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1

[Quality control in parasitology].  

PubMed

Between 1990 and 1996 we coordinated a Quality Control (QC) Program in Parasitology directed to Public Health Institutions in Spain. Periodically, parasited specimens, mainly feces or blood, were sent to Microbiology Laboratories for identification. Each QC was accompanied by a short clinic and epidemiological information in order to help in the diagnostic approach. After the answers to the QC were received a bulletin that included the solution to the QC, comments on the several answers received and a chapter with parasitological themes related with the QC, was sent to each participating Laboratory. The bulletin was accompanied by a card that included a photograph and a short description of the organism object of the QC. PMID:12056259

Vasallo Matilla, F

2001-01-01

2

[Problems of medical parasitology].  

PubMed

Situation on parasitic disease in Russia remains complex. Reduction of parasitology personnel had a negative impact on the quality of epidemiological control in the field of parasitic diseases and resulted in a decrease of awareness of physicians of therapeutic-prophylaxis institutions. The situation was aggravated by a lack of anti-malaria preparations and insufficient specter of anti-helminthic drugs. Uncontrolled increase of the number of domestic and stray dogs in cities was the reason for increase of morbidity by helminthoses and zoonoses--toxocarosis and dirofilariasis. Emergence in the south of Krasnodar Region of effective carriers Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus became a serious threat to biological safety of the country. These mosquitos are effective carriers of causative agents of mosquito viral fevers: yellow, Dengue, Chikungunya et al. PMID:23805663

Sergiev, V P

2013-01-01

3

History of human parasitology.  

PubMed

Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

Cox, F E G

2002-10-01

4

ForPeerReview Parasitology  

E-print Network

TRYPANOSOME Barbara M. Bakker1 *, R. Luise Krauth-Siegel2 , Christine Clayton3 , Keith Matthews4 , Mark. M. Bakker, phone: +31 (0) 50 361 1542, e-mail: b.m.bakker@med.umcg.nl Page 1 of 22 Parasitology #12

Breitling, Rainer

5

Parasitology: United Kingdom National Quality Assessment Scheme.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To assess the results from parasitology laboratories taking part in a quality assessment scheme between 1986 and 1991; and to compare performance with repeat specimens. METHODS: Quality assessment of blood parasitology, including tissue parasites (n = 444; 358 UK, 86 overseas), and faecal parasitology, including extra-intestinal parasites (n = 205; 141 UK, 64 overseas), was performed. RESULTS: Overall, the standard of performance was poor. A questionnaire distributed to participants showed that a wide range of methods was used, some of which were considered inadequate to achieve reliable results. Teaching material was distributed to participants from time to time in an attempt to improve standards. CONCLUSIONS: Since the closure of the IMLS fellowship course in 1972, fewer opportunities for specialised training in parasitology are available: more training is needed. Poor performance in the detection of malarial parasites is mainly attributable to incorrect speciation, misidentification, and lack of equipment such as an eyepiece graticule. PMID:1452791

Hawthorne, M.; Chiodini, P. L.; Snell, J. J.; Moody, A. H.; Ramsay, A.

1992-01-01

6

Assessment of a novel method for teaching veterinary parasitology.  

PubMed

A student-centered innovative method of teaching veterinary parasitology was launched and evaluated at the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) in St. Kitts, where Parasitology is a required course for second-semester veterinary students. A novel method, named Iron Parasitology, compared lecturer-centered teaching with student-centered teaching and assessed the retention of parasitology knowledge of students in their second semester and again when they reached their seventh semester. Members of five consecutive classes chose to participate in Iron Parasitology with the opportunity to earn an additional 10 points toward their final grade by demonstrating their knowledge, communication skills, clarity of message, and creativity in the Iron Parasitology exercise. The participants and nonparticipants were assessed using seven parameters. The initial short-term study parameters used to evaluate lecturer- versus student-centered teaching were age, gender, final Parasitology course grade without Iron Parasitology, RUSVM overall grade point average (GPA), RUSVM second-semester GPA, overall GPA before RUSVM, and prerequisite GPA before RUSVM. The long-term reassessment study assessed retention of parasitology knowledge in members of the seventh-semester class who had Iron Parasitology as a tool in their second semester. These students were invited to complete a parasitology final examination during their seventh semester. There were no statistically significant differences for the parameters measured in the initial study. In addition, Iron Parasitology did not have an effect on the retention scores in the reassessment study. PMID:24503903

Pereira, Mary Mauldin; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathleen E; Wallace, Charles E; Krecek, Rosina C

2014-01-01

7

Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China  

PubMed Central

Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

2012-01-01

8

Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China.  

PubMed

Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

2012-11-01

9

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 179 (2011) 4246 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 179 (2011) 42�46 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology Short technical report Polysome profiling of the malaria parasite sedimentation and then fractionated, yielding a characteristic polysome profile reflecting the global level

Nicchitta, Chris

10

Clinical and parasitological study on scabies in Sirte, Libya.  

PubMed

The present work aimed to determine the risk factors, clinical and parasitological skin lesion features and effective drug regimens. Study was carried out on 200 patients referred to dermatology outpatient clinics in Sirte-Libya. Each was subjected to detailed questionnaire, dermatological skin examination, parasitological skin scraping test (SST), burrow ink test (BIT), drug administration and follow up. Results revealed that females 59%, children 37.5% and military personnel 18% of immigrant families were particularly prone to scabies infestation. Effective risk factors included overcrowding, bed sharing, low hygienic and education levels. Commonest skin lesions included erythematous papules 93%, excoriated papules 77.5%, burrows 66%, pustulation 31%, vesicles 21.5 and nodules 3%. Predilection lesion sites were hand 86%, wrist 82%, abdomen 56%, male external genitalia 64.5% and female breast 28%. Specific SST was positive in 67.3% of cases, particularly sensitive in early cases with short itching duration. BIT was positive in 62%. Topical permethrin proved more effective than precipitated sulpher with cure rates of of 100% and 85.3% in 21% and 75% of cases, respectively. Ivermectin was 100% effective in 4% of cases. PMID:21268539

Fathy, Fouad M; El-Kasah, Fathi; El-Ahwal, Abdulla M

2010-12-01

11

[Geographical Information Systems and remote sensing technologies in parasitological epidemiology].  

PubMed

Parasites have natural habitats in the same way as a species: they are found in focal areas where the spatial distribution of the parasite, host, vector and required environmental conditions coincide. The spatial distribution of parasites is, therefore, a function of the interaction between abiotic and biotic environmental factors. The boundaries of distributions are not strictly fixed in space and time and may fluctuate with climate and other components of the environment or anthropical factors. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies are being used increasingly to study the spatial and temporal patterns of disease. GIS can be used to complement conventional ecological monitoring and modelling techniques, and provide means to portray complex relationships in the ecology of disease. In addition, the use of GIS and RS to identify environmental features allows determination of risk factors and delimitation of areas at risk, permitting more rational allocation of resources for cost-effective control. Since 1996, GIS have been used in our territorial cross-sectional and longitudinal parasitological surveys in order to experiment new applications to plan sampling protocols and to display quickly, clearly, and analytically the spatial and/or temporal distribution of parasitological data. The use of GIS allowed us to draw the following types of descriptive parasitological maps: distribution maps, distribution maps with proportioned peaks, choroplethic maps with proportioned peaks, point distribution maps and point distribution maps with proportioned peaks. In a recent study, GIS and RS technologies have been used also to identify environmental features that influence the distribution of paramphistomosis in sheep from the southern Italian Apennines and to develop a preliminary risk assessment model. A GIS was constructed using RS and landscape feature data together with paramphistome positive survey records from 197 georeferenced ovine farms with animals pasturing in an area of the southern Italian Apennines. The GIS for the study area was constructed utilizing the following environmental variables: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), land cover, elevation, slope, aspect, and total length of rivers. In addition, data regarding the presence of watercourses smaller than rivers, namely, streams, springs and brooks were recorded in the field. All these variables were then calculated for "buffer zones" consisting of the areas included in a circle of 3 Km diameter centred on 197 farms. The environmental data obtained were analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses using the paramphistome farm coprological status (positive/negative) as the dependent variable. A multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis model was developed that included moors and heathland, sclerophyllus and coniferous forest vegetation, autumn-winter NDVI and presence of streams, springs and brooks on pasture. The variables entered in the model are consistent with the environmental requirements of paramphistomes and their snail intermediate host. In particular, the land cover types entered in the model in this area are indicators of marginal uncultivable and sloping zones where typically there is the presence of water (permanently or temporarily). In addition, since NDVI can be used as an indicator of regional thermal-moisture regime, the distribution of farms positive for paramphistomosis corresponding to relatively high values of winter NDVI indicated the presence of adequate moisture and temperatures favourable to the rumen fluke and the snails. In conclusion, GIS and RS are useful to define the habitats of parasites, especially for those with strong environmental determinants, and to produce forecasting maps requested for the planning and the monitoring of control strategies on small and large scale. PMID:15305690

Rinaldi, L; Cascone, C; Sibilio, G; Musella, V; Taddei, R; Cringoli, G

2004-06-01

12

Reprinted from THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY Vol. 57, No.4, August 1971  

E-print Network

Reprinted from THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY Vol. 57, No.4, August 1971 p. 900 Made in United Slates that this trematode is not a true parasite of the orangebelly darter, but an inci- dental parasite ingested

13

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 132 (2003) 5966 Properties and prediction of mitochondrial transit peptides  

E-print Network

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 132 (2003) 59­66 Properties and prediction of mitochondrial networks were employed, rela- tive amino acid fractions were most commonly used for de- scribing the input

McFadden, Geoff

14

A Preliminary Parasitological Survey of Hepatozoon Spp. Infection in Dogs in Mashhad, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology. Methods The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs). Results Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254). Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29%) were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs. Conclusion This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran. PMID:23323098

Amoli, AA Rahmani; Khoshnegah, J; Razmi, GhR

2012-01-01

15

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 128 (2003) 217228 Improvements in transfection efficiency and tests of RNA  

E-print Network

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 128 (2003) 217­228 Improvements in transfection efficiency for transient and stable DNA transfection, attaining efficiencies of up to 25 and 3%, respectively in trypanosomatids. However, transient or stable transfection of DNAs encoding mRNAs for an -tubulin stem

Beverley, Stephen M.

16

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 90 (1997) 395397 Erratum to ``Surprising diversity and distribution of spliced  

E-print Network

and Biochemical Parasitology 90 (1997) 395­397 Erratum Erratum to ``Surprising diversity and distribution of spliced leader RNAs in flatworms'' [Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 87 (1997) 29­48]1 Richard E. Davis for novel flatworm spliced leaders, degenerate oligonucleotides and 5% RACE was used to isolate

Davis, Richard E.

17

Parasitology (1975), 71, 311-326 311 With 6 figures in the text  

E-print Network

at about the same rate as proline. Threonine was cleaved to form glycine and acetate, both of whichParasitology (1975), 71, 311-326 311 With 6 figures in the text Utilization of amino acids by Trypanosoma brucei in culture: L-threonine as a precursor for acetate G. A. M. CROSS, R. A. KLEIN and P. J

Cross, George

18

Molecular and parasitological detection of Leishmania spp. in dogs caught in Palmas, TO, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study evaluated occurrences of Leishmania infantum in dogs in the municipality of Palmas, Tocantins, comparing diagnostic data obtained using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and parasitological diagnosis. Blood samples and lymph node aspirates were collected from 63 dogs of males and females and various ages and races, with or without owners, between August 2009 and June 2010. Slides containing smears of lymph node aspirates were stained with Giemsa stained. In PCR, the 145 bp target sequence of the LT1 fragment, located in the Leishmania donovani kDNA minicircle was detected using the RV1 and RV2 oligonucleotide primers. The chi-square test revealed that there was a significant relationship between the symptoms and dogs that were positive for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The parasitological investigation showed concordance of 66.7% with PCR on blood and 84.1% with PCR on lymph node aspirate. In addition to these tests, evaluations of the diagnoses in parallel and in series were conducted, which showed concordances with the parasitological test of 76.2% and 74.6%, respectively. The results make it possible to suggest that PCR on lymph nodes should be used in evaluating large populations (surveys) and that the parasitological test should be used for initial clinical evaluations in veterinary consultation offices. PMID:23070439

Teles, Natlia Melquie Monteiro; Agostini, Maria Augusta Paes; Bigeli, Jlio Gomes; Noleto, Rosalba Valadares; Oliveira, Jaqueline Dias; de Oliveira Junior, Waldesse Pirag

2012-01-01

19

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 114 (2001) 169181 Telomere shortening and cell cycle arrest in Trypanosoma brucei  

E-print Network

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 114 (2001) 169­181 Telomere shortening and cell cycle arrest in Trypanosoma brucei expressing human telomeric repeat factor TRF1 Jorge L. Mun~oz-Jorda´n, George A.M. Cross brucei has telomeres composed of 15 kb tracts of TTAGGG repeats that end in 3% overhangs and form t

Cross, George

20

Journal of Parasitology NORTH AMERICAN TRANSMISSION OF HEMOSPORIDIAN PARASITES IN THE  

E-print Network

'S THRUSH (CATHARUS USTULATUS), A MIGRATORY SONGBIRD --Manuscript Draft-- Manuscript Number: GE-3134R2 Full (Catharus ustulatus), a migratory songbird." as a Research Note to the Journal of Parasitology. We have made (CATHARUS USTULATUS), A MIGRATORY SONGBIRD Molly Dodge, Susan L. Guers*, ?a an H. Sekercio lu, and Ravinder

Sehgal, Ravinder

21

[Harmonization of microbiologicaland parasitological indices of epidemic safety of drinking water with the international requirements].  

PubMed

For the purpose of harmonization of microbiological and parasitological indices and benchmarks there was performed the comparative analysis of the requirements for the quality of drinking water in respect of the epidemic safety on the basic regulations of Russia, the Directive Council of the European Union EU, WHO, the United States, Canada, Australia, Finland, Sweden, Brazil, France, Japan and China. As a result, there were revealed the priority bacteriological, virological and parasitological parameters: E. coli--indicator of recent fecal contamination, coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria colony count (Heterotrophic plate count), which is in the water legislation of the Russian Federation is characterized as total bacterial count (TBC), being an integral index of the quality of wastewater treatment technologies and hygienic condition of the water supply systems, coliphages as an indicator of viral contamination. In the Guidelines for drinking-water quality control, WHO and a set of countries there is recommended a more wide range of indicators: enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enteroviruses, parasitological indices. With aim of harmonization of the requirements for the quality of drinking water in the Russian Federation with international approaches to the revision of the Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPin) 2.1.4.1074 into the project there are introduced priority indicator parameters of bacterial, viral and parasitic contamination of water, evidence-based guidelines. PMID:24340910

Ivanova, L V; Artemova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zaga?nova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasniak, A V; Korne?chuk, S S; Shustova, S S

2013-01-01

22

Posttherapeutic Cure Criteria in Chagas' Disease: Conventional Serology followed by Supplementary Serological, Parasitological, and Molecular Tests  

PubMed Central

We performed a critical study of conventional serology, followed by supplementary serological, parasitological, and molecular tests, to assess the response to etiologic treatment of Chagas' disease. A group of 94 Chagas' disease patients treated with benznidazole at least 10 years earlier were evaluated from the laboratory and clinical points of view. When conventional serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect immunofluorescence [IIF], and indirect hemagglutination [IHA]) and classic criteria (consistent results with any two of the three tests) or more rigorous criteria (consistent results from the three tests) were used, 10.6% and 8.5% of patients were considered treated and cured (TC) by classic and rigorous criteria, respectively. Patients were then evaluated using supplementary (recombinant ELISA and Trypanosoma cruzi excreted-secreted antigen blotting [TESA-blot]), parasitological (hemoculture), and molecular (PCR) tests. The results of recombinant ELISA were similar to those with the rigorous criterion (three consistent test results). The TESA-blot group showed a higher percentage (21.3%) of negative results than the groups defined by either cure criterion. Hemoculture and PCR gave negative results for all treated and cured (TC) patients, regardless of the criterion used. Recombinant ELISA and TESA-blot tests showed negative results for 70% and 87.5% of the patients categorized as TC by the classic and three-test criteria, respectively. For patients with discordant conventional serology, the supplementary serological and molecular tests were the decisive factor in determining therapeutic failure. Clinical evaluation showed that 62.5% of TC patients presented with the indeterminate form of the disease. Additionally, treated patients with negative TESA-blot results should be reevaluated later with all methodologies used here to verify whether TESA-blot is a reliable way to determine early parasitological cure of Chagas' disease. PMID:22739694

Silva, A. R.; Do Bem, V. A. L.; Bahia, M. T.; Martins-Filho, O. A.; Dias, J. C. P.; Albajar-Vinas, P.; Torres, R. M.; Lana, M.

2012-01-01

23

Serological (Em2-ELISA) and parasitological examinations of fox populations for Echinococcus multilocularis infections.  

PubMed

Serum or body fluid samples of 1,006 foxes were investigated in an ELISA for antibodies against a highly sensitive and specific antigen (Em2-antigen) of Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasitological examinations of the intestines and simultaneous serological examinations were carried out in 505 foxes: A group of 98 blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) from Norwegian fox farms did not contain intestinal stages of E. multilocularis and was clearly sero-negative in Em2-ELISA. On the other hand in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) originating from European areas known to be endemic for E. multilocularis the following average prevalence rates were found: 244 foxes from Southern Germany, E. multilocularis prevalence 55% and sero-prevalence 60%; 139 foxes from Austria, E. multilocularis prevalence 4% and sero-prevalence 12%. Serological identification of individual foxes with or without intestinal E. multilocularis infection was not possible. Only serological (no parasitological) examination in 402 foxes originating from endemic areas in Switzerland resulted in a sero-prevalence rate of 37%. Sero-prevalence was only 6% and 4% in 54 and 26 other foxes, respectively, originating from Swiss and German areas where E. multilocularis has not yet been reported. Negative control Norwegian (farmed) silver foxes (n = 43) were all sero-negative. The specificity of the Em2-ELISA was confirmed by negative Em2-serologies with sera from dogs infected with intestinal and tissue dwelling helminth species (with the exception of two from 24 dogs infected with E. granulosus).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1858455

Gottstein, B; Deplazes, P; Eckert, J; Mller, B; Schott, E; Helle, O; Boujon, P; Wolff, K; Wandeler, A; Schwiete, U

1991-05-01

24

Parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in West Wellega, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Onchocerciasis is a disease of public health and socio-economic importance in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in the Anfilo District, West Wellega, prior to implementation of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) to generate epidemiological and parasitological data for use in control program of the disease and subsequent evaluation of CDTI. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anfilo District of West Wellega zone during a period of 1month: from mid-August to mid-September 2006. Data on socio-demographic characteristics were collected using a standardized questionnaire prepared for this purpose. All persons were examined clinically for skin signs and symptoms of onchocerciasis. Two skin snips, one from each side of the gluteal fold were taken using blood lancet and sterilized razor blade and examined for microfilaria. All data were categorized, coded, entered in a data base and analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. for windows. A total of 1114 individuals ?15years were examined for microfilariae (mf) of Onchocerca volvulus and onchocercal skin disease (OSD). The prevalence of onchocercal (mf) carrier was 74.8% (833/1114). In both genders, the prevalence of onchocerciasis showed direct correlations with the age of individuals (R (2)=0.79, P<0.05). The infection rate varied with the occupation of the study subjects, with preponderance among farmers. Among the subjects with onchocerciasis, the mf density ranged from 1.0 to 711.0 per mg of skin snip with a mean density (SD) and median values of 32.1 (61.5) and 10.4 respectively. The overall community microfilariae load (CMFL), the most sensitive parasitological indicator of onchocerciasis was 19.6. The pervasiveness of OSD among the study subjects was 26.4%. OSD was more frequent in males (32.4%) than their female counterparts (20.8%, P<0.05). The overall prevalence of onchocercal nodule carrier, the symptom opted for determining the community-wide prevalence of onchocerciasis was 12.1%. Leopard skin, the proxy of longstanding infection of onchocerciasis in the community, was also relatively high (19.1%). The abundance of mf in skin would definitely lead to high transmission potential in the Anfilo District. The situation in the Anfilo District should call for continued CDTI, owing to success of similar recommendations for such programmes in other parts of the country and elsewhere. PMID:23542576

Dori, Geme Urge; Belay, Tariku; Belete, Habtamu; Panicker, K N; Hailu, Asrat

2012-04-01

25

Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, Vol. 96, No. 3, 265270 (2002) Towards a standard battery of microsatellite markers for  

E-print Network

Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, Vol. 96, No. 3, 265­270 (2002) Towards a standard. ASHFORD*, P. A. BATES*, S. J. KEMP and H. A. NOYES *Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place recent. © 2002 The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine DOI: 10.1179/000349802125000790 #12;266 JAMJOOM

Steve Kemp

26

"Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important

Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

2013-01-01

27

Parasitological survey on wild carnivora in north-western Tohoku, Japan.  

PubMed

In the winter of 1997-1998, we collected parasitological data from 60 wild carnivora in the north-western part of Tohoku region, Japan. These included 7 foxes (Vulpes vulpes japonica), 20 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), 29 martens (Martes melampus melampus), 3 weasels (two Mustela sibirica itatsi and one M. nivalis namiyei), and one Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma). Roundworms (Toxocara canis in foxes and Toxocara tanuki in raccoon dogs), hookworms (Ancylostoma kusimaense and Arthrostoma miyazakiense) and Molineus sp. in the small intestine were the most prevalent in foxes and raccoon dogs. In martens, Aonchotheca putorii in the stomach, Concinnum ten in the pancreatic duct, Molineus sp. and Euryhelmis costaricensis in the small intestine were the most prevalent. Collected parasites include some new helminth species for this region or Japan; the strobilar stage of Taenia polyacantha from foxes, Pygidliopsis summa from a raccoon dog, Eucoleus aerophilus, A. putorii, and Soholiphyme baturini from martens. PMID:10535507

Sato, H; Inaba, T; Ihama, Y; Kamiya, H

1999-09-01

28

[Parasitologic survey of schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni in Katana, Democratic Republic of Congo].  

PubMed

It is now widely recognized that development of irrigation projects in endemic areas for schistosomiasis invariably leads to a recrudescence of the disease by increasing the habitat of the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma mansoni. This fatality was again demonstrated by experience in the Katana region of the Democratic Republic of Congo where development of 43 fresh water reservoirs for raising Tilapia nilotica led to multiplication of Biomphalaria pfeifferi. A parasitological study was conducted in three new villages around these basins and in neighboring villages. Stool examinations were performed in a total of 787 people. Infestation rates were 8.1 p. 100 and 4 p. 100 respectively. Infestation exceeded 25 p. 100 in children between the ages of 10 and 14 years. These findings underline the need for preventive measures. PMID:11100444

Baluku, B; Bagalwa, M; Bisimwa, B

2000-01-01

29

Submicroscopic infections among children with adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to re-assess the treatment outcomes of Gabonese children, treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artesunate-mefloquine (AM) and categorized by microscopy as adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR), using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Dried blood spots were collected at day 0 and day 28 and stevor gene amplification was performed to detect Plasmodium falciparum infections. Plasmodial DNA was found in 27.5% (n=19/69) of the isolates collected at day 28; this proportion was 34.3% (n=12/35) in the SP group and 20.6% (n=7/34) in the AM group. This study underlines the need of an accurate and more appropriate technique such as PCR to evaluate antimalarial drug efficacy during clinical trials. PMID:24561075

Mawili-Mboumba, D P; Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Kombila, M

2014-06-01

30

Parasitological risk assessment from wastewater reuse for disposal in soil in developing countries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to analyze the parasitological risks of treated wastewater reuse from a stabilization pond in the city of Piracicaba, in the State of So Paulo (Brazil), and the level of treatment required to protect public health. Samples were taken from raw and treated wastewater in stabilization ponds and submitted to a parasitological, microbiological and physicochemical analysis. The study revealed on treated wastewater the presence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli with an average density of 1 cysts L(-1) and 6 eggs L(-1), respectively. For Ascaris, the annual risks of infection due to the accidental ingestion of wastewater irrigation were 7.5 10(-2) in 208 days and 8.7 10(-2) in 240 days. For Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in treated wastewater, the average density was 1.0 10(5) MPN/100 ml and 2.7 10(4) MPN/100 ml respectively, representing 99% and 94% removal efficiency, respectively. For BOD, COD, TS and TSS removal efficiency was 69, 80, 50 and 71%, respectively. The removal efficiency for nitrogen; ammonia nitrogen and total phosphate was 24, 19 and 68%, respectively. The average density of helminths eggs in treated wastewater is higher compared to the density of the limit value of ?1 egg L(-1) and tolerable risk is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Multiple barriers are necessary for the reduction of organic matter, chemical contaminants and parasites from treated wastewater. Standards for the sanitary control of treated wastewater to be reused in agricultural irrigation areas should be compiled for developing countries in order to minimize public health risks. PMID:22466580

Cutolo, Silvana A; Piveli, Roque P; Santos, Jferson G; Montes, Clia R; Sundefeld, Gilberto; Campos, Fbio; Gomes, Tamara M; Melfi, Adolpho J

2012-01-01

31

[Parasitological profile of urinary schistosomiasis of the Sourou hydroagricultural complex of Burkina Faso].  

PubMed

In the Sourou area of Burkina Faso, parasitological and malacological surveys of urinary schistosomiasis have been carried out in the constructed sites of Gudougou, Niasan and Db dating respectively from 1967, 1986 and 1996. The investigations covered also the traditional villages of Lanfiera, Di, Poro, Tiao and Mara situated in the middle of the hydroagricultural planning for the first, very close to the lake for the second and about twenty kilometres distant for the three last. These towns represent the main sites in the Sourou area. The results of the parasitological surveys showed that urinary schistosomiasis was present in all sites. The levels of prevalence varied considerably: 70.3% in Guidougou, 40.8% in Niassan, 8.5% in Db in the irrigated zone, 55.6% in Lanfira, 56.8% in Di, 13.2% in Poro, 83.3% in Tiao and 64.7% in Mara. Concerning the malacological investigation, two species (Bulinus senegalensis and B. truncatus) were shown to be intermediate hosts of Schistosoma haematobium. The first was endemic to the area while the second was compatible with S. haematobium from the Sourou and other zones. Compared to the results of earlier investigations, the endemic had worsened with differences according to sites. This disparity of prevalence levels which has already been observed in other hydroagricultural area results from many factors, among which the impact of irrigation activities, the aquatic biotope system (irrigation canals, natural lake, pools and temporary rivers) and the type of contact of human communities with water rank high. Schistosomiasis expansion is amplified by the intermediate host dynamics and the introduction of new schistosomes carried by the new workers arriving from all over the country. In these conditions, in order to reduce rapidly prevalence levels, preventive measures should be centred on chemotherapy for the population. The treatment should be administered during a period of weak intermediate host density and be directed towards in-coming workers. Such an approach should be able to check the spread of schistosomiasis naturally occurring with the irrigation of new sites. PMID:11346976

Poda, J N; Sorgho, H; Dianou, D; Sawadogo, B; Kambou, T; Parent, G; Sondo, B

2001-03-01

32

The nurse of parasites: gender concepts in Patrick Manson's parasitological research.  

PubMed

Patrick Manson (1844-1922), the so-called father of tropical medicine, played a pivotal role in making that discipline into a specialty. During his early career in China he discovered that the mosquito was the intermediate host of the filarial parasite and he somewhat peculiarly called the mosquito the "nurse" of the filarial worm. The discovery contributed greatly to the intellectual foundation of modern parasitology. In this paper I situate Manson's nomenclature in the context of nineteenth-century biological research on reproductive mech-anisms and argue that Manson's concept of the "nurse" was derived from nineteenth-century theories of sexual division of labor in nature's economy. The way he framed the relation between the mosquito and the parasite, moreover, can be understood in the terms of the domestic arrangement of the colonial European household. Manson's research demonstrates the significant exchange between medical concerns over European women's procreative role in the tropics and biological studies of parasitic reproduction. PMID:15179951

Li, Shang-Jen

2004-01-01

33

Comparison of Clinical and Parasitological Data from Controlled Human Malaria Infection Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Exposing healthy human volunteers to Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is an accepted tool to evaluate preliminary efficacy of malaria vaccines. To accommodate the demand of the malaria vaccine pipeline, controlled infections are carried out in an increasing number of centers worldwide. We assessed their safety and reproducibility. Methods We reviewed safety and parasitological data from 128 malaria-nave subjects participating in controlled malaria infection trials conducted at the University of Oxford, UK, and the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, The Netherlands. Results were compared to a report from the US Military Malaria Vaccine Program. Results We show that controlled human malaria infection trials are safe and demonstrate a consistent safety profile with minor differences in the frequencies of arthralgia, fatigue, chills and fever between institutions. But prepatent periods show significant variation. Detailed analysis of Q-PCR data reveals highly synchronous blood stage parasite growth and multiplication rates. Conclusions Procedural differences can lead to some variation in safety profile and parasite kinetics between institutions. Further harmonization and standardization of protocols will be useful for wider adoption of these cost-effective small-scale efficacy trials. Nevertheless, parasite growth rates are highly reproducible, illustrating the robustness of controlled infections as a valid tool for malaria vaccine development. PMID:22701640

Roestenberg, Meta; O'Hara, Geraldine A.; Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Epstein, Judith E.; Edwards, Nick J.; Scholzen, Anja; van der Ven, Andre J. A. M.; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Sauerwein, Robert W.

2012-01-01

34

Parasitological characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni infection in swiss mice with underlying malnutrition.  

PubMed

The effects of a protein-restricted diet (8% protein, 81% carbohydrate and 11% lipids) on Schistosoma mansoni infectivity, fecal egg excretion and intestinal egg distribution in Swiss (SW) mice were studied. Pregnant mice received a deficient diet from the middle of gestation until delivery. Seven-days-old mice were exposed to 50 cercariae (BH strain, Brazil). Offspring mice had a free access to the deficient diet since lactation until adulthood. The controls were fed with a commercial mice diet. A parasitological examination was performed between six and eight weeks post-infection while both groups were necropsied one week later. Mice on the experimental diet showed a significant loss in body weight. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in pre-patent period, kinetics of egg excretion and worm recovery from mice on either diet. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found concerning to the percentage of deposited eggs in the distal segment of the small intestine from hosts on the experimental diet. Our data suggest that experimental malnutrition induced for a long term has no detrimental effect on the acute schistosomiais infection in SW mice. PMID:12426609

Simes, Carla; Neves, Renata Heisler; Barros, Lucas de Andrade; Brito, Patrcia Dias; Cravo, Cristiane Oliveira; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Machado-Silva, Jos Roberto

2002-01-01

35

Serological and parasitological response in chronic Chagas patients 3 years after nifurtimox treatment  

PubMed Central

Background With declining vectorial transmission, Chagas disease predominantly affects adults nowadays. The efficacy of nifurtimox in the chronic phase in adult patients is poorly known, particularly in regions where there is no risk of reinfection. Recommendations for treatment outcome assessment rely on serological follow-up. We evaluated the serological and parasitological response to nifurtimox in a cohort of adult patients three years post-treatment in Switzerland. Methods Patients treated with nifurtimox in 2008 during a cross-sectional study in Geneva, Switzerland, were contacted for follow-up in 2011. Two ELISAs and a rapid immunochromatographic test were used to test 2008 and 2011 serum samples simultaneously. In addition, conventional and real-time PCR were performed on 2011 samples. Results Thirty-seven (84.1%) of 44 eligible patients, predominantly female, middle-aged, Bolivians at the indeterminate stage, were enrolled. All 2011 ELISA and immunochromatographic tests were positive. Twenty-eight (75.7%) patients presented a lower optical density (OD) in 2011 compared to 2008. This OD difference was significant in both commercial (P?

2013-01-01

36

Efficacy of parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in faecal specimens.  

PubMed

To compare the efficacy of stool examination for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm, a total of 634 stool samples from the routine laboratory service of the Pharmacia Faculty, Federal University of Bahia, Brazil, were examined by agar plate culture (APC), Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation. The sensitivity of agar plate culture, calculated by combining results of all 3 methods, was 95% for S. stercoralis and 77.6% for hookwoorm. Moreover, APC had superior accuracy than Baermann-Moraes and spontaneous sedimentation for S. stercoralis and hookworm diagnosis, respectively. The S. stercoralis and hookworm positive samples from the laboratory routine, obtained after the previous analysis, along with those initially selected, were used to evaluate the concordance between microscopic examination and both the type of furrows left by larvae and the time for culture positivity using the APC method. Of 115 stool samples positive for S. stercoralis and 92 positive for hookworm, 110 (95.7%) and 89 (96.7%), respectively, had concordant results for furrows and morphological characteristics. The cumulative percentage of positivity increased to 94% by the third day of observation; at this time, only 19.6% of hookworm-positive samples had positive culture plates. Analyses of 74 S. stercoralis-positive stool samples stored at 4C for 24, 48 and 72h showed the presence of larvae in 48.6%, 28.4% and 23% of samples, respectively when re-examined by the APC. As a definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis depends on the microscopic demonstration of parasites, increasing the sensitivity of the detection requires the use of different parasitological methods, including APC. PMID:21896267

Ins, Elizabete de J; Souza, Joelma N; Santos, Renata C; Souza, Eliane S; Santos, Fred L; Silva, Mnica L S; Silva, Moacir P; Teixeira, Mrcia C A; Soares, Neci M

2011-12-01

37

A parasitological survey of natural water springs and inhabitants of a tourist city in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in main springs of Campos do Jordo, an important tourist city, in Brazil and to gather the largest amount of parasitological data from autochthonous population that live in rural areas of this city. The membrane filtration technique followed by direct immunofluorescence assay was employed for concentration and visualization of waterborne protozoa. In the period between June 2003 and May 2004, the presence of at least one pathogenic protozoa was detected in 25.0% (3/12) of the springs studied, with mean concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and 0.07 to 0.1 Giardia sp. cysts/L. The coproparasitological investigation conducted in dwellers from two rural communities from this city revealed that 49.2% (91/185) of people had intestinal parasites. Among pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium was the most prevalent species (8.1%) followed by Giardia duodenalis (5.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (2.7%), and Blastocystis hominis (2.2%). The most prevalent geohelminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (14.9%) and Trichuris trichiura (9.7%). This study demonstrated the contamination and the distribution of intestinal parasites, especially Cryptosporidium and Giardia species, in different springs of an important tourist city in Brazil, highlighting the need of monitoring natural water sources. The high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis detected in some specific populations of this city may function as a link of transmission of different intestinal parasitosis due to soil and water contamination, contributing to the maintenance of parasite life cycles. Therefore, the inclusion of consistent public health interventions with measures that include the protection of springs, the installation of minimum health infrastructure, and primary education of the population are widely necessary, aiming the control and prevention of parasite infections. PMID:22217166

Branco, Nilson; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

2012-05-01

38

Bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: Parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background To clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes. Results A total of 239 cattle were sampled across eight locations ranging in elevation from 1112-2072?m. Faecal material was examined for presence of Fasciola eggs and sera were tested by ELISA for antibodies against Fasciola antigens. Bolstering this, 38 cattle at slaughter from 2 abattoir sites at 1150?m and 1947?m were inspected; in addition, wild buffalo stool (n?=?10) opportunistically picked within Mount Elgon National Park (MENP) at 3640?m was examined. By faecal egg detection, prevalence of Fasciola gigantica at low (<1500?m) and high (>1500?m) altitude sites was 43.7% (95% CI 35.4-52.2) and 1.1% (95% CI 0.0-6.0), respectively, while by ELISA was much higher, low altitude - 77.9% (95% CI 69.7-85.4) and high altitude - 64.5% (95% CI 51.3-76.3). The decline in prevalence with increasing altitude was corroborated by abattoir sampling. Thirty seven aquatic habitats, ranging from 1139-3937?m in altitude were inspected for freshwater snails, 12 of which were within MENP. At lower altitudes, Lymnaea (Radix) natalensis was common, and often abundant, but at higher altitudes became much rarer ceasing to be found above 1800?m. On the other hand, Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula was found only at altitudes above 3000?m and within MENP alone. The snail identifications were confirmed by DNA analysis of the ribosomal 18S gene. Conclusions Active infections of F. gigantica in cattle are common in lower altitude settings but appear to diminish with increasing elevation. This is likely due to a growing paucity of intermediate hosts, specifically populations of L. natalensis for which a natural boundary of 1800?m appeared. Although F. hepatica was not encountered, the presence of several populations of L. truncatula at elevations over 3000?m point towards a potential transmission zone within MENP should this parasite be introduced. PMID:22958402

2012-01-01

39

Babesiosis in dogs and cats--expanding parasitological and clinical spectra.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis caused by different Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and global significance. Historically, Babesia infection in dogs was identified based on the morphologic appearance of the parasite in the erythrocyte. All large forms of Babesia were designated Babesia canis, whereas all small forms of Babesia were considered to be Babesia gibsoni. However, the development of molecular methods has demonstrated that other Babesia species such as Babesia conradae, Babesia microti like piroplasm, Theileria spp. and a yet unnamed large form Babesia spp. infect dogs and cause distinct diseases. Babesia rossi, B. canis and Babesia vogeli previously considered as subspecies are identical morphologically but differ in the severity of clinical manifestations which they induce, their tick vectors, genetic characteristics, and geographic distributions, and are therefore currently considered separate species. The geographic distribution of the causative agent and thus the occurrence of babesiosis are largely dependent on the habitat of relevant tick vector species, with the exception of B. gibsoni where evidence for dog to dog transmission indicates that infection can be transmitted among fighting dog breeds independently of the limitations of vector tick infestation. Knowledge of the prevalence and clinicopathological aspects of Babesia species infecting dogs around the world is of epidemiologic and medical interest. Babesiosis in domestic cats is less common and has mostly been reported from South Africa where infection is mainly due to Babesia felis, a small Babesia that causes anemia and icterus. In addition, Babesia cati was reported from India and sporadic cases of B. canis infection in domestic cats have been reported in Europe, B. canis presentii in Israel and B. vogeli in Thailand. Babesiosis caused by large Babesia spp. is commonly treated with imidocarb dipropionate with good clinical response while small Babesia spp. are more resistant to anti-babesial therapy. Clinical and parasitological cure are often not achieved in the treatment of small Babesia species infections and clinical relapses are frequent. The spectrum of Babesia pathogens that infect dogs and cats is gradually being elucidated with the aid of molecular techniques and meticulous clinical investigation. Accurate detection and species recognition are important for the selection of the correct therapy and prediction of the course of disease. PMID:21571435

Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad

2011-09-01

40

Evaluation of myrrh (Mirazid) therapy in fascioliasis and intestinal schistosomiasis in children: immunological and parasitological study.  

PubMed

A total of 21 children with fascioliasis (8 males and 13 females) with mean age of 10.4 years, 8 children with schistosomiasis mansoni (6 males and 2 females) with mean age of 11.37 years were treated with Myrrh (Mirazid) which is an oleo-gum resin from the stem of Commiphora molmol tree (Family Burseraceae). Also, ten healthly cross matched children were utilized as controls. Diagnosis was based on the detection of Fasciola hepatica or Schistosoma mansoni eggs in stool by Kato-Katz technique. Mirazid was given as 10 mg/kg/d an hour before breakfast for 3 consecutive days in schistosomiasis and for 6 days in fascioliasis. Clinical evaluation and stool analysis were done initially and at 2, 4 and 12 weeks post treatment to evaluate cure. Rectal snip was done for responding schistosomiasis cases to confirm recovery. Automated complete blood count with manual assessment of eosinophils, serum total IgE (enzyme immunoassay) and in vitro cytokines assay (IL-1 beta, IL-4, IL-5) by ELISA were performed for all subjects before treatment and repeated 12 weeks only for patients after therapy. Parasitologic cure was 90.9% in fascioliasis and 100% in schistosomiasis at 4 weeks post treatment. After a second dose Fasciola patients who remained positive were cured. Total IgE was significantly higher in Fasciola and Schistosoma patients before treatment compared to control (p < 0.001; 0.005 respectively) and decreased significantly with therapy (p = 0.001; 0.036). IL-1beta was higher in both patient groups than control (p < 0.001; 0.003) and decreased significantly 12 weeks after therapy to control level (p < 0.001; 0.017). IL-5 was high before treatment in both groups (p = 0.041; 0.027) and decreased significantly after 12 weeks after therapy (p = 0.005; 0.012). IL-4 did not differ from control before therapy (p = 0.58; 0.79) but increased significantly after treatment in both patient groups (p = 0.04; 0.02). It is concluded that Mirazid is an effective fasciolicidal and schistosomicidal drug. IL-1beta and IL5 were high in fascioliasis and schistosomiasis, but decreased with therapy denoting immunopathogenesis. The depressed IL-4 production may be a parasite immune evasion or host regulatory mechanism and cytokines levels may be criteria of cure. PMID:15587320

Soliman, Othman E; El-Arman, Mohammed; Abdul-Samie, Elham R; El-Nemr, Hosam I; Massoud, Ahmed

2004-12-01

41

Evaluation of schistosomicidal activity of myrrh extract: parasitological and histological study.  

