levels coupled with coordinated transcriptional changes. This in turn affects attractiveness and susceptibility of the plant to subsequent attackers. Here, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used to study stress hormone-based systemic responses triggered by simultaneous root parasitism by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivory by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. First, HPLC/MS and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR are used to show that nematode parasitism strongly affects stress hormone levels and expression of hormone marker genes in shoots. Previous nematode infection is then demonstrated to affect the behavioural and life history performance of both arthropods. While thrips explicitly avoid nematode-infected plants, spider mites prefer them. In addition, the life history performance of T. urticae is significantly enhanced by nematode infection. Finally, systemic changes triggered by shoot-feeding F. occidentalis but not T. urticae are shown to make the roots more attractive for H. schachtii. This work emphasises the importance of above- and belowground signalling and contributes to a better understanding of plant systemic defence mechanisms against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:26324462

  7. Co-adaptation mechanisms in plant-nematode systems.

    PubMed

    Zinovieva, S V

    2014-01-01

    The review is aimed to analyze the biochemical and immune-breaking adaptive mechanisms established in evolution of plant parasitic nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes are obligate, biotrophic pathogens of numerous plant species. These organisms cause dramatic changes in the morphology and physiology of their hosts. The group of sedentary nematodes which are among the most damaging plant-parasitic nematodes cause the formation of special organs called nematode feeding sites in the root tissue called syncytium (cyst nematodes, CN; Heterodera and Globodera spp.) or giant cells (root-knot nematodes, RKN; Meloidogyne spp.). The most pronounced morphological adaptations of nematodes for plant parasitism include a hollow, protrusible stylet (feeding spear) connected to three esophageal gland cells that express products secreted into plant tissues through the stylet. Several gene products secreted by the nematode during parasitism have been identified. The current battery of candidate parasitism proteins secreted by nematodes to modify plant tissues for parasitism includes cell-wall-modifying enzymes, multiple regulators of host cell cycle and metabolism, proteins that can localize near the plant cell nucleus, potential suppressors of host defense, and mimics of plant molecules. Plants are usually able to recognize and react to parasites by activating various defense responses. When the response of the plant is too weak or too late, a successful infection (compatible interaction) will result. A rapid and strong defense response (e. g. due to the presence of a resistance gene) will result in the resistant (incompatible) reaction. Defense responses include the production of toxic oxygen radicals and systemic signaling compounds as well as the activation of defense genes that lead to the production of structural barriers or other toxins. PMID:25272462

  8. Serine/threonine phosphatases in socioeconomically important parasitic nematodes--prospects as novel drug targets?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bronwyn E; Hofmann, Andreas; McCluskey, Adam; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the fundamental biology of parasitic nematodes (=roundworms) that cause serious diseases, affecting literally billions of animals and humans worldwide. Unlocking the biology of these neglected pathogens using modern technologies will yield crucial and profound knowledge of their molecular biology, and could lead to new treatment and control strategies. Supported by studies in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, some recent investigations have provided improved insights into selected protein phosphatases (PPs) of economically important parasitic nematodes (Strongylida). In the present article, we review this progress and assess the potential of serine/threonine phosphatase (STP) genes and/or their products as targets for new nematocidal drugs. Current information indicates that some small molecules, known to specifically inhibit PPs, might be developed as nematocides. For instance, some cantharidin analogues are known to display exquisite PP-inhibitor activity, which indicates that some of them could be designed and tailored to specifically inhibit selected STPs of nematodes. This information provides prospects for the discovery of an entirely novel class of nematocides, which is of paramount importance, given the serious problems linked to anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematode populations of livestock, and has the potential to lead to significant biotechnological outcomes. PMID:20732402

  9. Recent Duplication and Functional Divergence in Parasitic Nematode Levamisole-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Duguet, Thomas B.; Charvet, Claude L.; Forrester, Sean G.; Wever, Claudia M.; Dent, Joseph A.; Neveu, Cedric; Beech, Robin N.

    2016-01-01

    Helminth parasites rely on fast-synaptic transmission in their neuromusculature to experience the outside world and respond to it. Acetylcholine plays a pivotal role in this and its receptors are targeted by a wide variety of both natural and synthetic compounds used in human health and for the control of parasitic disease. The model, Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by a large number of acetylcholine receptor subunit genes, a feature shared across the nematodes. This dynamic family is characterized by both gene duplication and loss between species. The pentameric levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor has been characterized from C. elegans, comprised of five different subunits. More recently, cognate receptors have been reconstituted from multiple parasitic nematodes that are found to vary in subunit composition. In order to understand the implications of receptor composition change and the origins of potentially novel drug targets, we investigated a specific example of subunit duplication based on analysis of genome data for 25 species from the 50 helminth genome initiative. We found multiple independent duplications of the unc-29, acetylcholine receptor subunit, where codon substitution rate analysis identified positive, directional selection acting on amino acid positions associated with subunit assembly. Characterization of four gene copies from a model parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, demonstrated that each copy has acquired unique functional characteristics based on phenotype rescue of transgenic C. elegans and electrophysiology of receptors reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. We found evidence that a specific incompatibility has evolved for two subunits co-expressed in muscle. We demonstrated that functional divergence of acetylcholine receptors, driven by directional selection, can occur more rapidly than previously thought and may be mediated by alteration of receptor assembly. This phenomenon is common among the clade V parasitic

  10. Recent Duplication and Functional Divergence in Parasitic Nematode Levamisole-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Duguet, Thomas B; Charvet, Claude L; Forrester, Sean G; Wever, Claudia M; Dent, Joseph A; Neveu, Cedric; Beech, Robin N

    2016-07-01

    Helminth parasites rely on fast-synaptic transmission in their neuromusculature to experience the outside world and respond to it. Acetylcholine plays a pivotal role in this and its receptors are targeted by a wide variety of both natural and synthetic compounds used in human health and for the control of parasitic disease. The model, Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by a large number of acetylcholine receptor subunit genes, a feature shared across the nematodes. This dynamic family is characterized by both gene duplication and loss between species. The pentameric levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor has been characterized from C. elegans, comprised of five different subunits. More recently, cognate receptors have been reconstituted from multiple parasitic nematodes that are found to vary in subunit composition. In order to understand the implications of receptor composition change and the origins of potentially novel drug targets, we investigated a specific example of subunit duplication based on analysis of genome data for 25 species from the 50 helminth genome initiative. We found multiple independent duplications of the unc-29, acetylcholine receptor subunit, where codon substitution rate analysis identified positive, directional selection acting on amino acid positions associated with subunit assembly. Characterization of four gene copies from a model parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, demonstrated that each copy has acquired unique functional characteristics based on phenotype rescue of transgenic C. elegans and electrophysiology of receptors reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. We found evidence that a specific incompatibility has evolved for two subunits co-expressed in muscle. We demonstrated that functional divergence of acetylcholine receptors, driven by directional selection, can occur more rapidly than previously thought and may be mediated by alteration of receptor assembly. This phenomenon is common among the clade V parasitic

  11. Rendering the Intractable More Tractable: Tools from Caenorhabditis elegans Ripe for Import into Parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jordan D

    2015-12-01

    Recent and rapid advances in genetic and molecular tools have brought spectacular tractability to Caenorhabditis elegans, a model that was initially prized because of its simple design and ease of imaging. C. elegans has long been a powerful model in biomedical research, and tools such as RNAi and the CRISPR/Cas9 system allow facile knockdown of genes and genome editing, respectively. These developments have created an additional opportunity to tackle one of the most debilitating burdens on global health and food security: parasitic nematodes. I review how development of nonparasitic nematodes as genetic models informs efforts to import tools into parasitic nematodes. Current tools in three commonly studied parasites (Strongyloides spp., Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum) are described, as are tools from C. elegans that are ripe for adaptation and the benefits and barriers to doing so. These tools will enable dissection of a huge array of questions that have been all but completely impenetrable to date, allowing investigation into host-parasite and parasite-vector interactions, and the genetic basis of parasitism. PMID:26644478

  12. Ascarosides coordinate the dispersal of a plant-parasitic nematode with the metamorphosis of its vector beetle

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Xinxing; Wei, Yanan; Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Peijun; Chinta, Satya; Kong, Xiangbo; Liu, Yunpeng; Yu, Haiying; Hu, Songnian; Zou, Zhen; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Insect vectors are required for the transmission of many species of parasitic nematodes, but the mechanisms by which the vectors and nematodes coordinate their life cycles are poorly understood. Here, we report that ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones, are produced not only by a plant-parasitic nematode, but also by its vector beetle. The pinewood nematode and its vector beetle cause pine wilt disease, which threatens forest ecosystems world-wide. Ascarosides secreted by the dispersal third-stage nematode LIII larvae promote beetle pupation by inducing ecdysone production in the beetle and up-regulating ecdysone-dependent gene expression. Once the beetle develops into the adult stage, it secretes ascarosides that attract the dispersal fourth-stage nematode LIV larvae, potentially facilitating their movement into the beetle trachea for transport to the next pine tree. These results demonstrate that ascarosides play a key role in the survival and spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27477780

  13. Ascarosides coordinate the dispersal of a plant-parasitic nematode with the metamorphosis of its vector beetle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Xinxing; Wei, Yanan; Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Peijun; Chinta, Satya; Kong, Xiangbo; Liu, Yunpeng; Yu, Haiying; Hu, Songnian; Zou, Zhen; Butcher, Rebecca A; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Insect vectors are required for the transmission of many species of parasitic nematodes, but the mechanisms by which the vectors and nematodes coordinate their life cycles are poorly understood. Here, we report that ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones, are produced not only by a plant-parasitic nematode, but also by its vector beetle. The pinewood nematode and its vector beetle cause pine wilt disease, which threatens forest ecosystems world-wide. Ascarosides secreted by the dispersal third-stage nematode LIII larvae promote beetle pupation by inducing ecdysone production in the beetle and up-regulating ecdysone-dependent gene expression. Once the beetle develops into the adult stage, it secretes ascarosides that attract the dispersal fourth-stage nematode LIV larvae, potentially facilitating their movement into the beetle trachea for transport to the next pine tree. These results demonstrate that ascarosides play a key role in the survival and spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27477780

  14. The prospects for biological control of the free-living stages of nematode parasites of livestock.

    PubMed

    Waller, P J; Faedo, M

    1996-01-01

    Control of nematode parasites of livestock is focused almost entirely on the parasitic stages within the host. Current methods rely on anthelmintic drugs, but these are under increasing threat with the development of resistance covering the whole spectrum of anthelmintics amongst the important nematode species of a range of livestock. However, invariably the greatest proportion of the parasite biomass resides not within the animal hosts, but in the external environment-commonly on pasture. It is in this environment that the free-living stages are vulnerable to a range of abiotic factors (extremes in temperature and desiccation) and biotic factors (macro- and micro-organisms) that may decimate their numbers. Of the latter, there are organisms, which exert their effects either indirectly by rendering faecal deposits inimical for the development of nematode eggs through to infective larvae, or directly by acting as pathogens or by exploiting the free-living stages as a food source. Within this vast assemblage of organisms, which include microarthropods, protozoa, viruses, bacteria and fungi, could well emerge a variety of biological control agents of nematode parasites. At present, greatest interest lies with the nematode-destroying fungi. Work has progressed from Petri dishes, to plots, to paddocks with several species of the genus Arthrobotrys and Duddingtonia flagrans. These studies indicate that the voracious nematophagous capabilities of these fungi, clearly demonstrated in vitro, translate to reductions in the number of infective larvae on pasture and indicate that levels of control, comparable to conventional schemes using anthelmintics, can be achieved. The challenge now lies in developing methods of administration of fungi to animals which can be applied under practical farm conditions. However, the pursuit of candidates for biological control of nematode parasites of livestock should not involve just a few species of nematophagous fungi. More than 100

  15. Community Composition of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Native and Cultivated Cerrados of Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S. P.; Cares, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Communities of plant-parasitic nematodes collected from five different vegetation types (canopy woodland, savannah, gallery forest, cultivated perennial, and annual plants) and soils (yellowish red latosols, dark red latosols, arenosols, acrisols, and gleysols) were studied. Ninety percent of the soil samples collected from savannah contained at least four genera of plant-parasitic nematodes. The highest population densities were recovered from perennial plants and from acrisols. Nematodes from perennial and annual plants formed one cluster, which had a similar flexible-beta distance to that from the gallery forest. The distance in the native savannah and in canopy woodland was very different. Distance values for the soil aspect were similar for arenosols, yellowish, and dark red latosols. The value for acrisols was much larger than for the other soils. PMID:19277285

  16. Functional characterization of CLE peptides from a plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE) proteins are a large family of secreted peptide ligands that play important roles in plant growth and development. Recent evidence suggests that plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides to modify selected host root cells into multinucleate f...

  17. Evaluation of anthelmintic resistance of intestinal parasitic nematodes in heifers in south central Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal parasitic nematodes impact the livestock industry through losses in reproductive efficiency, rate of gain, carcass quality, milk production, or immune response. The frequent use of anthelmintics with drug formulations in which chemical activity persists for long periods selects for worm re...

  18. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  19. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Amanda D.; Schreiner, R. Paul; Zasada, Inga A.

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards. PMID:25580024

  20. Spatial Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Semi-Arid Vitis vinifera Vineyards in Washington.

    PubMed

    Howland, Amanda D; Schreiner, R Paul; Zasada, Inga A

    2014-12-01

    The most commonly encountered plant-parasitic nematodes in eastern Washington Vitis vinifera vineyards are Meloidogyne hapla, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Pratylenchus spp., Xiphinema americanum, and Paratylenchus sp.; however, little is known about their distribution in the soil profile. The vertical and horizontal spatial distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes was determined in two Washington V. vinifera vineyards. Others variables measured in these vineyards included soil moisture content, fine root biomass, and root colonization by arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF). Meloidogyne hapla and M. xenoplax were aggregated under irrigation emitters within the vine row and decreased with soil depth. Conversely, Pratylenchus spp. populations were primarily concentrated in vineyard alleyways and decreased with depth. Paratylenchus sp. and X. americanum were randomly distributed within the vineyards. Soil water content played a dominant role in the distribution of fine roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Colonization of fine roots by AMF decreased directly under irrigation emitters; in addition, galled roots had lower levels of AMF colonization compared with healthy roots. These findings will help facilitate sampling and management decisions for plant-parasitic nematodes in Washington semi-arid vineyards. PMID:25580024

  1. Evaluation of an antibiotic producing strain of Pseudomonas flourescens for suppression of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), produced by some strains of Pseudomonas spp., is involved in suppression of several fungal root pathogens as well as plant-parasitic nematodes. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether Wood1R, a D-genotype strain of DAPG-producin...

  2. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) and Steam As Alternatives For Parasitic Nematode Control In Florida Floriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and steam are being investigated for controlling a broad spectrum of pests, including parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD is a biologically-based method that combines organic amendments and solar heat with water saturated soil to create oxygen-depleted soil co...

  3. De novo transcriptome assembly of the plant-parasitic nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotylenchulus reniformis, commonly known as the reniform nematode, is a pathogen of cotton, soybean, and sweet potatoes in the Southeastern United States. An estimate of cotton production loss due to R. reniformis parasitism in the United States in 2011 was 279,000 bales. Here, we present a de novo...

  4. B cells have distinct roles in host protection against different nematode parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B cells may mediate protective responses against nematode parasites by supporting Th2 cell development and/or by producing antibodies. To examine this, B cell-deficient mice were inoculated with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) or Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp). B cell-deficient and wild type (WT...

  5. Invasion, establishment, and range expansion of two parasitic nematodes in the Canadian Arctic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate warming is modifying host-parasite interactions in the Arctic. Invasion of an arctic island by protostrongylid nematodes appears mediated by sporadic dispersal of muskoxen and seasonal migration by caribou from the Canadian mainland. A newly permissive environment likely facilitated initial ...

  6. [Non-indigenous and non-specific parasitic nematodes--the background and the consequences].

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Introduction of the host is the main reason behind introduction of the parasite, e. g., nematodes. The introduction of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in Europe in the 1980s resulted in expansion of the swimbladder nematode Anguillicola crassus which soon invaded not only populations of the European eel (A. anguilla), but also other local fish. The raccoon (Procyon lotor) is native to North America. It is the specific host of Strongyloides procyonis and Baylisascaris procyonis. More than 90 species of wild and domestical bird and mammal species, including humans, have been infected with B. procyonis larvae. The larvae enter various organs of paratenic hosts, particularly the central nervous system and eye, causing severe diseases and death. Asthworthius sidemi--a blood-succking, abomasal nematode, a specific parasite of the Asiatic sika deer (Cervus nippon) and sambar deer (C. unicolor)--was first introduced with its hosts into countries adjacent to Poland. A. sidemi is especially dangerous to the European bison (Bison bonasus) which is its new host. The bison populations, in both Białowieza Primaeval Forest and the Bieszczady Mts, sometimes show a 100% prevalence and mass infection intensity. Imported animals, sold in pet shops or available from private breeding firms, often carry non-native parasites. For example, the red-eared tortoise (Trachemys scripta elegans) and Afgan tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii) carry nematodes Angusticaecum holopterum, Tachygonetria lobata and T. robusta. Migratory birds in their wintering grounds are often infected with parasites which are usually not constant components of the native fauna, but sometimes nematodes could find a suitable conditions to complete their life cycle. E.g. Cyathosoma microspiculum, species specific to cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) and previously recorded only from Asia and the Asian-European boudary, was able complete the life cycle in Poland. The increasingly frequent travels to countries with

  7. Rooting out Defense Mechanisms in Wheat against Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.) are soil borne pathogens of many important agricultural crops including wheat. Pratylenchus invade root cells and feed using a stylet, resulting in cell death. Common signs of Pratylenchus damage are root lesions, girdling, and lack of lateral branching. ...

  8. Differential DNA methylation in discrete developmental stages of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA methylation plays an essential role in regulating gene expression under a variety of conditions and it has therefore been hypothesized to underlie the transitions between life cycle stages in parasitic nematodes. So far, however, 5'-cytosine methylation has not been detected during any developmental stage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Given the new availability of high-resolution methylation detection methods, an investigation of life cycle methylation in a parasitic nematode can now be carried out. Results Here, using MethylC-seq, we present the first study to confirm the existence of DNA methylation in the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis, and we characterize the methylomes of the three life-cycle stages of this food-borne infectious human pathogen. We observe a drastic increase in DNA methylation during the transition from the new born to mature stage, and we further identify parasitism-related genes that show changes in DNA methylation status between life cycle stages. Conclusions Our data contribute to the understanding of the developmental changes that occur in an important human parasite, and raises the possibility that targeting DNA methylation processes may be a useful strategy in developing therapeutics to impede infection. In addition, our conclusion that DNA methylation is a mechanism for life cycle transition in T. spiralis prompts the question of whether this may also be the case in any other metazoans. Finally, our work constitutes the first report, to our knowledge, of DNA methylation in a nematode, prompting a re-evaluation of phyla in which this epigenetic mark was thought to be absent. PMID:23075480

  9. Rendering the Intractable More Tractable: Tools from Caenorhabditis elegans Ripe for Import into Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jordan D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent and rapid advances in genetic and molecular tools have brought spectacular tractability to Caenorhabditis elegans, a model that was initially prized because of its simple design and ease of imaging. C. elegans has long been a powerful model in biomedical research, and tools such as RNAi and the CRISPR/Cas9 system allow facile knockdown of genes and genome editing, respectively. These developments have created an additional opportunity to tackle one of the most debilitating burdens on global health and food security: parasitic nematodes. I review how development of nonparasitic nematodes as genetic models informs efforts to import tools into parasitic nematodes. Current tools in three commonly studied parasites (Strongyloides spp., Brugia malayi, and Ascaris suum) are described, as are tools from C. elegans that are ripe for adaptation and the benefits and barriers to doing so. These tools will enable dissection of a huge array of questions that have been all but completely impenetrable to date, allowing investigation into host–parasite and parasite–vector interactions, and the genetic basis of parasitism. PMID:26644478

  10. Automated, high-throughput, motility analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans and parasitic nematodes: Applications in the search for new anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Steven D; Partridge, Frederick A; Sattelle, David B

    2014-12-01

    The scale of the damage worldwide to human health, animal health and agricultural crops resulting from parasitic nematodes, together with the paucity of treatments and the threat of developing resistance to the limited set of widely-deployed chemical tools, underlines the urgent need to develop novel drugs and chemicals to control nematode parasites. Robust chemical screens which can be automated are a key part of that discovery process. Hitherto, the successful automation of nematode behaviours has been a bottleneck in the chemical discovery process. As the measurement of nematode motility can provide a direct scalar readout of the activity of the neuromuscular system and an indirect measure of the health of the animal, this omission is acute. Motility offers a useful assay for high-throughput, phenotypic drug/chemical screening and several recent developments have helped realise, at least in part, the potential of nematode-based drug screening. Here we review the challenges encountered in automating nematode motility and some important developments in the application of machine vision, statistical imaging and tracking approaches which enable the automated characterisation of nematode movement. Such developments facilitate automated screening for new drugs and chemicals aimed at controlling human and animal nematode parasites (anthelmintics) and plant nematode parasites (nematicides). PMID:25516833

  11. The surface coat of plant-parasitic nematodes: chemical composition, origin, and biological role-a review.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Y; McClure, M A

    1995-06-01

    Chemical composition, origin, and biological role of the surface coat (SC) of plant-parasitic nematodes are described and compared with those of animal-parasitic and free-living nematodes. The SC of the plant-parasitic nematodes is 5-30 nm thick and is characterized by a net negative charge. It consists, at least in part, of glycoproteins and proteins with various molecular weights, depending upon the nematode species. The lability of its components and the binding of human red blood cells to the surface of many tylenchid plant-parasitic nematodes, as well as the binding of several neoglycoproteins to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne, suggest the presence of carbohydrate-recognition-domains for host plants and parasitic or predatory soil microorganisms (Pasteuria penetrans and Dactylaria spp., for example). These features may also assist in nematode adaptations to soil environments and to plant hosts with defense mechanisms that depend on reactions to nematode surfaces. Surface coat proteins can be species and race specific, a characteristic with promising diagnostic potential. PMID:19277272

  12. RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes: a summary of the current status.

    PubMed

    Lilley, C J; Davies, L J; Urwin, P E

    2012-04-01

    SUMMARYRNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as an invaluable gene-silencing tool for functional analysis in a wide variety of organisms, particularly the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. An increasing number of studies have now described its application to plant parasitic nematodes. Genes expressed in a range of cell types are silenced when nematodes take up double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that elicit a systemic RNAi response. Despite many successful reports, there is still poor understanding of the range of factors that influence optimal gene silencing. Recent in vitro studies have highlighted significant variations in the RNAi phenotype that can occur with different dsRNA concentrations, construct size and duration of soaking. Discrepancies in methodology thwart efforts to reliably compare the efficacy of RNAi between different nematodes or target tissues. Nevertheless, RNAi has become an established experimental tool for plant parasitic nematodes and also offers the prospect of being developed into a novel control strategy when delivered from transgenic plants. PMID:22217302

  13. Development of abamectin loaded plant virus nanoparticles for efficacious plant parasitic nematode control.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Guenther, Richard H; Sit, Tim L; Lommel, Steven A; Opperman, Charles H; Willoughby, Julie A

    2015-05-13

    Plant parasitic nematodes are one of the world's major agricultural pests, causing in excess of $157 billion in worldwide crop damage annually. Abamectin (Abm) is a biological pesticide with a strong activity against a wide variety of plant parasitic nematodes. However, Abm's poor mobility in the soil compromises its nematicide performance because of the limited zone of protection surrounding the growing root system of the plant. In this study, we manipulated Abm's soil physical chemistry by encapsulating Abm within the Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) to produce a plant virus nanoparticle (PVN) delivery system for Abm. The transmission electron microscopic and dynamic light scattering characterization of Abm-loaded PVN (PVN(Abm)) indicated the resultant viral capsid integrity and morphology comparable to native RCNMV. In addition, the PVN(Abm) significantly increased Abm's soil mobility while enabling a controlled release strategy for Abm's bioavailability to nematodes. As a result, PVN(Abm) enlarged the zone of protection from Meloidogyne hapla root knot nematodes in the soil as compared to treating with free Abm molecules. Tomato seedlings treated with PVN(Abm) had healthier root growth and a reduction in root galling demonstrating the success of this delivery system for the increased efficacy of Abm to control nematode damage in crops. PMID:25906360

  14. Parasitic nematode communities of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus: richness and structuring in captive systems.

    PubMed

    Lott, M J; Hose, G C; Power, M L

    2015-08-01

    Captive management practices have the potential to drastically alter pre-existing host-parasite relationships. This can have profound implications for the health and productivity of threatened species in captivity, even in the absence of clinical symptoms of disease. Maximising the success of captive breeding programmes requires a detailed knowledge of anthropogenic influences on the structure of parasite assemblages in captive systems. In this study, we employed two high-throughput molecular techniques to characterise the parasitic nematode (suborder Strongylida) communities of the red kangaroo, Macropus rufus, across seven captive sites. The first was terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of a region of rDNA encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1), the 5.8S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). The second was Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 region. The prevalence, intensity of infection, taxonomic composition and comparative structure of strongylid nematode assemblages was assessed at each location. Prevalence (P = <0.001) and mean infection intensity (df = 6, F = 17.494, P = <0.001) differed significantly between the seven captive sites. Significant levels of parasite community structure were observed (ANOSIM, P = 0.01), with most of the variation being distributed within, rather than between, captive sites. The range of nematode taxa that occurred in captive red kangaroos appeared to differ from that of wild conspecifics, with representatives of the genus Cloacina, a dominant nematode parasite of the macropodid forestomach, being detected at only two of the seven study sites. This study also provides the first evidence for the presence of the genus Trichostrongylus in a macropodid marsupial. Our results demonstrate that contemporary species management practices may exert a profound influence on the structure of parasite communities in captive systems. PMID

  15. Genomic Mechanisms Accounting for the Adaptation to Parasitism in Nematode-Trapping Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Meerupati, Tejashwari; Andersson, Karl-Magnus; Friman, Eva; Kumar, Dharmendra; Tunlid, Anders; Ahrén, Dag

    2013-01-01

    Orbiliomycetes is one of the earliest diverging branches of the filamentous ascomycetes. The class contains nematode-trapping fungi that form unique infection structures, called traps, to capture and kill free-living nematodes. The traps have evolved differently along several lineages and include adhesive traps (knobs, nets or branches) and constricting rings. We show, by genome sequencing of the knob-forming species Monacrosporium haptotylum and comparison with the net-forming species Arthrobotrys oligospora, that two genomic mechanisms are likely to have been important for the adaptation to parasitism in these fungi. Firstly, the expansion of protein domain families and the large number of species-specific genes indicated that gene duplication followed by functional diversification had a major role in the evolution of the nematode-trapping fungi. Gene expression indicated that many of these genes are important for pathogenicity. Secondly, gene expression of orthologs between the two fungi during infection indicated that differential regulation was an important mechanism for the evolution of parasitism in nematode-trapping fungi. Many of the highly expressed and highly upregulated M. haptotylum transcripts during the early stages of nematode infection were species-specific and encoded small secreted proteins (SSPs) that were affected by repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). An active RIP mechanism was revealed by lack of repeats, dinucleotide bias in repeats and genes, low proportion of recent gene duplicates, and reduction of recent gene family expansions. The high expression and rapid divergence of SSPs indicate a striking similarity in the infection mechanisms of nematode-trapping fungi and plant and insect pathogens from the crown groups of the filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina). The patterns of gene family expansions in the nematode-trapping fungi were more similar to plant pathogens than to insect and animal pathogens. The observation of RIP activity

  16. In silico approach to screen compounds active against parasitic nematodes of major socio-economic importance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infections due to parasitic nematodes are common causes of morbidity and fatality around the world especially in developing nations. At present however, there are only three major classes of drugs for treating human nematode infections. Additionally the scientific knowledge on the mechanism of action and the reason for the resistance to these drugs is poorly understood. Commercial incentives to design drugs that are endemic to developing countries are limited therefore, virtual screening in academic settings can play a vital role is discovering novel drugs useful against neglected diseases. In this study we propose to build robust machine learning model to classify and screen compounds active against parasitic nematodes. Results A set of compounds active against parasitic nematodes were collated from various literature sources including PubChem while the inactive set was derived from DrugBank database. The support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was used for model development, and stratified ten-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the performance of each classifier. The best results were obtained using the radial basis function kernel. The SVM method achieved an accuracy of 81.79% on an independent test set. Using the model developed above, we were able to indentify novel compounds with potential anthelmintic activity. Conclusion In this study, we successfully present the SVM approach for predicting compounds active against parasitic nematodes which suggests the effectiveness of computational approaches for antiparasitic drug discovery. Although, the accuracy obtained is lower than the previously reported in a similar study but we believe that our model is more robust because we intentionally employed stringent criteria to select inactive dataset thus making it difficult for the model to classify compounds. The method presents an alternative approach to the existing traditional methods and may be useful for predicting hitherto novel anthelmintic

  17. Factors associated with the suppressiveness of sugarcane soils to plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Graham R; Rames, Emily; Stirling, A Marcelle; Hamill, Sharon

    2011-09-01

    Observations in three Australian sugarcane fields suggested that the soil just under the trash blanket (the covering of crop residue that remains on the soil surface after crops are harvested) was suppressive to plant-parasitic nematodes. Roots were concentrated in this upper layer of soil but plant-parasitic nematode populations were relatively low and roots showed few signs of nematode damage. Root biomass was much lower 15 cm further down the soil profile, where root health was poor and populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were 3-5 times higher than near the soil surface. A bioassay in which Radopholus similis (a nematode that does not occur in sugarcane soils) was inoculated into heat-sterilized and untreated soils, confirmed that biological factors were limiting nematode populations in some of the soils, with soil from 0-2 cm much more suppressive than soil from 15-17 cm. Surface soil from one site was highly suppressive, as only 16% of R. similis recoverable from heated soil were retrieved from this soil after 8 days. Numerous soil chemical, biochemical, and biological properties were measured, and non-linear regression analysis identified two major groups of factors that were significantly associated with suppressiveness. One group reflected the amount of organic matter in soil (total C, total N, and labile C) and the other was associated with the size of the free-living nematode community (total numbers of free-living nematodes, and numbers of plant associates, bacterial feeders, fungal feeders, and carnivores). These results suggested that suppressiveness was biologically mediated and was sustained by C inputs from crop residues and roots. Since nematode-trapping fungi in the test soils could not be quantified using traditional dilution plating methods, their possible role as suppressive agents was assessed by generating TRFLP profiles with Orbiliales-specific primers, and by sequencing cloned PCR products. Although the molecular data were obtained

  18. Molecular variability and evolution of the pectate lyase (pel-2) parasitism gene in cyst nematodes parasitizing different solanaceous plants.

    PubMed

    Geric Stare, Barbara; Fouville, Didier; Širca, Saša; Gallot, Aurore; Urek, Gregor; Grenier, Eric

    2011-02-01

    While pectate lyases are major parasitism factors in plant-parasitic nematodes, there is little information on the variability of these genes within species and their utility as pathotype or host range molecular markers. We have analysed polymorphisms of pectate lyase 2 (pel-2) gene, which degrades the unesterified polygalacturonate (pectate) of the host cell-wall, in the genus Globodera. Molecular variability of the pel-2 gene and the predicted protein was evaluated in populations of G. rostochiensis, G. pallida, G. "mexicana" and G. tabacum. Seventy eight pel-2 sequences were obtained and aligned. Point mutations were observed at 373 positions, 57% of these affect the coding part of the gene and produce 129 aa replacements. The observed polymorphism does not correlate either to the pathotypes proposed in potato cyst nematodes (PCN) or the subspecies described in tobacco cyst nematodes. The trees reveal a topology different from the admitted species topology as G. rostochiensis and G. pallida sequences are more similar to each other than to G. tabacum. Species-specific sites, potentially applicable for identification, and sites distinguishing PCN from tobacco cyst nematodes, were identified. As both G. rostochiensis and G. pallida display the same host range, but distinct from G. tabacum, which cannot parasitize potato plants, it is tempting to speculate that pel-2 genes polymorphism may be implicated in this adaptation, a view supported by the fact that no active pectate lyase 2 was found in G. "mexicana", a close relative of G. pallida that is unable to develop on cultivated potato varieties. PMID:21153407

  19. Changes in biochemical analytes in calves infected by nematode parasites in field conditions.

    PubMed

    de Cezaro, Marcela C; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Tecles, Fernando; Céron, José J; Eckersall, David P; Ferreira, João C P; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S

    2016-03-30

    Parasitic infections caused by nematodes are a major problem in bovines that resulting in losses in animal health and production. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in selected serum biochemical analytes in calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal (GI) and pulmonary nematodes without clinical signs. For this, samples of feces and blood of 86 calves were collected. Fecal egg counts (FEC) were determined using the modified McMaster technique with a sensitivity of 50 eggs per gram of feces (EPG). Positive nematode FEC was processed for coproculture using pooled samples to identify Strongylidae infective larvae (L3). First stage-larvae (L1) of Dictyocaulus viviparous were identified by a modified Baermann method. The biochemical analytes determined were: acute phase proteins such as haptoglobin and paraoxonase type 1; the enzymes acetylcholinesterase; butyrylcholinesterase; the lipid profile (triglycerides and total, HDL, and LDL-cholesterol); serum iron profile (iron and unsaturated iron-binding capacity); total protein and albumin; pancreatic profile (amylase and lipase); and minerals (phosphorus and calcium). The calves were divided into four groups according to the results of EPG and the modified Baermann method. Group 1: healthy control animals (n=16); Group 2: calves with only GI parasites (n=51): This group was sub-divided into sub-groups according to the EPG threshold: 2a-GI parasites with low EPG (n=23), and 2b-GI parasites with high EPG (n=28). Group 3: animals with only lungworms (n=5), and Group 4: calves with lung+GI parasites (n=14). The more prevalent genera in all coprocultures were: Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., and Trichostrongylus spp. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the groups and Dunn's post-test was used for multiple comparisons as the data was not normally distributed (P<0.05). The haptoglobin concentration increased in calves with GI and pulmonary parasites. A

  20. The Transcriptome of Nacobbus aberrans Reveals Insights into the Evolution of Sedentary Endoparasitism in Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Rancurel, Corinne; Cock, Peter J. A.; Urwin, Peter E.; Jones, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Within the phylum Nematoda, plant-parasitism is hypothesized to have arisen independently on at least four occasions. The most economically damaging plant-parasitic nematode species, and consequently the most widely studied, are those that feed as they migrate destructively through host roots causing necrotic lesions (migratory endoparasites) and those that modify host root tissue to create a nutrient sink from which they feed (sedentary endoparasites). The false root-knot nematode Nacobbus aberrans is the only known species to have both migratory endoparasitic and sedentary endoparasitic stages within its life cycle. Moreover, its sedentary stage appears to have characteristics of both the root-knot and the cyst nematodes. We present the first large-scale genetic resource of any false-root knot nematode species. We use RNAseq to describe relative abundance changes in all expressed genes across the life cycle to provide interesting insights into the biology of this nematode as it transitions between modes of parasitism. A multigene phylogenetic analysis of N. aberrans with respect to plant-parasitic nematodes of all groups confirms its proximity to both cyst and root-knot nematodes. We present a transcriptome-wide analysis of both lateral gene transfer events and the effector complement. Comparing parasitism genes of typical root-knot and cyst nematodes to those of N. aberrans has revealed interesting similarities. Importantly, genes that were believed to be either cyst nematode, or root-knot nematode, “specific” have both been identified in N. aberrans. Our results provide insights into the characteristics of a common ancestor and the evolution of sedentary endoparasitism of plants by nematodes. PMID:25123114

  1. Prevalence of dog intestinal nematode parasites in south central West Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Savilla, Tashina M; Joy, James E; May, Jeffrey D; Somerville, Charles C

    2011-05-31

    Coprological examination was used to determine prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in a sample of 231 dogs (117 females and 114 males) during the summer of 2009 at a veterinary clinic in south central West Virginia, USA. Clinical signs (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, weight gain or loss) were noted in addition to a history of anthelmintic usage. A total of 79 dogs (33.6%) were infected with one or more intestinal nematodes. Most dogs (58) were parasitized with a single species, 19 were parasitized with 2 species, and 2 were parasitized by 3 species. There was no significant difference (i.e., X(2)<3.84; P>0.05) in prevalence of infection between female and male dogs for any of the identified nematode species. The chi-square test for equality of proportions was used to determine prevalence of infection in 3 age categories of dogs (females and males combined): young dogs (≤12 months of age); mature dogs (13-83 months); and old dogs >83 months. Prevalences of infection for Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis were significantly (P<0.005) higher in young dogs, whereas there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in prevalence by age category for Trichuris vulpis. Dogs exhibiting clinical signs were no more likely to harbor intestinal nematodes than dogs that were asymptomatic. Additionally, dogs receiving heartworm treatment were significantly less likely to be parasitized than dogs receiving no heartworm prophylaxis. PMID:21277089

  2. Genetic identification of five strongyle nematode parasites in wild african elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    McLean, E R; Kinsella, J M; Chiyo, P; Obanda, V; Moss, C; Archie, E A

    2012-07-01

    African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) are an ecologically and economically important species in many African habitats. However, despite the importance of elephants, research on their parasites is limited, especially in wild populations. Currently, we lack genetic tools to identify elephant parasites. We present genetic markers from ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to identify five elephant-specific nematode parasites in the family Strongylidae: Murshidia linstowi, Murshidia longicaudata, Murshidia africana, Quilonia africana, and Khalilia sameera. We collected adult nematodes from feces deposited by wild elephants living in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Using both morphologic and genetic techniques, we found that the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in rDNA provides a reliable marker to distinguish these species of strongyles. We found no evidence for cryptic genetic species within these morphologic species according to the cox-1 region of mtDNA. Levels of genetic diversity in strongyles from elephants were consistent with the genetic diversity seen within other strongyle species. We anticipate that these results will be a useful tool for identifying gastrointestinal nematode parasites in elephants. PMID:22740536

  3. Prevalence and Molecular Identification of Nematode and Dipteran Parasites in an Australian Alpine Grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis)

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Byatt, Lachlan J.; Hill, Nichola J.; Bartolini, Remo J.; Hose, Grant C.; Herberstein, Marie E.; Power, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    In alpine Australia, Orthoptera are abundant, dominant herbivores, important prey species, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Despite the central role of orthopterans in alpine ecosystems, the impact of parasites on orthopteran populations is under-explored. In this study we describe the relationship between parasite prevalence and host sex, body size and year of collection. We accessed an existing, preserved collection of 640 Kosciuscola tristis collected from across its range between 2007 and 2011. Upon dissection we collected juvenile parasites and used molecular tools to identify them to three families (Nematoda; Mermithidae, and Arthropoda: Diptera: Tachinidae and Sarcophagidae). The prevalence of nematodes ranged from 3.5% to 25.0% and dipterans from 2.4% to 20.0%. Contrary to predictions, we found no associations between parasite prevalence and grasshopper sex or size. Although there was an association between prevalence of both nematodes and dipterans with year of collection, this is likely driven by a small sample size in the first year. Our results provide a foundation for future studies into parasite prevalence within the alpine environment and the abiotic factors that might influence these associations. PMID:25919745

  4. Chorismate mutase: an alternatively spliced parasitism gene and a diagnostic marker for three important Globodera nematode species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chorismate mutase gene is widely distributed in both cyst and root-knot nematode species and believed to play a critical role in nematode parasitism. In this study, we cloned a new chorismate mutase gene (Gt-cm-1) from Globodera tabacum and further characterized the gene structure in both G. tab...

  5. Curtisia dentata (Cornaceae) leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit motility of parasitic and free-living nematodes.