PubMed

Ninety mice were divided into three main groups: G. I (non-infected control), G. II (infected non treated control) and G. III (infected treated), which was further subdivided into 4 subgroups: IIIA, IIIB, IIIC & IIID, where the drug was administered in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight for five days before infection for subgroup IIIA, on the 1st day post infection (PI) for subgroup IIIB, 21 days PI for subgroup IIIC and 45 days post infection for subgroup IIID. All animals were sacrificed 80 days after the start of the experiment. Anti-schistosomal activity was assessed parasitologically by estimating the percentage reducetion of worm burden, egg count/gm tissues (liver & intestine), and the oogram pattern; histologically & histopathologically by examination of jejunum using different stains. The percentage reduction of worm burden was 30.35%, 64.54%, 76.92% and 98.46% respectively when compared to the infected non-treated control G. The maximum effect of the drug was observed in subgroups IIIC & IIID. Also, there was marked reduction in the egg count in tissues (liver & intestine). In addition the oogram pattern showed that myrrh had high antischistosomal activity. The histologically and histopathologically infected untreated (GII), when compared to non-infected non-treated control G. showed apparent shortening and flattening of the jejunal villi with focal loss of the epithelial covering. Loss of PAS positive brush border of many enterocytes with goblet cells hyperplasia was seen. Bilharzial granulomas were frequently encountered in the submucosa and the musculosa with numerous eosinophils content. In subgroups IIIA & IIIB, there was mild amelioration of the mucosal structural abnormalities. The granulomas were less frequently seen with decrease of their eosinophils. In subgroups IIIC & IIID there was restoration of the jejunal mucosal continuity, marked decrease in the granulomas and paucity of eosinophils. The present data proved that myrrh has a valuable schistosomicidal effect against different maturation stages of S. mansoni. The chemotherapeutic effect was more evident when the drug was given to the infected mice on the 21st as well as on the 45th day PI. The drug proved a promising chemoprophylactic agent when used five days before exposure to infection. PMID:15658062

Massoud, Ahmed M A; El Ebiary, Faika H; Abou-Gamra, Maha M M; Mohamed, Ghada F; Shaker, Safaa M

2004-12-01

42

In Their Own Words Or: Symptoms of Morgellons and Neurocutaneous Syndrome (Ncs) Upon First Examination at the Parasitology Center, Inc. (Pci)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon first examination at Parasitology Center, Inc. (PCI), Scottsdale, Arizona, prospective Neuro- cutaneous Syndrome (NCS) and Morgellons patients are required to fill out a Requisition Form in which they are asked to describe their symptoms. The body of this article is a compilation of statements by 166 patients in their own words, describing their symptoms at the time, the cause

Omar M. Amin

2010-01-01

43

BAITING RED FOXES IN AN URBAN AREA: A CAMERA TRAP STUDY DANIEL HEGGLIN,1 Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland  

E-print Network

BAITING RED FOXES IN AN URBAN AREA: A CAMERA TRAP STUDY DANIEL HEGGLIN,1 Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Baiting red foxes (Vulpes, Vulpes vulpes, zoonoses. 1010 In Europe, rabies epizootics substantially reduced red fox densities

Richner, Heinz

44

Parasitological, serological, and clinical evidence for high prevalence of podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis) in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Both podoconiosis (a geochemical non-filarial disease) and chronic filarial disease result in lower limb elephantiasis. The aims of the present study were to determine whether the elephantiasis in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia is filarial or non-filarial (podoconiosis) using serological, parasitological, and clinical examinations, and to estimate its prevalence. METHODS House-to-house visits were made in 330 randomly selected households. All household members that had elephantiasis were interviewed and clinically examined at the nearby health center to confirm presence of elephantiasis, check presence of scrotal swelling, and rule out other causes of lymphoedema. Midnight blood sample was obtained from each participant with elephantiasis for microscopic examination of W. bancrofti microfilaria. Day time blood sample was obtained from half of the participants for serological confirmation using the immuno-chromatographic test card. RESULTS Consistent with features of podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis), none of the elephantiasis cases had consistently worn shoes since childhood; 94.3% had bilateral swelling limited below the level of the knees; no individual had thigh or scrotal elephantiasis; parasitological test for microfilariae and serological tests for W. bancrofti antigen turned negative in all samples. The prevalence of the disease was 7.4%. Prevalence peaked in the third decade of life, which also includes the most economically active age groups. CONCLUSIONS This study has shown high prevalence of podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) and absence of filarial elephantiasis in Midakegn district. Prevention, treatment, and control of podoconiosis must be among the top priorities of public health programs in the district. PMID:22487446

Oli, Geleta Geshere; Ayele, Fasil Tekola; Petros, Beyene

2012-01-01

45

High Parasitological Failure Rate of Visceral Leishmaniasis to Sodium Stibogluconate among HIV Co-infected Adults in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Antimonials are still being used for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment among HIV co-infected patients in East-Africa due to the shortage of alternative safer drugs like liposomal amphotericin B. Besides tolerability, emergence of resistance to antimonials is a major concern. Objectives This study was aimed at assessing the clinical outcome of VL-HIV co-infected patients when treated with sodium stibogluconate (SSG). Methods Retrospective patient record analysis of VL-HIV co-infected patients treated at a clinical trial site in north-west Ethiopia was done. Patients with parasitologically confirmed VL and HIV co-infection treated with SSG were included. The dose of SSG used was 20 mg Sb5 (pentavalent antimony)/kg and maximum of 850 mg Sb5 for 30 days. The clinical outcomes were defined based on the tissue aspiration results as cure or failure, and additionally the safety and mortality rates were computed. Results The study included 57 patients treated with SSG and by the end of treatment only 43.9% of patients were cured. The parasitological treatment failure and the case fatality rate were 31.6% and 14.0% respectively. SSG was discontinued temporarily or permanently for 12 (21.1%) cases due to safety issues. High baseline parasite load (graded more than 4+) was significantly associated with treatment failure (odds ratio?=?8.9, 95% confidence interval?=?.5-51.7). Conclusion SSG is not only unsafe, but also has low effectiveness for VL-HIV patients. Safe and effective alternative medications are very urgently needed. Drug sensitivity surveillance should be introduced in the region. PMID:24854196

Diro, Ermias; Lynen, Lutgarde; Mohammed, Rezika; Boelaert, Marleen; Hailu, Asrat; van Griensven, Johan

2014-01-01

46

The use of fish metabolic, pathological and parasitological indices in pollution monitoring . II. The Red Sea and Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

??The complex interactions between parasites, hosts and the environment are influenced by the stability of the ecosystem. Heteroxenous parasites, with complex, multiple-host life cycles, can persist only in habitats where the full range of their required hosts are present. Conversely, in impoverished environments such as those impacted by environmental stress, monoxenous species that have simple, single-host life cycles are likely to predominate. In the present study, we analyzed the ratio between heteroxenous and monoxenous (H/M) parasites as well as parasite species richness (SH/SM) and species diversity in rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) collected from several sites in the Red Sea. The rabbitfish is a Suez Canal immigrant, well established in the eastern Mediterranean, and fish were also collected from a site on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Separate treatment of the micro- and macroparasite components of the rabbitfish parasite communities in the Red Sea suggested that macroparasites only - monogenea and gut parasites - were better indicators than the parasite community as a whole. Quantification of macroparasites is accurate, saves time and effort, produces more accurate data and better differentiates between sites. Higher H/M ratios and SH/SM ratios were found in the rabbitfish collected at the ecologically stable habitat of the coral reef compared to rabbitfish from sandy habitat or mariculture-impacted sandy habitat. The results of the study emphasized the negative impacts of cage mariculture on the environment. The rabbitfish collected near the mariculture farms supported the poorest and least diverse parasite communities of all sampled sites, with virtual depletion of heteroxenous species, and even reduction of gill monogenean infections on the hosts. When results from the Mediterranean sites were compared with those of the Red Sea, the data showed full representation of monoxenous parasites (all but one of Red Sea origin), while heteroxenous species were completely absent. We may therefore regard the Mediterranean as a simulation model for a severely environmentally deteriorated, impoverished habitat, in which all or part of the intermediate host species have been depleted, enabling survival of the monoxenous parasite species only. Parasitological investigations were supplemented by testing the activity of cytochrome P 450- dependent mono-oxygenase EROD as a measure of exposure, and lysosomal stability as a measure of toxic effect in the liver of rabbitfish. The results underline the parasitological findings, showing that fish caught at the impacted sandy beach location in the Red Sea have significantly higher EROD activity and a decreased membrane stability compared with animals from the coral reef. In comparison, EROD activity values in rabbitfish from the Mediterranean Sea were double, while lysosomal membrane stability was half that measured at the most impacted Red Sea location.

Diamant, A.; Banet, A.; Paperna, I.; Westernhagen, H. v.; Broeg, K.; Kruener, G.; Koerting, W.; Zander, S.

47

Performance of LBSap Vaccine after Intradermal Challenge with L. infantum and Saliva of Lu. longipalpis: Immunogenicity and Parasitological Evaluation  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the search for new vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis has intensified. However, the pattern related to immune protection during long periods after experimental infection in vaccine trials is still not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the immunogenicity and parasitological levels after intradermal challenge with Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland extract in dogs immunized with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as an adjuvant (LBSap vaccine). The LBSap vaccine elicited higher levels of total anti-Leishmania IgG as well as both IgG1 and IgG2. Furthermore, dogs vaccinated had increased levels of lymphocytes, particularly circulating B cells (CD21+) and both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. LBSap also elicited an intense in vitro cell proliferation associated with higher levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes specific for vaccine soluble antigen and soluble lysate of L. infantum antigen even 885 days after experimental challenge. Furthermore, LBSap vaccinated dogs presented high IFN-? and low IL-10 and TGF-?1 expression in spleen with significant reduction of parasite load in this tissue. Overall, our results validate the potential of LBSap vaccine to protect against L. infantum experimental infection and strongly support further evaluation of efficiency of LBSap against CVL in natural infection conditions. PMID:23189161

Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Braga, Samuel Leoncio; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; de Lana, Marta; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Marques, Marcos Jose; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

2012-01-01

48

Effect of Experimental Infection with Haemonchus contortus on Parasitological and Local Cellular Responses in Resistant and Susceptible Young Creole Goats  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to evaluate the relationships of cellular changes in the abomasal mucosa and parasitological parameters, by comparing resistant and susceptible young Creole goats (kids) after experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus. The kids were infected over 2 periods (challenges 1 and 2) of 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Fecal egg count (FEC), blood eosinophilia, packed cell volume (PCV), and body weight were weekly monitored. At the end of both challenges a subgroup of kids was slaughtered for nematode burden measurements and analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the abomasal mucosa. The average daily gain was higher in resistant kids after both challenges. Blood eosinophilia and FEC were higher in susceptible kids after both challenges. The number of immature worms and the means of female length were lower after challenge 2 whatever the genetic status. No differences were observed in the eosinophil and mononuclear cell infiltration between challenges 1 and 2 and resistant and susceptible kids. Globule leukocyte infiltration was found higher after the challenge 1 in resistant kids. This effect of the genetic status on globule leukocytes counts but not on the other inflammatory cell highlights the need for further study on the functional activity of these cell populations. PMID:23936855

Bambou, J. C.; Larcher, T.; Cei, W.; Dumoulin, P. J.; Mandonnet, N.

2013-01-01

49

Genotypic analysis of ?-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment  

PubMed Central

Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM nave community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. ?-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the ?-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p<0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM nave community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the ?-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance. PMID:24533268

Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O.; Prichard, Roger K.

2012-01-01

50

Weibull statistical analysis of tensile strength of vascular bundle in inner layer of moso bamboo culm in molecular parasitology and vector biology.  

PubMed

Bamboo is a radial gradient variation composite material against parasitology and vector biology, but the vascular bundles in inner layer are evenly distributed. The objective is to determine the regular size pattern and Weibull statistical analysis of the vascular bundle tensile strength in inner layer of Moso bamboo. The size and shape of vascular bundles in inner layer are similar, with an average area about 0.1550 mm2. A statistical evaluation of the tensile strength of vascular bundle was conducted by means of Weibull statistics, the results show that the Weibull modulus m is 6.1121 and the accurate reliability assessment of vascular bundle is determined. PMID:25016270

Le, Cui; Wanxi, Peng; Zhengjun, Sun; Lili, Shang; Guoning, Chen

2014-07-01

51

Entomological and parasitological impacts of indoor residual spraying with DDT, alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin in the western foothill area of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background In Madagascar, indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticide was part of the national malaria control programme since the middle of the twentieth century. It was mainly employed in the highlands and the foothill areas, which are prone to malaria epidemics. Prior to a policy change foreseeing a shift from DDT to pyrethroids, a study was carried out to assess the entomological and parasitological impacts of IRS in areas with DDT or pyrethroids and in areas without IRS. Methods The study was carried out from October 2002 to February 2005 in three communes of the western foothill area of Madagascar. Two communes received IRS with DDT in February 2003, then IRS with pyrethroids (alphacypermethrin or deltamethrin) in February 2004. The third commune remained untreated. Mosquitoes were collected at night using human landing catches and early in the morning in resting places. Blood smears were obtained from schoolchildren and microscopically examined for Plasmodium presence. Results In total, 18,168 human landing mosquitoes and 12,932 resting anophelines were collected. The Anopheles species caught comprised 10 species. The main and most abundant malaria vector was Anopheles funestus (72.3% of human-seeking malaria vectors caught indoors). After IRS had taken place, this species exhibited a lower human biting rate and a lower sporozoite index. Overall, 5,174 blood smears were examined with a mean plasmodic index of 19.9%. A total of four Plasmodium species were detected. Amongst tested school children the highest plasmodial index was 54.6% in the untreated commune, compared to 19.9% in the commune sprayed with DDT and 11.9% in the commune sprayed with pyrethroid. The highest prevalence of clinical malaria attacks in children present at school the day of the survey was 33% in the untreated commune compared to 8% in the areas which received IRS. Conclusion In terms of public health, the present study shows (1) a high efficacy of IRS with insecticide, (2) a similar efficacy of DDT and pyrethroid and (3) a similar efficacy of alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin. The use of IRS with DDT and pyrethroid greatly decreased the vector-human contact, with an associated decrease of the plasmodial index. However malaria transmission did not reach zero, probably due to the exophilic host-seeking and resting behaviours of the malaria vectors, thus avoiding contact with insecticide-treated surfaces indoors. The study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the IRS implementation and the need for complementary tools for an optimal vector control in Madagascar. PMID:24423246

2014-01-01

52

Comparison of Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Delayed-Type Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of invasive and non-invasive tests for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a large series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In this delayed-type cross-sectional study, 113 HIV-infected symptomatic patients were evaluated by an adjudication committee after clinical follow-up to establish the presence or absence of VL as the target condition (reference test). The index tests were recombinant K39 antigen-based immunochromatographic test (rK39), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), prototype kit of direct agglutination test (DAT-LPC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in peripheral blood. Compared with parasitological test and adjudication committee diagnosis or latent class model analyses, IFAT and rk39 dipstick test presented the lowest sensitivity. DAT-LPC exhibited good overall performance, and there was no statistical difference between DAT-LPC and qPCR diagnosis accuracy. Real-time PCR emerges as a less invasive alternative to parasitological examination for confirmation of cases not identified by DAT. PMID:23836568

Cota, Glaucia Fernandes; de Sousa, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas Nogueira, Betania Mara; Gomes, Luciana Inacia; Oliveira, Edward; Assis, Talia Santana Machado; de Mendonca, Andrea Laender Pessoa; Pinto, Bruna Fernandes; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Rabello, Ana

2013-01-01

53

[Parasitological profile of two forms of schistosomiasis (urinary and intestinal forms) at ten sites in Burkina Faso (Sub-Saharan Africa country)].  

PubMed

In spite of great progress in schistosomiasis control during the last decade in Burkina Faso, this disease remains a public health concern in the country. Indeed, our study consisted of the analysis of parasitological data related to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni and in malacological investigations. The prevalence rate of Schistosoma haematobium varies from 3.3% to 50.4% and from 3.3% to 39.1% for Schistosoma mansoni, but only in the western part of Burkina Faso. Schoolboys are more infested than girls, but the phenomenon is reversed in adults. Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus senegalensis and Bulinus globosus were collected during this study. Thus, the behavioral factors as well as the dynamics and the distribution of the intermediate mollusks play a major role in the persistence of the disease. PMID:23916210

Zongo, Dramane; Kabre, B Gustave; Dayeri, Dianou; Savadogo, Boubacar; Poda, Jean-Nol

2013-01-01

54

A survey for helminth parasites in feral New World non-human primate populations and its comparison with parasitological data from man in the region.  

PubMed

A survey for helminth parasites in feral New World non-human primates was conducted and compared with parasitological data from man in the region. A total of 835 fecal samples were collected from feral Aotus nancymae, A. vociferans, Saguinus labiatus, S. mystax, Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis, S. sciureus macrodon, Lagothrix lagotricha and Cacajao calvus rubicundus. In addition, adult parasites were collected from necropsies performed on monkeys that died during quarantine and in captivity. Helminth parasites shared by non-human primates and man in Peru were Ancylostoma braziliensis and Ascaris lumbricoides, found in a captive L. lagotricha; Necator americanus, found in a captive C. calvus rubicundus; Hymenolepis diminuta, found in feral Aotus spp. and S. mystax; and a single Trichuris spp. specimen found in a feral S. sciureus macrodon. PMID:14641789

Michaud, C; Tantalean, M; Ique, C; Montoya, E; Gozalo, A

2003-12-01

55

Studies on Parasitologic and Haematologic Activities of an Enaminone Derivative of 4-Hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one Against Murine Schistosomiasis Mansoni  

PubMed Central

The activity of a novel enaminone derivative of 4hydroxyquinoline, BDHQ, was screened for its effectiveness against murine schistosomiasis by electron microscopy and parasitologic studies. The correlation of these studies with serum levels of IFNgamma and IgE is described. Two groups of 10 mice each were treated with different doses of BDHQ, and their results were correlated with the control and praziquantel (PZQ)treated groups. Parasitologic study revealed significant reduction in mature worms and tissue egg loads in BDHQ and PZQtreated groups, whereas immature worms revealed significant reduction in BDHQ groups only. The group treated with a higher dose of BDHQ showed significant reductions in intestinal ova count when compared with the PZQtreated group. Ultrastructural examination of the worm revealed significant degeneration of the spines and tegument in all treated groups, while the genital system was affected in BDHQtreated groups only. BDHQ showed considerable effect on cellular activation where serum levels of IFNgamma were significantly increased in comparison to control, while antisoluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) IgE was significantly increased in comparison to both the control and PZQtreated groups. Ultrastructural examination revealed cellular activation in buffy coat and the liver in both the BDHQ and PZQtreated groups in comparison to the untreated one, whereas in the bone marrow and spleen, evidence of cellular activation was remarkable in the BDHQtreated groups. In conclusion, BDHQ exhibits high levels of activity against adult and juvenile stages of these parasites, which may be due to its mixed cellular and humoral immunologic mechanisms, as demonstrated by the significant increase of serum levels of IgE and IFNgamma shown on electron microscopy. Therefore, our results support the comparative advantage that BDHQ has over PZQ. PMID:17435624

El-Shennawy, Amal M.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Mohamed Abass

2007-01-01

56

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in ruminants (bovine, ovine, caprine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first edition of the W.A.A.V.P. anthelmintic guidelines for ruminants was published in 1982. Since then improved parasitological procedures have been developed, new therapeutic and prophylactic products have appeared requiring different test methods, and registration authorities are requesting more detailed record keeping and data validation. This second edition addresses these developments and fulfills the original goal of publishing guidelines for

I. B. Wood; N. K. Amaral; K. Bairden; J. L. Duncan; T. Kassai; J. B. Malone; J. A. Pankavich; R. K. Reinecke; O. Slocombe; S. M. Taylor; J. Vercruysse

1995-01-01

57

A serological, parasitological and clinical evaluation of untreated Chagas disease patients and those treated with benznidazole before and thirteen years after intervention  

PubMed Central

The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Patients who presented with the indeterminate form of the disease at the beginning of the study exhibited less clinical progression (17.4%) compared with the untreated group (56.5%). Therefore, this global analysis revealed that etiological treatment with benznidazole may benefit patients with respect to the clinical progression of Chagas disease and the prognosis, particularly when administered to patients with the indeterminate form of the disease. PMID:24037109

Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Diniz, Glaucia Alessio; Montoya, Roberto Araujo; Dias, Joao Carlos Pinto; Coura, Jose Rodrigues; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Albajar-Vinas, Pedro; Torres, Rosalia Morais; de Lana, Marta

2013-01-01

58

Parasitological and biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with methanol extract from the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban.  

PubMed

This study aims to detect the antischistosomal properties of the plants' Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban methanol extract against Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice, including determination of total protein and albumin levels and the activities of alanine and aspartate transaminases (AlT, AsT) and acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP and AkP) enzymes in the serum of infected treated mice. Male Swiss albino mice were infected with S. mansoni and orally treated with methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg/day), C. dioscorides and S. sesban (1000 mg/kg/day from each) for 2 consecutive days 7 weeks post infection (PI). In addition, treatment of mice with the tested dose of each plant extract was successively done (i.e. the 1st extract followed by the 2nd and 3rd one with an hour interval). Parasitological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Nine weeks PI, the reduction rates of worm load/mouse treated with either C. dioscorides (1000 mg/kg), C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg) or S. sesban (1000 mg/kg) were 40.9%, 53.7% and 54.4%, respectively. Successive treatment raised the reduction rates of worm load/mouse to 66.3% and the ova/g tissue in liver to 76.9%. Moreover, serum total protein and albumin levels and activities of AlT, Ast, AcP and AkP enzymes of infected treated mice were improved in comparison with those of infected untreated ones. It is concluded that administration of C. dioscorides, C. ambrosioides and S. sesban methanol extract to infected mice exhibited a moderate antischistosomal effect. Successive treatment improved the antischistosomal properties of these plant species, hence ameliorated the liver functions of treated mice that may suggest degenerations of liver granulomas and regenerative changes. PMID:21740980

Kamel, E G; El-Emam, M A; Mahmoud, S S M; Fouda, F M; Bayaumy, F E

2011-12-01

59

[Ways of improving the education of specialists from the health care organizations, agencies, and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, in the area of parasitology].  

PubMed

The intensive modern Russian reforms in professional education require that stafftraining in medicine should be also improved. The main directions and ways of improving education in the specialty of Parasitology are as follows:--to update professional education, by applying a competence approach, in terms of which the main focus is on mastering the activity and obtaining the experience in make this activity in different situations;--to apply the modular principle in the design of educational programs and a teaching process;--to improve the fundamental training of staff in the area ofparasitology;--to enhance the integration of special, related, and basic disciplines in stafftraining. PMID:24738232

2014-01-01

60

Og4C3 circulating antigen, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 titers in Wuchereria bancrofti infected patients, according to their parasitological status.  

PubMed

This study involved 221 microfilaremic (Mf+), 302 amicrofilaremic (Mf-) antigen positive (AG+) and 1454 Mf-antigen negative (AG-) individuals living in endemic villages. Whatever the group considered, antigen and antibody titers were widely distributed. Og4C3 antigen, detected both in Mf- and Mf+ patients, was significantly higher in Mf+ patients. The Mf parasitological status did not significantly influence the antifilarial antibodies levels in the infected AG+ individuals, although IgG4 was more discriminant. In the supposedly uninfected individuals (Mf-AG-), anti-filarial IgG and IgG4 could be detected in a large proportion of the group. Og4C3 circulating antigen test was confirmed to be a good marker of active Wuchereria bancrofti infection. PMID:7899800

Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Luquiaud, P; Plichart, C; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L

1994-09-01

61

Parasitology Review Wildlife Health, WFB 861  

E-print Network

, lungworms · Phylum Acanthocephala ­ Thorny-headed worm · Phylum Platyhelminthes ­ Flatworms, trematodes, flukes, tapeworms · Phylum Arthropoda ­ Insects, spiders #12;Arthropods · Insects, arachnids, tongue

Jodice, Patrick

62

Parasitology Research Founded as Zeitschrift fr  

E-print Network

sampled two rodent hosts, white- footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and prairie voles (Microtus, Peromyscus that had higher tick burdens also exhibited significantly higher bacterial killing ability and no relationship with bacterial killing ability. Microtus had higher burdens of mites in each order than Peromyscus

Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C.

63

[Diagnostic kits in parasitology: which controls?].  

PubMed

The development of new diagnostic tools particularly for some parasitic "neglected diseases", is slowed or even hindered by limited resources assigned for basic and applied research in public institution and private sector. Even if the time-line and costs needed for developing a new In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) test are generally lower compared to vaccines or new drugs, industry is poorly engaged in investing resources due to the perception of limited markets. To accelerate the development of diagnostics for the world's most deadly diseases, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and the Gates Foundation, last year launched a new initiative, FIND (Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, www.finddiagnostics.org). The aim is to "apply the latest biotechnology innovations to develop and validate affordable diagnostic tests for diseases of the developing world". Ideally, a new diagnostic test should be accurately evaluated prior to use in medical practice. The first step would be a pre-clinical evaluation, an analytic study to determine its laboratory performance. A crucial point in this phase is the calibration of reagents (antigens, antibodies, DNA probes, etc.) against a standard reference preparation. WHO, through the WHO International Laboratories for Biological Standards, "provides International Biological Reference Preparations which serve as reference sources of defined biological activity expressed in an internationally agreed unit" (www.who.int/biologicals/IBRP/index.htm). Standardization allows "comparison of biological measurements worldwide" and ensures the reliability of diagnostic procedures. These preparations are generally intended for use in the characterization of the activity of secondary reference preparations (regional, national or in-house working standards). Unfortunately, international reference standards for parasitic diseases are not available at present, except for Toxoplasma antibodies. The first international standard reagent for Anti-Toxoplasma Serum was established in 1968 and at present, an international standard reference serum, Anti-toxoplasma serum, human TOXM is available at the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in UK. Several collaborative, multicenter studies were carried out to assess the performance of different methods and commercial tests for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, by providing to participating laboratories a panel of well-defined sera to be tested. A four-phase process following well-accepted methodological standards for the development of diagnostics, analogous to those internationally accepted for drugs and vaccines was recently proposed. The pre-clinical evaluation, the analytic study to assess sensitivity, specificity, predictive values in laboratory (phase I), should be followed by a proof of principle study to distinguish diseased from healthy persons in easily accessible populations (phase II). The evaluation of test performance in populations of intended use (phase III), and finally the delineation of cost-effectiveness and societal impact of new tests in comparison with existing tools (phase IV) should complete the validation procedure. In this context, national regulatory agencies play a major role in pre-market approval and post-market surveillance of IVDs. The European Community in 1998 approved a directive (Directive 98/79/EC) which rules the marketing of IVD medical devices, in order to harmonise the performance levels and standards in European countries. But, among IVDs for parasitic diseases, only those to detect congenital toxoplasmosis are submitted to defined procedures to provide the verification of products before their placing on the market and the surveillance after their marketing by a notified body, which perform appropriate examinations, tests and inspections to production facilities to verify if the device meets the requirements of the directive. In U.

Rossi, P

2004-06-01

64

Parasitology http://journals.cambridge.org/PAR  

E-print Network

-saharan Africa. The life cycle of the parasite includes colonisation of an insect vector (the tsetse fly of the unanswered questions of trypanosome cytoskeletal cell biology. BACKGROUND During its passage from the tsetse fly digestive tract, throug

Schnaufer, Achim

65

Keeping parasitology under the One Health umbrella.  

PubMed

The One Health concept is no longer new, but remains an accepted concept in modern disease control - where the interactions between animal health, human health, and the environment in which we live are recognised as being of importance. However, emerging infectious diseases often garner the greatest attention and resources. Parasitic infections, many of which are zoonotic but cannot truly be considered as emerging, must ensure that they retain their place under the One Health umbrella. PMID:25022215

Robertson, Lucy J; Utaaker, Kjersti Selstad; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Rakesh

2014-08-01

66

Molecular diagnosis in clinical parasitology: When and why?  

PubMed

Microscopic detection and morphological identification of parasites from clinical specimens are the gold standards for the laboratory diagnosis of parasitic infections. The limitations of such diagnostic assays include insufficient sensitivity and operator dependence. Immunoassays for parasitic antigens are not available for most parasitic infections and have not significantly improved the sensitivity of laboratory detection. Advances in molecular detection by nucleic acid amplification may improve the detection in asymptomatic infections with low parasitic burden. Rapidly accumulating genomic data on parasites allow the design of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers directed towards multi-copy gene targets, such as the ribosomal and mitochondrial genes, which further improve the sensitivity. Parasitic cell or its free circulating parasitic DNA can be shed from parasites into blood and excreta which may allow its detection without the whole parasite being present within the portion of clinical sample used for DNA extraction. Multiplex nucleic acid amplification technology allows the simultaneous detection of many parasitic species within a single clinical specimen. In addition to improved sensitivity, nucleic acid amplification with sequencing can help to differentiate different parasitic species at different stages with similar morphology, detect and speciate parasites from fixed histopathological sections and identify anti-parasitic drug resistance. The use of consensus primer and PCR sequencing may even help to identify novel parasitic species. The key limitation of molecular detection is the technological expertise and expense which are usually lacking in the field setting at highly endemic areas. However, such tests can be useful for screening important parasitic infections in asymptomatic patients, donors or recipients coming from endemic areas in the settings of transfusion service or tertiary institutions with transplantation service. Such tests can also be used for monitoring these recipients or highly immunosuppressed patients, so that early preemptive treatment can be given for reactivated parasitic infections while the parasitic burden is still low. PMID:24668556

Wong, Samson Sy; Fung, Kitty Sc; Chau, Sandy; Poon, Rosana Ws; Wong, Sally Cy; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2014-11-01

67

A metazoan parasitological research of some Iraqi amphibians.  

PubMed

The incidence and intensity of metazoan parasites in 3 species of Iraqi amphibians were studied. The amphibians were Rana ridibunda, Bufo viridis and Hyla arborea. Twenty-four species of helminths were encountered, including 16 trematodes, 1 cestode and 7 nematodes. Their respective names are: Polystoma integerrimum, Prosotocus confusus, P. fuelleborni, Pleurogenoides gastroporus, P. medians, Sonsinotrema tacapense, Opisthioglyphe ranae, Haplometra cylindracea, Haematoloechus volgensis, H. vitelloconfluentum, H. similis, H. asper, Gorgoderina vitelliloba, Gorgodera euzeti, G. amplicava, Nematotaenia dispar, Cosmocerca ornata, C. commutata, Aplectana acuminata, Aplectana sp., Oxysomatium sp., Ozwaldocruzia filiformis and Rhabdias bufonis. Collection localities, infection sites and rates and parasite burdens were determined throughout the species list. The highest and lowest rates of infection were for R. bufonis in B. viridis and O. ranae in R. ridibunda, while the highest and lowest worm burdens were for C. ornata in R. ridibunda and P. integerrimum in B. viridis. Seven of the species included in this study are thought to be new for Iraq. PMID:18224630

Saeed, Isam; Al-Barwari, Shlemon E; Al-Harmni, Kawther I

2007-01-01

68

[Familial eosinophilia: contribution of parasitology to its diagnosis].  

PubMed

It has been observed, at the turn of the century, that members of some families showed a peripheral blood hypereosinophilia. Despite all possible investigations at that time, it was not possible to link it up with a known and well established disease. It was named "family acquired eosinophilia" by Di Guglielmo. nowadays, it has been established that some congenital defects such as the Omenn syndrome and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome are associated with hypereosinophilia. Eosinophilia is well known as a sign of allergy, but contaminations with helminths are an important cause of familial hypereosinophilia. In a case of familial distomatosis by Fasciola hepatica, several members of the same family were infected after eating wild cress. An epidemiological study was carried out on 22 families whose several members in a same family had an hypereosinophilia, a parasitosis was serologically diagnosed using such methods as immunoelectrophoresis, Elisa or Western blot. Among these 22 families, 10 had contracted fascioliasis and 4 who had eaten contaminated horse meat contracted trichinosis. For some other families, eosinophilia was not well documented, it concerned cysticercosis for 3 couples after eating meat of raw pork, one family with intestinal distomatosis to F. buski after consumption of aquatic plants and lastly toxocarosis, zoonosis whose contamination is acquired by geophagy but also by eating raw vegetables (salad), fruit (strawberries) and by drinking contaminated water, affected 5 families. In one family, anisakiasis with hypereosinophilia had been contracted by eating raw fish. In another one, trichostrongyloidiasis was contracted by eating raw vegetables from the family garden. The diagnosis is often oriented, for the members of a same family, who are asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic, by the blood cell count that shows an hypereosinophilia. Furthermore, a collective outbreak of strongyloidiasis epidemic among 115 individuals by oral route is reported, showing that such a way of transmission is possible. PMID:10333643

Petithory, J C

1998-01-01

69

A new lungworm in muskoxen: an exploration in Arctic parasitology.  

PubMed

Ruminants are vital elements of the Holarctic ecosystem. Little is known, however, of the structure or biology of their parasite fauna, particularly in North America. Global warming, coupled with increasing human activity in the Arctic, requires enhanced international interdisciplinary efforts to better understand the many factors, including parasites, that influence the population health of caribou, reindeer, muskoxen and wild sheep. The discovery of an unusual new genus of protostrongylid lung nematode in muskoxen from the central Canadian Arctic is described, and the intricacies of the parasite's relationship with its muskoxen definitive hosts, its gastropod intermediate hosts and the arctic environment are discussed. PMID:11378034

Kutz, S J; Hoberg, E P; Polley, L

2001-06-01

70

Serologic and parasitologic survey of the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken.  

PubMed

Because conservation biologists have postulated that infectious diseases may have potentiated the endangerment of the Attwater's prairie chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri), free-living prairie chickens were surveyed from all remaining populations for helminthic endoparasites and antibody against the etiological agents of nine infectious diseases. Samples from 4 of 27 adult males were positive for anti-Pasteurella multocida antibody. All other serologic tests were negative (n = 19). We identified Dispharynx nasuta, a parasite previously associated with disease in other grouse from North America, in one of three adult Attwater's prairie chickens examined. Evidence of Trichostrongylus cramae was found for eight of nine suitable samples, which represents the first report of this parasite in prairie grouse. The mean intensity of T. cramae in Attwater's prairie chicken was 1,019.3 (Range = 3-1,906; n = 3). Further work is needed to determine whether P. multocida, T. cramae, or D. nasuta are detrimental to Attwater's prairie chicken populations. If so, conservation biologists could reduce the prevalence and incidence of these parasites and potentially gain more time to address the habitat conditions thought to be the ultimate cause of population declines. PMID:9476235

Peterson, M J; Purvis, J R; Lichtenfels, J R; Craig, T M; Dronen, N O; Silvy, N J

1998-01-01

71

EXPERIMENTAL PARASITOLOGY 83, 275282 (1996) ARTICLE NO. 0075  

E-print Network

: Trypanosoma cruzi; Triatoma infestans; clones, PCR, polymerase chain reaction. INTRODUCTION ber of genetic variability within each genetic loci made it possible to identify 43 of the formerly described ``clones named ``major set of genetic markers in a clonal species (Ti- clones'' (Tibayrenc and Brenie`re 1988

72

Plague: Modern Preventive Measures in Ships and Ports: (Section of Tropical Diseases and Parasitology).  

PubMed

Maritime quarantine, introduced in the fourteenth century in an endeavour to prevent the spread of plague. Though the system failed to achieve its object, and was expensive and restrictive to sea-borne commerce, it survived for over 500 years, presumably because, in the absence of knowledge of the aetiology of plague, no method of procedure more likely to be successful could be devised. This country acknowledged the failure of quarantine as a preventive measure in the middle of last century, and substituted the medical inspection of ships on arrival, though the last Quarantine Act was not repealed till 1896. Nevertheless it was not till the discovery of the rle of the rat and the rat-flea in the spread of plague that it was possible to establish plague-preventive measures on a sound scientific basis.It is now recognized that a Port Health Authority must not only take steps to detect plague, human or rodent, afloat or ashore, at the earliest possible moment, but must eliminate conditions in ships and in shore premises which are conducive to the development of an epizotic. Though here, and in other countries with an enlightened Public Health Administration, practice has long been ahead of legislation, the International Sanitary Convention of 1926 has now established throughout the world a large measure of uniformity in measures designed to prevent the spread of the more dangerous epidemic diseases by overseas trade, and the Port Sanitary Regulations 1933 have brought quarantine legislation in this country up to date.For the detection of plague every ship arriving from a plague-infected port is medically inspected on arrival, but even if there is no evidence of plague-infection on board, such ships are examined daily by a rat-officer until the discharge of cargo is complete. Dead rats found and live rats trapped are bacteriologically examined. If a rat is reported to be infected the vessel is fumigated at once. The discharge of cargo is then continued under supervision, and when the ship is empty she is fumigated again. Shore premises, particularly those in the immediate vicinity of the berths of ships from plague-infected ports, are systematically searched for dead rats, and live rats are trapped. If evidence of plague-infection is found, energetic measures of rat destruction are at once instituted over a wide area.The International Sanitary Convention requires all foreign-going ships to be inspected every six months as to the number of rats on board. If a ship is not so maintained as to keep the rat population down to a minimum she must be deratized.If, after deratization, ships are to remain free from rats, they must be rat-proofed. Similarly ashore, rat-proofing is the only rat-repressive measure of permanent value.The measures usually adopted to prevent the passage of rats between ships and shore are of limited value.Finally, a rat-flea survey is of value in estimating the susceptibility of a port to infection. PMID:19990226

White, C F

1935-03-01

73

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 148 (2006) 144160 Heterologous expression of proteins from  

E-print Network

As part of a structural genomics initiative, 1000 open reading frames from Plasmodium falciparum one liter of rich media. Higher molecular weight, greater protein disorder (segmental analysis, SEG-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; SEG, segmental analysis of disorder; SGPP

Gelb, Michael

74

Veterinary Parasitology Volume 172, Issues 1-2, 27 August 2010, Pages 80-88  

E-print Network

is not a good solution to delay importantly the evolution of resistance when more than 25% of nematodes are BZ-resistant. This study is the first evaluation of BZ-resistance evolution (using individual genotyping) in controlled; Nematode; Teladorsagia 1. Introduction The resistance against therapeutical products (antibiotic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

ORIGINAL PAPER Pathological and parasitological findings in a wild red titi  

E-print Network

elegans . Hepatitis . Enteritis Introduction Disease and parasites are increasingly recognised as major allow the detection of viruses and bacteria, even from decaying tissue (e.g., Leendertz et al. 2006 mortality, like the outbreaks of Ebola in chimpanzees and gorillas (Leendertz et al. 2006; Leroy et al. 2004

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

A parasitological survey of wild red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Guadalajara, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epizootiological survey of leishmaniosis, coccidiosis and parasitic helminths in 67 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was conducted in Guadalajara (central Spain). Examination for parasitic protozoa revealed prevalences of 74% Leishmania (determined by molecular methods) and 2.9% coccidia oocysts (fecal flotation). Survey of parasitic helminths (fecal flotation\\/necropsy) demonstrated the presence of nine species, including six nematodes, two cestodes and one trematode. Nematodes

A Criado-Fornelio; L Gutierrez-Garcia; F Rodriguez-Caabeiro; E Reus-Garcia; M. A Roldan-Soriano; M. A Diaz-Sanchez

2000-01-01

77

Systematic Parasitology 38: 111130, 1997. 111 c 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

with Flustra foliacea L. (Bryozoa) from the White Sea V.N. Ivanenko and A.V. Smurov Department of Invertebrate in the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. This is the first siphonostomatoid copepod to be reported in association Asterias rubens L. (see R¨ottger; 1969, 1971), has been found in the White Sea. Our investigation of its

Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.

78

[Experience with a clinical parasitological examination in a clonorchiasis focus in the Amur River region].  

PubMed

The clinical manifestations of clonorchiasis were studied in 190 patients in the Amur River region. The severity of the disease correlated with the excretion rates of Clonorchis eggs. The peculiarity of the region is a rather low egg excretion; 66.8% of patients excreted as many as 100 eggs/g, 27.3%, up to 1000 eggs/g. Most examinees (94.3%) suffered from chronic gastroduodenitis and functional disorders of the biliary system. PMID:9445987

Dyk, L M; Posokhov, P S; Dobrykh, V A; Markina, L G; Kozyreva, T G

1997-01-01

79

The periparturient relaxation of immunity in Merino ewes infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis: Parasitological and immunological responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal association between the periparturient rise (PPR) in worm egg count (WEC) of grazing Merino ewes to infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis and the underlying causal mechanisms was investigated in an experiment that incorporated two levels of pregnancy (pregnant or unmated), two levels of infection (infected with 6000 T. colubriformis L3\\/week or uninfected) and, following lambing, three levels of lactation

A. M. Beasley; L. P. Kahn; R. G. Windon

2010-01-01

80

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 96 (1998) 111123 Cloning, expression and reconstitution of the  

E-print Network

dismutase activity [4,5] and genes for iron-containing superoxide dis- mutases have been recently cloned dismutase producing oxygen and hydrogen peroxide [2,3]. Trypanosomatids contain appreciable superoxide such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and the hydroxyl radical. Metabolism of hydrogen peroxide in Crithidia

Schnaufer, Achim

81

Veterinary Parasitology 115 (2003) 125145 Control of tsetse flies and trypanosomes  

E-print Network

proportions, lack of a mammalian vaccine and affordable and effective drugs have hindered disease control. Try genetics Serap Aksoy Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New vectors transmitting the African trypanosomes, the agents of sleeping sickness disease in humans

Aksoy, Serap

82

Journal of Parasitology Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of hemosporidian parasites in birds of Socorro  

E-print Network

on Socorro ground doves Columbina passerina socorrensis and mourning doves Zenaida macroura, as well in birds of Socorro Island, México and their role in the re-introduction of the Socorro Dove (Zenaida-introduction of the Socorro Dove (Zenaida graysoni) Short Title: Avian haemosporidian parasites diversity of Socorro Island

Sehgal, Ravinder

83

Serological and parasitological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from Colorado.  

PubMed

Ground-feeding birds are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as indicators of soil contamination by oocysts, and birds of prey are indicators of T. gondii prevalence in rodents and other small mammals. Cats excrete environmentally resistant oocysts after consuming tissues of T. gondii -infected birds. In the present study, sera and tissues from 382 wild birds from Colorado were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 38 birds with the use of the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1?25 titer). Tissues (brains, hearts) of 84 birds were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 1 barn owl (Tyto alba), 1 of 5 American kestrels (Falco sparverius), 1 of 7 ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis), 1 of 4 rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus), 2 of 13 Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni), and 1 of 25 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). This is the first time T. gondii has been isolated from the barn owl, ferruginous hawk, rough-legged hawk, and Swainson's hawk. PMID:20950101

Dubey, J P; Felix, T A; Kwok, O C H

2010-10-01

84

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 148 (2006) 6978 Isolation and characterization of mitochondrial ribosomes and  

E-print Network

DNAlocalizedinadiscrete portion of the organelle termed the kinetoplast. The kinetoplast DNA contains thousands of minicircles] and in vivo [15]. Surprisingly, the synthe- sis of COI and Cyb was resistant to most known in

Simpson, Larry

85

Parasitological and Molecular Observations on a Little Family Outbreak of Human Fasciolosis Diagnosed in Italy  

PubMed Central

In the year 2010, three children who were born in a Romanian cattle farmer family went to Italy to join their mother. One of them was admitted to an Italian pediatric hospital for severe anemia that, when she was in her country, had been treated with blood transfusion. Blood tests and an abdominal ultrasound study triggered the suspicion of biliary parasitosis. The child underwent a cholangiopancreatography that caused the release of parasitic material microscopically identified as Fasciola hepatica. All children and their mother were submitted to coproparasitological analyses, which identified F. hepatica eggs only in the patient and in her twin sister. Parasitic materials recovered and flatworm specimens by us ad hoc obtained from Italian and Romanian cattle were genetically (ITS and COI genes) analyzed, and their sequences were compared with those deposited in GenBank. Specimens from children clustered with the Romanian strain examined and showed remarkable genetic differences with flatworm specimens from Italy. Anamnesis, parasite biology, and genetic data strongly suggest that twin sisters became infected in Romania; however, human fasciolosis is an emerging sanitary problem, favored by climate changes and global drivers; therefore, it deserves more attention on behalf of physicians working in both developing and developed countries. PMID:24737970

Gabrielli, Simona; Calderini, Pietro; Dall'Oglio, Luigi; Paola, De Angelis; Maurizio, De Angelis; Federico, Scottoni; Cancrini, Gabriella

2014-01-01

86

Poster Presentations 1. EMAN MOSTAFA, DEPT. OF PARASITOLOGY, ZAGAZIG UNIVERSITY, EGYPT  

E-print Network

APARATUS IN TOXOPLASMA GONDII 10. RUDO KIEFT, DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, UGA CDNA. YIJIAN QUI, DEPT. OF GENETICS & BIOCHEMISTRY, CLEMSON UNIVERSITY THE FUNCTION OF HEXOKINASE 2 & BIOCHEMISTRY, UGA The Glucose-dependent Glycosomal Localization of Paraflagellar Rod Component 7 16. SARAH M

Arnold, Jonathan

87

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 112 (2001) 183191 Cloning of a pyruvate phosphate dikinase from Trypanosoma  

E-print Network

such as glycolysis [1]. However, compartmentalisation of metabolites and their interconverting enzymes allows regulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase [8]. ATP-dependent enzymes of glycolysis are far from a putative pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) from Trypanosoma cruzi, an enzyme that catalyses the reversible

Schnaufer, Achim

88

Veterinary Parasitology 193 (2013) 365374 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

silenced, as the proteins they encode are not detectable in cultured larvae. However, these appear (Despommier, 2003; Hotez and Wilkins, 2009; Rubinsky-Elefant et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2009). The nematode

Maizels, Rick

89

Babesiosis in dogs and catsExpanding parasitological and clinical spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine babesiosis caused by different Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and global significance. Historically, Babesia infection in dogs was identified based on the morphologic appearance of the parasite in the erythrocyte. All large forms of Babesia were designated Babesia canis, whereas all small forms of Babesia were considered to be Babesia gibsoni. However, the development

Laia Solano-Gallego; Gad Baneth

2011-01-01

90

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected;\\u000afrom 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven;\\u000ajuvenile (three males, one female, three not;\\u000areported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans);\\u000aon the US Department of Energys Savannah;\\u000aRiver Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant;\\u000a(P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were;\\u000anoted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin,;\\u000aand hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex;\\u000aoccurred

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; Anita Merrill; John Kilgo; H. Ray; Karl Karl V. Miller; A. Charles

2009-01-01

91

Hematology, parasitology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

PubMed

Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P<0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P<0.05). Twenty-one adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology. PMID:19617502

Miller, Debra Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H Scott; Miller, Karl V; Baldwin, Charles A

2009-07-01

92

Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted. PMID:25098300

Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

2014-10-01

93

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 175 (2011) 2129 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

-mail address: kkuhen@gnf.org (K.L. Kuhen). of artemisinin-based derivatives. Artemisinin-based combination of artemisinin-based derivatives has declined on the Thai-Cambodian border [8­10]. Potential for clinical

Gelb, Michael

94

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 133 (2004) 4551 Arachidonic acid synthetic pathways of the oyster protozoan parasite,  

E-print Network

of the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus: evidence for usage of a delta-8 pathway Fu-Lin E. Chua Received 24 June 2003; accepted 28 August 2003 Abstract The meront stage of the oyster protozoan parasite; Oyster; Oyster parasite; Perkinsus marinus 1. Introduction Although parasitic protozoans effectively

Hartley, Troy W.

95

A parasitological study on the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) from the Northern Transvaal.  

PubMed

Baboons imported into Rhodesia from the Northern Transvaal proved to be heavily infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths. In fact, six protozoan species, one cestode and eight nematode species were recorded. A new concept in "identification graphs" is included in the paper which allows one to read off directly the species of strongyle eggs being passed by baboons in Southern Africa based upon length and breadth measurements of the eggs. Treatment of Balantidium coli and nematode infections of baboons is discussed as is the implication of some of these intestinal parasite infections in terms of potential human infection under natural conditions. PMID:104037

Goldsmid, J M; Rogers, S

1978-07-01

96

Parasitological and immunological aspects of early Ascaris spp. infection in mice.  

PubMed

Studies related to the immunobiological aspects of an Ascaris spp. infection are still scarce, especially those that aim to elucidate the early events of the immune response. In this study, we demonstrated a novel standardized method for early experimental Ascaris infection, providing additional information about the infectivity of eggs embryonated in vitro as well as the influence of host age on development of the infection. Finally, we characterised the immunopathology of early infection, focusing on the tissue and systemic cytokine profiles and the histopathology of infection in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that the highest egg infectivity occurred on the 100th and 200th days of in vitro embryonation and that 8 week-old BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection than 16 week-old mice. Ascaris-infected mice showed an early, significant level of IL-5 production in the lungs 4 days p.i., followed by an increase in the level of neutrophils in the inflammatory infiltrate at 8 days p.i, which was correlated with the peak of larval migration in the tissue and a significant level of IL-6 production. The inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs was gradually replaced by mononuclear cells and eosinophils on the 10th and 12th days p.i., respectively, and an increase in TNF levels was observed. The downmodulation of systemic TCD4(+) cell numbers might suggest that T cell hyporesponsiveness was induced by the Ascaris spp. larvae, contributing to safeguarding parasite survival during larval migration. Taken together, the novel aspects of Ascaris infection presented here enabled a better understanding of the immunopathological events during larval migration, providing insight for further studies focused on immunisation and immunoprophylatic assays. PMID:23665127

Gazzinelli-Guimares, Pedro Henrique; Gazzinelli-Guimares, Ana Clara; Silva, Flaviane Nunes; Mati, Vitor Lus Tenrio; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Barbosa, Fernando Srgio; Passos, Lvia Silva Arajo; Gaze, Soraya; Carneiro, Cludia Martins; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

2013-08-01

97

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 115 (2001) 189198 Ovothiol and trypanothione as antioxidants in trypanosomatids  

E-print Network

Abstract The relative amounts of ovothiol A (N1 -methyl-4-mercaptohistidine) and trypanothione [N1 ,N8 -bis(glutathionyl)spermidine trypan- othione [N1 ,N8 -bis(glutathionyl)spermidine] [1] and trypanothione reductase (TryR) [2

Schnaufer, Achim

98

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 139 (2005) 107116 Trypanothione biosynthesis in Leishmania major  

E-print Network

TrypanosomacruziandTrypanosomabruceiuse a broad-specificity trypanothione synthetase to make trypanothione from glutathione (GSH) and spermidine and found to catalyse formation of trypanothione with GSH and either spermidine or glutathionylspermidine with the other substrates with apparent Km values for spermidine, glutathionylspermidine and MgATP of 940, 40

Schnaufer, Achim

99

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 103 (1999) 6169 Entamoeba histolytica lacks trypanothione metabolism  

E-print Network

can be taken up and conjugated to spermidine to form trypanothione, a metabolite found so far only] who claim to have detected trypanothione [N1 ,N8 bis(glutathionyl)spermidine] * Corresponding author

Schnaufer, Achim

100

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 131 (2003) 2533 Properties of trypanothione synthetase from Trypanosoma brucei  

E-print Network

; accepted 3 July 2003 Abstract Trypanothione [N1,N8-bis(glutathionyl)spermidine] plays a central role molecules of glutathione (GSH) to spermidine by two enzymes: glutathionylspermidine synthetase (GspS; EC 6 protein catalyses formation of trypanothione from either spermidine and GSH, or glutathionylspermidine

Schnaufer, Achim

101

Massive pleural effusion due to paragonimiasis: biochemical, cytological, and parasitological findings.  

PubMed

Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by trematode species of the genus, Paragonimus occurring in many parts of the world except in Australia and Antarctica. In India, it is an emerging parasitic disease, which is endemic in the northeast states where people have a common practice of eating raw or inadequately cooked freshwater crabs. In these states, Paragonimus heterotremus has been identified as the major causative agent of the human paragonimiasis. The most common clinical form of the disease is pulmonary paragonimiasis; however, extra-pulmonary manifestations are not uncommon. Here, we report a case of primary massive unilateral pleural effusion due to paragonimiasis. The diagnosis was confirmed by finding Paragonimus ova in the pleural fluid. The patient was successfully treated with repeated thoracocentesis and a course of praziquantel. PMID:25118756

Singh, Takhellambam Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Lepcha, Chultin; Khanna, Satish Kumar

2014-01-01

102

Evaluation of Biochemical, Hematological and Parasitological Parameters of Protein-Deficient Hamsters Infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum  

PubMed Central

Background Hookworms infect millions of people worldwide and can cause severe clinical symptoms in their hosts. Prospective cohort studies in Brazil show high rates of hookworm reinfection in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children, despite previous treatment. Additionally, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can worsen the nutritional status of affected populations. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the effects of host malnutrition during Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection and how this infection affects host physiological parameters using a hamster model. Methodology/Principal Findings Hamsters were divided into four experimental groups: normal diet or low-protein diet (also referred to as malnourished) and A. ceylanicum infection or no infection. More severe pathogenesis was observed in the infected malnourished group, as demonstrated by significant decreases in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number and packed-cell volume compared to the non-infected malnourished group. Greater numbers of adult parasites and eggs were observed in the malnourished group compared to the control group; however, the oviposition rate was lower in the malnourished group. In general, greater values of total lipids were observed in malnourished animals compared to control animals, including lipids excreted in the stool. Conclusions In this work, we have demonstrated that animals fed an isocaloric low-protein diet presented more severe pathogenesis when infected with A. ceylanicum. The increased lipid concentration in the liver and blood is related to the conversion of the excess carbohydrate into fatty acids that increase the concentration of triglycerides in general. Triglycerides were excreted in the feces, indicating that infection associated with malnutrition caused a greater loss of these molecules for this group of animals and confirming the hypothesis that both nutrition and infection are responsible for the malabsorption syndrome. Taken together, the results found in this work confirm the hypothesis that the nutritional condition of the host greatly influences the course of the infection. PMID:25254370

Pacanaro, Carina P.; Dias, Silvia R.; Serafim, Luciana R.; Costa, Mariana P.; Aguilar, Edenil; Paes, Paulo R.; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I.; Rabelo, Elida M.

2014-01-01

103

[The sanitary parasitological characteristics of different sources of drinking water supply].  

PubMed

In some CIS areas (Khabarovsk Territory, Moscow, Grodno, Odessa, Astrakhan, and Kzyl-Orda provinces), sewage, animal sewage, and sewage from the populated areas (82.3% of the samples tested), water in the surface reservoirs, sources of potable water supply (54.0%), and potable water (6.5%) were shown to contain viable agents of intestinal parasitic diseases, such as cysts of Lamblia and Balandia, eggs of ascarides, Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium, oncospheres of Taenia, etc.). This should be borne in mind in planning and implementing measures for sanitary protection of surface and underground potable water supply sources, recreational [correction of recreative] areas, for prevention of helminthiases and intestinal protozoan [correction of Proteus] infections. PMID:8127274

Romanenko, N A; Novosil'tsev, G I; Skripova, L V; Muratov, I V; Glazyrina, G F; Pogorel'chuk, T Ia

1993-01-01

104

336 Parasitology Today, vol. IO,no.9, I994 Applications of Molecular Marker  

E-print Network

(Plasmodium), lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria and Brugia) and many arboviruses (most notably yellow fever been de- veloped for the yellow fever mosquito, A and dengue fever). The most successful efforts towards controlling these diseases have been ac- complished

Severson, David

105

Effect of Mirazid in Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice: parasitological and pathological assessment.  

PubMed

Conflicting reports are found in the literature about the antischistosomal efficacy of Mirazid (MZ), which is a special formulation of myrrh obtained from the stem of the plant Commiphora molmol. This initiated the present study to assess this drug for the first time in experimental schistosomiasis japonicum. Mice were divided into four groups: infected untreated control (I); infected treated with MZ, 500mg/kg (II); infected treated with MZ, 250mg/kg (III); and infected treated with praziquantel (PZQ), 200mg/kg (IV). The drugs were given 7weeks post-infection for five successive days. All animals were killed 3weeks posttreatment. Results showed no signs of antibilharzial activity of MZ. Total worms, total tissue egg load, egg developmental stages, and granuloma area were not affected by any of the MZ treatment regimens as compared to the infected untreated group (P?>?0.05 for all variables). These results were in contrast to those obtained in PZQ-treated animals in which 82.82% total worm reduction, 94.62% egg reduction, and 86.35% granuloma area reduction were observed. Also, it significantly increased the percentage of dead ova and decreased the percentage of mature ova with complete absence of immature ones in comparison with the control group (P?

El-Malky, Mohamed A; Lu, Shao-Hong; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; Saudy, Niveen S; Ohta, Nobu

2013-01-01

106

Parasitological survey of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, in the Pacoti River Estuary, Cear State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia, Ostreidae) is commonly collected by fisherwomen in the estuaries of the Cear State (CE), Northeastern Brazil. Despite the socioeconomic importance of this natural resource, there are few studies on the health of the oysters in this region. This study aimed to survey pathological changes in the mangrove oyster C. rhizophorae in the estuary of the Pacoti River, CE. Adult oysters were collected in August 2008 (N=450) and December 2009 (N=450) at three sites of the Pacoti estuary and in 2010 (N=600) samplings were done quarterly at one site which has showed the higher prevalence de Perkinsus. Macroscopical and histological analyses were used to evaluate pathological changes, Ray's Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (RFTM) to detect Perkinsus spp. and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and DNA sequencing to identify Perkinsus species. In 2009, RFTM assay detected Perkinsus sp. infecting the tissues of C. rhizophorae with low prevalences of 1.3%, 6.7% e 7.3% in sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and in 2010, in site 3, prevalence was 2% (12 of 600 oysters). PCR did not confirm any positive case in 2009 and only 5 in 2010. The phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that the Perkinsus species infecting oysters C. rhizophorae of this study belongs to Perkinsus beihaiensis. The histology confirmed 11 cases of Perkinsus sp. infecting the C. rhizophorae in 2009, and only two cases in 2010. Nematopsis sp. was the protozoan observed with greater prevalence (up 96.7%). Other found protozoa were: Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Ancistrocoma - like and an unknown ovarian parasite. The metazoa found were the polychaete Polydora with high prevalences, a turbellarian, possibly of the genus Urastoma, an unidentified digenean metacercariae and larvae of cestode Tylocephalum. A continuous monitoring of diseases in bivalves from this natural population is recommended, since the phylogenetic analyses indicate the occurrence of P. beihaiensis infecting oysters C. rhizophorae whose pathogenic potential is unknown. PMID:23147104

Sabry, Rachel Costa; Gesteira, Tereza Cristina Vasconcelos; Magalhes, Aim Rachel Magenta; Barracco, Margherita Anna; Guertler, Cristhiane; Ferreira, Liana Pinho; Vianna, Rogrio Tubino; da Silva, Patrcia Mirella

2013-01-01

107

The use of fish metabolic, pathological and parasitological indices in pollution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated biological effect monitoring concept has been tested in flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) from four locations with different anthropogenic impact in the German Bight. During 3 years of sampling, biomarkers at\\u000a all levels of biological organisation from the molecular to the ecosystem level were applied and tested on 742 individual\\u000a fish of body lengths between 18 and 25 cm.

K. Broeg; S. Zander; A. Diamant; W. Krting; G. Krner; I. Paperna; H. v. Westernhagen

1999-01-01

108

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 42 (1990) 175-188 175 MOLBIO 01383  

E-print Network

, Venezuela, Colombia and Costa Rica. Comparison of the patterns of digested kDNA on acrylamide gels led in insects, culture or animals may result in artificial selection of parasites from the original population

Simpson, Larry

109

Parasitological and molecular observations on a little family outbreak of human fasciolosis diagnosed in Italy.  

PubMed

In the year 2010, three children who were born in a Romanian cattle farmer family went to Italy to join their mother. One of them was admitted to an Italian pediatric hospital for severe anemia that, when she was in her country, had been treated with blood transfusion. Blood tests and an abdominal ultrasound study triggered the suspicion of biliary parasitosis. The child underwent a cholangiopancreatography that caused the release of parasitic material microscopically identified as Fasciola hepatica. All children and their mother were submitted to coproparasitological analyses, which identified F. hepatica eggs only in the patient and in her twin sister. Parasitic materials recovered and flatworm specimens by us ad hoc obtained from Italian and Romanian cattle were genetically (ITS and COI genes) analyzed, and their sequences were compared with those deposited in GenBank. Specimens from children clustered with the Romanian strain examined and showed remarkable genetic differences with flatworm specimens from Italy. Anamnesis, parasite biology, and genetic data strongly suggest that twin sisters became infected in Romania; however, human fasciolosis is an emerging sanitary problem, favored by climate changes and global drivers; therefore, it deserves more attention on behalf of physicians working in both developing and developed countries. PMID:24737970

Gabrielli, Simona; Calderini, Pietro; Dall'Oglio, Luigi; Paola, De Angelis; Maurizio, De Angelis; Federico, Scottoni; Cancrini, Gabriella

2014-01-01

110

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 147 (2006) 211223 Regulation of surface coat exchange by differentiating African trypanosomes  

E-print Network

and the tsetse fly vector. In the bloodstream, replicating long slender parasites transform into non trypanosomes are digenetic parasites whose lifecy- cle alternates between the midgut of the tsetse fly vector-dividing short stumpy forms. Upon transmission into the fly midgut, short stumpy cells differentiate

Menon, Anant K.

111

Chagas' disease: a clinical, parasitological, immunological, and pathological study in rabbits.  

PubMed

Thirty-four rabbits were experimentally infected with trypomastigotes of either the Ernestina or the Albuquerque strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. These animals showed patent parasitemias, as demonstrated by xenodiagnosis, in the acute phases of the infections. Typical chagoma signs developed in two rabbits 1 week after parasite inoculation in the skin, although the acute phase of Chagas' disease in the rabbit model was usually asymptomatic. In the 6th month of infection the parasitemias became negative and the infections remained subpatent, as indicated by the persistence of positive serologic tests and of delayed-type skin reactions elicited in Chagas' rabbits against a microsomal T. cruzi antigen. This latent infection continued asymptomatically, in the absence of electrocardiographic (ECG) alterations. However, ECG changes consistent with enlargement and overload of cardiac chambers, alterations of ventricular repolarization, S-T changes and bundle-branch blocks were frequently recorded later in the chronic phase of Chagas' disease. The pathological manifestations of these ECG alterations were confirmed at the autopsy of each experimental rabbit. Congestive heart failure and pulmonary thromboemboli related to chronic myocarditis of Chagas' disease were frequent causes of death. Megacolon was seen in two rabbits inoculated with the Ernestina strain of the parasite. The relatively limited duration of detectable parasitemia even when xenodiagnosis is used, the lack of correlation between parasitemia and severity of pathological manifestations, and the fact that all infected animals showed histopathological evidence of myocarditis, destructive inflammatory lesions characterized by mononuclear infiltrates in skeletal muscles, as well as cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity to T. cruzi antigens, are notable observations in this animal model of the human disease. PMID:6404186

Teixeira, A R; Figueiredo, F; Rezende Filho, J; Macdo, V

1983-03-01

112

Parasitology screening of Latin American children in a primary care clinic.  

PubMed

A screening program based in a Massachusetts community hospital primary care clinic, which included 124 children from 12 different Latin American countries, demonstrated that nearly 35% were carriers of pathogenic parasites. The large majority (83.7%) of these children were asymptomatic at the time of the examination. Although there may be considerable variation based on country of origin, the present results, as well as a review of the literature, suggest this is likely to be a common finding among children born in most regions of Latin America. Compliance with the screening process was significantly higher in groups with higher infection rates and the successive yield in those patients who submitted two or more stool samples revealed that most pathogens were identified in the first sample. School-age children were found to have the highest risk for both roundworm infections and multiple parasitic infections. For those children with identified pathogens, nearly 90% received treatment. Current trends in immigration, international adoptions, and special circumstances including day care, family shelters, and increasing numbers of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children have made an appreciation of the extent of parasitosis, and awareness of possible management approaches, an important consideration for primary care physicians in the United States. PMID:1734397

Bass, J L; Mehta, K A; Eppes, B

1992-02-01

113

Parasitological study of a population of Tiber River eels (Anguilla anguilla).  

PubMed

A study was conducted on the parasitofauna of Anguilla anguilla caught in the section of the Tiber river south of Rome (Italy). The sample examined consisted of 417 specimens that were classified by stage (elver, young yellow eel, yellow eel and silver eel) and season of sampling. The following species were identified: Trypanosoma granulosum, Eimeria anguillae, Myxidium giardi, Sphaerospora reichenowi, Myxobolus sp., Trichodina anguilli, Ichthyohodo sp., Gyrodactylus anguillae, Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, Raphidascaris acus, Acanthocephalus clavula. Each parasite species was considered in its prevalence according to stage and season. For some parasite the pathogenic effect was also examined in a histological study of serial sections. The results of the statistical analysis of the single parasitic infection as related to different seasons pointed to marked seasonal trends only in some species (Trypanosoma granulosum and Gyrodactylus anguillae). The intensity of infection assessed for acanthocephalan infection only was found to affect neither weight nor condition index (weight/length3). No difference in weight or condition index was found to be ascribable to the presence or absence of a species. An attempt to find a rule-of-thumb algorithm to gauge the overall effect to parasitic diseases failed to give sufficiently significant results. PMID:3508508

Orecchia, P; Bianchini, M; Catalini, N; Cataudella, S; Paggi, L

1987-04-01

114

EXPERIMENTAL PARASITOLOGY 68, 443-449 (1989) Characterization of a Protein Fraction Containing Cytochromes b  

E-print Network

red band fraction was obtained from Leishmania tarentolae cells by sucrose gradient sedimentation of a Triton X-100 lysate. Spectral analysis indicated that cytochrome b was present in the red band. The amino acid composition of this protein showed a strong similarity to cytochrome c, of both bovine

Simpson, Larry

115

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 155 (2007) 103112 Structural polymorphism and diversifying selection on the pregnancy  

E-print Network

falciparum; var Genes Abbreviations: CSA, chondroitin sulfate A; DBL, Duffy binding-like; PfEMP1, Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes (IE) that bind chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placenta [1­3]. Pregnant women acquire

Samudrala, Ram

116

Parasitology (2001) 123:S19-S26 Trematode infection and the distribution and dynamics of  

E-print Network

on the distribution of males in 95 populations of a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Populations, parasitic castration, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Red Queen hypothesis, sexual reproduction, trematodes #12

Lively, Curt

117

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 182 (2012) 9396 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

cell movement and host cell invasion. Electron microscopy images have shown microfilament apicomplexan parasites share a common cell architecture and mode of loco- motion. This process, called gliding

McFadden, Geoff

118

Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in naturally-infected dogs and cats using serological, parasitological and molecular methods  

PubMed Central

Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and a risk factor for parasite transmission. In this study we assessed the relative performance of a polymerase chain reaction assay targeted to minicircle DNA (kDNA-PCR) in reference to conventional serological tests, a rapid dipstick test and xenodiagnosis to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs and cats from an endemic rural area in northeastern Argentina. A total of 43 dogs and 13 cats seropositive for T. cruzi by an immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), which had been examined by xenodiagnosis, were also tested by kDNA-PCR. kDNA-PCR was nearly as sensitive as xenodiagnosis for detecting T. cruzi- infectious dogs and cats. kDNA-PCR was slightly more sensitive than xenodiagnosis in seropositive dogs (91% versus 86%, respectively) and cats (77% against 54%, respectively), but failed to detect all of the seropositive individuals. ELISA and IHA detected all xenodiagnosis-positive dogs and both outcomes largely agreed (kappa coefficient, ? = 0.92), whereas both assays failed to detect all of the xenodiagnosis-positive cats and their agreement was moderate (? = 0.68). In dogs, the sensitivity of the dipstick test was 95% and agreed closely with the outcome of conventional serological tests (? = 0.82). The high sensitivity of kDNA-PCR to detect T. cruzi infections in naturally-infected dogs and cats supports its application as a diagnostic tool complementary to serology and may replace the use of xenodiagnosis or hemoculture. PMID:23499860

Enriquez, G.F.; Cardinal, M.V.; Orozco, M.M.; Schijman, A.G.; Gurtler, R.E.

2013-01-01

119

Application of in vitro anthelmintic sensitivity assays to canine parasitology: Detecting resistance to pyrantel in Ancylostoma caninum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum to anthelmintic therapy with pyrantel is an emerging problem in canine veterinary practice. Detecting anthelmintic resistance in parasites of pets is problematic because traditional resistance-monitoring techniques used with livestock parasites, such as the faecal egg count reduction test, are often impractical for use in small animals. We used two field-collected isolates of A.

Steven R. Kopp; Glen T. Coleman; James S. McCarthy; Andrew C. Kotze

2008-01-01

120

Anisakids (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from stomachs of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska: parasitological and pathological analysis.  

PubMed

Anisakid nematodes parasitize the alimentary tracts of aquatic vertebrates, including northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) (NFS). The main purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, intensity, and species composition of anisakids in NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska, and to analyze changes in NFS infection with these nematodes during the last decades. The study was carried out on St. Paul Island, Alaska, in July-August 2011-2013. Stomachs of 443 humanely harvested NFS males were collected from five separate haul-out areas. A total of 4,460 anisakid specimens were collected and identified by morphological criteria. Gross and histological examinations of stomachs were also performed. The overall prevalence of NFS infection was 91.2%; overall mean intensity 10.9, and overall median intensity 6. Five species, Anisakis simplex s. l., Contracaecum osculatum s. l., Pseudoterranova decipiens s. l., P. azarazi and Phocascaris cystophorae, were found. The prevalence of Anisakis was 46.5%, its intensity 7.5. The prevalence and intensity of Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova, and Phocascaris were 33.6% and 3.5, 81.9% and 6.5, and 5.2% and 1.7, respectively. Significant differences in the prevalence of NFS infection were observed between separate haul-outs. Comparison of the present data with the results of studies performed in the North Pacific in the 1960s, showed a significant decrease in the intensity of NFS infection with anisakids during the last decades. The prevalence of mucosal lesions in NFS stomachs caused by anisakids also decreased from 92 to 20.9%. Possible reasons for the changes in NFS infection with anisakids are discussed. PMID:25216781

Kuzmina, T A; Lyons, E T; Spraker, T R

2014-12-01

121

Parasitological and molecular study of the furcocercariae from Melanoides tuberculata as a probable agent of cercarial dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cercarial dermatitis is caused by animal schistosomes in many parts of the world including Iran. Various stages of the parasites\\u000a have been studied in intermediate and definitive hosts in northern and southwestern Iran; however, no molecular investigation\\u000a for species identification and classification of these agents has been carried out, so far. In the present study, more than\\u000a 3,800 aquatic snails

Mehdi Karamian; Jitka A. Aldhoun; Sharif Maraghi; Gholamreza Hatam; Babak Farhangmehr; Seyed Mahmoud Sadjjadi

2011-01-01

122

Parasitological and molecular study of the furcocercariae from Melanoides tuberculata as a probable agent of cercarial dermatitis.  

PubMed

Cercarial dermatitis is caused by animal schistosomes in many parts of the world including Iran. Various stages of the parasites have been studied in intermediate and definitive hosts in northern and southwestern Iran; however, no molecular investigation for species identification and classification of these agents has been carried out, so far. In the present study, more than 3,800 aquatic snails were collected from water sources of Khuzestan, southwest Iran. The snails were identified as Lymnaea gedrosiana, Radix auricularia, Melanoides tuberculata, Melanopsis sp. and Physa acuta. They were examined for schistosome cercariae. Two specimens of M. tuberculata were infected with ocellate furcocercariae belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. Molecular studies were carried on these schistosomatid samples. Both samples belong to an unknown schistosome species and genus in sister position to Gigantobilharzia-Dendritobilharzia clade. They differ from other species in their ITS sequence region as well as in their intermediate host specificity--This is one of the first reports on schistosome cercariae from M. tuberculata and the first including molecular data. Due to adaptability and invasiveness of this snail species, this new schistosome species, as a potential causative agent of cercarial dermatitis in humans, needs to be studied further. PMID:21046153

Karamian, Mehdi; Aldhoun, Jitka A; Maraghi, Sharif; Hatam, Gholamreza; Farhangmehr, Babak; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud

2011-04-01

123

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology Release of metabolic enzymes by Giardia in response to interaction with intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Giardia lamblia, an important cause of diarrheal disease, resides in the small intestinal lumen in close apposition to epithelial cells. Since the disease mechanisms underlying giardiasis are poorly understood, elucidating the specific interactions of the parasite with the host epithelium is likely to provide clues to understanding the pathogenesis. Here we tested the hypothesis that contact of Giardia lamblia with intestinal epithelial cells might lead to release of specific proteins. Using established co-culture models, intestinal ligated loops and a proteomics approach, we identified three G. lamblia proteins (arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase and enolase), previously recognized as immunodominant antigens during acute giardiasis. Release was stimulated by cellcell interactions, since only small amounts of argi-nine deiminase and enolase were detected in the medium after culturing of G. lamblia alone. The secreted G. lamblia proteins were localized to the cytoplasm and the inside of the plasma membrane of trophozoites. Furthermore, in vitro studies with recombinant arginine deiminase showed that the secreted Giardia proteins can disable host innate immune factors such as nitric oxide production. These results indicate that contact of Giardia with epithelial cells triggers metabolic enzyme release, which might facilitate effective colonization of the human small intestine. PMID:18359106

Ringqvist, Emma; Palm, J.E. Daniel; Skarin, Hanna; Hehl, Adrian B.; Weiland, Malin; Davids, Barbara J.; Reiner, David S.; Griffiths, William J.; Eckmann, Lars; Gillin, Frances D.; Svard, Staffan G.

2012-01-01

124

1524 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 93, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2007 J. Parasitol., 93(?), 2007, pp. 15241527  

E-print Network

(Procyon lotor), Coyotes (Canis latrans), and Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Wisconsin Identified lotor) 59 54 32 30* 5 Coyote (Canis latrans) 40 35 18 15 6 Skunk (Mephitis mephitis) 7 7 5 1 1 * Tissues­2006, sera and tissues from raccoons (Pro- cyon lotor), coyotes (Canis latrans), and skunks (Mephitis

Mladenoff, David

125

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 131 (2003) 8391 Real-time quantitative PCR for analysis of genetically mixed infections  

E-print Network

for researchers. Many current methods of genotyping and quantification fall down on a number of aspects relating the development and validation of a method that offers several advantages in terms of cost, speed and accuracy over conventional PCR or antibody-based methods. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RTQ-PCR) with allele

Read, Andrew

126

Clinical and Parasitological Protection in a Leishmania infantum-Macaque Model Vaccinated with Adenovirus and the Recombinant A2 Antigen  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe vector-born disease of humans and dogs caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites. Approximately 0.2 to 0.4 million new human VL cases occur annually worldwide. In the new world, these alarming numbers are primarily due to the impracticality of current control methods based on vector reduction and dog euthanasia. Thus, a prophylactic vaccine appears to be essential for VL control. The current efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine include the use of animal models that are as close to human VL. We have previously reported a L. infantum-macaque infection model that is reliable to determine which vaccine candidates are most worthy for further development. Among the few amastigote antigens tested so far, one of specific interest is the recombinant A2 (rA2) protein that protects against experimental L. infantum infections in mice and dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Primates were vaccinated using three rA2-based prime-boost immunization regimes: three doses of rA2 plus recombinant human interleukin-12 (rhIL-12) adsorbed in alum (rA2/rhIL-12/alum); two doses of non-replicative adenovirus recombinant vector encoding A2 (Ad5-A2) followed by two boosts with rA2/rhIL-12/alum (Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum); and plasmid DNA encoding A2 gene (DNA-A2) boosted with two doses of Ad5-A2 (DNA-A2+Ad5-A2). Primates received a subsequent infectious challenge with L. infantum. Vaccines, apart from being safe, were immunogenic as animals responded with increased pre-challenge production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies, though with some variability in the response, depending on the vaccine formulation/protocol. The relative parasite load in the liver was significantly lower in immunized macaques as compared to controls. Protection correlated with hepatic granuloma resolution, and reduction of clinical symptoms, particularly when primates were vaccinated with the Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum protocol. Conclusions/Significance The remarkable clinical protection induced by A2 in an animal model that is evolutionary close to humans qualifies this antigen as a suitable vaccine candidate against human VL. PMID:24945284

Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Porrozzi, Renato; Pinto, Marcelo A.; Marchevsky, Renato S.; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle L.; Dutra, Miriam S.; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Fernandes, Ana-Paula; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

2014-01-01

127

Renal coccidiosis and other parasitologic conditions in lesser snow goose goslings at Tha-anne River, west coast Hudson Bay.  

PubMed

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings, approximately 5 weeks of age, were collected near the mouth of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, during mid-August 1991. Many dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goslings from near the coast, where habitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater prevalence of renal coccidiosis (Eimeria truncata) and cecal nematode (Trichostrongylus spp.) infection than did goslings from inland areas, where habitat destruction was not evident. Prevalence of infection with intestinal cestodes was greater at inland than at coastal sites. Prevalences of gizzard nematodes (Epomidiostomum spp.) and Leucocytozoon spp. were not significantly different at the two sites. Histological examination of kidneys and examination of kidney homogenates for oocysts were more sensitive methods than gross examination of the kidneys for detecting renal coccidial infection. The number of oocysts present in droppings was not a good indicator of the severity of renal coccidial infection in individual birds; however, the average number of oocysts in droppings was indicative of the average severity of infection among groups of goslings. PMID:8827676

Gomis, S; Didiuk, A B; Neufeld, J; Wobeser, G

1996-07-01

128

RENAL COCCIDIOSIS AND OTHER PARASITOLOGIC CONDITIONS IN LESSER SNOW GOOSE GOSLINGS AT THA-ANNE RIVER, WEST COAST HUDSON BAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goshings, approxinuateh: 5 weeks of age, were collected muear the mouthu of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, durimig mnid-Auugust 1991. Mamuy dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goshings from near the coast, where imabitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater

S. Gomis; A. B. Didiuk; J. Neufeld; G. Wobeser

129

Experimental infection of rabbits with Fasciola gigantica and treatment with triclabendazole (TCBZ) or BT6: parasitological, haematological and immunological findings.  

PubMed

The responses of rabbits experimentally infected orally with 25 Fasciola gigantica metacercariae each, to treatment with triclabendazole (TCBZ) in a single oral dose of 10 mg/Kg body weight or with the newly synthesized drug (BT6) in repeated oral doses of 500 mg/Kg for 3 consecutive days, were monitored by faecal egg and fluke counts and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), both treatments at 4-, 8- and 12- weeks of infection. In all infected rabbits, eggs appeared in the faeces between 10 and 16 weeks post-infection (P1) and Were egg-negative in the TCBZ-treated animals. Compared with the infected untreated control (group B), the reduction in the fluke burdens were 93.75,100 and 100% in TCBZ-treated rabbits (groups C, D and E), respectively and 33.33, 27.08 and 27.08% in the BT6 treated groups F, G and H, respectively. Total red blood corpuscle (RBCs) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and packed-cell volume (PCV) values in rabbits (group B) indicated the presence of moderate anaemia from the start of infection with a significant decrease from 10-12 weeks onwards. RBCs count, Hb and PCV values from groups C, D and E were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in those from group B on week 10, 8 and 10 PI, respectively. The increasing was continued till week 16 PI. By two weeks PI there was significant eosinophilia in infected rabbits, maintained at 4 and 6 weeks PI then dropped up to 8 weeks but still statistically higher than the control values. The ELISA detected antibodies against F. gigantica as early as week 2 PI, rising to high levels 6, 10 and 12 weeks later in groups C, D and E, respectively, whilst peaked at 10 weeks in BT6 treated animals, then tended to drop but remained positive through 16 weeks. We conclude TCBZ is a potent fasciolicidic drug. Eosinophilia and anaemia might be indicators for fascioliasis. The ELISA with adult fluke excretory - secretory (ES) antigens could be a feasible method for the diagnosis of experimental fascioliasis in rabbits and post-treatment monitoring. PMID:17216940

Sherif, N; Shalaby, I; Abdel Moneim, M; Soliman, M

2001-01-01

130

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 93 (1998) 7380 Are tRNAs imported into the mitochondria of kinetoplastid  

E-print Network

- trochemical membrane potential, several known inner and outer membrane receptor proteins, and cytosolic form 20 January 1998; accepted 23 January 1998 Abstract All mitochondrial tRNAs in kinetoplastid by a mitochondrial RNase P-like activity (Hancock et al., J Biol Chem 1992;267:23963­23971). We have examined

Simpson, Larry

131

Experimental Parasitology 91, 5969 (1999) Article ID expr.1998.4350, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on  

E-print Network

, passage from the food bolus through step of a series of complex developmental stages from ga- the midgut oocysts were found on the midgut of immune-activated response involving the encapsulation of the parasite

Lowenberger, Carl

132

Dermatological and parasitological evaluation of infestations with chewing lice ( Werneckiella equi ) on horses and treatment using imidacloprid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lice infestations in horses caused by the chewing louse Werneckiella (Damalinia) equi are observed worldwide. In the present study, the efficacy of 10% imidacloprid was tested on horses naturally infested with lice. Two groups of animals received a double application of 4ml and 8ml Advantage 10% spot-on on day 0 and 28 either. Horses, presenting dermatological signs with negative lice

N. Mencke; K. S. Larsen; M. Eydal; H. Sigursson

2005-01-01

133

Overcoming language and cultural barriers: a graphical communication tool to perform a parasitological screening in two vulnerable populations from Argentina.  

PubMed

This is an exploratory study of the application of a support tool for the detection of asymptomatic subjects carrying enteric parasites in two vulnerable populations in Argentina: a shantytown in the city of Buenos Aires and a rural Wich indigenous community in the province of Chaco. The ethnic and cultural diversity, high illiteracy rate, and language barriers called for the development of an auxiliary resource to explain stool sample collection procedures. In individual interviews with each family, the authors used two instructional guidance leaflets in comic strip format depicting the procedures. They evaluated the acceptance of the graphical communication tool on the basis of the number of retrieved samples. Percentages of respondent families were 72.2% and 66.7%, respectively. Definitive validation of these instruments would allow their use in community studies, community service learning experiences, and research on aboriginal communities that would otherwise be excluded from studies on health status. PMID:23066862

Buyayisqui, Mara Pa; Bordoni, Noem; Garbossa, Graciela

2013-01-01

134

190 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 89, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2003 J. Parasitol., 89(1), 2003, pp. 190192  

E-print Network

­192 American Society of Parasitologists 2003 Manipulation of the Vertebrate Host's Testosterone Does Not Affect treatment groups: cas- trated, castrated testosterone implant, sham implant, and unmanipu- lated control testosterone implant, and sham implant groups with the unmanipulated control group. A testosterone alteration

Schall, Joseph J.

135

[Onchocerciasis in Ecuador. First endemic focus discovered in the country, clinical, parasitological, and entomological findings (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The first endemic focus of onchocerciasis in Ecuador has been established in the province of Esmeraldas. It is on the Cayapas River about 85 kilometer upstream from the town of Borbn. The endemic focus as far as it is currently known, appears to be localized between the settlements of Sapallo Grande and San Miguel de Cayapas. 87 persons were examined in both settlements. Onchocerciasis was detected in 72 (83%) persons; 62 (86%) were negroes and 10 were Cayapas indians; 42 (58%) were males and 30 were females. 29 (74%) of the weighed skin snips taken from 39 individuals showed a higher microfilarial density from the iliac crest than from the scapula. The following clinical manifestations were found in the positive cases: 45 (63%) with onchocercoma; 31 (43%) with dermatitis, pigmentary changes, atrophy of the skin; 19 (26%) with lymphoadenopathy and lymphoedema of the external genital organs; 32 (44%) with corneal opacities; 49 (68%) with itching of the skin and dermatitis and 23 (32%) without itching but with dermatitis. 274 Simulium were collected biting man. Three species were identified, although the specific names used must be considered as provisional. 59 S. exiguum, 206 S. quadrivittatum and 9 S. antillarum. The black flies were attracted with human bait inside the houses, outside and around the houses and at 500 meters far from the house near a creek. It seems that the three species are anthropophilic and endophilic. PMID:7101443

Arzube, M E

1982-03-01

136

Invasion Biology Meets Parasitology: A Case Study of Parasite Spill-Back with Egyptian Fasciola gigantica in the Invasive Snail Pseudosuccinea columella  

PubMed Central

The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in Africa and Asia. Cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to F. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. The introduced snail species Galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader Pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. Therefore, we investigated snails collected in irrigation canals in Fayoum governorate in Egypt for prevalence of trematodes with focus on P. columella and its role for the transmission of F. gigantica. Species were identified morphologically and by partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Among all 689 snails found at the 21 sampling sites, P. columella was the most abundant snail with 296 individuals (42.96%) and it was also the most dominant species at 10 sites. It was not found at 8 sites. Molecular detection by PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) revealed infections with F. gigantica (3.38%), Echinostoma caproni (2.36%) and another echinostome (7.09%) that could not be identified further according to its sequence. No dependency of snail size and trematode infection was found. Both high abundance of P. columella in the Fayoum irrigation system and common infection with F. gigantica might be a case of parasite spill-back (increased prevalence in local final hosts due to highly susceptible introduced intermediate host species) from the introduced P. columella to the human population, explaining at least partly the observed increase of reported fascioliasis-cases in Egypt. Eichhornia crassipes, the invasive water hyacinth, which covers huge areas of the irrigation canals, offers safe refuges for the amphibious P. columella during molluscicide application. As a consequence, this snail dominates snail communities and efficiently transmits F. gigantica. PMID:24523913

Grabner, Daniel S.; Mohamed, Faten A. M. M.; Nachev, Milen; Mabed, Eman M. H.; Sabry, Abdel Hameed A.; Sures, Bernd

2014-01-01

137

Invasion biology meets parasitology: a case study of parasite spill-back with Egyptian Fasciola gigantica in the invasive snail Pseudosuccinea columella.  

PubMed

The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in Africa and Asia. Cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to F. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. The introduced snail species Galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader Pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. Therefore, we investigated snails collected in irrigation canals in Fayoum governorate in Egypt for prevalence of trematodes with focus on P. columella and its role for the transmission of F. gigantica. Species were identified morphologically and by partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Among all 689 snails found at the 21 sampling sites, P. columella was the most abundant snail with 296 individuals (42.96%) and it was also the most dominant species at 10 sites. It was not found at 8 sites. Molecular detection by PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) revealed infections with F. gigantica (3.38%), Echinostoma caproni (2.36%) and another echinostome (7.09%) that could not be identified further according to its sequence. No dependency of snail size and trematode infection was found. Both high abundance of P. columella in the Fayoum irrigation system and common infection with F. gigantica might be a case of parasite spill-back (increased prevalence in local final hosts due to highly susceptible introduced intermediate host species) from the introduced P. columella to the human population, explaining at least partly the observed increase of reported fascioliasis-cases in Egypt. Eichhornia crassipes, the invasive water hyacinth, which covers huge areas of the irrigation canals, offers safe refuges for the amphibious P. columella during molluscicide application. As a consequence, this snail dominates snail communities and efficiently transmits F. gigantica. PMID:24523913

Grabner, Daniel S; Mohamed, Faten A M M; Nachev, Milen; Mabed, Eman M H; Sabry, Abdel Hameed A; Sures, Bernd

2014-01-01

138

Immunological and parasitological parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with crude extract from the leaves of Mentha x piperita L.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by an intravascular trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the drug used for treatment of schistosomiasis; nevertheless failure of treatment has been reported. Consequently, the identification of new effective schistosomicidal compounds is essential to ensure the effective control of schistosomiasis in the future. In this work we investigated the immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of the crude leaves extract of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Female Balb/c mice were infected each with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and divided into three experimental groups: (I) untreated; (II) treated daily with M. x piperita L. (100mg/kg) and III) treated on 1/42/43 days post-infection with Praziquantel (500mg/kg). Another group with uninfected and untreated mice was used as a control. Subsequently, seven weeks post-infection, S. mansoni eggs were counted in the feces, liver and intestine. Worms were recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system and counted. Sera levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-?, IgG1, IgE and IgG2a were assayed by ELISA. Animals treated with a daily dose of M. x piperita L. showed increased sera levels of IL-10, IFN-?, IgG2a and IgE. Besides, M. x piperita L. treatment promoted reduction in parasite burden by 35.2% and significant decrease in egg counts in the feces and intestine. PMID:24767421

Dejani, Naiara N; Souza, Las C; Oliveira, Sandra R P; Neris, Dbora M; Rodolpho, Joice M A; Correia, Ricardo O; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Sacramento, Luis V S; Faccioli, Lcia H; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

2014-08-01

139

Hernandez, Bunnell & Sukhdeo (In Press), Parasitology XX: 00-00 Summary Table 1. Parasite infrapopulations from Muskingum Brook (MB); mean abundance ( SD), total number of worms, and  

E-print Network

= pirate perch, EFU= swamp darter, ENI= chain pickerel, ENO= banded sunfish, ERO= creek chubsucker, LGI. Column labels are as in Table 3, additional fish species are: ANA= yellow bullhead, APO= mud sunfish, ARO

Sukhdeo, Michael V.K.