    PubMed

    Shai, L J; Bizimenyera, E S; Bagla, V; McGaw, L J; Eloff, J N

    2009-06-01

    Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis are among the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants. Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode, is used as a model for evaluating anthelmintic activity of a variety of test substances. Extracts of several medicinal plants are useful in vitro and in vivo against nematode development. Extracts of Curtisia dentata, a South African medicinal plant, and compounds isolated from leaves of this plant were investigated for anthelmintic activity against T. colubriformis, H. contortus and C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were active against all nematodes at concentrations as low as 160 microg/ml. Betulinic acid and lupeol were active against the parasitic nematodes only at the high concentrations of 1000 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. All compounds were effective against C. elegans with active concentrations as low as 8 microg/ml. Betulinic acid was less active than lupeol and ursolic acid against C. elegans. The acetone and dichloromethane extracts were also active against C. elegans with a concentration of 0.31 mg/ml resulting in almost 80% inhibition of larval motility. The use of free-living nematodes may provide information on the activity of potential anthelmintics against parasitic nematodes. Extracts of various medicinal plant species may provide solutions to ill-health of small ruminants caused by parasitic nematodes in poor communities of southern Africa. PMID:20698444

  6. Geostatistical Analysis of the Spatial Variability of Cotton-Parasitic Nematodes and the Factors Favoring its Occurrence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delineation of management zones for a site-specific management of cotton-parasitic nematodes requires the study of their spatial and temporal variability. If field-scale distributions of nematodes spatially correlate with specific biotic or abiotic conditions present in the field, those conditions c...

  7. Synergistic interaction of CLAVATA1, CLAVATA2, and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 in cyst nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION (ESR) (CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful nematode infection. Previously, we showed that CLV2 and CORYNE (CRN), a heterodimer recept...

  8. Delineation of Management Zones for Site Specific Management of Parasitic Nematodes Using Geostatistical Analysis of Measured Field Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delineation of management zones for site specific management of cotton-parasitic nematodes requires the study of their spatial and temporal variability. If the nematodes follow a spatial structure and this structure is correlated with the spatial variability of specific biotic or abiotic conditions ...

  9. Overexpression of the transcription factor RAP2.6 leads to enhanced callose deposition in syncytia and enhanced resistance against the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyst nematodes invade the roots of their host plants as second stage juveniles and induce a syncytium which is their source of nutrients throughout their life. A transcriptome analysis of syncytia induced by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis roots has shown that gene expression in the syncytium is different from that of the root with thousands of genes upregulated or downregulated. Among the downregulated genes are many which code for defense-related proteins. One gene which is strongly downregulated codes for the ethylene response transcription factor RAP2.6. The genome of Arabidopsis contains 122 ERF transcription factor genes which are involved in a variety of developmental and stress responses. Results Expression of RAP2.6 was studied with RT-PCR and a promoter::GUS line. During normal growth conditions the gene was expressed especially in roots and stems. It was inducible by Pseudomonas syringae but downregulated in syncytia from a very early time point on. Overexpression of the gene enhanced the resistance against H. schachtii which was seen by a lower number of nematodes developing on these plants as well as smaller syncytia and smaller female nematodes. A T-DNA mutant had a reduced RAP2.6 transcript level but this did not further increase the susceptibility against H. schachtii. Neither overexpression lines nor mutants had an effect on P. syringae. Overexpression of RAP2.6 led to an elevated expression of JA-responsive genes during early time points after infection by H. schachtii. Syncytia developing on overexpression lines showed enhanced deposition of callose. Conclusions Our results showed that H. schachtii infection is accompanied by a downregulation of RAP2.6. It seems likely that the nematodes use effectors to actively downregulate the expression of this and other defense-related genes to avoid resistance responses of the host plant. Enhanced resistance of RAP2.6 overexpression lines seemed to be due to enhanced

  10. Mechanisms of molecular mimicry of plant CLE peptide ligands by the parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongfeng; Ni, Jun; Denver, Robert; Wang, Xiaohong; Clark, Steven E

    2011-09-01

    Nematodes that parasitize plant roots cause huge economic losses and have few mechanisms for control. Many parasitic nematodes infect plants by reprogramming root development to drive the formation of feeding structures. How nematodes take control of plant development is largely unknown. Here, we identify two host factors involved in the function of a receptor ligand mimic, GrCLE1, secreted by the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. GrCLE1 is correctly processed to an active form by host plant proteases. Processed GrCLE1 peptides bind directly to the plant CLE receptors CLV2, BAM1, and BAM2. Involvement of these receptors in the ligand-mimicking process is also supported by the fact that the ability of GrCLE1 peptides to alter plant root development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is dependent on these receptors. Critically, we also demonstrate that GrCLE1 maturation can be entirely carried out by plant factors and that the availability of CLE processing activity may be essential for successful ligand mimicry. PMID:21750229

  11. Chemical signals synchronize the life cycles of a plant-parasitic nematode and its vector beetle.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Shuai; Wei, Wei; Hao, Haijun; Zhang, Bin; Butcher, Rebecca A; Sun, Jianghua

    2013-10-21

    The pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has caused severe damage to pine forests in large parts of the world [1-4]. Dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode occurs when the nematode develops into the dispersal fourth larval stage (LIV) upon encountering its insect vector, the Monochamus pine sawyer beetle, inside an infected pine tree [5-9]. Here, we show that LIV formation in B. xylophilus is induced by C16 and C18 fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which are produced abundantly on the body surface of the vector beetle specifically during the late development pupal, emerging adult, and newly eclosed adult stages. The LIV can then enter the tracheal system of the adult beetle for dispersal to a new pine tree. Treatment of B. xylophilus with long-chain FAEEs, or the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, promotes LIV formation, while Δ7-dafachronic acid blocks the effects of these chemicals, suggesting a conserved role for the insulin/IGF-1 and DAF-12 pathways in LIV formation. Our work provides a mechanism by which LIV formation in B. xylophilus is specifically coordinated with the life cycle of its vector beetle. Knowledge of the chemical signals that control the LIV developmental decision could be used to interfere with the dispersal of this plant-parasitic nematode. PMID:24120638

  12. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots and root tips and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) colonized root pieces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It's fairly well established that a functional ethylene response path is important to root knot and cyst nematode colonization of plant roots. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and the role of ethylene in nematode colonization of roots may be indirect, e.g. lateral root initiati...

  13. Galectin-11: A novel host mediator targeting specific stages of the gastrointestinal nematode parasite, Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Preston, S J M; Beddoe, T; Walkden-Brown, S; Meeusen, E; Piedrafita, D

    2015-10-01

    Galectin-11 is released from epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, specifically following infection with gastrointestinal parasites including the highly pathogenic nematode, Haemonchus contortus. The function(s) of galectin-11 are currently unknown but seem to be associated with the development of immunity by the host. The aim of the present study was to examine the interaction of galectin-11 with the different parasitic life cycle stages of H. contortus and determine any effects on parasite development. The results of this study showed that galectin-11 binds to the surface of the L4 and adult stages of the parasite but not to the exsheathed L3 stage. In addition, at a lower concentration, binding to the L4 was specifically localised to the pharynx region. Subsequent in vitro assays demonstrated significant inhibition of larval growth and development in the presence of recombinant galectin-11. These results indicate, to our knowledge for the first time, a functional role for galectin-11 in gastrointestinal nematode infection of ruminants and a mechanism of action of galectin-11, targeting the development and growth of the L4 and possibly the adult parasite stage. PMID:26215057

  14. Evidence for gene flow in parasitic nematodes between two host species of shrews.

    PubMed

    Brant, Sara V; Ortí, Guillermo

    2003-10-01

    We describe the genetic structure of populations of the intestinal nematode Longistriata caudabullata (Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmosomidae), a common parasite of short-tailed shrews (genus Blarina, Insectivora: Soricidae). Parasites and hosts were collected from a transect across a contact zone between two species of hosts, Blarina brevicauda and B. hylophaga, in central North America. An 800-base pairs (bp) fragment of the ND4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene was sequenced for 28 worms and a 783-bp fragment of the mtDNA control region was analysed for 16 shrews. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences revealed reciprocal monophyly for the shrew species, concordant with morphological diagnosis, and supported the idea that the transect cuts through a secondary contact zone between well-differentiated B. brevicauda and B. hylophaga. In contrast to this pattern, the parasitic nematode mtDNA phylogeny was not subdivided according to host affiliation. Genealogical discordance between parasite and host phylogenies suggests extensive gene flow among parasites across the host species boundary. PMID:12969487

  15. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

    PubMed

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Nicol, Paul; Naz, Fareeha; Gill, Reetinder; Jones, Michael G K

    2016-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668) with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii. PMID:26824923

  16. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii

    PubMed Central

    Fosu-Nyarko, John; Nicol, Paul; Naz, Fareeha; Gill, Reetinder; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2016-01-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668) with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii. PMID:26824923

  17. The Biochemistry of Haemonchus contortus and Other Parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Harder, A

    2016-01-01

    Different life cycle stages of Haemonchus contortus adapt to different ecosystems. This adaptation is accompanied by alterations in gene transcription and expression associated with the energy, amino acid, nitrogen, lipid and/or nucleic acid metabolism of the respective stages. For example, the aerobic metabolism of larvae depends on an efficient citric acid cycle, whereas the anaerobic metabolism of adults requires glycolysis, resulting in the production of volatile fatty acids, such as acetic acid and propionic acid. There are only few anthelmintics targeting nematode energy metabolism. In addition, H. contortus has reduced pathways for amino acid metabolism, polyamine metabolism and nitrogen excretion pathways. Moreover, nucleic acid metabolism comprising purine and pyrimidine salvage pathways as well as lipid metabolism are reduced. In addition, nematodes possess a particular composition of their cuticle. Energy production of adult worms is mainly linked to egg production and complex regulation of the neuromuscular system in both females and males. In this context, microtubules consisting of α- and β-tubulin heterodimers play a crucial role in the presynaptic vesicle transport. Due to the significant distinction of its quarternary structure in nematodes in comparison to other organisms, β-tubulin was identified as a major target for benzimidazoles used for anthelmintic treatment. Concerning the function of the neuromuscular system, acetylcholine, a ligand of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in H. contortus. In contrast, glutamate-gated chloride channels, calcium- and voltage-dependent potassium channels as well as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and its receptors act as inhibitory neurotransmitters and thus opponents to nAChR. For example, the calcium- and voltage-dependent potassium channel SLO-1 is an important target of emodepside, which is involved in the sensitive regulation of activatory and

  18. New Plant-Parasitic Nematode from the Mostly Mycophagous Genus Bursaphelenchus Discovered inside Figs in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Tanaka, Ryusei; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Davies, Kerrie A.

    2014-01-01

    A new nematode species, Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. is described. The species was found in syconia of a fig species, Ficus variegata during a field survey of fig-associated nematodes in Japan. Because it has a well-developed stylet and pharyngeal glands, the species is considered an obligate plant parasite, and is easily distinguished from all other fungal-feeding species in the genus based upon these characters. Although B. sycophilus n. sp. shares an important typological character, male spicule possessing a strongly recurved condylus, with the “B. eremus group” and the “B. leoni group” of the genus, it was inferred to be monophyletic with the “B. fungivorus group”. The uniquely shaped stylet and well-developed pharyngeal glands is reminiscent of the fig-floret parasitic but paraphyletic assemblage of “Schistonchus”. Thus, these morphological characters appear to be an extreme example of convergent evolution in the nematode family, Aphelenchoididae, inside figs. Other characters shared by the new species and its close relatives, i.e., lack of ventral P1 male genital papilla, female vulval flap, and papilla-shaped P4 genital papillae in males, corroborate the molecular phylogenetic inference. The unique biological character of obligate plant parasitism and highly derived appearance of the ingestive organs of Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. expands our knowledge of the potential morphological, physiological and developmental plasticity of the genus Bursaphelenchus. PMID:24940595

  19. Use of fluorescent lectin binding to distinguish eggs of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep.

    PubMed

    Umair, S; McMurtry, L W; Knight, J S; Simpson, H V

    2016-02-15

    The binding of a panel of 19 lectins to carbohydrates on the eggs of economically important nematode parasites of sheep has been assessed as the basis of a rapid test to distinguish parasite eggs, at least at the genus level. A total of six lectins can be used to identify eggs of six nematode parasites: peanut agglutinin (PNA) for Haemonchus contortus; Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) for Teladorsagia sp; Aleuria aurantia agglutinin (AAL) for Trichostrongylus sp; Psophocarpus tetragonolobus‑II (PTLII) for Nematodirus sp; Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL) for Cooperia sp and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) for Chabertia ovina. For WGA, LCA and LTL, weak binding was also observed to H. contortus and Teladorsagia sp, Trichostrongylus sp and C. ovina eggs, respectively. Nematode eggs in two faecal samples were identically identified by both lectin binding and PCR, except for PCR identification of the eggs of Nematodirus sp, as these did not lyse. Lectins bound best to H. contortus eggs extracted from fresh faecal samples or after storage at room temperature or 4 °C for up to 24 h, but eggs stored at -20 °C or -80 °C did not bind PNA. PMID:26827865

  20. Optimizing culture conditions for free-living stages of the nematode parasite Strongyloides ratti.

    PubMed

    Dulovic, Alex; Puller, Vadim; Streit, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    The rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti (S. ratti) has recently emerged as a model system for various aspects of parasite biology and evolution. In addition to parasitic parthenogenetic females, this species can also form facultative free-living generations of sexually reproducing adults. These free-living worms are bacteriovorous and grow very well when cultured in the feces of their host. However, in fecal cultures the worms are rather difficult to find for observation and experimental manipulation. Therefore, it has also been attempted to raise S. ratti on Nematode Growth Media (NGM) plates with Escherichia coli OP50 as food, exactly as described for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Whilst worms did grow on these plates, their longevity and reproductive output compared to fecal cultures were dramatically reduced. In order to improve the culture success we tested other plates occasionally used for C. elegans and, starting from the best performing one, systematically varied the plate composition, the temperature and the food in order to further optimize the conditions. Here we present a plate culturing protocol for free-living stages of S. ratti with strongly improved reproductive success and longevity. PMID:27334397

  1. [Main evolution lines of plant parasitic nematodes of the order Aphelenchida siddiqi, 1980].

    PubMed

    Ryss, A Iu

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenic models for each aphelenchid family and phylogeny of the order Aphelenchida as a whole were developed on the base of detailed comparative morphological and bionomical analysis of the order. Bionomical and morphological characters having a phylogenetic significance were selected. Classification proposed by Hunt, 1993 was used as the starting-point of the study. Life cycles and their evolution in Aphelenchida were analyzed on the base of phylogenetic trees. It is concluded, that aphelenchid ancestors combined mycophagy, plant parasitic, and partly predaceous feeding. Relations of the primitive Aphelenchida with their symbionts developed from the spots of the fungal organic matter decomposition in the "nema- tode-fungi" associations, followed by a transition to the temporary endoparasitic habit omitting ectoparasitism. With a complication of the nematodes' life cycles, the insect vector (detritophagous or pollinator) transformed into the real insect host of the parasitic nematode in the 2-host life cycle (with the plant and insect hosts) or in the obligate 1-host entomoparasitic life cycle of the aphelenchid nematodes. Specialization of the aphelenchid life cycles to insect vectors followed two main ways. In the first way, the resistant to unfavorable environmental conditions nematode juveniles, known already for the primitive aphelenchids transformed into dispersal juveniles, and later into parasitic juveniles. In the second evolution line the dispersal function were laid on inseminated but non-gravid (not egg-producing) females. Both above-mentioned trends of parasitic specialization were arisen independently in different phylogenetic lines of the Aphelenchida. In each line of the parasitic development in different nematode families, the highly specialized ectoparasites, as well as endoparasites on insects, were formed. In the evolution of life cycle of parasitic nematodes, a tendency to decrease the body size took place. The function of dispersion shifted

  2. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community.

    PubMed

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg(-1) of L and 0.428 g kg(-1) of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  3. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg−1 of L and 0.428 g kg−1 of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  4. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a comparison of the nAChRs of Caenorhabditis elegans and parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Joyner, Michelle; O'Connor, Vincent; Walker, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a key role in the normal physiology of nematodes and provide an established target site for anthelmintics. The free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, has a large number of nAChR subunit genes in its genome and so provides an experimental model for testing novel anthelmintics which act at these sites. However, many parasitic nematodes lack specific genes present in C. elegans, and so care is required in extrapolating from studies using C. elegans to the situation in other nematodes. In this review the properties of C. elegans nAChRs are reviewed and compared to those of parasitic nematodes. This forms the basis for a discussion of the possible subunit composition of nAChRs from different species of parasitic nematodes. Currently our knowledge on this is largely based on studies using heterologous expression and pharmacological analysis of receptor subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes. It is concluded that more information is required regarding the subunit composition and pharmacology of endogenous nAChRs in parasitic nematodes. PMID:23500392

  5. Frequency and Geographical Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Cotton in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Baird, R. E.; Davis, R. F.; Alt, P. J.; Mullinix, B. G.; Padgett, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine the geographical distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia cotton fields. A total of 778 fields in 11 Georgia counties were sampled from 1 September through 15 December 1995. Four nematode genera parasitic on cotton were found in this survey: Meloidogyne spp., Rotylenchulus sp., Hoplolaimus sp., and Belonolaimus sp. Meloidogyne spp. was present in 9% to 56% of the fields in individual counties. Rotylenchulus sp. was found in 10 counties, Hoplolaimus sp. was found in 6 counties, and Belonolaimus sp. was found in 2 counties. From all of the samples collected for this survey, Meloidogyne spp. were found in 31% of the samples, Rotylenchulus sp. was found in 14%, Hoplolaimus sp. was found in 7%, and Belonolaimus sp. was found in 0.3%. Burke County had the greatest number of fields infested by at least one of these genera (67%) and the greatest number of fields above Georgia's action thresholds (38%). Laurens County had the fewest fields where these genera were present (13%), and only 3% of fields had nematode populations above threshold levels. Data from samples collected from cotton fields and submitted by county agents from 1993 through 1994 were compiled to provide historical information about nematode distribution and population density. The results from this survey show that the major nematodes damaging to cotton are not present in all counties in Georgia. Counties in which cotton has historically been a major crop are likely to have higher levels of Meloidogyne spp., Hoplolaimus sp., and Rotylenchulus sp. in current cotton crops. Counties in which soybean has historically been a major crop are likely to have higher levels of Hoplolaimus sp. and Rotylenchulus sp. in current cotton crops. PMID:19277192

  6. Laser capture microdissection of nematode feeding cells.

    PubMed

    Ithal, Nagabhushana; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2011-01-01

    Obligate plant-parasitic nematodes, such as cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) and root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), form specialized feeding cells in host plant roots. These feeding cells provide the sole source of nutrition for the growth and reproduction of the nematode to complete its life cycle. Feeding cell formation involves complex physiological and morphological changes to normal root cells and is accompanied by dramatic changes in plant gene expression. The distinct features of feeding cells suggest that their formation entails a unique gene expression profile, a better understanding of which will assist in building models to explain signaling pathways that modulate transcriptional changes in response to nematodes. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to design strategies to develop resistance against nematodes in crop plants. Feeding cells comprise a small fraction of the total root cell population, and identification of plant gene expression changes specific to these cells is difficult. Until recently, the specific isolation of nematode feeding cells could be accomplished only by manual dissection or microaspiration. These approaches are limited in that only mature feeding cells can be isolated. These limitations in tissue accessibility for macromolecule isolation at different stages of feeding cell development can be overcome through the use of laser microdissection (LM), a technique that enables the specific isolation of feeding cells from early to late stages for RNA isolation, amplification, and downstream analysis. PMID:21359812

  7. Heterodera glycines Population Development on Soybean Treated with Glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) is a major yield limiting pest in all major soybean producing countries. In the last decade genetically modified soybean tolerant to glyphosate has become widely planted and postemergence application of glyphosate has increased exponentially. Genetically m...

  8. Host suitability of some Poaceous crop cultivars for Heterodera goldeni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host suitability of four corn, four sorghum and five rice cultivars to the cyst nematode Heterodera goldeni was determined in the greenhouse. The results showed that H. goldeni infected and reproduced successfully on all the tested poaceous crop cultivars. The corn hybrids Pioneer 3062 and SC 10...

  9. Characterization of the Pratylenchus penetrans transcriptome including data mining of putative nematode genes involved in plant parasitism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans is considered one of the most economically important species within the genus. Host range studies have shown that nearly 400 plant species can be parasitized by this species. To obtain insight into the transcriptome of this migratory plant-parasitic ne...

  10. Trichinella spiralis, potential model nematode for epigenetics and its implication in metazoan parasitism.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Rui; Liu, Mingyuan

    2014-01-10

    The recent discovery of DNA methylation in the nematode T.spiralis may raise the possibility of using it as a potential model organism for epigenetic studies instead of C. elegans, which is deficient in this important epigenetic modification. In contrast to the free-living nematode C. elegans, T. spiralis is a parasitic worm that possesses a complicated life cycle and undergoes a complex developmental regulation of genes. We emphasize that the differential methylomes in the different life-history stages of T. spiralis can provide insight on how DNA methylation is triggered and regulated. In particular, we have demonstrated that DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of its parasitism-related genes. Further computational analyses indicated that the regulatory machinery for DNA methylation can also be found in the T. spiralis genome. By a logical extension of this point, we speculate that comprehensively addressing the epigenetic machinery of T. spiralis may help to understand epigenetics in invertebrates. Furthermore, considering the implication of epigenetics in metazoan parasitism, using T. spiralis as an epigenetic model organism may further contribute to drug development against metazoan parasites. PMID:24454291

  11. Effects of Solarization and Ammonium Amendments on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, R.; McGovern, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of soil solarization and ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate against plant-parasitic nematodes on yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo) and on vinca (Catharanthus roseus) were evaluated at two sites. Solarization for 3 weeks in the spring suppressed population levels of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Criconemella spp., and Dolichodorus heterocephalus throughout the growing season on both crops at both sites. Levels of Meloidogyne incognita were suppressed initially, but population densities increased by the end of the crop in several cases. In one site, numbers of Paratrichodorus minor resurged following solarization to levels that were greater than those present in unsolarized control plots. The effect of solarization was not enhanced by combination with ammonium amendments, but, in one site, application of ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate resulted in lower numbers of B. longicaudatus than in the unamended control. Additional research and improved efficacy of candidate amendments are required before they can be successfully integrated with solarization for nematode management. Efficacy of solarization against plant-parasitic nematodes was achieved despite a relatively short (3 weeks) solarization period. PMID:19271007

  12. Extending from PARs in Caenorhabditis elegans to homologues in Haemonchus contortus and other parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, S; Gasser, R B

    2007-04-01

    Signal transduction molecules play key roles in the regulation of developmental processes, such as morphogenesis, organogenesis and cell differentiation in all organisms. They are organized into 'pathways' that represent a coordinated network of cell-surface receptors and intracellular molecules, being involved in sensing environmental stimuli and transducing signals to regulate or modulate cellular processes, such as gene expression and cytoskeletal dynamics. A particularly important group of molecules implicated in the regulation of the cytoskeleton for the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity is the PAR proteins (derived from partition defective in asymmetric cell division). The present article reviews salient aspects of PAR proteins involved in the early embryonic development and morphogenesis of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and some other organisms, with an emphasis on the molecule PAR-1. Recent advances in the knowledge and understanding of PAR-1 homologues from the economically important parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, of small ruminants is summarized and discussed in the context of exploring avenues for future research in this area for parasitic nematodes. PMID:17107637

  13. Mitochondrial genome haplotype hypervariation within the isopod parasitic nematode Thaumamermis cosgrovei.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sha; Hyman, Bradley C

    2007-06-01

    Characterization of mitochondrial genomes from individual Thaumamermis cosgrovei nematodes, obligate parasites of the isopod Armadillidium vulgare, revealed that numerous mtDNA haplotypes, ranging in size from 19 to 34 kb, are maintained in several spatially separated isopod populations. The magnitude and frequency of conspecific mtDNA size variation is unprecedented among all studied size-polymorphic metazoan mitochondrial genomes. To understand the molecular basis of this hypervariation, complete nucleotide sequences of two T. cosgrovei mtDNA haplotypes were determined. A hypervariable segment, residing between the atp6 and rrnL genes, contributes exclusively to T. cosgrovei mtDNA size variation. Within this region, mtDNA coding genes and putative nonfunctional sequences have accumulated substitutions and are duplicated and rearranged to varying extents. Hypervariation at this level has enabled a first insight into the life history of T. cosgrovei. In five A. vulgare hosts infected with multiple nematodes, four carried nematodes with identical mtDNA haplotypes, suggesting that hosts may become infected by ingesting a recently hatched egg clutch or become parasitized by individuals from the same brood prior to dispersal of siblings within the soil. PMID:17435228

  14. Effects of solarization and ammonium amendments on plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; McGovern, R J

    2000-12-01

    The effects of soil solarization and ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate against plant-parasitic nematodes on yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo) and on vinca (Catharanthus roseus) were evaluated at two sites. Solarization for 3 weeks in the spring suppressed population levels of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Criconemella spp., and Dolichodorus heterocephalus throughout the growing season on both crops at both sites. Levels of Meloidogyne incognita were suppressed initially, but population densities increased by the end of the crop in several cases. In one site, numbers of Paratrichodorus minor resurged following solarization to levels that were greater than those present in unsolarized control plots. The effect of solarization was not enhanced by combination with ammonium amendments, but, in one site, application of ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate resulted in lower numbers of B. longicaudatus than in the unamended control. Additional research and improved efficacy of candidate amendments are required before they can be successfully integrated with solarization for nematode management. Efficacy of solarization against plant-parasitic nematodes was achieved despite a relatively short (3 weeks) solarization period. PMID:19271007

  15. Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities in Dogwood, Maple, and Peach Nurseries in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Niblack, T. L.; Bernard, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nursery blocks (48 dogwood, 27 red maple, and 17 peach) distributed among 20 Tennessee nurseries were sampled for nematodes in March, July, and October 1981. Plant-parasitic nematodes were extracted from soil, counted by genera, and identified to species after fixation. A total of 57 species in 24 genera were found, with 1-16 species occurring in a site. The species most commonly detected were Paratylenchus projectus and Xiphinema americanum, which were found in 88% and 78% of the sites, respectively. Relationships existed between distribution and densities of some species present in more than 10% of the sites and certain soil factors (pH, bulk density, texture, and organic matter content). Plant-parasitic nematode community diversity was related to tree age, percentage of weed ground cover, and number of weed species. Site similarities in community ordinations were dependent on the individual nurseries sampled, tree age, and soil type, but clusters of sites of similar tree ages and soil types were not exclusive. PMID:19294071

  16. Additional records of metazoan parasites from Caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes.

    PubMed

    Colón-Llavina, Marlene M; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Paoletti, Michela; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Williams, Ernest H

    2009-10-01

    Studies of marine mammal parasites in the Caribbean are scarce. An assessment for marine mammal endo- and ectoparasites from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but extending to other areas of the Caribbean, was conducted between 1989 and 1994. The present study complements the latter and enhances identification of anisakid nematodes using molecular markers. Parasites were collected from 59 carcasses of stranded cetaceans and manatees from 1994 to 2006, including Globicephala macrorhynchus, Kogia breviceps, Kogia sima, Lagenodelphis hosei, Mesoplodon densirostris, Peponocephala electra, Stenella longirostris, Steno bredanensis, Trichechus manatus. Tursiops truncatus, and Ziphius cavirostris. Sixteen species of endoparasitic helminthes were morphologically identified, including two species of acanthocephalans (Bolbosoma capitatum, Bolbosoma vasculosum), nine species of nematodes (Anisakis sp., Anisakis brevispiculata, Anisakis paggiae, Anisakis simplex, Anisakis typica, Anisakis ziphidarium, Crassicauda anthonyi, Heterocheilus tunicatus, Pseudoterranova ceticola), two species of cestodes (Monorygma grimaldi, Phyllobothrium delphini), and three species of trematodes (Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Monoligerum blairi). The nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis recovered in some stranded animals were genetically identified to species level based on their sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (629 bp of mtDNA cox 2). A total of five new host records and six new geographic records are presented. PMID:19582477

  17. Nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nematodes are roundworms in the phylum Nematoda. Although most are free-living, some nematodes are parasites of plants, humans, or livestock. Entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae & Heterorhabditidae only parasitize insects. These nematodes are used as environmentally friend...

  18. Distribution of Field Corn Roots and Parasitic Nematodes in Subsoiled and Nonsubsoiled Soil

    PubMed Central

    Rich, J. R.; Hodge, C.; Robertson, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    A field trial was conducted for 2 years in an Arredondo fine sand containing a tillage pan at 15-20 cm deep to determine the influence of subsoiling on the distribution of corn roots and plant-parasitic nematodes. Soil samples were taken at various depths and row positions at 30, 60, and 90 days after planting in field corn subsoiled under the row with two chisels and in non-subsoiled corn. At 30 and 60 days, in-row nematode population densities to 60 cm deep were not affected by subsoiling compared with population densities in nonsubsoiled plots. After 90 days, subsoiling had not affected total root length or root weight at the 20 depth-row position sampling combinations, but population densities of Meloidogyne incognita and Criconemella spp. had increased in subsoiled corn. Numbers of Pratylenchus zeae were not affected. Subsoiling generally resulted in a change in distribution of corn roots and nematodes in the soil profile but caused little total increase in either roots or numbers of nematodes. Corn yield was increased by subsoiling. PMID:19294167

  19. Parasitic and Saprophytic Abilities of the Nematode-Attacking Fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis.

    PubMed

    Jaffee, B A; Zehr, E I

    1985-07-01

    The ability of Hirsutella rhossiliensis to colonize various substrates in sterile and nonsterile soil was measured. Hirsutella rhossiliensis was recovered from 67% and 77% of living, inoculated Criconemella xenoplax incubated in sterile and nonsterile soil, respectively. In contrast, the fungus was recovered from 100% and 18% of heat-killed, inoculated nematodes incubated on sterile and nonsterile soil, respectively. Hirsutella rhossiliensis was readily recovered from inoculated, autoclaved wheat seeds incubated in sterile soil but not from seeds incubated in nonsterile soil. Autoclaved peach roots were a poor substrate for the fungus. Germination of H. rhossiliensis spores incubated on agar disks above soil was about 90% regardless of soil treatment. However, germ tube length was greatly suppressed by nonsterile soil. Our results suggest that H. rhossiliensis is a better parasite than saprophyte and that the fungus may be specialized for attacking nematodes. PMID:19294104

  20. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Results Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Conclusions Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes. PMID:24739302

  1. Strongyloides stercoralis: a model for translational research on parasitic nematode biology.

    PubMed

    Lok, James B

    2007-01-01

    Because of their free-living life cycle alternatives, Strongyloides and related nematode parasites may represent the best models for translating C. elegans science to the study of nematode parasitism. S. stercoralis, a significant pathogen of humans, can be maintained in laboratory dogs and gerbils. Biosafety precautions necessary for work with S. stercoralis, though unfamiliar to many C. elegans researchers, are straightforward and easily accomplished. Although specialized methods are necessary for large-scale culture of the free-living stages of S. stercoralis, small-scale cultures for experimental purposes may be undertaken using minor modifications of standard C. elegans methods. Similarly, the morphological similarities between C. elegans and the free-living stages of S. stercoralis allow investigational methods such as laser cell ablation and DNA transformation by gonadal microinjection to be easily adapted from C. elegans to S. stercoralis. Comparative studies employing these methods have yielded new insights into the neuronal control of the infective process in parasites and its similarity to regulation of dauer development in C. elegans. Furthermore, we have developed a practical method for transient transformation of S. stercoralis with vector constructs having various tissue- and cell-specific expression patterns and have assembled these into a modular vector kit for distribution to the community. PMID:18050500

  2. Impact of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes of sheep, and the role of advanced molecular tools for exploring epidemiology and drug resistance - an Australian perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes (roundworms) of small ruminants and other livestock have major economic impacts worldwide. Despite the impact of the diseases caused by these nematodes and the discovery of new therapeutic agents (anthelmintics), there has been relatively limited progress in the development of practical molecular tools to study the epidemiology of these nematodes. Specific diagnosis underpins parasite control, and the detection and monitoring of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites, presently a major concern around the world. The purpose of the present article is to provide a concise account of the biology and knowledge of the epidemiology of the gastrointestinal nematodes (order Strongylida), from an Australian perspective, and to emphasize the importance of utilizing advanced molecular tools for the specific diagnosis of nematode infections for refined investigations of parasite epidemiology and drug resistance detection in combination with conventional methods. It also gives a perspective on the possibility of harnessing genetic, genomic and bioinformatic technologies to better understand parasites and control parasitic diseases. PMID:23711194

  3. Plant systemic induced responses mediate interactions between root parasitic nematodes and aboveground herbivorous insects

    PubMed Central

    Wondafrash, Mesfin; Van Dam, Nicole M.; Tytgat, Tom O. G.

    2013-01-01

    Insects and nematodes are the most diverse and abundant groups of multicellular animals feeding on plants on either side of the soil–air interface. Several herbivore-induced responses are systemic, and hence can influence the preference and performance of organisms in other plant organs. Recent studies show that plants mediate interactions between belowground plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) and aboveground herbivorous insects. Based on the knowledge of plant responses to pathogens, we review the emerging insights on plant systemic responses against root-feeding nematodes and shoot-feeding insects. We discuss the potential mechanisms of plant-mediated indirect interactions between both groups of organisms and point to gaps in our knowledge. Root-feeding nematodes can positively or negatively affect shoot herbivorous insects, and vice versa. The outcomes of the interactions between these spatially separated herbivore communities appear to be influenced by the feeding strategy of the nematodes and the insects, as well as by host plant susceptibility to both herbivores. The potential mechanisms for these interactions include systemic induced plant defense, interference with the translocation and dynamics of locally induced secondary metabolites, and reallocation of plant nutritional reserves. During evolution, PPNs as well as herbivorous insects have acquired effectors that modify plant defense responses and resource allocation patterns to their advantage. However, it is also known that plants under herbivore attack change the allocation of their resources, e.g., for compensatory growth responses, which may affect the performance of other organisms feeding on the plant. Studying the chemical and molecular basis of these interactions will reveal the molecular mechanisms that are involved. Moreover, it will lead to a better understanding of the ecological relevance of aboveground–belowground interactions, as well as support the development of sustainable pest

  4. Plant systemic induced responses mediate interactions between root parasitic nematodes and aboveground herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Wondafrash, Mesfin; Van Dam, Nicole M; Tytgat, Tom O G

    2013-01-01

    Insects and nematodes are the most diverse and abundant groups of multicellular animals feeding on plants on either side of the soil-air interface. Several herbivore-induced responses are systemic, and hence can influence the preference and performance of organisms in other plant organs. Recent studies show that plants mediate interactions between belowground plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) and aboveground herbivorous insects. Based on the knowledge of plant responses to pathogens, we review the emerging insights on plant systemic responses against root-feeding nematodes and shoot-feeding insects. We discuss the potential mechanisms of plant-mediated indirect interactions between both groups of organisms and point to gaps in our knowledge. Root-feeding nematodes can positively or negatively affect shoot herbivorous insects, and vice versa. The outcomes of the interactions between these spatially separated herbivore communities appear to be influenced by the feeding strategy of the nematodes and the insects, as well as by host plant susceptibility to both herbivores. The potential mechanisms for these interactions include systemic induced plant defense, interference with the translocation and dynamics of locally induced secondary metabolites, and reallocation of plant nutritional reserves. During evolution, PPNs as well as herbivorous insects have acquired effectors that modify plant defense responses and resource allocation patterns to their advantage. However, it is also known that plants under herbivore attack change the allocation of their resources, e.g., for compensatory growth responses, which may affect the performance of other organisms feeding on the plant. Studying the chemical and molecular basis of these interactions will reveal the molecular mechanisms that are involved. Moreover, it will lead to a better understanding of the ecological relevance of aboveground-belowground interactions, as well as support the development of sustainable pest management

  5. In planta processing and glycosylation of a nematode CLE effector and its interaction with a CLV2-like receptor to promote parasitism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE)-like proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, th...

  6. No evidence for behavioural adaptations to nematode parasitism by the fly Drosophila putrida.

    PubMed

    Debban, C L; Dyer, K A

    2013-08-01

    Behavioural adaptations of hosts to their parasites form an important component of the evolutionary dynamics of host-parasite interactions. As mushroom-feeding Drosophila can tolerate deadly mycotoxins, but their Howardula nematode parasites cannot, we asked how consuming the potent mycotoxin α-amanitin has affected this host-parasite interaction. We used the fly D. putrida and its parasite H. aoronymphium, which is both highly virulent and at high prevalence in some populations, and investigated whether adult flies utilize food with toxin to prevent infection in the next generation or consume the toxin to reduce the virulence of an already established infection. First, we found that uninfected females did not prefer to eat or lay their eggs on toxic food, indicating that selection has not acted on the flies to alter their behaviour towards α-amanitin to prevent their offspring from becoming infected by Howardula. However, we cannot rule out that flies use an alternate cue that is associated with toxin presence in the wild. Second, we found that infected females did not prefer to eat food with α-amanitin and that consuming α-amanitin did not cure or reduce the virulence of the parasite in adults that were already infected. In sum, our results indicate there are no direct effects of eating α-amanitin on this host-parasite interaction, and we suggest that toxin tolerance is more likely maintained by selection due to competition for resources than as a mechanism to avoid parasite infection or to reduce the virulence of infection. PMID:23663194

  7. [Nematode parasites of rodents in Malaysia. II. Trichostrongyloidea].

    PubMed

    Ow Yang, C K; Durette-Desset, M C; Ohbayashi, M

    1983-01-01

    Many trichostrongyloid species parasitizing rodents in Malaysia were described in 1967 in a thesis that was never published. Some of these species have since been redescribed sometimes with, sometimes without reference to the thesis. The remaining species are redescribed using information given in the thesis and certain additional morphological data (in particular, the synlophe) taken from study of the paratypes. The species are reclassified according to criteria established in the most recent classification. The following genera are proposed: Brevistriatinae: - Macrostrongylus n. gen. characterized by a caudal bursa of Calypsostrongylus type and absence of synlophe. Nippostrongylinae: - Malaistrongylus n. gen. characterized by a synlophe of Heligmonoides type but with a larger number of ridges and by the fusion of rays 4 and 5 in the caudal bursa. - Rattus strongylus n. gen. characterized by small, subequal dorsal left ridges and a total number of ridges less than 20. - Sabanema n. gen. characterized by small subequal dorsal left ridges and a total number of ridges greater than 30. The species under consideration are the following: Hepatojarakus malayae Yeh, 1955; Pithecostrongylus bicapitatus n. sp. (= P. bicapitatus Ow Yang, 1967, in litt); Macrostrongylus ratti n. gen., n. sp. (= Macrostrongylus ratti Ow Yang, 1967, in litt.); Calypsostrongylus malayensis Durette-Desset, 1976 (= Brevistriata malayensis Ow Yang, 1967, in litt); Fissicauda callosciuri (Supperer et Kutzer, 1964); Fissicauda brevispicula n. sp. (= Brevistriata brevispicula Ow Yang, 1967, in litt.); Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Travassos, 1914); Orientostrongylus tenorai Durette-Desset, 1970 (= Longistriata selangora Ow Yang, 1967, in litt.); O. krishnansamyi Durette-Desset et Lim-Boo-Liat, 1974 (= Longistriata malaccae Ow Yang, 1967, in litt.); Heligmonoides bulbosus n. sp. (= Heligmonina (Heligmonoides) bulbosa Ow Yang, 1967, in litt.); Heligmonoides lanceolatus n. sp. (= Heligmonina

  8. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSamT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cysts nematode heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyzes the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heter...

  9. Overexpression of four Arabidopsis thaliana NHLgenes in soybean (Glycine max) roots and their effect over resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean. Currently grown soybean varieties are not resistant to all field populations of SCN. We genetically engineered soybean roots so they expressed genes from the model plant, Arabidopsis. When the Arabidopsis genes, ...