140

Annals ofTropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vo!' 77, No.5, 527-533 (1983) Immediate-type skin reactivity to extracts of the  

E-print Network

of the 'green nimitti' midge, CladotanytaTsus lewisi (Freeman), a potent airborne allergen associated indicate that Cladotanytarsus lewisi is a major source of chironomid allergen(s) in these asthmatic and partially chemically characterized a major allergen (Gad El Rab et al., 1980). Although skin

Cranston, Peter S.

141

[Intestinal trematodiases (metagonimiasis, nanophyetiasis): clinico-parasitological research and the first trial of using Azinox in a focus of the lower Amur River valley].  

PubMed

A focus of metagonimiasis and nanophyetiasis is described with the average human prevalence of 66.7 and 4.2%, respectively and low intensity of invasions (less than 100 eggs per 1 g). Metagonimiasis and nanophyetiasis are clinically expressed as chronic enterocolitis. A high effect of a single dose 10 mg/kg of azinox against metagonimiasis (98%) and nanophyetiasis (100%) was shown. The treatment course was proved to be useful in the foci of the Amur basin. PMID:1435530

Bronshte?n, A M; Korablev, V N; Iarotski?, L S

1992-01-01

142

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 48 (1991) 211 222 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved. / 0166-6851/91/$03.50  

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transmission can occur by alternative routes such as blood transfusion, organ transplantation and congenital reaction amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast minicircle DNA isolated from whole blood lysates guanidine-HC1/0.2 M EDTA solution was used to lyse and store whole blood specimens. DNA stored in guanidine

Simpson, Larry

143

Organismal effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems: developmental instability, clinical hematology, body condition, and blood parasitology.  

PubMed

This is the second of two articles reporting the results of a nonlethal biomonitoring study that quantified the effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems of the Ottawa/Gatineau region (ON and PQ, Canada, respectively). In the present article, we describe results of measurements regarding developmental instability (e.g., fluctuating asymmetry), congenital birth defects (e.g., skeletal terata), clinical hematology (e.g., differential counts), general body condition (e.g., body mass-length relationships), and blood parasite load (Trypanosoma sp. and Bartonella spp.). Voles were captured during the year 2001 to 2003 at six golf courses and two reference sites. Once voles were fully sedated using isoflurane, blood was collected, radiographs taken, and morphometric measurements recorded. Three animals from each course were euthanized to determine body burdens of historically used organochlorine (OC) and metal-based pesticides. Exposure to in-use pesticides was determined from detailed golf course pesticide-use records. None of the endpoints measured was significantly related to body burdens of OC pesticides and metals historically used, nor did any endpoint significantly vary among capture sites in relation to total pesticide application to the capture site or to the number of days since the last application of pesticide. Based on these findings, it appears that voles from golf courses were no less healthy than their conspecifics from reference sites. PMID:15376537

Knopper, Loren D; Mineau, Pierre

2004-06-01

144

1232 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 91, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2005 vicinity of the intake pipe and gaining entry via the incoming unfiltered  

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could be incorporated in the feed, appears to be a feasible alternative to drug therapy. Additionally (Microspora) de- velopment in rainbow trout. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 11: 237­245. CANNING, E. U., J

Poulin, Robert

145

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of acaricides against ticks (Ixodidae) on ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been prepared to assist in the planning, conduct and interpretation of studies for the assessment of the efficacy of acaricides (excluding vaccines and other bio-control agents) against single and multi-host ticks (Ixodidae) on ruminants. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping and result interpretation. The use of

P. A. Holdsworth; D. Kemp; P. Green; R. J. Peter; C. De Bruin; N. N. Jonsson; T. Letonja; S. Rehbein; J. Vercruysse

2006-01-01

146

TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.17 No.6 June 2001 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/01/$ see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(01)01977-8  

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) warned the audience, which comprised more than 250 scientists, that we are in danger of being overwhelmed goal of developing drugs, vaccines and diagnostics to control these devastating diseases be achieved

Schnaufer, Achim

147

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition: guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestations on dogs and cats.  

PubMed

These second edition guidelines, updated from the 2007 version (Marchiondo et al., 2007), are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. Major revisions to this second edition include guidelines on the assessment of systemic flea and tick products, an update of the geographical distribution of the common fleas and ticks species on dogs and cats, determination of flea and tick efficacy based on geometric versus arithmetic means with respect to geographic regulatory agencies, modification of tick categorization in the assessment of efficacy, expanded guidelines on repellency and anti-feeding effects, enhanced practical field study guidance, and considerations on the ranges of flea and ticks for infestations in laboratory studies. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist regulatory authorities involved in the approval and registration of new topical or systemic ectoparasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures. PMID:23741753

Marchiondo, A A; Holdsworth, P A; Fourie, L J; Rugg, D; Hellmann, K; Snyder, D E; Dryden, M W

2013-05-01

148

TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.18 No.6 June 2002 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/02/$ see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(02)02268-7  

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include women during pregnancy and non-immune travelers, refugees, displaced persons and migrant laborers-SaharanAfrica, amounting to 1.5­2.7 million deaths each year, primarily of children under the age of five years [1 and its current level of genetic polymorphism are important in evaluating strategies for immunological

Hartl, Daniel L.

149

Incidence and Time Course of Leishmania infantum Infections Examined by Parasitological, Serologic, and Nested-PCR Techniques in a Cohort of Na ve Dogs Exposed to Three Consecutive Transmission Seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most experience in the comparison of diagnostic tools for canine leishmaniasis comes from cross-sectional surveys of dogs of different ages and breeds and in cases with unknown onset and duration of leishmaniasis. A longitudinal study was performed on 43 beagle dogs exposed to three transmission seasons (2002 to 2004) of Mediterranean leishmaniasis and examined periodically over 32 months through bone

Gaetano Oliva; Aldo Scalone; Valentina Foglia Manzillo; Marina Gramiccia; Annalisa Pagano; Luigi Gradoni

150

TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.17 No.1 January 2001 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/01/$ see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(00)01850-0  

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are hampered by the lack of drugs, their high cost and adverse side effects, and the emergence of drug Aksoy* Scott L. O'Neill Dept Epidemiology and Public Health, Section of Vector Biology, Yale University, threatening the availability of effective tools to combat these diseases. Unfortunately, this scenario

Aksoy, Serap

151

TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.18 No.6 June 2002 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/02/$ see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(02)02269-9  

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.05%). Only 0.8% of species of the green lineage (green and red algae, and plants) are parasites (Fig. 2 mutualism is excluded from this (e.g. photosynthetic algae associated with fungi, cnidarians, molluscs in Sarcomastigophora (an obsolete Protozoa phylum), are now grouped within the Chromista (i.e. brown algae).A new clade

152

Notarbartolo di Sciara G., Bearzi G. 2005. Research on cetaceans in Italy. In B. Cozzi, ed. Marine mammals of the Mediterranean Sea: natural history, biology, anatomy, pathology, parasitology. Massimo Valdina Editore, Milano (in Italian).  

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Notarbartolo di Sciara G., Bearzi G. 2005. Research on cetaceans in Italy. In B. Cozzi, ed. Marine Valdina Editore, Milano (in Italian). 1 RESEARCH ON CETACEANS IN ITALY Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara and Giovanni Bearzi Tethys Research Institute, viale G.B. Gadio 2, 20121 Milano, Italy 1. Introduction Zoology

153

Research and increase of expertise in arachno-entomology are urgently needed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the contents of international journals of parasitology dealing with broader topics inside this field show that\\u000a rather a few papers appear with studies in the discipline of arachno-entomology. In the journals Journal of Parasitology, Parasitology Research and Trends in Parasitology, the relations of published papers on protozoology, helminthology and arachno-entomology showed that in all three journals,\\u000a papers on protozoans

Heinz Mehlhorn; Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid; Saleh Al-Quraishy; Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar

154

BioMed Central Open Access  

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, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland, 7Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand , 8Center for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Oxford, UK, 9National Center for Parasitology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

AHDC FACT SHEET 1 DL-1030 5/06 TRANSTRACHEAL WASH PROCEDURE  

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Fluorescent Antibody (FA) tests Parasitology (Lungworms) Cytology (At this time, cytology exams are referred cytology, only) Several glass slides (for cytology) *Other suitable materials may include sterilized fine

Keinan, Alon

156

Roadmap: Medical Technology Bachelor of Science [AS-BS-MEDT  

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Parasitology: Theory and Applications 1 CLS 49020 Clinical Chemistry: Theory 4 Semester Eight: [16 Credit Hours] CLS 49021 Clinical Chemistry: Applications 4 Students who complete the required clinical

Sheridan, Scott

157

Human Malaria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following aspects of malaria are discussed: Etiology and transmission; geographic distribution; importance to man; infection; parasitologic diagnosis; pathologic effects; reticuloendothelial system; prevention; treatment and prognosis.

D. J. Winslow, D. H. Connor

1967-01-01

158

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUTNOMA DE MXICO DOCTORADO EN CIENCIAS BIOMDICAS  

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en Ciencias Armando Navarro del Departamento de Salud Pública de la Facultad de Medicina, en la Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología de la Facultad de Medicina, en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma Bacteriana del Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología de la Facultad de Medicina, en la Universidad

159

PRESENCE OF INFECTIOUS AGENTS AND PARASITES IN WILD POPULATION OF COTTONTAIL (SYLVILAGUS FLORIDANUS) AND CONSIDERATION ON ITS ROLE IN THE DIFFUSION OF PATHOGENS INFECTING HARES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three study areas located in Alessandria province (Piedmont, Italy), 271 Sylvilagus floridanus were captured for parasitological and serological survey. The parasitological research has shown the presence of ecto (ticks, fleas) and endoparasites (nematodes, protozoa), and in particular the infestation with exotic species (Euhoplopsyllus glacialis, Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Passalurus nonannulatus). Sera were tested to detect antibodies against the following

160

Field evaluation of a fast anti- Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitology. In total, 103 suspected cases were recruited for the study. Based on parasitological examination, 49 patients were

A. Hailu; G. J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H. D. F. H. Schallig

2006-01-01

161

Do bot flies, Cuterebra (Diptera: Cuterebridae), emasculate their hosts?  

E-print Network

Asa Fitch, in his description of a new species of Cuterebra that he named, "emasculator," was the first to suggest that bot flies castrated their mammalian hosts. In recent years, several major review papers and parasitology texts have continued...

Timm, Robert M.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

1981-07-31

162

ENTERIC PARASITES IN WORKERS OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED TO SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

To determine if parasitic infections occur more frequently among workers exposed to wastewater than among controls, parasitologic examinations were performed on stool specimens collected over a 12-month period from sewer and highway maintenance workers. Three of 56 sewer maintena...

163

Molecular Ecology (2003) 12, 33833401 doi: 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01995.x 2003 Blackwell Publishing Ltd  

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, Medellin, Colombia, 5Instituto Nacional de Salud Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, 6Instituto de Medicina, Japan, 13Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional

California at Berkeley, University of

164

SHORT COMMUNICATION Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia the parasitological washing out method, we examined the intestines of 428 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for the presence

Boyer, Edmond

165

Eur. J. Biochem. 218, 29-37 (1993) Phenotype of recombinant Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi  

E-print Network

Department of Medical Parasitology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, England (Received June 2 of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, England, WCZE 7HT Abbreviations. GSH, glutathione

Schnaufer, Achim

166

Traffic 2012; 13: 13351350 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S doi:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2012.01394.x  

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¨uck, Germany 6Department of Molecular Parasitology, Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany 7 Department of Medical Microbiology, Bernhard-Nocht-Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg

Ungermann, Christian

167

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, June 1994, p. 1298-1302 0066-4804/94/$04.00+0  

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Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WCIE 7HT, United Kingdom Received 16 November 1993/Returned for modification 4 Parasitology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St., London, WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom

Schnaufer, Achim

168

A simple data reduction method for high resolution1 LC/MS data in metabolomics2  

E-print Network

Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp B-2000, Belgium.15 - Prof. Dr. J. C. Dujardin; tel: +32 3247 6358 Parasitology,17 Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp B-2000, Belgium.18 - Dr. D. G. Watson; tel: +44 141

Breitling, Rainer

169

"report" --2004/11/1 --17:08 --page 1 --#1 Modelling of  

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Barnisha September 2004 aLiverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology Group at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. 2 #12;i "report" -- 2004/11/1 -- 17:08 -- page 3 -- #4 i Abstract We

Atkinson, Katie

170

Molecular Ecology (2005) 14, 38893902 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02709.x 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd  

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Mexico 87131 USA, Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria, §CSIR Water and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, ****Departamento de Parasitología, Facultad de

Loker, Eric "Sam"

171

Genomic heterogeneity in the density of noncoding single-nucleotide and microsatellite polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum  

E-print Network

, USA c Department of Medical Parasitology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA d Huntington Avenue, I-703, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Tel.: +1 617 432 4629; fax: +1 617 432 4766. E-mail address

Hartl, Daniel L.

172

August 2012 Volume 9, Issue 2  

E-print Network

in the Department of Zoology, Professor Pratt taught and conducted research in invertebrate zoology and parasitology. Su Sponaugle, a Professor in OSU's Department of Zoology and Dr. Cowen's wife. Her position includes

173

Inhibition of Toxoplasma gondii Replication by Dinitroaniline Herbicides THOMAS J. W. STOKKERMANS,* JOSEPH D. SCHWARTZMAN,* KAREN KEENAN,  

E-print Network

Inhibition of Toxoplasma gondii Replication by Dinitroaniline Herbicides THOMAS J. W. STOKKERMANS of Toxoplasma gondii replication by dinitroaniline herbicides. Experimental Parasitology 84, 355­370. Submicromolar concentrations of several dinitroaniline herbicides have been found to specifically inhibit

Morrissette, Naomi

174

J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 49(2), 2002 pp. 154163 2002 by the Society of Protozoologists  

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aDepartment of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna´ 7, Prague 12844, Czech. In bulls, the pre- putial cavity, and less frequently the urethral orifice are infect- ed. Clinical

Flegr, Jaroslav

175

Biocontroh The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management1  

E-print Network

in the United States, Filipjev in Russia, Steiner in Germany, and Bovien in Denmark made significant of insect pests" published by the former Imperial Bureau of Agricultural Parasitology (39). Thereafter

176

Kristen C. Ruegg Stanford University -Hopkins Marine Station  

E-print Network

, K. 2007. Divergence between subspecies groups of Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus ustulatus across a migratory divide of the Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus). Journal of Parasitology, 93 correlates with ecology in a migratory songbird the Swainson's thrush, Catharus ustulatus. Molecular Ecology

Palumbi, Stephen

177

The use of echinostomes to study hostparasite relationships between larval trematodes and invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes with life cycles that are easy and inexpensive to maintain in the laboratory. For this\\u000a reason, echinostomes have served for years as experimental models in different areas of parasitology. However, the usefulness\\u000a of these trematodes in experimental parasitology has been under estimated. In this paper, we discuss the life cycles of echinostomes\\u000a and the techniques used

Rafael Toledo; Carla Muoz-Antoli; Bernard Fried

2007-01-01

178

Impact of indoor residual spraying of lambda-cyhalothrin on malaria prevalence and anemia in an epidemic-prone district of Muleba, north-western Tanzania.  

PubMed

The Government of Tanzania introduced indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Muleba district in north-western Tanzania after frequent malaria epidemics. Malaria parasitological baseline and two cross-sectional follow-up surveys were conducted in villages under the IRS program and those not under IRS to assess the impact of IRS intervention. After two rounds of IRS intervention there was a significant reduction of malaria parasitological indices in both two villages. In IRS villages overall, parasitemia prevalence was reduced by 67.2%, splenomegaly was reduced by 75.8%, whereas anemia was reduced by 50.5%. There was also a decline of malaria parasite density from 896.4 at baseline to 128.8 at second follow-up survey. Similarly, there was also a reduction of malaria parasitological indices in non-IRS villages; however, parasitological indices in IRS villages remained far below the levels in non-IRS villages. The reduction of malaria parasitological indices in non-IRS villages might have been contributed by interventions other than IRS. PMID:23458959

Mashauri, Fabian M; Kinung'hi, Safari M; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Magesa, Stephen M; Kishamawe, Coleman; Mwanga, Joseph R; Nnko, Soori E; Malima, Robert C; Mero, Chacha N; Mboera, Leonard E G

2013-05-01

179

Immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Fasciola gigantica paramyosin antigen  

PubMed Central

Background: Many immunological techniques have been developed over years using the different Fasciola antigens for diagnosis of parasitic infection and to replace the parasitological techniques, which are time consuming and usually lack sensitivity and reproducibility. Materials and Methods: In this study, Fasciola gigantica paramyosin (Pmy) antigen was early detected in cattle sera using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to evaluate the Pmy antigen performance in diagnosis. This work was conducted on 135 cattle blood samples, which were classified according to parasitological investigation into, healthy control (30), fascioliasis (75), and other parasites (30) groups. Results: The sensitivity of Sandwich ELISA was 97.33%, and the specificity was 95%, in comparison with parasitological examination, which recorded 66.66% sensitivity and 100% specificity, respectively. Conclusions: It was clear that the native F. gigantica Pmy is considered as a powerful antigen in early immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis, using a highly sensitive and specific sandwich ELISA technique. PMID:23961441

Abou-Elhakam, Hany Mohamed Adel; Bauomy, Ibraheem Rabia; El Deeb, Somaya Osman; El Amir, Azza Mohamed

2013-01-01

180

mE RESPONSE OF FASCIOLA GIGANTICA INFECTED SHEEP TO DIETARY NITROGEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Chronic Fasciola gigantica infections were established in lambs maintained on diets differing in their protein and nitrogen content. The course of the disease and their production parameters were compared with that of similarly maintained uninfected controls. Parasitological, haematological, serological, biochemical and post-mortem data indicated light F. gigantica infections were successfully established in the experimentally infected sheep. Nutritional and production

Leslie JS Harrison; R Anne Pearson

181

Aparasitemic serological suspects in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis: a potential human reservoir of parasites?  

PubMed

The serological and parasitological tests used for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) diagnosis have low specificity and sensitivity, respectively, and in the field, control program teams are faced with subjects with positive serology but negative parasitology who remain untreated. The aim of this work was to explore, using PCR tool, the significance of these aparasitemic serological suspects. Since discordant PCR results have been observed earlier with different extraction methods, two DNA extraction methods were compared (the Chelex 100 resin and the DNeasy Tissue kit). The study was conducted on 604 blood samples: 574 from parasitologically confirmed patients, aparasitemic serological suspects and endemic controls collected in Cte d'Ivoire and 30 from healthy volunteers collected in France. No significant differences were observed between the PCR results obtained with the two extraction methods. Concerning PCR, problems of reproducibility and discordances with both serological and parasitological test results were observed, mainly for the aparasitemic serological suspects. In addition to previous results that pointed to the existence of non-virulent or non-pathogenic trypanosome strains and of individual susceptibility leading to long term seropositivity without detectable parasitaemia but positive PCR, the results of this study support the notion of a long lasting human reservoir that may contribute to the maintenance or periodic resurgences of HAT in endemic foci. PMID:16723098

Koffi, M; Solano, P; Denizot, M; Courtin, D; Garcia, A; Lejon, V; Bscher, P; Cuny, G; Jamonneau, V

2006-05-01

182

On the use of spleen mass as a measure of avian immune system strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The avian spleen has been frequently used in studies of avian ecology, parasitology, and evolution to infer immune system strength in birds. Traditionally, it has been assumed that a large spleen is representative of a strong immune system and conclusions based on this assumption have led to interesting interpretations of the role of disease and parasitism, for example in predator-prey

Kevin G. Smith; John L. Hunt

2004-01-01

183

Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41(3), 2005, pp. 615617 Wildlife Disease Association 2005  

E-print Network

of the common rac- coon (Procyon lotor). Key words: Cozumel Island, Mexico, dis- ease spillover, endoparasites raccoon (Procyon lotor), and the viruses may be important causes of raccoon mor- tality (Roscoe, 1993 A Serological and Fecal Parasitologic Survey of the Critically Endangered Pygmy Raccoon (Procyon pygmaeus

Gompper, Matthew E.

184

Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(3): 274277, 2003 Copyright 2003 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians  

E-print Network

274 Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(3): 274�277, 2003 Copyright 2003 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians PARASITOLOGIC ANALYSES OF THE SIFAKA (PROPITHECUS VERREAUXI VERREAUXI,4,6,11 and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) of Gabon.9 Wild Old World and New World primates harbor a wide range of pro

Muehlenbein, Michael

185

Assessment of clinical pathology, pathogen exposure, and impact of  

E-print Network

Introduction: Martes americana ·Family Mustelidae ·Males 900-1300 gm ·Females 600-900 gm ·Mesocarnivore ·Forest in American martens (Martes americana) of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, U.S.A. Comparative Parasitology 78. 2007. Field use of isoflurane as an inhalant anesthetic in the American marten (Martes americana

Gray, Matthew

186

Prevalence of zoonotic important parasites in the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national necropsy survey of red foxes was carried out across Great Britain to record Echinococcus, Trichinella and Toxoplasma. The survey did not record directly, or indirectly using coproantigen\\/PCR tests, evidence for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in 588 animals, although E. granulosus was suspected in six animals. Parasitological evidence for Trichinella spp. could not be found in 587 fox

G. C Smith; B Gangadharan; Z Taylor; M. K Laurenson; H Bradshaw; G Hide; J. M Hughes; A Dinkel; T Romig; P. S Craig

2003-01-01

187

[Bulinus (B.) forskalii, a new intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Congo].  

PubMed

Malacological and parasitological studies were carried out in the urinary schistosomiasis focus uncovered to Loulombo (Pool region). We reported data presuming the autochtone nature of infected patients and pointing out the possible role of Bulinus (B.) forskalii as a new intermediate host. PMID:3140356

Akouala, J J; Ngouono, P; Otilibili, P; Simonkovitch, E; Malonga, J R; Samba, F

1988-06-01

188

Feature Article Testosterone-Mediated Immune Functions and Male Life  

E-print Network

pressures that were instrumental in the evolution of human and non-human primate males. However, gaps remain. MUEHLENBEIN,1 * AND RICHARD G. BRIBIESCAS2 1 Laboratory for Evolutionary Physiology and Parasitology Recent advances in human life history theory have provided new insights into the potential selection

Muehlenbein, Michael

189

The genome of the protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica  

E-print Network

of Specific Prophylaxis and Tropical Medicine, Center for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical University, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK 9 Department of Molecular Parasitology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht Str. 74, 20359

Arnold, Jonathan

190

Evaluation of biological control of sheep parasites using Duddingtonia flagrans under commercial farming conditions on the island of Gotland, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials, conducted over 3 consecutive years, were aimed at assessing farmer opinions of the practicality and effectiveness of using Duddingtonia flagrans to control nematode parasites in their flocks on the Swedish island of Gotland. These trials were also monitored by intensive parasitological investigation. On Gotland, lambing occurs in spring, and around mid-summer (late June), ewes and lambs are moved

P. J. Waller; O. Schwan; B.-L. Ljungstrm; A. Rydzik; G. W. Yeates

2004-01-01

191

A disease complex associated with pigeon circovirus infection, young pigeon disease syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to collect more convincing data on the aetiological agent of young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS), a comprehensive study was performed on pigeons in German lofts with or without outbreaks of YPDS. The investigations included examination of histories, clinical signs and pathology, as well as parasitological and microbiological analysis. Pigeons in their 4th to 12th week of life exhibited

Rdiger Raue; Volker Schmidt; Markus Freick; Brinja Reinhardt; Reimar Johne; Ludger Kamphausen; Erhard F. Kaleta; Hermann Mller; Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns

2005-01-01

192

CURRICULUM VITAE Scott D. Snyder  

E-print Network

of Parasitology, accepted. Bolek, M. G., S. D. Snyder, and J. Janovy, Jr. 2009. Alternative life cycle strategies and colonization of young of the year leopard frogs, Woodhouse's toads, and bullfrogs by Gorgoderina attenuata. Redescription of the frog bladder fluke Gorgoderina attenuata from the northern leopard frog, Rana pipiens

Snyder, Scott D.

193

Epidemiological and biochemical studies of human lymphatic filariasis and associated parasitoses in Oguta, South-Eastern, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible organ infections associated with human filariasis, helminthiasis and malaria in Oguta Local Government Area of Imo State, South-Eastern Nigeria were investigated. Blood, urine and stool samples were collected in appropriate containers from 200 male and female respondents aged 31 - 85 years. Parasitological studies were carried out on blood samples for malaria and\\/or microfilariae parasites while stool samples were

Okey A. Ojiako

194

Multiparasitism - a Neglected Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiparasitism: pervasive, yet seldom considered In the present context, multiparasitism (synonymous: polyparasitism) is defined as the concurrent presence of different parasite species in a single host. Parasites are members of the helminth, protozoa and arthropod families. Some studies also consider bacteria, fungi and viruses (1) but since the latter organisms fall outside traditional parasitology, they are not considered here. The

Peter Steinmann; Zun-Wei Du; Jrg Utzinger; Xiao-Nong Zhou

195

Schistosoma haematobium induced lesions in the female genital tract in a village in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female genital schistosomiasis, FGS, was investigated in a gynaecological study as part of an overall community based morbidity survey, including parasitological and ultrasonographical examination, of a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area in Madagascar. Women (103), of childbearing age (1549 years), were included for a gynaecological examination and visible lesions of vagina and cervix were biopsied in order to determine the origin

P Leutscher; C Raharisolo; J. L Pecarrere; V. E Ravaoalimalala; J Serieye; M Rasendramino; B Vennervald; H Feldmeier; P Esterre

1997-01-01

196

University of South Florida Scholar Commons  

E-print Network

: May 31, 2013 Keywords: chlorothalonil, freshwater ecosystem and function, disease, immunity, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons, and the Parasitology Commons This Dissertation is brought to you for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with a concentration in Ecology and Evolution Biology Department

Lajeunesse, Marc J.

197

577Lefebvre et al.--Anguillicolosis in the short-finned eel Anguillicolosis in the short-finned eel Anguilla australis  

E-print Network

email: robert.poulin@stonebow.otago.ac.nz 2Zoologie I, Ecology/Parasitology University of Karlsruhe Kornblumenstr. 13 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany 3National Centre for Disease Investigation Ministry of Agriculture August 2004 Received 10 February 2004; accepted 27 May 2004 New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater

Poulin, Robert

198

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-04-01

199

Effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy used in the context of home management of malaria: A report from three study sites in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) at the community level has been advocated as a means to increase access to effective antimalarial medicines by high risk groups living in underserved areas, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. This strategy has been shown to be feasible and acceptable to the community. However, the parasitological effectiveness of ACT when dispensed by community

Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi; Edmund N Browne; Fred Bateganya; Denis Yar; Christian Happi; Catherine O Falade; Grace O Gbotosho; Bidemi Yusuf; Samuel Boateng; Kefas Mugittu; Simon Cousens; Miriam Nanyunja; Franco Pagnoni

2008-01-01

200

JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, Aug. 2007, p. 60856088 Vol. 189, No. 16 0021-9193/07/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/JB.00468-07  

E-print Network

in several animal species, including rodents, racing horses (25), equine species (1), rhesus monkeys (5, 6. In order to identify the organisms responsible for the animal infection, PCR anal- yses were performed4 ; and Institute for Parasitology and International Animal Health, Free University of Berlin, Ko

201

Program of Study For a Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Sciences Number Course Title Crs.  

E-print Network

MLSP 208 General and Diagnostic Virology 2 MLSP 259 Diagnostic Serology 1 LABM 201 Clinical Chemistry I 2 LABM 202 Clinical Chemistry II 2 LABM 210 Cytology and Histological Techniques 2 LABM 233 Genetics 1 MBIM 223 Parasitology for MLS students 4 Seminar MLSP 211 Seminar 1 LABM 220 Clinical Chemistry

Shihadeh, Alan

202

Program of Study For a Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Sciences Number Course Title Crs.  

E-print Network

MLSP 208 General and Diagnostic Virology 2 MLSP 259 Diagnostic Serology 1 LABM 201 Clinical Chemistry I 2 LABM 202 Clinical Chemistry II 3 LABM 210 Cytology and Histological Techniques 2 LABM 231 Clinical Parasitology for MLS Students 4 Seminar MLSP 211 Seminar 1 LABM 220 Clinical Chemistry and Endocrinology 4 LABM

Shihadeh, Alan

203

shape Ogmogaster antarcticus Johnston, 1931 (Digenea: Notocotylidae) in shape Balaenoptera physalus (L.): first record in the Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed parasitological investigations were carried out on the stomach and the intestine of a young male Balaenoptera physalus found stranded along the east coast of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea. Thousands of digeneans were found in both the caecum and the colon. Morphological and morphometric studies were carried out on these parasites, which were identified as Ogmogaster antarcticus Johnston, 1931. In

T. Malatesta; R. Frati; S. Cerioni; U. Agrimi; G. Di Guardo

1998-01-01

204

Nematode lungworms of two species of anuran amphibians: Evidence for co-adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic studies have indicated that some parasite species formerly thought to be generalists are complexes of morphologically similar species, each appearing to specialize on different host species. Studies on such species are needed to obtain ecological and parasitological data to address whether there are fitness costs in parasitizing atypical host species. We examined whether lungworms from two anuran host species,

Oluwayemisi K. Dare; Steven A. Nadler; Mark R. Forbes

2008-01-01

205

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-01-01

206

Impact of genetic complexity on longevity and gametocytogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum during the dry and transmission-free  

E-print Network

for Research, Khartoum, Sudan c Department of Biochemistry, Sultan Gabos University, Oman Received 1 July 2004 for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum; Gametocytes of evading human immune responses and anti-malarial drug pressure. An understanding of the biology

Read, Andrew

207

Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using  

E-print Network

Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using, Blantyre 3, Malawi; d The National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, MD, and approved October 12, 2010 (received for review May 20, 2010) Malaria infections commonly

Read, Andrew

208

One reserve, three primates: applying a holistic approach to understand the interconnections among ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), and humans (Homo sapiens) at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied cultural anthropological, ethological, and parasitological methodologies to investigate the interplay among three primate species, ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), and humans (Homo sapiens) who live within the same habitat (i.e. in sympatry) around the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. Through a fusion of these methodologies we hope to provide a holistic understanding of the advantages

James E. Loudon; Michelle L. Sauther; Krista D. Fish; Mandala Hunter-Ishikawa; Youssouf Jacky Ibrahim

209

Boise State University Evaluation for Graduation  

E-print Network

and II *BIOL 198 Perspectives in the Biological Sciences BIOL 301 Cell Biology BIOL 323 Ecology BIOL 343 the Molecular and Cell Biology emphasis should take CHEM 307-310. Please consult your advisor. 8 5-10 Two Bacteriology BIOL 344 Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory BIOL 412 General Parasitology BIOL 415 Applied

Barrash, Warren

210

The effectiveness of active population screening and treatment for sleeping sickness control in the Democratic Republic of Congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary background The human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) control programme of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) uses mass screening with the card agglutination test for trypanosomes (CATT). We looked at the contribution of CATT and improved parasitological confirmation to the effectiveness of screening and treatment. method The effectiveness of the screening and treatment process is measured by the percentage of

Jo Robays; Miaka Mia C. Bilengue; Patrick Van der Stuyft; Marleen Boelaert

2004-01-01

211

History of Medical Laboratory Services in Bahrain. Part II. The Foundation of Modern Laboratory Services (1963-1975)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1963, Dr George Inglott, a Maltese qualified Pathologist was recruited to be in charge of medical laboratory facilities, which lasted until 1975. He witnessed the foundation of modern laboratory clinical practice in Bahrain. He initially experienced limitations to advice on clinical practice of biochemistry and microbiology (including bacteriology, parasitology, and serology), but there were limited demands from the hospital

F. Al Hilli

212

Giardia Cysts in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductions in annual rainfall in some regions and increased human consumption have caused a shortage of water resources at the global level. The recycling of treated wastewaters has been suggested for certain domestic, industrial, and agricultural activities. The importance of microbiological and parasitological criteria for recycled water has been repeatedly emphasized. Among water-borne pathogens, protozoa of the genera Giardia and

Simone M. Caccio; Marzia De Giacomo; Francesca A. Aulicino; Edoardo Pozio

2003-01-01

213

Monogeneans on native and introduced freshwater fishes from Cuba with the description of a new species of Salsuginus Beverley-Burton, 1984 from Limia vittata (Poeciliidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a parasitological survey carried out between March and September 2003 in Cuba, the following monogeneans were found on the gills of freshwater fishes: Salsuginus cubensis n. sp. on the Cuban molly Limia vittata Guichenot (Poeciliidae); Cichlidogyrus sclerosus Paperna & Thurston, 1969 and C. tilapiae Paperna, 1960 on the African cichlid Tilapia rendalli Boulenger (Cichlidae); Haplocleidus dispar Mueller, 1936 and

Edgar F. Mendoza-Franco; V. M. Vidal-Martnez; Y. Cruz-Quintana; F. L. Prats Len

2006-01-01

214

Study on Some Ectoparasitic Diseases of Catfish, Clarias gariepinus with their Control by Ginger, Zingiber officiale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitological investigation was performed in one hundred naturally collected Nile catfish Clarias gariepinus. It revealed skin and gill infestation with ectoparasitic protozoan Trichodina and Epistylis and monogenean Gyrodactylus spp. with average 20, 15 and 25%, respectively. The average of the total ectoparasitic infestation in the examined catfish was 60%.The significance of herbal control measures using ginger Zingiber officiale as a

J F. K. Abo-Esa

2008-01-01

215

Trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) of wild and cultured freshwater fishes in Taiwan, with notes on their origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1988 parasitological surveys were carried out on the freshwater fish fauna on the island of Taiwan in 12 localities that included fishery stations, reservoirs, fish markets as well as natural rivers and swamps. A total of 28 fish species were examined, representing 14 families. This paper reports on the parasites of the genus Trichodina (Ciliophora, Peritrichida) of Taiwan. Fourteen

Linda Basson; J. G. Van As

1994-01-01

216

Trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritricha) from Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor) and Anodonta woodiana (Lea) in China, with descriptions of two new species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838  

Microsoft Academic Search

During parasitological surveys in Chongqing, China, three trichodinids infecting a freshwater fish, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor), and a mollusc, Anodonta woodiana (Lea), were investigated. Two of these species were found to be new. Trichodina lechriodentata n. sp., from the fish, was identified by its small- sized body and irregularly rectangular blade, while T. rara n. sp., from the mollusc, is char-

Yuanjun Zhao; Fahui Tang

2007-01-01

217

Molecules 2010, 15, 8366-8376; doi:10.3390/molecules15118366 ISSN 1420-3049  

E-print Network

, mainly from plant sources. Medicinal plants may provide antimalarial drugs directly, as in the case-Mekhlafi and Rohela Mahmud Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur galanga thus possesses antimalarial activity, which explains the rational usage of this plant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Visceral leishmaniasis: use of the polymerase chain reaction in an epidemiological study in Baringo district, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerase chain reaction was applied to capillary blood spots dried on filter paper from 20 parasitologically proved cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), 21 subclinical cases, and 11 healthy controls in a longitudinal study of anthroponotic VL in Baringo District, Kenya. Leishmania deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected 105 months before diagnosis and up to 3 years after diagnosis and apparently

K. U. Schaefer; G. J. Schoone; G. S. Gachihi; A. S. Muller; P. A. Kager; S. E. O. Meredith

1995-01-01

219

An epizootic of common loons in coastal waters of North Carolina: Concentrations of elemental contaminants and results of necropsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1993 die-off of common loons (Gavia immer) in the coastal waters of North Carolina was investigated with emphasis on comparing mercury, selenium, arsenic, and lead between birds from the epizootic and reference specimens. Die-off specimens were emaciated but contained no ingested foreign bodies and no lesions suggestive of infectious disease. Results of bacteriology, virology, parasitology, and botulism testing were

Tom Augspurger; J. C. Franson; Kathryn A. Converse; Paul R. Spitzer; Erica A. Miller

1998-01-01

220

THE SCOTTISH ENCOUNTER WITH TROPICAL DISEASE  

E-print Network

Scots. These pioneers preceded Dr David Livingstone (1813-1873) whose success as an explorer in Africa Timeline 4-5 David Livingstone 6-7 Patrick Manson 8-9 African Trypanosomiasis 10-11 The Scottish Encounter aims to celebrate these discoveries. Why were so many discoveries in Parasitology made by Scots

Schnaufer, Achim

221

FOLIA PARASITOLOGICA 57[2]: 8187, 2010 ISSN 0015-5683 (print), ISSN 1803-6465 (online)  

E-print Network

) © Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre ASCR http://www.paru.cas.cz/folia/ Address for correspondence: J of suicide (Arling et al. 2009) and four independent studies also found increased risk of traffic accidents hundreds of thousands of deaths might be due to increased risk of suicide. Latent toxoplasmosis has

Flegr, Jaroslav

222

Malaria: even more chronic in nature than previously thought; evidence for subpatent parasitaemia detectable by the polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high endemicity areas, malaria is a chronic disease: examination of blood films reveals that up to half of the population, particularly children, harbour parasites at any one given time. The parasitological status of the remainder was addressed using the polymerase chain reaction, a technique 100 to 1000 times more sensitive than microscopy, on a series of samples from Dielmo,

Emmanuel Bottius; Antonella Guanzirolli; Jean-Franois Trape; Christophe Rogier; L. Konate; Pierre Druilhe

1996-01-01

223

SHORT COMMUNICATION Women infected with parasite Toxoplasma have more sons  

E-print Network

ratios in humans. Clinical records of 1,803 infants born from 1996 to 2004 contained information. Flegr (*) Department of Parasitology, Charles University, Vinicná 7, 128 44 Prague 2, Czech Republic e-mail: flegr@cesnet.cz J. Sulc Centre of Reproductive Medicine, Nad Bud'ánkami II/24, 150 00 Prague 5, Czech

Flegr, Jaroslav

224

Tick-borne diseases of domestic animals in northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first 10 years of its existence, the Department of Parasitology and Entomology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University in Zaria, Nigeria, confirmed or described for the first time the occurrence of 25 different tick-borne parasites of domestic animals in the northern part of the country. Most of these organisms occur as inapparent infections but may

P. Leeflang; A. A. Ilemobade

1977-01-01

225

Toxic Chemical Reduction Initiatives In response to the mandate of Executive Order 13514 and NIH's Environmental goal to reduce toxic  

E-print Network

's Environmental goal to reduce toxic chemical use, NIH embarked on a mission to identify and target additional Phase Hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) Disposable sterile items Mercury Single vial fixative for concentration, permanent stain, EIA, IFA and PCR procedures PROTO-Fix CLR Parasitology Fixative Z-5 Fixative Mercury cont

Baker, Chris I.

226

The detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before revised World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines on the detection of anthelmintic resistance can be produced, validation of modified and new methods is required in laboratories in different parts of the world. There is a great need for improved methods of detection of anthelmintic resistance particularly for the detection of macrocyclic lactone resistance and for

G. C. Coles; F. Jackson; R. K. Prichard; G. von Samson-Himmelstjerna; A. Silvestre; M. A. Taylor; J. Vercruysse

2006-01-01

227

Anthelmintic resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first reports of resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics were made some three decades ago, this phenomenon has changed from being considered merely as a parasitological curiosity to a state of industry crisis in certain livestock sectors. This extreme situation exists with the small ruminant industry of the tropical\\/sub-tropical region of southern Latin America where resistance to the

Peter J. Waller

1997-01-01

228

Frontiers in anthelmintic pharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in anthelmintic pharmacology faces a grim future. The parent field of veterinary parasitology has seemingly been devalued by governments, universities and the animal industry in general. Primarily due to the success of the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics in cattle, problems caused by helminth infections are widely perceived to be unimportant. The market for anthelmintics in other host species that are

Timothy G. Geary; Nicholas C. Sangster; David P. Thompson

1999-01-01

229

Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease  

E-print Network

Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease J.S. Leon, D.M. Engman* Northwestern University the genesis of autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: (i) What mechanism(s) are potentially responsible for Parasitology Inc. Keywords: Myocarditis; Chagas heart disease Myosin; Autoimmunity 1. Introduction After

Engman, David M.

230

3 Hernandez, L.M. (1993) Current status of filariasis in the Philippines. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 24 (Suppl.  

E-print Network

3 Hernandez, L.M. (1993) Current status of filariasis in the Philippines. Southeast Asian J. Trop, Philippines. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 24 (Suppl. 2), 9­22 6 Grove, D.I. et al. (1978) Bancroftian filariasis in a Philippine village; clinical, parasitological, immunological and social aspects

Maizels, Rick

231

COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORIES  

E-print Network

: Billing 15 SECTION 8: Tests Schedule 17 Avian Diagnostics 17 Bacteriology 19 Bacteriology/Serology 21, bacteriology, chemistry/toxicology, clinical pathology, endocrinology, immunology, parasitology, pathology Diseases Doreene Hyatt, Ph.D. Head, Bacteriology Section Hana Van Campen, DVM, Ph.D., DACVM Head, Virology

232

COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY VETERINARY DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORIES  

E-print Network

: Billing 15 SECTION 8: Tests Schedule 17 Avian Diagnostics 17 Bacteriology 19 Bacteriology/Serology 21, bacteriology, chemistry/toxicology, clinical pathology, endocrinology, immunology, parasitology, pathology/Foreign Animal Diseases Doreene Hyatt, Ph.D. Head, Bacteriology Section Hana Van Campen, DVM, Ph.D., DACVM Head

Stephens, Graeme L.

233

Leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is an uncommon infectious disease in the UK with a variety of clinical presentations. Physicians should remember to consider this diagnosis in patients with an appropriate travel history (including the Mediterranean basin) and seek help with diagnostics from a specialised parasitology laboratory. Treatment regimens may be unfamiliar to the general physician, and thus should also be discussed with an expert. PMID:22034715

Moore, Elinor M; Lockwood, Diana N

2011-10-01

234

Cytauxzoon sp. infection in two free ranging young cats: clinicopathological findings, therapy and follow up.  

PubMed

Two young brother male free-ranging domestic shorthair cats were evaluated for diarrhea. They presented with intraerythrocytic piroplasms on blood smear evaluation. Only the first cat was anemic (mild non-regenerative anemia). A partial segment of the 18S rRNA was amplified and sequenced, revealing a homology of 99% with Cytauxzoon sp. and of 93% with Cytauxzoon felis. The first cat was treated with doxycycline and imidocarb dipropionate and monitored by serial laboratory exams, resulting negative for Cytauxzoon sp. infection after the end of the therapy (follow-up period of 175 days). The second cat received the same therapy, but doxycycline was discontinued by the owner after 1 week. He was monitored for 130 days, remaining erythroparasitemic and asymptomatic. We described cases of Cytauxzoon sp. infection in domestic cats with detailed clinical data, description of two therapeutic protocols, and follow-up after treatment with opposite parasitological responses (parasitological cure versus persistence of infection). PMID:25308457

Carli, Erika; Trotta, Michele; Bianchi, Eliana; Furlanello, Tommaso; Caldin, Marco; Pietrobelli, Mario; Solano-Gallego, Laia

2014-01-01

235

Exploring the interface between diagnostics and maps of neglected parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Although not new, the 'One Health' concept is gaining progressively more importance in parasitology. Now more than ever, veterinary and human perspectives should be closely joined in diagnosis and surveillance of neglected parasitic diseases. We argue that concerted, standardized and harmonized diagnostic and surveillance strategies are needed for the control and/or elimination of animal and human neglected parasitic infections. A key challenge is to integrate parasitological data with available geospatial methods in an accessible and user-friendly framework. We discuss the capability of new diagnostic devices (e.g. Mini-FLOTAC) and geospatial technologies supported by mobile- and electronic-based approaches as one of the research priorities of the new millennium. PMID:24679439

Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe

2014-12-01

236

[Congenital Chagas disease in Crdoba, Argentina: epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects. Experience of 30 years of follow up].  

PubMed

Chagas'disease has a great epidemiological relevance. Most of infected children are asymptomatics, with low mortality rate. The most frequent clinical findings are hepatomegaly and splenomegaly Parasitological methods: fresh smears, microStrout and Hemoculture, sequentially performed, detect the parasite in almost 100% of infected children. The gold standard for immunodiagnosis are serological curves, due to the interference of maternal IgG. Infected children maintain their antibody levels , whereas non infected became negatives. IgM test show false positive and false negative results. In children acutely infected during the first year of life and in cases of congenital infection, we observed high serum levels of soluble receptors of TNFalpha, IL-2 and sCD8, with significantly post treatment decrease. In a prospective 30 years research, we observed high therapeutic efficacy when children were treated before 3 years of life with benznidazol or nifurtimox, with good clinical evolution, together with parasitological and serological negativization. PMID:16482811

Moya, Pedro; Basso, Beatriz; Moretti, Edgardo

2005-01-01

237

Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of excretory secretory antigens in humans with fascioliasis.  

PubMed

A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed for the detection of Fasciola hepatica excretory secretory (ES) antigens in stool specimens of infected humans. The assay uses antibodies against F. hepatica ES antigens. A monoclonal antibody (ES78, mouse immunoglobulin G2a) was used to capture ES antigens, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody, peroxidase conjugate, was used to identify ES antigens. Thirteen of 14 patients with parasitological evidence of fascioliasis had a detectable concentration of ES antigens (more than 15 ng/ml). None of the stool specimens from controls and from patients with parasites other than F. hepatica showed a positive reaction, suggesting the absence of cross-reactions in this assay. When the 14 patients were retested 2 months after treatment, all of the specimens from the 11 parasitologically cured patients were negative by the antigen detection assay while the specimens from the 3 patients with persisting F. hepatica eggs in their stools remained positive. PMID:8126178

Espino, A M; Finlay, C M

1994-01-01

238

Bayesian geostatistics in health cartography: the perspective of malaria  

PubMed Central

Maps of parasite prevalences and other aspects of infectious diseases that vary in space are widely used in parasitology. However, spatial parasitological datasets rarely, if ever, have sufficient coverage to allow exact determination of such maps. Bayesian geostatistics (BG) is a method for finding a large sample of maps that can explain a dataset, in which maps that do a better job of explaining the data are more likely to be represented. This sample represents the knowledge that the analyst has gained from the data about the unknown true map. BG provides a conceptually simple way to convert these samples to predictions of features of the unknown map, for example regional averages. These predictions account for each map in the sample, yielding an appropriate level of predictive precision. PMID:21420361

Patil, Anand P.; Gething, Peter W.; Piel, Frdric B.; Hay, Simon I.

2011-01-01

239

The use of echinostomes to study host-parasite relationships between larval trematodes and invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes with life cycles that are easy and inexpensive to maintain in the laboratory. For this reason, echinostomes have served for years as experimental models in different areas of parasitology. However, the usefulness of these trematodes in experimental parasitology has been under estimated. In this paper, we discuss the life cycles of echinostomes and the techniques used to maintain them in the laboratory. We further examine the characteristics of these trematodes that make them useful models for the analysis of larval parasite-host relationships. Echinostomes are useful for studies on the immunobiology of snails, host-finding processes of free-living larval stages, effects of larval trematode infections on anuran populations, and studies on analytes in the larval trematodes and their snail intermediate hosts. PMID:17279393

Toledo, Rafael; Muoz-Antoli, Carla; Fried, Bernard

2007-05-01

240

First report of Polyplax sp. in a Persian squirrel (Scuirus anomalus) in Tabriz, Northwest of Iran.  

PubMed

The Persian squirrel (Scuirus anomalus) has a long furry tail, which is longer than half of the body, and lives in the Zagros forest. It is distributed in the west and northeast of Asia. In the summer 2011 a Persian squirrel with signs of hair loss and itch in head and tail was referred to the veterinary clinic. There were arthropods in the lesion in the first survey. Many of these parasites were collected and were sent to Parasitology Laboratory of Science and Research University in Tehran. Samples were processed and were identified according to lices diagnostic keys using a light microscope. Lice that were sent to the national parasitology museum were identified as Polyplax sp. too. PMID:24412876

Shirazi, Shahrokh; Bahadori, Farhad; Mostafaei, Tayebeh-Sadat; Ronaghi, Hooman

2013-01-01

241

Hematological and plasma biochemistry of the adult wild African grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus).  

PubMed

Hematological and plasma biochemical values of wild grasscutters were evaluated to determine their potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens. Three 5-mL blood samples were collected from each of 1000 grasscutters caught in the wild for hematology, biochemical, and parasitological tests. Hematological and biochemical values were compared with those from captive-reared grasscutters. There are significantly (P < 0.05) higher lymphocyte, eosinophil, and basophil values for wild grasscutters compared to those that are captive reared. Parasitological examination revealed a 15% prevalence of blood protozoa in the wild grasscutters. Blood pathogens encountered were Trypanosoma sp. (66.7%) and Plasmodium sp. (33.3%), with 20.7% mixed infection. Sex does not significantly (P > 0.05) affect blood protozoa infection, while season does. We therefore concluded that wild grasscutters serve as efficient reservoir hosts for agents of African trypanosomiasis and malaria in the tropical humid rainforest region of Nigeria. PMID:19120259

Opara, Maxwell N; Fagbemi, Benjamin O

2008-12-01

242

Detection of parasite eggs from a moat encircling the royal palace of Silla, the ancient Korean Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a paleo-parasitological study on soil samples from the ancient moat ruins of Weolseong palace, of the Silla Dynasty (BC 57AD 935) of Korea. Based on the cultural remains found in the mud-soil layer, the layer was precipitated onto the floor of a moat between the 5th and 8th centuries AD. We found Trichuris trichiura eggs only in that

Dong Hoon Shin; Chang Seok Oh; Taeeun Chung; Yang Su Yi; Jong Yil Chai; Min Seo

2009-01-01

243

Spot light survey on fresh-water snails of medical importance in Al Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

In a survey carried out during Summer and Autumn of 2004, for snails of medical importance, nine species were recovered. These were Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, B. pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, B. forskalii, Lymnaea natalensis, Bellamya (=Vivipara) unicolor, Physa acuta and Hydrobia musaensis. Parasitological examination revealed that B. alexandrina, B. glabrata and L. natalensis harboured immature stages of their concerned trematode parasites. Moreover, P. acuta harboured the immature stage of the nematode parasite Parastrongylus cantonensis. PMID:15880994

Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M; El Garhy, Manal F; Massoud, Ahmed M A

2005-04-01

244

Freshwater snails in Asser region, Saudi Arabia with special refernce to the zoonotic trematode.  

PubMed

The present study gave information about the recent distribution of freshwater snails in Asser region, and the current status of trematode infection specially schistosomiasis within the snails. Fifteen localities were visited from Septeinber 2007 to December 2008 and the collected snails were examined for the presence of trematode infection. Seven species of snails were collected: Biomphalaria arabica, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus beccari, Physa acuta, Lymnaea palustris, Lymnaea arabica and Melanoides tuberculata. The parasitological examination revealed none trematode immature stages. PMID:19795761

Bin Dajem, Saad M

2009-08-01

245

Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs: unusually located and unusual findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical, blood, serum biochemistry, and parasitological assessments were performed on four hospitalized dogs, not in good\\u000a general condition, in a study carried out to determine the prevalence of general parasitic infections. Hematological and biochemical\\u000a parameters and electrocardiographic recording of the animals were determined during the general clinical examinations. Four\\u000a dogs were indicated to have been infected with Dirofilaria immitis by

Feride Kircali Sevimli; Esma Kozan; Aziz Blbl; Fatih Mehmet Birdane; Mustafa Kse; Alper Sevimli

2007-01-01

246

The Unfortunate Nurse A Case Study of Dengue Fever and Social Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on an actual incident in which dengue virus was transmitted by an accidental needlestick, this case study introduces students to “emerging pathogens” and other concepts in parasitology, immunology, epidemiology, and public policy. Students also read a primary paper and learn about two modern techniques widely used in medical and research settings (i.e., EIA and Taqman RT-PCR). The case is suitable for general education biology, cell biology, microbiology, immunology, and science and public policy courses.

Aguirre, Karen M.

2007-01-01

247

Serological diagnosis and life history of Heterobilharzia americana (Price, 1929) in naturally infected raccoons and experimentally infected dogs  

E-print Network

SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS AND LIFE HISTORY OF HETEROBILHARZIA AMERICANA (PRICE, Igzg) IN NATURALLY INFECTED RACCOONS AND EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED DOGS A Thesis by WILLARD LYNN GUFF Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject: Veterinary Parasitology SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS AND LIFE HISTORY OF HETEROB ILHARZ IA AMERICANA (PRICE, 1929) IN NATURALLY INFECTED RACCOONS...

Goff, Willard Lynn

2012-06-07

248

Supplement 22, Part 4, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Nematoda and Acanthocephala  

E-print Network

., 1974, Onderstepoort J. Vet. Research, v. 41 (3), 97-168 pathological and parasitological survey of 100 free-ranging chacma baboons Papio ursinus (stomach, small intestine): Kruger National Park,Transvaal Abbreviata caucasica, illus. Seureau, C... Agamomermis pachysoma (v. Linstow), illus. Poinar, G. 0., jr., 1976, J. Parasitol., v. 62 (5), 843-844 infection in Gumaga griseolum (gut wall, skeletal muscles, fat body) represents para- tenic host in life cycle Culex pipiens (exper.) Agamospirura sp...

Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

1980-01-01

249

The epidemiology of ovine gastrointestinal helminthiasis on native pasture at Barnhart, Texas  

E-print Network

Climatological data Parasitological data Hematology and serology DISCUSSION SUMMARY REFERENCES APPENDICES 29 29 44 51 60 62 72 VITA 85 LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Ia Diagram of herd movements and time of rest period . . . . . . . Post mortem... worm and fecal egg counts for lambs grazing early spring pastures . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 36 IIb IIc IId IIe Post mortem worm and fecal egg counts for lambs grazing late spring pastures . Post mortem worm and fecal egg counts for lambs...

Tembely, Saidou

2012-06-07

250

[First record of Microsomacanthus tuvensis Spasskaya et Spasskii, 1961 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) in Poland].  

PubMed

During standard parasitological studies of the tufted duck Aythya fuligula, obtained from fishermen from West Pomerania in December 2007, three cestode specimens were found in the jejunum of one male host. They were determinated as Microsomacanthus tuvensis (Spasskaya et Spasskii, 1961) on the basis of the cirrus's and cirrus sac's size and vagina's shape. This is the first record of this species in Poland. PMID:20209817

Krlaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta

2009-01-01

251

First record of trypanosomes from the blood of sculpins (Cottus ricei and C. cognatus) from Lake Superior, WI, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During parasitological research of fishes in Lake Superior (USA) in August-September 1994, infection with trypanosomes of the blood of sculpins (Cottus ricei and C. cognatus) was recorded for the first time. The descriptions of three morphological groups of the genus Trypanosoma: T. sp. I, found in blood of C. ricei, T. sp. II and T. sp. III from blood of C. cognatus, have been provided.

Pronina, Svetlana V.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Selgeby, Jim H.

1999-01-01

252

Epidemiological aspects of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the Islamic Republic of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological study to examine the sero-prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) among domestic and wild canines in endemic foci of Iran was carried out during 19992003 to assess the distribution of the disease and the possible association between infection in dogs, wild canines and people. Anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT). Parasitological study was performed

Mehdi Mohebali; Homa Hajjaran; Yazdan Hamzavi; Iraj Mobedi; Shahnam Arshi; Zabih Zarei; Behnaz Akhoundi; Koroush Manouchehri Naeini; Reza Avizeh; Mehdi Fakhar

2005-01-01

253

High prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Carabao from Samar Province, the Philippines: implications for transmission and control.  

PubMed

Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines, China and Indonesia, and infects more than 40 mammalian host species, all of which can act as reservoirs of infection. In China, water buffaloes have been shown to be major reservoirs of human infection. However, in the Philippines, carabao have not been considered important reservoir hosts for S. japonicum due to the low prevalence and infection intensities reported, the only exception being a qPCR-based study indicating 51% of carabao were S. japonicum-positive. However, the low prevalence found for the same animals when using conventional copro-parasitological techniques means that there is still confusion about the role of carabao in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonicum. To address this inconsistency, and to shed light on the potential role of carabao in the transmission of S. japonicum in the Philippines, we undertook a pilot survey, collecting fecal samples from animals in Western Samar Province and we used a combination of molecular and copro-parasitological techniques to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum. We found a high prevalence of S. japonicum in the carabao using a validated real-time PCR (qPCR) and a copro-parasitological tool, the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique. A much lower prevalence of S. japonicum was recorded for the same fecal samples using conventional PCR, the Kato-Katz technique and miracidial hatching. These results suggest that, due to their low diagnostic sensitivity, traditional copro-parasitological techniques underestimate infection in carabao. The use of FEA-SD and qPCR provides a more accurate diagnosis. Based on these findings, the role of bovines in the transmission of S. japonicum appears to be more important in the Philippines than previously recognized, and this may have significant implications for the future control of schistosomiasis there, particularly as, in contrast with previous surveys, we found an unprecedented high prevalence of S. japonicum in humans. PMID:23029571

Gordon, Catherine A; Acosta, Luz P; Gray, Darren J; Olveda, Remigo M; Jarilla, Blanca; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Ross, Allen G; McManus, Donald P

2012-01-01

254

Sequence-based analysis of enzymatically amplified DNA fragments by mutation detection techniques.  

PubMed

The accurate analysis of molecular variation is important in a range of disciplines of parasitology. Although conventional DNA techniques have overcome some of the limitations of traditional approaches, some can be relatively expensive and/or cumbersome to use when large sample sizes require analysis, and some cannot accurately resolve or define nucleotide variation. Using selected examples of applications to parasites, Robin Gasser and Xingquan Zhu discuss some PCR-based mutation detection techniques and their advantages over conventional analytical methods. PMID:10511690

Gasser, R B; Zhu, X Q

1999-11-01

255

Health assessment of the christmas island flying fox (Pteropus melanotus natalis).  

PubMed

During July-August 2010, 28 Christmas Island flying foxes (Pteropus melanotus natalis) were captured and anesthetized for examination, sample collection, and release to determine the potential role of disease in recent population declines. Measurements and samples were taken for morphologic, hematologic, biochemical, and parasitologic analysis. These are the first blood reference ranges reported for this species. These data are being used to inform investigations into conservation status and population management strategies for the Christmas Island flying fox. PMID:24807172

Hall, Jane; Rose, Karrie; Smith, Craig; De Jong, Carol; Phalen, David; Austen, Jill; Field, Hume

2014-07-01

256

Liver fluke (Opisthorchiidae) findings in red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) in the eastern part of the Federal State Brandenburg, Germany a contribution to the epidemiology of opisthorchiidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitological examination of 677 livers from red foxes shot in connection with a rabies control programme were carried\\u000a out in the eastern districts of the Federal State Brandenburg\\/Germany in 1996. Of the foxes, 32.5% were positive for opisthorchiid\\u000a flukes. Metorchis bilis, the most frequently occurring fluke was found in 28.1% of foxes with numbers between 1 and 185. Opisthorchis felineus

Rolf Schuster; Jrg Bonin; Christoph Staubach; Rolf Heidrich

1999-01-01

257

[Parasite fauna of the burbot Lota lota L. in body of water of the Kol'ski? peninsula].  

PubMed

The results of a parasitological study of the burbot Lota Iota L. inhabiting the Kola region are presented. 51 species of parasite were found on burbot in 16 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea and Barents Sea basins (Muxosporea - 7, Suctoria - 1, Peritricha - 6, Monogenea - 1, Cestoda - 6, Trematoda - 13, Nematoda - 6, Acanthocephala - 5, Hirudinea - 3, Bivalvia - 1 and Crustacea - 2 species). Data on the infestation of burbot by different parasite species and their prevalence in investigated waterbodies were obtained. PMID:16913298

Mitenev, V K; Shul'man, B S

2006-01-01

258

Organochlorine poisoning of ring-billed gulls in southern Ontario.  

PubMed

Clinical, necropsy, bacteriologic, parasitologic, histopathologic, toxicologic and animal inoculation studies suggest that organochlorine (PBC, dieldrin and DDE) poisoning was an important factor in causing deaths of free-flying ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) in southern Ontario in 1969 and 1973. The brains of gulls dying with clinical signs of neurologic involvement, and dead gulls with no other apparent cause of death, contained organochlorine residues of significantly greater levels than those found in healthy gulls shot for comparison. PMID:410957

Sileo, L; Karstad, L; Frank, R; Holdrinet, M V; Addison, E; Braun, H E

1977-07-01

259

Plasmodium falciparum: Histidine-Rich Protein II Is Expressed during Gametocyte Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hayward, R. E., Sullivan D. J., and Day, K. P. 2000. Plasmodium falciparum: Histidine-rich protein II is expressed during gametocyte development. Experimental Parasitology 96, 139146. Both early gametocytes (III) and asexual trophozoite stages of Plasmodium falciparum digest hemoglobin and detoxify haem by polymerizing it into parasite pigment called hemozoin. The mechanism of polymerization is unclear but it has been proposed

Rhian E. Hayward; David J. Sullivan; Karen P. Day

2000-01-01

260

Zoonotic diseases in Canada: an interdisciplinary challenge.  

PubMed Central

Although zoonotic diseases are generally rare in Canada, a wide range of pathogens can be transmitted from animal reservoirs to humans through insect vectors or direct contact with wild and domestic animals. Across the country researchers with backgrounds ranging from wildlife biology to parasitology and epidemiology are tracking a variety of zoonotic diseases, some of which are causing increasing concern among public health officials. PMID:8752067

Hamilton, J

1996-01-01

261

Anaplasma marginale: Detection of carrier cattle by PCR-ELISA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gale K. R., Dimmock C. M., Gartside M. & Leatch G. 1996. Anaplasma marginale: detection of carrier cattle by PCR-ELISA. International Journal for Parasitology 26:11031109. A highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of the minute levels of Anaplasma marginale present in the blood of long-term carrier cattle was developed. A simple lysis method

K. R. Gale; C. M. Dimmock; M. Gartside; G. Leatch

1996-01-01

262

Echinococcus granulosus: DNA Extraction from Germinal Layers Allows Strain Determination in Fertile and Nonfertile Hydatid Cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kamenetzky, L., Canova, S. G., Guarnera, E. A., and Rosenzvit, M. C. 2000. Echinococcus granulosus: DNA extraction from germinal layers allows strain determination in fertile and nonfertile hydatid cysts. Experimental Parasitology95, 122127. A method for the isolation of Echinococcus granulosus DNA from germinal layers of hydatid cysts is described. The method includes a hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide\\/chloroform extraction and an adsorption to

Laura Kamenetzky; Sergio G. Canova; Eduardo A. Guarnera; Mara C. Rosenzvit

2000-01-01

263

[Helminths of Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 from Szczecin area].  

PubMed

In 2006, an emaciated female peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus was found near its nest, and died soon after. Parasitological research involved digestive tract and respiratory system, kidney and liver. In air sacs, nematode Serratospiculum tendo (Nitzsch, 1857), which causes the falcon disease serratospiculiasis, was found, and in the digestive tract trematodes Strigeafalconis Szidat, 1928, Conodiplostomum spathula (Creplin, 1829), and a cestode Cladotaenia cylindracea (Bloch, 1782). PMID:18702320

Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Okulewicz, Anna; Sitko, Jilj

2008-01-01

264

Babesia bovis: Culture of Laboratory-Adapted Parasite Lines and Clinical Isolates in a Chemically Defined Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jackson, L. A., Waldron, S. J., Weier, H. M., Nicoll, C. L., and Cooke, B. M. 2001. Babesia bovis: Culture of laboratory-adapted parasite lines and clinical isolates in a chemically defined medium. Experimental Parasitology99, 168174. Babesiosis caused by Babesia spp. is a disease of both veterinary and human importance. Here, we describe a method to continuously culture laboratory lines and

Louise A. Jackson; Susan J. Waldron; Heidi M. Weier; Claire L. Nicoll; Brian M. Cooke

2001-01-01

265

Plasmodium berghei:Identification of an mdr-like Gene Associated with Drug Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gervais, G. W., Trujillo, K., Robinson, B. L., Peters, W., and Serrano, A. E. 1999.Plasmodium berghei:Identification of anmdr-like gene associated with drug resistance.Experimental Parasitology91,8692. Amplification, mutations, or overexpression of thepfmdr1gene have been associated with multiple drug resistance in some strains ofPlasmodium falciparum.In order to better understand this potential mechanism of drug resistance, we are currently investigating putativemdrhomologuesin vivoin the rodent

Gary W Gervais; Kathy Trujillo; Brian L Robinson; Wallace Peters; Adelfa E Serrano

1999-01-01

266

Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida Trypanosomatidae): Ecology of the transmission cycle in the wild environment of the Andean valley of Cochabamba, Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An active Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle maintained by wild rodents in the Andean valleys of Cochabamba Bolivia is described. Wild and domestic Triatoma infestans with 60% infection with T. cruzi were found and was evidenced in 47.5% (rodents) and 26.7% (marsupial) by parasitological and\\/or serologycal methods. Phyllotis ocilae and the marsupial species Thylamys elegans, are the most important reservoirs followed

Mirko Rojas Cortez; Ana Paula Pinho; Patricia Cuervo; Fernando Alfaro; Marco Solano; Samanta C. C. Xavier; Paulo Sergio DAndrea; Octavio Fernandes; Faustino Torrico; Franois Noireau; Ana Maria Jansen

2006-01-01

267

European Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda), intermediate hosts of trematodiases, based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae are of a great parasitological importance because of the very numerous helminth species they transmit, mainly trematodiases of large medical and veterinary impact. The present knowledge on the genetics of lymnaeids and on their parasitehost inter-relationships is far from being sufficient. The family is immersed in a systematictaxonomic confusion. The necessity for a tool

M. D Bargues; M Vigo; P Horak; J Dvorak; R. A Patzner; J. P Pointier; M Jackiewicz; C Meier-Brook; S Mas-Coma

2001-01-01

268

SYLVATIC TRICHINELLOSIS IN SOUTHWESTERN SPAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of Trichinella spp. in their main sylvatic hosts, wild boar (Sus scrofa ferus and red fox (Vulpes vulpes), in Extremadura (southwestern Spain) was studied. We examined 88 Trichinella spp.-positive wild boar muscle-tissue samples from a total of 29,333 killed animals, referred to the Veterinary Parasitology Department (University of Extremadura, Spain) by the Extremadura Veterinary Service. Additionally, 227 red

J. Enrique Perez-Mart; Francisco J. Serrano; David Reina; Ignacio Navarrete

269

Rapid Detection of a Schistosoma mansoni Circulating Antigen Excreted in Urine of Infected Individuals by Using a Monoclonal Antibody  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosoma circulating antigens were used to indicate the infection intensity and to assess cure. An immu- noglobulin G2a (IgG2a) mouse monoclonal antibody was used in a fast dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent as- say (ELISA; FDA) for rapid and simple diagnosis of schistosomiasis in the field. Seven hundred Egyptians were parasitologically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and other parasitic infections. A rectal biopsy was

ABDELFATTAH M. ATTALLAH; HISHAM ISMAIL; SAMIR A. EL MASRY; HASSAN RIZK; AIA HANDOUSA; MAHMOUD EL BENDARY; ASHRAF TABLL; FAROUK EZZAT

1999-01-01

270

The challenges of developing novel antiparasitic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a few novel classes of antiparasitic drugs have emerged over the last few decades, reflecting the difficulties associated\\u000a with bringing a safe, effective molecule to market. In recent years, the screening paradigm has shifted from empirical whole\\u000a parasite screening towards mechanism-based high throughput screening. This approach requires investment in molecular parasitology\\u000a and in understanding the basic biology of parasites,

Debra J. Woods; Tracey M. Williams

2007-01-01

271

Drug combination therapy in control of cryptosporidiosis in Ludhiana district of Punjab.  

PubMed

The present report describes outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in neonatal cross bred cattle calves ageing 1-2months in an organized dairy farm. The protozoan infection was confirmed by identifying bright red oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in the faecal samples after staining with modified acid Fast Zeihl-Neelsen stain. Metronidazole and furazolidone combination was able to induce clinically and parasitological recovery. This is believed to be the first report on the successful use of this drug combination against cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24082541

Randhawa, S S; Randhawa, Swaran S; Zahid, U N; Singla, L D; Juyal, P D

2012-10-01

272

Dirofilaria immitis:Heartworm Infection Converts Histamine-Induced Constriction to Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in Canine Pulmonary Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kaiser, L., and Williams, J. F. 1998.Dirofilaria immitis:Heartworm infection converts histamine-induced constriction to endothelium-dependent relaxation in canine pulmonary artery.Experimental Parasitology88, 146153. Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection alters the behavior of vascular endothelial cellsin vivoandin vitro, with the potential, therefore, to influence vascular function. Histamine, an autocoid implicated in the pathogenesis of parasitic and inflammatory diseases, is vasoactive, and causes endothelium-dependent relaxation

Lana Kaiser; Jeffrey F. Williams

1998-01-01

273

SCIENTIFIC NOTE EFFECT OF REPEATED APPLICATION OF MICROBIAL LARVICIDES ON  

E-print Network

IN CENTRAL CO^ TE D'IVOIRE EMILE S. TCHICAYA,1,2 BENJAMIN G. KOUDOU,1,3,7 JENNIFER KEISER,4 AKRE´ M. ADJA,5. 2004; Koudou et al. 2005, 2007). A baseline survey carried out in Tie´me´le´kro in 2005 revealed, respectively (Koudou et al. 2007). Parasitological surveys among children under 15 years of age found

Richner, Heinz

274

Plasmodium gallinaceum:Differential Killing of Some Mosquito Stages of the Parasite by Insect Defensin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shahabuddin, M., Fields, I., Bulet, P., Hoffmann, J. A., and Miller, L. H. 1998.Plasmodium gallinaceum:Differential killing of some mosquito stages of the parasite by insect defensin.Experimental Parasitology89, 103112. We examined several insect antimicrobial peptides to study their effect onPlasmodium gallinaceumzygotes, ookinetes, oocysts, and sporozoites. Only two insect defensinsAeschna cyanea(dragon fly) andPhormia terranovae(flesh fly)had a profound toxic effect on the oocysts

Mohammed Shahabuddin; Iesha Fields; Philippe Bulet; Jules A. Hoffmann; Louis H. Miller

1998-01-01

275

Association between Protection against Clinical Malaria and Antibodies to Merozoite Surface Antigens in an Area of Hyperendemicity in Myanmar: Complementarity between Responses to Merozoite Surface Protein 3 and the 220-Kilodalton Glutamate-Rich Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a longitudinal clinical and parasitological follow-up study in OoDo, a village in southeast Asia in which malaria is hyperendemic, in order to assess the association between protection against malaria attacks and antibodies to three currently evaluated vaccine candidates, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), MSP3, and the 220-kDa glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) from Plasmodium falciparum. Our results showed that the

Soe Soe; Michael Theisen; Christian Roussilhon; K.-S. Aye; P. Druilhe

2004-01-01

276

Leishmania:Amastigotes Synthesize Conserved Secretory Acid Phosphatases during Human Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ellis, S. L., Shakarian, A. M., and Dwyer, D. M., 1998.Leishmania:Amastigotes synthesize conserved secretory acid phosphatases during human infection.Experimental Parasitology89, 161168.Leishmania donovaniis the major causative agent of Old World human visceral leishmaniasis (VL).In vitro, both promastigotes and axenic amastigotes ofL. donovaniconstitutively secrete soluble acid phosphatases (SAcPs), which contain conserved antigenic epitopes. These SAcPs are the most abundant and best characterized

Stephanie L Ellis; Alison M Shakarian; Dennis M Dwyer

1998-01-01

277

Pathogenic Leishmania Secrete Antigenically Related Chitinases Which Are Encoded by a Highly Conserved Gene Locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shakarian, A. M., and Dwyer, D. M. 2000. Pathogenic Leishmania secrete antigenically related chitinases which are encoded by a highly conserved gene locus. Experimental Parasitology94, 238242. Recently, we identified and characterized a single-copy chitinase gene (LdCht1) from Leishmania donovani, a protozoan pathogen of humans. It has been hypothesized that this parasite enzyme plays a critical role in the survival of

Alison M. Shakarian; Dennis M. Dwyer

2000-01-01

278

Structurally Conserved Soluble Acid Phosphatases Are Synthesized and Released by Leishmania major Promastigotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shakarian, A. M., and Dwyer, D. M. 2000. Structurally conserved soluble acid phosphatases are synthesized and released by Leishmania major promastigotes. Experimental Parasitology95, 7984. Previously it was reported that promastigotes of virtually all pathogenic Leishmania species, except Leishmania major, release a structurally conserved soluble acid phosphatase (AcP) activity during their growth in vitro (P. S. Doyle and D. M. Dwyer,

Alison M. Shakarian; Dennis M. Dwyer

2000-01-01

279

Multi-annual changes in the parasite communities of rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Siganidae) in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasite communities of the rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus, were used to track multi-annual changes in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, in an environment subjected to ongoing anthropogenic\\u000a impact. Parasitological data from these fish were collected from 1998 to 2000, with spring and fall samplings at three locations:\\u000a at a coral reef (OBS), at a sandy beach area (NB)

R. Dzikowski; I. Paperna; A. Diamant

2003-01-01

280

[First record of species Dicranotaenia synsacculata Macko, 1988 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) of the goldeneye Bucephala clangula (Linneus, 1758) in Poland].  

PubMed

During parasitological studies of 32 specimens of the goldeneye Bucephala clangula L., twenty seven cestode specimens were found. Four of them, isolated from the jejunum of two young female hosts, were determinated as Dicranotaenia synsacculata Macko, 1988. We based on the shape of cirrus fused with sacculus accessorius internus, shape and size of scolex and other organs. This is the first record of this species in Poland. PMID:21179669

Krlaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushyn, Vadym V

2010-01-01

281

Occurrence of Trichodina pediculus Ehrenberg, 1838 in Dgal Wielki Lake.  

PubMed

Parasitological investigation were performed in Dgal Wielki, occurrence T. pediculus Ehrenberg 1838 on the roach gills were recorded. On the 277 examined roach in 9 roach specimens T. pediculus were found. Prevalence of roach infection was 3.25%, mean intensity 3.5 and abundance 0.11 parasite per number of fish examined. T. pediculus were found on fish in May and June. PMID:16888950

Bielecki, A; Dzika, E; Pietrykiewicz, Z

2001-01-01

282

Trichodina pediculus Ehrenberg, 1838 in roach Rutilus rutilus (L.), metric and meristic data.  

PubMed

During the parasitological studies in Dga? Wielki Lake 32 specimens of Trichodina pediculus were collected from roaches (Rutilus rutilus). T. pediculus were subjected to the metric and meristic measurements. High correlation factors significance was obtained between the following data: body diameter and adhesive disc diameter with border membrane, adhesive disc diameter without border membrane, denticulate ring diameter, height of denticle. However no correlation significance between body diameter and number of denticles was found. PMID:16894736

Bielecki, A; Dzika, E

2001-01-01

283

Fasciola hepatica: Characterization and Cloning of the Major Cathepsin B Protease Secreted by Newly Excysted Juvenile Liver Fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilson, L. R., Good, R. T., Panaccio, M., Wijffels, G. L., Sandeman, R. M., and Spithill, T. W. 1998.Fasciola hepatica:Characterization and cloning of the major cathepsin B protease secreted by newly excysted juvenile liver fluke.Experimental Parasitology88, 8594. Proteolytic activity present in the excreted\\/secreted (ES) material of newly excysted juvenile (NEJ)Fasciola hepaticawas biochemically analyzed. By gelatin substrate SDS-PAGE, only one region

Lachlan R. Wilson; Robert T. Good; Michael Panaccio; Gene L. Wijffels; R. Mark Sandeman; Terry W. Spithill

1998-01-01

284

Ancylostoma caninum: The Finger Cell Neurons Mediate Thermotactic Behavior by Infective Larvae of the Dog Hookworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bhopale, V. M., Kupprion, E. K., Ashton, F. T., Boston, R., and Schad, G. A. 2001. Ancylostoma caninum: The finger cell neurons mediate thermotactic behavior by infective larvae of the dog hookworm. Experimental Parasitology97, 7076. In the amphids (anteriorly positioned, paired sensilla) of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the so-called finger cells (AFD), a pair of neurons, each of which

Veena M Bhopale; Emily K Kupprion; Francis T Ashton; Ray Boston; Gerhard A Schad

2001-01-01

285

Clinical evaluation of American river otters in a reintroduction study.  

PubMed

Ten American river otters (Lutra canadensis) were evaluated clinically before release into Oklahoma waterways. Otters were immobilized for physical, radiographic, and electrocardiographic examinations and for collection of blood samples. Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses, urinalyses, parasitologic examinations, surgical omental biopsies, and necropsy findings were included. Respiratory tract disease, bacterial and parasitic infections, and starvation apparently were contributing causes of postrelease mortality in 4 of the otters. PMID:6511575

Hoover, J P; Root, C R; Zimmer, M A

1984-12-01

286

Parasites of blackbuck antelope (Antilope cervicapra) in Texas and experimental transmission of gastrointestinal helminths from blackbuck to domestic ruminants  

E-print Network

PARASITES OF BLACKBUCK ANTELOPE (ANTILOPE CERVICAPRA) IN TEXAS AND EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTHS FROM BLACKBUCK TO DOMESTIC RUMINANTS A Thesis by JACK EDWIN THORNTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A...&M Universi. ty in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972 Major Subject: Veterinary Parasitology PARASITES OF BLACKBUCK ANTELOPE (ANTILOPE CERVICAPRA) IN TEXAS AND EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION...

Thornton, Jack Edwin

2012-06-07

287

Supplement 17, Part 1, Authors: A To Z  

E-print Network

1 AUTHORS: A TO ? By DOROTHY B. SEGAL, Zoologist JUDITH M. HUMPHREY, Zoologist SHIRLEY J. EDWARDS, Descriptive Cataloguer MARGIE D. KIRBY, Descriptive Cataloguer Beltsville Parasitological Laboratory ANIMAL DISEASE AND PARASITE RESEARCH... with Supplement 6, published in 1956 ; since then supplements covering authors A to ? have been issued on an annual basis. Beginning with Supplement 15, the Parasite-Subject Catalogues con- taining indices to the author references are being issued. The Author...

Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.; Segal, Dorothy B.; Humphrey, Judith M.

1968-01-01

288

Factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript provides a summary of the results presented at a symposium organized to accumulate information on factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases. This symposium was part of the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), held in New Orleans, LA, USA, during August 1014, 2003. Populations of

L. D. Foil; P. Coleman; M. Eisler; H. Fragoso-Sanchez; Z. Garcia-Vazquez; F. D. Guerrero; N. N. Jonsson; I. G. Langstaff; A. Y. Li; N. Machila; R. J. Miller; J. Morton; J. H. Pruett; S. Torr

2004-01-01

289

Antibiotic administration by osmotic infiltration in the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

E-print Network

ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM POSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION BY OSMOTIC INFILTRATION IN THE FRESHWATER SHRIMP, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII A Thesis by ALCESTIS TRILLO LLOBRERA Approved...

Llobrera, Alcestis Trillo

2012-06-07

290

Schistosoma mansoni: Differential Expression of Cathepsins L1 and L2 Suggests Discrete Biological Functions for Each Enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brady, C. P., Brindley, P. J., Dowd, A. J., and Dalton, J. P. 2000. Schistosoma mansoni: Differential expression of cathepsins L1 and L2 suggests discrete biological functions for each enzyme. Experimental Parasitology94, 7583. Schistosoma mansoni cathepsins L1 (SmCL1) and L2 (SmCL2) were expressed as active recombinant proteinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant enzymes exhibited substrate preferences characteristic of cathepsin-L-like cysteine

Ciaran P. Brady; Paul J. Brindley; Andrew J. Dowd; John P. Dalton

2000-01-01

291

Fasciola hepatica: Parasite-Secreted Proteinases Degrade All Human IgG Subclasses: Determination of the Specific Cleavage Sites and Identification of the Immunoglobulin Fragments Produced  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berasain, P., Carmona, C., Frangione, B., Dalton, J. P., and Goi, F. 2000. Fasciola hepatica: Parasite-secreted proteinases degrade all human IgG subclasses: Determination of the specific cleavage sites and identification of the immunoglobulin fragments produced. Experimental Parasitology94, 99110. The study was focused on the relation ship of Fasciola hepatica-secreted proteinases and human IgG subclasses. Each IgG was incubated at different

Patricia Berasain; Carlos Carmona; Blas Frangione; John P. Dalton; Fernando Goi

2000-01-01

292

Plasmodium falciparum: Gene Mutations and Amplification of Dihydrofolate Reductase Genes in Parasites Grown in Vitro in Presence of Pyrimethamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thaithong, S., Ranford-Cartwright, L. C., Siripoon, N., Harnyuttanakorn, P., Kanchanakhan, N. S., Seugorn, A., Rungsihirunrat, K., Cravo, P. V. L., and Beale, G. H. 2001. Plasmodium falciparum: Gene mutations and amplification of dihydrofolate reductase genes in parasites grown in vitro in presence of pyrimethamine. Experimental Parasitology98, 5970. Samples of three pyrimethamine-sensitive clones of Plasmodium falciparum were grown for periods of

S. Thaithong; L. C. Ranford-Cartwright; N. Siripoon; P. Harnyuttanakorn; N. S. Kanchanakhan; A. Seugorn; K. Rungsihirunrat; P. V. L. Cravo; G. H. Beale

2001-01-01

293

Skewing of cytokine profiles towards T helper cell type 2 response in visceral leishmaniasis patients unresponsive to sodium antimony gluconate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two parasitologically confirmed visceral leishmanisis (VL) patients and 23 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls were recruited between April 2001 and March 2002 and studied for intracellular cytokine production after stimulation in vitro using a Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter-based intracellular cytokine assay. The VL patients were given i.m. sodium antimony gluconate at a dose of 20 mg\\/kg bodyweight daily for 28

C. P. Thakur; D. K. Mitra; S. Narayan

2003-01-01

294

Trypanosoma evansi: Cloning and Expression in Spodoptera fugiperda Insect Cells of the Diagnostic Antigen RoTat1.2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urakawa, T., Verloo, D., Moens, L., Bscher, P., and Majiwa, P. A. O. 2001. Trypanosoma evansi: Cloning and expression in Spodoptera fugiperda insect cells of the diagnostic antigen RoTat1.2. Experimental Parasitology99, 181189. A complementary DNA encoding the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of Trypanosoma evansi Rode Trypanozoon antigenic type (RoTat)1.2, currently used for experimental serological diagnosis of T. evansi infection in

Toyohiko Urakawa; Didier Verloo; Luc Moens; Philippe Bscher; Phelix A. O. Majiwa

2001-01-01

295

An explicit immunogenetic model of gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheepTeladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of hostparasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649

Prada Jimnez de Cisneros, Joaqun; Stear, Michael J.; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise

2014-01-01

296

A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas. PMID:24402156

Carneiro, Teiliane Rodrigues; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; de Oliveira, Sara Menezes; Peralta, Jose Mauro; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer Moraes

2013-01-01

297

Currency as a potential environmental vehicle for transmitting parasites among food-related workers in Alexandria, Egypt.  

PubMed

Transmission of parasites may occur indirectly via inanimate objects in the surrounding environment. One of the objects most handled and exchanged by people are currency coins and banknotes, which could be one of the most potential vehicles to transmit parasites, even between countries. However, study of the potential contamination of currency in circulation with intestinal parasites has not been given the interest it deserves and the present study is the first pilot study in Alexandria, Egypt. It was revealed that 60.2% of 103 banknotes and 56.6% of 99 coins obtained from food-related workers had been contaminated with one or more parasitic species. Protozoa were the predominant parasites, with microsporidia and Cryptosporidium spp. being the most prevalent. There was no statistically significant difference between currency types regarding parasitological contamination, but there was a significant (P<0.001) association between the physical condition of currency and its contamination. Moreover, the source of the currency was not statistically associated with parasitological contamination. The denomination of coins was not statistically associated with parasitological contamination, whilst that of banknotes was with the lower denominations being more contaminated. PMID:21820691

Hassan, Azza; Farouk, Hanan; Hassanein, Faika; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

2011-09-01

298

Cost-effectiveness of competing diagnostic-therapeutic strategies for visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed Central

Reported are the results of a formal decision analysis which facilitated the choice of the most appropriate test-treatment strategy for visceral leishmaniasis in areas where the disease is endemic. The following strategies were compared: treatment of all suspects (strategy A); testing by means of parasitological investigation followed by treatment of positives (strategy B); two-step testing by means of the direct agglutination test (DAT) followed by treatment of patients with high titres as well as those with parasitologically confirmed borderline titres (strategy C); and DAT followed by treatment of positives (strategy D). The results for each strategy were expressed as costs in US$ per death averted. The effectiveness of strategies C and D was close to that of strategy A and far better than that of strategy B. The cost-effectiveness ratio for strategies C and D (US$ 465 per death averted) was not substantially higher than that of testing by means of parasitological investigation followed by treatment of positives (strategy B), which was the most cost-effective strategy at US$448 per death averted. At current prices of antimonial drugs, the cost of test-treatment strategies depends more on the cost of treatment than on that of testing. The use of a sensitive serological test such as the DAT is recommended as the basis of test-treatment strategies for visceral leishmaniasis in areas where the disease is endemic. PMID:10516788

Boelaert, M.; Lynen, L.; Desjeux, P.; Van der Stuyft, P.

1999-01-01

299

Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine against Plasmodium falciparum infection in Somalia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections in Somalia. METHODS: Patients with clinical malaria in Merca, an area of high transmission of the disease, were treated with the standard regimens of chloroquine (25 mg/kg) or sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (25 mg sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg pyrimethamine per kg). Similar patients in Gabiley, an area of low transmission, received the standard regimen of chloroquine. The clinical and parasitological responses were monitored for 14 days. FINDINGS: Chloroquine treatment resulted in clinical failure in 33% (n = 60) and 51% (n = 49) of the patients in Merca and Gabiley respectively. There were corresponding parasitological failures of 77% RII/RIII and 35% RII/RIII. Patients who experienced clinical failure had significantly higher initial parasitaemia than those in whom there was an adequate clinical response, both in Merca (t = 2.2; P t = 2.8; P n = 50) of the patients achieved an adequate clinical response despite a parasitological failure rate of 76% RII/RIII. CONCLUSION: Chloroquine should no longer be considered adequate for treating clinical falciparum malaria in vulnerable groups in the areas studied. Doubts about the therapeutic life of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in relation to malaria are raised by the high levels of resistance in the Merca area and underline the need to identify suitable alternatives. PMID:12378287

Warsame, M.; Abdillahi, A.; Duale, O. Nur; Ismail, A. Nur; Hassan, A. M.; Mohamed, A.; Warsame, A.