  10. Major lipid classes and their fatty acids in a parasitic nematode, Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amit; Kar, Kumkum; Ghosh, D; Dey, C; Misra, K K

    2010-04-01

    The paper presents major lipid classes and their fatty acids investigated from Ascaridia galli, a nematode parasite of country fowl. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) reveals that the percent of total lipid, neutral lipid, phospholipids, and glycolipids are 1.94, 54.39, 26.95 and 18.66, respectively. Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis shows that the saturated fatty acids are the major components in all the lipid fractions followed by monoenes and dienes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were present in low amount. Stearic acids (C(18)) were the chief components among all the fatty acids in all the lipid fractions. PMID:21526035

  11. Identification of a Bacteria-Like Ferrochelatase in Strongyloides venezuelensis, an Animal Parasitic Nematode

    PubMed Central

    Nagayasu, Eiji; Ishikawa, Sohta A.; Taketani, Shigeru; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Yoshida, Ayako; Inagaki, Yuji; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Heme is an essential molecule for vast majority of organisms serving as a prosthetic group for various hemoproteins. Although most organisms synthesize heme from 5-aminolevulinic acid through a conserved heme biosynthetic pathway composed of seven consecutive enzymatic reactions, nematodes are known to be natural heme auxotrophs. The completely sequenced Caenorhabditis elegans genome, for example, lacks all seven genes for heme biosynthesis. However, genome/transcriptome sequencing of Strongyloides venezuelensis, an important model nematode species for studying human strongyloidiasis, indicated the presence of a gene for ferrochelatase (FeCH), which catalyzes the terminal step of heme biosynthesis, whereas the other six heme biosynthesis genes are apparently missing. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that nematode FeCH genes, including that of S. venezuelensis (SvFeCH) have a fundamentally different evolutionally origin from the FeCH genes of non-nematode metazoa. Although all non-nematode metazoan FeCH genes appear to be inherited vertically from an ancestral opisthokont, nematode FeCH may have been acquired from an alpha-proteobacterium, horizontally. The identified SvFeCH sequence was found to function as FeCH as expected based on both in vitro chelatase assays using recombinant SvFeCH and in vivo complementation experiments using an FeCH-deficient strain of Escherichia coli. Messenger RNA expression levels during the S. venezuelensis lifecycle were examined by real-time RT-PCR. SvFeCH mRNA was expressed at all the stages examined with a marked reduction at the infective third-stage larvae. Our study demonstrates the presence of a bacteria-like FeCH gene in the S. venezuelensis genome. It appeared that S. venezuelensis and some other animal parasitic nematodes reacquired the once-lost FeCH gene. Although the underlying evolutionary pressures that necessitated this reacquisition remain to be investigated, it is interesting that the presence of FeCH genes in the

  12. Biogeography of Parasitic Nematode Communities in the Galápagos Giant Tortoise: Implications for Conservation Management.

    PubMed

    Fournié, Guillaume; Goodman, Simon J; Cruz, Marilyn; Cedeño, Virna; Vélez, Alberto; Patiño, Leandro; Millins, Caroline; Gibbons, Lynda M; Fox, Mark T; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    The Galápagos giant tortoise is an icon of the unique, endemic biodiversity of Galápagos, but little is known of its parasitic fauna. We assessed the diversity of parasitic nematode communities and their spatial distributions within four wild tortoise populations comprising three species across three Galápagos islands, and consider their implication for Galápagos tortoise conservation programmes. Coprological examinations revealed nematode eggs to be common, with more than 80% of tortoises infected within each wild population. Faecal samples from tortoises within captive breeding centres on Santa Cruz, Isabela and San Cristobal islands also were examined. Five different nematode egg types were identified: oxyuroid, ascarid, trichurid and two types of strongyle. Sequencing of the 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene from adult nematodes passed with faeces identified novel sequences indicative of rhabditid and ascaridid species. In the wild, the composition of nematode communities varied according to tortoise species, which co-varied with island, but nematode diversity and abundance were reduced or altered in captive-reared animals. Evolutionary and ecological factors are likely responsible for the variation in nematode distributions in the wild. This possible species/island-parasite co-evolution has not been considered previously for Galápagos tortoises. We recommend that conservation efforts, such as the current Galápagos tortoise captive breeding/rearing and release programme, be managed with respect to parasite biogeography and host-parasite co-evolutionary processes in addition to the biogeography of the host. PMID:26332126

  13. Biogeography of Parasitic Nematode Communities in the Galápagos Giant Tortoise: Implications for Conservation Management

    PubMed Central

    Fournié, Guillaume; Goodman, Simon J.; Cruz, Marilyn; Cedeño, Virna; Vélez, Alberto; Patiño, Leandro; Millins, Caroline; Gibbons, Lynda M.; Fox, Mark T.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    The Galápagos giant tortoise is an icon of the unique, endemic biodiversity of Galápagos, but little is known of its parasitic fauna. We assessed the diversity of parasitic nematode communities and their spatial distributions within four wild tortoise populations comprising three species across three Galápagos islands, and consider their implication for Galápagos tortoise conservation programmes. Coprological examinations revealed nematode eggs to be common, with more than 80% of tortoises infected within each wild population. Faecal samples from tortoises within captive breeding centres on Santa Cruz, Isabela and San Cristobal islands also were examined. Five different nematode egg types were identified: oxyuroid, ascarid, trichurid and two types of strongyle. Sequencing of the 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene from adult nematodes passed with faeces identified novel sequences indicative of rhabditid and ascaridid species. In the wild, the composition of nematode communities varied according to tortoise species, which co-varied with island, but nematode diversity and abundance were reduced or altered in captive-reared animals. Evolutionary and ecological factors are likely responsible for the variation in nematode distributions in the wild. This possible species/island-parasite co-evolution has not been considered previously for Galápagos tortoises. We recommend that conservation efforts, such as the current Galápagos tortoise captive breeding/rearing and release programme, be managed with respect to parasite biogeography and host-parasite co-evolutionary processes in addition to the biogeography of the host. PMID:26332126

  14. Interactions of Heterodera daverti, H. goldeni and H. zeae with Meloidogyne incognita on rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interactions of the cyst nematodes Heterodera daverti, H. goldeni and H. zeae with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars Giza 178 and Sakha 101 were studied in the greenhouse. Inoculation with H. goldeni alone or one week before inoculation with M. incogni...

  15. Pathogenicity and control of Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne spp. on some cruciferous plant cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenicity of the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica on cabbage cvs. Balady, Brunswick and Ganzouri, cauliflower cv. Balady, turnip cv. Balady, and radish cv. Balady was determined in several greenhouse ...

  16. Pathogenicity of Heterodera daverti, H. zeae, and Meloidogyne incognita on rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reactions of five rice cultivars to the cyst nematodes Heterodera daverti and H. zeae and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita were determined in the greenhouse. The results showed that both H. daverti and H. zeae infected and reproduced successfully on some of the tested rice cultivars....

  17. Morphological and molecular description of Heterodera zeae from a corn field in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn cyst nematode Heterodera zeae was first described from India, where it has wide distribution. This nematode has also been reported from Pakistan, Egypt, Thailand, Nepal, and Portugal. Within the U.S., H. zeae was first found in Maryland, primarily in heavy silt-clay soils at fairly low dens...

  18. Performance of arugula (Eruca sativa) as a green manure and trap crop for fungal pathogens and parasitic nematode suppression in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green manures in combination with synthetic nematicides are used to manage plant parasitic nematodes in a potato cropping system. Arugula, Eruca sativa, a Brassica plant, has shown great potential for controlling plant parasitic nematodes as, it has a dual role. Arugula is both a green manure (it co...

  19. Nematodes parasitic in fishes of cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Part 2. Larvae.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Mendoza-Franco, E; Schmitter-Soto, J J; González-Solís, D

    1995-01-01

    This paper comprises a systematic survey of larval nematodes collected from fishes from cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, southern Mexico, in 1993-1994. Larvae of the following nine species were recorded: Physocephalus sexalatus, Acuariidae gen. sp., Spiroxys sp., Falcaustra sp., Hysterothylacium cenotae, Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Contracaecum sp. Type 2, Goezia sp., and Eustrongylides sp. Larvae of P. sexalatus are recorded from fishes (Rhamdia guatemalensis) for the first time. The larvae are briefly described and illustrated and problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. Adults of these larvae are parasitic in piscivorous fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals (definitive hosts). Fishes harbouring the larvae of these parasites serve as paratenic hosts, being mostly an important source of infection for the definitive hosts. PMID:8774773

  20. The cytochrome P450 family in the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Roz; Bartley, David J.; Morrison, Alison A.; Rezansoff, Andrew; Martinelli, Axel; Laing, Steven T.; Gilleard, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus, a highly pathogenic and economically important parasitic nematode of sheep, is particularly adept at developing resistance to the anthelmintic drugs used in its treatment and control. The basis of anthelmintic resistance is poorly understood for many commonly used drugs with most research being focused on mechanisms involving drug targets or drug efflux. Altered or increased drug metabolism is a possible mechanism that has yet to receive much attention despite the clear role of xenobiotic metabolism in pesticide resistance in insects. The cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are a large family of drug-metabolising enzymes present in almost all living organisms, but for many years thought to be absent from parasitic nematodes. In this paper, we describe the CYP sequences encoded in the H. contortus genome and compare their expression in different parasite life-stages, sexes and tissues. We developed a novel real-time PCR approach based on partially assembled CYP sequences “tags” and confirmed findings in the subsequent draft genome with RNA-seq. Constitutive expression was highest in larval stages for the majority of CYPs, although higher expression was detected in the adult male or female for a small subset of genes. Many CYPs were expressed in the worm intestine. A number of H. contortus genes share high identity with Caenorhabditis elegans CYPs and the similarity in their expression profiles supports their classification as putative orthologues. Notably, H. contortus appears to lack the dramatic CYP subfamily expansions seen in C. elegans and other species, which are typical of CYPs with exogenous roles. However, a small group of H. contortus genes cluster with the C. elegans CYP34 and CYP35 subfamilies and may represent candidate xenobiotic metabolising genes in the parasite. PMID:25558056

  1. Discovery of quantitative trait loci for resistance to parasitic nematode infection in sheep: I. Analysis of outcross pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Allan M; Paterson, Korena A; Dodds, Ken G; Diez Tascon, Cristina; Williamson, Penny A; Roberts Thomson, Meredith; Bisset, Stewart A; Beattie, Anne E; Greer, Gordon J; Green, Richard S; Wheeler, Roger; Shaw, Richard J; Knowler, Kevin; McEwan, John C

    2006-01-01

    Background Currently most pastoral farmers rely on anthelmintic drenches to control gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep. Resistance to anthelmintics is rapidly increasing in nematode populations such that on some farms none of the drench families are now completely effective. It is well established that host resistance to nematode infection is a moderately heritable trait. This study was undertaken to identify regions of the genome, quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes affecting resistance to parasitic nematodes. Results Rams obtained from crossing nematode parasite resistant and susceptible selection lines were used to derive five large half-sib families comprising between 348 and 101 offspring per sire. Total offspring comprised 940 lambs. Extensive measurements for a range of parasite burden and immune function traits in all offspring allowed each lamb in each pedigree to be ranked for relative resistance to nematode parasites. Initially the 22 most resistant and 22 most susceptible progeny from each pedigree were used in a genome scan that used 203 microsatellite markers spread across all sheep autosomes. This study identified 9 chromosomes with regions showing sufficient linkage to warrant the genotyping of all offspring. After genotyping all offspring with markers covering Chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 22 and 23, the telomeric end of chromosome 8 was identified as having a significant QTL for parasite resistance as measured by the number of Trichostrongylus spp. adults in the abomasum and small intestine at the end of the second parasite challenge. Two further QTL for associated immune function traits of total serum IgE and T. colubiformis specific serum IgG, at the end of the second parasite challenge, were identified on chromosome 23. Conclusion Despite parasite resistance being a moderately heritable trait, this large study was able to identify only a single significant QTL associated with it. The QTL concerned adult parasite

  2. Effect of yard waste compost on plant-parasitic nematode densities in vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1995-12-01

    The effects of yard-waste compost on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes were determined on four crops at two sites in north Florida. Separate experiments were conducted with sweet corn (Zea mays), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo), and okra (Hibiscus esculentus). In each test, the design was a randomized complete block replicated four times and involving three treatments: 269 mt/ha yard-waste compost applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha compost incorporated into the soil, and an unamended control. Final population densities of Criconemella spp. and Meloidogyne incognita were lower in plots receiving a compost treatment than in unamended control plots in only one of eight tests (P 0.10). Vegetable yields were either unaffected by treatment or, in some tests, were lowest following the mulch treatment (P parasitic nematodes associated with short-term (ca. 4 months) vegetable crops. PMID:19277320

  3. Effect of Yard Waste Compost on Plant-Parasitic Nematode Densities in Vegetable Crops

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of yard-waste compost on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes were determined on four crops at two sites in north Florida. Separate experiments were conducted with sweet corn (Zea mays), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo), and okra (Hibiscus esculentus). In each test, the design was a randomized complete block replicated four times and involving three treatments: 269 mt/ha yard-waste compost applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha compost incorporated into the soil, and an unamended control. Final population densities of Criconemella spp. and Meloidogyne incognita were lower in plots receiving a compost treatment than in unamended control plots in only one of eight tests (P ≤ 0.05). Final densities of Paratrichodorus minor, Pratylenchus spp., and Xiphinema spp. were unaffected by compost treatment in all tests (P > 0.10). Vegetable yields were either unaffected by treatment or, in some tests, were lowest following the mulch treatment (P ≤ 0.10). Results indicate that the yard-waste compost used had little effect on densities of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with short-term (ca. 4 months) vegetable crops. PMID:19277320

  4. A Novel Meloidogyne incognita Effector Misp12 Suppresses Plant Defense Response at Latter Stages of Nematode Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Xueqiong; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Secreted effectors in plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs, or Meloidogyne spp.) play key roles in their parasite processes. Currently identified effectors mainly focus on the early stage of the nematode parasitism. There are only a few reports describing effectors that function in the latter stage. In this study, we identified a potential RKN effector gene, Misp12, that functioned during the latter stage of parasitism. Misp12 was unique in the Meloidogyne spp., and highly conserved in Meloidogyne incognita. It encoded a secretory protein that specifically expressed in the dorsal esophageal gland, and highly up-regulated during the female stages. Transient expression of Misp12-GUS-GFP in onion epidermal cell showed that Misp12 was localized in cytoplast. In addition, in planta RNA interference targeting Misp12 suppressed the expression of Misp12 in nematodes and attenuated parasitic ability of M. incognita. Furthermore, up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathway defense-related genes in the virus-induced silencing of Misp12 plants, and down-regulation of SA pathway defense-related genes in Misp12-expressing plants indicated the gene might be associated with the suppression of the plant defense response. These results demonstrated that the novel nematode effector Misp12 played a critical role at latter parasitism of M. incognita. PMID:27446188

  5. A Novel Meloidogyne incognita Effector Misp12 Suppresses Plant Defense Response at Latter Stages of Nematode Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Xueqiong; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Secreted effectors in plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs, or Meloidogyne spp.) play key roles in their parasite processes. Currently identified effectors mainly focus on the early stage of the nematode parasitism. There are only a few reports describing effectors that function in the latter stage. In this study, we identified a potential RKN effector gene, Misp12, that functioned during the latter stage of parasitism. Misp12 was unique in the Meloidogyne spp., and highly conserved in Meloidogyne incognita. It encoded a secretory protein that specifically expressed in the dorsal esophageal gland, and highly up-regulated during the female stages. Transient expression of Misp12-GUS-GFP in onion epidermal cell showed that Misp12 was localized in cytoplast. In addition, in planta RNA interference targeting Misp12 suppressed the expression of Misp12 in nematodes and attenuated parasitic ability of M. incognita. Furthermore, up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathway defense-related genes in the virus-induced silencing of Misp12 plants, and down-regulation of SA pathway defense-related genes in Misp12-expressing plants indicated the gene might be associated with the suppression of the plant defense response. These results demonstrated that the novel nematode effector Misp12 played a critical role at latter parasitism of M. incognita. PMID:27446188

  6. Use of hot formaldehyde fixative in processing plant-parasitic nematodes for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zeikus, J A; Aldrich, H C

    1975-07-01

    A preparative technique is formulated for processing plant-parasitic nematodes of the order Tylenchida for electron microscopy. A population of Dolichodorus heterocephalus is used as test objects. One and a half grams of paraformaldehyde are dissolved in 25 ml of water at 60 C. Five drops of 1 N sodium hydroxide are added to clear the solution, which is then cooled to room temperature. Two and a half milliliters of 25% glutaraldehyde are added with 23 ml 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, and 0.2 M with respect to sucrose. The final solution contains 3% formaldehyde and 1% glutaraldehyde and is pH 7.2. It is heated to 70 C, poured over specimens, and allowed to cool to 4 C in 2 hr. The nematodes are then incised in a fixative containing 2% glutaraldehyde and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide at 4 C for 16-24 hr. Five milliliters of 25% glutaraldehyde and 2.5 ml of dimethyl sulfoxide are combined in 17.5 ml of water. Twenty-five milliliters of phosphate buffer (supplemented as above) are added. The final pH is 7.2. The glutaraldehyde, aided by dimethyl sulfoxide, uniformly and permanently fixes the nematode tissues. The specimens are embedded in agar. Following a 30-min buffer wash (4 C) they are postfixed in buffered 2% osmium tetroxide for 2 hr at room temperature, washed, and dehydrated through an ethanol series and two acetone baths. Dehydration includes a 2-hr stop in 75% ethanol containing 2% uranyl acetate. After embedding in Spurr's epoxy resin, specimens are sectioned and poststained in 0.5% aqueous acetate for 6 min and saturated aqueous lead citrate 3--4 min. This technique reduces killing time to less than 2 sec, straightens specimens for easier orientation, and eliminates the typically high internal pressure of nematodes which causes displacement of internal structures observed with other fixation techniques. PMID:1103371

  7. Functional genomics of hsp-90 in parasitic and free-living nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, Victoria; Maitland, Kirsty; McCormack, Gillian; Nik Him, Nik A.I.I.; Devaney, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp-90) is a highly conserved essential protein in eukaryotes. Here we describe the molecular characterisation of hsp-90 from three nematodes, the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce) and the parasitic worms Brugia pahangi (Bp) and Haemonchus contortus (Hc). These molecules were functionally characterised by rescue of a Ce-daf-21 (hsp-90) null mutant. Our results show a gradient of rescue: the C. elegans endogenous gene provided full rescue of the daf-21 mutant, while Hc-hsp-90 provided partial rescue. In contrast, no rescue could be obtained using a variety of Bp-hsp-90 constructs, despite the fact that Bp-hsp-90 was transcribed and translated in the mutant worms. daf-21 RNA interference (RNAi) experiments were carried out to determine whether knock-down of the endogenous daf-21 mRNA in N2 worms could be complemented by expression of either parasite gene. However neither parasite gene could rescue the daf-21 (RNAi) phenotypes. These results indicate that factors other than the level of sequence identity are important for determining whether parasite genes can functionally complement in C. elegans. PMID:19401205

  8. Nematode parasites infecting the starry batfish Halieutaea stellata (Vahl) (Lophiiformes: Ogcocephalidae) from the East and South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Zhao, W-T; Guo, Y-N; Zhang, L-P

    2016-05-01

    The starry batfish Halieutaea stellata (Vahl) is a small, benthic fish found in Indo-West Pacific Oceans. However, our present knowledge of the helminth parasites of this fish is still fragmentary. In this study, a total of 29 fish collected from the East and South China Sea were examined to determine the prevalence, intensity and species composition of helminth parasites in H. stellata. Using morphological and molecular approaches, four species of nematodes were found parasitic in this fish host, including the adults and fourth-stage larvae of Raphidascaroides nipponensis Yamaguti 1941; adults and third-stage larvae of Raphidascaris lophii (Wu 1949), third- and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium larval type IV-A of Shamsi, Gasser & Beveridge 2013 and third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium amoyense (Hsü 1993). Halieutaea stellata represents a new host record for the three last-named nematodes. Raphidascaroides nipponensis with the highest prevalence (82.5%) and intensity (mean = 13.5) of infection was considered as the dominant parasite species in H. stellata. The detailed morphology of the different developmental stages of the four nematode species was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. All nematode species were also genetically characterized by sequencing and analysing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA. This study provides further data on the occurrence of nematode parasites in H. stellata and also contributes to facilitate an accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection by these little-known nematodes. PMID:25917527

  9. Exploring the Gastrointestinal “Nemabiome”: Deep Amplicon Sequencing to Quantify the Species Composition of Parasitic Nematode Communities

    PubMed Central

    Avramenko, Russell W.; Redman, Elizabeth M.; Lewis, Roy; Yazwinski, Thomas A.; Wasmuth, James D.; Gilleard, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic helminth infections have a considerable impact on global human health as well as animal welfare and production. Although co-infection with multiple parasite species within a host is common, there is a dearth of tools with which to study the composition of these complex parasite communities. Helminth species vary in their pathogenicity, epidemiology and drug sensitivity and the interactions that occur between co-infecting species and their hosts are poorly understood. We describe the first application of deep amplicon sequencing to study parasitic nematode communities as well as introduce the concept of the gastro-intestinal “nemabiome”. The approach is analogous to 16S rDNA deep sequencing used to explore microbial communities, but utilizes the nematode ITS-2 rDNA locus instead. Gastro-intestinal parasites of cattle were used to develop the concept, as this host has many well-defined gastro-intestinal nematode species that commonly occur as complex co-infections. Further, the availability of pure mono-parasite populations from experimentally infected cattle allowed us to prepare mock parasite communities to determine, and correct for, species representation biases in the sequence data. We demonstrate that, once these biases have been corrected, accurate relative quantitation of gastro-intestinal parasitic nematode communities in cattle fecal samples can be achieved. We have validated the accuracy of the method applied to field-samples by comparing the results of detailed morphological examination of L3 larvae populations with those of the sequencing assay. The results illustrate the insights that can be gained into the species composition of parasite communities, using grazing cattle in the mid-west USA as an example. However, both the technical approach and the concept of the ‘nemabiome’ have a wide range of potential applications in human and veterinary medicine. These include investigations of host-parasite and parasite-parasite interactions

  10. Diseases caused by nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter comprises an updated review of plant-parasitic nematodes of alfalfa. Many species of plant-parasitic nematodes are associated with alfalfa, but the stem nematode, root-knot nematodes, and root-lesion nematodes are economically the most important. As a result of root injury, aboveground ...

  11. Some aspects of the taxonomy and biology of adult spirurine nematodes parasitic in fishes: a review.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek

    2007-11-01

    About 300 species belonging to four superfamilies (Gnathostomatoidea, Habronematoidea, Physalopteroidea and Thelazioidea) of the nematode suborder Spirurina are known as the adult parasites of freshwater, brackish-water and marine fishes. They are placed in four families, of which the Gnathostomatidae, including Echinocephalus with a few species and the monotypic Metaleptus, are parasites of elasmobranchs, whereas Ancyracanthus contains one species in teleosts; the Physalopteridae is represented in fish by four genera, Bulbocephalus, Heliconema, Paraleptus and Proleptus, each with several species in both elasmobranchs and teleosts. The majority of fish spirurines belongs to the Rhabdochonidae, which includes 10 genera (Beaninema, Fellicola, Hepatinema, Heptochona, Johnstonmawsonia, Megachona, Pancreatonema, Prosungulonema, Rhabdochona and Vasorhabdochona) of species parasitizing mainly teleosts, rarely elasmobranchs, and the Cystidicolidae with about 23 genera (Ascarophis, Caballeronema, Capillospirura, Comephoronema, Crenatobronema, Cristitectus, Ctenascarophis, Cyclozone, Cystidicola, Cystidicoloides, Johnstonmawsonoides, Metabronema, Moravecnema, Neoascarophis, Parascarophis, Prospinitectus, Pseudascarophis, Pseudoproleptus, Salvelinema, Similascarophis, Spinitectoides, Spinitectus, Sterliadochona), with many species parasitic in teleosts only. Because of difficulties in studying fish spirurines, associated with their morphological and biological peculiarities, most species of these parasites are poorly known. It is apparent that their present classification system does not reflect phylogenetic relationships and a taxonomic revision of this nematode group, based on detailed morphological (including SEM and TEM), life history and molecular studies of individual species, is quite necessary. In Cystidicolidae, several genera have been based on details in the cephalic structures visible only with the aid of SEM, but it will be evident whether or not these tiny

  12. Low cryoprotectant concentrations and fast cooling for nematode cryostorage.

    PubMed

    Irdani, Tiziana; Scotto, Cristina; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2011-08-01

    Cryopreservation protocols based on slow freezing or vitrification often result in cell injury due to ice formation, cell dehydration and/or toxic concentrations of cryoprotectant (CPA). In this study, we present a cryopreservation technique based on low, non-toxic concentrations of cryoprotectants (≈ 2-4M) combined with a rapid cooling rate in the liquid nitrogen phase (-196°C). Protocols for successfully cryopreserving the plant parasitic nematodes Globodera tabacum tabacum, Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne incognita were developed, as demonstrated by the high survival rates and reproducibility of cyst and root-knot nematode species post-cryostorage. This approach for effective cryopreservation of viable plant-parasitic nematodes was developed by inducing an "apparent vitrification" by rapid cooling of the microscopic samples in less than 2M of cryoprotectant. The extremely thin structure (15-20 μm width, 350-400 μm length) of these nematodes, in combination with a direct and rapid exposure to LN(2), likely prevents the formation of damaging ice crystals. Moreover, this procedure results in viability of both short- and long-cryostorage samples. These techniques could potentially be used for the near-indefinite preservation of thousands of different nematode species. A cryo-nematode collection produced in our lab is available and presented here. PMID:21524646

  13. The genome and life-stage specific transcriptomes of Globodera pallida elucidate key aspects of plant parasitism by a cyst nematode

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globodera pallida is a devastating pathogen of potato crops, making it one of the most economically important plant parasitic nematodes. It is also an important model for the biology of cyst nematodes. Cyst nematodes and root-knot nematodes are the two most important plant parasitic nematode groups and together represent a global threat to food security. Results We present the complete genome sequence of G. pallida, together with transcriptomic data from most of the nematode life cycle, particularly focusing on the life cycle stages involved in root invasion and establishment of the biotrophic feeding site. Despite the relatively close phylogenetic relationship with root-knot nematodes, we describe a very different gene family content between the two groups and in particular extensive differences in the repertoire of effectors, including an enormous expansion of the SPRY domain protein family in G. pallida, which includes the SPRYSEC family of effectors. This highlights the distinct biology of cyst nematodes compared to the root-knot nematodes that were, until now, the only sedentary plant parasitic nematodes for which genome information was available. We also present in-depth descriptions of the repertoires of other genes likely to be important in understanding the unique biology of cyst nematodes and of potential drug targets and other targets for their control. Conclusions The data and analyses we present will be central in exploiting post-genomic approaches in the development of much-needed novel strategies for the control of G. pallida and related pathogens. PMID:24580726

  14. Monoaminergic signaling as a target for anthelmintic drug discovery: receptor conservation among the free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Komuniecki, Richard; Law, Wen Jing; Jex, Aaron; Geldhof, Peter; Gray, John; Bamber, Bruce; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-05-01

    This review is designed to summarize the information on monoamine-dependent paralysis as a target for anthelmintic development, examine the conservation of monoamine receptors in the genomes of both free-living and parasitic nematodes, and highlight the utility of the Caenorhabditis elegans model system for dissecting the monoaminergic modulation of locomotory decision-making. PMID:22343182

  15. Nematotoxicity of drupacine and a Cephalotaxus alkaloid preparation against the plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of Cephalotaxus (the plum yews) produce nematotoxic compounds of unknown identity. Consequently, bioassay-guided fractionation was employed to identify the compound(s) in Cephalotaxus fortunei twigs and leaves with activity against plant-parasitic nematodes. A crude alkaloid extract, particu...

  16. Parasitic nematode-induced modulation of body weight and associated metabolic dysfunction in mouse models of obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low grade inflammation characterized by high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators implicated in disrupted metabolic homeostasis. Parasitic nematode infection induces a polarized Th2 cytokine response and has been shown to modulate immune-based pathol...

  17. Neutrophils clear bacteria associated with parasitic nematodes augmenting the development of an effective Th2-type response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a potent Th2 response; however little is known about early stages of the innate response that may contribute to protective immunity. To examine early events in this response, chemokine expression in the draining lymph node w...

  18. Diversity of parasitic fungi from soybean cyst nematode associated with long-term continuous cropping of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major yield-limiting pest of soybean. In this study, experiments were conducted to examine the parasitic fungi from SCN associated with disease-suppressive and non-suppressive soil fields in Northeast China. Soil samples were collected from three fields under dif...

  19. A cyst nematode effector binds to diverse plant proteins, increases nematode susceptibility and affects root morphology.

    PubMed

    Pogorelko, Gennady; Juvale, Parijat S; Rutter, William B; Hewezi, Tarek; Hussey, Richard; Davis, Eric L; Mitchum, Melissa G; Baum, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    Cyst nematodes are plant-parasitic roundworms that are of significance in many cropping systems around the world. Cyst nematode infection is facilitated by effector proteins secreted from the nematode into the plant host. The cDNAs of the 25A01-like effector family are novel sequences that were isolated from the oesophageal gland cells of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). To aid functional characterization, we identified an orthologous member of this protein family (Hs25A01) from the closely related sugar beet cyst nematode H. schachtii, which infects Arabidopsis. Constitutive expression of the Hs25A01 CDS in Arabidopsis plants caused a small increase in root length, accompanied by up to a 22% increase in susceptibility to H. schachtii. A plant-expressed RNA interference (RNAi) construct targeting Hs25A01 transcripts in invading nematodes significantly reduced host susceptibility to H. schachtii. These data document that Hs25A01 has physiological functions in planta and a role in cyst nematode parasitism. In vivo and in vitro binding assays confirmed the specific interactions of Hs25A01 with an Arabidopsis F-box-containing protein, a chalcone synthase and the translation initiation factor eIF-2 β subunit (eIF-2bs), making these proteins probable candidates for involvement in the observed changes in plant growth and parasitism. A role of eIF-2bs in the mediation of Hs25A01 virulence function is further supported by the observation that two independent eIF-2bs Arabidopsis knock-out lines were significantly more susceptible to H. schachtii. PMID:26575318

  20. Morphology and taxonomic status of two little-known nematode species parasitizing North American fishes.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Levron, Céline; de Buron, Isaure

    2011-04-01

    Examination of some freshwater and brackishwater (estuarine) fishes in South Carolina in October 2009 yielded, in addition to other parasites, 2 little-known nematode species identified as Dichelyne fastigatus Chandler, 1935 (Cucullanidae), from the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus), from an estuary, and Rhabdochona ovifilamenta Weller, 1938 (Rhabdochonidae), from the shorthead redhorse, Moxostoma macrolepidotum (Lesueur), from Lake Moultrie. Light and scanning electron microscopy (the latter used for the first time for these species) made it possible to describe several important, but previously unreported, taxonomic features in D. fastigatus, such as the location of the excretory pore and deirids, the shape of deirids and a gubernaculum, the shape and size of eggs, the presence of precloacal ventral oblique muscle bands, and 11 pairs of caudal papillae and a pair of phasmids. It distinctly differs from the most similar Dichelyne cotylophora (Ward and Magath, 1917), a parasite of North American freshwater percids, in the number and arrangement of postanal papillae and by a markedly elevated cloacal region. Records of Dichelyne lintoni Barreto, 1922, from S. ocellatus probably concern D. fastigatus. Examination of R. ovifilamenta revealed a high degree of morphologic and biometric variability in this species. Based on our analysis, Rhabdochona laurentiana Lyster, 1940 , Rhabdochona milleri Choquette, 1951, and Rhabdochona catostomi Kayton, Kritsky, and Tobias, 1979, are synonymized with R. ovifilamenta Weller, 1938, typically a parasite of North American catostomids. PMID:21506872

  1. A preliminary proteomic characterisation of extracellular vesicles released by the ovine parasitic nematode, Teladorsagia circumcincta

    PubMed Central

    Tzelos, Thomas; Matthews, Jacqueline B.; Buck, Amy H.; Simbari, Fabio; Frew, David; Inglis, Neil F.; McLean, Kevin; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Knox, David P.; McNeilly, Tom N.

    2016-01-01

    Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis in temperate climatic regions. The development of high levels of anthelmintic resistance in this nematode species challenges its future control. Recent research indicates that many parasite species release extracellular vesicles into their environment, many of which have been classified as endocytic in origin, termed exosomes. These vesicles are considered to play important roles in the intercellular communication between parasites and their hosts, and thus represent potentially useful targets for novel control strategies. Here, we demonstrate that exosome-like extracellular vesicles can be isolated from excretory-secretory (ES) products released by T. circumcincta fourth stage larvae (Tci-L4ES). Furthermore, we perform a comparative proteomic analysis of vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free Tci-L4ES. Approximately 73% of the proteins identified in the vesicle-enriched fraction were unique to this fraction, whilst the remaining 27% were present in both vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free fraction. These unique proteins included structural proteins, nuclear proteins, metabolic proteins, proteolytic enzymes and activation-associated secreted proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that molecules present within the vesicles-enriched material are targets of the IgA and IgG response in T. circumcincta infected sheep, and could potentially represent useful targets for future vaccine intervention studies. PMID:27084478

  2. A preliminary proteomic characterisation of extracellular vesicles released by the ovine parasitic nematode, Teladorsagia circumcincta.

    PubMed

    Tzelos, Thomas; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Buck, Amy H; Simbari, Fabio; Frew, David; Inglis, Neil F; McLean, Kevin; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Knox, David P; McNeilly, Tom N

    2016-05-15

    Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis in temperate climatic regions. The development of high levels of anthelmintic resistance in this nematode species challenges its future control. Recent research indicates that many parasite species release extracellular vesicles into their environment, many of which have been classified as endocytic in origin, termed exosomes. These vesicles are considered to play important roles in the intercellular communication between parasites and their hosts, and thus represent potentially useful targets for novel control strategies. Here, we demonstrate that exosome-like extracellular vesicles can be isolated from excretory-secretory (ES) products released by T. circumcincta fourth stage larvae (Tci-L4ES). Furthermore, we perform a comparative proteomic analysis of vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free Tci-L4ES. Approximately 73% of the proteins identified in the vesicle-enriched fraction were unique to this fraction, whilst the remaining 27% were present in both vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free fraction. These unique proteins included structural proteins, nuclear proteins, metabolic proteins, proteolytic enzymes and activation-associated secreted proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that molecules present within the vesicles-enriched material are targets of the IgA and IgG response in T. circumcincta infected sheep, and could potentially represent useful targets for future vaccine intervention studies. PMID:27084478

  3. A ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein secreted from a plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis is cleaved in planta to promote plant parasitism.

    PubMed

    Chronis, Demosthenis; Chen, Shiyan; Lu, Shunwen; Hewezi, Tarek; Carpenter, Sara C D; Loria, Rosemary; Baum, Thomas J; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-04-01

    Nematode effector proteins originating from esophageal gland cells play central roles in suppressing plant defenses and in formation of the plant feeding cells that are required for growth and development of cyst nematodes. A gene (GrUBCEP12) encoding a unique ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (UBCEP) that consists of a signal peptide for secretion, a mono-ubiquitin domain, and a 12 amino acid carboxyl extension protein (CEP12) domain was cloned from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. This GrUBCEP12 gene was expressed exclusively within the nematode's dorsal esophageal gland cell, and was up-regulated in the parasitic second-stage juvenile, correlating with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. We showed that specific GrUBCEP12 knockdown via RNA interference reduced nematode parasitic success, and that over-expression of the secreted Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 protein in potato resulted in increased nematode susceptibility, providing direct evidence that this secreted effector is involved in plant parasitism. Using transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, we found that Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 is processed into free ubiquitin and a CEP12 peptide (GrCEP12) in planta, and that GrCEP12 suppresses resistance gene-mediated cell death. A target search showed that expression of RPN2a, a gene encoding a subunit of the 26S proteasome, was dramatically suppressed in Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 but not GrCEP12 over-expression plants when compared with control plants. Together, these results suggest that, when delivered into host plant cells, Gr(Δ) (SP) UBCEP12 becomes two functional units, one acting to suppress plant immunity and the other potentially affecting the host 26S proteasome, to promote feeding cell formation. PMID:23346875

  4. Genetic improvement of the nematicidal fungus Lecanicillium attenuatum against Heterodera glycines by expression of the Beauveria bassiana Cdep1 protease gene.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Peng, De-Liang; Yu, Wen-Bin; Li, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Lecanicillium attenuatum is an important nematophagous fungus with potential as a biopesticide against plant-parasitic nematodes. The Pr1A-like cuticle-degrading protease (Cdep1) gene originating from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was transformed into the nematophagous fungus L. attenuatum using a polyethylene-glycol mediated protoplast-based transformation system. Protease activity was increased 0.64- to 1.63-fold 2-10d after growth in the transformed L. attenuatum. Inhibition of egg-hatching and J2 motility of soybean cyst nematodes (Heterodera glycines) by cell-free fungal culture filtrates were enhanced by 17-76% 2-14d and 43-152% 1-13d after incubation, respectively. PMID:27342597

  5. Proteomic Profiling and Protein Identification by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry in Unsequenced Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Millares, Paul; LaCourse, E. James; Perally, Samirah; Ward, Deborah A.; Prescott, Mark C.; Hodgkinson, Jane E.; Brophy, Peter M.; Rees, Huw H.

    2012-01-01

    Lack of genomic sequence data and the relatively high cost of tandem mass spectrometry have hampered proteomic investigations into helminths, such as resolving the mechanism underpinning globally reported anthelmintic resistance. Whilst detailed mechanisms of resistance remain unknown for the majority of drug-parasite interactions, gene mutations and changes in gene and protein expression are proposed key aspects of resistance. Comparative proteomic analysis of drug-resistant and -susceptible nematodes may reveal protein profiles reflecting drug-related phenotypes. Using the gastro-intestinal nematode, Haemonchus contortus as case study, we report the application of freely available expressed sequence tag (EST) datasets to support proteomic studies in unsequenced nematodes. EST datasets were translated to theoretical protein sequences to generate a searchable database. In conjunction with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), Peptide Mass Fingerprint (PMF) searching of databases enabled a cost-effective protein identification strategy. The effectiveness of this approach was verified in comparison with MS/MS de novo sequencing with searching of the same EST protein database and subsequent searches of the NCBInr protein database using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) to provide protein annotation. Of 100 proteins from 2-DE gel spots, 62 were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and PMF searching of the EST database. Twenty randomly selected spots were analysed by electrospray MS/MS and MASCOT Ion Searches of the same database. The resulting sequences were subjected to BLAST searches of the NCBI protein database to provide annotation of the proteins and confirm concordance in protein identity from both approaches. Further confirmation of protein identifications from the MS/MS data were obtained by de novo sequencing of peptides, followed by FASTS algorithm searches of the EST putative protein database. This

  6. Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed. PMID:20653938

  7. Effect of Compost and Maize Cultivars on Plant-parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1997-12-01

    Effects of yard waste compost and maize (Zea mays) cultivar on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes were examined in four experiments in north Florida. In one experiment, eight maize cultivars were evaluated; the other three experiments involved split-plot designs with compost treatments as main plots and maize cultivars as subplots. The three compost treatments used in these experiments were: 269 mt/ha of a yard-waste compost applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha of compost incolporated into the soil, and an unamended control. No interactions between compost treatment and cultivar occurred in any experiment. Effects of compost treatment on Mesocriconema spp., Meloidogyne incognita, and Pratylenchus spp. were inconsistent, whereas significant effects of compost on population densities of Paratrichodorus minor were found on four of six sampling occasions. Cultivar affected final population densities (Pf) of M. incognita. In two tests, Pf of M. incognita on a Florida subtropical experimental hybrid (Howard III) were only 36% and 23% of Pf on the standard tropical hybrid (Pioneer Brand X304C). In an integrated approach to management of nematodes in maize, the effects of compost amendment and culfivar choice acted independently. Apparently, cultivar choice is more important than amendment with yard waste compost for management of M. incognita population levels in a maize rotation crop. PMID:19274277

  8. Sequence and Spatiotemporal Expression Analysis of CLE-Motif Containing Genes from the Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira)

    PubMed Central

    Wubben, Martin J.; Gavilano, Lily; Baum, Thomas J.; Davis, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic species with a host range that encompasses more than 77 plant families. Nematode effector proteins containing plant-ligand motifs similar to CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE) peptides have been identified in the Heterodera, Globodera, and Meloidogyne genera of sedentary endoparasites. Here, we describe the isolation, sequence analysis, and spatiotemporal expression of three R. reniformis genes encoding putative CLE motifs named Rr-cle-1, Rr-cle-2, and Rr-cle-3. The Rr-cle cDNAs showed >98% identity with each other and the predicted peptides were identical with the exception of a short stretch of residues at the carboxy(C)-terminus of the variable domain (VD). Each RrCLE peptide possessed an amino-terminal signal peptide for secretion and a single C-terminal CLE motif that was most similar to Heterodera CLE motifs. Aligning the Rr-cle cDNAs with their corresponding genomic sequences showed three exons with an intron separating the signal peptide from the VD and a second intron separating the VD from the CLE motif. An alignment of the RrCLE1 peptide with Heterodera glycines and Heterodera schachtii CLE proteins revealed a high level of homology within the VD region associated with regulating in planta trafficking of the processed CLE peptide. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed similar expression profiles for each Rr-cle transcript across the R. reniformis life-cycle with the greatest transcript abundance being in sedentary parasitic female nematodes. In situ hybridization showed specific Rr-cle expression within the dorsal esophageal gland cell of sedentary parasitic females. PMID:26170479

  9. Sequence and Spatiotemporal Expression Analysis of CLE-Motif Containing Genes from the Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira).