2002-01-01

300

Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine, and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon. METHODS: In a randomized study we evaluated the effectiveness and tolerance of (i) sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) (25 mg/kg body weight of sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg/kg of pyrimethamine in a single oral dose), (ii) amodiaquine (AQ) (30 mg/kg body weight in three divided daily doses), and (iii) the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination (SP+AQ) (same doses as in the other two treatment groups, given simultaneously on day 0) in young children in southern Cameroon. The parasitological and clinical responses were studied until day 28 in accordance with the modified 1996 WHO protocol for the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs. FINDINGS: Of 191 enrolled patients, 6 and 8 were excluded or lost to follow-up before day 14 and between day 14 and day 28, respectively. For the AQ-treated patients, parasitological and clinical evaluation on day 14 showed late treatment failure in 2 of 61 (3.3%) and adequate clinical response with parasitological failure in one (1.6%). There was an adequate clinical response in all patients treated with SP or SP+AQ. Therapeutic failure rates on day 28 were 13.6%, 10.2% and 0% in the SP, AQ, and SP+AQ groups, respectively. Anaemia improved in all three regimens. AQ produced faster fever clearance but was associated with more transient minor side-effects than SP. SP+AQ reduced the risk of recrudescence between day 14 and day 28 but increased the incidence of minor side-effects. CONCLUSION: SP+AQ can be recommended as a temporary means of slowing the spread of multidrug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Africa while the introduction of other combinations, including artemisinin derivatives, is awaited. PMID:12163917

Basco, Leonardo K.; Same-Ekobo, Albert; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Ndounga, Mathieu; Metoh, Theresia; Ringwald, Pascal; Soula, Georges

2002-01-01

301

Antiproliferative effects and mechanism of action of SCH 56592 against Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi: in vitro and in vivo studies.  

PubMed

We have investigated the antiproliferative effects of SCH 56592, a new experimental triazole, against Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease in Latin America. SCH 56592 blocked the proliferation of the epimastigote form of the parasite in vitro at 30 nM, a concentration 30- to 100-fold lower than that required with the reference compounds ketoconazole and itraconazole. At that concentration all the parasite's endogenous sterols (ergosterol, 24-ethyl-cholesta-5,7,22-trien-3 beta-ol, and its 22-dihydro analogs), were replaced by methylated sterols (lanosterol and 24-methylene-dihydrolanosterol), as revealed by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. This indicated that the primary mechanism of action of the drug was inhibition of the parasite's sterol C-14 alpha demethylase. Against the clinically relevant intracellular amastigote form, grown in cultured Vero cells at 37 degrees C, the MIC of SCH 56592 was 0.3 nM, again 33- to 100-fold lower than that of ketoconazole or itraconazole. In a murine model of acute Chagas' disease, SCH 56592 given at > or = 10 mg/kg of body weight/day for a total of 43 doses allowed 85 to 100% survival and 90 to 100% cure of the surviving animals, as verified by parasitological, serological, and PCR-based tests, while ketoconazole given at 30 mg/kg day allowed 60% survival but only 20% cure. In a murine model of chronic Chagas' disease, SCH 56592 was again more effective than ketoconazole, providing 75 to 85% protection from death, with 60 to 75% parasitological cures of the surviving animals, while no parasitological cures were observed with ketoconazole. The results indicate that SCH 56592 is the most powerful sterol biosynthesis inhibitor ever tested against T. cruzi and may be useful in the treatment of human Chagas' disease. PMID:9661019

Urbina, J A; Payares, G; Contreras, L M; Liendo, A; Sanoja, C; Molina, J; Piras, M; Piras, R; Perez, N; Wincker, P; Loebenberg, D

1998-07-01

302

Antiproliferative Effects and Mechanism of Action of SCH 56592 against Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the antiproliferative effects of SCH 56592, a new experimental triazole, against Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. SCH 56592 blocked the proliferation of the epimastigote form of the parasite in vitro at 30 nM, a concentration 30- to 100-fold lower than that required with the reference compounds ketoconazole and itraconazole. At that concentration all the parasites endogenous sterols (ergosterol, 24-ethyl-cholesta-5,7,22-trien-3?-ol, and its 22-dihydro analogs), were replaced by methylated sterols (lanosterol and 24-methylene-dihydrolanosterol), as revealed by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. This indicated that the primary mechanism of action of the drug was inhibition of the parasites sterol C-14? demethylase. Against the clinically relevant intracellular amastigote form, grown in cultured Vero cells at 37C, the MIC of SCH 56592 was 0.3 nM, again 33- to 100-fold lower than that of ketoconazole or itraconazole. In a murine model of acute Chagas disease, SCH 56592 given at ? 10 mg/kg of body weight/day for a total of 43 doses allowed 85 to 100% survival and 90 to 100% cure of the surviving animals, as verified by parasitological, serological, and PCR-based tests, while ketoconazole given at 30 mg/kg day allowed 60% survival but only 20% cure. In a murine model of chronic Chagas disease, SCH 56592 was again more effective than ketoconazole, providing 75 to 85% protection from death, with 60 to 75% parasitological cures of the surviving animals, while no parasitological cures were observed with ketoconazole. The results indicate that SCH 56592 is the most powerful sterol biosynthesis inhibitor ever tested against T. cruzi and may be useful in the treatment of human Chagas disease. PMID:9661019

Urbina, Julio A.; Payares, Gilberto; Contreras, Lellys M.; Liendo, Andreina; Sanoja, Cristina; Molina, Judith; Piras, Marta; Piras, Romano; Perez, Norma; Wincker, Patrick; Loebenberg, David

1998-01-01

303

[Congenital Chagas disease in the city of Santa F. Diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

We studied 6123 pregnant women and their 341 newborn (NB), from Santa Fe city, by the following serological tests for chagasic infection: Direct Agglutination with and without 2-mercaptoethanol, Indirect Hemagglutination and Indirect Immunofluorescence test, and by identification of parasites by Fresh drops, Strout and/or by Xenodiagnosis. The prevalence of seropositivity found in pregnant women was of 14.62% with a 73% of migratory history. The parasitological studies yielded 9/341 incidence of transplacentary infection. Clinical examinations were made in the infected newborn (NB). They were treated with Benznidazol or Nifurtimox, and post-treatment evolution was evaluated. We registered connatal infection in twin-brothers. Brothers/sisters (siblings) of infected NB were also studied. Some of them were seropositive and the others seronegative. Results here obtained show that this way of transmission is important, and should be considered even in low endemicity areas. The parasitological assays proved to be decisive for the NB infection diagnosis (Table 1). The serological assays enabled us to follow the non-infected NB up to their negativization. A 6 month follow-up is recommended. It is impossible to define only one clinical outline because both symptomatic and asymptomatic infected NB may be found with gestational age at term and pre-term and when born with a weight above or below 2000 g. We obtained parasitological and serological negativization in all cases. The chagasic pregnant woman does not necessarily transmit the infection to all her descendents. Only 2.64% are infected. It is possible to systematize the diagnosis without extra resources beyond the usual ones. PMID:7565049

Streiger, M; Fabbro, D; del Barco, M; Beltramino, R; Bovero, N

1995-01-01

304

Functional Genes and Proteins of Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

During the past several decades, researches on parasite genetics have progressed from biochemical and serodiagnostic studies to protein chemistry, molecular biology, and functional gene studies. Nowadays, bioinformatics, genomics, and proteomics approaches are being applied by Korean parasitology researchers. As for Clonorchis sinensis, investigations have been carried out to identify its functional genes using forward and reverse genetic approaches and to characterize the biochemical and biological properties of its gene products. The authors review the proteins of cloned genes, which include antigenic proteins, physiologic and metabolic enzymes, and the gene expression profile of Clonorchis sinensis. PMID:19885336

Kim, Tae Im; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2009-01-01

305

Supplement 22, Part 6, Section A. Subject Headings: A-I, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Subject Headings and Treatment  

E-print Network

fresh water crabs: Sarawak Ab S ? ? s s Rosencrans, M.; and Barak, J., 1969, N. York State Dental J., v. 35 (5), 271-273 Taenia solium in human, Cysticercus cellulo- sae with abscess formation excised from le- sion on mucosal surface of man's lip... absorption of 14c L-lysine and water ac- companied by an increase in tissue water content |nd in ^ecretion rate of mineral ions (Na and ? ) Absorption Chappell, L. ?., 1976, Parasitology, v. 73 (2), xxii [Abstract] Schistosoma, Fasciola, relative...

Zidar, Judith A.; Shaw, Judith H.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

1979-01-01

306

Malaria epidemics in Europe after the First World War: the early stages of an international approach to the control of the disease.  

PubMed

The severity and endemicity of malaria declined gradually in Europe until WWI. During and after the war, the number of malaria cases increased substantially and peaked in 1922-1924. This prompted the Hygiene Commission of the League of Nations to establish a Malaria Commission in 1923 to define the most efficient anti-malaria procedures. Additionally, between 1924 and 1930 there were several international meetings and collaborations concerning malaria, which involved the main institutes of parasitology and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Commission reports, the guidelines for anti-malaria campaigns and the scientific programs which came out of these meetings and collaborations are analyzed in the present paper. PMID:21779694

Gachelin, Gabriel; Opinel, Annick

2011-06-01

307

V-shaped Pits in Regions of Ancient Baekje Kingdom Paleoparasitologically Confirmed as Likely Human-Waste Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies. PMID:25352710

Shin, Dong Hoon; Shim, Sang-Yuck; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Suk Bae; Lee, Geon Il; Chai, Jong-Yil

2014-01-01

308

[Aythya fuligula--new host for Retinometra pittalugai Lopez-Neyra, 1932 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) recorded in Poland for the first time].  

PubMed

During standard parasitological studies of the tufted duck Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758), obtained from fishermen from West Pomerania, three cestode specimens were found in the jejunum of hosts. They were determined as Retinometra pittalugai (Lopez-Neyra, 1932) on the basis of the cirrus's size, shape of stylet and rostellar hooks. This is the first record of this species in Poland, since this parasite was earlier recorded only in Anas platyrhynchos f. dom., Aythya marila, A. ferina and Bucephala clangula in Spain, in Kamchatka and in Novosibirsk. PMID:19338226

Krlaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushin, Vadim V

2008-01-01

309

Investigation of parasites in sludges and disinfection techniques. Final report, August 1979-May 1982  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the research grant were to: assess the presence and densities of resistant stages of parasites in municipal wastewater sludges (sewage) in northern United States; compare the results of the study with the results of a previous study of sludges in southern United States; to evaluate several decontamination techniques for their effectiveness in inactivating parasites in waste sludges; and develop a standard method for the parasitologic examination of waste sludges. Sludge samples from all phases of treatment (i.e., primary, etc.) were collected during the fall, winter and summer from 48 municipal wastewater treatment plants located in New York, Ohio, Minnesota, and Washington.

Reimers, R.S.; Little, M.D.; Englande, A.J.; McDonell, D.B.; Bowman, D.D.

1985-11-01

310

Parasites of freshwater fishes in North America: why so neglected?  

PubMed

Fish parasitology has a long tradition in North America and numerous parasitologists have contributed considerably to the current knowledge of the diversity and biology of protistan and metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes. The Journal of Parasitology has been essential in disseminating this knowledge and remains a significant contributor to our understanding of fish parasites in North America as well as more broadly at the international level. However, with a few exceptions, the importance of fish parasites has decreased during the last decades, which is reflected in the considerable decline of funding and corresponding decrease of attention paid to these parasites in Canada and the United States of America. After the 'golden age' in the second half of the 20th Century, fish parasitology in Canada and the United States went in a new direction, driven by technology and a shift in priorities. In contrast, fish parasitology in Mexico has undergone rapid development since the early 1990s, partly due to extensive international collaboration and governmental funding. A critical review of the current data on the parasites of freshwater fishes in North America has revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of their species composition, host specificity, life cycles, evolution, phylogeography, and relationships with their fish hosts. As to the key question, "Why so neglected?" this is probably because: (1) fish parasites are not in the forefront due to their lesser economic importance; (2) there is little funding for this kind of research, especially if a practical application is not immediately apparent; and (3) of shifting interests and a shortage of key personalities to train a new generation (they switched to marine habitats or other fields). Some of the opportunities for future research are outlined, such as climate change and cryptic species diversity. A significant problem challenging future research seems to be the loss of trained and experienced fish parasitologists. This has 2 major ramifications: the loss of expertise in identifying organisms that other biologists (e.g., ecologists, molecular biologists, evolutionists) work with, and an incomplete comprehension of ecosystem structure and function in the face of climate change, emerging diseases, and loss of biodiversity. PMID:24147814

Scholz, Tom; Choudhury, Anindo

2014-02-01

311

Coproscopical investigations of the European otter (Lutra lutra) from Bia?owieza Primeval Forest.  

PubMed

The parasitofauna of the European otter (Lutra lutra) remains poorly known in Poland. In the presented study 106 fecal samples from otters living in the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest were examined, using standard flotation and sedimentation methods. We found that the overall prevalence of parasitic infections was 30.1%. Eggs of Alaria alata (0.9%), Opistorchis or Metorchis sp. (5.7%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.9%) and Aonchotheca putori (1.9%) were identified, but in other cases the species of parasite could not be reliably determined. Parasitological dissections should give better results in future studies. PMID:20707304

Grski, Pawe?; Zalewski, Andrzej; Kazimierczak, Katarzyna; Kotomski, Grzegorz

2010-01-01

312

[The studies of the invasion of Alaria alata (Goeze,1782) in the Province of Kuyavia and Pomerania].  

PubMed

The studies were conducted between 1999 and 2001 in two hunting regions. Larval alariosis was revealed in the boars only in one of the studied regions. In this region, the results of the parasitological studies, conducted towards A. alata in the direct host (domestic dogs) and indirect hosts (snails: Planorbis planorbis and Anisus vortex as well as frogs: Rana temporaria and Rana terrestris) were also positive. The lack of the host snails A. alata in the other region might have resulted from no presence of the parasite in the boar. PMID:16894758

Wjcik, A R; Franckiewicz-Grygon, B; Zbikowska, E

2001-01-01

313

Improving the detection of anthelmintic resistance: evaluation of faecal egg count reduction test procedures suitable for farm routines.  

PubMed

The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the main method of detection of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in nematodes of veterinary importance. However, although the FECRT is standardised, the diagnostic performance of this method has not been fully characterised. In this survey Monte Carlo routines were used to simulate the estimation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) with several FECRT protocols that were performed under different field and laboratory conditions. The goal was to determine, from a practical viewpoint, the most suitable protocols for farm routines and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of FECRTs across different parasitological scenarios with several levels of AR. The simulated field procedures included variations in the sample size and the sampling (or not) of a control group, whereas the simulated laboratory procedures comprised group mean individual-based vs. composite-based FECR estimations and variations in the egg detection threshold of the McMaster technique. For composite procedures, the random weight variations among individual samples and an increased number of McMaster chamber counts were also simulated. The results showed that FECRTs were moderately affected by inaccuracy but crucially affected by imprecision, and both parameters were clearly dependent on the parasitological conditions and the laboratory and field procedures used. An individual-based FECRT method performed without a control group was the most appropriate to quantify the AR, whereas a composite-based method with a control group was the easiest method for discriminating susceptible and resistant parasite populations. More interestingly, the diagnostic performance of the simulated FECRT methods was low for the procedures that are currently recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) and for many of the typical field and laboratory procedures that are currently implemented. Therefore, the results suggest that the diagnostic performance of the FECRT should be re-evaluated, and the recommendations of the W.A.A.V.P. should be redefined. Finally, theoretic critical conditions for FECRT procedures have been defined to improve future AR surveys and to allow the interpretation of FECRT results with the necessary caution according to the diagnostic performance expected for every FECRT procedure and parasitological scenario. PMID:23537948

Calvete, Carlos; Uriarte, Joaquin

2013-09-23

314

Long term study on the effect of mollusciciding with niclosamide in stream habitats on the transmission of schistosomiasis mansoni after community-based chemotherapy in Makueni District, Kenya  

E-print Network

of 11 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/6/1/107to December 2005. Sampling was carried out as described in [17], by one man searching each site for 15 minutes, using a standard flat, wire-mesh scoop (mesh size 2 mm). Snails were brought to a... transmission in a large scale, longitudinal field study in Machakos, Kenya. Parasitology 1989, 99:349355. 18. Frandsen F, Chistensen N: An introductory guide to the identification of cercariae from African freshwater snails with special reference to cercariae...

Kariuki, Henry C; Madsen, Henry; Ouma, John H; Butterworth, Anthony E; Dunne, David W; Booth, Mark; Kimani, Gachuhi; Mwatha, Joseph K; Muchiri, Eric; Vennervald, Birgitte J

2013-04-18

315

[Professor Wincenty Wi?niewski's complex experiments about circulation of parasites in the ecosystem of Lake Druzno as a model for activities of the Ichtyoparasitological Section of the Student Scientific Association at the University of Gda?sk].  

PubMed

Druzno Lake is hypertrophic basin located on Zu?awy polders (delta of Vistula). Due to the high number of free-living and parasitic species, this lake is unique place for parasitological research. Professor Wisniewski valued Druzno Lake as great area for studying the parasitic species life-cycles. He and his research team lead intensive studies on parasites' circulation in environment. Models compiled by prof. Wisniewski are basal for work of Ichtyoparasitological Section of Student Scientific Association at University of Gda?sk. PMID:19338217

Zakrzewska, Anna; Makarska, Ewa; Rokicka, Magdalena; Kijewska, Agnieszka; Rokicki, Jerzy

2008-01-01

316

Trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) of freshwater fishes of the family Anabantidae from the Okavango River and Delta (Botswana).  

PubMed

During parasitological surveys in the Okavango Delta and Panhandle in Botswana, two species of climbing perches belonging to the family Anabantidae were investigated for ectoparasites. The fishes were the blackspot climbing perch, Microctenopoma intermedium (Pellegrin) and the manyspined climbing perch, Ctenopoma multispine Peters. Five trichodinid species were found from the skin, fins and gills of these anabantids. One is a known species, i.e., Trichodina microspina Van As et Basson, 1992, for which a comparative description is provided. Four other species are described as new species using silver impregnation, i.e., Trichodina labyrinthipiscis sp. n., Trichodina anabantidarum sp. n., Tripartiella microctenopomae sp. n., and Tripartiella ctenopomae sp. n. PMID:12418809

Basson, Linda; Van As, Jo G

2002-01-01

317

A case of visceral leishmaniosis in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Croatia.  

PubMed

The southern habitats of Croatia's gray wolf (Canis lupus) population are found in central and southern parts of Dalmatia. This region is recognized as an endemic region for canine visceral leishmaniosis, caused by Leishmania infantum. In November 2003, a 4-yr-old male gray wolf was found dead in the northwestern border of this endemic region. Pathologic and parasitologic analysis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, indicated that lesions associated with infection by Leishmania infantum are, in this case, typical for visceral leshmaniosis commonly described in dogs. Review of the literature suggests that this is the first reported case of gray wolf death due to lesions caused by L. infantum. PMID:18436678

Beck, A; Beck, R; Kusak, J; Gudan, A; Martinkovic, F; Artukovic, B; Hohsteter, M; Huber, D; Marinculic, A; Grabarevic, Z

2008-04-01

318

Spirocerca lupi granulomatous pneumonia in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil.  

PubMed

The current report describes granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in 2 free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, soft, encapsulated granulomas in the caudal lung lobes, which contained centrally placed parasites on cut sections. Microscopically, there was granulomatous inflammation with numerous intralesional sections of spirurid nematodes. Representative complete adult specimens of nematodes derived from these lesions were submitted for parasitological exam and identified as the spirurid S. lupi. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no published reports of S. lupi in maned wolves. PMID:25319031

Blume, Guilherme R; Reis Junior, Janildo L; Gardiner, Chris H; Hoberg, Eric P; Pilitt, Patricia A; Monteiro, Rafael Verssimo; de Sant'Ana, Fabiano J F

2014-11-01

319

Trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritricha) from Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor) and Anodonta woodiana (Lea) in China, with descriptions of two new species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838.  

PubMed

During parasitological surveys in Chongqing, China, three trichodinids infecting a freshwater fish, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor), and a mollusc, Anodonta woodiana (Lea), were investigated. Two of these species were found to be new. Trichodina lechriodentata n. sp., from the fish, was identified by its small-sized body and irregularly rectangular blade, while T. rara n. sp., from the mollusc, is characterised by its overall dimensions, denticle morphology and the presence of a white speckle in some specimens. T. modesta Lom, 1979 is also described from the fish. Photomicrographs and morphometric data are presented for all of the species. PMID:17294258

Zhao, Yuanjun; Tang, Fahui

2007-05-01

320

[An investigation of parasites of goldfish (Carassius carassius L., 1758) in Kovada Lake.].  

PubMed

The aim of this study, carried out from 25.03.2003-17.02.2004, was to determine the ectoparasites and endoparasites of goldfish (Carassius carassius L., 1758) inhabiting Kovada Lake. A total of 102 specimens were caught monthly and investigated parasitologically. As a result of the investigation, the ectoparasites, Dactylogyrus anchoratus, Dactylogyrus minutus, Argulus foliceaus and Trachellobdella torquata, and the endoparasite Contracaecum sp. were found in the goldfish. Among these, Dactylogyrus minutus and Trachellobdella torquata have been recorded for the first time in goldfish in Turkey. PMID:17160823

Tek?n-zan, Selda; Kir, Ismail

2005-01-01

321

Artemisinin-based combination therapies: a vital tool in efforts to eliminate malaria  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxinepyrimethamine has led to the recent adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as the first line of treatment against malaria. ACTs comprise semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives paired with distinct chemical classes of longer acting drugs. These artemisinins are exceptionally potent against the pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium parasites and also act on the transmissible sexual stages. These combinations increase the rates of clinical and parasitological cures and decrease the selection pressure for the emergence of antimalarial resistance. This Review article discusses our current knowledge about the mode of action of ACTs, their pharmacological properties and the proposed mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:19881520

Eastman, Richard T.; Fidock, David A.

2010-01-01

322

New records of nematodes of passerine migratory birds.  

PubMed

Parasitological examination of three passerine bird species: the Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio, Eurasian Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus and Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava, revealed the presence of the nematodes Acuaria subula, Diplotriaena ozouxi, Viguiera euryoptera and Microtetrameres inermis. All the birds were obtained in the spring (April-May); the nematodes found were mature, which indicates infection in the hosts' wintering grounds. The gizzard worm Acuaria subula is a new record from Motacilla flava in Europe. Viguiera euryoptera and Diplotriaena ozouxi are new to the Polish fauna. PMID:24881284

Okulewicz, Anna

2013-01-01

323

[Comparative study of 3 Schistosoma haematobium foci in Burkina Faso].  

PubMed

The comparative study of the three most common schistosomiasis foci in Burkinab villages shows a great disparity both in parasitological and malacological results. Parasitological investigations by reagent strips and urine filtration conducted on school children indicated respective prevalence rates of 85% at Thion, 37.5% at Donsin and 10.5% at Djerma. Malacological prospections found two species (Bulinus senegalensis and Bulinus truncatus) of intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis in the water biotopes in Thion and Donsin, and only one species (B globosus) at Djerma. We speculate that this situation could be related to initial levels of endemicity, to the distance between living quarters and sites of transmission, to sociological practices as well as to the mollusc vector species. Given the large distribution of these foci throughout the country, the Burkinab medical authorities should recognise their importance with regard to the disease on a public health level and support the current orientation of the national schistosomiasis control programme which is coordinated around district health services. PMID:11346977

Poda, J N; Dianou, D; Kambou, T; Sawadogo, B; Sondo, B

2001-03-01

324

Apicomplexa primers amplify Proteromonas (Stramenopiles, Slopalinida, Proteromonadidae) in tissue and blood samples from lizards.  

PubMed

Microscopy has traditionally been the most common method in parasitological studies, but in recent years molecular screening has become increasingly frequent to detect protozoan parasites in a wide range of vertebrate hosts and vectors. During routine molecular screening of apicomplexan parasites in reptiles using the 18S rRNA gene, we have amplified and sequenced Proteromonas parasites from three lizard hosts (less than 1% prevalence). We conducted phylogenetic analysis to confirm the taxonomic position and infer their relationships with other stramenopiles. Although our phylogeny is limited due to scarcity of molecular data on these protists, our results confirm they are closely related to Proteromonas lacertae. Our findings show that unexpected parasites can be amplified from host samples (blood and tissue) using general procedures to detect hemoparasites, and stress that positive PCR amplifications alone should not be considered as definitive proof of infection by particular parasites. Further validation by sequence confirmation and thorough phylogenetic assessment will not only avoid false positives and biased prevalence estimates but also provide valuable information on the biodiversity and phylogenetic relationships of other parasitic organisms. More generally, our results illustrate the perils of general diagnosis protocols in parasitological studies and the need of cross-validation procedures. PMID:23129192

Maia, Joo P M C; Gmez-Daz, Elena; Harris, D James

2012-12-01

325

Identification and Characterization of Hundreds of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Growth from a Kinase-Targeted Library Screening Campaign  

PubMed Central

In the interest of identification of new kinase-targeting chemotypes for target and pathway analysis and drug discovery in Trypanosomal brucei, a high-throughput screen of 42,444 focused inhibitors from the GlaxoSmithKline screening collection was performed against parasite cell cultures and counter-screened against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. In this way, we have identified 797 sub-micromolar inhibitors of T. brucei growth that are at least 100-fold selective over HepG2 cells. Importantly, 242 of these hit compounds acted rapidly in inhibiting cellular growth, 137 showed rapid cidality. A variety of in silico and in vitro physicochemical and drug metabolism properties were assessed, and human kinase selectivity data were obtained, and, based on these data, we prioritized three compounds for pharmacokinetic assessment and demonstrated parasitological cure of a murine bloodstream infection of T. brucei rhodesiense with one of these compounds (NEU-1053). This work represents a successful implementation of a unique industrial-academic collaboration model aimed at identification of high quality inhibitors that will provide the parasitology community with chemical matter that can be utilized to develop kinase-targeting tool compounds. Furthermore these results are expected to provide rich starting points for discovery of kinase-targeting tool compounds for T. brucei, and new HAT therapeutics discovery programs. PMID:25340575

Diaz, Rosario; Luengo-Arratta, Sandra A.; Seixas, Joao D.; Amata, Emanuele; Devine, William; Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Rojas-Barros, Domingo I.; Jimenez, Elena; Ortega, Fatima; Crouch, Sabrinia; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Fiandor, Jose Maria; Martin, Jose Julio; Berlanga, Manuela; Gonzalez, Silvia; Manzano, Pilar; Navarro, Miguel; Pollastri, Michael P.

2014-01-01

326

Communications: technology transfer in the developed world.  

PubMed

Support for research is increasingly dependent upon the results of that research having relevance to society's needs and public benefits. This increase pressure to move research results out of the laboratory and into the user's hands. To facilitate this, a variety of technology transfer mechanisms have evolved to facilitate transfer of knowledge and processes. These mechanisms, in addition to their implied benefits for the researchers and the user, often have certain consequences which are unanticipated and cause transfer to fail or not meet expectations. Foremost, cultural change on the part of both private organizations and public laboratories is probably necessary to allow effective partnerships. Coupled with the transfer of knowledge is the opportunity to more effectively explain to society the benefits it receives for its investments in research. Such communication has not been especially successful for veterinary parasitology. However, the revolution in communication (e.g. rise of mass media, computer networks) presents new opportunities to parasitologists to more effectively communicate both technology and knowledge directly to the users, and also to inform supporters, policy-makers and the general public of the relevance and importance of veterinary parasitology in improving society's well-being. This review will discuss these new instruments of communication, the need to construct better messages, the benefits of technology transfer and the various means to meet the challenges associated with transferring research innovation to the user and the marketplace. PMID:8893468

Murrell, K D

1996-08-01

327

Sentinel Surveillance of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Preschool-Aged and School-Aged Children in Selected Local Government Units in the Philippines: Follow-up Assessment.  

PubMed

This study was a follow-up to the baseline nationwide survey of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in preschool-aged children in the Philippines and in school-aged children in selected sentinel sites to assess the Integrated Helminth Control Program of the Department of Health. The objective of the study was to describe the current prevalence and intensity of STH infections in preschool-aged and school-aged children in 6 sentinel provinces and to compare these data with baseline findings. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Parasitological assessment involved the examination of stool samples by the Kato-Katz method. Although parasitological parameters in the 2 age groups at follow-up showed significant reductions from the baseline, these parameters remained high despite 3 years of mass drug administration (MDA). Efforts toward achieving high MDA coverage rates, provision of clean water, environmental sanitation, and promotion of hygiene practices must be prioritized. PMID:23572379

Belizario, Vicente Y; Totaes, Francis Isidore G; de Leon, Winifreda U; Ciro, Raezelle Nadine T; Lumampao, Yvonne F

2013-04-01

328

[Intestinal parasitism in a Parakan indigenous community in southwestern Par State, Brazil].  

PubMed

To determine the occurrence and epidemiological aspects of intestinal parasites among the Parakan indigenous people in the Paranatinga settlement (in the eastern Amazon Region), parasitological tests were performed in April 1992 and February 1995. One fresh stool specimen was obtained and immediately processed using the Hoffman and direct methods. Some 126 samples were obtained in April 1992 (from a total population of 215 individuals). Some 80. 2% (101) of those tested were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. Hookworms were found in 33.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides 42.8%, Trichuris trichiura 0.8%, and Strongyloides stercoralis 5.6%. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia protozoans were found in 65.0% and 46.8% of those tested, respectively. A second parasitological survey was performed on 174 individuals (from a population of 253) in February 1995. 88.5% were infected. Note that prevalence in February 1995 was higher than in April 1992 (p=0.04). It was lower for hookworms, E. histolytica, and G. lamblia, with no S. stercoralis (p<0.05). Despite provision of health care in the Paranatinga community, prevalence of intestinal parasites is still extremely high, suggesting that primary and secondary health care should be increased immediately to increase the efficacy of prevention of intestinal parasites. PMID:9761604

Miranda, R A; Xavier, F B; Menezes, R C

1998-01-01

329

Preliminary investigation of the contribution of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and UGT1A9 polymorphisms on artesunate-mefloquine treatment response in Burmese patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

PubMed

CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and UGT1A9 genetic polymorphisms and treatment response after a three-day course of artesunate-mefloquine was investigated in 71 Burmese patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Results provide evidence for the possible link between CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 polymorphisms and plasma concentrations of artesunate/dihydroartemisinin and treatment response. In one patient who had the CYP2A6*1A/*4C genotype (decreased enzyme activity), plasma concentration of artesunate at one hour appeared to be higher, and the concentration of dihydroartemisinin was lower than for those carrying other genotypes (415 versus 320 ng/mL). The proportion of patients with adequate clinical and parasitologic response who had the CYP2B6*9/*9 genotype (mutant genotype) was significantly lower compared with those with late parasitologic failure (14.0% versus 19.0%). Confirmation through a larger study in various malaria-endemic areas is required before a definite conclusion on the role of genetic polymorphisms of these drug-metabolizing enzymes on treatment response after artesunate-based combination therapy can be made. PMID:24891466

Phompradit, Papichaya; Muhamad, Poonuch; Cheoymang, Anurak; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2014-08-01

330

[Molecularbiological diagnosis of herpes virus infection of a juvenile Russian tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii) with skin and lung lesions].  

PubMed

Herpesvirus infections are significant in the care of turtles and tortoises. Clinical signs range from unspecific symptoms, due to the variety of organ manifestations, to the "classical" picture of rhinitis-stomatitis. The presented case study showed the typical disease only with respect to clinical symptoms following hibernation, but lacks stomatitis, erosions or plaques in the oral mucosa. On the other hand, skin lesions on the extremeties, causative with herpesvirus infection, could be diagnosed. In this case study, various symptoms, sampling procedures and diagnostics using two different PCR methods are presented. Following hibernation, samples from a Russian tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii) were taken ante mortem and post mortem and screened with respect to virology, pathology, bacteriology and parasitology. DNA-fragments specific for tortoise herpesvirus were detected in various organs and body liquids. Furthermore basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were found. The bacteriological examination showed a high level of Pasteurella testunis in the lungs. By parasitological examination nematodes (Oxyridae) were diagnosed. A potential prophylaxis tortoise herpesvirus is discussed. PMID:16450705

Fischer, Sebastian; Strutzberg-Minder, Katrin; Mller, Gundi; Homuth, Matthias

2006-01-01

331

[Malaria index according to age and seasons in the health region of Katana, in mountainous Kivu, Zaire].  

PubMed

A longitudinal malaria survey was undertaken in children under five in 5 villages of Katana Rural Health Zone in Kivu, East Zaire. During the year 1983, seasonal fluctuations ranging from 25 to 44% were observed in the parasitological index as well as concomitant variations from 5 to 18% in the splenic index. More malaria transmission seems to occur during the long dry season (June to September). In order to prepare an operational research project to be conducted in two geographically delimited areas of the Health Zone, a complementary survey was organised in February 1985. This survey yielded details on parasitological, splenic and serological index in relation to age. These malaria indices were similar in the two areas and all gradually increased with age to reach maxima of respectively 42%, 13% and 55%. The Katana region, situated at an altitude of 1500 meters, on the shores of lake Kivu, is apparently characterized by an unstable and meso-endemic malaria. The applicability and feasibility of some alternative malaria control strategies are discussed. PMID:2291691

Delacollette, C; Van der Stuyft, P; Molima, K; Hendrix, L; Wry, M

1990-12-01

332

Effect of specific chemotherapy on the levels of lytic antibodies in Chagas's disease.  

PubMed

Clinical trials with compounds active in Chagas's disease have shown that after treatment parasitological diagnostic methods (xenodiagnosis) become repeatedly negative whereas conventional serology (immunofluorescence and complement fixation tests) persists steadily positive. Consequently, assessment of cure still remains controversial. This paper reports the influence of specific treatment on antibodies involved in the conventional serological diagnosis and on antibodies which bind to the living bloodstream forms and are related to host resistance. Antibodies lytic to Trypanosoma cruzi bloodstream stages were detected, through a complement-mediated lysis (CML) test, in: (a) 100% of 28 untreated patients; (b) 94% of a group of 21 treated patients in whom conventional serology remained positive, including those with persistently negative xenodiagnosis; (c) 0% of 17 normal controls. In some patients treated with a nitrofuran derivative (nifurtimox) or with a 2-nitroimidazole derivative (benznidazol), CML test became gradually negative whereas conventional serology continued to be positive. Finally, in five patients treated with benznidazol, serological tests, CML and xenodiagnosis became regularly negative, strongly suggesting parasitological cure. Those findings demonstrate a dissociation between the antibodies mediating serological diagnosis and those directed against living bloodstream parasites. Moreover, since in some patients both types of antibodies disappeared after treatment, the results suggest that cure of Chagas's disease should be based not only on negative xenodiagnosis but also on the elimination of specific antibodies detectable by conventional serology and CML test. PMID:6810519

Krettli, A U; Canado, J R; Brener, Z

1982-01-01

333

Clinical trial of Mirazid in treatment of human fascioliasis, Ezbet El-Bakly (Tamyia Center) Al-Fayoum Governorate.  

PubMed

A field survey was done in Ezbet El-Bakly, Al-Fayoum Governorate, Egypt to assess the efficacy and safety of Mirazid in the treatment of human fascioliasis. Among 1019 individuals examined for parasitosis, the prevalence of fascioliasis was 1.7% and the geometric mean egg count (GMEC) was 33.2 eggs/gram stools. About 23.5% of the fascioliasis patients were asymptomatic. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal dis\\tension and flatulence (76.5%), right hypochondrial pain (17.6%) and epigastric pain (17.6%). The most prevalent signs were pallor (52.9%,), tender right hypochondrium (23.5%) and tinge of jaundice (17.6%). All cases were treated by Mirazid as two capsules (600 mg) on an empty stomach an hour before breakfast for six consecutive days and followed up clinically and parasitologically. The parasitological cure rate, two and three months after treatment was 88.2% and 94.1% with an overt clinical cure without any side-effects. The cases not completely responding to a single course of treatment showed a marked reduction of the egg intensity. It was concluded that Mirazid (or Myrrh extract of Commiphora molmol) is safe and effective in the treatment of human fascioliasis under the field conditions. PMID:15587309

Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M; Morsy, Ayman T A

2004-12-01

334

The concept of specificity and the Italian contribution to the discovery of the malaria transmission cycle.  

PubMed

At the dawn of the 20th century, the change in the scientific, political and cultural attitudes towards malaria was the result of the discovery of the theoretical simplicity of the malaria transmission cycle and of the possibility to interrupt it, by avoiding the contacts between people and mosquitoes. The 'mosquito hypothesis', suggested already in the 1880s, had to be included into a coherent scientific theory, in which a fundamental part was played by the concept of specificity. The paper analyses the Italian contribution to this scientific change and the epistemological aspects of the debate between Ronald Ross and Battista Grassi about their respective role in the discovery of the human malaria transmission cycle. This debate has been often interpreted in sociological or psychological terms. However, behind the dispute there is a different definition of what is a scientific explanation in biological sciences and in particular in parasitology. This point is made clear by the analysis of four different theoretical problems implied in the discovery of the transmission cycle: the concept of specificity, the comparative method in parasitology, the specificity of the life-cycle of parasites and vectors, and the role of the analogical reasoning in science and medicine. PMID:10697832

Fantini, B

1999-09-01

335

Obituary  

PubMed

Sheila Willmott, (1921-1998)CAB International and the Editor, Assistant Editor and Editorial Board of the Journal of Helminthology wish to express their deepest sympathy to the family and friends of Sheila Willmott who died on 8 May 1998 after a very short illness. Sheila served as Editor of the Journal of Helminthology from 1980 to 1986.Dr Lotfi Khalil, formerly Deputy Director of the International Institute of Parasitology at St Albans, worked closely with Sheila and has written the following tribute.John W. Lewis, EditorSheila Willmott was a leading contributor to the dissemination of parasitic information before the development of computerization and information technology. She was born on 8 June, 1921, in London, and was educated at Tollington High School for Girls, Chelsea Polytechnic and University College, London. She did her PhD at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine under the supervision of Professor John Buckley, the subject of her thesis being the study of amphistome digeneans. Her studies were interrupted as a result of the Second World War when she was 'drafted' as a Rodent Instructor at the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. After completing her PhD, she was appointed Assistant Lecturer in Zoology at the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff. In 1951, Professor R.T. Leiper, the Director of the Bureau of Agricultural Parasitology (Helminthology) recruited her as a Scientific Information Officer. She was appointed Assistant Director of the Bureau in 1954, and Director in 1961, where she stayed until her retirement in 1980.During her period as Director of the Bureau, which was sited in the White House in the centre of St Albans, she maintained and improved the high quality of Helminthological Abstracts and, in 1976, accepted the extra burden of starting and producing Protozoological Abstracts. In 1979, she initiated and edited a primary journal, Systematic Parasitology, devoted to papers on the taxonomy and systematics of parasites, published by Junk. The activities of the Bureau were greatly expanded and she initiated the taxonomic laboratories to provide a worldwide service for the identification of animal helminths and plant-parasitic nematodes and to undertake taxonomic research. A vast helminth reference collection was started, and the Bureau became a recognized centre for the deposition of type specimens. The library of the Bureau accumulated an enormous number of reference books, journals and reprints, and provided a photocopying service supplying, at short notice, copies of papers and publications. A number of books and other publications, including the CIH Keys to the Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates, were produced and edited by her and others. She also persuaded the Natural Environment Research Council to finance the Fisheries Helminthology Unit which she established at the Bureau in 1960, where it remained until it was transferred to Plymouth as part of the Institute for Marine Environmental Research. The Bureau's name and status were changed to the Commonwealth Institute of Helminthology, Commonwealth Institute of Parasitology and, finally, the International Institute of Parasitology.As Director, she travelled extensively and visited Commonwealth and other countries, where she gave a number of seminars on information services and the work of the Institute and the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) as a whole. She encouraged contact with Eastern Europe and visited Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and the USSR. She initiated the system of exchange publications with these countries, and this resulted in the exposure of the literature from these countries to other research workers when abstracts of these papers appeared in Helminthological Abstracts in English. Her links with Eastern Europe resulted in her editing three volumes of taxonomic monographs produced in English by Czech and Russian scientists. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9765367

Khalil

1998-09-01

336

Efficacy of 5-Nitroimidazoles for the Treatment of Giardiasis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of giardiasis. We evaluated the efficacy of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) in the treatment of giardiasis in a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for RCTs evaluating the efficacy of 5-NI vs. control (placebo or active treatment) on parasitological cure in patients with parasitologically-demonstrated giardiasis. The search was performed in May 2013 with no language restriction by two authors independently. The efficacy outcome was parasitological cure, and harmful outcomes were abdominal pain, bitter or metallic taste, and headache. We included 30 RCTs (n?=?3,930). There was a significant and slightly higher response rate with 5-NI in giardiasis treatment (RR 1.06, 95%CI 1.021.11, p?=?0.005). There was high heterogeneity among studies (I2?=?72%). The response rates for metronidazole, tinidazole and secnidazole were similar (RR 1.05, 95%CI 1.011.09, p?=?0.01; RR 1.32 95%CI 1.101.59, p?=?0.003; and RR 1.18 95%CI 0.931.449, p?=?0.18, respectively). On subgroup analyses, the response rates did not vary substantially and high heterogeneity persisted (I2?=?57%80%). Harmful outcomes were uncommon, and 5-NIs were associated with lower risk of abdominal pain, and higher risk of both bitter or metallic taste and headache. Conclusions Studies investigating the efficacy of 5-NI in giardiasis treatment are highly heterogeneous. 5-NIs have a slightly better efficacy and worse profile for mild harmful outcomes in the treatment of giardiasis in comparison to controls. Larger high quality RCTs are needed to further assess efficacy and safety profiles of 5-NI. PMID:24625554

Deshpande, Abhishek; Thota, Priyaleela; Roman, Yuani; Hernandez, Adrian V.

2014-01-01

337

Efficacy of amodiaquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and their combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in Cameroon at the time of policy change to artemisinin-based combination therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy of amodiaquine (AQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and the combination of SP+AQ in the treatment of Cameroonian children with clinical malaria was investigated. The prevalence of molecular markers for resistance to these drugs was studied to set the baseline for surveillance of their evolution with time. Methods Seven hundred and sixty children aged 6-59 months with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were studied in three ecologically different regions of Cameroon - Mutengene (littoral equatorial forest), Yaound (forest-savannah mosaic) and Garoua (guinea-savannah). Study children were randomized to receive either AQ, SP or the combination AQ+SP. Clinical outcome was classified according to WHO criteria, as either early treatment failure (ETF), late clinical failure (LCF), late parasitological failure (LPF) or adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR). The occurrence of mutations in pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr and dhps genes was studied by either RFLP or dot blot techniques and the prevalence of these mutations related to parasitological and therapeutic failures. Results After correction for the occurrence of re-infection by PCR, ACPRs on day 28 for AQ, SP and AQ+SP were 71.2%, 70.1% and 80.9%, in Garoua, 79.2%, 62.5%, and 81.9% in Mutengene, and 80.3%, 67.5% and 76.2% in Yaound respectively. High levels of Pfcrt 76T (87.11%) and Pfmdr1 86Y mutations (73.83%) were associated with quinoline resistance in the south compared to the north, 31.67% (76T) and 22.08% (86Y). There was a significant variation (p < 0.001) of the prevalence of the SGK haplotype between Garoua in the north (8.33%), Yaound (36.29%) in the savannah-forest mosaic and Mutengene (66.41%) in the South of Cameroon and a weak relation between SGK haplotype and SP failure. The 540E mutation on the dhps gene was extremely rare (0.3%) and occurred only in Mutengene while the pfmdr1 1034K and 1040D mutations were not detected in any of the three sites. Conclusion In this study the prevalence of molecular markers for quinoline and anti-folate resistances showed high levels and differed between the south and north of Cameroon. AQ, SP and AQ+SP treatments were well tolerated but with low levels of efficacy that suggested alternative treatments were needed in Cameroon since 2005. PMID:20105282

2010-01-01

338

Management of febrile children under five years in hospitals and health centres of rural Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The case management of febrile children in hospitals and health centres pre-roll out of the new WHO policy on parasitological diagnosis was assessed. The delivery of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) at these two levels of the health system was compared. Methods Structured observations and exit interviews of 1,222 febrile children attending five hospitals and 861 attending ten health centres were conducted in six districts of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Effectiveness of delivery of case management of malaria was assessed. Proportions of children receiving ACT, anti-malarial monotherapy and antibiotics were described. Predictors of: a febrile child being given an ACT, a febrile child being given an antibiotic and of carers knowing how to correctly administer the ACT were assessed using logistic regression models stratified by hospitals and health centres. Results The systems effectiveness of delivering an ACT to febrile children diagnosed with malaria (parasitologically or clinically) was 31.4 and 42.4% in hospitals and health centres, respectively. The most ineffective process was that of ensuring that carers knew how to correctly administer the ACT. Overall 278 children who were not given an ACT were treated with anti-malarial monotherapy other than quinine. The majority of these children, 232/278 were given amodiaquine, 139 of these were children attending hospitals and 93 attending health centres. The cadre of health staff conducting consultation was a common predictor of the outcomes of interest. Presenting symptoms and examinations conducted were predictive of being given an ACT in hospitals and antibiotic in hospitals and health centres but not of being given an ACT in health centres. Treatment-seeking factors were predictive of being given an ACT if it was more than seven days since the fever began and an antibiotic in hospitals but not in health centres. Conclusion Interventions to improve adherence to negative parasitological tests are needed, together with guidance on dispensing of antibiotics, but improving the education of carers on how to administer ACT will lead to the greatest immediate increase in the effectiveness of case management. Guidance is needed on implementation of the new test-based treatment for malaria policy in health facilities. PMID:25008574

2014-01-01

339

Quality of uncomplicated malaria case management in Ghana among insured and uninsured patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction The National Health Insurance Act, 2003 (Act 650) established the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana with the aim of increasing access to health care and improving the quality of basic health care services for all citizens. The main objective is to assess the effect of health insurance on the quality of case management for patients with uncomplicated malaria, ascertaining any significant differences in treatment between insured and non-insured patients. Method A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 523 respondents diagnosed with malaria and prescribed malaria drugs from public and private health facilities in 3 districts across Ghanas three ecological zones. Collected information included initial examinations performed on patients (temperature, weight, age, blood pressure and pulse); observations of malaria symptoms by trained staff, laboratory tests conducted and type of drugs prescribed. Insurance status of patients, age, gender, education level and occupation were asked in the interviews. Results Of the 523 patients interviewed, only 40 (8%) were uninsured. Routine recording of the patients age, weight, and temperature was high in all the facilities. In general, assessments needed to identify suspected malaria were low in all the facilities with hot body/fever and headache ranking the highest and convulsion ranking the lowest. Parasitological assessments in all the facilities were also very low. All patients interviewed were prescribed ACTs which is in adherence to the drug of choice for malaria treatment in Ghana. However, there were no significant differences in the quality of malaria treatment given to the uninsured and insured patients. Conclusion Adherence to the standard protocol of malaria treatment is low. This is especially the case for parasitological confirmation of all suspected malaria patients before treatment with an antimalarial as currently recommended for the effective management of malaria in the country. The results show that about 16 percent of total sample were parasitologically tested. Effective management of the disease demands proper diagnosis and treatment and therefore facilities need to be adequately supplied with RDTs or be equipped with well functioning laboratories to provide adequate testing. PMID:25056139

2014-01-01

340

The great escape: do parasites break Dollo's law?  

PubMed

A long-held assumption in evolutionary studies is that a character that changes from a complex to a simple state is unlikely to return to the same complex state. The extreme version of this assumption has been codified as Dollo's law. Unfortunately, this paradigm has supported the idea that simple and complex traits are qualitatively different, when it is more sensible to suggest that there is a quantitative difference. Dollo's law has been the predominant paradigm in parasitology, where a move from a free-living state to parasitism has been considered a unidirectional pathway or 'one-way trip' because organisms lose the structures required to return to the free-living state. Several recent studies have suggested that complex structures can be regained from simple traits, and we suggest that this is also possible for parasites. PMID:16971179

Cruickshank, Robert H; Paterson, Adrian M

2006-11-01

341

[Milestones and major results of studies on leishmaniasis and sand fly fevers in Turkmenistan].  

PubMed

Among the countries endemic for tropical diseases, Turkmenistan along with Uzbekistan has a special role to play in having basic scientific knowledge of leishmaniasis. This article summarizes the principal scientific findings in the course of the 20th century in respect of leishmaniasis and sand fly fevers. The most important results of studies on cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are cited. The role of different researchers in the epidemiology, epizootology, natural focality of these diseases, their clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are described in detail. The paper gives information obtained by the latest studies on the etiology of leishmaniasis. The most important publications on this topic are assessed. Particular emphasis is laid on the results of the Anti-Leishmaniasis Expedition carried out by the researchers of the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine to the Tedjen oasis of Turkmenistan. PMID:21395041

Ponirovski?, E N; Kondrashin, A V; Erokhin, P I; Annacharyeva, D

2010-01-01

342

[Comparative study of schistosomiasis transmission (urinary and intestinal forms) at 10 sites in Burkina Faso (in sub-Saharan Africa)].  

PubMed

Despite great progress in schistosomiasis control over the past decade in Burkina Faso, this disease remains a public health problem. This study analyzes parasitologic data from investigations of Schistosoma haematobium, S.mansoni, and mollusks. The prevalence rate of S.haematobium varies from 3.3% to 50.4%; that for S.mansoni (tested only in the western part of the country) from 3.3% to 39.1%. Prevalence rates are higher in school-aged boys than girls, but the reverse is true among adults. Studies of mussels showed the presence of Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus senegalensis and Bulinus globosus in these areas. Our results indicate that behavioral factors as well as the dynamics and the distribution of the intermediate mollusks play a major role in the persistence of the disease. PMID:23174311

Zongo, D; Kabre, B G; Dayeri, D; Savadogo, B; Poda, J N

2012-01-01

343

Pseudosuccinea columella (Say 1817) (Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae), snail host of Fasciola hepatica: first record for France in the wild.  

PubMed

The lymnaeid snail Pseudosuccinea columella has shown strong invasive capabilities in the last decades, and this species has now a worldwide distribution. So far, the presence of this snail in Europe was restricted to botanical gardens, but the recent discovery of a few specimens along the banks of the Lot River, southwestern France is the first record of this species in the wild. The first generation of this P. columella isolate obtained in the laboratory was used for parasitological tests with a French Fasciola hepatica sample. Experimental infections showed that 100% of snails (n=26) developed infection when exposed to F. hepatica miracidia. Consequences for the epidemiology of F. hepatica transmission in France are discussed. PMID:17661191

Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Coustau, Christine; Rondelaud, Daniel; Theron, Andr

2007-10-01

344

[Multiple-organ dysfunction caused by dissemination of Strongyloides stercoralis infection: A case report].  

PubMed

We report here the case of a 50-year-old male patient, from a rural setting, with past history of alcoholism. He was admitted in the Intensive Care Unit due to a worsening health status after a febrile syndrome of 25 days. In addition, he had diarrhea, intense muscle ache predominantly on upper extremities and abdomen, weight loss, confusion, seizures, psychomotor agitation, tachycardia, tachipnea, anuria, septic shock, coma, and multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome. The hyperinfection syndrome caused by Strongyloides stercoralis was suspected because of severe eosinophilia (52 percent of peripheral blood leukocytes). This diagnosis was verified by the parasitological examination of stool samples by direct wet mount and Baermann techniques. Treatment with thiabendazole at 25 mg/kg per day was started, as well as cefepime, vasoactive drugs, artificial mechanic ventilation, and hemodialysis. The patient died 12 hours after admission, probably due to secondary infection with Escherichia coli. PMID:23096477

Prez, Flix; Nez, Fidel; Martn, Niurys; Cabrera, Rubn; Rodrguez, Endry

2012-06-01

345

Acanthamoeba T4 genotype associated with keratitis infections in Tunisia.  

PubMed

Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infection. We report five cases of AK diagnosed from 2005 to 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology at Habib Bourguiba Sfax Hospital, Tunisia. All were associated with improper care of contact lenses (rinsing of contact lenses with tap water and inappropriate cleaning) and lens storage. The patients displayed different clinical presentations: corneal inflammation, corneal ulceration, and corneal abscess. The diagnosis was made after direct examination, culture, and polymerase chain reaction amplification with specific primers. The genotype classification was based on the highly variable DF3 region in the 18S rRNA gene. This is the first study characterizing Acanthamoeba genotype in Tunisia and North Africa. All Acanthamoeba isolates were associated to the T4 genotype. Three different DF3 sequence types were related to AK infections T4/10, T4/15, and T4/16. PMID:23052779

Dendana, F; Sellami, H; Trabelsi, H; Neji, S; Cheikhrouhou, F; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

2013-01-01

346

Clinical selection criteria for secondary examinations of the health-status of broiler flocks.  

PubMed

Results of post-mortem and laboratory examinations of broilers sampled randomly or selected by clinical symptoms were compared. The male:female-ratio was in all cases nearly equal for randomly sampled and selected birds. Regarding post-mortem findings, differences dependent on selection criteria were observed: in randomly-sampled birds the frequency of breast-blisters and plantar inflammations was higher than in selected broilers, whereas in the latter osteodystrophy and bursal atrophy were seen more frequently. Alterations of joints and tendon-sheaths caused by a reovirus-arthritis in one flock were seen in same frequency in randomly sampled and selected birds, respectively. Parasitological examinations revealed the highest coccidial lesion scores in selected birds with lameness or slightly retarded growth but when dwarfism birds were included into calculations, there was no significant difference among both groups. Results of bacteriological and serological examinations showed no differences between the groups. PMID:1776382

Behr, K P; Siegmann, O; Hinz, K H; Erhorn, I; Salisch, H; Friederichs, M; Weiss, H; Arndt, G

1991-09-01

347

Helminth parasitic infections of the central nervous system: a diagnostic approach.  

PubMed

Helminth parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) occur worldwide with high prevalence in tropical and subtropical countries. Clinical evaluation of patients is mandatory, and it is convenient to group the clinical manifestations into syndromes: for example space-occupying lesions, meningitis, and encephalitis. The history should focus on residence or travel to endemic areas, diet, activities, intercurrent medical conditions, and associated clinical clues. Direct parasitological diagnosis can be reached by cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral tissue examination either by microscopy, culture, or immunological techniques. Immunodiagnosis by detection of parasite antibodies or antigens in serum could provide indirect evidence of parasitic infections. In addition, various imaging and radiological techniques e.g., computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) complement the diagnostic work-up of CNS diseases. Finally, the helminthic CNS infections of global impact, such as schistosomiasis, neurotoxocariasis, Strongyloides infection, neurotrichinosis, neurocysticercosis, and echinococcosis will be briefly discussed as regards the principal clinical and diagnostic features. PMID:24961012

Othman, Ahmad A; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Ganna, Ahmed A

2014-04-01

348

Sex differences in the malnourished status of Chinese children due to schistosomiasis infections and inadequate dietary intake.  

PubMed

Based on nutritional and parasitological examinations of 389 children aged 10-13 years in five primary schools in the schistosomiasis endemic Dongting Lake region of China, the causal factors of their retarded growth, represented by height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference and body mass index, were investigated. Among the four parasites, schistosomiasis infection due to Schistosoma japonicum played a significant role, with higher rates in girls than in boys. Praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis decreased the infection rate and improved the children's growth. For dietary intake factors, the contribution of protein to total energy intake, which was lower in girls than in boys, had the greatest effect on the growth patterns. The sex difference in growth retardation is judged to be attributable to the traditional norms, such as girls spending more time in infested environments and gender discrimination in food distribution. PMID:16077466

Zhou, Huan; He, Yongkang; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

2005-01-01

349

[Comparative analysis between the circumoval precipitin test and ELISA with raw antigens for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Venezuela].  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis has special characteristics in Venezuela, since the majority of the infected population is asymptomatic and the elimination of eggs is very low, difficulting in this way parasitologic diagnosis. It is thus necessary to develop sensitive and specific immunologic methods to be applied in field surveys. The present study compares two serologic tests for Schistosomiasis, the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with eggs (SEA) and adult (AWA) antigens and the traditional circumoval precipitation test (COPT). Sensitivity and specificity of the test were performed being 100% and 92% in COPT, 79% and 71% in ELISA-SEA and 71% and 91% in ELISA-AWA respectively. Advantages and disadvantages of each test are discussed. PMID:1843941

Spencer, L; Alarcn de Noya, B; Noya, O; Masroua, G

1991-01-01

350

Alain Gabriel Chabaud (March 13, 1923 - March 11, 2013) A memorial tribute.  

PubMed

Professor Alain Gabriel Chabaud died at his home in Chevilly la Rue, near Paris, on March 11, 2013. He was born on March 13, 1923 and therefore died on the eve of his 90th birthday. With this death, an important part of the former Chair of Worm Zoology from the Paris Museum fades into the past. Alain Chabaud leaves behind a considerable body of publications. His contributions to encyclopedias (the Treaty of Zoology of Pierre Paul Grasse, or the CIH Keys, in collaboration with Roy Anderson and Shelma Wilmot) are still essential documents to the world's parasitologists. Besides his massive scientific contributions, he will be remembered as a friendly man who played a prominent role in the circulation of ideas and people in many of the major areas of Parasitology. PMID:23612322

Hugot, Jean-Pierre

2013-04-20

351

Persistent Giardia spp. and Trichuris spp. infection in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) at a zoo in Greece.  

PubMed

The mara (Dolichotis patagonum) is a species classified as "Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In the wild, it inhabits only Argentina, but it is also kept in zoos around the world. In order to investigate the endoparasites of the maras kept in the Attica Zoological Park, Greece, four fecal examinations were performed in a period of 4 yr (2008-2011) by standard parasitologic methods. Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia spp. and eggs of the nematode Trichuris spp. were found in all four examinations. The possible routes of infection of the maras and the importance of these parasites to other animals and to humans are discussed. PMID:23805557

Tahas, Stamatios Alan; Diakou, Anastasia

2013-06-01

352

 

PubMed Central

Intestinal bilharziasis (or schistosomiasis) is becoming more and more frequent among Canadian travellers who come in contact with natural soft waters in tropical countries. The clinical signs accompanying contamination, the prodrome and the chronic phase are inconstant, but eosinophilia is often the warning sign, and specific seroparasitologic findings suggest the diagnostic investigation, Five tourists from Quebec became infected while travelling in Martinique. The clinical, parasitologic and serologic features that led to the diagnosis are described. The prodome (a flu-like syndrome with eosinophilia) is underlined. Treatment with niridazole was effective, as confirmed by the absence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs (or the presence of dead eggs) in specimens from rectal biopsies performed subsequently. Images FIG. 2 PMID:7059888

Viens, P.; Morisset, R.; Clermont, R.

1982-01-01

353

Risk factors for imported fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria, France, 1996-2003.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious health hazard for travelers to malaria-endemic areas and is often diagnosed on return to the country of residence. We conducted a retrospective study of imported falciparum malaria among travelers returning to France from malaria-endemic areas from 1996 through 2003. Epidemiologic, clinical, and parasitologic data were collected by a network of 120 laboratories. Factors associated with fatal malaria were identified by logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 21,888 falciparum malaria cases were reported. There were 96 deaths, for a case-fatality rate of 4.4 per 1,000 cases of falciparum malaria. In multivariate analysis, risk factors independently associated with death from imported malaria were older age, European origin, travel to East Africa, and absence of chemoprophylaxis. Fatal imported malaria remains rare and preventable. Pretravel advice and malaria management should take into account these risk factors, particularly for senior travelers. PMID:17553228

Legros, Fabrice; Bouchaud, Olivier; Ancelle, Thierry; Arnaud, Amandine; Cojean, Sandrine; Le Bras, Jacques; Danis, Martin; Fontanet, Arnaud; Durand, Rmy

2007-06-01

354

Giardia duodenalis infection: risk factors for children living in sub-standard settlements in Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to characterize Giardia duodenalis infection among children living in sub-standard settlement areas in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The cross-sectional epidemiological study included 590 children from 1 to 5 years of age. Data were collected from one child per selected family through home interviews with the parent or guardian and parasitological examination of stool samples. Thirty-one putative risk factors concerning family structure, socioeconomic status, and environmental factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 18% (106 children). Four potential risk factors were heavily associated with G. duodenalis infection: number of under-five children in the same household, index child's birth order, existence of a bathroom in the home, and drinking water source. PMID:17546340

Teixeira, Jlio Csar; Heller, Lo; Barreto, Mauricio L

2007-06-01

355

[Parasite fauna of the perch fishes Percidae in waterbodies of the Kola Region].  

PubMed

Results of the parasitological investigation of two species of perch fisches (perch Perca fluviatilis and ruff Gymnocephalus cernuus) from Kola Region are given. 63 species of parasites were found on perch in 16 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea and Barents Sea basins (Myxosporea--3, Pleurostomata--1, Suctoria--2, Peritricha--21, Protozoa incertae sedis--1, Monogenea--2, Cestoda--6, Trematoda--10, Nemadota--8, Acanthocephala--4, Hirudinea--1, Bivalvia--1, Crustacea--3). 33 species of parasites were found on ruff in 5 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea basin (Cyrtostomata--1, Hymenostomata--1, Peritricha--8, Monogenea--2, Cestoda--6, Trematoda--9, Nematoda--2, Acanthospehala--2, Bivalvia--1, Crustacea--1). Data on the infestation of perch and ruff by different parasite species are obtained, occurrence of the parasites in the examined waterbodies is shown. PMID:16755725

Mitenev, V K; Shul'man, B S

2006-01-01

356

[Peculiarities of the biology and parasite fauna of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Pista River (White Sea Basin), according to the Gyrodactylus salaris infestation].  

PubMed

Juvenile salmon Salmo salar m. sebago Girard from the Pista River system (the White Sea Basin) was investigated. The data on species composition and occurrence peculiarities of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 are given. This monogenean is the alien species for the river system and it is recorded for the first time. It is shown that the distribution of the parasite abundance is can be described as the negative binomial distribution; variations of its parameters (k and p) were also characterized. Parasitological data obtained, as well as the data describing the characteristics of growth and age structure of juvenile salmon population, suggest the potential influence of G. salaris infection on the degree of survival of fishes in the lake-river system examined. PMID:23285741

Ieshko, E P; Shchurov, I L; Shul'man, B S; Barskaia, Iu Iu; Lebedeva, D I; Shirokov, V A

2012-01-01

357

Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Myanmar: results of 7years of deworming.  

PubMed

After a baseline survey in 2003 which showed an overall parasitological prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths of 69.7% in school children (prevalence of ascariasis 48.5%, prevalence of trichuriasis 57.5% and prevalence of hookworm infection 6.5), a national deworming programme was established. After 7years of implementation, it had resulted in a significant reduction of STH prevalence (prevalence of any STH 21%, prevalence of ascariasis 5.8%, prevalence of trichuriasis 18.6% and prevalence of hookworm infection 0.3%) as well as a reduction of the infections of moderate-heavy intensity from 18.5% at baseline to less than 7%. The results are encouraging and a reduction of the frequency of deworming can be envisaged in two of four ecological areas of Myanmar. PMID:23701018

Tun, Aung; Myat, Su Mon; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Montresor, Antonio

2013-08-01

358

[Konstanty Janicki: scientist, university professor, discoverer].  

PubMed

Janicki born in Moscow (1876) lived in Warsaw up to graduation from high school (1893). Then he emigrated to the Western Europe for the next 25 years. Janicki had studied and curried out scientific researches in the field of helminthology and protozoology at universities and institutes in Germany, Switzerland and Italy. In 1918 Poland reagained independence and Konstanty Janicki returned from abroad to Warsaw. He was nominated as a professor and chairman of the Department of Systematic and Morphological Zoology at the Warsaw University. In helminthology Janicki was a world wide known discoverer of the life cycles Diphyllobothrium latum and Amphilina foliacea. In the protozoology the most important are the studies on the Metamonadina and Paramoeba (Janickina). During period 1919-1932 Janicki was surrounded by numerous students. Some completed Ph.D. under his guidance. He was main founder of the parasitology, protozoology and hydrobiology in the first half of the XX century in Poland. PMID:16913508

Ku?nicki, Leszek

2005-01-01

359

Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.  

PubMed

Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies. PMID:25082165

Campio, Karla Magalhes; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olvia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo Jos

2014-01-01

360

[Indications for PCR in travel medicine].  

PubMed

The use of PCR-based molecular diagnosis in travel medicine remains limited to specific indications such as clinical suspicion of some of the viral hemorrhagic fevers (e.g. Ebola, Marburg), differential diagnosis between Entamoeba histolytica (pathogen) and E. dispar (non pathogen) in the stools, and parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The scope of indications is likely to expand in the coming years with the development of techniques (e.g. multiplex PCR) able to identify several pathogens from a single sample. Simplification and cost-reduction of molecular techniques, which would allow for more equitable access to these diagnostic tools in countries where the targeted diseases are highly prevalent, pose major technological and ethical challenges. PMID:21692311

Chappuis, F

2011-05-11

361

The first report of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Nematoda; Metastrongyloidea) in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum belongs to the superfamily of Metastrongyloidea. This nematode occurs in foxes, dogs and other predators. The Nematode A. vasorum place themselves in the pulmonary artery and its branches, and in the right ventricle and atrium of the heart. Numerous species of land snails are the intermediate hosts of the parasite. In 2013, lungs and hearts of 76 foxes shot in the Forest District G??boki Brd in Augustowska Primeval Forest were parasitologically necropsied. Four of the examined foxes were infected with the nematode A. vasorum, a prevalence of 5.2%. In one fox pericardium there were 6 male and 6 female nematodes. In the remaining three foxes nematodes were localized in the pulmonary artery. In two foxes 2 specimens of nematodes were detected (male and female, and two females) while 1 female was detected in the other fox. This is the first report of the presence of the nematode A. vasorum in fox in Poland. PMID:25236289

Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Kuligowska, Izabela; Lachowicz, Jacek

2014-10-01

362

A decade of epigenetic research in Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

In the past 10 years, the field of parasitology has witnessed an explosion of studies investigating gene regulation. In this review, we will describe recent advances largely stemming from the study of Toxoplasma gondii, a significant opportunistic pathogen and useful model for other apicomplexan protozoa. Surprising findings have emerged, including the discovery of a wealth of epigenetic machinery in these primitive eukaryotes, unusual histone variants, and a battery of plant-like transcription factors. We will elaborate on how these unusual features impact parasite physiology and potential therapeutics as we summarize some of the key discoveries from the last decade. We will close by proposing a few questions to address in the next 10 years. PMID:20470832

Dixon, Stacy E; Stilger, Krista L; Elias, Eliana V; Naguleswaran, Arunasalam; Sullivan, William J

2010-09-01

363

Helminth fauna of the Iberian lynx, Lynx pardinus.  

PubMed

Specimens of 12 helminth species were collected from carcasses of eight Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827), a carnivore endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. These species included: Brachylaima sp. (12.5%) (Trematoda); Taenia pisiformis (12.5%), T. polyacantha (25%), T. taeniaeformis (25%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (37.5%) (Cestoda); Eucoleus aerophilus (12.5%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (12.5%), Toxocara cati (37.5%), Toxascaris leonina (62.5%), Vigisospirura potekhina potekhina (12.5%), Mastophorus muris (12.5%) and Physaloptera praeputialis (12.5%) (Nematoda). The helminth fauna in Iberian lynx is compared with that of L. canadensis and L. rufus in America, and for L. lynx in Eurasia. The potential relationships between the parasitological data and some geographical, historical and dietary factors are discussed. PMID:9765373

Torres, J; Garci-Perea, R; Gisbert, J; Feliu, C

1998-09-01

364

Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial-temporal models?  

PubMed Central

As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

Alegana, Victor A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wright, Jim A.; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

2013-01-01

365

Redescription of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis metacercariae (Digenea: Clinostomidae) in cichlids from Lake Kinneret, Israel  

PubMed Central

Clinostomidae are digeneans characterized by a complex taxonomic history, continuously under revision based on both morphological and molecular analysis. Among the 14 species considered valid so far Clinostomum phalacrocoracis has been well described only at the adult stage, whereas the morphology of the metacercarial stage has been reported only once. During a parasitological survey carried out on 262 wild cichlids sampled from Lake Kinneret (Israel) metacercariae referable to C. phalacrocoracis were found in 18 fingerlings. In this study, we report this clinostomid species for the first time in wild fish from Israel describing the metacercarial stage of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis, coupling its morphological description with molecular analysis carried out on ITS rDNA and COI mtDNA sequences. PMID:24986336

Caffara, Monica; Davidovich, Nadav; Falk, Rama; Smirnov, Margarita; Ofek, Tamir; Cummings, David; Gustinelli, Andrea; Fioravanti, Maria L.

2014-01-01

366

Prevalence of larval helminths in freshwater snails of the Kinmen Islands.  

PubMed

A survey of larval helminths in freshwater snails of Kinmen was conducted from 1986 to 1987. Parasitological examinations of a total of 726 live snails collected from 25 loci revealed that 20 of 80 Bithynia fuchsiana were infected with metacercariae of Echinostoma gotoi and 36 with metacercariae of other echinostomes. Among 57 Radix auricularia swinhoei snails, 27 were infected with echinostomes and eight with metacercariae of other flukes. Of 20 Cipangopaludina chinensis, 18 were found with larvae of echinostomes. Larval trematodes were also found in three of 37 Austropeplea ollula and two of 87 Gyraulus spirillus. Third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus cantonensis were found in Ampullarius canaliculatus (5/103), Sinotaia quadrata (20/141), Hippeutis umbilicalis cantori (1/70) and Gyraulus spirillus (2/87). Segmentina hemisphaerula were not infected. Cercariae of Centrocestus formosanus, Haplorchis pumilio and a xiphidiocercaria were found in three, two and two specimens, respectively, of 37 Thiara tuberculata. PMID:8132969

Chao, D; Wang, L C; Huang, T C

1993-12-01

367

Successfully controlling malaria in South Africa.  

PubMed

Following major successes in malaria control over the past 75 years, South Africa is now embarking on a malaria elimination campaign with the goal of zero local transmission by the year 2018. The key control elements have been intensive vector control, primarily through indoor residual spraying, case management based on parasitological diagnosis using evidence-based drug policies with artemisinin-based combination therapy since 2001, active health promotion in partnership with communities living in the malaria transmission areas, and cross-border collaborations. Political commitment and long-term funding for the malaria control programme have been a critical component of the programme's success. Breaking the cycle of transmission through strengthening of active surveillance using sensitive molecular tests and field treatment of asymptomatic persons, monitoring for antimalarial drug resistance and insecticide resistance, strengthening cross-border initiatives, and ongoing programme advocacy in the face of a significant decrease in disease burden are key priorities for achieving the elimination goal. PMID:24893497

Blumberg, L; Frean, J; Moonasar, D

2014-03-01

368

Detection of Schistosoma mansoni antibodies in a low-endemicity area using indirect immunofluorescence and circumoval precipitin test.  

PubMed

Parasitological diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis lack sensitivity, especially in regions of low endemicity. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections by antibody detection using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA-IgM) and circumoval precipitin test (COPT). Serum samples of 572 individuals were randomly selected. The IFA-IgM and COPT were used to detect anti-S. mansoni antibodies. Of the patients studied, 15.9% (N = 91) were IFA-IgM positive and 5.1% (N = 29) had COPT reactions (P < 0.001 by McNemar's test). Immunodiagnostic techniques showed higher infection prevalence than had been previously estimated. This study suggests that combined use of these diagnostic tools could be useful for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in epidemiological studies in areas of low endemicity. PMID:24639303

Carvalho do Esprito-Santo, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Pedro Luiz; Gargioni, Cybele; Alvarado-Mora, Monica Viviana; Pagliusi Castilho, Vera Lcia; Pinho, Joo Ranato Rebello; de Albuquerque Luna, Expedito Jos; Borges Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar

2014-06-01

369

Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous artesunate: a pooled analysis of individual data from patients with severe malaria.  

PubMed

There are ~660,000 deaths from severe malaria each year. Intravenous artesunate (i.v. ARS) is the first-line treatment in adults and children. To optimize the dosing regimen of i.v. ARS, the largest pooled population pharmacokinetic study to date of the active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) was performed. The pooled dataset consisted of 71 adults and 195 children with severe malaria, with a mixture of sparse and rich sampling within the first 12?h after drug administration. A one-compartment model described the population pharmacokinetics of DHA adequately. Body weight had the greatest impact on DHA pharmacokinetics, resulting in lower DHA exposure for smaller children (6-10?kg) than adults. Post hoc estimates of DHA exposure were not significantly associated with parasitological outcomes. Comparable DHA exposure in smaller children and adults after i.v. ARS was achieved under a dose modification for intramuscular ARS proposed in a separate analysis of children. PMID:25372510

Zaloumis, S G; Tarning, J; Krishna, S; Price, R N; White, N J; Davis, T M E; McCaw, J M; Olliaro, P; Maude, R J; Kremsner, P; Dondorp, A; Gomes, M; Barnes, K; Simpson, J A

2014-01-01

370

The impact of multiple infections on wild animal hosts: a review  

PubMed Central

Field parasitological studies consistently demonstrate the reality of polyparasitism in natural systems. However, only recently, studies from ecological and evolutionary fields have emphasised a broad spectrum of potential multiple infections-related impacts. The main goal of our review is to reunify the different approaches on the impacts of polyparasitism, not only from laboratory or human medical studies but also from field or theoretical studies. We put forward that ecological and epidemiological determinants to explain the level of polyparasitism, which regularly affects not only host body condition, survival or reproduction but also host metabolism, genetics or immune investment. Despite inherent limitations of all these studies, multiple infections should be considered more systematically in wildlife to better appreciate the importance of parasite diversity in wildlife, cumulative effects of parasitism on the ecology and evolution of their hosts. PMID:22957114

Bordes, Frederic; Morand, Serge

2011-01-01

371

PARTICIPATION OF TICKS IN THE INFECTIOUS CYCLE OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS, IN TERESINA, PIAU?, BRAZIL  

PubMed Central

In this study, we detected Leishmania spp. infection in R. sanguineus collected from dogs that were naturally infected with L. (L.) infantum. We examined 35 dogs of both sexes and unknown ages. The infected dogs were serologically positive by the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Quick Test-DPP (Dual Path Platform), as well as parasitological examination of a positive skin biopsy or sternal bone marrow aspiration. Ten negative dogs were included as controls. The ticks that infested these dogs were collected in pools of 10 adult females per animal. The PCR was performed with specific primers for Leishmania spp., which amplified a 720-bp fragment. Of the 35 analyzed samples, a product was observed in eight samples (8/35; 22.9%). We conclude that the presence of parasite DNA suggests that ticks participate in the zoonotic cycle of canine visceral leishmaniasis, in the city of Teresina, Piau. PMID:25076429

Campos, Jose Henrique Furtado; Costa, Francisco Assis Lima

2014-01-01

372

First autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and its main vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus. PMID:24142177

de Campos, Monique Paiva; da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Ftima; Velho, Artur Augusto Mendes; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

2013-01-01

373

Long-term effect of toltrazuril on growth performances of dairy heifers and beef calves exposed to natural Eimeria zuernii and Eimeria bovis infections.  

PubMed

The long-term effects of a toltrazuril treatment against natural Eimeria bovis and/or Eimeria zuernii infections were investigated in comparison with diclazuril and untreated controls on two dairy (Italian Friesian breed) and two beef (Chianina breed) farms. At each trial site, 30 calves were allocated into three groups of 10 calves each: T (treated with toltrazuril), D (treated with diclazuril) and C (left untreated). For 40 weeks post-treatment, the calves were weighed and examined clinically and parasitologically. The oocyst counts as well as the number of scour days were significantly lower in the T group than in the D and C groups. Final bodyweights and body condition scores of the T group exceeded those of groups C and D. The results confirmed that toltrazuril was highly efficacious, safe and provided productive benefits in dairy and beef calves. PMID:21144780

Veronesi, Fabrizia; Diaferia, Manuela; Viola, Orfeo; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili

2011-11-01

374

Cure of short- and long-term experimental Chagas' disease using D0870.  

PubMed

Chagas' disease, a protozoan infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, constitutes a major public health problem in Latin America. With the use of mouse models of both short- and long-term forms of the disease, the efficacy of D0870, a bis-triazole derivative, was tested. D0870 was able to prevent death and induced parasitological cure in 70 to 90 percent of animals, in both the short- and long-term disease. In contrast, currently used drugs such as nifurtimox or ketoconazole prolonged survival but did not induce significant curing effects. D0870 may be useful in the treatment of human long-term Chagas' disease, a condition that is currently incurable. PMID:8688084

Urbina, J A; Payares, G; Molina, J; Sanoja, C; Liendo, A; Lazardi, K; Piras, M M; Piras, R; Perez, N; Wincker, P; Ryley, J F

1996-08-16

375

History of echinostomes (Trematoda).  

PubMed

Echinostomatidae (Trematoda) is the largest family within the class Trematoda. Members of this family have been studied for many years in relation to their utility as basic research models in biodiversity and systematics and also as experimental models in parasitology since they offer many advantages. Echinostomes have contributed significantly to numerous developments in many areas studied by parasitologists and experimental biologists. In this review, we examine the history of the echinostomebased studies from the beginnings to the present. For this purpose, we have divided the history of echinostomes into four periods (i.e. 18(th) and 19(th) centuries, first half of the 20(th) century, second half of the 20(th) century and the late 20(th) and 21(th) century) according to the types of studies performed in each of them. Moreover, we also briefly review the history of echinostome infections in humans. PMID:25236263

Toledo, Rafael; Radev, Valentin; Kanev, Ivan; Gardner, Scott L; Fried, Bernard

2014-10-01

376

Isolation and concentration of microfilariae from peripheral blood of Wuchereria bancrofti infected patients by density gradient centrifugation.  

PubMed

A Ficoll-Hypaque gradient centrifugation technique was used for isolation and concentration of microfilariae from peripheral blood of 30 subjects with clinically and parasitologically diagnosed Wuchereria bancrofti infections. 86% of the microfilariae were found in the Ficoll-Hypaque layer. None were detected in the plasma, leucocyte layer or lower erythrocyte layer. 14% of microfilariae were identified on the top part of the erythrocyte layer. A 35 fold concentration and 88% quantitative recovery of parasites was achieved by conventional centrifugation of microfilariae-rich Ficoll-Hypaque layer. Following the centrifugation procedures, living motile microfilariae were separated. These results indicate that Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation technique could be an effective method for the detection of low levels of microfilaraemia, and for obtaining relatively pure suspensions of living microfilariae for metabolic studies, production of antigen-rich excretory-secretory products and antigen analysis. PMID:8482873

el Bassiouny, A E; el Gammal, N E; Mahmoud, A M

1993-04-01

377

Detection of circulating excretory secretory antigens in human fascioliasis by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed

We developed a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect circulating parasite antigen in humans with fascioliasis. The assay uses antibodies against Fasciola hepatica excretory secretory (ES) antigens. A monoclonal antibody was used to capture circulating ES antigens, and a human polyclonal antibody peroxidase conjugate was used to identify circulating ES antigens. Optimal dilutions of all reagents were determined by block titration. The antigen concentration in sera from patients was estimated by comparing the optical density at 492 nm of test sera with a standard curve. All of the serum samples from 25 patients with parasitological evidence of fascioliasis had a detectable antigen concentration (more than 10 ng/ml). None of the serum samples from 80 patients infected with parasites other than F. hepatica showed a positive reaction, suggesting the absence of cross-reactions in this assay. PMID:2279994

Espino, A M; Marcet, R; Finlay, C M

1990-12-01

378

Illthrift in Suckling Lambs Secondary to Umbilical Infections and Possible Implication of Cryptosporidiosis as a Risk Factor  

PubMed Central

Illthrift was observed in 20/60 lambs aged 4045 days in a dairy sheep flock in Greece. Cryptosporidiosis had been diagnosed and successfully treated with halofuginone lactate a month earlier. Parasitological examinations were negative for endoparasites while hematology and biochemistry were unremarkable. Necropsy of 5 lambs revealed lung and liver abscessation, presumably secondary to umbilical infections due to poor farm hygiene, though umbilical lesions were not observed. No new cases were observed following treatment of the umbilicus of newborn lambs with chlorexidine. Although umbilical infections are common, this is the first reported case of illthrift in lambs attributed to umbilical infection; illthrift may be the only clinical manifestation of such infections. The prior presence of cryptosporidiosis may have contributed to the severity of the infection through the reduction of local immunity. Recognition of this possibly underdiagnosed or underappreciated condition may improve medical, production, and welfare standards in the sheep industry. PMID:21647394

Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Papadopoulos, Elias; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Panousis, Nikolaos; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Koutsoumpas, Asimakis; Karatzias, Harilaos

2011-01-01

379

Human resistance to Schistosoma mansoni is associated with IgG reactivity to a 37-kDa larval surface antigen.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine whether human resistance to Schistosoma mansoni was associated with increased antibody reactivity to certain larval surface Ag. To this end, young residents of a hyperendemic area were selected for their low or high susceptibility to reinfection after parasitologic cure, and the reactivity of their sera to individual larval surface Ag was determined at different times before and after treatment. The data showed that six Ag: 202, 165, 90 to 92, 85, 72, and 37 kDa are the principal targets on the larva of IgG in the sera of resistant subjects. The comparative study, by immunoblotting and ELISA on purified Ag, of the sera from high and low susceptibility subjects indicates that IgG reactivity toward the 37-kDa Ag may be associated with resistance. This work and ongoing vaccination trials carried out in mice suggest that the 37-kDa Ag may have vaccinating potentials. PMID:3128605

Dessein, A J; Begley, M; Demeure, C; Caillol, D; Fueri, J; dos Reis, M G; Andrade, Z A; Prata, A; Bina, J C

1988-04-15

380

Towards a Paradigm Shift in the Treatment of Chronic Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Treatment for Chagas disease with currently available medications is recommended universally only for acute cases (all ages) and for children up to 14 years old. The World Health Organization, however, also recommends specific antiparasite treatment for all chronic-phase Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals, even though in current medical practice this remains controversial, and most physicians only prescribe palliative treatment for adult Chagas patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The present opinion, prepared by members of the NHEPACHA network (Nuevas Herramientas para el Diagnstico y la Evaluacin del Paciente con Enfermedad de Chagas/New Tools for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Chagas Disease Patients), reviews the paradigm shift based on clinical and immunological evidence and argues in favor of antiparasitic treatment for all chronic patients. We review the tools needed to monitor therapeutic efficacy and the potential criteria for evaluation of treatment efficacy beyond parasitological cure. Etiological treatment should now be mandatory for all adult chronic Chagas disease patients. PMID:24247135

Alarcn de Noya, B.; Araujo-Jorge, T.; Grijalva, M. J.; Guhl, F.; Lpez, M. C.; Ramsey, J. M.; Ribeiro, I.; Schijman, A. G.; Sosa-Estani, S.; Torrico, F.; Gascon, J.

2014-01-01

381

Co-infestation of gills by different parasite groups in the mullet, Mugil platanus Gnther, 1880 (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae): effects on relative condition factor.  

PubMed

This study involved 334 specimens of mullet, Mugil platanus, captured monthly in the estuarine region of Canania, So Paulo State, Brazil, from July 1988 to June 1989, and examined for the presence of gill parasites. Parasitological inspections revealed the occurrence of the following groups: Trichodina sp., Monogenoidea, Copepoda, and Hirudinea. Only four mullets were not parasitized. Total weight and total length of all 334 mullet specimens examined were used for adjusting the weight-length relationship curve and calculating the relative condition factor (Kn). The 118 specimens infested with monogenoideans on average had lower weights than expected (Kn < 1.0), and the 81 fish co-infested with Copepoda, Monogenoidea, and Trichodina sp. showed a Kn < 1.0. The other infested and non-infested mullets had a Kn > 1.0. It was possible to infer that gill infestation with monogenoideans alters mullet weight, especially in the presence of co-infestation with Trichodina sp. and copepods. PMID:15620007

Ranzani-Paiva, M J T; Silva-Souza, A T

2004-08-01

382

Trichodina colisae (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae): new parasite records for two freshwater fish species farmed in Brazil.  

PubMed

Family Trichodinidae comprises ciliate protozoa distributed worldwide; they are considered some of the main parasitological agents infecting cultivated fish. However, the trichodinidae parasitizing important fish species cultured in Brazil are unknown, and more taxonomic studies on this group of parasites are required. This research morphologically characterizes Trichodina colisae Asmat & Sultana, (2005) of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) and patinga hybrid (P. mesopotamicus P. brachypomus) cultivated in the central and southeast regions of the country. Fresh assemblies were made from mucus scraped from the skin, fins and gills, fixed with methanol and, subsequently, impregnated with silver nitrate and stained with Giemsa for assessment under light microscopy. This research reports not only the second occurrence of T. colisae in the world, but also its first occurrence in South America. PMID:23207983

Jernimo, Gabriela Tomas; Marchiori, Natlia da Costa; Pdua, Santiago Benites de; Dias Neto, Jos; Pilarski, Fabiana; Ishikawa, Mrcia Mayumi; Martins, Maurcio Latera

2012-01-01

383

Protozoan and myxozoan infections in wild gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) from North Lake of Tunis, Tunisia.  

PubMed

A total of 150 gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L., from North Lake of Tunis, Tunisia, were studied for protozoan and myxozoan parasites. The parasitological survey revealed the presence of ectoparasites (Amyloodinium ocellatum Brown, 1931, Trichodina lepsii Lom, 1962 on the gills) and endoparasites (Ceratomyxa sparusaurati Sitj-Bobadilla, Palenzuela et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1995 infecting the gallbladder, and Eimeria sparis Sitj-Bobadilla, Palenzuela et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1996 parasitizing the intestine). This is the first record of Amyloodinium ocellatum, Trichodina lepsii, Ceratomyxa sparusaurati, and Eimeria sparis in S. aurata from Tunisian waters. Data on prevalence and intensity of infection are provided. A comparison of the present species with previously described species in cultured gilthead seabream from other Mediterranean countries is also presented. In this study Trichodina lepsii is identified for the first time in Sparus aurata. A taxonomic description of this species based on silver nitrate method is provided. PMID:22807047

Bahri, Sihem

2012-06-01

384

[Intestinal strongyloidiasis in a psoriasis patient with diabetes].  

PubMed

This case study underlined the importance of parasitological examination before starting immunosuppressive treatment since a heavy burden of strongyloidiasis could lead to fatal infections. It represents the first strongyloidiasis from a patient with psoriasis and diabetes mellitus in this country. In the case, 59 years old female subject had psoriasis for six years and during the treatment with topical corticosteroid and anti-psorial medication, psoriatic lesions flared up. The patient had constipation and foul smelling stool complaints. Blood tests showed an increase in eosinophil and a decrease of vitamin B12 level. Stool examination indicated the presence of abundant amount of S. stercoralis larvae. The patient was given albendazole for two weeks. After treatment, the symptoms decreased and S. stercoralis larvae were not detected in stool. In this case, it was emphasized that the clinicians planning immunosuppressive regimens should bear in mind that parasitic examination could be present in the subjects. PMID:25016122

Iraz, Meryem; Karaman, Ulk; Topuku, Bu?e; Doymaz, Mehmet Ziya

2014-06-01

385

A case of severe anemia by Necator americanus infection in Korea.  