    PubMed

    Wubben, Martin J; Gavilano, Lily; Baum, Thomas J; Davis, Eric L

    2015-06-01

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic species with a host range that encompasses more than 77 plant families. Nematode effector proteins containing plant-ligand motifs similar to CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE) peptides have been identified in the Heterodera, Globodera, and Meloidogyne genera of sedentary endoparasites. Here, we describe the isolation, sequence analysis, and spatiotemporal expression of three R. reniformis genes encoding putative CLE motifs named Rr-cle-1, Rr-cle-2, and Rr-cle-3. The Rr-cle cDNAs showed >98% identity with each other and the predicted peptides were identical with the exception of a short stretch of residues at the carboxy(C)-terminus of the variable domain (VD). Each RrCLE peptide possessed an amino-terminal signal peptide for secretion and a single C-terminal CLE motif that was most similar to Heterodera CLE motifs. Aligning the Rr-cle cDNAs with their corresponding genomic sequences showed three exons with an intron separating the signal peptide from the VD and a second intron separating the VD from the CLE motif. An alignment of the RrCLE1 peptide with Heterodera glycines and Heterodera schachtii CLE proteins revealed a high level of homology within the VD region associated with regulating in planta trafficking of the processed CLE peptide. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed similar expression profiles for each Rr-cle transcript across the R. reniformis life-cycle with the greatest transcript abundance being in sedentary parasitic female nematodes. In situ hybridization showed specific Rr-cle expression within the dorsal esophageal gland cell of sedentary parasitic females. PMID:26170479

  10. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes. PMID:25910624

  11. Detection of alien chromatin conferring resistance to the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) in cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) using in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T; Jung, C; Heslop-Harrison, J S; Kleine, M

    1997-05-01

    Chromatin originating from wild beets of the genus Beta, section Procumbentes, has been investigated in nematode-resistant hybrid-derived lines of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by in situ hybridization using satellite, telomeric and ribosomal DNA repeats, a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and total genomic DNA as probes. The allen chromosome was detected in three monosomic addition lines (2n = 18 + 1) by genomic in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a genome-specific satellite repeat and YAC DNA enabled the visualization of Procumbentes chromosomes, and in double-target hybridization it was shown that they do not carry 18S-5.8S-25S rRNA and 5S rRNA genes. The wild beet-specific satellite repeat and the telomere sequence from Arabidopsis thaliana were used to perform a structural analysis of the wild beet chromosome fragments of two resistant fragment addition lines. It was shown that one physical end of the chromosome fragments consists of telomeric repeats. Comparison of fragment sizes indicated that the small chromosome fragments harbouring the resistance gene most likely resulted from the loss of one wild beet chromosome arm and an internal deletion of the remaining arm. PMID:9246412

  12. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P < 0.01) and field (P < 0.01) conditions. However, M. ornatum rate of reproduction increased significantly in pots receiving the lowest Pi level of 10 nematodes/plant compared with the pots receiving Pi levels of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nematodes 75 DAI. Plant-parasitic nematode populations were determined in commercial blueberry replant sites in Georgia and North Carolina during the 2010 growing season. Mesocriconema ornatum and Dolichodorus spp. were the predominant plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia and North Carolina, respectively, with M. ornatum occurring in nearly half the blueberry fields sampled in Georgia. Other nematode genera detected in both states included Tylenchorhynchus spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Hemicycliophora spp., and Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum

  13. Detailed morphological description of Habronema clarki Foster & Chitwood, 1937, a nematode parasite of capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Ferreira, Daniel Fontana

    2014-01-01

    The genus Habronema has four valid species, of which only two are properly known. The present study aimed to describe in detail the morphology of Habronema clarki through optical and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Our results showed that the labial morphology of this parasite is closer to H. muscae than to H. microstoma. Even so, the characteristic pseudolabia and the slightly convex border of the dorsal and ventral lips are sufficient to distinguish these nematodes. Additional morphological data are presented, thus contributing to the knowledge on this little known nematode. In addition, this study provides new locality records for this species. PMID:25054508

  14. Comparative analysis of macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIFs) from the parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Kurosinski, Marc Andre; Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Ndjonka, Dieudonne; Tanyi, Manchang Kingsley; Achukwi, Mbunkah; Eisenbarth, Albert; Ajonina, Caroline; Lüersen, Kai; Breloer, Minka; Brattig, Norbert W; Liebau, Eva

    2013-09-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIFs) from the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus (OvMIF) were compared to the MIFs from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (CeMIF) with respect to molecular, biochemical and immunological properties. Except for CeMIF-4, all other MIFs demonstrated tautomerase activity. Surprisingly, OvMIF-1 displayed oxidoreductase activity. The strongest immunostaining for OvMIF-1 was observed in the outer cellular covering of the adult worm body, the syncytial hypodermis; moderate immunostaining was observed in the uterine wall. The generation of a strong humoral immune response towards OvMIF-1 and reduced reactivity to OvMIF-2 was indicated by high IgG levels in patients infected with O. volvulus and cows infected with the closely related Onchocerca ochengi, both MIFs revealing identical amino acid sequences. Using Litomosoides sigmodontis-infected mice, a laboratory model for filarial infection, MIFs derived from the tissue-dwelling O. volvulus, the rodent gut-dwelling Strongyloides ratti and from free-living C. elegans were recognized, suggesting that L. sigmodontis MIF-specific IgM and IgG1 were produced during L. sigmodontis infection of mice and cross-reacted with all MIF proteins tested. Thus, MIF apparently functions as a target of B cell response during nematode infection, but in the natural Onchocerca-specific human and bovine infection, the induced antibodies can discriminate between MIFs derived from parasitic or free-living nematodes. PMID:23820606

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L.; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D.; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction. PMID:27582748

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction. PMID:27582748

  17. The control of morph development in the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, S C; Gemmill, A W; Read, A F; Viney, M E

    2000-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti has a complex life cycle. The progeny of the parasitic females can develop into three distinct morphs, namely directly developing infective third-stage larvae (iL3s), free-living adult males and free-living adult females. We have analysed of the effect of host immune status (an intra-host factor), environmental temperature (an extra-host factor) and their interaction on the proportion of larvae that develop into these three morphs. The results are consistent with the developmental decision of larvae being controlled by at least two discrete developmental switches. One is a sex-determination event that is affected by host immune status and the other is a switch between alternative female morphs that is affected by both host immune status and environmental temperature. These findings clarify the basis of the life cycle of S. ratti and demonstrate how such complex life cycles can result from a combination of simple developmental switches. PMID:11416909

  18. Complex interactions among a nematode parasite (Daubaylia potomaca), a commensalistic annelid (Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei), and trematode parasites in a snail host (Helisoma anceps).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael R; Luth, Kyle E; Esch, Gerald W

    2011-10-01

    Many biotic interactions can affect the prevalence and intensity of parasite infections in aquatic snails. Historically, these studies have centered on interactions between trematode parasites or between trematodes and other organisms. The present investigation focuses on the nematode parasite Daubaylia potomaca and its interactions with a commensal, Chaetogaster limnaei limnaei , and a variety of trematode species. It was found that the presence of C. l. limnaei indirectly increased the mean intensity of D. potomaca infections, apparently by acting as a restraint for various trematode parasites, particularly the rediae of Echinostoma sp. In turn, Echinostoma sp. rediae adversely affected the mean intensity of D. potomaca by their consumption of both juvenile and adult nematodes present in tissues of the snail. These organisms not only belong to 3 different phyla but occupy distinct trophic levels as well. The complex interactions among these 3 organisms in the snail host provide an excellent example of biotic interactions influencing the infection dynamics of parasites in aquatic snails. PMID:21506797

  19. The impact of Cu, Zn and Cr salts on the relationship between insect and plant parasitic nematodes: a reduction in biocontrol efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of excessive fertilizer application on the accumulation of potential toxic elements in greenhouse soil, and the direct effects on beneficial organisms (specifically, the insect parasitic nematodes known as entomopathogenic nematodes, EPN)....

  20. Spot drip application of dimethyl disulfide as post-planting treatment for the control of plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens in grape production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Plant-parasitic nematodes and soilborne pathogens can reduce the overall productivity in grape production. Not all grape growers apply soil fumigants before planting and there is no single rootstock resistant to all nematode species. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effe...

  1. Population genomics of the filarial nematode parasite Wuchereria bancrofti from mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Small, Scott T; Reimer, Lisa J; Tisch, Daniel J; King, Christopher L; Christensen, Bruce M; Siba, Peter M; Kazura, James W; Serre, David; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Wuchereria bancrofti is a parasitic nematode and the primary cause of lymphatic filariasis--a disease specific to humans. W. bancrofti currently infects over 90 million people throughout the tropics and has been acknowledged by the world health organization as a vulnerable parasite. Current research has focused primarily on the clinical manifestations of disease and little is known about the evolutionary history of W. bancrofti. To improve upon knowledge of the evolutionary history of W. bancrofti, we whole genome sequenced 13 W. bancrofti larvae. We circumvent many of the difficulties of multiple infections by sampling larvae directly from mosquitoes that were experimentally inoculated with infected blood. To begin, we used whole genome data to reconstruct the historical population size. Our results support a history of fluctuating population sizes that can be correlated with human migration and fluctuating mosquito abundances. Next, we reconstructed the putative pedigree of W. bancrofti worms within an infection using the kinship coefficient. We deduced that there are full-sib and half-sib relationships residing within the same larval cohort. Through combined analysis of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes we concluded that this is likely a results of polyandrous mating, the first time reported for W. bancrofti. Lastly, we scanned the genomes for signatures of natural selection. Annotation of putative selected regions identified proteins that may have aided in a parasitic life style or may have evolved to protect against current drug treatments. We discuss our results in the greater context of understanding the biology of an animal with a unique life history and ecology. PMID:26850696

  2. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas

  3. Brassicaceous seed meals as soil amendments to suppress the plant-parasitic nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Zasada, I A; Meyer, S L F; Morra, M J

    2009-09-01

    Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea 'Pacific Gold', B. napus 'Dwarf Essex' and 'Sunrise', and Sinapis alba 'IdaGold', against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). The brassicaceous seed meals were applied to soil in laboratory assays at rates ranging from 0.5 to 10.0% dry w/w with a nonamended control included. Nematode mortality was assessed after 3 days of exposure and calculated as percentage reduction compared to a nonamended control. Across seed meals, M. incognita J2 were more sensitive to the brassicaceous seed meals compared to mixed stages of P. penetrans. Brassica juncea was the most nematode-suppressive seed meal with rates as low as 0.06% resulting in > 90% suppression of both plant-parasitic nematodes. In general B. napus 'Sunrise' was the least nematode-suppressive seed meal. Intermediate were the seed meals of S. alba and B. napus 'Dwarf Essex'; 90% suppression was achieved at 1.0% and 5.0% S. alba and 0.25% and 2.5% B. napus 'Dwarf Essex', for M. incognita and P. penetrans, respectively. For B. juncea, seed meal glucosinolate-degradation products appeared to be responsible for nematode suppression; deactivated seed meal (wetted and heated at 70 °C for 48 hr) did not result in similar P. penetrans suppression compared to active seed meal. Sinapis alba seed meal particle size also played a role in nematode suppression with ground meal resulting in 93% suppression of P. penetrans compared with 37 to 46% suppression by pelletized S. alba seed meal. This study demonstrates that all seed meals are not equally suppressive to nematodes and that care should be taken when selecting a source of brassicaceous seed meal

  4. Starch Serves as Carbohydrate Storage in Nematode-Induced Syncytia1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Julia; Szakasits, Dagmar; Blöchl, Andreas; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Daxböck-Horvath, Sabine; Golinowski, Wladyslaw; Bohlmann, Holger; Grundler, Florian M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The plant parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii induces specific syncytial feeding sites in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana from where it withdraws all required nutrients. Therefore, syncytia have to be well supplied with assimilates and generate strong sinks in the host plant's transport system. Import mechanisms and consequent accumulation of sucrose in syncytia were described recently. In this work, we studied the starch metabolism of syncytia. Using high-performance liquid chromatography and microscopic analyses, we demonstrated that syncytia store carbohydrates by starch accumulation. Further, we monitored the expression of genes involved in the starch metabolic pathway by gene chip analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Finally, we provide functional proof of the importance of starch synthesis for nematode development using T-DNA insertion lines. We conclude that syncytia accumulate starch as a carbohydrate buffer to compensate for changing solute uptake by the nematode and as long-term storage during juvenile development. PMID:17981988

  5. What constitutes a population for the plant parasitic nematode Globodera pallida in its native area (Peru)?

    PubMed

    Picard, Damien; Plantard, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Although numerous species are distributed in discrete populations easily recognised by geographical barriers, continuous populations are a common feature of plants or marine organisms. This is particularly true for soil organisms as their habitat is continuous and their range cannot easily be assessed as they are buried below ground. In the case of organisms for which standard methods such as Capture/Mark/Recapture cannot be used, population genetics provide a straightforward approach to delimitate populations. In this study, we have pursued this topic with a soil-dwelling nematode (Globodera pallida), which parasitises potato roots and is indigenous to South America. Potential barriers to gene flow were identified using the analysis of the F(ST)/(1-F(ST)) ratio against geographical distance and spatial autocorrelation combined with model-based clustering algorithm. Inside regions, neither genetic differentiation nor isolation by distance (IBD) occur among fields less than 50 km distant. We hypothesise that the large amount of gene flow revealed by the absence of genetic structure of this organism could be due to large passive dispersion inside an agronomic area where G. pallida has a continuous distribution and is found at high density. The first evidence of genetic differentiation appeared when a field was separated from others by an area free of farms (where G. pallida is absent or rare). Among regions, a high genetic structure coupled with an IBD pattern occurs as the consequences of the limitations of passive dispersal across deep valleys or high mountains. To our knowledge, this is the first study identifying the spatial limit of a population for a plant nematode parasite. PMID:16239004

  6. Meloidogyne paranaensis n. sp. (Nemata: Meloidogynidae), a Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Coffee in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, R. M. D. G.; Carneiro, R. G.; Abrantes, I. M. O.; Santos, M. S. N. A.; Almeida, M. R. A.

    1996-01-01

    A root-knot nematode parasitizing coffee in Paran  State, Brazil, is described as Meloidogyne paranaensis n. sp. The suggested common name is Paraná coffee root-knot nematode. The perineal pattern is similar to that of M. incognita; the labial disc and medial lips of the female are fused and asymmetric and rectangular; the lateral lips are small, triangular, and fused laterally with the head region. The female stylet is 15.0-17.5 μm long, with broad, distinctly set-off knobs; the distance from the dorsal esophageal gland orifice (DGO) to the stylet base is 4.2-5.5 μm. Males have a high, round head cap continuous with the body contour. The labial disc is fused with the medial lips to form an elongate lip structure. The head region is frequently marked by an incomplete annulation. The stylet is robust, 20-27 μm long, usually with round to transversely elongate knobs, sometimes with one or two projections protruding from the shaft. The stylet length of second-stage juveniles is 13-14 μm, the distance of the DGO to the stylet base is 4.0-4.5 μm, and the tail length is 48-51 μm. Biochemically, the esterase (F₁) and malate dehydrogenase (N₁) phenotypes are the most useful characters to differentiate M. paranaensis from other species. However, the esterase phenotype appears similar to that of M. konaensis. Reproduction is by mitotic parthenogenesis, 3n = 50-52. In differential host tests, tobacco, watermelon, and tomato were good hosts, whereas cotton, pepper, and peanut were nonhosts. PMID:19277133

  7. Adaptive Radiation within Marine Anisakid Nematodes: A Zoogeographical Modeling of Cosmopolitan, Zoonotic Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Thomas; García-Màrquez, Jaime; Klimpel, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Parasites of the nematode genus Anisakis are associated with aquatic organisms. They can be found in a variety of marine hosts including whales, crustaceans, fish and cephalopods and are known to be the cause of the zoonotic disease anisakiasis, a painful inflammation of the gastro-intestinal tract caused by the accidental consumptions of infectious larvae raw or semi-raw fishery products. Since the demand on fish as dietary protein source and the export rates of seafood products in general is rapidly increasing worldwide, the knowledge about the distribution of potential foodborne human pathogens in seafood is of major significance for human health. Studies have provided evidence that a few Anisakis species can cause clinical symptoms in humans. The aim of our study was to interpolate the species range for every described Anisakis species on the basis of the existing occurrence data. We used sequence data of 373 Anisakis larvae from 30 different hosts worldwide and previously published molecular data (n = 584) from 53 field-specific publications to model the species range of Anisakis spp., using a interpolation method that combines aspects of the alpha hull interpolation algorithm as well as the conditional interpolation approach. The results of our approach strongly indicate the existence of species-specific distribution patterns of Anisakis spp. within different climate zones and oceans that are in principle congruent with those of their respective final hosts. Our results support preceding studies that propose anisakid nematodes as useful biological indicators for their final host distribution and abundance as they closely follow the trophic relationships among their successive hosts. The modeling might although be helpful for predicting the likelihood of infection in order to reduce the risk of anisakiasis cases in a given area. PMID:22180787

  8. Comparative transcriptomics of two pathogenic pinewood nematodes yields insights into parasitic adaptation to life on pine hosts.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xia; Cheng, Xin-Yue; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Luo, Ji; Mao, Zhen-Chuan; Ferris, Virginia R; Xie, Bing-Yan

    2012-08-15

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus are migratory endoparasitic nematodes that live in pine trees. To gain insight into their molecular similarities and differences, transcriptomes of the two nematodes were analysed. A total of 23,765 and 21,782 contigs (>300 bp) were obtained from B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus, respectively. More than 80% of the contigs could map to each other's transcriptome reciprocally. A total of 23,467 and 21,370 Open Reading Frames were predicted, respectively. Besides those known parasitism-related proteins, six new venom allergen-like proteins (VAPs) were found, which were not homologous to known VAPs. Enzymes involved in xenobiotic biodegradation were abundant in the two transcriptomes based on KEGG functional annotation. Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 comprised the main detoxification pathways. The mRNA expression levels of detoxification genes in nematodes living in the host were higher than those in nematodes feeding on fungus. However, there were fewer enzymes involved in the α-pinene degradation. Our results indicate that the two pinewood nematodes have evolved similar molecular mechanisms to adapt to life on pine hosts. PMID:22705985

  9. The complete mitochondrial genomes of three parasitic nematodes of birds: a unique gene order and insights into nematode phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Analyses of mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences in recent years challenge the current working hypothesis of Nematoda phylogeny proposed from morphology, ecology and nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences, and raise the need to sequence additional mt genomes for a broad range of nematode lineages. Results We sequenced the complete mt genomes of three Ascaridia species (family Ascaridiidae) that infest chickens, pigeons and parrots, respectively. These three Ascaridia species have an identical arrangement of mt genes to each other but differ substantially from other nematodes. Phylogenetic analyses of the mt genome sequences of the Ascaridia species, together with 62 other nematode species, support the monophylies of seven high-level taxa of the phylum Nematoda: 1) the subclass Dorylaimia; 2) the orders Rhabditida, Trichinellida and Mermithida; 3) the suborder Rhabditina; and 4) the infraorders Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha. Analyses of mt genome sequences, however, reject the monophylies of the suborders Spirurina and Tylenchina, and the infraorders Rhabditomorpha, Panagrolaimomorpha and Tylenchomorpha. Monophyly of the infraorder Ascaridomorpha varies depending on the methods of phylogenetic analysis. The Ascaridomorpha was more closely related to the infraorders Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha (suborder Rhabditina) than they were to the other two infraorders of the Spirurina: Oxyuridorpha and Spiruromorpha. The closer relationship among Ascaridomorpha, Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha was also supported by a shared common pattern of mitochondrial gene arrangement. Conclusions Analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences and gene arrangement has provided novel insights into the phylogenetic relationships among several major lineages of nematodes. Many lineages of nematodes, however, are underrepresented or not represented in these analyses. Expanding taxon sampling is necessary for future phylogenetic studies of nematodes with mt genome

  10. Identification and characterization of parasitism genes from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reveals a multilayered detoxification strategy.

    PubMed

    Espada, Margarida; Silva, Ana Cláudia; Eves van den Akker, Sebastian; Cock, Peter J A; Mota, Manuel; Jones, John T

    2016-02-01

    The migratory endoparasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, has phytophagous and mycetophagous phases during its life cycle. This highly unusual feature distinguishes it from other plant-parasitic nematodes and requires profound changes in biology between modes. During the phytophagous stage, the nematode migrates within pine trees, feeding on the contents of parenchymal cells. Like other plant pathogens, B. xylophilus secretes effectors from pharyngeal gland cells into the host during infection. We provide the first description of changes in the morphology of these gland cells between juvenile and adult life stages. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach and an effector identification pipeline, we identify numerous novel parasitism genes which may be important for the mediation of interactions of B. xylophilus with its host. In-depth characterization of all parasitism genes using in situ hybridization reveals two major categories of detoxification proteins, those specifically expressed in either the pharyngeal gland cells or the digestive system. These data suggest that B. xylophilus incorporates effectors in a multilayer detoxification strategy in order to protect itself from host defence responses during phytophagy. PMID:25981957

  11. How to become a parasite without sex chromosomes: a hypothesis for the evolution of Strongyloides spp. and related nematodes.

    PubMed

    Streit, Adrian

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic lifestyles evolved many times independently. Just within the phylum Nematoda animal parasitism must have arisen at least four times. Switching to a parasitic lifestyle is expected to lead to changes in various life history traits including reproductive strategies. Parasitic nematode worms of the genus Strongyloides represent an interesting example to study these processes because they are still capable of forming facultative free-living generations in between parasitic ones. The parasitic generation consists of females only, which reproduce parthenogenetically. The sex in the progeny of the parasitic worms is determined by environmental cues, which control a, presumably ancestral, XX/XO chromosomal sex determining system. In some species the X chromosome is fused with an autosome and one copy of the X-derived sequences is removed by sex-specific chromatin diminution in males. Here I propose a hypothesis for how today's Strongyloides sp. might have evolved from a sexual free-living ancestor through dauer larvae forming free-living and facultative parasitic intermediate stages. PMID:24829037

  12. Population Dynamics of Dactylella oviparasitica and Heterodera schachtii: Toward a Decision Model for Sugar Beet Planting

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiue-in; Benecke, Scott; Jeske, Daniel R.; Rocha, Fernando S.; Smith Becker, Jennifer; Timper, Patricia; Ole Becker, J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed to examine the population dynamics of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, and the nematophagus fungus Dactylella oviparasitica. After two nematode generations, the population densities of H. schachtii were measured in relation to various initial infestation densities of both D. oviparasitica and H. schachtii. In general, higher initial population densities of D. oviparasitica were associated with lower final population densities of H. schachtii. Regression models showed that the initial densities of D. oviparasitica were only significant when predicting the final densities of H. schachtii J2 and eggs as well as fungal egg parasitism, while the initial densities of J2 were significant for all final H. schachtii population density measurements. We also showed that the densities of H. schachtii-associated D. oviparasitica fluctuate greatly, with rRNA gene numbers going from zero in most field-soil-collected cysts to an average of 4.24 x 108 in mature females isolated directly from root surfaces. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of rRNA genes suggested that D. oviparasitica belongs to a clade of nematophagous fungi that includes Arkansas Fungus strain L (ARF-L) and that these fungi are widely distributed. We anticipate that these findings will provide foundational data facilitating the development of more effective decision models for sugar beet planting. PMID:23481664

  13. Copepods and larvae of nematodes parasitizing (correction of parasiting) the white mullet Mugil curema (Valenciennes, 1836): indicators of anthropogenic impacts in tropical coastal lagoons?

    PubMed

    Fajer-Avila, E J; García-Vásquez, A; Plascencia-González, H; Ríos-Sicairos, J; García-De La Parra, L M; Betancourt-Lozano, M

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between parasites and environmental stress were studied in two tropical coastal lagoons of Northwest Mexico: Urias estuary (highly polluted) and Teacapan estuary (slightly polluted). Metazoan parasites were examined in 292 white mullet (Mugil curema) specimens collected bimonthly during a year from both systems. Haliotrema mugilinus, Metamicrocotyla macracantha, Ergasilus sp., Caligus sp., Holobomolochus sp., and Lernaeopodidae were found in gills, while Contracaecum sp. larvae III was found liver, hepatic portal vein and kidneys. Ecological indices were influenced by the slightly higher number of parasitic species in Urias compared to Teacapan, as well as the clear dominance of two species: Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. in both systems. In fact, Ergasilus sp. showed considerably higher abundance in Urias, possibly indicating that its success was a result of adverse conditions affecting the host, while Contracaecum sp showed higher abundances in Teacapan, suggesting that the environmental conditions occurring in Urias could have produced negative impacts on the nematode's infective potential. PMID:16758278

  14. Managing nematode pests in Midsouth soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean producers must contend with nematode pests, several species of which may inhabit a single field. Significant yield losses caused by soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines), southern root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and other nematodes were estimated at 2.6% (...

  15. [Evaluation of the efficacy of antihelmintics compounds on parasitics gastrointestinal nematodes (Strongyloidea) of goats].

    PubMed

    Silva, André Ricardo E; De Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fabio R; De Oliveira, Aécio Carlos; Carvalho, Rogério O; Araújo, Juliana M; Castejon, Fernanda V

    2008-09-01

    The present study was performed in order to evaluate the action of anthelmintics compounds on gastrointestinal parasite nematodes of 27 Alpine and Saanen adult goats. The animals were divided into three groups. The animals of groups 1 and 2 had been dealt with two different associations of antihelminthics in day zero. The goats in group 1 were treated with closantel (75 mg/mL), albendazol (38 mg/mL) and ivermectin B1a (2 mg/mL) orally (1 ml/ 10 Kg body weight); animals in group 2 were treated with closantel (100 mg/mL), albendazol (50 mg/mL), levamisol (64 mg/mL), ivermectin B1a (2 mg/mL), selenium (1 mg/mL) and cobalt (4.4 mg/mL) orally (1 ml/10 Kg of body weight) and the animals in the group 3 (control) received distilled water. Eggs per gram counts on faeces (EPG) and coprocultures of all animals were made at intervals of days 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28. The haematocrit, global counting and differential white blood cells, total protein and the Famacha test were determined at intervals of days 0, 14 and 28. Six animals of each group had suffered euthanasia and slaughters on the 28th day. The results showed that only the combination used in the animals of group 2 was effective. PMID:20059830

  16. Expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from parasitic nematodes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Megan A; Reaves, Barbara J; Maclean, Mary J; Storey, Bob E; Wolstenholme, Adrian J

    2015-11-01

    The levamisole-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor present at nematode neuromuscular junctions is composed of multiple different subunits, with the exact composition varying between species. We tested the ability of two well-conserved nicotinic receptor subunits, UNC-38 and UNC-29, from Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum to rescue the levamisole-resistance and locomotion defects of Caenorhabditis elegans strains with null deletion mutations in the unc-38 and unc-29 genes. The parasite cDNAs were cloned downstream of the relevant C. elegans promoters and introduced into the mutant strains via biolistic transformation. The UNC-38 subunit of H. contortus was able to completely rescue both the locomotion defects and levamisole resistance of the null deletion mutant VC2937 (ok2896), but no C. elegans expressing the A. suum UNC-38 could be detected. The H. contortus UNC-29.1 subunit partially rescued the levamisole resistance of a C. elegans null mutation in unc-29 VC1944 (ok2450), but did cause increased motility in a thrashing assay. In contrast, only a single line of worms containing the A. suum UNC-29 subunit showed a partial rescue of levamisole resistance, with no effect on thrashing. PMID:26747395

  17. Apoplastic venom allergen-like proteins of cyst nematodes modulate the activation of basal plant innate immunity by cell surface receptors.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Torres, Jose L; Wilbers, Ruud H P; Warmerdam, Sonja; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Diaz-Granados, Amalia; van Schaik, Casper C; Helder, Johannes; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Schots, Arjen; Smant, Geert

    2014-12-01

    Despite causing considerable damage to host tissue during the onset of parasitism, nematodes establish remarkably persistent infections in both animals and plants. It is thought that an elaborate repertoire of effector proteins in nematode secretions suppresses damage-triggered immune responses of the host. However, the nature and mode of action of most immunomodulatory compounds in nematode secretions are not well understood. Here, we show that venom allergen-like proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes selectively suppress host immunity mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Venom allergen-like proteins are uniquely conserved in secretions of all animal- and plant-parasitic nematodes studied to date, but their role during the onset of parasitism has thus far remained elusive. Knocking-down the expression of the venom allergen-like protein Gr-VAP1 severely hampered the infectivity of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. By contrast, heterologous expression of Gr-VAP1 and two other venom allergen-like proteins from the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in plants resulted in the loss of basal immunity to multiple unrelated pathogens. The modulation of basal immunity by ectopic venom allergen-like proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana involved extracellular protease-based host defenses and non-photochemical quenching in chloroplasts. Non-photochemical quenching regulates the initiation of the defense-related programmed cell death, the onset of which was commonly suppressed by venom allergen-like proteins from G. rostochiensis, H. schachtii, and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Surprisingly, these venom allergen-like proteins only affected the programmed cell death mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Furthermore, the delivery of venom allergen-like proteins into host tissue coincides with the enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls by migratory nematodes. We, therefore, conclude that parasitic nematodes most likely utilize

  18. Efficient in vitro RNA interference and immunofluorescence-based phenotype analysis in a human parasitic nematode, Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) is an efficient reverse genetics technique for investigating gene function in eukaryotes. The method has been widely used in model organisms, such as the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, where it has been deployed in genome-wide high throughput screens to identify genes involved in many cellular and developmental processes. However, RNAi techniques have not translated efficiently to animal parasitic nematodes that afflict humans, livestock and companion animals across the globe, creating a dependency on data tentatively inferred from C. elegans. Results We report improved and effective in vitro RNAi procedures we have developed using heterogeneous short interfering RNA (hsiRNA) mixtures that when coupled with optimized immunostaining techniques yield detailed analysis of cytological defects in the human parasitic nematode, Brugia malayi. The cellular disorganization observed in B. malayi embryos following RNAi targeting the genes encoding γ-tubulin, and the polarity determinant protein, PAR-1, faithfully phenocopy the known defects associated with gene silencing of their C. elegans orthologs. Targeting the B. malayi cell junction protein, AJM-1 gave a similar but more severe phenotype than that observed in C. elegans. Cellular phenotypes induced by our in vitro RNAi procedure can be observed by immunofluorescence in as little as one week. Conclusions We observed cytological defects following RNAi targeting all seven B. malayi transcripts tested and the phenotypes mirror those documented for orthologous genes in the model organism C. elegans. This highlights the reliability, effectiveness and specificity of our RNAi and immunostaining procedures. We anticipate that these techniques will be widely applicable to other important animal parasitic nematodes, which have hitherto been mostly refractory to such genetic analysis. PMID:22243803

  19. Protease inhibition by Heterodera glycines cyst content: evidence for effects on the Meloidogyne incognita proteasome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteases from Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita juveniles were inhibited by heat-stable content of H. glycines female cysts (HglCE), and by the plant polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). General protease activities detected using the nematode peptide KSAYMRFa were inhibited by EG...

  20. Long and short-term tillage effects on Heterodera glycines reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigations were conducted to determine the long and short-term effects of tillage on Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode (SCN), reproduction. Tillage plots were established in 1979 representing six tillage/no-tillage regimes. A portion of each plot was changed from no-tillage to chisel or...

  1. Spring wheat tolerance and resistance to Heterodera avenae in the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae reduces wheat yields in the Pacific Northwest. Previous evaluations of cultivar resistance had been in controlled environments. Cultivar tolerance had not been evaluated. Seven spring wheat trials were conducted in naturally infested fields in three states ...

  2. Histopathology of Brassica oleracea var. capitata subvar. alba infected with Heterodera cruciferae Franklin, 1945 (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because anatomical changes induced by the cabbage cyst nematode (Heterodera cruciferae) have been insufficiently characterized, here we describe these changes in the root tissues of white head cabbage varieties commonly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, where cabbage-growing areas are heavily...

  3. Nematodes parasites of the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) in the seasonally dry tropical highlands of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raul; López-González, Carlos A; Jones, Robert W

    2011-06-01

    The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schreber, 1775) is the most abundant and opportunistic wild canid in Mexico. However, the parasites of this canid in Mexico are poorly known, and an intensive parasite survey is lacking. A survey of gray fox parasitological feces was conducted in El Cimatario National Park, a protected area representative of the seasonally dry, tropical highlands of Mexico. Feces were collected in six 1-km-length transects during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2004. The coproparasitoscopical survey registered nine species of nematodes, typical of wild and domestic canids such as Strongyloides stercoralis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Dioctophyme renale, Trichuris vulpis, Trichuris sp., and Capillaria sp. Ecological factors such as temperature and humidity appear to play a more important role in the establishment of these species of parasites in this protected area than the presence of domestic dogs. PMID:21136079

  4. Contribution of Lateral Gene Transfers to the Genome Composition and Parasitic Ability of Root-Knot Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Da Rocha, Martine; Gouret, Philippe; Pontarotti, Pierre; Wajnberg, Eric; Abad, Pierre; Danchin, Etienne G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Lateral gene transfers (LGT), species to species transmission of genes by means other than direct inheritance from a common ancestor, have played significant role in shaping prokaryotic genomes and are involved in gain or transfer of important biological processes. Whether LGT significantly contributed to the composition of an animal genome is currently unclear. In nematodes, multiple LGT are suspected to have favored emergence of plant-parasitism. With the availability of whole genome sequences it is now possible to assess whether LGT have significantly contributed to the composition of an animal genome and to establish a comprehensive list of these events. We generated clusters of homologous genes and automated phylogenetic inference, to detect LGT in the genomes of root-knot nematodes and found that up to 3.34% of the genes originate from LGT of non-metazoan origin. After their acquisition, the majority of genes underwent series of duplications. Compared to the rest of the genes in these species, several predicted functional categories showed a skewed distribution in the set of genes acquired via LGT. Interestingly, functions related to metabolism, degradation or modification of carbohydrates or proteins were substantially more frequent. This suggests that genes involved in these processes, related to a parasitic lifestyle, have been more frequently fixed in these parasites after their acquisition. Genes from soil bacteria, including plant-pathogens were the most frequent closest relatives, suggesting donors were preferentially bacteria from the rhizosphere. Several of these bacterial genes are plasmid-borne, pointing to a possible role of these mobile genetic elements in the transfer mechanism. Our analysis provides the first comprehensive description of the ensemble of genes of non-metazoan origin in an animal genome. Besides being involved in important processes regarding plant-parasitism, genes acquired via LGT now constitute a substantial proportion of

  5. The novel GrCEP12 peptide from the plant-parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis suppresses flg22-mediated PTI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiyan; Chronis, Demosthenis; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-09-01

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is a biotrophic pathogen that secretes effector proteins into host root cells to promote successful plant parasitism. In addition to the role in generating within root tissue the feeding cells essential for nematode development, (1) nematode secreted effectors are becoming recognized as suppressors of plant immunity. (2)(-) (4) Recently we reported that the effector ubiquitin carboxyl extension protein (GrUBCEP12) from G. rostochiensis is processed into free ubiquitin and a 12-amino acid GrCEP12 peptide in planta. Transgenic potato lines overexpressing the derived GrCEP12 peptide showed increased susceptibility to G. rostochiensis and to an unrelated bacterial pathogen Streptomyces scabies, suggesting that GrCEP12 has a role in suppressing host basal defense or possibly pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) during the parasitic interaction. (3) To determine if GrCEP12 functions as a PTI suppressor we evaluated whether GrCEP12 suppresses flg22-induced PTI responses in Nicotiana benthamiana. Interestingly, we found that transient expression of GrCEP12 in N. benthamiana leaves suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the induction of two PTI marker genes triggered by the bacterial PAMP flg22, providing direct evidence that GrCEP12 indeed has an activity in PTI suppression. PMID:23803745

  6. Nematodes in Dryland Field Crops in the Semiarid Pacific Northwest United States

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Richard W.; Merrifield, Kathy; Patterson, Lisa-Marie; Whittaker, Ruth G.; Gourlie, Jennifer A.; Easley, Sandra A.

    2004-01-01

    Soils and roots of field crops in low-rainfall regions of the Pacific Northwest were surveyed for populations of plantparasitic and non-plant-parasitic nematodes. Lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus species) were recovered from 123 of 130 non-irrigated and 18 of 18 irrigated fields. Pratylenchus neglectus was more prevalent than P. thornei, but mixed populations were common. Population densities in soil were affected by crop frequency and rotation but not by tillage or soil type (P < 0.05). Many fields (25%) cropped more frequently than 2 of 4 years had potentially damaging populations of lesion nematodes. Pratylenchus neglectus density in winter wheat roots was inversely correlated with grain yield (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.002), providing the first field-derived evidence that Pratylenchus is economically important in Pacific Northwest dryland field crops. Stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus clarus and Geocenamus brevidens) were detected in 35% of fields and were occasionally present in high numbers. Few fields were infested with pin (Paratylenchus species) and root-knot (Meloidogyne naasi and M. chitwoodi) nematodes. Nematodes detected previously but not during this survey included cereal cyst (Heterodera avenae), dagger (Xiphinema species), and root-gall (Subanguina radicicola) nematodes. PMID:19262788

  7. Transcriptional and morphological changes in the transition from mycetophagous to phytophagous phase in the plant-parasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Isheng J; Tanaka, Ryusei; Kanzaki, Natsumi; Akiba, Mitsuteru; Yokoi, Toshiro; Espada, Margarida; Jones, John T; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2016-01-01

    Drastic physiological and morphological changes in parasites are crucial for the establishment of a successful infection. The nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the pathogenic agent of pine wilt disease, and little is known about the physiology and morphology in this nematode at the initial stage of infection. In this study, we devised an infection system using pine stem cuttings that allowed us to observe transcriptional and morphological changes in the host-infecting phytophagous phase. We found that 60 genes enriched in xenobiotic detoxification were up-regulated in two independent post-inoculation events, whereas down-regulation was observed in multiple members of collagen gene families. After 48 h of inoculation, the tails in some of the adult females exposed to the host changed in morphology. These results suggest that B. xylophilus may change its physiology and morphology to protect itself and to adapt to the host pine wood environment. PMID:25831996

  8. The Carbohydrate-linked Phosphorylcholine of the Parasitic Nematode Product ES-62 Modulates Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Umul Kulthum; Maller, N Claire; Iqbal, Asif J; Al-Riyami, Lamyaa; Harnett, William; Raynes, John G

    2016-05-27

    Parasitic nematodes manufacture various carbohydrate-linked phosphorylcholine (PCh)-containing molecules, including ES-62, a protein with an N-linked glycan terminally substituted with PCh. The PCh component is biologically important because it is required for immunomodulatory effects. We showed that most ES-62 was bound to a single protein, C-reactive protein (CRP), in normal human serum, displaying a calcium-dependent, high-avidity interaction and ability to form large complexes. Unexpectedly, CRP binding to ES-62 failed to efficiently activate complement as far as the C3 convertase stage in comparison with PCh-BSA and PCh-containing Streptococcus pneumoniae cell wall polysaccharide. C1q capture assays demonstrated an ES-62-CRP-C1q interaction in serum. The three ligands all activated C1 and generated C4b to similar extents. However, a C2a active site was not generated following ES-62 binding to CRP, demonstrating that C2 cleavage was far less efficient for ES-62-containing complexes. We proposed that failure of C2 cleavage was due to the flexible nature of carbohydrate-bound PCh and that reduced proximity of the C1 complex was the reason that C2 was poorly cleaved. This was confirmed using synthetic analogues that were similar to ES-62 only in respect of having a flexible PCh. Furthermore, ES-62 was shown to deplete early complement components, such as the rate-limiting C4, following CRP interaction and thereby inhibit classical pathway activation. Thus, flexible PCh-glycan represents a novel mechanism for subversion of complement activation. These data illustrate the importance of the rate-limiting C4/C2 stage of complement activation and reveal a new addition to the repertoire of ES-62 immunomodulatory mechanisms with possible therapeutic applications. PMID:27044740

  9. The Carbohydrate-linked Phosphorylcholine of the Parasitic Nematode Product ES-62 Modulates Complement Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Umul Kulthum; Maller, N. Claire; Iqbal, Asif J.; Al-Riyami, Lamyaa; Harnett, William; Raynes, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes manufacture various carbohydrate-linked phosphorylcholine (PCh)-containing molecules, including ES-62, a protein with an N-linked glycan terminally substituted with PCh. The PCh component is biologically important because it is required for immunomodulatory effects. We showed that most ES-62 was bound to a single protein, C-reactive protein (CRP), in normal human serum, displaying a calcium-dependent, high-avidity interaction and ability to form large complexes. Unexpectedly, CRP binding to ES-62 failed to efficiently activate complement as far as the C3 convertase stage in comparison with PCh-BSA and PCh-containing Streptococcus pneumoniae cell wall polysaccharide. C1q capture assays demonstrated an ES-62-CRP-C1q interaction in serum. The three ligands all activated C1 and generated C4b to similar extents. However, a C2a active site was not generated following ES-62 binding to CRP, demonstrating that C2 cleavage was far less efficient for ES-62-containing complexes. We proposed that failure of C2 cleavage was due to the flexible nature of carbohydrate-bound PCh and that reduced proximity of the C1 complex was the reason that C2 was poorly cleaved. This was confirmed using synthetic analogues that were similar to ES-62 only in respect of having a flexible PCh. Furthermore, ES-62 was shown to deplete early complement components, such as the rate-limiting C4, following CRP interaction and thereby inhibit classical pathway activation. Thus, flexible PCh-glycan represents a novel mechanism for subversion of complement activation. These data illustrate the importance of the rate-limiting C4/C2 stage of complement activation and reveal a new addition to the repertoire of ES-62 immunomodulatory mechanisms with possible therapeutic applications. PMID:27044740

  10. Diversity and Occurrence of Plant-parasitic Nematodes Associated with Golf Course Turfgrasses in North and South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yongsan; Ye, Weimin; Bruce Martin, S; Martin, Matt; Tredway, Lane

    2012-12-01

    One hundred and eleven golf courses from 39 counties in the Carolinas were surveyed for plant-parasitic nematodes. Species diversity within habitats was analyzed with five diversity indices including Diversity index (H'), Evenness (J'), Richness (SR), Dominance (λ) and Diversity (H2 ). The results revealed a remarkably high diversity of 24 nematode species belonging to 19 genera and 11 families. Of those, 23 species were found in SC, 19 species in NC, and 18 species were detected in both states. Helicotylenchus dihystera, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Hoplolaimus galeatus, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne graminis and Paratrichodorus minor were the most prevalent and abundant species in golf course turfgrasses in both states. Twelve species were new records of plant parasitic nematodes in turfgrasses in both NC and SC. The results also revealed effects of different habitats on diversity of nematode species in turfgrass ecosystem. H' and SR values were higher in SC than in NC. H', J' and H2 values were significantly higher in sandy than in clay soil in NC, but no significant differences between sand and clay soil were detected in SC or in pooled data from both states. There were no significant differences for all indices among the management zones (putting green, fairway and tee) in NC. However, in SC and pooled data, H', SR and H2 were significantly higher in putting greens than in fairways and tees. Significant differences from different grass species (bermudagrass, creeping bentgrass and zoysiagrass) were detected only in H', which was significantly higher in zoysiagrass than in bentgrass or bermudagrass in NC. In pooled data, H' was significantly higher in zoysiagrass samples than in creeping bentgrass samples but was not significantly different from bermudagrass samples. PMID:23482422

  11. Extensive mitochondrial gene rearrangement in a genus of plant parasitic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nematodes Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are two of the only animals known to have multipartite mitochondrial genomes. In such genomes, mitochondrial genes are distributed on multiple circles. The entire sequence of a nematode (Radopholus similis) that belongs to the same superfamily (...

  12. Effects of grafted heirloom tomatoes on parasitic nematode populations in an organic production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafting vegetable crops has shown potential to contribute to root-knot nematode management alone and in combination with chemical treatments. In organic production, there are extremely limited options currently available to growers for control of phytoparasitic nematodes. Grafting desirable tomat...

  13. StyletChip: a microfluidic device for recording host invasion behaviour and feeding of plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunxiao; Kearn, James; Urwin, Peter; Lilley, Catherine; O' Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Morgan, Hywel

    2014-07-21

    Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infest the roots of crops and cause global losses with a severe economic impact on food production. Current chemical control agents are being removed from use due to environmental and toxicity concerns and there is a need for new approaches to crop protection. A key feature of parasitic behaviour for the majority of PPNs is a hollow stomastyle or odontostyle required for interaction with the host plant and feeding. This lance-like microscopic structure, often called a stylet, protrudes from the mouth of the worm and thrusts in a rhythmic manner to stab the host root. Studying stylet activity presents technical challenges and as a consequence the underlying biology is poorly understood. We have addressed this by designing a microfluidic chip which traps the PPN Globodera pallida and permits the recording of an electrophysiological signal concomitant with stylet thrusting. The PDMS chip incorporates a precisely designed aperture to trap the nematode securely around a mid-point of its body. It is fabricated using a novel combination of conventional photolithography and two photon polymerization. The chip incorporates valves for rapid application of test compounds and integral electrodes to facilitate acquisition of electrical signals. We show that stylet thrusting can be induced by controlled application of 5-HT (serotonin) to the worm. Each thrust and retraction produces an electrical waveform that characterises the physiological activity associated with the worm's behaviour. The ability to reproducibly record the stylet activity of PPNs provides a new platform for nematicide screening that specifically focuses on a behaviour that is integral to the parasite host interaction. This is the first report of a microfluidic chip capable of electrophysiological recording from nematodes other than Caenorhabditis elegans. The unique approach is optimised for trapping and recording from smaller worms or worms with distinct anterior body shapes

  14. Cathepsin B Cysteine Proteinase is Essential for the Development and Pathogenesis of the Plant Parasitic Nematode Radopholus similis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Wang, Ke; Xie, Hui; Wang, Dong-Wei; Xu, Chun-Ling; Huang, Xin; Wu, Wen-Jia; Li, Dan-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Radopholus similis is an important plant parasitic nematode which severely harms many crops. Cathepsin B is present in a wide variety of organisms, and plays an important role in many parasites. Understanding cathepsin B of R. similis would allow us to find new targets and approaches for its control. In this study, we found that Rs-cb-1 mRNA was expressed in esophageal glands, intestines and gonads of females, testes of males, juveniles and eggs in R. similis. Rs-cb-1 expression was the highest in females, followed by juveniles and eggs, and was the lowest in males. The maximal enzyme activity of Rs-CB-1 was detected at pH 6.0 and 40 °C. Silencing of Rs-cb-1 using in vitro RNAi (Soaking with dsRNA in vitro) not only significantly inhibited the development and hatching of R. similis, but also greatly reduced its pathogenicity. Using in planta RNAi, we confirmed that Rs-cb-1 expression in nematodes were significantly suppressed and the resistance to R. similis was significantly improved in T2 generation transgenic tobacco plants expressing Rs-cb-1 dsRNA. The genetic effects of in planta RNAi-induced gene silencing could be maintained in the absence of dsRNA for at least two generations before being lost, which was not the case for the effects induced by in vitro RNAi. Overall, our results first indicate that Rs-cb-1 plays key roles in the development, hatching and pathogenesis of R. similis, and that in planta RNAi is an effective tool in studying gene function and genetic engineering of plant resistance to migratory plant parasitic nematodes. PMID:26221074

  15. Needles in the EST Haystack: Large-Scale Identification and Analysis of Excretory-Secretory (ES) Proteins in Parasitic Nematodes Using Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Shivashankar H.; Gasser, Robin B.; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2008-01-01

    Background Parasitic nematodes of humans, other animals and plants continue to impose a significant public health and economic burden worldwide, due to the diseases they cause. Promising antiparasitic drug and vaccine candidates have been discovered from excreted or secreted (ES) proteins released from the parasite and exposed to the immune system of the host. Mining the entire expressed sequence tag (EST) data available from parasitic nematodes represents an approach to discover such ES targets. Methods and Findings In this study, we predicted, using EST2Secretome, a novel, high-throughput, computational workflow system, 4,710 ES proteins from 452,134 ESTs derived from 39 different species of nematodes, parasitic in animals (including humans) or plants. In total, 2,632, 786, and 1,292 ES proteins were predicted for animal-, human-, and plant-parasitic nematodes. Subsequently, we systematically analysed ES proteins using computational methods. Of these 4,710 proteins, 2,490 (52.8%) had orthologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas 621 (13.8%) appeared to be novel, currently having no significant match to any molecule available in public databases. Of the C. elegans homologues, 267 had strong “loss-of-function” phenotypes by RNA interference (RNAi) in this nematode. We could functionally classify 1,948 (41.3%) sequences using the Gene Ontology (GO) terms, establish pathway associations for 573 (12.2%) sequences using Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and identify protein interaction partners for 1,774 (37.6%) molecules. We also mapped 758 (16.1%) proteins to protein domains including the nematode-specific protein family “transthyretin-like” and “chromadorea ALT,” considered as vaccine candidates against filariasis in humans. Conclusions We report the large-scale analysis of ES proteins inferred from EST data for a range of parasitic nematodes. This set of ES proteins provides an inventory of known and novel members of ES proteins as a

  16. Gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy goats, anthelmintic resistance and practices of parasite control in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are one of the main constraints to ruminant production worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) has been reported in goats throughout Europe, yet little is known about the AR status in Italy. The aims of the study were: i) determine the frequency of AR in GINs in goat flocks in Northern Italy, Italy, ii) survey goat farmers on the current practices of parasite control, iii) update the species composition of the gastrointestinal helminthofauna. Thirty three flocks were enrolled and 1288 individual fecal samples were collected. Based on the egg per gram (EPG), 15 flocks were selected to evaluate the presence of AR in GINs with the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). A questionnaire surveyed 110 dairy goat farmers to acquire information about farm management and drenching practices against GINs. Further, the gastrointestinal tracts of 42 goats were analyzed. Results The FECRs indicated that five of the 15 flocks had problems of AR, which was identified in all two of the anthelmintic classes tested. Resistance and suspected resistance was found in 40% of the flocks selected for AR testing that were treated with benzimidazoles while 20% of the flocks treated with eprinomectin had resistant GINs. Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus L3 were isolated from the post-treatment coprocultures of all flocks with resistance but not from the flock with suspected oxfendazole resistance. Treatments against helminths were performed once annually in 73.63% of the flocks, but 20.00% of farmers declared not regularly treating their goats every year. Annual treatments usually occurred in autumn or winter at dose rate for sheep. Te. circumcincta, H. contortus, Tr. colubriformis, Skrjabinema caprae and Oesophagostomum venulosum were the most abundant and prevalent species of the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions Strategies to prevent the development of AR should be widely adopted in Northern Italy. Further, farmers and practitioners should be

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Secretome from a Model Filarial Nematode (Litomosoides sigmodontis) Reveals Maximal Diversity in Gravid Female Parasites*

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Stuart D.; Babayan, Simon A.; Lhermitte-Vallarino, Nathaly; Gray, Nick; Xia, Dong; Martin, Coralie; Kumar, Sujai; Taylor, David W.; Blaxter, Mark L.; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Makepeace, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Filarial nematodes (superfamily Filarioidea) are responsible for an annual global health burden of ∼6.3 million disability-adjusted life-years, which represents the greatest single component of morbidity attributable to helminths affecting humans. No vaccine exists for the major filarial diseases, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis; in part because research on protective immunity against filariae has been constrained by the inability of the human-parasitic species to complete their lifecycles in laboratory mice. However, the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis has become a popular experimental model, as BALB/c mice are fully permissive for its development and reproduction. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of excretory-secretory products from L. sigmodontis across five lifecycle stages and identifications of host proteins associated with first-stage larvae (microfilariae) in the blood. Applying intensity-based quantification, we determined the abundance of 302 unique excretory-secretory proteins, of which 64.6% were present in quantifiable amounts only from gravid adult female nematodes. This lifecycle stage, together with immature microfilariae, released four proteins that have not previously been evaluated as vaccine candidates: a predicted 28.5 kDa filaria-specific protein, a zonadhesin and SCO-spondin-like protein, a vitellogenin, and a protein containing six metridin-like ShK toxin domains. Female nematodes also released two proteins derived from the obligate Wolbachia symbiont. Notably, excretory-secretory products from all parasite stages contained several uncharacterized members of the transthyretin-like protein family. Furthermore, biotin labeling revealed that redox proteins and enzymes involved in purinergic signaling were enriched on the adult nematode cuticle. Comparison of the L. sigmodontis adult secretome with that of the human-infective filarial nematode Brugia malayi (reported previously in three independent published studies

  18. Species discovery and diversity in Lobocriconema (Criconematidae: Nematoda) and related plant-parasitic nematodes from North American ecoregions.

    PubMed

    Powers, T O; Bernard, E C; Harris, T; Higgins, R; Olson, M; Olson, S; Lodema, M; Matczyszyn, J; Mullin, P; Sutton, L; Powers, K S

    2016-01-01

    deciduous forest, but definitive glacial refugia for this group of plant parasitic nematodes have yet to be identified. Unlike agricultural pest species of plant-parasitic nematodes, there is little evidence of long-distance dispersal in Lobocriconema as revealed by haplotype distribution. Most haplotype groups were characterized by low levels of intragroup genetic variation and large genetic distances between haplotype groups. The localization of nematode haplotypes together with their characteristic plant communities could provide insight into the historical formation of these belowground biotic communities. PMID:27394307

  19. Comparative analysis of the secretome from a model filarial nematode (Litomosoides sigmodontis) reveals maximal diversity in gravid female parasites.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart D; Babayan, Simon A; Lhermitte-Vallarino, Nathaly; Gray, Nick; Xia, Dong; Martin, Coralie; Kumar, Sujai; Taylor, David W; Blaxter, Mark L; Wastling, Jonathan M; Makepeace, Benjamin L

    2014-10-01

    Filarial nematodes (superfamily Filarioidea) are responsible for an annual global health burden of ∼6.3 million disability-adjusted life-years, which represents the greatest single component of morbidity attributable to helminths affecting humans. No vaccine exists for the major filarial diseases, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis; in part because research on protective immunity against filariae has been constrained by the inability of the human-parasitic species to complete their lifecycles in laboratory mice. However, the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis has become a popular experimental model, as BALB/c mice are fully permissive for its development and reproduction. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of excretory-secretory products from L. sigmodontis across five lifecycle stages and identifications of host proteins associated with first-stage larvae (microfilariae) in the blood. Applying intensity-based quantification, we determined the abundance of 302 unique excretory-secretory proteins, of which 64.6% were present in quantifiable amounts only from gravid adult female nematodes. This lifecycle stage, together with immature microfilariae, released four proteins that have not previously been evaluated as vaccine candidates: a predicted 28.5 kDa filaria-specific protein, a zonadhesin and SCO-spondin-like protein, a vitellogenin, and a protein containing six metridin-like ShK toxin domains. Female nematodes also released two proteins derived from the obligate Wolbachia symbiont. Notably, excretory-secretory products from all parasite stages contained several uncharacterized members of the transthyretin-like protein family. Furthermore, biotin labeling revealed that redox proteins and enzymes involved in purinergic signaling were enriched on the adult nematode cuticle. Comparison of the L. sigmodontis adult secretome with that of the human-infective filarial nematode Brugia malayi (reported previously in three independent published studies

  20. Engineering broad root-knot resistance in transgenic plants by RNAi silencing of a conserved and essential root-knot nematode parasitism gene

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guozhong; Allen, Rex; Davis, Eric L.; Baum, Thomas J.; Hussey, Richard S.

    2006-01-01

    Secreted parasitism proteins encoded by parasitism genes expressed in esophageal gland cells mediate infection and parasitism of plants by root-knot nematodes (RKN). Parasitism gene 16D10 encodes a conserved RKN secretory peptide that stimulates root growth and functions as a ligand for a putative plant transcription factor. We used in vitro and in vivo RNA interference approaches to silence this parasitism gene in RKN and validate that the parasitism gene has an essential function in RKN parasitism of plants. Ingestion of 16D10 dsRNA in vitro silenced the target parasitism gene in RKN and resulted in reduced nematode infectivity. In vivo expression of 16D10 dsRNA in Arabidopsis resulted in resistance effective against the four major RKN species. Because no known natural resistance gene has this wide effective range of RKN resistance, bioengineering crops expressing dsRNA that silence target RKN parasitism genes to disrupt the parasitic process represents a viable and flexible means of developing novel durable RKN-resistant crops and could provide crops with unprecedented broad resistance to RKN. PMID:16985000

  1. Nematicidal activity of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid against plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasuo; Tani, Satoko; Hayashi, Asami; Ohtani, Kouhei; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi

    2007-01-01

    A nematicide, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid (1), was isolated from cultures of the fungus Aspergillus sp. and its structure was identified by spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 showed effective nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans without inhibitory activity against plant growth, but 1 did not show any effective nematicidal activity against Pratylenchus penetrans. PMID:17542490

  2. Parasite nematode infections in Awassi adult sheep: distribution through Syrian farm flocks.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, N; Gruner, L; Giangaspero, M; Tabbaa, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey was conducted on 1,474 adult sheep from 73 flocks distributed in the 13 provinces of Syria. Faecal egg and larval nematode outputs were studied. Marshallagia and Nematodirus infections were higher in the driest areas; infections by other nematodes, Dictyocaulus and small lungworms (Cystocaulus and Muellerius) were higher in the more rainy areas. A long transhumance limited small lungworm infections, which were higher in flocks using wet night shelters. PMID:7795666

  3. Functional characterisation of a cyst nematode acetylcholinesterase gene using Caenorhabditis elegans as a heterologous system.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana C; Lilley, Catherine J; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2009-06-01

    Migration of plant-parasitic nematode infective larval stages through soil and invasion of roots requires perception and integration of sensory cues culminating in particular responses that lead to root penetration and parasite establishment. Components of the chemoreceptive neuronal circuitry involved in these responses are targets for control measures aimed at preventing infection. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first isolation of cyst nematode ace-2 genes encoding acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The ace-2 genes from Globodera pallida (Gp-ace-2) and Heterodera glycines (Hg-ace-2) show homology to ace-2 of Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce-ace-2). Gp-ace-2 is expressed most highly in the infective J2 stage with lowest expression in the early parasitic stages. Expression and functional analysis of the Globodera gene were carried out using the free-living nematode C. elegans in order to overcome the refractory nature of the obligate parasite G. pallida to many biological studies. Caenorhabditis elegans transformed with a GFP reporter construct under the control of the Gp-ace-2 promoter exhibited specific and restricted GFP expression in neuronal cells in the head ganglia. Gp-ACE-2 protein can functionally complement its C. elegans homologue. A chimeric construct containing the Ce-ace-2 promoter region and the Gp-ace-2 coding region and 3' untranslated region was able to restore a normal phenotype to the uncoordinated C. elegans double mutant ace-1;ace-2. This study demonstrates conservation of AChE function and expression between free-living and plant-parasitic nematode species, and highlights the utility of C. elegans as a heterologous system to study neuronal aspects of plant-parasitic nematode biology. PMID:19367833

  4. Effects of Potato-Cotton Cropping Systems and Nematicides on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes and Crop Yields

    PubMed Central

    Crow, W. T.; Weingartner, D. P.; Dickson, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    Belonolaimus longicaudatus has been reported as damaging both potato (Solanum tuberosum) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). These crops are not normally grown in cropping systems together in areas where the soil is infested with B. longicaudatus. During the 1990s cotton was grown in a potato production region that was a suitable habitat for B. longicaudatus. It was not known how integrating the production of these two crops by rotation or double-cropping would affect the population densities of B. longicaudatus, other plant-parasitic nematodes common in the region, or crop yields. A 3-year field study evaluated the viability of both crops in monocropping, rotation, and double-cropping systems. Viability was evaluated using effects on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes and yields. Rotation of cotton with potato was found to decrease population densities of B. longicaudatus and Meloidogyne incognita in comparison with continuous potato. Population densities of B. longicaudatus following double-cropping were greater than following continuous cotton. Yields of both potato and cotton in rotation were equivalent to either crop in monocropping. Yields of both crops were lower following double-cropping when nematicides were not used. PMID:19270980

  5. Structural and functional characterisation of the fork head transcription factor-encoding gene, Hc-daf-16, from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Min; Lok, James B.; Ranjit, Najju; Massey, Holman C.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Gasser, Robin B.

    2010-01-01

    Despite their phylogenetic diversity, parasitic nematodes share attributes of longevity and developmental arrest (=hypobiosis) with free-living nematodes at key points in their life cycles, particularly in larval stages responsible for establishing infection in the host. Insulin-like signalling plays crucial roles in the regulation of life span and arrest (=dauer formation) in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. Insulin-like signalling in C. elegans negatively regulates the fork head boxO (FoxO) transcription factor encoded by daf-16, which is linked to initiating a dauer-specific pattern of gene expression. Orthologues of daf-16 have been identified in several species of parasitic nematode. Although function has been demonstrated for an orthologue from the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis (Rhabditida), the functional capabilities of homologues/orthologues in bursate nematodes (Strongylida) are unknown. In the present study, we used a genomic approach to determine the structures of two complete daf-16 orthologues (designated Hc-daf-16.1 and Hc-daf-16.2) and their transcripts in the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus, and assessed their function(s) using C. elegans as a genetic surrogate. Unlike the multiple isoforms of Ce-DAF-16 and Ss-DAF-16, which are encoded by a single gene and produced by alternative splicing, mRNAs encoding the proteins Hc-DAF-16.1 and Hc-DAF-16.2 are transcribed from separate and distinct loci. Both orthologues are transcribed in all developmental stages and both sexes of H. contortus, and the inferred proteins (603 and 556 amino acids) each contain a characteristic, highly conserved fork head domain. In spite of distinct differences in genomic organisation compared with orthologues in C. elegans and S. stercoralis, genetic complementation studies demonstrated here that Hc-daf-16.2, but not Hc-daf-16.1, could restore daf-16 function to a C. elegans strain carrying a null mutation at this locus. These findings

  6. RNA interference in adult Ascaris suum – an opportunity for the development of a functional genomics platform that supports organism-, tissue- and cell-based biology in a nematode parasite

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Ciaran J.; Warnock, Neil D.; Atkinson, Louise E.; Atcheson, Erwan; Martin, Richard J.; Robertson, Alan P.; Maule, Aaron G.; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable control of animal parasitic nematodes requires the development of efficient functional genomics platforms to facilitate target validation and enhance anthelmintic discovery. Unfortunately, the utility of RNA interference (RNAi) for the validation of novel drug targets in nematode parasites remains problematic. Ascaris suum is an important veterinary parasite and a zoonotic pathogen. Here we show that adult A. suum is RNAi competent, and highlight the induction, spread and consistency of RNAi across multiple tissue types. This platform provides a new opportunity to undertake whole organism-, tissue- and cell-level gene function studies to enhance target validation processes for nematode parasites of veterinary/medical significance. PMID:26149642

  7. Influence of Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3 on Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Moore, W. H.; Yuen, G. Y.; Kobayashi, D.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Chitinolytic microflora may contribute to biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes by causing decreased egg viability through degradation of egg shells. Here, the influence of Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3 on Caenorhabditis elegans, Heterodera schachtii, Meloidogyne javanica, Pratylenchus penetrans, and Aphelenchoides fragariae is described. Exposure of C. elegans to L. enzymogenes strain C3 on agar resulted in almost complete elimination of egg production and death of 94% of hatched juveniles after 2 d. Hatch of H. schachtii eggs was about 50% on a lawn of L. enzymogenes strain C3 on agar as compared to 80% on a lawn of E. coli. Juveniles that hatched on a lawn of L. enzymogenes strain C3 on agar died due to disintegration of the cuticle and body contents. Meloidogyne javanica juveniles died after 4 d exposure to a 7-d-old chitin broth culture of L. enzymogenes strain C3. Immersion of A. fragariae, M. javanica, and P. penetrans juveniles and adults in a nutrient broth culture of L. enzymogenes strain C3 led to rapid death and disintegration of the nematodes. Upon exposure to L. enzymogenes strain C3 cultures in nutrient broth, H. schachtii juveniles were rapidly immobilized and then lysed after three days. The death and disintegration of the tested nematodes suggests that toxins and enzymes produced by this strain are active against a range of nematode species. PMID:19259452

  8. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Lafi, Hamzeh A.; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T.; Migdadi, Hussein M.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal fields had bifenestrate vulval cone and a strong underbridge. Wherever, cysts of the cabbage population had ambifenestrate vulval cone with long vulval slit. The bullae were absent in Ar-Ramtha, Madaba and Dana populations, but present in Al-Karak and Jerash. Based on 12 morphometrical characters, the first three functions in canonical discriminant analysis accounted 99.3% of the total variation. Distance from dorsal gland duct opening to stylet base, underbridge length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and length of hyaline tail tip had strong and significant contributions in the first function. While the second function was strongly influenced by length of hyaline tail, fenestral length, fenestral width and tail length. However, the third canonical discriminate function was found to be influenced by stylet length, fenestral length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and underbridge width. The graphical representation of the distribution of the samples showed that the first canonical discriminant function clearly separated H. schachtii from Jerash from other populations. Whereas, H. latipons collected from Madaba and Dana were clearly separated in the second function. The results indicated that differences at morphological and morphometrical levels revealed diverse populations of Heterodera spp. in Jordan. PMID:26858546

  9. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Lafi, Hamzeh A; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T; Migdadi, Hussein M

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal fields had bifenestrate vulval cone and a strong underbridge. Wherever, cysts of the cabbage population had ambifenestrate vulval cone with long vulval slit. The bullae were absent in Ar-Ramtha, Madaba and Dana populations, but present in Al-Karak and Jerash. Based on 12 morphometrical characters, the first three functions in canonical discriminant analysis accounted 99.3% of the total variation. Distance from dorsal gland duct opening to stylet base, underbridge length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and length of hyaline tail tip had strong and significant contributions in the first function. While the second function was strongly influenced by length of hyaline tail, fenestral length, fenestral width and tail length. However, the third canonical discriminate function was found to be influenced by stylet length, fenestral length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and underbridge width. The graphical representation of the distribution of the samples showed that the first canonical discriminant function clearly separated H. schachtii from Jerash from other populations. Whereas, H. latipons collected from Madaba and Dana were clearly separated in the second function. The results indicated that differences at morphological and morphometrical levels revealed diverse populations of Heterodera spp. in Jordan. PMID:26858546

  10. Sensory Neuroanatomy of Parastrongyloides trichosuri, a Nematode Parasite of Mammals: Amphidial Neurons of the First-Stage Larva

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, He; Li, Jian; Nolan, Thomas J.; Schad, Gerhard A.; Lok, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to its ability to switch between free-living and parasitic modes of development, Parastrongyloides trichosuri represents a valuable model with which to study the evolution of parasitism among the nematodes, especially aspects pertaining to morphogenesis of infective third-stage larvae. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, developmental fates of third-stage larvae are determined in part by environmental cues received by chemosensory neurons in the amphidial sensillae. As a basis for comparative study, we have described the neuroanatomy of the amphidial sensillae of P. trichosuri. Using computational methods we incorporated serial electron micrographs into a three-dimensional reconstruction of the amphidial neurons of this parasite. Each amphid is innervated by 13 neurons, and the dendritic processes of 10 of these extend nearly to the amphidial pore. Dendritic processes of two specialized neurons leave the amphidial channel and terminate within invaginations of the sheath cell. One of these is similar to the finger cell of C. elegans, terminating in digitiform projections. The other projects a single cilium into the sheath cell. The dendritic process of a third specialized neuron terminates within the tight junction of the amphid. Each amphidial neuron was traced from the tip of its dendrite(s) to its cell body in the lateral ganglion. Positions of these cell bodies approximate those of morphologically similar amphidial neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, so the standard nomenclature for amphidial neurons in C. elegans was adopted. A map of cell bodies within the lateral ganglion of P. trichosuri was prepared to facilitate functional study of these neurons. PMID:21456026

  11. Quantitative Digital Imaging of Banana Growth Suppression by Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses. PMID:23285286

  12. Quantitative digital imaging of banana growth suppression by plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Hugh; Mbiru, Elvis; Coyne, Danny; Tripathi, Leena; Atkinson, Howard J

    2012-01-01

    A digital camera fitted with a hemispherical lens was used to generate canopy leaf area index (LAI) values for a banana (Musa spp.) field trial with the aim of establishing a method for monitoring stresses on tall crop plants. The trial in Uganda consisted of two cultivars susceptible to nematodes, a plantain, Gonja manjaya and an East African Highland banana, Mbwazirume, plus a nematode resistant dessert banana, Yangambi km5. A comparative approach included adding a mixed population of Radopholus similis, Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne spp. to the soil around half the plants of each cultivar prior to field planting. Measurements of LAI were made fortnightly from 106 days post-planting over two successive cropping cycles. The highest mean LAI during the first cycle for Gonja manjaya was suppressed to 74.8±3.5% by the addition of nematodes, while for Mbwazirume the values were reduced to 71.1±1.9%. During the second cycle these values were 69.2±2.2% and 72.2±2.7%, respectively. Reductions in LAI values were validated as due to the biotic stress by assessing nematode numbers in roots and the necrosis they caused at each of two harvests and the relationship is described. Yield losses, including a component due to toppled plants, were 35.3% and 55.3% for Gonja manjaya and 31.4% and 55.8% for Mbwazirume, at first and second harvests respectively. Yangambi km5 showed no decrease in LAI and yield in the presence of nematodes at both harvests. LAI estimated by hemispherical photography provided a rapid basis for detecting biotic growth checks by nematodes on bananas, and demonstrated the potential of the approach for studies of growth checks to other tall crop plants caused by biotic or abiotic stresses. PMID:23285286

  13. THE ROLE OF OX40L INTERACTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRIMARY AND MEMORY TH2 RESPONSE TO THE GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODE PARASITE HELIGMOSOMOIDES POLYGYRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In these studies, we examined the effects of OX40L deficiency on the development of Th2 cells during the primary and memory immune responses to the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Elevations in IL-4 production and total and Ag-specific serum IgE levels were inhibited during ...

  14. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF A HOLARCTIC NEMATODE: SOBOLIPHYME BATURINI AMONG MUSTELIDS: CLIMATE CHANGE, EPISODIC COLONIZATION AND DIVERSIFICATION IN A COMPLEX HOST-PARASITE SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Phylogeography of Soboliphyme baturini, a nematode parasite in mustelids, is explored across Beringia. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were evaluated from 38 individuals representing 19 lo...

  15. THE POTENTIAL OF THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS, MUSCODOR ALBUS, AS A BIO-CONTROL AGENT AGAINST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Muscodor albus produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals with activity against post-harvest disease causing organisms, insect pests of harvested fruit and tubers, and soil-borne disease causing agents and plant parasitic nematodes. M. albus was tested for its potenti...

  16. Dual roles for the variable domain in protein trafficking and host-specific recognition of Heterodera glycines CLE effector proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematodes (Heterodera glycines) produce secreted effector proteins that function as peptide mimics of plant CLAVATA3 / ESR (CLE)-like peptides probably involved in the developmental reprogramming of root cells to form specialized feeding cells called syncytia. The site of action and me...

  17. Short and Long-term Tillage Effects on Heterodera Glycines Reproduction in Soyean Monoculture in West Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines has been documented as the pathogen most consistently causing yield loss in US soybean production fields almost since its discovery in the US. No-tillage has been adopted in much of the soybean production areas to preserve soil and nutrients. The impact of ...

  18. Soybean Cyst Nematode in North America - 55 Years Later

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, was first discovered in North America in 1954 in Hanover County, North Carolina, USA, when it was found on soybean in a field that had been planted to Easter lilies obtained from Japan prior to World War II. The nematode is now distributed throughout soybe...

  19. Pasteuria endospores from Heterodera cajani (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) exhibit inverted attachment and altered germination in cross-infection studies with Globodera pallida (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sharad; Mauchline, Tim H; Rowe, Janet; Hirsch, Penny R; Davies, Keith G

    2012-03-01

    The Pasteuria group of Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacteria are parasites of invertebrates and exhibit differences in host specificity. We describe a cross-infection study between an isolate of Pasteuria from pigeon pea cyst nematode, Heterodera cajani, which also infects the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, from the United Kingdom. A proportion of the attached endospores, 13% on H. cajani and 22% on G. pallida adhere to the cuticle in an inverted orientation. Inverted and conventionally attached endospores germinated and produced bacillus-like rods that completed their life cycle in < 15 weeks within females of G. pallida. This is the first example in which the life cycle of a Pasteuria population was systematically followed in two different nematode genera. A 1430-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the Pasteuria isolate from H. cajani revealed 98.6% similarity to the orthologous gene in Pasteuria nishizawae. Additionally, their respective endospore sizes were not significantly different, in contrast their host ranges are. Potential reasons for this remain unclear and are discussed. PMID:22092805

  20. Bioinformatic identification of cytochrome b5 homologues from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans highlights the crucial role of A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b₅ in parasitic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Yokota, Takehiro; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that adult Ascaris suum possesses NADH-metmyoglobin and NADH-methaemoglobin reductase systems that are located in the cells of the body wall and in the extracellular perienteric fluid, respectively, which helps them adapt to environmental hypoxia by recovering the differential functions of myoglobin and haemoglobin. A. suum cytochrome b5, an adult-specific secretory protein and an essential component of the NADH-metmyo (haemo) globin reductase system, has been extensively studied, and its unique nature has been determined. However, the relationship between A. suum cytochrome b5 and the canonical cytochrome b5 proteins, from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unclear. Here, we have characterised four cytochrome b5-like proteins from C. elegans (accession numbers: CAB01732, CCD68984, CAJ58492, and CAA98498) and three from A. suum (accession numbers: ADY48796, ADY46277, and ADY48338) and compared them with A. suum cytochrome b5 in silico. Bioinformatic and molecular analyses showed that CAA98498 from C. elegans is equivalent of A. suum cytochrome b5, which was not expressed as a mature mRNA. Further, the CAA98498 possessed no secretory signal peptide, which occurs in A. suum cytochrome b5 precursor. These results suggest that this free-living nematode does not need a haemoprotein such as the A. suum cytochrome b5 and highlight the crucial function of this A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b5 in parasitic adaptation. PMID:26571414

  1. Increased sialylation as a phenomenon in accommodation of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis (Owen, 1835) in skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Milcheva, Rositsa; Ivanov, Dimitar; Iliev, Ivan; Russev, Russy; Petkova, Svetlozara; Babal, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The biology of sialic acids has been an object of interest in many models of acquired and inherited skeletal muscle pathology. The present study focuses on the sialylation changes in mouse skeletal muscle after invasion by the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis (Owen, 1835). Asynchronous infection with T. spiralis was induced in mice that were sacrificed at different time points of the muscle phase of the disease. The amounts of free sialic acid, sialylated glycoproteins and total sialyltransferase activity were quantified. Histochemistry with lectins specific for sialic acid was performed in order to localise distribution of sialylated glycoconjugates and to clarify the type of linkage of the sialic acid residues on the carbohydrate chains. Elevated intracellular accumulation of α-2,3- and α-2,6-sialylated glycoconjugates was found only within the affected sarcoplasm of muscle fibres invaded by the parasite. The levels of free and protein-bound sialic acid were increased and the total sialyltransferase activity was also elevated in the skeletal muscle tissue of animals with trichinellosis. We suggest that the biological significance of this phenomenon might be associated with securing integrity of the newly formed nurse cell within the surrounding healthy skeletal muscle tissue. The increased sialylation might inhibit the affected muscle cell contractility through decreased membrane ion gating, helping the parasite accommodation process. PMID:26373236

  2. Cardio-Pulmonary Parasitic Nematodes Affecting Cats in Europe: Unraveling the Past, Depicting the Present, and Predicting the Future

    PubMed Central

    Traversa, Donato; Di Cesare, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Various cardio-pulmonary parasitic nematodes infecting cats have recently been fascinating and stimulating the attention of the Academia, pharmaceutical companies, and veterinary practitioners. This is the case of the metastrongyloids: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior, the trichuroid: Capillaria aerophila (syn. Eucoleus aerophilus), and the filarioid: Dirofilaria immitis. Apparently, these parasites have been emerging in several European countries, thus, gaining an important role in feline parasitology and clinical practice. Under a practical standpoint, a sound knowledge of the biological, epidemiological, and clinical impact of cardio-respiratory parasitoses affecting cats, in addition to a potential risk of introduction, establishment, and spreading of “new” parasites in Europe is mandatory in order to understand the present and future impact for feline medicine and to address new strategies of control and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to review the current knowledge of heartworm and lungworm infections in cats, discussing and comparing past and present issues, and predicting possible future scenarios. PMID:26664917

  3. EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION AND COWPEA COVER CROP ON PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES, WEEDS, AND PEPPER YIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two field experiments with bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) ‘Wizard X3R’ were established (May 2003, 2004) in Marion Co., Florida, U.S.A. The objective was to compare yields, nematode populations, and weeds as impacted by six soil management treatments: cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.) summer co...

  4. A Lymphatic dwelling filarioid nematode, Rumenfilaria andersoni (Filarioidea; Splendidofilariinae), is an emerging parasite in Finnish cervids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background-Recent studies revealed expansion of filarioid nematodes into the northern Finland. In addition to Setaria tundra, unidentified and very abundant filarioids, representing Rumenfilaria andersoni, were found inhabiting the lymphatic vessels of reindeer. Our study explores the biology and d...

  5. Nematodes parasitic in fishes of cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico. Part 1. Adults.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; Scholz, T; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Mendoza-Franco, E; González-Solís, D

    1995-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of adult nematodes collected from fishes from cenotes (= sinkholes) of the Peninsula of Yucatan, southeastern Mexico, in 1993-1994. Examinations of a total of 533 fishes (17 species) originating from 39 cenotes from the Mexican states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo revealed the presence of the following nine nematode species: Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) kidderi, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rebecae, P. (S.) neocaballeroi, Philometroides caudata, Hysterothylacium cenotue. Pseudocapillaria yucatanensis, Paracapillaria rhamdiae, P. teixerafreitasi and Capillostrongyloides sp. (only females). Four species (R. kidderi, P. rebecae, P. neocaballeroi and Capillostrongyloides sp.) are briefly described and illustrated and some problems concerning their morphology, taxonomy, hosts and geographical distribution are discussed. Taxonomic changes include Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) neocaballeroi (Caballero-Deloya. 1977) comb. n. and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) rebecae (Andrade-Salas, Pineda-López et García-Magaña, 1994) comb. n. The nematode fauna of fishes in cenotes of the Yucatan Peninsula shows its appurtenance to the Neotropical fauna with close affinities with that of fish nematodes from South America, but with a considerable degree of endemism. PMID:8774767

  6. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode parasitism in a commercial sheep flock and its implications for control programmes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D J; Sargison, N D; Scott, P R; Penny, C D

    2008-04-26

    The epidemiology of nematode infections in a UK commercial crossbred sheep flock was studied from January 2004 to January 2005. The ewes were treated orally with moxidectin when they were turned out of the lambing shed on to nematode-contaminated pasture, and the lambs were treated orally with ivermectin throughout the summer in accordance with the farm's usual practice, with the aim of near-suppressive nematode control. The lactating ewes experienced a significant increase in faecal egg count during the early summer, after the period of persistence of the moxidectin treatment had ended. The ewes' and lambs' egg outputs were dominated by Teladorsagia species, despite the persistence of the effect of moxidectin against this genus. The gimmers (primiparous two-year-old ewes) had a significantly greater faecal egg count at lambing than the three- to four-year-old ewes, but the older ewes had significantly greater post-treatment increases. The population of Trichostrongylus species appeared to follow accepted epidemiological patterns, with no evidence of summer trichostrongylosis. In late summer and autumn the faecal egg output of the ewes was primarily due to large intestinal nematodes. PMID:18441350

  7. Identification of Peptide Mimics of a Glycan Epitope on the Surface of Parasitic Nematode Larvae.

    PubMed

    Umair, Saleh; Deng, Qing; Roberts, Joanna M; Shaw, Richard J; Sutherland, Ian A; Pernthaner, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Phage display was used to identify peptide mimics of an immunologically protective nematode glycan (CarLA) by screening a constrained C7C peptide library for ligands that bound to an anti-CarLA mAb (PAB1). Characterisation of these peptide mimotopes revealed functional similarities with an epitope that is defined by PAB1. Mimotope vaccinations of mice with three selected individual phage clones facilitated the induction of antibody responses that recognised the purified, native CarLA molecule which was obtained from Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Furthermore, these mimotopes are specifically recognised by antibodies in the saliva of animals that were immune to natural polygeneric nematode challenge. This shows that antibodies to the PAB1 epitope form part of the mucosal polyclonal anti-CarLA antibody response of nematode immune host animals. This demonstrates that the selected peptide mimotopes are of biological relevance. These peptides are the first to mimic the PAB1 epitope of CarLA, a defined larval glycan epitope which is conserved between many nematode species. PMID:27579674

  8. RESEARCH ON PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODE BIOLOGY CONDUCTED BY THE USDA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent deregistrations of several chemical nematicides and the impending loss of methyl bromide necessitate the development of new methods for controlling nematode-induced crop damage. One approach for developing novel target-specific controls is by exploiting fundamental differences between th...

  9. The influence of environmental factors on the respiration of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, B D; Rohde, R A

    1970-10-01

    Respiration of selected nematode species was measured relative to CO level, temperature, osmotic pressure, humidity, glucose utilization and high ionic concentrations of sodium and potassium.In general, respiration was stimulated most by the dominant environmental factors at levels near those expected in the nematode's "natural" habitat. Soil-inhabiting nematodes utilized O, most rapidly with high (1-2%) CO whereas a foliar nematode (Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi) did so with 0.03% CO, the concentration typically found in air. Temperature optima for respiration corresponded closely to those for other activities. Ditylenchus dipsaci and Pratylenchus penetrans adults and Anguina tritici and A. agrostis second-stage larvae respired within the range of osmotic pressures from 0 to 44.8 arm and respiration of their drought-resistant stages was stimulated by increasing osmotic pressure which accompanies the onset of drought. Rehydration of A. tritici and A. agrostis larvae with RH as low as 5% stimulated measurable respiration. Glucose utilization from liquid medium by A. tritici larvae or A. ritzembosi was not detectable. Supplemental Na stimulated respiration of Anguina tritici, K did not. PMID:19322313

  10. Ectopic expression of AtPAD4 broadens resistance of soybean to soybean cyst and root-knot nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The gene encoding PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) is required in Arabidopsis for expression of several genes involved in the defense response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. AtPAD4 (Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4) encodes a lipase-like protein that plays a regulatory role mediating salicylic acid signaling. Results We expressed the gene encoding AtPAD4 in soybean roots of composite plants to test the ability of AtPAD4 to deter plant parasitic nematode development. The transformed roots were challenged with two different plant parasitic nematode genera represented by soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) and root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne incognita). Expression of AtPAD4 in soybean roots decreased the number of mature SCN females 35 days after inoculation by 68 percent. Similarly, soybean roots expressing AtPAD4 exhibited 77 percent fewer galls when challenged with RKN. Conclusions Our experiments show that AtPAD4 can be used in an economically important crop, soybean, to provide a measure of resistance to two different genera of nematodes. PMID:23617694

  11. Survey of crop losses in response to phytoparasitic nematodes in the United States for 1994.

    PubMed

    Koenning, S R; Overstreet, C; Noling, J W; Donald, P A; Becker, J O; Fortnum, B A

    1999-12-01

    Previous reports of crop losses to plant-parasitic nematodes have relied on published results of survey data based on certain commodities, including tobacco, peanuts, cotton, and soybean. Reports on crop-loss assessment by land-grant universities and many commodity groups generally are no longer available, with the exception of the University of Georgia, the Beltwide Cotton Conference, and selected groups concerned with soybean. The Society of Nematologists Extension Committee contacted extension personnel in 49 U.S. states for information on estimated crop losses caused by plant-parasitic nematodes in major crops for the year 1994. Included in this paper are survey results from 35 states on various crops including corn, cotton, soybean, peanut, wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, tobacco, numerous vegetable crops, fruit and nut crops, and golf greens. The data are reported systematically by state and include the estimated loss, hectarage of production, source of information, nematode species or taxon when available, and crop value. The major genera of phytoparasitic nematodes reported to cause crop losses were Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, and Xiphinema. PMID:19270925

  12. Survey of Crop Losses in Response to Phytoparasitic Nematodes in the United States for 1994

    PubMed Central

    Koenning, S. R.; Overstreet, C.; Noling, J. W.; Donald, P. A.; Becker, J. O.; Fortnum, B. A.

    1999-01-01

    Previous reports of crop losses to plant-parasitic nematodes have relied on published results of survey data based on certain commodities, including tobacco, peanuts, cotton, and soybean. Reports on crop-loss assessment by land-grant universities and many commodity groups generally are no longer available, with the exception of the University of Georgia, the Beltwide Cotton Conference, and selected groups concerned with soybean. The Society of Nematologists Extension Committee contacted extension personnel in 49 U.S. states for information on estimated crop losses caused by plant-parasitic nematodes in major crops for the year 1994. Included in this paper are survey results from 35 states on various crops including corn, cotton, soybean, peanut, wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, tobacco, numerous vegetable crops, fruit and nut crops, and golf greens. The data are reported systematically by state and include the estimated loss, hectarage of production, source of information, nematode species or taxon when available, and crop value. The major genera of phytoparasitic nematodes reported to cause crop losses were Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, and Xiphinema. PMID:19270925

  13. Secretome Analysis of the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Reveals the Tangled Roots of Parasitism and Its Potential for Molecular Mimicry.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Ryoji; Morisaka, Hironobu; Kikuchi, Taisei; Takeuchi, Yuko; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Since it was first introduced into Asia from North America in the early 20(th) century, the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has caused the devastating forest disease called pine wilt. The emerging pathogen spread to parts of Europe and has since been found as the causal agent of pine wilt disease in Portugal and Spain. In 2011, the entire genome sequence of B. xylophilus was determined, and it allowed us to perform a more detailed analysis of B. xylophilus parasitism. Here, we identified 1,515 proteins secreted by B. xylophilus using a highly sensitive proteomics method combined with the available genomic sequence. The catalogue of secreted proteins contained proteins involved in nutrient uptake, migration, and evasion from host defenses. A comparative functional analysis of the secretome profiles among parasitic nematodes revealed a marked expansion of secreted peptidases and peptidase inhibitors in B. xylophilus via gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer from fungi and bacteria. Furthermore, we showed that B. xylophilus secreted the potential host mimicry proteins that closely resemble the host pine's proteins. These proteins could have been acquired by host-parasite co-evolution and might mimic the host defense systems in susceptible pine trees during infection. This study contributes to an understanding of their unique parasitism and its tangled roots, and provides new perspectives on the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes. PMID:23805310

  14. Secretome Analysis of the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Reveals the Tangled Roots of Parasitism and Its Potential for Molecular Mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Ryoji; Takeuchi, Yuko; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Since it was first introduced into Asia from North America in the early 20th century, the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus has caused the devastating forest disease called pine wilt. The emerging pathogen spread to parts of Europe and has since been found as the causal agent of pine wilt disease in Portugal and Spain. In 2011, the entire genome sequence of B. xylophilus was determined, and it allowed us to perform a more detailed analysis of B. xylophilus parasitism. Here, we identified 1,515 proteins secreted by B. xylophilus using a highly sensitive proteomics method combined with the available genomic sequence. The catalogue of secreted proteins contained proteins involved in nutrient uptake, migration, and evasion from host defenses. A comparative functional analysis of the secretome profiles among parasitic nematodes revealed a marked expansion of secreted peptidases and peptidase inhibitors in B. xylophilus via gene duplication and horizontal gene transfer from fungi and bacteria. Furthermore, we showed that B. xylophilus secreted the potential host mimicry proteins that closely resemble the host pine’s proteins. These proteins could have been acquired by host–parasite co-evolution and might mimic the host defense systems in susceptible pine trees during infection. This study contributes to an understanding of their unique parasitism and its tangled roots, and provides new perspectives on the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes. PMID:23805310

  15. Effect of sorghum-sudangrass and velvetbean cover crops on plant-parasitic nematodes associated with potato production in Florida.

    PubMed

    Crow, W T; Weingartner, D P; Dickson, D W; McSorley, R

    2001-12-01

    In a 3-year field study, population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and other plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields were compared between potato (Solanum tuberosum) cropping systems where either sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. arundinaceum) or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) was grown as a summer cover crop. Population densities of B. longicaudatus, Paratrichodorus minor, Tylenchorhynchus sp., and Mesocriconema sp. increased on sorghum-sudangrass. Population densities of P. minor and Mesocriconema sp. increased on velvetbean. Sorghum-sudangrass increased population densities of B. longicaudatus and Mesocriconema sp. on a subsequent potato crop compared to velvetbean. Potato yields following velvetbean were not greater than following sorghum-sudangrass despite reductions in population densities of B. longicaudatus. PMID:19265888

  16. Effect of Sorghum-Sudangrass and Velvetbean Cover Crops on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Potato Production in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Crow, W. T.; Weingartner, D. P.; Dickson, D. W.; McSorley, R.

    2001-01-01

    In a 3-year field study, population densities of Belonolaimus longicaudatus and other plant-parasitic nematodes and crop yields were compared between potato (Solanum tuberosum) cropping systems where either sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. arundinaceum) or velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) was grown as a summer cover crop. Population densities of B. longicaudatus, Paratrichodorus minor, Tylenchorhynchus sp., and Mesocriconema sp. increased on sorghum-sudangrass. Population densities of P. minor and Mesocriconema sp. increased on velvetbean. Sorghum-sudangrass increased population densities of B. longicaudatus and Mesocriconema sp. on a subsequent potato crop compared to velvetbean. Potato yields following velvetbean were not greater than following sorghum-sudangrass despite reductions in population densities of B. longicaudatus. PMID:19265888

  17. Genetic resistance to nematodes parasites in sheep: use of Box-Cox transformation in QTL mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal egg count (FEC) is used to identify and quantify gastrointestinal parasite infestations. However, FEC values are not distributed normally, and a small percentage of the herd is responsible for a majority of parasite transmission. Non-normality is a possible source of error when (co)variance co...

  18. Plant-Mediated Systemic Interactions Between Pathogens, Parasitic Nematodes, and Herbivores Above- and Belowground.

    PubMed

    Biere, Arjen; Goverse, Aska

    2016-08-01

    Plants are important mediators of interactions between aboveground (AG) and belowground (BG) pathogens, arthropod herbivores, and nematodes (phytophages). We highlight recent progress in our understanding of within- and cross-compartment plant responses to these groups of phytophages in terms of altered resource dynamics and defense signaling and activation. We review studies documenting the outcome of cross-compartment interactions between these phytophage groups and show patterns of cross-compartment facilitation as well as cross-compartment induced resistance. Studies involving soilborne pathogens and foliar nematodes are scant. We further highlight the important role of defense signaling loops between shoots and roots to activate a full resistance complement. Moreover, manipulation of such loops by phytophages affects systemic interactions with other plant feeders. Finally, cross-compartment-induced changes in root defenses and root exudates extend systemic defense loops into the rhizosphere, enhancing or reducing recruitment of microbes that induce systemic resistance but also affecting interactions with root-feeding phytophages. PMID:27359367

  19. Macrocyclic lactones differ in interaction with recombinant P-glycoprotein 9 of the parasitic nematode Cylicocylus elongatus and ketoconazole in a yeast growth assay.

    PubMed

    Kaschny, Maximiliane; Demeler, Janina; Janssen, I Jana I; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Besognet, Bruno; Kanellos, Theo; Kerboeuf, Dominique; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are widely used parasiticides against nematodes and arthropods, but resistance is frequently observed in parasitic nematodes of horses and livestock. Reports claiming resistance or decreased susceptibility in human nematodes are increasing. Since no target site directed ML resistance mechanisms have been identified, non-specific mechanisms were frequently implicated in ML resistance, including P-glycoproteins (Pgps, designated ABCB1 in vertebrates). Nematode genomes encode many different Pgps (e.g. 10 in the sheep parasite Haemonchus contortus). ML transport was shown for mammalian Pgps, Pgps on nematode egg shells, and very recently for Pgp-2 of H. contortus. Here, Pgp-9 from the equine parasite Cylicocyclus elongatus (Cyathostominae) was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking seven endogenous efflux transporters. Pgp was detected on these yeasts by flow cytometry and chemiluminescence using the monoclonal antibody UIC2, which is specific for the active Pgp conformation. In a growth assay, Pgp-9 increased resistance to the fungicides ketoconazole, actinomycin D, valinomycin and daunorubicin, but not to the anthelmintic fungicide thiabendazole. Since no fungicidal activity has been described for MLs, their interaction with Pgp-9 was investigated in an assay involving two drugs: Yeasts were incubated with the highest ketoconazole concentration not affecting growth plus increasing concentrations of MLs to determine competition between or modulation of transport of both drugs. Already equimolar concentrations of ivermectin and eprinomectin inhibited growth, and at fourfold higher ML concentrations growth was virtually abolished. Selamectin and doramectin did not increase susceptibility to ketoconazole at all, although doramectin has been shown previously to strongly interact with human and canine Pgp. An intermediate interaction was observed for moxidectin. This was substantiated by increased binding of UIC2 antibodies in the

  20. Macrocyclic Lactones Differ in Interaction with Recombinant P-Glycoprotein 9 of the Parasitic Nematode Cylicocylus elongatus and Ketoconazole in a Yeast Growth Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kaschny, Maximiliane; Demeler, Janina; Janssen, I. Jana I.; Kuzmina, Tetiana A.; Besognet, Bruno; Kanellos, Theo; Kerboeuf, Dominique; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Krücken, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are widely used parasiticides against nematodes and arthropods, but resistance is frequently observed in parasitic nematodes of horses and livestock. Reports claiming resistance or decreased susceptibility in human nematodes are increasing. Since no target site directed ML resistance mechanisms have been identified, non-specific mechanisms were frequently implicated in ML resistance, including P-glycoproteins (Pgps, designated ABCB1 in vertebrates). Nematode genomes encode many different Pgps (e.g. 10 in the sheep parasite Haemonchus contortus). ML transport was shown for mammalian Pgps, Pgps on nematode egg shells, and very recently for Pgp-2 of H. contortus. Here, Pgp-9 from the equine parasite Cylicocyclus elongatus (Cyathostominae) was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lacking seven endogenous efflux transporters. Pgp was detected on these yeasts by flow cytometry and chemiluminescence using the monoclonal antibody UIC2, which is specific for the active Pgp conformation. In a growth assay, Pgp-9 increased resistance to the fungicides ketoconazole, actinomycin D, valinomycin and daunorubicin, but not to the anthelmintic fungicide thiabendazole. Since no fungicidal activity has been described for MLs, their interaction with Pgp-9 was investigated in an assay involving two drugs: Yeasts were incubated with the highest ketoconazole concentration not affecting growth plus increasing concentrations of MLs to determine competition between or modulation of transport of both drugs. Already equimolar concentrations of ivermectin and eprinomectin inhibited growth, and at fourfold higher ML concentrations growth was virtually abolished. Selamectin and doramectin did not increase susceptibility to ketoconazole at all, although doramectin has been shown previously to strongly interact with human and canine Pgp. An intermediate interaction was observed for moxidectin. This was substantiated by increased binding of UIC2 antibodies in the

  1. Comparative Genomics of a Plant-Parasitic Nematode Endosymbiont Suggest a Role in Nutritional Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amanda M V; Howe, Dana K; Wasala, Sulochana K; Peetz, Amy B; Zasada, Inga A; Denver, Dee R

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial mutualists can modulate the biochemical capacity of animals. Highly coevolved nutritional mutualists do this by synthesizing nutrients missing from the host's diet. Genomics tools have advanced the study of these partnerships. Here we examined the endosymbiont Xiphinematobacter (phylum Verrucomicrobia) from the dagger nematode Xiphinema americanum, a migratory ectoparasite of numerous crops that also vectors nepovirus. Previously, this endosymbiont was identified in the gut, ovaries, and eggs, but its role was unknown. We explored the potential role of this symbiont using fluorescence in situ hybridization, genome sequencing, and comparative functional genomics. We report the first genome of an intracellular Verrucomicrobium and the first exclusively intracellular non-Wolbachia nematode symbiont. Results revealed that Xiphinematobacter had a small 0.916-Mb genome with only 817 predicted proteins, resembling genomes of other mutualist endosymbionts. Compared with free-living relatives, conserved proteins were shorter on average, and there was large-scale loss of regulatory pathways. Despite massive gene loss, more genes were retained for biosynthesis of amino acids predicted to be essential to the host. Gene ontology enrichment tests showed enrichment for biosynthesis of arginine, histidine, and aromatic amino acids, as well as thiamine and coenzyme A, diverging from the profiles of relatives Akkermansia muciniphilia (in the human colon), Methylacidiphilum infernorum, and the mutualist Wolbachia from filarial nematodes. Together, these features and the location in the gut suggest that Xiphinematobacter functions as a nutritional mutualist, supplementing essential nutrients that are depleted in the nematode diet. This pattern points to evolutionary convergence with endosymbionts found in sap-feeding insects. PMID:26362082

  2. Soil Temperature Effects on the Interaction of Grape Rootstocks and Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in commonly used resistant grape rootstocks is slightly compromised at soil temperatures above 27°C. Newly released UCD-GRN series rootstocks, which have broad nematode resistance, exhibit trace infections by Meloidogyne spp. at elevated temperature. Pathotypes of M. incognita and M. arenaria that are virulent on ‘Harmony’ rootstock, as well as M. incognita Race 3, which is avirulent on ‘Harmony’, failed to produce egg masses on the UCD-GRN series rootstocks and other resistant selections at 24°C. At 27°C and above, there was increased nematode galling and egg mass production; at 30°C, egg mass production levels of M. incognita Race 3 on ‘Harmony’ were up to 12% of that on susceptible ‘Colombard’ while reproduction of the virulent pathotypes on the UCD-GRN series was less than 5% of that on ‘Colombard’. Resistance of several of the parental genotypes of the UCD-GRN rootstock series was slightly compromised at soil temperatures of 30°C and above; however, others maintained their resistance to even the virulent M. arenaria pathotype A at high temperatures. Effects of high temperature on resistance to Xiphinema index could not be assessed because of temperature sensitivity of the nematodes while resistance to Mesocriconema xenoplax was not compromised at high soil temperature. Resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in the UCD-GRN series rootstocks was not compromised when plants and nematodes were subjected to cyclical high and low temperature conditions, indicating that once initiated, the resistance mechanism is not reversed. PMID:23589660

  3. Comparative Genomics of a Plant-Parasitic Nematode Endosymbiont Suggest a Role in Nutritional Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Amanda M.V.; Howe, Dana K.; Wasala, Sulochana K.; Peetz, Amy B.; Zasada, Inga A.; Denver, Dee R.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial mutualists can modulate the biochemical capacity of animals. Highly coevolved nutritional mutualists do this by synthesizing nutrients missing from the host’s diet. Genomics tools have advanced the study of these partnerships. Here we examined the endosymbiont Xiphinematobacter (phylum Verrucomicrobia) from the dagger nematode Xiphinema americanum, a migratory ectoparasite of numerous crops that also vectors nepovirus. Previously, this endosymbiont was identified in the gut, ovaries, and eggs, but its role was unknown. We explored the potential role of this symbiont using fluorescence in situ hybridization, genome sequencing, and comparative functional genomics. We report the first genome of an intracellular Verrucomicrobium and the first exclusively intracellular non-Wolbachia nematode symbiont. Results revealed that Xiphinematobacter had a small 0.916-Mb genome with only 817 predicted proteins, resembling genomes of other mutualist endosymbionts. Compared with free-living relatives, conserved proteins were shorter on average, and there was large-scale loss of regulatory pathways. Despite massive gene loss, more genes were retained for biosynthesis of amino acids predicted to be essential to the host. Gene ontology enrichment tests showed enrichment for biosynthesis of arginine, histidine, and aromatic amino acids, as well as thiamine and coenzyme A, diverging from the profiles of relatives Akkermansia muciniphilia (in the human colon), Methylacidiphilum infernorum, and the mutualist Wolbachia from filarial nematodes. Together, these features and the location in the gut suggest that Xiphinematobacter functions as a nutritional mutualist, supplementing essential nutrients that are depleted in the nematode diet. This pattern points to evolutionary convergence with endosymbionts found in sap-feeding insects. PMID:26362082

  4. Is the morphology of Culicoides intersexes parasitized by mermithid nematodes a parasite adaptation? A morphometric approach to Culicoides circumscriptus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Ramoneda, Josep; Pagès, Nonito; Pujol, Nuria; Talavera, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    Mermithidae is a family of endoparasitic nematodes known to cause intersexuality in arthropods. Intersexes of the genus Culicoides parasitized by mermithids have been the object of several studies aiming to describe their particular morphology. Culicoides intersexes are specimens with male genitalia and feminized sexually dimorphic structures, i.e. antennae, mouthparts and wings. To date, these specimens have only been described qualitatively and a quantitative approach supported by statistical analysis is lacking. Here we conduct morphometric analyses of sexually dimorphic structures in a sample of Culicoides circumscriptus that includes 34 intersexes with the aim of describing precisely the intersexual morphology. The morphology of antennae and the mouthparts was studied by multivariate statistical analysis of linear measures, and wing form by implementing geometric morphometrics techniques. While intersex wings proved to have a similar size to male wings, their shape was intermediate between males and females. However, when allometric shape variation was removed, the wing shape of intersexes was almost identical to that of females. The intersex antennae were morphometrically of the female type, especially when size variation was considered. In contrast, the measured mouthparts (the labrum and the third palpal segment) were halfway between males and females, even when body size was considered. Overall, the antennae and the wings showed a higher degree of feminization than the mouthparts. These findings indicate that the degree of feminization depends both on the morphological structure and on body size. Moreover, we propose that the feminization of the wings and antennae has an adaptive meaning for the parasite, which would favor female-like traits in order to access more easily its breeding sites, where the parasite has plenty of new hosts to infect. Female-like antennae would be beneficial to detect these sites, while having female-like wings would favor the

  5. Cotton Root Protection from Plant-Parasitic Nematodes by Abamectin-Treated Seed

    PubMed Central

    Faske, T. R.; Starr, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    Abamectin is nematicidal to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis, but the duration and length of cotton taproot protection from nematode infection by abamectin-treated seed is unknown. Based on the position of initial root-gall formation along the developing taproot from 21 to 35 d after planting, infection by M. incognita was reduced by abamectin seed treatment. Penetration of developing taproots by both nematode species was suppressed at taproot length of 5 cm by abamectin-treated seed, but root penetration increased rapidly with taproot development. Based on an assay of nematode mobility to measure abamectin toxicity, the mortality of M. incognita associated with a 2-d-old emerging cotton radicle was lower than mortality associated with the seed coat, indicating that more abamectin was on the seed coat than on the radicle. Thus, the limited protection of early stage root development suggested that only a small portion of abamectin applied to the seed was transferred to the developing root system. PMID:19259471

  6. Ion channels and receptor as targets for the control of parasitic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Wolstenholme, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the anthelmintic drugs in use today act on the nematode nervous system. Ion channel targets have some obvious advantages. They tend to act quickly, which means that they will clear many infections rapidly. They produce very obvious effects on the worms, typically paralyzing them, and these effects are suitable for use in rapid and high-throughput assays. Many of the ion channels and enzymes targeted can also be incorporated into such assays. The macrocyclic lactones bind to an allosteric site on glutamate-gated chloride channels, either directly activating the channel or enhancing the effect of the normal agonist, glutamate. Many old and new anthelmintics, including tribendimidine and the amino-acetonitrile derivatives, act as agonists at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors; derquantel is an antagonist at these receptors. Nematodes express many different types of nicotinic receptor and this diversity means that they are likely to remain important targets for the foreseeable future. Emodepside may have multiple effects, affecting both a potassium channel and a pre-synaptic G protein-coupled receptor; although few other current drugs act at such targets, this example indicates that they may be more important in the future. The nematode nervous system contains many other ion channels and receptors that have not so far been exploited in worm control but which should be explored in the development of effective new compounds. PMID:24533259

  7. Differences in the Response of Certain Weed Host Populations to Heterodera schachtii

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, G. D.

    1982-01-01

    Significant differences (P = 0.05) in nematode reproduction were observed among populations of Heterodera schachtii and weed collections of black nightshade, common lambsquarters, common purslane, redroot-pigweed, shepherdspurse, and wild mustard from Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, and Utah. Colorado weeds supported the greatest nematode development (P = 0.05). Weeds collected from Idaho and Utah were similar with respect to their response to H. schachtii with the exception of shepherdspurse. At increasing soil temperatures, a Utah redroot-pigweed collection showed a higher percent susceptibility to a Utah nematode population than to nematode populations from the other states (P = 0.05). There was a higher percentage of susceptible plants when the weed host population was collected from the same geographical area as the nematode inoculun. PMID:19295693

  8. Characterization of Root-Knot Nematode Resistance in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Dhandaydham, Murali; Charles, Lauren; Zhu, Hongyan; Starr, James L.; Huguet, Thierry; Cook, Douglas R.; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Opperman, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Root knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) nematodes infect all important crop species, and the annual economic loss due to these pathogens exceeds $90 billion. We screened the worldwide accession collection with the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria and M. hapla, soybean cyst nematode (SCN-Heterodera glycines), sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN-Heterodera schachtii) and clover cyst nematode (CLCN-Heterodera trifolii), revealing resistant and susceptible accessions. In the over 100 accessions evaluated, we observed a range of responses to the root-knot nematode species, and a non-host response was observed for SCN and SBCN infection. However, variation was observed with respect to infection by CLCN. While many cultivars including Jemalong A17 were resistant to H. trifolii, cultivar Paraggio was highly susceptible. Identification of M. truncatula as a host for root-knot nematodes and H. trifolii and the differential host response to both RKN and CLCN provide the opportunity to genetically and molecularly characterize genes involved in plant-nematode interaction. Accession DZA045, obtained from an Algerian population, was resistant to all three root-knot nematode species and was used for further studies. The mechanism of resistance in DZA045 appears different from Mi-mediated root-knot nematode resistance in tomato. Temporal analysis of nematode infection showed that there is no difference in nematode penetration between the resistant and susceptible accessions, and no hypersensitive response was observed in the resistant accession even several days after infection. However, less than 5% of the nematode population completed the life cycle as females in the resistant accession. The remainder emigrated from the roots, developed as males, or died inside the roots as undeveloped larvae. Genetic analyses carried out by crossing DZA045 with a susceptible French accession, F83005, suggest that one gene controls resistance in DZA

  9. Proteomic analysis of soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide causing an estimated $2 billion in losses annually. Proteomic technologies are powerful tools to examine protein expression profiles as well as modification of proteins. W...

  10. Nematodes parasitizing Trachurus trachurus (L.) and Boops boops (L.) from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ichalal, Keltoum; Ramdane, Zouhir; Ider, Djamila; Kacher, Mohammed; Iguerouada, Mokrane; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Courcot, Luci; Amara, Rachid

    2015-11-01

    A total of 455 Boops boops (Linnaeus, 1758) and 953 Trachurus trachurus Linnaeus, 1758 from the east coast of Algeria were examined for their parasitic Nematoda. Two hundred ninety-five specimens of larval stages L3 and L4 were collected from the peritoneal cavity of these two examined fishes. Photonic and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) studies were performed on these larvae specimens in order to characterize their morphology. Two different species of Nematoda (Anisikidae) were identified: Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802). These two parasitic species were reported for the first time on T. trachurus and B. boops from the eastern coast of Algeria. These parasites were attached on different organs in the abdominal cavity (particularly on ovaries and testes). The infestation rate changed according to the month and the host size. The parasitism did not show a significant negative impact on the condition of the examined fishes. PMID:26220559

  11. Molecular properties of a venom allergen-like protein suggest a parasitic function in the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae Soon; Koh, Young Ho; Moon, Yil Sung; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2012-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a destructive pest in several countries including Japan, China and Korea. Of three genes encoding the venom allergen-like protein in B. xylophilus, Bxvap-1 showed the highest transcript levels at the pine-grown propagative stage. In addition, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses using anti-BxVap-1 polyclonal antibody verified a specific increase in BxVap-1 expression levels at the pine-grown propagative stage. Using immunohistochemistry, BxVap-1 was detected around the putative oesophageal glands and metacarpus, suggesting that BxVap-1 is secreted into the host pine tree and is involved in the parasitic mechanism. To explain the parasitic role of BxVap-1, we measured the migration rate inside pine seedlings of B. xylophilus either with or without Bxvap-1 knockdown by RNA interference. Bxvap-1 knockdown resulted in a significantly lower migration rate in the >6cm region compared with the control B. xylophilus. These results suggest that BxVap-1 is involved in B. xylophilus migration, perhaps by suppressing the pine tree defence mechanism. PMID:22142561

  12. Molecular survey of trichostrongyle nematodes in a Bison bison herd experiencing clinical parasitism, and effects of avermectin treatment.

    PubMed

    Eljaki, A A; Al Kappany, Y M; Grosz, D D; Smart, A J; Hildreth, M B

    2016-08-30

    North American bison (Bison bison) producers face many challenges, including the potential clinical and economics problems caused by trichostrongyle nematodes within their herds. Little is known about the prevalence, intensity, geographical distribution and clinical significance of these parasites in commercial bison herds, even from regions where bison production has become popular. This study involved a large herd of bison from eastern South Dakota that was experiencing clinical parasitism due to a temporary over-stocking problem. After documenting fecal egg counts (FECs) and trichostrongyle genera present among the 3 main age-categories (i.e. adults, yearlings, calves) of bison during this heavily infected grazing season, the effects of doramectin treatment on the different age groups was also evaluated. This is the first bison study using PCR to identify genera of trichostrongyles in fecal samples. Virtually all 103 bison fecal samples from all 3 age classes were shedding trichostrongyle eggs by the end of the season, and the mean FECs were 34 eggs/g (EPG) among the cows, 125 EPG in the yearlings, and 186 EGP among calves. Based upon this heavily-infected herd, there is evidence that the susceptibility of bison to trichostrongyles is more similar to beef cattle than to sheep. Other parasites such as Moniezia, Nematodirus, Trichuris, and coccidians were also identified in these samples. All but 3 of the 51 samples analyzed with PCR shown at least 1 trichostrongyle genera. Ostertagia was detected in 68.6% of the samples, Cooperia in 80.39%, Haemonchus in at least 73% and Trichostrongylus in 16% of the herd. Most commonly, bison were infected with combinations of Haemonchus/Ostertagia/Cooperia. After treatment with doramectin, the mean FECs dropped by 99.9% for all of the bison age classes. PMID:27523937

  13. A SNARE-Like Protein and Biotin Are Implicated in Soybean Cyst Nematode Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Bekal, Sadia; Domier, Leslie L.; Gonfa, Biruk; Lakhssassi, Naoufal; Meksem, Khalid; Lambert, Kris N.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoparasitic nematodes that are able to infect and reproduce on plants that are considered resistant are referred to as virulent. The mechanism(s) that virulent nematodes employ to evade or suppress host plant defenses are not well understood. Here we report the use of a genetic strategy (allelic imbalance analysis) to associate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with nematode virulence genes in Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). To accomplish this analysis, a custom SCN SNP array was developed and used to genotype SCN F3-derived populations grown on resistant and susceptible soybean plants. Three SNPs reproducibly showed allele imbalances between nematodes grown on resistant and susceptible plants. Two candidate SCN virulence genes that were tightly linked to the SNPs were identified. One SCN gene encoded biotin synthase (HgBioB), and the other encoded a bacterial-like protein containing a putative SNARE domain (HgSLP-1). The two genes mapped to two different linkage groups. HgBioB contained sequence polymorphisms between avirulent and virulent nematodes. However, the gene encoding HgSLP-1 had reduced copy number in virulent nematode populations and appears to produce multiple forms of the protein via intron retention and alternative splicing. We show that HgSLP-1 is an esophageal-gland protein that is secreted by the nematode during plant parasitism. Furthermore, in bacterial co-expression experiments, HgSLP-1 co-purified with the SCN resistance protein Rhg1 α-SNAP, suggesting that these two proteins physically interact. Collectively our data suggest that multiple SCN genes are involved in SCN virulence, and that HgSLP-1 may function as an avirulence protein and when absent it helps SCN evade host defenses. PMID:26714307

  14. A new stem nematode, Ditylenchus oncogenus n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida), parasitizing sowthistle from Adriatic coast dunes in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Vovlas, N; Troccoli, A; Palomares-Rius, J E; De Luca, F; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C; Liébanas, G; Landa, B B; Subbotin, S A; Castillo, P

    2016-03-01

    Morphological and molecular analyses of a stem nematode causing a severe disease on infected sowthistle (Sonchus bulbosus) plants, involving the formation of gall-like structures on infected leaves and stems, have led to the description of a new species named Ditylenchus oncogenus n. sp. Morphologically, the new species is characterized by a medium to large body size (all adults more than 1 mm in length); a delicate stylet (9.0-11.0 μm long) with minute, rounded knobs; a long post-vulval uterine sac (c. 65% of the vulva-anus distance); six incisures at the lateral fields and characteristic D. destructor-pattern of spicules (with pronounced ventral tumulus and anteriorly pointed, less sclerotized, cuticle parts present within the lamina). The results of molecular analysis of rRNA gene sequences, including the D2-D3 expansion regions of 28S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA, partial 18S rRNA gene, the protein-coding mitochondrial gene, cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and the heat-shock protein 90 (hsp90) gene, support the new species status. The results of a host-suitability test indicated that the new species does not parasitize potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and broad bean (Vicia faba) seedlings. Histopathological observations on naturally infected sowthistle tissues revealed that D. oncogenus n. sp. causes floral stem neoplasia and midrib leaf gall formation on the type, and to date only known, host. The galls were characterized by extensive hyperplasia, where several necrotic cells in the neoplasic area were directly damaged by feeding of the nematode, whereas a number of adjacent cells showed typical cytological changes, such as granulated cytoplasm with hypertrophied nuclei and nucleoli. PMID:25647151

  15. Development of a transformation system for Hirsutella spp. and visualization of the mode of nematode infection by GFP-labeled H. minnesotensis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingzu; Park, Sook-Young; Kang, Seogchan; Liu, Xingzhong; Qiu, Junzhi; Xiang, Meichun

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutella rhossiliensis and H. minnesotensis are endoparasitic fungi of the second-stage juvenile (J2) of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) in nature. They also parasitize both H. glycines J2 and Caenorhabditis elegans on agar plates. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation conditions were established for these Hirsutella spp. The resulting transformants were similar to the corresponding wild-type strains. The infection processes of H. glycines J2 and C. elegans second larval stage (L2) by H. minnesotensis expressing ZsGreen were microscopically analyzed. Conidia of H. minnesotensis adhered to passing nematodes within 8 h post-inoculation (hpi), formed an infection peg between 8 and 12 hpi, and penetrated the nematode cuticle between 12 and 24 hpi for C. elegans L2 and between 12 and 32 hpi for H. glycines J2. Hyphal proliferation inside of the nematode coelom was observed at approximately 32 hpi for C. elegans L2 and at approximately 40 hpi for H. glycines J2. The fungus consumed the whole body and grew out to produce conidia at approximately 156 and 204 hpi for C. elegans L2 and H. glycines J2, respectively. The efficient transformation protocol and a better understanding of infection process provide a solid foundation for studying the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying fungal parasitism of nematodes. PMID:26190283

  16. Adaptation to resistant hosts increases fitness on susceptible hosts in the plant parasitic nematode Globodera pallida.

    PubMed

    Fournet, Sylvain; Eoche-Bosy, Delphine; Renault, Lionel; Hamelin, Frédéric M; Montarry, Josselin

    2016-04-01

    Trade-offs between virulence (defined as the ability to infect a resistant host) and life-history traits are of particular interest in plant pathogens for durable management of plant resistances. Adaptation to plant resistances (i.e., virulence acquisition) is indeed expected to be associated with a fitness cost on susceptible hosts. Here, we investigated whether life-history traits involved in the fitness of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida are affected in a virulent lineage compared to an avirulent one. Both lineages were obtained from the same natural population through experimental evolution on resistant and susceptible hosts, respectively. Unexpectedly, we found that virulent lineages were more fit than avirulent lineages on susceptible hosts: they produced bigger cysts, containing more larvae and hatching faster. We thus discuss possible reasons explaining why virulence did not spread into natural G. pallida populations. PMID:27066239

  17. Nematophagous fungi as a biological control agent for nematode parasites of small ruminants in Malaysia: a special emphasis on Duddingtonia flagrans.

    PubMed

    Chandrawathani, Panchacharam; Jamnah, Omar; Waller, Peter John; Höglund, Johan; Larsen, Michael; Zahari, Wan Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 2,800 fresh dung samples from animals, mainly ruminant livestock, were screened for the presence of nematophagous fungi in Malaysia. Arthrobotrys spp. was noted on numerous occasions, but only one isolate of Duddingtonia flagrans was made. For the purposes of producing sufficient quantities of this fungus for feeding trials in sheep, various, commonly available, cheap plant materials were tested as possible growth substrates. This showed that cereal grains (wheat, millet and rice) were the best media for fungal growth. Pen feeding trials were carried out using sheep, both naturally and experimentally infected with nematode parasites (predominantely Haemonchus contortus), to test the efficiency of D. flagrans when administered either in a grain supplement, or incorporated into a feed block. These showed that the fungus survived gut passage in sheep and that dose rates of approximately 1 x 10(6) D. flagrans spores / animal / day, reduced the percentage of infective larvae developing in faecal cultures by more than 90%. These results indicate that using D. flagrans as a biological control agent of nematode parasites, is a promising alternative to nematode parasite control of small ruminants in Malaysia, where anthelmintic resistance is now a major problem. PMID:12498569

  18. Species of Root-knot Nematodes and Fungal Egg Parasites Recovered from Vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Lucas, S.; Ornat, C.; Sorribas, F. J.; Stchiegel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería—M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode numbers than cucurbit crops in Almería but not in Barcelona. Fungal parasites were found in 37% and 45% of the sites in Almería and Barcelona, respectively, but percent parasitism was never greater than 5%. Nine fungal species were isolated from single eggs of the nematode. The fungi included Verticillium chlamydosporium, V. catenulatum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Fusarium spp., Acremonium strictum, Gliocladium roseum, Cylindrocarpon spp., Engiodontium album, and Dactylella oviparasitica. Two sterile fungi and five unidentified fungi also were isolated from Meloidogyne spp. eggs. PMID:19265964

  19. Species of Root-knot Nematodes and Fungal Egg Parasites Recovered from Vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Verdejo-Lucas, S; Ornat, C; Sorribas, F J; Stchiegel, A

    2002-12-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería-M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode numbers than cucurbit crops in Almería but not in Barcelona. Fungal parasites were found in 37% and 45% of the sites in Almería and Barcelona, respectively, but percent parasitism was never greater than 5%. Nine fungal species were isolated from single eggs of the nematode. The fungi included Verticillium chlamydosporium, V. catenulatum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Fusarium spp., Acremonium strictum, Gliocladium roseum, Cylindrocarpon spp., Engiodontium album, and Dactylella oviparasitica. Two sterile fungi and five unidentified fungi also were isolated from Meloidogyne spp. eggs. PMID:19265964

  20. Climate-driven changes to the spatio-temporal distribution of the parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, in sheep in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rose, Hannah; Caminade, Cyril; Bolajoko, Muhammad Bashir; Phelan, Paul; van Dijk, Jan; Baylis, Matthew; Williams, Diana; Morgan, Eric R

    2016-03-01

    Recent climate change has resulted in changes to the phenology and distribution of invertebrates worldwide. Where invertebrates are associated with disease, climate variability and changes in climate may also affect the spatio-temporal dynamics of disease. Due to its significant impact on sheep production and welfare, the recent increase in diagnoses of ovine haemonchosis caused by the nematode Haemonchus contortus in some temperate regions is particularly concerning. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of climate change on H. contortus at a continental scale. A model of the basic reproductive quotient of macroparasites, Q0 , adapted to H. contortus and extended to incorporate environmental stochasticity and parasite behaviour, was used to simulate Pan-European spatio-temporal changes in H. contortus infection pressure under scenarios of climate change. Baseline Q0 simulations, using historic climate observations, reflected the current distribution of H. contortus in Europe. In northern Europe, the distribution of H. contortus is currently limited by temperatures falling below the development threshold during the winter months and within-host arrested development is necessary for population persistence over winter. In southern Europe, H. contortus infection pressure is limited during the summer months by increased temperature and decreased moisture. Compared with this baseline, Q0 simulations driven by a climate model ensemble predicted an increase in H. contortus infection pressure by the 2080s. In northern Europe, a temporal range expansion was predicted as the mean period of transmission increased by 2-3 months. A bimodal seasonal pattern of infection pressure, similar to that currently observed in southern Europe, emerges in northern Europe due to increasing summer temperatures and decreasing moisture. The predicted patterns of change could alter the epidemiology of H. contortus in Europe, affect the future sustainability of contemporary

  1. Mercury in parasitic nematodes and trematodes and their double-crested cormorant hosts: bioaccumulation in the face of sequestration by nematodes.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stacey A; Forbes, Mark R; Hebert, Craig E

    2010-10-15

    Endoparasites can alter their host's heavy metal concentrations by sequestering metals in their own tissues. Contracaecum spp. (a nematode), but not Drepanocephalus spathans (a trematode), were bioaccumulating mercury to concentrations 1.5 times above cormorant hosts. Nematodes did not have significantly greater stable nitrogen isotope values (δ(15)N) than their hosts, which is contradictory to prey-predator trophic enrichment studies, but is in agreement with other endoparasite-host relationships. However, Contracaecum spp. δ(13)C values were significantly greater than their hosts, which suggest that nematodes were consuming host tissues. Nematodes were accumulating and thus sequestering some of their cormorant hosts' body burden of methyl mercury; however, they were not dramatically reducing their hosts' accumulation of methyl mercury. PMID:20797771

  2. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi for the Biocontrol of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes: A Review of the Mechanisms Involved.

    PubMed

    Schouteden, Nele; De Waele, Dirk; Panis, Bart; Vos, Christine M

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate root symbionts that can protect their host plant against biotic stress factors such as plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) infection. PPN consist of a wide range of species with different life styles that can cause major damage in many important crops worldwide. Various mechanisms have been proposed to play a role in the biocontrol effect of AMF against PPN. This review presents an overview of the different mechanisms that have been proposed, and discusses into more detail the plausibility of their involvement in the biocontrol against PPN specifically. The proposed mechanisms include enhanced plant tolerance, direct competition for nutrients and space, induced systemic resistance (ISR) and altered rhizosphere interactions. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of ISR in biocontrol and are increasingly placing rhizosphere effects on the foreground as well, both of which will be the focal point of this review. Though AMF are not yet widely used in conventional agriculture, recent data help to develop a better insight into the modes of action, which will eventually lead toward future field applications of AMF against PPN. The scientific community has entered an exciting era that provides the tools to actually unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms, making this a timely opportunity for a review of our current knowledge and the challenges ahead. PMID:26635750

  3. Molecular and biochemical characterisation of ornithine decarboxylases in the sheep abomasal nematode parasites Teladorsagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Umair, Saleh; Knight, Jacqueline S; Simpson, Heather V

    2013-06-01

    Full length cDNA encoding ornithine decarboxylases (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17) were cloned from the sheep abomasal nematode parasites Teladorsagia circumcincta (TcODC) and Haemonchus contortus (HcODC). The TcODC (1272 bp) and HcODC cDNA (1266 bp) encoded 424 and 422 amino acid proteins respectively. The predicted TcODC amino acid sequence showed 87% identity with HcODC and 65% and 64% with Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae ODC respectively. All binding sites and active regions were completely conserved in both proteins. Soluble N-terminal His-tagged ODC proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21, purified and characterised. The recombinant TcODC and HcODC had very similar kinetic properties: K(m) ornithine was 0.2-0.25 mM, optimum [PLP] was 0.3 mM and the pH optima were pH 8. No enzyme activity was detected when arginine was used as substrate. One millimolar difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) completely inhibited TcODC and HcODC activity, whereas 2 mM agmatine did not inhibit activity. The present study showed that ODC is a separate enzyme from arginine decarboxylase and strictly uses ornithine as substrate. PMID:23499950

  4. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi for the Biocontrol of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes: A Review of the Mechanisms Involved

    PubMed Central

    Schouteden, Nele; De Waele, Dirk; Panis, Bart; Vos, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate root symbionts that can protect their host plant against biotic stress factors such as plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) infection. PPN consist of a wide range of species with different life styles that can cause major damage in many important crops worldwide. Various mechanisms have been proposed to play a role in the biocontrol effect of AMF against PPN. This review presents an overview of the different mechanisms that have been proposed, and discusses into more detail the plausibility of their involvement in the biocontrol against PPN specifically. The proposed mechanisms include enhanced plant tolerance, direct competition for nutrients and space, induced systemic resistance (ISR) and altered rhizosphere interactions. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of ISR in biocontrol and are increasingly placing rhizosphere effects on the foreground as well, both of which will be the focal point of this review. Though AMF are not yet widely used in conventional agriculture, recent data help to develop a better insight into the modes of action, which will eventually lead toward future field applications of AMF against PPN. The scientific community has entered an exciting era that provides the tools to actually unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms, making this a timely opportunity for a review of our current knowledge and the challenges ahead. PMID:26635750

  5. A Hydroalcoholic Extract from Paullinia pinnata L. Roots Exerts Anthelmintic Activity against Free-Living and Parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Spiegler, Verena; Liebau, Eva; Peppler, Carolin; Raue, Katharina; Werne, Steffen; Strube, Christina; Heckendorn, Felix; Agyare, Christian; Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant traditionally used in West Africa against a wide range of diseases including soil-transmitted helminthiases. In this study, a hydroethanolic root extract was investigated for its phytochemical composition and in vitro activity against the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as well as the larval stages of the parasitic helminths Ancylostoma caninum, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara cati, and Trichuris vulpis.LC-MS analysis of the ethanol-water (1 : 1) extract revealed epicatechin and different A-type linked oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins as the predominant compounds.Within an in vitro mortality assay, the extract showed a lethal activity against T. cati (LC50 of 112 µg/mL), T. vulpis (LC50 of 17 µg/mL), and C. elegans (LC50 2.5 of mg/mL), but not against A. caninum. Additionally, effects on egg hatching and larval migration of H. contortus were investigated, but no inhibitory activity was observed.Overall, these findings rationalize the traditional use of the root extract from P. pinnata as an anthelmintic remedy and provide insight into the phytochemical composition of the extract. PMID:27286336

  6. Transcriptome analyses reveal protein and domain families that delineate stage-related development in the economically important parasitic nematodes, Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi are among the most important gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle worldwide. The economic losses caused by these parasites are on the order of hundreds of millions of dollars per year. Conventional treatment of these parasites is through anthelmintic drugs; however, as resistance to anthelmintics increases, overall effectiveness has begun decreasing. New methods of control and alternative drug targets are necessary. In-depth analysis of transcriptomic data can help provide these targets. Results The assembly of 8.7 million and 11 million sequences from C. oncophora and O. ostertagi, respectively, resulted in 29,900 and 34,792 transcripts. Among these, 69% and 73% of the predicted peptides encoded by C. oncophora and O. ostertagi had homologues in other nematodes. Approximately 21% and 24% were constitutively expressed in both species, respectively; however, the numbers of transcripts that were stage specific were much smaller (~1% of the transcripts expressed in a stage). Approximately 21% of the transcripts in C. oncophora and 22% in O. ostertagi were up-regulated in a particular stage. Functional molecular signatures were detected for 46% and 35% of the transcripts in C. oncophora and O. ostertagi, respectively. More in-depth examinations of the most prevalent domains led to knowledge of gene expression changes between the free-living (egg, L1, L2 and L3 sheathed) and parasitic (L3 exsheathed, L4, and adult) stages. Domains previously implicated in growth and development such as chromo domains and the MADF domain tended to dominate in the free-living stages. In contrast, domains potentially involved in feeding such as the zinc finger and CAP domains dominated in the parasitic stages. Pathway analyses showed significant associations between life-cycle stages and peptides involved in energy metabolism in O. ostertagi whereas metabolism of cofactors and vitamins were specifically up-regulated in the parasitic

  7. SLO-1-Channels of Parasitic Nematodes Reconstitute Locomotor Behaviour and Emodepside Sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans slo-1 Loss of Function Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Schniederjans, Monika; Miltsch, Sandra M.; Krücken, Jürgen; Guest, Marcus; Holden-Dye, Lindy; Harder, Achim; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The calcium-gated potassium channel SLO-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans was recently identified as key component for action of emodepside, a new anthelmintic drug with broad spectrum activity. In this study we identified orthologues of slo-1 in Ancylostoma caninum, Cooperia oncophora, and Haemonchus contortus, all important parasitic nematodes in veterinary medicine. Furthermore, functional analyses of these slo-1 orthologues were performed using heterologous expression in C. elegans. We expressed A. caninum and C. oncophora slo-1 in the emodepside-resistant genetic background of the slo-1 loss-of-function mutant NM1968 slo-1(js379). Transformants expressing A. caninum slo-1 from C. elegans slo-1 promoter were highly susceptible (compared to the fully emodepside-resistant slo-1(js379)) and showed no significant difference in their emodepside susceptibility compared to wild-type C. elegans (p = 0.831). Therefore, the SLO-1 channels of A. caninum and C. elegans appear to be completely functionally interchangeable in terms of emodepside sensitivity. Furthermore, we tested the ability of the 5′ flanking regions of A. caninum and C. oncophora slo-1 to drive expression of SLO-1 in C. elegans and confirmed functionality of the putative promoters in this heterologous system. For all transgenic lines tested, expression of either native C. elegans slo-1 or the parasite-derived orthologue rescued emodepside sensitivity in slo-1(js379) and the locomotor phenotype of increased reversal frequency confirming the reconstitution of SLO-1 function in the locomotor circuits. A potent mammalian SLO-1 channel inhibitor, penitrem A, showed emodepside antagonising effects in A. caninum and C. elegans. The study combined the investigation of new anthelmintic targets from parasitic nematodes and experimental use of the respective target genes in C. elegans, therefore closing the gap between research approaches using model nematodes and those using target organisms. Considering the still

  8. Soybean aphid and soybean cyst nematode interactions in the field and effects on soybean yield.

    PubMed

    Hong, S C; MacGuidwin, A; Gratton, C

    2011-10-01

    How above- and belowground plant pests interact with each other and how these interactions affect productivity is a relatively understudied aspect of crop production. Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a root parasite of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., is the most threatening pathogen in soybean production and soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, an aboveground phloem-feeding insect that appeared in North America in 2000, is the key aboveground herbivore of soybean in the midwestern United States. Now, both soybean aphid and soybean cyst nematode co-occur in soybean-growing areas in the Upper Midwest. The objectives of this study were to examine aphid colonization patterns and population growth on soybean across a natural gradient of nematode density (range, approximately 900 and 27,000 eggs per 100 cm3 soil), and to investigate the effect of this pest complex on soybean productivity. Alate (winged) soybean aphid colonization of soybean was negatively correlated to soybean cyst nematode egg density (r = -0.363, P = 0.0095) at the end of July, at the onset of peak alate colonization. However, both a manipulative cage study and openly colonized plants showed that soybean cyst nematode density below ground was unrelated to variation in aphid population growth (r approximately -0.01). Based on regression analyses, soybean aphids and cyst nematodes had independent effects on soybean yield through effects on different yield components. High soybean cyst nematode density was associated with a decline in soybean yield (kg ha(-1)), whereas increasing soybean aphid density (both alate and apterous) significantly decreased seed weight (g 100 seeds(-1)). PMID:22066186

  9. Taxonomic status of Syngamus nematodes parasitizing passeriform hosts from Central Europe: Morphological, morphometric and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Gerard; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Sitko, Jiljí; Rząd, Izabella

    2016-10-01

    The systematic position and validity of species within genus Syngamus have always been controversial. In this present work, we evaluated the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships between three species of Syngamus nematodes (Syngamus trachea, Syngamus taiga and Syngamus merulae) and one taxa, determined only to the generic level, collected from respiratory tracts of passeriform hosts from Central Europe using newly obtained sequences of 2 nuclear markers (internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 [ITS1, ITS2]) and a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I [COI] gene. Our results clearly showed that S. trachea, S. taiga and S. merulae are valid, molecularly and morphologically distinct species. Moreover, molecular analysis of adult female of Syngamus sp. collected from tracheae of the European robin Erithacus rubecula clearly indicate that these comprise separate species. In the derived phylogeny, the Syngamus clade is divided into two sub-clades: one comprised Syngamus species with a characteristic, well-developed cuticular collar around the oral opening (S. trachea and S. taiga) and a second that groups taxa without or with rudimentary collar (S. merulae and currently sequenced Syngamus sp. from Erithacus rubecula). These results clearly suggest that the degree of collar development (well-developed vs. rudimentary/absent) may be an important phylogenetic feature for determining the structure of the genus Syngamus on subgeneric level. Additionally, our results support historical division of the genus Syngamus into two subgenera S. (Syngamus) and S. (Ornithogamus). PMID:27353021

  10. An annotated catalogue of the ascaridoid nematode parasites of Chinese vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Gibson, David I; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue, based on both examined specimens and the published literature, of all the ascaridoid nematodes recorded in China is presented. A total of 95 recognised species, representing 26 genera in five families, are reported. Detailed information on the type-host, type-locality, original reference, synonyms, annotated subsequent references of taxonomic importance, other host records, site of infection, location of type-specimens and distribution are listed for each recognised species. Additional comments on the taxonomic status of some species are also given. Moreover, some nomenclatural changes are proposed: (i) Toxascaris selenarctis Wang, 1965 and T. ailuri Wu, He & Hu, 1987 are placed in synonymy with Baylisascaris transfuga (Rudolphi, 1819); (ii) Raphidascaris lophii Wang & Wu, 1991 is a secondary homonym of R. lophii (Wu, 1949) and a replacement name, R. wangi nom. nov., is proposed for the former species; (iii) Aliascaris aetoplatea Luo, 2001 is transferred to Terranova Leiper & Atkinson, 1914, as T. aetoplatea (Luo, 2001) n. comb., and should be considered a species inquirenda; (iv) Ophidascaris orientalis (Wang, 1965) is resurrected as a valid species; (v) Phocascaris longispiculum Wang & Wu, 1991 and Ophidascaris agkistrodontis Wang, 1979 are treated as incertae sedis; and (vi) Hysterothylacium sauridae Li, Xu & Zhang, 2008 is listed as a nomen nudum. PMID:26739284

  11. Parasitic Nematode-Induced CD4+Foxp3+T Cells Can Ameliorate Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Min Kyoung; Park, Sang Kyun; Jang, Min Seong; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho; Kim, Dong-Hee; Yu, Hak Sun

    2014-01-01

    Background The recruitment of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+T (Treg) cells is one of the most important mechanisms by which parasites down-regulate the immune system. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the effects of Treg cells from Trichinella spiralis-infected mice and uninfected mice on experimental allergic airway inflammation in order to understand the functions of parasite-induced Treg cells. After four weeks of T. spiralis infection, we isolated Foxp3-GFP-expressing cells from transgenic mice using a cell sorter. We injected CD4+Foxp3+ cells from T. spiralis-infected [Inf(+)Foxp3+] or uninfected [Inf(-)Foxp3+] mice into the tail veins of C57BL/6 mice before the induction of inflammation or during inflammation. Inflammation was induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-alum sensitization and OVA challenge. The concentrations of the Th2-related cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and the levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 in the serum were lower in mice that received intravenous application of Inf(+)Foxp3+ cells [IV(inf):+(+) group] than in control mice. Some features of allergic airway inflammation were ameliorated by the intravenous application of Inf(-)Foxp3+ cells [IV(inf):+(-) group], but the effects were less distinct than those observed in the IV(inf):+(+) group. We found that Inf(+)Foxp3+ cells migrated to inflammation sites in the lung and expressed higher levels of Treg-cell homing receptors (CCR5 and CCR9) and activation markers (Klrg1, Capg, GARP, Gzmb, OX40) than did Inf(-)Foxp3+ cells. Conclusion/Significance T. spiralis infection promotes the proliferation and functional activation of Treg cells. Parasite-induced Treg cells migrate to the inflammation site and suppress immune responses more effectively than non-parasite-induced Treg cells. The adoptive transfer of Inf(+)Foxp3+ cells is an effective method for the treatment and prevention of allergic airway diseases in mice and is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment

  12. Heterodera glycines cysts contain an extensive array of endoproteases as well as inhibitors of proteases in H. glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juvenile stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera glycines cysts contain proteases, and inhibitors of protease activities in various nematode species. In this investigation, proteases in H. glycines cysts were identified using a commercially available FRET-peptide library comprising 512 peptide pools qualified to detect up to 4 endoprot...

  13. Effect of Tropical Rotation Crops on Meloidogyne incognita and Other Plant-Parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; Dickson, D W

    1995-12-01

    In a field experiment conducted on sandy soil in Florida during the 1993 season, rotation crops of castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringina), 'Mississippi Silver' cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), 'Dehapine 51' cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and 'SX-17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense) were effective in maintaining low population densities (<12/100 cm(3) soil) of Meloidogyne incognita race 1, whereas high population densities (>450/100 cm(3) soil) resulted after 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentus) and 'Kirby' soybean (Glycine max). Following a winter cover crop of rye (Secale cereale), densities of M. incognita following the six most effective rotation crops (1993 season) remained relatively low (nematode pests as well. PMID:19277319

  14. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) against gastrointestinal nematode parasites in experimentally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Desrues, Olivier; Hansen, Tina V A; Enemark, Heidi L

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments studied the effects of dietary chicory against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, stabled calves were fed chicory silage (CHI1; n = 9) or ryegrass/clover hay (CTL1; n = 6) with balanced protein/energy intakes between groups. After 16 days, all calves received 10 000 Ostertagia ostertagi and 66 000 Cooperia oncophora third-stage larvae (L3) [day (D) 0 post-infection (p.i.)]. In Exp. 2, calves were assigned to pure chicory (CHI2; n=10) or ryegrass/clover (CTL2; n = 10) pastures. After 7 days, animals received 20 000 O. ostertagi L3/calf (D0 p.i.) and were moved regularly preventing pasture-borne infections. Due to poor regrowth of the chicory pasture, CHI2 was supplemented with chicory silage. At D40 p.i. (Exp. 1) and D35 p.i. (Exp. 2) calves were slaughtered for worm recovery. In Exp.1, fecal egg counts (FEC) were similar between groups. However, O. ostertagi counts were significantly reduced in CHI1 by 60% (geometric mean; P < 0·01), whereas C. oncophora burdens were unaffected (P = 0·12). In Exp. 2, FEC were markedly lowered in CHI2 from D22 p.i onwards (P < 0·01). Ostertagia ostertagi adult burdens were significantly reduced in CHI2 by 66% (P < 0·001). Sesquiterpene lactones were identified only in chicory (fresh/silage). Chicory shows promise as an anti-Ostertagia feed for cattle and further studies should investigate its on-farm use. PMID:27173405

  15. Neuroparasitic infections: nematodes.

    PubMed

    Walker, M D; Zunt, J R

    2005-09-01

    Globalization has produced an increase in the number of people at risk for contracting parasitic infection. Central nervous system infection by nematodal parasites can be devastating. Early recognition and treatment of infection can significantly decrease morbidity of the parasitic infection, as well as the risk of secondary superinfection. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment for five of the more common nematodal infections of the nervous system--Angiostrongylus spp., Baylisacaris procyonis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Toxocara spp.--is reviewed. PMID:16170738

  16. Effect of Compost and Manure Soil Amendments on Nematodes and on Yields of Potato and Barley: A 7-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Kimpinski, J.; Gallant, C. E.; Henry, R.; Macleod, J. A.; Sanderson, J. B.; Sturz, A. V.

    2003-01-01

    A 7-year study located in Prince Edward Island, Canada, examined the influence of compost and manure on crop yield and nematode populations. The compost used in this study consisted of cull waste potatoes, sawdust, and beef manure in a 3:3:1 ratio, respectively. No plant-parasitic nematodes were detected in samples collected from windrow compost piles at 5- and 30-cm depths prior to application on field plots. Low population densities of bacterial-feeding nematodes were recovered from compost windrows at the 5-cm depth. Field plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) received compost applied at 16 metric tonnes per hectare, or beef manure applied at 12 metric tonnes per hectare. An adjacent trial with barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Mic Mac) received only the compost treatment. In both trials the experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Data averaged over seven growing seasons indicated that population levels of root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were higher in root-zone soil in potato plots treated with either compost or manure compared to the untreated control plots. The soil amendments did not affect root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) population densities in the potato plots, but clover-cyst nematodes (Heterodera trifolii) were more numerous in the root-zone soils of barley treated with compost compared to the untreated plots. Numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were greater in soil in potato plots treated with manure and in soil around barley roots than in untreated plots. Total yields of potato tubers averaged over seven growing seasons increased by 27% in the plots treated with either compost or manure. Grain yields of barley also were increased by 12% when compost was applied. These results indicated that organic amendments increased crop yields, but the impacts on different nematode species varied and usually increased soil population levels. PMID:19262763

  17. Two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-LOXs, LOX3 and LOX4, reveal distinct functions in response to plantparasitic nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses of two closely related members of Arabidopsis 13-lipoxygenase (13-LOX), LOX3 and LOX4, to infection by the sedentary nematodes root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) and cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) were analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings. Tissue localization of LO...

  18. Coynema gen. n., a new genus of nematode (Thelastomatoidea, Hystrignathidae) parasites of Passalidae (Coleoptera) from Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jans Morffe; Rodríguez, Nayla García

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The new genus Coynema gen. n. is described as parasite of the two passalid beetles from Cuba: Passalus interstitialis Escholtz, 1829 (type host) and Passalus pertyi Kaup, 1869. Females are characterized by the shape of their cephalic end, cervical cuticle unarmed, a sub-cylindrical procorpus with its base abruptly dilated, fore region of intestine dilated as a sac-like structure, genital system didelphic-amphidelphic and eggs markedly ovoid and smooth-shelled. Males have a digestive system similar to females, tail sharply pointed, bearing a Y-like thickening of the dorsal cuticle. They also present a big, median, mammiform pre-cloacal papillae and a pair of small, sub-dorsal pre-cloacal papillae anterior to the cuticular thickening of the tail. PMID:21594137

  19. Poly(T) variation in heteroderid nematode mitochondrial genomes is predominantly an artifact of amplification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the rate of in vitro polymerase errors at polythymidine tracts in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of a heteroderid nematode (Heterodera cajani). The mtDNA of these nematodes contains unusually high numbers of poly(T) tracts, and has previously been suggested to contain biological poly(T) l...

  20. Identification of a SNP marker associated with WB242 nematode resistance in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beet-cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schmidt) is one of the major diseases of sugar beet. The identification of molecular markers associated to the nematode resistance would be helpful for developing resistant varieties. The aim of this study was the identification of SNP (Single Nucleotide ...

  1. Impact of the soybean cyst nematode on seedling diseases of sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) has recently moved into the southern Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota. When sugarbeet is planted into SCN-infested soil, the nematode may attempt to penetrate and establish itself in the sugarbeet roots. Such penetration attempts are lik...

  2. Registration of JTN-5203 soybean germplasm with resistance to multiple cyst nematode populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    JTN-5203 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (Reg. No. XX-XXX, PI 664903) was developed and released by USDA-ARS in collaboration with the University of Tennessee in 2012 for its broad resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe), as well as reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus ...

  3. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducte...

  4. Genetic Dissection of Resistance in Soybean PI567516C to a Nematode Population Infecting cv. Hartwig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Crop losses are primarily mitigated by the use of resistant cultivars. Nematode populations are variable and have adapted to reproduce on resistant cultivars ov...

  5. SNP identification and marker assay development for high-throughput selection of soybean cyst nematode resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) remains to be the most economically devastating pathogen of soybean [Glycine max L. (Merr.)]. Two resistance Rhg1 and Rhg4 primarily contribute resistance to a major nematode population, SCN race 3, in soybean. Peking and PI 88788 are the t...

  6. Towards the molecular characterisation of parasitic nematode assemblages: an evaluation of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis.

    PubMed

    Lott, M J; Hose, G C; Power, M L

    2014-09-01

    Identifying factors which regulate temporal and regional structuring within parasite assemblages requires the development of non-invasive techniques which facilitate both the rapid discrimination of individual parasites and the capacity to monitor entire parasite communities across time and space. To this end, we have developed and evaluated a rapid fluorescence-based method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, for the characterisation of parasitic nematode assemblages in macropodid marsupials. The accuracy with which T-RFLP was capable of distinguishing between the constituent taxa of a parasite community was assessed by comparing sequence data from two loci (the ITS+ region of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial CO1) across ∼20 species of nematodes (suborder Strongylida). Our results demonstrate that with fluorescent labelling of the forward and reverse terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) of the ITS+ region, the restriction enzyme Hinf1 was capable of generating species specific T-RFLP profiles. A notable exception was within the genus Cloacina, in which closely related species often shared identical T-RFs. This may be a consequence of the group's comparatively recent evolutionary radiation. While the CO1 displayed higher sequence diversity than the ITS+, the subsequent T-RFLP profiles were taxonomically inconsistent and could not be used to further differentiate species within Cloacina. Additionally, several of the ITS+ derived T-RFLP profiles exhibited unexpected secondary peaks, possibly as a consequence of the restriction enzymes inability to cleave partially single stranded amplicons. These data suggest that the question of T-RFLPs utility in monitoring parasite communities cannot be addressed without considering the ecology and unique evolutionary history of the constituent taxa. PMID:24971699

  7. Effect of Age on Body Wall Cuticle Morphology of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt females

    PubMed Central

    Cordero C., D. A.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine structure of the body wall cuticle of Heterodera schachtii is compared with respect to age and body region of the female. The cuticle is more complex than previously reported. In newly molted females only layers A, B, and C are present, but 4 weeks after the final molt a thin D layer is present between the midbody and base of the cone. This D layer is absent in the cone of H. schachtii, regardless of age. As females age, an additional layer E is produced and includes zones E₁ and E₂. Zone El apparently is unique to H. schachtii, whereas E₂ is likely to be homologous with a similar layer in Atalodera. In the cone of old females (ca. 8 weeks after the final molt) of H. schachtii, the two zones become irregular in shape and comprise bullae. The presence of a thin D layer in Heterodera strengthens the previous hypothesis of a single ancestor of cyst nematodes. PMID:19287732

  8. Genetic diversity assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of the parasitic nematode Dictyocaulus viviparus the lungworm of cattle.

    PubMed

    Höglund, J; Engström, A; Morrison, D A; Mattsson, J G

    2004-03-29

    We have examined the population genetic structure in a collection of nine isolates of the parasitic lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus. Eight of the isolates were sampled from cattle in geographically separated farms throughout south-central Sweden, and one isolate was a laboratory strain that has been maintained in experimentally infected calves for almost four decades. A total of 72 worms were examined, with eight individual worms from the same individual host representing each isolate. The genetic variation as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis using four selective primer combinations was high. Depending on the primer combination a total of 66-79 restriction fragments were amplified, with 26-44 peaks of similar complexity from each of the isolates. The heterozygosity within populations was relatively small, as were the population mutation and immigration rates, which seemed to be in neutral equilibrium. The genetic diversity was therefore reasonably well structured in the field; and the laboratory isolate was quite distinct from the field samples. There was no relationship between the patterns of genetic diversity and the geographical proximity of the farms. The estimates of heterozygosity were much larger and more consistent than those previously estimated for this nematode species using mitochondrial sequencing, and the genetic structuring was thus much less pronounced and the gene flow greater. We attribute these differences in estimation to the broader sampling of loci available using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, which may therefore constitute a superior technique for the study of patterns of lungworm diversity. Furthermore, the data estimating gene flow for D. viviparus was less than previously reported for closely related species in North America. This might be related to different rates of movements of infected hosts. It seems likely that lungworm infections are rather persistent on different farms, and the sudden

  9. Morphological, molecular and developmental characterization of the thelastomatid nematode Thelastoma bulhoesi (de Magalhães, 1900) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae) parasite of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattodea: Blattidae) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sota; Morffe, Jans; Vicente, Cláudia S L; Ikeda, Kenji; Shinya, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Koichi

    2016-03-01

    The American cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattodea: Blattidae) has been spreading worldwide by commerce and has successfully adjusted to living with humans. There are many reports of thelastomatid parasitic nematode isolated from P. americana in many countries including USA, Canada, India, Argentina, Bulgaria, but not in Japan. We have investigated the parasitic nematodes in P. americana lab strain and field-captured individuals in Japan and found that Thelastoma bulhoesi (de Magalhães, 1900) (Oxyuridomorpha: Thelastomatidae) parasitizes with high infection rates. We described morphological, molecular, and developmental characters of the parasitic nematode because such information was missing despite it has been discovered more than one hundred years ago. We described morphometrics with DIC microscopy and fine structure of male and female adult with SEM observation. We also reveal the embryonic and postembryonic development of this nematode. This is the first report of a thelastomatid nematode isolated from American cockroach in Japan, and the data showed here is also very useful and fundamental for further analysis of the cockroach and parasite relations. PMID:27078647

  10. Transcript Analysis of Sedentary Parastic Female Reniform Nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) Identifies Candidate Parasitism Genes and Targets for RNA-Interference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reniform nematode (RN) (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a semi-endoparasitic nematode with a host range that spans 30 plant families; however, RN infection is particularly detrimental to Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We present here an initial survey of cDNA sequences isolated from the RN fe...

  11. Chemotaxis can take plant-parasitic nematodes to the source of a chemo-attractant via the shortest possible routes

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Andy M.; Dutta, Tushar K.; Curtis, Rosane H. C.; Powers, Stephen J.; Gaur, Hari S.; Kerry, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been recognized that chemotaxis is the primary means by which nematodes locate host plants. Nonetheless, chemotaxis has received scant attention. We show that chemotaxis is predicted to take nematodes to a source of a chemo-attractant via the shortest possible routes through the labyrinth of air-filled or water-filled channels within a soil through which the attractant diffuses. There are just two provisos: (i) all of the channels through which the attractant diffuses are accessible to the nematodes and (ii) nematodes can resolve all chemical gradients no matter how small. Previously, this remarkable consequence of chemotaxis had gone unnoticed. The predictions are supported by experimental studies of the movement patterns of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne graminicola in modified Y-chamber olfactometers filled with Pluronic gel. By providing two routes to a source of the attractant, one long and one short, our experiments, the first to demonstrate the routes taken by nematodes to plant roots, serve to test our predictions. Our data show that nematodes take the most direct route to their preferred hosts (as predicted) but often take the longest route towards poor hosts. We hypothesize that a complex of repellent and attractant chemicals influences the interaction between nematodes and their hosts. PMID:20880854

  12. Effect of potential methyl bromide alternatives on plant parasitic nematodes and grape yield under vineyard replant conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and citrus (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) nematodes are often present in vineyards affected by “replant problems” of grapes in California. Methyl bromide (MB) has been used to control these nematodes and other soil borne pathogens prior to replanting new vineyards, but, exc...

  13. Impact of No-till Cover Cropping of Italian Ryegrass on Above and Below Ground Faunal Communities Inhabiting a Soybean Field with Emphasis on Soybean Cyst Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Hooks, Cerruti R. R.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Meyer, Susan L. F.; Lekveishvili, Mariam; Hinds, Jermaine; Zobel, Emily; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Lee-Bullock, Mason

    2011-01-01

    Two field trials were conducted between 2008 and 2010 in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop to reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes while enhancing beneficial nematodes, soil mites and arthropods in the foliage of a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting. Preplant treatments were: 1) previous year soybean stubble (SBS); and 2) herbicide-killed IR cover crop + previous year soybean stubble (referred to as IR). Heterodera glycines population densities were very low and no significant difference in population densities of H. glycines or Pratylenchus spp. were observed between IR and SBS. Planting of IR increased abundance of bacterivorous nematodes in 2009. A reverse trend was observed in 2010 where SBS had higher abundance of bacterivorous nematodes and nematode richness at the end of the cover cropping period. Italian ryegrass also did not affect insect pests on soybean foliage. However, greater populations of spiders were found on soybean foliage in IR treatments during both field trials. Potential causes of these findings are discussed. PMID:23430284

  14. High-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution fixation reveal the ultrastructure of immature and mature spermatozoa of the plant-parasitic nematode Trichodorus similis (Nematoda; Triplonchida; Trichodoridae).

    PubMed

    Lak, Behnam; Yushin, Vladimir V; Slos, Dieter; Claeys, Myriam; Decraemer, Wilfrida; Bert, Wim

    2015-10-01

    The spermatozoa from testis and spermatheca of the plant-parasitic nematode Trichodorus similis Seinhorst, 1963 (Nematoda; Triplonchida; Trichodoridae) were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), being the first study on spermatogenesis of a representative of the order Triplonchida and important to unravel nematode sperm evolution. Comprehensive results could only be obtained using high-pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze-substitution instead of chemical fixation, demonstrating the importance of cryo-fixation for nematode ultrastructural research. The spermatozoa from the testis (immature spermatozoa) are unpolarized cells covered by numerous filopodia. They contain a centrally-located nucleus without a nuclear envelope, surrounded by mitochondria. Specific fibrous bodies (FB) as long parallel bundles of filaments occupy the peripheral cytoplasm. No structures resembling membranous organelles (MO), as found in the sperm of many other nematodes, were observed in immature spermatozoa of T. similis. The spermatozoa from the uterus (mature or activated spermatozoa) are bipolar cells with an anterior pseudopod and posterior main cell body (MCB), which include a nucleus, mitochondria and MO appearing as large vesicles with finger-like invaginations of the outer cell membrane, or as large vesicles connected to the inner cell membrane. The peripheral MO open to the exterior via pores. In the mature sperm, neither FBs nor filopodia were observed. An important feature of T. similis spermatozoa is the late formation of MO; they first appear in mature spermatozoa. This pattern of MO formation is known for several other orders of the nematode class Enoplea: Enoplida, Mermithida, Dioctophymatida, Trichinellida but has never been observed in the class Chromadorea. PMID:26093476

  15. Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries from the parasitic nematode Brugia malayi and physical mapping of the genome of its Wolbachia endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeremy M; Kumar, Sanjay; Ganatra, Mehul B; Kamal, Ibrahim H; Ware, Jennifer; Ingram, Jessica; Pope-Chappell, Jesse; Guiliano, David; Whitton, Claire; Daub, Jennifer; Blaxter, Mark L; Slatko, Barton E

    2004-05-01

    The parasitic nematode, Brugia malayi, causes lymphatic filariasis in humans, which in severe cases leads to the condition known as elephantiasis. The parasite contains an endosymbiotic alpha-proteobacterium of the genus Wolbachia that is required for normal worm development and fecundity and is also implicated in the pathology associated with infections by these filarial nematodes. Bacterial artificial chromosome libraries were constructed from B. malayi DNA and provide over 11-fold coverage of the nematode genome. Wolbachia genomic fragments were simultaneously cloned into the libraries giving over 5-fold coverage of the 1.1 Mb bacterial genome. A physical framework for the Wolbachia genome was developed by construction of a plasmid library enriched for Wolbachia DNA as a source of sequences to hybridise to high-density bacterial artificial chromosome colony filters. Bacterial artificial chromosome end sequencing provided additional Wolbachia probe sequences to facilitate assembly of a contig that spanned the entire genome. The Wolbachia sequences provided a marker approximately every 10 kb. Four rare-cutting restriction endonucleases were used to restriction map the genome to a resolution of approximately 60 kb and demonstrate concordance between the bacterial artificial chromosome clones and native Wolbachia genomic DNA. Comparison of Wolbachia sequences to public databases using BLAST algorithms under stringent conditions allowed confident prediction of 69 Wolbachia peptide functions and two rRNA genes. Comparison to closely related complete genomes revealed that while most sequences had orthologs in the genome of the Wolbachia endosymbiont from Drosophila melanogaster, there was no evidence for long-range synteny. Rather, there were a few cases of short-range conservation of gene order extending over regions of less than 10 kb. The molecular scaffold produced for the genome of the Wolbachia from B. malayi forms the basis of a genomic sequencing effort for

  16. Microarray Detection Call Methodology as a Means to Identify and Compare Transcripts Expressed within Syncytial Cells from Soybean (Glycine max) Roots Undergoing Resistant and Susceptible Reactions to the Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    PubMed Central

    Klink, Vincent P.; Overall, Christopher C.; Alkharouf, Nadim W.; MacDonald, Margaret H.; Matthews, Benjamin F.

    2010-01-01

    Background. A comparative microarray investigation was done using detection call methodology (DCM) and differential expression analyses. The goal was to identify genes found in specific cell populations that were eliminated by differential expression analysis due to the nature of differential expression methods. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate nearly homogeneous populations of plant root cells. Results. The analyses identified the presence of 13,291 transcripts between the 4 different sample types. The transcripts filtered down into a total of 6,267 that were detected as being present in one or more sample types. A comparative analysis of DCM and differential expression methods showed a group of genes that were not differentially expressed, but were expressed at detectable amounts within specific cell types. Conclusion. The DCM has identified patterns of gene expression not shown by differential expression analyses. DCM has identified genes that are possibly cell-type specific and/or involved in important aspects of plant nematode interactions during the resistance response, revealing the uniqueness of a particular cell population at a particular point during its differentiation process. PMID:20508855

  17. Optimization of In Vitro Techniques for Distinguishing between Live and Dead Second Stage Juveniles of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera glycines (Soybean Cyst nematode, or SCN) and Meloidogyne incognita (Root-Knot nematode, or RKN) are two damaging plant-parasitic nematodes on important field crops. Developing a quick method to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN second stage juveniles (J2) is vital for high throughput screening of pesticides or biological compounds against SCN and RKN. The in vitro assays were conducted in 96-well plates to determine the optimum chemical stimulus to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN J2. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were evaluated for the nematode response to see if these compounds can help distinguish between viable from the dead J2. Results indicated that live SCN J2 responded equally (P ≤ 0.05) to 1 μl Na2CO3 and 10 μl NaHCO3 in 100 μl of water at pH = 10. Live SCN J2 responded by twisting their bodies in a curling shape and increasing rate of movements within 2 minutes of exposure. The twisting activity continued for up to 30 minutes. Live RKN J2 responded by increasing activity with the application of 1 μl NaOH in 100 μl of water at pH = 10 also in the 2 minutes to 30 minutes time frame. Furthermore, in growth chamber tests to confirm the infectivity of live SCN. The live SCN as determined by exposure to 1 μl of Na2CO3 indicated 60.5% of the SCN J2 were alive and of those, 29.5% were infective and entered the soybean roots. The 1 μl of NaOH stimulus revealed that 75.2% RKN J2 were alive and of those, 14.9% were infective and entered soybean roots. These results confirmed that 1 μl of Na2CO3 added to 100 μl suspension of SCN J2 and 1 μl of NaOH added to 100 μl suspension of RKN J2 are the effective stimuli for rapidly distinguishing between live and dead SCN and RKN J2 in vitro. SCN and RKN J2 responded differently to different compounds. PMID:27144277

  18. Optimization of In Vitro Techniques for Distinguishing between Live and Dead Second Stage Juveniles of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ni; Lawrence, Kathy S

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera glycines (Soybean Cyst nematode, or SCN) and Meloidogyne incognita (Root-Knot nematode, or RKN) are two damaging plant-parasitic nematodes on important field crops. Developing a quick method to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN second stage juveniles (J2) is vital for high throughput screening of pesticides or biological compounds against SCN and RKN. The in vitro assays were conducted in 96-well plates to determine the optimum chemical stimulus to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN J2. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were evaluated for the nematode response to see if these compounds can help distinguish between viable from the dead J2. Results indicated that live SCN J2 responded equally (P ≤ 0.05) to 1 μl Na2CO3 and 10 μl NaHCO3 in 100 μl of water at pH = 10. Live SCN J2 responded by twisting their bodies in a curling shape and increasing rate of movements within 2 minutes of exposure. The twisting activity continued for up to 30 minutes. Live RKN J2 responded by increasing activity with the application of 1 μl NaOH in 100 μl of water at pH = 10 also in the 2 minutes to 30 minutes time frame. Furthermore, in growth chamber tests to confirm the infectivity of live SCN. The live SCN as determined by exposure to 1 μl of Na2CO3 indicated 60.5% of the SCN J2 were alive and of those, 29.5% were infective and entered the soybean roots. The 1 μl of NaOH stimulus revealed that 75.2% RKN J2 were alive and of those, 14.9% were infective and entered soybean roots. These results confirmed that 1 μl of Na2CO3 added to 100 μl suspension of SCN J2 and 1 μl of NaOH added to 100 μl suspension of RKN J2 are the effective stimuli for rapidly distinguishing between live and dead SCN and RKN J2 in vitro. SCN and RKN J2 responded differently to different compounds. PMID:27144277

  19. SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE REPRODUCTION RELATED TO TILLAGE AND RHIZOSPHERE MICROORGANISMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in tillage may affect soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, (SCN) reproduction. Plots of no-tillage and tilled soybeans were established in 1979 in a randomized complete block design and individual plots were split in half in 2002 with conversion of tillage treatments to compare th...

  20. Soybean Cyst Nematode SDS-PAGE Protein Characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) represent one of the most serious threats to the stability of soybean crops in the United States. Initially discovered in North Carolina in the 1950s, it has spread rapidly through the Midwest generating an estimated $1 billion in failed crop...

  1. Effects of associated bacteria on the pathogenicity and reproduction of the insect-parasitic nematode Rhabditis blumi (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Yong Ook; Ha, Jae-Seok; Youn, Sung Hun; Kim, Hyeong Hwan; Bilgrami, Anwar L; Shin, Chul Soo

    2011-09-01

    Three bacteria, Alcaligenes faecalis , Flavobacterium sp., and Providencia vermicola , were isolated from dauer juveniles of Rhabditis blumi . The pathogenic effects of the bacteria against 4th instar larvae of Galleria mellonella were investigated. Providencia vermicola and Flavobacterium sp. showed 100% mortality at 48 h after haemocoelic injection, whereas A. faecalis showed less than 30% mortality. Dauer juveniles showed 100% mortality against G. mellonella larvae, whereas axenic juveniles, which do not harbor associated bacteria, exhibited little mortality. All of the associated bacteria were used as a food source for nematode growth, and nematode yield differed with bacterial species. Among the bacterial species, P. vermicola was most valued for nematode yield, showing the highest yield of 5.2 × 10(4) nematodes/mL in the plate. In bacterial cocultures using two of the three associated bacteria, one kind stimulated the other. The highest total bacterial yield of 12.6 g/L was obtained when the inoculum ratio of P. vermicola to A. faecalis was 10:1. In air-lift bioreactors, the nematode growth rate increased with an increasing level of dissolved oxygen. The maximum nematode yield of 1.75 × 10(5) nematodes/mL was obtained at 192 h with an aeration rate of 6 vvm. PMID:21867444

  2. Nematode parasites of four species of Carangoides (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in New Caledonian waters, with a description of Philometra dispar n. sp. (Philometridae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Parasitological examination of marine perciform fishes belonging to four species of Carangoides, i.e. C. chrysophrys, C. dinema, C. fulvoguttatus and C. hedlandensis (Carangidae), from off New Caledonia revealed the presence of nematodes. The identification of carangids was confirmed by barcoding of the COI gene. The eight nematode species found were: Capillariidae gen. sp. (females), Cucullanus bulbosus (Lane, 1916) (male and females), Hysterothylacium sp. third-stage larvae, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. (female and larvae), Terranova sp. third-stage larvae, Philometra dispar n. sp. (male), Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (females) and Johnstonmawsonia sp. (female). The new species P. dispar from the abdominal cavity of C. dinema is mainly characterised by the body length (5.14 mm), the lengths of markedly unequal spicules (163 and 96 μm) and gubernaculum (102 μm long) provided with a dorsal protuberance and a small, reflexed dorsal barb on its posterior portion. The finding of C. bulbosus represents the first record of this parasite a century after its discovery; the first study of this species by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) enabled detailed redescription. The finding of Johnstonmawsonia sp. in C. fulvoguttatus is the first record of a rhabdochonid nematode from a host belonging to the Carangidae family. Johnstonmawsonia africana Moravec & Puylaert, 1970 and J. campanae Puylaert, 1973 are transferred to Prosungulonema Roytman, 1963 as P. africanum (Moravec & Puylaert, 1970) comb. n. and P. campanae (Puylaert, 1973) n. comb. PMID:27615321

  3. Horizontal Gene Transfer from Bacteria Has Enabled the Plant-Parasitic Nematode Globodera pallida to Feed on Host-Derived Sucrose.

    PubMed

    Danchin, Etienne G J; Guzeeva, Elena A; Mantelin, Sophie; Berepiki, Adokiye; Jones, John T

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) is unusual in that these organisms have acquired a range of genes from bacteria via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The proteins encoded by most of these genes are involved in metabolism of various components of the plant cell wall during invasion of the host. Recent genome sequencing projects for PPN have shown that Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 32 (GH32) sequences are present in several PPN species. These sequences are absent from almost all other animals. Here, we show that the GH32 sequences from an economically important cyst nematode species, Globodera pallida are functional invertases, are expressed during feeding and are restricted in expression to the nematode digestive system. These data are consistent with a role in metabolizing host-derived sucrose. In addition, a detailed phylogenetic analysis shows that the GH32 sequences from PPN and those present in some insect species have distinct bacterial origins and do not therefore derive from a gene present in the last common ancestor of ecdysozoan species. HGT has therefore played at least two critical roles in the evolution of PPN, enabling both invasion of the host and feeding on the main translocation carbohydrate of the plant. PMID:26915958

  4. Roles of Steroids in Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability of nematodes to biosynthesize steroids de novo and the resulting dependence of parasitic nematodes upon their hosts have enhanced the importance of elucidating the metabolism of sterols and the hormonal and other functions of steroids in nematodes. Biochemical research has revealed th...

  5. Sequence and spatiotemporal expression analysis of CLE-motif containing genes from the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic species with a host range that encompasses more than 77 plant families. Nematode effector proteins containing plant-ligand motifs similar to CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE) peptides have been identified in the Heterodera, Globode...

  6. [Four new species of heligmosome nematodes, intestinal parasites of a Malyan Trichys lipura Günther; comparison with the Congolese fauna of Atherurs].

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, M C; Diaw, O; Krishnasamy, M

    1975-01-01

    Description of four new species of Heligmosome Nematodes parasites of the gut of Trichys lipura: --Heligmonella limbooliati n. sp. has a synlophe of Heligmonella-type and a bursa related to Cordicauda. --Cordicauda trichysi n. sp. is characterized by the relatively small dorsal lobe of the bursa, numerous cuticular ridges and the origin of the 8th rib at the distal third of the dorsal rib. --C. malayensis is closely related to C. trichysi (the female of the two species are morphologically identical but the two species can be separated by the larger dorsal lobe of the bursa and the longer spicula of C. malayensis). --C. magnabursa n. sp. is separated from the other species of the genus by the peculiar morphology of the bursa and the female's tail, dorsally bent. The fauna of Trichys is compared to that of Atherurss africanus, which is parasitized by 8 coparasites species: One Heligmonella and seven Paraheligmonina. From a phyletic as well as an ecological point of view (relative abundance and species location in the gut) the two fauna seem to have evolved in a parallel way, one in Africa, one in Asia, from a single Heligmonella type Nematode, after the host's partition. PMID:1211775

  7. The plant cell wall in the feeding sites of cyst nematodes.

    PubMed

    Bohlmann, Holger; Sobczak, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Plant parasitic cyst nematodes (genera Heterodera and Globodera) are serious pests for many crops. They enter the host roots as migratory second stage juveniles (J2) and migrate intracellularly toward the vascular cylinder using their stylet and a set of cell wall degrading enzymes produced in the pharyngeal glands. They select an initial syncytial cell (ISC) within the vascular cylinder or inner cortex layers to induce the formation of a multicellular feeding site called a syncytium, which is the only source of nutrients for the parasite during its entire life. A syncytium can consist of more than hundred cells whose protoplasts are fused together through local cell wall dissolutions. While the nematode produces a cocktail of cell wall degrading and modifying enzymes during migration through the root, the cell wall degradations occurring during syncytium development are due to the plants own cell wall modifying and degrading proteins. The outer syncytial cell wall thickens to withstand the increasing osmotic pressure inside the syncytium. Furthermore, pronounced cell wall ingrowths can be formed on the outer syncytial wall at the interface with xylem vessels. They increase the surface of the symplast-apoplast interface, thus enhancing nutrient uptake into the syncytium. Processes of cell wall degradation, synthesis and modification in the syncytium are facilitated by a variety of plant proteins and enzymes including expansins, glucanases, pectate lyases and cellulose synthases, which are produced inside the syncytium or in cells surrounding the syncytium. PMID:24678316

  8. Using FAME Analysis to Compare, Differentiate, and Identify Multiple Nematode Species

    PubMed Central

    Sekora, Nicholas S.; Agudelo, Paula; van Santen, Edzard; McInroy, John A.

    2009-01-01

    We have adapted the Sherlock® Microbial Identification system for identification of plant parasitic nematodes based on their fatty acid profiles. Fatty acid profiles of 12 separate plant parasitic nematode species have been determined using this system. Additionally, separate profiles have been developed for Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita based on their host plant, four species and three races within the Meloidogyne genus, and three life stages of Heterodera glycines. Statistically, 85% of these profiles can be delimited from one another; the specific comparisons between the cyst and vermiform stages of H. glycines, M. hapla and M. arenaria, and M. arenaria and M. javanica cannot be segregated using canonical analysis. By incorporating each of these fatty acid profiles into the Sherlock® Analysis Software, 20 library entries were created. While there was some similarity among profiles, all entries correctly identified the proper organism to genus, species, race, life stage, and host at greater than 86% accuracy. The remaining 14% were correctly identified to genus, although species and race may not be correct due to the underlying variables of host or life stage. These results are promising and indicate that this library could be used for diagnostics labs to increase response time. PMID:22736811

  9. The plant cell wall in the feeding sites of cyst nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Bohlmann, Holger; Sobczak, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Plant parasitic cyst nematodes (genera Heterodera and Globodera) are serious pests for many crops. They enter the host roots as migratory second stage juveniles (J2) and migrate intracellularly toward the vascular cylinder using their stylet and a set of cell wall degrading enzymes produced in the pharyngeal glands. They select an initial syncytial cell (ISC) within the vascular cylinder or inner cortex layers to induce the formation of a multicellular feeding site called a syncytium, which is the only source of nutrients for the parasite during its entire life. A syncytium can consist of more than hundred cells whose protoplasts are fused together through local cell wall dissolutions. While the nematode produces a cocktail of cell wall degrading and modifying enzymes during migration through the root, the cell wall degradations occurring during syncytium development are due to the plants own cell wall modifying and degrading proteins. The outer syncytial cell wall thickens to withstand the increasing osmotic pressure inside the syncytium. Furthermore, pronounced cell wall ingrowths can be formed on the outer syncytial wall at the interface with xylem vessels. They increase the surface of the symplast-apoplast interface, thus enhancing nutrient uptake into the syncytium. Processes of cell wall degradation, synthesis and modification in the syncytium are facilitated by a variety of plant proteins and enzymes including expansins, glucanases, pectate lyases and cellulose synthases, which are produced inside the syncytium or in cells surrounding the syncytium. PMID:24678316

  10. Distribution of Soybean Cyst Nematode in Nebraska

    PubMed Central

    Powers, T. O.; Sandall, L. J.; Wysong, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 552 soybean fields in 20 counties in Nebraska in 1986-88 revealed 35 fields infested with the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Identification was confirmed with a greenhouse bioassay, using 'Lee 74' soybean, and by the application of a DNA hybridization probe derived from SCN mitochondrial DNA. Most of the SCN-infested fields were located on the Missouri River floodplain and in the southeastern corner of the state. PMID:19287657

  11. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-03-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 150 ha at altitude of 1,320 m. The Zagros collection has about 3-ha area and it has been designed for showing a small pattern of natural Zagros forests in west of Iran. Brant's oak (Q. brantii) and oak manna tree (Q. infectoria) are the main woody species in Zagros collection, which have been planted in 1989. A nematological survey on Zagros forest collection in NBGI revealed heavily infection of 24-yr-old Q. brantii and Q. infectoria to RKN, Meloidogyne hapla. The roots contained prominent galls along with egg sac on the surface of each gall. The galls were relatively small and in some parts of root several galls were conjugated, and all galls contained large transparent egg masses. The identification of M. hapla was confirmed by morphological and morphometric characters and amplification of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene. The obtained sequences of large-subunit rRNA gene from M. hapla was submitted to the GenBank database under the accession number KP319025. The sequence was compared with those of M. hapla deposited in GenBank using the BLAST homology search program and showed 99% similarity with those KJ755183, GQ130139, DQ328685, and KJ645428. The second stage juveniles of M. hapla isolated from Brant's oak (Q. Brantii) showed the following morphometric characters: (n = 12), L = 394 ± 39.3 (348 to 450) µm; a = 30.9 ± 4 (24.4 to 37.6); b = 4.6 ± 0.44 (4 to 5.1); b΄ = 3.3 ± 0.3 (2.7 to 3.7), c = 8.0 ± 1 (6.2 to 10.3), ć = 5.3 ± 0.8 (3.5 to 6.3); Stylet = 12

  12. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 150 ha at altitude of 1,320 m. The Zagros collection has about 3-ha area and it has been designed for showing a small pattern of natural Zagros forests in west of Iran. Brant’s oak (Q. brantii) and oak manna tree (Q. infectoria) are the main woody species in Zagros collection, which have been planted in 1989. A nematological survey on Zagros forest collection in NBGI revealed heavily infection of 24-yr-old Q. brantii and Q. infectoria to RKN, Meloidogyne hapla. The roots contained prominent galls along with egg sac on the surface of each gall. The galls were relatively small and in some parts of root several galls were conjugated, and all galls contained large transparent egg masses. The identification of M. hapla was confirmed by morphological and morphometric characters and amplification of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene. The obtained sequences of large-subunit rRNA gene from M. hapla was submitted to the GenBank database under the accession number KP319025. The sequence was compared with those of M. hapla deposited in GenBank using the BLAST homology search program and showed 99% similarity with those KJ755183, GQ130139, DQ328685, and KJ645428. The second stage juveniles of M. hapla isolated from Brant’s oak (Q. Brantii) showed the following morphometric characters: (n = 12), L = 394 ± 39.3 (348 to 450) µm; a = 30.9 ± 4 (24.4 to 37.6); b = 4.6 ± 0.44 (4 to 5.1); b΄ = 3.3 ± 0.3 (2.7 to 3.7), c = 8.0 ± 1 (6.2 to 10.3), ć = 5.3 ± 0.8 (3.5 to 6.3); Stylet

  13. Velvetbean and Bahiagrass as Rotation Crops for Management of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) yield often is limited by the phytoparasitic nematodes Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in the southeastern United States. We studied the effects of rotation with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), velvetbean (Mucuna pruiens), or continuous soybean, aldicarb, and soybean cultivar on yield and population densities in two fields infested with a mixture of Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines. Velvetbean and bahiagrass reduced population levels of both nematode species to near zero prior to planting soybean. At harvest, both nematode populations were equal in soybean following bahiagrass and continuous soybean but were lower following velvetbean. Both bahiagrass and velvetbean as previous crops were equal in producing significantly (P < 0.003) higher yield than continuous soybean. Velvetbean increased subsequent soybean yield by 98% and bahiagrass increased subsequent soybean yield by 85% as previous crops compared to continuous soybean. The major differences between the two rotation crops were yield response of the nematode-susceptible cultivars and at-harvest nematode populations. Velvetbean tended to mask genetic differences among cultivars more so than bahiagrass. Velvetbean also produced a more long-term effect on nematode populations, with numbers of both Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines lower in soybean following velvethean than following bahiagrass or continuous soybean. PMID:19274247

  14. A family of secreted mucins from the parasitic nematode Toxocara canis bears diverse mucin domains but shares similar flanking six-cysteine repeat motifs.

    PubMed

    Loukas, A; Hintz, M; Linder, D; Mullin, N P; Parkinson, J; Tetteh, K K; Maizels, R M

    2000-12-15

    Infective larvae of the parasitic nematode Toxocara canis secrete a family of mucin-like glycoproteins, which are implicated in parasite immune evasion. Analysis of T. canis expressed sequence tags identified a family of four mRNAs encoding distinct apomucins (Tc-muc-1-4), one of which had been previously identified in the TES-120 family of glycoproteins secreted by this parasite. The protein products of all four cDNAs contain signal peptides, a repetitive serine/threonine-rich tract, and varying numbers of 36-amino acid six-cysteine (SXC) domains. SXC domains are found in many nematode proteins and show similarity to cnidarian (sea anemone) toxins. Antibodies to the SXC domains of Tc-MUC-1 and Tc-MUC-3 recognize differently migrating members of TES-120. TES-120 proteins separated by chromatographic methods showed distinct amino acid composition, mass, and sequence information by both Edman degradation and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry on peptide fragments. Tc-MUC-1, -2, and -3 were shown to be secreted mucins with real masses of 39.7, 47.8, and 45.0 kDa in contrast to their predicted peptide masses of 15.7, 16.2, and 26.0 kDa, respectively. The presence of SXC domains in all mucin products supports the suggestion that the SXC motif is required for mucin assembly or export. Homology modeling indicates that the six-cysteine domains of the T. canis mucins adopt a similar fold to the sea anemone potassium channel-blocking toxin BgK, forming three disulfide bonds within each subunit. PMID:10950959

  15. A dyf-7 haplotype causes sensory neuron defects and is associated with macrocyclic lactone resistance worldwide in the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta-Marquez, Ludmel; Bae, Seong Han; Janukavicius, Patrick; Beech, Robin; Dent, Joseph; Prichard, Roger

    2014-12-01

    Heavy reliance on macrocyclic lactones to treat parasitic nematodes has resulted in the evolution of widespread drug resistance that threatens human and animal health. Management strategies have been proposed that would slow the rise of resistance, however testing these strategies has been hampered by the lack of identified strong-effect resistance markers in parasites. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene Cel_dyf-7, necessary for amphid sensory neuron development, also confers macrocyclic lactone sensitivity. In the sheep parasite Haemonchus contortus: (i) strains selected for macrocyclic lactone resistance were enriched in a Hco_dyf-7 haplotype that was rare in the drug-naïve population, (ii) the resistant haplotype correlated with the sensory neuron defects, and (iii) the resistant haplotype was associated with decreased Hco_dyf-7 expression. Resistant field isolates of H. contortus from five continents were enriched for the resistant haplotype, demonstrating the relevance of the Hco_dyf-7 haplotype to practise and indicating that it is a locus of strong effect. Hemizygosity resulting from sex linkage of dyf-7 likely contributes to the rise of resistance in treated populations. PMID:25224687

  16. Parasites

    MedlinePlus

    ... CME and CNE for clinicians... Parasitic Disease and Malaria Strategic Priorities: 2015—2020... Cyclosporiasis: Most U.S. cases ... R S T U V W X Y Z Malaria An ancient disease that affects millions of people ...

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF MELOIDOGYNE FLORIDAE N. SP. (NEMATODA: MELOIDOGYNIDAE), A ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE PARASITIZING PEACH IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridae n. sp., is described and photographed from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) roots from Gainesville, Florida. It is characterized by: having a distinctive perineal pattern with a high to narrowly rounded arch, coarse broken and network like striae in and a...

  18. Progress and challenges in the molecular identification of plant-parasitic nematodes at the USDA ARS Nematology Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One mission of the USDA Agricultural Research Service Nematology Laboratory in Beltsville, MD is to provide nematode identifications that are urgently required by ARS scientists, federal and state researchers, and regulatory agencies for research, regulatory actions, and control purposes. In additio...

  19. Effects of the Integration of Sunn Hemp and Soil Solarization on Plant-Parasitic and Free-Living Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S.; Hooks, Cerruti R. R.

    2012-01-01

    Sunn hemp (SH), Crotolaria juncea, is known to suppress Rotylenchulus reniformis and weeds while enhancing free-living nematodes involved in nutrient cycling. Field trials were conducted in 2009 (Trial I) and 2010 (Trial II) to examine if SH cover cropping could suppress R. reniformis and weeds while enhancing free-living nematodes if integrated with soil solarization (SOL). Cover cropping of SH, soil solarization, and SH followed by SOL (SHSOL) were compared to weedy fallow control (C). Rotylenchulus reniformis population was suppressed by SHSOL at the end of cover cropping or solarization period (Pi) in Trial I, but not in Trial II. However, SOL and SHSOL did not suppress R. reniformis compared to SH in either trial. SH enhanced abundance of bacterivores and suppressed the % herbivores only at Pi in Trial II. At termination of the experiment, SH resulted in a higher enrichment index indicating greater soil nutrient availability, and a higher structure index indicating a less disturbed nematode community compared to C. SOL suppressed bacterivores and fungivores only in Trial II but not in Trial I. On the other hand, SHSOL enhanced bacterivores and fungivores only at Pi in Trial I. Weeds were suppressed by SH, SOL and SHSOL throughout the experiment. SHSOL suppressed R. reniformis and enhanced free-living nematodes better than SOL, and suppressed weeds better than SH. PMID:23482700

  20. Effects of the integration of sunn hemp and soil solarization on plant-parasitic and free-living nematodes.

    PubMed

    Marahatta, Sharadchandra P; Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2012-03-01

    Sunn hemp (SH), Crotolaria juncea, is known to suppress Rotylenchulus reniformis and weeds while enhancing free-living nematodes involved in nutrient cycling. Field trials were conducted in 2009 (Trial I) and 2010 (Trial II) to examine if SH cover cropping could suppress R. reniformis and weeds while enhancing free-living nematodes if integrated with soil solarization (SOL). Cover cropping of SH, soil solarization, and SH followed by SOL (SHSOL) were compared to weedy fallow control (C). Rotylenchulus reniformis population was suppressed by SHSOL at the end of cover cropping or solarization period (Pi) in Trial I, but not in Trial II. However, SOL and SHSOL did not suppress R. reniformis compared to SH in either trial. SH enhanced abundance of bacterivores and suppressed the % herbivores only at Pi in Trial II. At termination of the experiment, SH resulted in a higher enrichment index indicating greater soil nutrient availability, and a higher structure index indicating a less disturbed nematode community compared to C. SOL suppressed bacterivores and fungivores only in Trial II but not in Trial I. On the other hand, SHSOL enhanced bacterivores and fungivores only at Pi in Trial I. Weeds were suppressed by SH, SOL and SHSOL throughout the experiment. SHSOL suppressed R. reniformis and enhanced free-living nematodes better than SOL, and suppressed weeds better than SH. PMID:23482700

  1. Vittatidera zeaphila (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), a new genus and species of cyst nematode parasitic on corn (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species of cyst nematode, Vittatidera zeaphila, is described from Tennessee. The new genus is superficially similar to Cactodera but is distinguished from other cyst-forming taxa in having a persistent lateral field in females and cysts, persistent vulval lips covering a circumfenes...

  2. Brassicaceous Seed Meals as Soil Amendments to Suppress the Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceous seed meals are the soil materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassic...

  3. Novel cuticular morphology using LTSEM and Light Microscopic Modifications in some bacterial-feeding and plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic techniques used only exceptionally within nematology can reveal new and unexpected morphological features not visible with standard light and scanning electron microscopy. Among nematodes, SEM face views are of special importance in diagnosis of Panagrolaimus spp. Low Temperature (LT) S...

  4. Adapting the CROPGRO cotton model to simulate cotton biomass and yield under southern root-knot nematode parasitism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield losses by southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] (RKN) are usually estimated after significant damage has been caused. However, estimation of potential yield reduction before planting is possible by using crop simulation mod...

  5. A sampling of factors relative to the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of cattle in the United States.

    PubMed

    Yazwinski, Thomas A; Tucker, Chris A

    2006-11-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodosis of cattle is a parasitic condition resulting from an immense and seemingly forever-expanding array of factors. Countless determinants influence the incidence and severity of the species-specific infections that occur in cattle, determinants that affect the free-living or environmental stages of the parasites and the parasitic stages. The vast majority of animals have a subclinical or economic level of parasitism undetectable to the eye but quantified more accurately by treatment-induced improved performance (e.g., feed efficiency, nitrogen balance, weight gain, milk production). Unfortunately, the results of treatment (effectiveness and improved animal performance) sometimes can be as varied as the parasitisms that are being treated. PMID:17071350

  6. Research and implementation of novel approaches for the control of nematode parasites in Latin America and the Caribbean: is there sufficient incentive for a greater extension effort?

    PubMed

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Molento, M; Mendoza de Gives, P

    2012-05-01

    The widespread presence of anthelmintic resistant gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in outdoor ruminant production systems has driven the need to identify and develop novel approaches for the control of helminths with the intention to reduce the dependence on commercial anthelmintic drugs. This paper identifies what has been done in Latin America (LA) in terms of estimating the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminant production systems and the application of different novel approaches for the control of helminths in those systems, including research and extension activities. Firstly, the paucity of knowledge of AR is discussed in the context of different countries, as well as, the available economic resources for research, the technical infrastructure available and the practical difficulties of the production systems. It is then proposed that the search for novel approaches is not only driven by AR but also by the need for techniques that are feasible for application by resource-poor farmers in non-commercial subsistence farming systems. However, the commercial benefits of these approaches are often limited and so are funding inputs in most countries. The workers participating in the research into different novel approaches are identified as well as the different methods being studied in the different areas of LA according to their published results. In addition, the difficulties experienced during extension efforts to reach farmers and help them to adopt novel approaches for the control of parasitic nematodes in LA are discussed. The role of regulatory authorities in these countries is discussed as some methods of control might need an official confirmation of their efficacy as well as authorization prior to application as they may affect animal products (i.e. residues) and/or impose a hazard for animal welfare. The role of the pharmaceutical companies is also discussed. PMID:22169402

  7. Tracking changes in life-history traits related to unnecessary virulence in a plant-parasitic nematode

    PubMed Central

    Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Mulet, Karine; Iachia, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating trade-offs in life-history traits of plant pathogens is essential to understand the evolution and epidemiology of diseases. In particular, virulence costs when the corresponding host resistance gene is lacking play a major role in the adaptive biology of pathogens and contribute to the maintenance of their genetic diversity. Here, we investigated whether life-history traits directly linked to the establishment of plant–nematode interactions, that is, ability to locate and move toward the roots of the host plant, and to invade roots and develop into mature females, are affected in Meloidogyne incognita lines virulent against the tomato Mi-1.2 resistance gene. Virulent and avirulent near-isogenic lines only differing in their capacity to reproduce or not on resistant tomatoes were compared in single inoculation or pairwise competition experiments. Data highlighted (1) a global lack of trade-off in traits associated with unnecessary virulence with respect to the nematode ability to successfully infest plant roots and (2) variability in these traits when the genetic background of the nematode is considered irrespective of its (a)virulence status. These data suggest that the variation detected here is independent from the adaptation of M. incognita to host resistance, but rather reflects some genetic polymorphism in this asexual organism. PMID:26380696

  8. Tracking changes in life-history traits related to unnecessary virulence in a plant-parasitic nematode.

    PubMed

    Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Mulet, Karine; Iachia, Cathy

    2015-09-01

    Evaluating trade-offs in life-history traits of plant pathogens is essential to understand the evolution and epidemiology of diseases. In particular, virulence costs when the corresponding host resistance gene is lacking play a major role in the adaptive biology of pathogens and contribute to the maintenance of their genetic diversity. Here, we investigated whether life-history traits directly linked to the establishment of plant-nematode interactions, that is, ability to locate and move toward the roots of the host plant, and to invade roots and develop into mature females, are affected in Meloidogyne incognita lines virulent against the tomato Mi-1.2 resistance gene. Virulent and avirulent near-isogenic lines only differing in their capacity to reproduce or not on resistant tomatoes were compared in single inoculation or pairwise competition experiments. Data highlighted (1) a global lack of trade-off in traits associated with unnecessary virulence with respect to the nematode ability to successfully infest plant roots and (2) variability in these traits when the genetic background of the nematode is considered irrespective of its (a)virulence status. These data suggest that the variation detected here is independent from the adaptation of M. incognita to host resistance, but rather reflects some genetic polymorphism in this asexual organism. PMID:26380696

  9. Plasmalogen enrichment in exosomes secreted by a nematode parasite versus those derived from its mouse host: implications for exosome stability and biology.

    PubMed

    Simbari, Fabio; McCaskill, Jana; Coakley, Gillian; Millar, Marissa; Maizels, Rick M; Fabriás, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Buck, Amy H

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate communication between cells and organisms across all 3 kingdoms of life. Several reports have demonstrated that EVs can transfer molecules between phylogenetically diverse species and can be used by parasites to alter the properties of the host environment. Whilst the concept of vesicle secretion and uptake is broad reaching, the molecular composition of these complexes is expected to be diverse based on the physiology and environmental niche of different organisms. Exosomes are one class of EVs originally defined based on their endocytic origin, as these derive from multivesicular bodies that then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing them into the extracellular environment. The term exosome has also been used to describe any small EVs recovered by high-speed ultracentrifugation, irrespective of origin since this is not always well characterized. Here, we use comparative global lipidomic analysis to examine the composition of EVs, which we term exosomes, that are secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in relation to exosomes secreted by cells of its murine host. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis reveals a 9- to 62-fold enrichment of plasmalogens, as well as other classes of ether glycerophospholipids, along with a relative lack of cholesterol and sphingomyelin (SM) in the nematode exosomes compared with those secreted by murine cells. Biophysical analyses of the membrane dynamics of these exosomes demonstrate increased rigidity in those from the nematode, and parallel studies with synthetic vesicles support a role of plasmalogens in stabilizing the membrane structure. These results suggest that nematodes can maintain exosome membrane structure and integrity through increased plasmalogens, compensating for diminished levels of other lipids, including cholesterol and SM. This work also illuminates the prevalence of plasmalogens in some EVs

  10. In-vitro predatory activity of nematophagous fungi from Costa Rica with potential use for controlling sheep and goat parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Soto-Barrientos, Natalia; de Oliveira, Jaqueline; Vega-Obando, Rommel; Montero-Caballero, Danilo; Vargas, Bernardo; Hernández-Gamboa, Jorge; Orozco-Solano, Claudio

    2011-03-01

    In tropical and subtropical regions of the world, parasitic diseases are a main cause of losses in livestock productivity. The increased acquired resistence to anthelmintics by gastrointestinal nematodes, requires biological control be considered as a potential feasible and effective alternative. The most effective natural soil enemies of nematodes are nematophagous fungi. In order to collect and identify predator nematophagous fungi (PNF), samples were obtained from 51 farms distributed throughout the seven provinces of Costa Rica. The origin samples included: soil from different crops (potatoes, tomatoes, bananas, ornamental plants, squash and coffee); animal feces (cattle, sheep, goat and horse); soil and fallen leaves from forest; and plants with signs of nematode infection. Each sample was processed using three techniques for the extraction of fungi from soil: sprinkling technique, soil dilution and humidity chamber. Twenty four strains of nematophagous fungi were found in 19 farms; 83.3% of the fungi were isolated by sprinkling technique. The following fungi were identified: Arthrobotrys oligospora (n = 13); Candelabrella musiformis (n = 9); and for the first time there was isolation of A. conoides (n = 1) and A. dactyloides (n = 1) in the country. Moreover, 16 strains from Trichoderma (n=13), Beauveria (n = 1), Clonostachys (n = 1) and Lecanicillium (n = 1) were obtained. In addition, pH of each possible fungal isolation source was measured, and it varied from 5.2 to 9.9, however PNF isolates fell within the range of 5.6 to 7.5. The PNF strains were cultivated in four different media for the production of chhlamydospores: potato dextrose agar (PDA); corn meal agar (CMA); malt extract agar (MEA) and potato carrot agar (PCA). Out of these cultures, 95.8% of the strains formed chlamydospores primarily in the PCA. Of these strains, the profilic spore producers were subjected to ruminant artificial gastrointestinal conditions. A total of 14 fungi were tested, out

  11. Plasmalogen enrichment in exosomes secreted by a nematode parasite versus those derived from its mouse host: implications for exosome stability and biology

    PubMed Central

    Simbari, Fabio; McCaskill, Jana; Coakley, Gillian; Millar, Marissa; Maizels, Rick M.; Fabriás, Gemma; Casas, Josefina; Buck, Amy H.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate communication between cells and organisms across all 3 kingdoms of life. Several reports have demonstrated that EVs can transfer molecules between phylogenetically diverse species and can be used by parasites to alter the properties of the host environment. Whilst the concept of vesicle secretion and uptake is broad reaching, the molecular composition of these complexes is expected to be diverse based on the physiology and environmental niche of different organisms. Exosomes are one class of EVs originally defined based on their endocytic origin, as these derive from multivesicular bodies that then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing them into the extracellular environment. The term exosome has also been used to describe any small EVs recovered by high-speed ultracentrifugation, irrespective of origin since this is not always well characterized. Here, we use comparative global lipidomic analysis to examine the composition of EVs, which we term exosomes, that are secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in relation to exosomes secreted by cells of its murine host. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis reveals a 9- to 62-fold enrichment of plasmalogens, as well as other classes of ether glycerophospholipids, along with a relative lack of cholesterol and sphingomyelin (SM) in the nematode exosomes compared with those secreted by murine cells. Biophysical analyses of the membrane dynamics of these exosomes demonstrate increased rigidity in those from the nematode, and parallel studies with synthetic vesicles support a role of plasmalogens in stabilizing the membrane structure. These results suggest that nematodes can maintain exosome membrane structure and integrity through increased plasmalogens, compensating for diminished levels of other lipids, including cholesterol and SM. This work also illuminates the prevalence of plasmalogens in some EVs

  12. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  13. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sara B; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-05-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host-parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife. PMID:25680855

  14. Coating Soybean Seed with Oxamyl for Control of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Townshend, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Oxamyl coated on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Elgin) seeds in solutions of 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/ml had no serious deleterious effects on seedling emergence and growth when planted in sterile soil. Seedling emergence on day 3 was less than that of the uncoated control, but by day 7 emergence was equal to, or greater than, the control. Shoot and root growth from seed coated with oxamyl in 40 and 80 mg/ml solutions was greater than that of the control. In soil infested with soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, shoot weight of soybean plants from seeds coated with oxamyl in 80 mg/ml solution was 11 and 9% greater at weeks 3 and 7, respectively, than from uncoated seeds. Numbers of juveniles (J3 and J4) and adults of H. glycines observed on the roots of plants from oxamyl-coated seeds were 83, 42, and 49% less at weeks 3, 5, and 7, respectively, than numbers on the roots of the untreated control. Numbers of J2 extracted from the roots of plants from oxamyl-coated seeds were 75% less at weeks 5 and 7 than those extracted from roots of uncoated seeds. The numbers of J2 extracted from the soil planted to oxamyl-coated seeds were 51 and 33% less at weeks 5 and 7, respectively, than from soil planted to uncoated seed. PMID:19287713

  15. Host protective ASP-based vaccine against the parasitic nematode Ostertagia ostertagi triggers NK cell activation and mixed IgG1-IgG2 response.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, Ana; Van Coppernolle, Stefanie; Borloo, Jimmy; Van Meulder, Frederik; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Peelaers, Iris; Leclercq, Georges; Claerebout, Edwin; Geldhof, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The mucus-dwelling parasite Ostertagia ostertagi is one of the most important gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. Our group has previously demonstrated the protective capacity of a vaccine against this parasite based on a native activation-associated secreted protein ASP1 (nASP) in combination with the saponin adjuvant QuilA. The aim of the current study was to analyse the effect of both antigen and adjuvant on the cellular and humoral vaccine-induced immune responses by comparing the native ASP to a recombinant version expressed in Pichia pastoris (pASP) and replacing QuilA by Al(OH)3. Immunization of cattle with the protective nASP+QuilA vaccine was associated with antigen-induced proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells combined with IFN-γ secretion and the induction of a mixed IgG1/IgG2 antibody response. ASP-specific activation and proliferation of NK cells was also observed in mice following the same vaccination regime. Replacing QuilA by Al(OH)3 or nASP by pASP significantly decreased the capacity of the vaccines to trigger both NK cell activation and antibody responses and failed to induce protection against a challenge infection. Reduction of the structurally anchoring disulphide bonds of the nASP completely abolished its ability to induce NK cell activation and antibody responses, highlighting the importance of protein conformation for the immunostimulatory activity. PMID:27403891

  16. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) of the intestinal nematode Strongyloides ratti is involved in mucosa-associated parasite-host interaction.

    PubMed

    Anandarajah, Emmanuela M; Ditgen, Dana; Hansmann, Jan; Erttmann, Klaus D; Liebau, Eva; Brattig, Norbert W

    2016-06-01

    The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), found in the excretory/secretory products of Strongyloides ratti, is most strongly expressed in parasitic females. Since SPARC proteins are involved in the modulation of cell-matrix interactions, a role of the secreted S. ratti SPARC (Sr-SPARC) in the manifestation of the parasite in the host's intestine is postulated. The full-length cDNA of Sr-SPARC was identified and the protein was recombinantly expressed. The purified protein was biologically active, able to bind calcium, and to attach to mucosa-associated human cells. Addition of Sr-SPARC to an in vitro mucosal three-dimensional-cell culture model led to a time-dependent release of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-22, IL-10 and TSLP. Of importance, exposure with Sr-SPARC fostered wound closure in an intestinal epithelial cell model. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SPARC released from the nematode is a multifunctional protein affecting the mucosal immune system. PMID:27268729

  17. Host protective ASP-based vaccine against the parasitic nematode Ostertagia ostertagi triggers NK cell activation and mixed IgG1-IgG2 response

    PubMed Central

    González-Hernández, Ana; Van Coppernolle, Stefanie; Borloo, Jimmy; Van Meulder, Frederik; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Peelaers, Iris; Leclercq, Georges; Claerebout, Edwin; Geldhof, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The mucus-dwelling parasite Ostertagia ostertagi is one of the most important gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. Our group has previously demonstrated the protective capacity of a vaccine against this parasite based on a native activation-associated secreted protein ASP1 (nASP) in combination with the saponin adjuvant QuilA. The aim of the current study was to analyse the effect of both antigen and adjuvant on the cellular and humoral vaccine-induced immune responses by comparing the native ASP to a recombinant version expressed in Pichia pastoris (pASP) and replacing QuilA by Al(OH)3. Immunization of cattle with the protective nASP+QuilA vaccine was associated with antigen-induced proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells combined with IFN-γ secretion and the induction of a mixed IgG1/IgG2 antibody response. ASP-specific activation and proliferation of NK cells was also observed in mice following the same vaccination regime. Replacing QuilA by Al(OH)3 or nASP by pASP significantly decreased the capacity of the vaccines to trigger both NK cell activation and antibody responses and failed to induce protection against a challenge infection. Reduction of the structurally anchoring disulphide bonds of the nASP completely abolished its ability to induce NK cell activation and antibody responses, highlighting the importance of protein conformation for the immunostimulatory activity. PMID:27403891

  18. Genetic architecture of cyst nematode resistance revealed by genome-wide association study in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bi-parental mapping populations have been commonly utilized to identify and characterize quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe). Although this approach successfully mapped a large number of SCN resistance QTL, it captures onl...

  19. Occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes infecting cereals in Sicily, Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2008 and 2009, a survey on specific composition, frequency and geographical distribution of cyst nematodes living on cereals was conducted in Sicily (Italy). Heterodera latipons Franklin and H. hordecalis Andersson appeared to be the most common species in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) a...

  20. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...