PubMed

This report describes clinical and parasitological findings of an 82-yr-old female patient who lived in a local rural village and suffered from severe chronic anemia for several years. She was transferred to the National Police Hospital in Seoul for management of severe dyspnea and dizziness. At admission, she showed symptoms or signs of severe anemia. Gastroduodenoscopy observed hyperemic mucosa of the duodenum and discovered numerous moving roundworms on the mucosa. Endoscopy isolated seven of them, which were identified as Necator americanus by characteristic morphology of cutting plates in the buccal cavity. The patient was treated with albendazole and supportive measures for anemia, and her physical condition much improved. This case suggests the possibility that hookworm N. americanus is still transmitted in a remote local mountainous area in Korea. PMID:21165298

Hyun, Hee Jae; Kim, Eun-Min; Park, So Yeon; Jung, Jun-Oh; Chai, Jong-Yil; Hong, Sung-Tae

2010-12-01

386

Interlaboratory Optimization and Evaluation of a Serological Assay for Diagnosis of Human Baylisascariasis  

PubMed Central

A Western blot assay using a recombinant protein, recombinant Baylisascaris procyonis RAG1 protein (rBpRAG1), was developed for the diagnosis of human baylisascariasis concurrently by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, and the National Reference Centre for Parasitology (NRCP) in Montreal, Canada. Assay performance was assessed by testing 275 specimens at the CDC and 405 specimens at the NRCP. Twenty specimens from 16 cases of baylisascariasis were evaluated. Eighteen were positive, with the assay correctly identifying 14 of 16 patients. The rBpRAG1 Western blot assay showed no cross-reactivity with Toxocara-positive serum and had an overall sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 98%. PMID:24049107

Rascoe, Lisa N.; Santamaria, Cynthia; Handali, Sukwan; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Kazacos, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

387

[American integumentary leishmaniasis associated with AIDS in Argentina].  

PubMed

Migration of HIV infected individuals from cities to small towns and rural areas spreads AIDS among non urban population, superimposing HIV with other endemic or epidemic infections as parasitoses. This situation is a big challenge to public health because in most cases the association between these infections worsens both prognoses. We present here the first case in Argentina of AIDS associated to a mucocutaneous form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The patient was from Orn, an area where in the middle eighties, an epidemic outbreak took place. By now more than 2000 cases have been parasitologically confirmed in our Institute and the causing species were identified as Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and L. (L.) amasonensis. Considering the existence of co-infection of HIV and Leishmania, it is recommended that in patients from endemic areas with records of cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers, even healed, leishmaniasis must be investigated, among other diseases. PMID:15034957

Romero, Hctor D; Taranto, Nstor J; Malchiodi, Emilio L

2004-01-01

388

Immune responses in human infections with Brugia malayi: specific cellular unresponsiveness to filarial antigens.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the cellular immune competence of 101 subjects living in an area of South Kalimantan (Borneo) where Malayan filariasis is endemic. All patients with elephantiasis but none with other clinical stages of filariasis reacted with adult worm antigens. The majority of subjects without clinical or parasitological evidence of filariasis and approximately one-half of those with amicrofilaremic filariasis reacted with microfilarial antigens. In contrast, most patients with patent microfilaremia did not respond to microfilarial antigens. The in vitro reactivity of all patient categories to nonparasite antigens was similar to that of the distant control group. These results indicate that patent microfilaremia is associated with a state of specific cellular immune unresponsiveness and are consistent with the current hypothesis that the various clinical manifestations of filariasis result from different types of immune responses to distinct antigens associated with different developmental stages of filarial worms. PMID:7350196

Piessens, W F; McGreevy, P B; Piessens, P W; McGreevy, M; Koiman, I; Saroso, J S; Dennis, D T

1980-01-01

389

DNA barcoding of schistosome cercariae reveals a novel sub-lineage within Schistosoma rodhaini from Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Lake Victoria.  

PubMed

While Schistosoma rodhaini is typically considered a parasite of small mammals and is very scantly distributed in the Lake Victoria basin, it is known to hybridize with the more widespread Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of intestinal schistosomiasis. As part of broader parasitological and malacological surveys for S. mansoni across Lake Victoria, schistosome cercariae were harvested from a field-caught Biomphalaria choanomphala taken on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Uganda. Upon DNA barcoding, these cercariae were found to be a mixture of both S. rodhaini and S. mansoni, with further phylogenetic analysis revealing a hitherto unknown sub-lineage within S. rodhaini. Despite repeated sampling for eggs and miracidia from both chimpanzees and staff on Ngamba Island Sanctuary, detection of S. rodhaini within local definitive hosts awaits additional efforts, which should be mindful of a potential host role of spotted-necked otters. PMID:22448675

Standley, C J; Stothard, J R

2012-10-01

390

New cystidicolid species (Nematoda) from Galaxias platei (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonian freshwater environments.  

PubMed

During a parasitological survey of Galaxias platei Steindachner, 1898, from Patagonian Andean Lakes, a new species of Cystidicolidae was found in the stomach of fish. The new species was described using light and scanning electron microscopy; the species has characteristics of Ascarophis and is distinguishable from other species by a combination of the following features: well-developed pseudolabia with T-shaped inner extensions, bifurcate deirids, small ratio GE:ME, small left spicule, small ratio LS:RS, and larvigerous eggs with thick and fine filaments in both poles. Intraspecific variation in the morphology of larvigerous eggs was studied. This is the first species of Ascarophis described from freshwater fishes. PMID:18576739

Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P

2008-08-01

391

A new genus of dactylogyrid from the gills of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Maulln Basin, Patagonia, Chile.  

PubMed

During a parasitological survey of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) in the Maulln Basin (Chilean Patagonia), specimens of a new species of Monogenea were collected from the gills. This species is described as the only member of a proposed new genus, Inserotrema n. gen. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae), characterized by similar hooks with 2 subunits, overlapping gonads, coiled cirrus with counterclockwise rings, articulated accessory piece formed by 2 parts, a needlelike sclerite threading the distal part of the MCO, and a sclerotized midventral vagina. This new genus is proposed for dactylogyrids from gills of galaxiids (Galaxiidae). Inserotrema puyei n. sp. infects gills of G. maculatus from Llanquihue Lake, Maulln River, and Maulln Estuary. This is the first species of Ancyrocephalinae described from gills of a galaxiid. PMID:17626345

Viozzi, Gustavo P; Marin, Sandra L; Carvajal, Juan; Brugni, Norma; Mancilla, Melinka

2007-06-01

392

Risk Factors for Asthma in a Helminth Endemic Area in Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Protective factors associated with atopy or asthma in rural areas include socioeconomic level, overcrowding, and helminth infection. However, little epidemiological information was originated from schistosomiasis areas. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, socioeconomic, and environmental features. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify individuals with asthma. Parasitological exam was done in all participants and skin prick test to aeroallergens in all asthmatics. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 57.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides, 30.8%. Asthma was found in 13.1% of the population, and 35.1% of them had a positive SPT. Active and passive smoking was positively associated with asthma, whereas A. lumbricoides was negatively associated. In a schistosomiasis hyperendemic region, current infection with A. lumbricoides is protective against asthma. However, we cannot rule out the involvement of S. mansoni infection in this process. PMID:22970348

Cardoso, Luciana S.; Costa, Daniela M.; Almeida, Maria Cecilia F.; Souza, Robson P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Oliveira, Ricardo R.

2012-01-01

393

Parasites or Cohabitants: Cruel Omnipresent Usurpers or Creative "?minences Grises"?  

PubMed Central

This paper presents many types of interplays between parasites and the host, showing the history of parasites, the effects of parasites on the outcome of wars, invasions, migrations, and on the development of numerous regions of the globe, and the impact of parasitic diseases on the society and on the course of human evolution. It also emphasizes the pressing need to change the look at the parasitism phenomenon, proposing that the term cohabitant is more accurate than parasite, because every living being, from bacteria to mammals, is a consortium of living beings in the pangenome. Even the term parasitology should be replaced by cohabitology because there is no parasite alone and host alone: both together compose a new adaptive system: the parasitized-host or the cohabitant-cohabited being. It also suggests switching the old paradigm based on attrition and destruction, to a new one founded on adaptation and living together. PMID:21785696

Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Lenzi, Henrique L.

2011-01-01

394

Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).  

PubMed

Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

2014-03-01

395

Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.  

PubMed

Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387

Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

2006-06-01

396

Histopathology of protozoal infection in animals: a retrospective study at the University of Philippines College of Veterinary Medicine (1972-2010).  

PubMed

The authors describe the first parasitological survey of protozoal infections on tissue slide sections of field cases processed at the histopathology laboratory of the College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at the University of the Philippines Los Baos (UPLB). Over 80% of the field cases were from Region 4 (CALABARZON) and the rest were equally distributed from other areas of the Philippines, namely: Region 2 (Cagayan Valley), Metropolitan Manila (National Capital Region), Region III (Central Luzon) and Region VI (Western Visayas). Histopathological analyses of tissue sections from 51 archived cases (1972-2010) of parasitic aetiology were performed. Microscopic examination of a total of 286 histopathological slides revealed the presence of several protozoa, including sarcosporidiosis, hepatic coccidiosis, intestinal coccidiosis, balantidiosis and leucocyto-zoonosis. In addition, the finding of Balantidium and Sarcocystis may have zoonotic implications and can therefore be used as markers of public health importance. PMID:22485007

Baticados, Abigail M; Baticados, Waren N

2012-01-01

397

[Recent evolution of schistosomiasis in the water project of Sourou in Burkina Faso].  

PubMed

In order to help the hydro-agricultural projects in the management of water resources together with a schistosomiasis control programme, it is important to evaluate the extent of the problem. This is the reason why parasitological and clinical surveys were conducted in schools associated with malacological surveys in transmission sites of several water projects including the one from Sourou. The data-collecting for the research on molluscs was carried out in surface water and as for parasitologic investigations on school-aged children, urine filtration and Kato-Katz were used to evaluate the parasitic load. The levels of prevalence were respectively in Guidougou, Niassan, Di and Toma-le, in 2000, 60.5%, 40%, 48.8% and 51.9% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 5.3%, 0%, 6.9% and 50.6% for the intestinal schistosomiasis and in 2002, 56%, 51.9%, 51.6% and 43.4% for the urinary schistosomiasis, 10.1%, 8.2%, 22.7% and 90.8% for the intestinal schistosomiasis. The molluscs species collected and identified were: Biomphalaria pfeifferi for the intestinal schistosomiasis and Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi and B. senegalensis for the urinary schistosomiasis. B. senegalensis and B. truncatus were found naturally infested by S. haematobium. Water projects constitute amplifying factors of the proliferation of the species and parasitic exchange. All the actors (developers, populations, scientists) are questioning the means at their disposal to reduce the development of schistosomiasis which decrease the expected benefit of hydro-agricultural installations. PMID:15104151

Poda, J N; Wango, S P; Sorgho, H; Dianou, D

2004-02-01

398

Discriminating Malaria from Dengue Fever in Endemic Areas: Clinical and Biological Criteria, Prognostic Score and Utility of the C-Reactive Protein: A Retrospective Matched-Pair Study in French Guiana  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue and malaria are two major public health concerns in tropical settings. Although the pathogeneses of these two arthropod-borne diseases differ, their clinical and biological presentations are unspecific. During dengue epidemics, several hundred patients with fever and diffuse pain are weekly admitted at the emergency room. It is difficult to discriminate them from patients presenting malaria attacks. Furthermore, it may be impossible to provide a parasitological microscopic examination for all patients. This study aimed to establish a diagnostic algorithm for communities where dengue fever and malaria occur at some frequency in adults. Methodology/Principal Findings A sub-study using the control groups of a case-control study in French Guiana originally designed to compare dengue and malaria co-infected cases to single infected cases was performed between 2004 and 2010. In brief, 208 patients with malaria matched to 208 patients with dengue fever were compared in the present study. A predictive score of malaria versus dengue was established using .632 bootstrap procedures. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, age, tachycardia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and CRP>5 mg/l were independently associated with malaria. The predictive score using those variables had an AUC of 0.86 (95%CI: 0.820.89), and the CRP was the preponderant predictive factor. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP>5 mg/L to discriminate malaria from dengue were of 0.995 (95%CI: 0.9911) and 0.35 (95%CI 0.320.39), respectively. Conclusions/Significance The clinical and biological score performed relatively well for discriminating cases of dengue versus malaria. Moreover, using only the CRP level turned to be a useful biomarker to discriminate feverish patients at low risk of malaria in an area where both infections exist. It would avoid more than 33% of unnecessary parasitological examinations with a very low risk of missing a malaria attack. PMID:24069477

Epelboin, Loic; Boulle, Charlotte; Ouar-Epelboin, Sihem; Hanf, Matthieu; Dussart, Philippe; Djossou, Felix; Nacher, Mathieu; Carme, Bernard

2013-01-01

399

Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails  

PubMed Central

Background To complement ongoing schistosomiasis control within national control programmes (NCPs) that administer praziquantel to school-age children, assessing the risk and extent of schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children (PSAC) is important. Methods In June 2012, schistosomiasis in Chikhwawa district, Malawi was assessed across 12 villages examining pre-school-age children (PSAC) and their mothers by serological and parasitological diagnosis, as supplemented with urine-antigen and questionnaire-interview methods. Urinary tract morbidity was inferred by haematuria and albuminuria assays. Results In total, 49.5% (CI95 42.6-56.4) of 208 PSAC and 94.5% (CI95 90.9-98.1) of 165 mothers were seropositive for schistosomiasis, in 2 villages seroprevalence exceeded 75% in PSAC. Egg-patent urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis was observed; 17.7% (CI95 12.4-23.2) of PSAC and 45.1% (CI95 37.4-52.8) of mothers having active schistosomiasis by parasitological and urine-antigen testing combined. PSAC often had extensive daily water contact and many (~25%) had haematuria and albuminuria. As eggs with an atypical morphology of Schistosoma haematobium were observed, a general selection of schistosome eggs was characterized by DNA barcoding, finding Group I S. haematobium and Group IV and V S. mansoni. Malacological surveys encountered several populations of Bulinus globosus but failed to find Biomphalaria. Conclusions Both PSAC and their mothers appear to be at significant risk of schistosomiasis and should be considered for treatment within the NCP of Malawi. PMID:24690282

2014-01-01

400

Efficacy and safety of the combination imidacloprid 10 % / moxidectin 1.0 % spot-on (Advocate() spot-on for small cats and ferrets) in the treatment of ear mite infection (Otodectes cynotis) in ferrets.  

PubMed

In this study, the efficacy and safety of a treatment with the combination imidacloprid 10 %/ moxidectin 1.0 % spot-on (Advocate() spot-on for small cats and ferrets) was tested in 39 ferrets naturally infested with ear mites (Otodectes cynotis). The study was performed as a multicentre, non-randomised, non-controlled (all study animals were treated) and non-blinded clinical field study in two French veterinary practices. Four visits (day (D) 0 = inclusion and first treatment, D14 = second treatment, D28 = possible third treatment, D56 = termination) were planned. The dosage was one pipet per ferret (designed for cats weighing up to 4 kg, corresponding to a dose of moxidectin ranging from 2.2 to 5 mg/kg body weight) two or three times at 14-days intervals (at D0, D14 and possibly D28 depending on the parasitological examination of the ears at D28). The main efficacy criterion was the absence of the parasite (all stages incl. eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults) from ear scrapings by microscopic examination. At D28 after two treatments (D0 and D14), 76.9 % (30/39) of animals were cured. Only 23 % (9/39) needed a third treatment. At day 56, 100 % were cured. Local symptoms (inflammation and pruritus) were consistently improved (50.6 % improvement at D14, 81.0 % at D28 and 97.9 % at D56) as well as the abnormal cerumen production (14.7 % improvement at D14, 77.7 % at D28 and 100.0 % at D56). No general symptoms were noticed during the study (general health and skin aspect). Advocate() spot-on for small cats and ferrets is an effective and safe treatment for ear mite infection in ferrets. Two or three treatments administered in 14-days intervals to ferrets infested with ear mites provided 100 % parasitological cure on D56. PMID:21739384

Le Sueur, Christophe; Bour, Sophie; Schaper, Roland

2011-08-01

401

Chronic Malaria Revealed by a New Fluorescence Pattern on the Antinuclear Autoantibodies Test  

PubMed Central

Background Several clinical forms of malaria such as chronic carriage, gestational malaria or hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly may follow a cryptic evolution with afebrile chronic fatigue sometimes accompanied by anemia and/or splenomegaly. Conventional parasitological tests are often negative or not performed, and severe complications may occur. Extensive explorations of these conditions often include the search for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). Methods We analysed fluorescence patterns in the ANA test in patients with either chronic cryptic or acute symptomatic malaria, then conducted a one-year prospective study at a single hospital on all available sera drawn for ANA detections. We then identified autoantibodies differentially expressed in malaria patients and in controls using human protein microarray. Results We uncovered and defined a new, malaria-related, nucleo-cytoplasmic ANA pattern displaying the specific association of a nuclear speckled pattern with diffuse cytoplasmic perinuclearly-enhanced fluorescence. In the one-year prospective analysis, 79% of sera displaying this new nucleo-cytoplasmic fluorescence were from patients with malaria. This specific pattern, not seen in other parasitic diseases, allowed a timely reorientation of the diagnosis toward malaria. To assess if the autoantibody immune response was due to autoreactivity or molecular mimicry we isolated 42 autoantigens, targets of malarial autoantibodies. BLAST analysis indicated that 23 of recognized autoantigens were homologous to plasmodial proteins suggesting autoimmune responses directly driven by the plasmodial infection. Conclusion In patients with malaria in whom parasitological tests have not been performed recognition of this new, malaria-related fluorescence pattern on the ANA test is highly suggestive of the diagnosis and triggers immediate, easy confirmation and adapted therapy. PMID:24551116

Hommel, Benjamin; Charuel, Jean-Luc; Jaureguiberry, Stephane; Arnaud, Laurent; Courtin, Regis; Kassab, Petra; Prendki, Virginie; Paris, Luc; Ghillani-Dalbin, Pascale; Thellier, Marc; Caumes, Eric; Amoura, Zahir; Mazier, Dominique; Musset, Lucile; Buffet, Pierre; Miyara, Makoto

2014-01-01

402

Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica exhibit similar symptomatic and epidemiological patterns in healthcare-seeking patients in Karachi.  

PubMed

In this study, we collected data on the incidence of enteric parasites in healthcare-seeking individuals along with their symptoms to quantify the potential roles of factors such as age, sex, and seasonality in infection. We performed analysis to identify factors which could help differentiate parasitic infection from other causes of gastrointestinal illness in a community. The size of the patient population (n = 339), patient selection methodology, collection methods, and statistical analysis followed approaches from similar studies in core clinical journals. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Karachi's Ethical Review Board. Fecal specimens (n = 339) submitted by symptomatic patients were collected from two clinical laboratories, along with information about the patients' age, sex, and symptoms. We found that symptoms of fever, vomiting, and constipation were 100 % predictive of finding a parasitic infection, while diarrhea was 88 % predictive of a parasitic infection. Gastrointestinal parasite-positive patients reported diarrhea (~60 %), vomiting (~30 %), fever (~25 %) and constipation (~25 %), while parasite-negative patients exhibited a symptomatic profile without fever, vomiting, and constipation. The distribution of symptoms in parasite-positive patients remained relatively invariant regardless of the parasite identified. Blastocystis spp.-mono-infected patients reported a similar profile to patients positive for Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Cryptosporidium spp. Most parasitic infections exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with a peak incidence in summer months. Infection by Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent, and it was the only infection mathematically correlated to rainfall by Pearson's method. We observed no increase in healthcare-seeking behavior following a stressful community event, namely, the attempted assassination of Benazir Bhutto in Karachi. The data suggest that parasitological testing would produce a high yield of positive results when performed on healthcare-seeking patients in Karachi in 2007 with symptoms of fever, vomiting, or constipation and a low yield when performed on patients noting only abdominal pain. Parasitological testing also produces a higher yield on patients seen in summer months. PMID:22763702

Haider, Syeda Sadaf; Baqai, Rakhshanda; Qureshi, Fouad M; Boorom, Kenneth

2012-09-01

403

Evaluation of rK28 antigen for Serodiagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis in India  

PubMed Central

Antibody detection is a safely applied method at wide scale in diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Towards further advancement of serodiagnosis, rK28 antigen has been recently introduced as a candidate for diagnosis of VL. We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of rK28 antigen in a micro-ELISA format in comparison to rk39 antigen. The test was conducted on 252 parasitologically confirmed VL cases, 103 endemic healthy controls, 95 non endemic healthy controls, 88 other infectious disease and 53 follow-up cases. Of 252 parasitologically confirm VL cases, 251 cases were reported positive by rK28 antigen yielding 99.6% sensitivity (95% CI, 0.970.99) which was similar to sensitivity of rK39 ELISA (99.6%) (95% CI, 0.970.99). Specificity of rK28 antigen in non-endemic and endemic healthy controls was 100% (95%CI 0.961) and 94.17% (95% CI, 0.880.97), respectively. In 88 different diseases, specificity was 95.45% (95% CI, 0.840.96). With rK39 antigen, specificity of non-endemic and endemic controls, and different diseases was 100% (95%CI 0.961) and 92.23% (95% CI 0.850.96), and 96.59% (95% CI 0.900.98) respectively. Our results show that rK39 and rK28 antigens have similar sensitivity and specificity and rK28 can also be used as a serodiagnostic tool in endemic population of Bihar. PMID:21722262

Vaish, Manisha; Bhatia, Ajay; Reed, Steven G.; Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

2011-01-01

404

Sensitivity of double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation for detecting intestinal helminths in coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Fecal analysis is commonly used to estimate prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores, but few studies have assessed the reliability of fecal flotation compared to analysis of intestinal tracts. We investigated sensitivity of the double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation and kappa agreement between fecal flotation and postmortem examination of intestines for helminths of coyotes (Canis latrans). We analyzed 57 coyote carcasses that were collected between October 2010 and March 2011 in the metropolitan area of Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Before analyses, intestines and feces were frozen at -80 C for 72 hr to inactivate Echinococcus eggs, protecting operators from potential exposure. Five species of helminths were found by postmortem examination, including Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Sensitivity of fecal flotation was high (0.84) for detection of T. leonina but low for Taenia sp. (0.27), E. multilocularis (0.46), and U. stenocephala (0.00). Good kappa agreement between techniques was observed only for T. leonina (0.64), for which we detected also a significant correlation between adult female parasite intensity and fecal egg counts (R(s)=0.53, P=0.01). Differences in sensitivity may be related to parasite characteristics that affect recovery of eggs on flotation. Fecal parasitologic analyses are highly applicable to study the disease ecology of urban carnivores, and they often provide important information on environmental contamination and potential of zoonotic risks. However, fecal-based parasitologic surveys should first assess the sensitivity of the techniques to understand their biases and limitations. PMID:22740537

Liccioli, Stefano; Catalano, Stefano; Kutz, Susan J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Padraig J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

2012-07-01

405

Simplified protocol for DNA extraction and amplification of 2 molecular markers to detect and type Giardia duodenalis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the ability of 3 kits: QIAmp DNA stool mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), PureLink PCR Purification, and PureLink Genomic DNA (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for DNA extraction, and of 2 molecular markers (heat shock protein [HSP] and ?-giardin genes) for detection and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis stool samples. The detection and typing limits of the markers were determined by the DNA concentration of trophozoites and cysts and were tested in 26 clinical samples. Of the 3 kits tested, the PureLink PCR Purification gave the best results when tested with clinical samples with low, intermediate, and high numbers of cysts. The DNA extracted from trophozoites and cysts was diluted successively in 1:2 ratios until it was no longer possible to observe the amplified product in polyacrylamide gel. Similarly, a suspension of cysts was diluted until no cysts were observed, and then the DNA was extracted. The amount of DNA of trophozoites and cysts for the typing of the parasite was smaller for the HSP marker than for ?-giardin. Combined use of both markers allowed us to detect DNA of Giardia in parasitologically positive samples in a higher percentage (75%) than the results obtained for each marker and in 1 parasitologically negative sample, indicating that this combination increased the potential to accurately detect and genotype this parasite. We also concluded that the HSP marker has a higher limit of detection and typing than the ?-giardin marker and that the DNA extraction method tested for G. duodenalis is simpler and more efficient than those that are currently in use and can be applied on a large scale. PMID:24207076

Uda-Shimoda, Carla Fernanda; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Pavanelli, Mariana Felgueira; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lcia; Gomes, Mnica Lcia

2014-01-01

406

Efficacy of direct detection of pathogens in naturally infected mice by using a high-density PCR array.  

PubMed

We used a high-density array of real-time PCR assays for commonly reported rodent infectious agents (PRIA) to test naturally infected index mice and sentinel mice exposed by contact and soiled-bedding transfer. PRIA detected 14 pathogens--including viruses, bacteria, fur mites, pinworms, and enteric protozoa--in 97.2% of 28 pooled fecal samples, fur-perianal swabs, and oral swabs from 4 cages containing a total of 10 index mice. Among these pathogens, PRIA (like conventional health monitoring methods) failed to detect Mycoplasma pulmonis, Pasteurella pneumotropica, and Giardia spp. in all of the 9 contact and 9 soiled-bedding sentinels. PRIA demonstrated murine adenovirus and Cryptosporidium and Spironucleus spp. in contact but not soiled-bedding sentinels and detected Helicobacter and pinworms in fewer than half of the soiled-bedding sentinels. Of the 4 species of Helicobacter that species-specific PCR assays identified in index mice, only H. ganmani was found in soiled-bedding and contact sentinels. PRIA detected all of the pathogens in sentinels that were identified by conventional methods. Myobia musculi was detected by PCR in index and sentinel mice but missed by conventional parasitologic examinations. In summary, PRIA reproducibly detected diverse pathogens in heavily pooled specimens collected noninvasively from infected index mice antemortem. The inability of PRIA and conventional health monitoring methods (that is, parasitology, micro-biology, and serology) to demonstrate transmission of some pathogens to contact sentinels and the inefficient transmission of others to soiled-bedding sentinels underscores the importance of direct PCR testing to determine the pathogen status of rodents in quarantine and during routine colony surveillance. PMID:24351765

Henderson, Kenneth S; Perkins, Cheryl L; Havens, Richard B; Kelly, Mee-Jin E; Francis, Brian C; Dole, Vandana S; Shek, William R

2013-11-01

407

The Laboratory Diagnosis and Follow Up of Strongyloidiasis: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Strongyloidiasis is frequently under diagnosed since many infections remain asymptomatic and conventional diagnostic tests based on parasitological examination are not sufficiently sensitive. Serology is useful but is still only available in reference laboratories. The need for improved diagnostic tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity is clear, particularly in immunocompromised patients or candidates to immunosuppressive treatments. This review aims to evaluate both conventional and novel techniques for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis as well as available cure markers for this parasitic infection. Methodology/Principal Findings The search strategy was based on the data-base sources MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Register for systematic review, EmBase, Global Health and LILACS and was limited in the search string to articles published from 1960 to August 2012 and to English, Spanish, French, Portuguese and German languages. Case reports, case series and animal studies were excluded. 2003 potentially relevant citations were selected for retrieval, of which 1649 were selected for review of the abstract. 143 were eligible for final inclusion. Conclusions Sensitivity of microscopic-based techniques is not good enough, particularly in chronic infections. Furthermore, techniques such as Baermann or agar plate culture are cumbersome and time-consuming and several specimens should be collected on different days to improve the detection rate. Serology is a useful tool but it might overestimate the prevalence of disease due to cross-reactivity with other nematode infections and its difficulty distinguishing recent from past (and cured) infections. To evaluate treatment efficacy is still a major concern because direct parasitological methods might overestimate it and the serology has not yet been well evaluated; even if there is a decline in antibody titres after treatment, it is slow and it needs to be done at 6 to 12 months after treatment which can cause a substantial loss to follow-up in a clinical trial. PMID:23350004

Requena-Mendez, Ana; Chiodini, Peter; Bisoffi, Zeno; Buonfrate, Dora; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Munoz, Jose

2013-01-01

408

[Helminthofauna of the goosander Mergus merganser L., 1758 from the north-western Poland].  

PubMed

The goosander, Mergus merganser, is a rare in Poland water bird (Anseriformes: Mergini). It eats fish and small invertebrates. The purpose of this study was a preliminary parasitological examination of the digestive tract of the goosander wintering on the Szczecin Lagoon. The research material were the parasites recovered from digestive tracts of 6 birds (two males and four females), which died during feeding in fishing nets in winter 2001. The birds were subject to standard parasitological examinations using commonly adopted methods. The trematodes and the cestodes found were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and subsequently stained using iron carmine (Cestoda) and borax alcohol carmine (Digenea) and then they were closed in Canada balsam. Nematodes were kept in 70% alcohol and cleared with 80% lactic acid or lactophenol. The parasite assemblages were analysed through calculating prevalence, intensity of infection, relative density and domination index. Also, the topic structure of the parasite assemblages or their habitat preferences in a host animal digestive tract were determined. The presently reported study detected a total of 1596 parasitic worms: digeneans (1086), tapeworms (410) and nematodes (100). Acanthocephalans were not found. Even though only a few goosanders were examined, the results show a high species richness of parasite assemblages consisting of 22 species, representing 21 genera. The following were deemed as definite dominants (superdominants): Diplostomum mergi Dubois, 1932; D. pusillum (Dubois, 1928); Microsomacanthus abortiva (von Linstow, 1904) and Schistocephalus solidus (Mller, 1776). Helminths were found in all birds with their great relative density and intensity of occurrence (266 parasites on average). As expected, the parasite assemblages were characterized by considerable topical specificity, probably resulting from the feeding preferences of the worms. The majority of helminths, including predominant part of flatworms, were found in duodenum and jejunum of ducks. Nematodes, on the other hand, colonized mainly the gizzard and proventriculus. PMID:19338224

Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Krlaczyk, Katarzyna; Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Korol, Eleonora N

2008-01-01

409

Mapping Helminth Co-Infection and Co-Intensity: Geostatistical Prediction in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections is marked in those with intense co-infections by these parasites. The development of a spatial predictive decision-support tool is crucial for targeting the delivery of integrated mass drug administration (MDA) to those most in need. We investigated the co-distribution of S. haematobium and hookworm infection, plus the spatial overlap of infection intensity of both parasites, in Ghana. The aim was to produce maps to assist the planning and evaluation of national parasitic disease control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings A national cross-sectional school-based parasitological survey was conducted in Ghana in 2008, using standardized sampling and parasitological methods. Bayesian geostatistical models were built, including a multinomial regression model for S. haematobium and hookworm mono- and co-infections and zero-inflated Poisson regression models for S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity as measured by egg counts in urine and stool respectively. The resulting infection intensity maps were overlaid to determine the extent of geographical overlap of S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity. In Ghana, prevalence of S. haematobium mono-infection was 14.4%, hookworm mono-infection was 3.2%, and S. haematobium and hookworm co-infection was 0.7%. Distance to water bodies was negatively associated with S. haematobium and hookworm co-infections, hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. Land surface temperature was positively associated with hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. While high-risk (prevalence >1020%) of co-infection was predicted in an area around Lake Volta, co-intensity was predicted to be highest in foci within that area. Conclusions/Significance Our approach, based on the combination of co-infection and co-intensity maps allows the identification of communities at increased risk of severe morbidity and environmental contamination and provides a platform to evaluate progress of control efforts. PMID:21666800

Soares Magalhes, Ricardo J.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Gyapong, John O.; Brooker, Simon; Zhang, Yaobi; Blair, Lynsey; Fenwick, Alan; Clements, Archie C. A.

2011-01-01

410

Spatially Explicit Burden Estimates of Malaria in Tanzania: Bayesian Geostatistical Modeling of the Malaria Indicator Survey Data  

PubMed Central

A national HIV/AIDS and malaria parasitological survey was carried out in Tanzania in 20072008. In this study the parasitological data were analyzed: i) to identify climatic/environmental, socio-economic and interventions factors associated with child malaria risk and ii) to produce a contemporary, high spatial resolution parasitaemia risk map of the country. Bayesian geostatistical models were fitted to assess the association between parasitaemia risk and its determinants. Bayesian kriging was employed to predict malaria risk at unsampled locations across Tanzania and to obtain the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation methods were employed for model fit and prediction. Parasitaemia risk estimates were linked to population data and the number of infected children at province level was calculated. Model validation indicated a high predictive ability of the geostatistical model, with 60.00% of the test locations within the 95% credible interval. The results indicate that older children are significantly more likely to test positive for malaria compared with younger children and living in urban areas and better-off households reduces the risk of infection. However, none of the environmental and climatic proxies or the intervention measures were significantly associated with the risk of parasitaemia. Low levels of malaria prevalence were estimated for Zanzibar island. The population-adjusted prevalence ranges from in Kaskazini province (Zanzibar island) to in Mtwara region. The pattern of predicted malaria risk is similar with the previous maps based on historical data, although the estimates are lower. The predicted maps could be used by decision-makers to allocate resources and target interventions in the regions with highest burden of malaria in order to reduce the disease transmission in the country. PMID:22649486

Gosoniu, Laura; Msengwa, Amina; Lengeler, Christian; Vounatsou, Penelope

2012-01-01

411

Immunodetection of Fasciola gigantica circulating antigen in sera of infected individuals for laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis.  

PubMed

Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis is based on the parasitological examination of parasite eggs in stool specimens and serological detection of specific antibodies in serum samples, which are often unreliable diagnostic approaches. Ideally, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for Fasciola infection should be based on the detection of circulating Fasciola antigen, which implies active infection. Here, a 27-kDa-molecular-mass antigen was identified in a Fasciola gigantica adult worm antigen preparation, excretory-secretory products, and sera from F. gigantica-infected individuals, and it was not detected in antigenic extracts of other parasites and sera from noninfected individuals. The target antigen was isolated and partially characterized as a protein. Immunoperoxidase staining located the target epitope within teguments and guts of F. gigantica adult worms. The performance characteristics of a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on F. gigantica circulating antigen detection in serum (FgCA-27 ELISA) were investigated using sera of 120 parasitologically diagnosed F. gigantica-infected individuals and 80 noninfected individuals. The area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for ELISA was significantly high (AUC = 0.961, P < 0.0001) for discriminating Fasciola-infected and noninfected individuals. The developed assay showed high degrees of sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency (>93%), and a significant correlation (r = 0.715, P < 0.0001) between antigen level and parasite egg count was shown. In conclusion, a 27-kDa Fasciola antigen was identified in sera of F. gigantica-infected individuals. A highly sensitive and specific Fasciola antigen detection assay, FgCA-27 ELISA, was developed for laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis. PMID:23945158

Attallah, Abdelfattah M; Bughdadi, Faisal A; El-Shazly, Atef M; Ismail, Hisham

2013-10-01

412

Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.  

PubMed

Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nlleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection. PMID:23719370

Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

2014-12-01

413

A randomized, open-label, comparative efficacy trial of artemether-lumefantrine suspension versus artemether-lumefantrine tablets for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Artemether/lumefantrine (AL) has been adopted as the treatment of choice for uncomplicated malaria in Kenya and other countries in the region. Six-dose artemether/lumefantrine tablets are highly effective and safe for the treatment of infants and children weighing between five and 25 kg with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, oral paediatric formulations are urgently needed, as the tablets are difficult to administer to young children, who cannot swallow whole tablets or tolerate the bitter taste of the crushed tablets. Methods A randomized, controlled, open-label trial was conducted comparing day 28 PCR corrected cure-rates in 245 children aged 659 months, treated over three days with either six-dose of artemether/lumefantrine tablets (Coartem) or three-dose of artemether/lumefantrine suspension (Co-artesiane) for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in western Kenya. The children were followed-up with clinical, parasitological and haematological evaluations over 28 days. Results Ninety three percent (124/133) and 90% (121/134) children in the AL tablets and AL suspension arms respectively completed followed up. A per protocol analysis revealed a PCR-corrected parasitological cure rate of 96.0% at Day 28 in the AL tablets group and 93.4% in the AL suspension group, p = 0.40. Both drugs effectively cleared gametocytes and were well tolerated, with no difference in the overall incidence of adverse events. Conclusion The once daily three-dose of artemether-lumefantrine suspension (Co-artesiane) was not superior to six-dose artemether-lumefantrine tablets (Coartem) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children below five years of age in western Kenya. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00529867 PMID:19102746

Juma, Elizabeth A; Obonyo, Charles O; Akhwale, Willis S; Ogutu, Bernhards R

2008-01-01

414

Head-to-Head Comparison of Three Vaccination Strategies Based on DNA and Raw Insect-Derived Recombinant Proteins against Leishmania  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases plague billions of people among the poorest, killing millions annually, and causing additional millions of disability-adjusted life years lost. Leishmaniases affect more than 12 million people, with over 350 million people at risk. There is an urgent need for efficacious and cheap vaccines and treatments against visceral leishmaniasis (VL), its most severe form. Several vaccination strategies have been proposed but to date no head-to-head comparison was undertaken to assess which is the best in a clinical model of the disease. We simultaneously assayed three vaccination strategies against VL in the hamster model, using KMPII, TRYP, LACK, and PAPLE22 vaccine candidate antigens. Four groups of hamsters were immunized using the following approaches: 1) raw extracts of baculovirus-infected Trichoplusia ni larvae expressing individually one of the four recombinant proteins (PROT); 2) naked pVAX1 plasmids carrying the four genes individually (DNA); 3) a heterologous prime-boost (HPB) strategy involving DNA followed by PROT (DNA-PROT); and 4) a Control including empty pVAX1 plasmid followed by raw extract of wild-type baculovirus-infected T. ni larvae. Hamsters were challenged with L. infantum promastigotes and maintained for 20 weeks. While PROT vaccine was not protective, DNA vaccination achieved protection in spleen. Only DNA-PROT vaccination induced significant NO production by macrophages, accompanied by a significant parasitological protection in spleen and blood. Thus, the DNA-PROT strategy elicits strong immune responses and high parasitological protection in the clinical model of VL, better than its corresponding naked DNA or protein versions. Furthermore, we show that naked DNA coupled with raw recombinant proteins produced in insect larvae biofactories the cheapest way of producing DNA-PROT vaccines is a practical and cost-effective way for potential off the shelf supplying vaccines at very low prices for the protection against leishmaniases, and possibly against other parasitic diseases affecting the poorest of the poor. PMID:23236448

Nunez, Maria del Carmen; Laurenti, Marcia D.; Gomez-Sebastian, Silvia; Rodriguez, Fernando; Perez-Martin, Eva; Escribano, Jose M.

2012-01-01

415

Sensitivity and Specificity of In Situ Hybridization for Diagnosis of Cutaneous Infection by Leishmania infantum in Dogs  

PubMed Central

An accurate diagnosis of infection by Leishmania infantum in dogs is fundamental for the control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Histopathology (HP) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are frequently used for the histological diagnosis of L. infantum in dogs but have shown limited accuracy. To improve the sensitivity and specificity of the histological diagnosis of VL, we evaluated automated in situ hybridization (ISH) using a generic probe for Leishmania and a specific probe for L. infantum in surgical skin biopsy specimens of dogs. The ISH results were compared with those of HP and IHC, using parasitological culture as the reference standard. Skin samples from 51 dogs with cutaneous L. infantum infection and 51 noninfected dogs were randomly selected from samples of dogs from various cities in Brazil where canine VL is endemic. These samples were processed for parasitological culture, HP, IHC, and ISH using both probes. The sensitivities of ISH using the specific probe, ISH using the generic probe, IHC, and HP were, respectively, 74.5%, 70.6%, 69.5%, and 57.6%. The specificity of both ISH probes tested was 100%, and there was no cross-hybridization of the generic and specific probes with selected pathogenic fungi and protozoa. The specific probe discriminated L. infantum from the other species of Leishmania that infect dogs in the New World. ISH is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of L. infantum in histologic samples of skin from infected dogs and can be used on routine biopsy material to make a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. PMID:23135932

Figueiredo, Fabiano B.; Wise, Annabel G.; Madeira, Maria F.; Oliveira, Raquel V. C.; Schubach, Tania M. P.; Kiupel, Matti; Langohr, Ingeborg M.

2013-01-01

416

A Comparison of Multiple Methods for Estimating Parasitemia of Hemogregarine Hemoparasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) and Its Application for Studying Infection in Natural Populations  

PubMed Central

Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon) and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella), based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina) and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina). From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite distributions in sympatric natural populations. PMID:24743340

Maia, Joao P.; Harris, D. James; Carranza, Salvador; Gomez-Diaz, Elena

2014-01-01

417

How to Improve the Early Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: Relationship between Validated Conventional Diagnosis and Quantitative DNA Amplification in Congenitally Infected Children  

PubMed Central

Background According to the Chagas congenital transmission guides, the diagnosis of infants, born to Trypanosoma cruzi infected mothers, relies on the detection of parasites by INP micromethod, and/or the persistence of T. cruzi specific antibody titers at 1012 months of age. Methodology and Principal Findings Parasitemia levels were quantified by PCR in T. cruzi-infected children, grouped according to the results of one-year follow-up diagnosis: A) Neonates that were diagnosed in the first month after delivery by microscopic blood examination (INP micromethod) (n?=?19) had a median parasitemia of 1,700 Pe/mL (equivalent amounts of parasite DNA per mL); B) Infants that required a second parasitological diagnosis at six months of age (n?=?10) showed a median parasitemia of around 20 Pe/mL and 500 Pe/mL at 1 and 6 months old, respectively, and C) babies with undetectable parasitemia by three blood microscopic observations but diagnosed by specific anti - T. cruzi serology at around 1 year old, (n?=?22), exhibited a parasitemia of around 5 Pe/mL, 800 Pe/mL and 20 Pe/mL 1, 6 and 12 month after delivery, respectively. T. cruzi parasites were isolated by hemoculture from 19 congenitally infected children, 18 of which were genotypified as DTU TcV, (former lineage TcIId) and only one as TcI. Significance This report is the first to quantify parasitemia levels in more than 50 children congenitally infected with T. cruzi, at three different diagnostic controls during one-year follow-up after delivery. Our results show that the parasite burden in some children (22 out of 51) is below the detection limit of the INP micromethod. As the current trypanocidal treatment proved to be very effective to cure T. cruzi - infected children, more sensitive parasitological methods should be developed to assure an early T. cruzi congenital diagnosis. PMID:24147166

Bua, Jacqueline; Volta, Bibiana J.; Perrone, Alina E.; Scollo, Karenina; Velzquez, Elsa B.; Ruiz, Andres M.; De Rissio, Ana M.

2013-01-01

418

[Evaluation of the diagnostic value of the ELISA tests developed by using EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis].  

PubMed

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by larva stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the lethal parasitic diseases of man and a major public health problem in many countries in the northern hemisphere. When the living conditions and habits in Turkey were considered in terms of relation with the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that AE has been much more common than reported mainly from the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Since in vitro serologic diagnosis tests with high specificity for AE have not been used in our country, most of the cases with liver lesions were misdiagnosed by radiological investigations as malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the in-house ELISA methods developed by using three different antigens (EgHF, Em2, EmII/3-10) in the serological diagnosis of AE. The study samples included a total of 100 sera provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute where samples were obtained from patients with helminthiasis and all were confirmed by clinical, parasitological and/or histopathological means. Ten samples from each of the cases infected by E.multilocularis, E.granulosus, Taenia solium, Wuchereria bancrofti, Strongyloides stercolaris, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma haematobium were studied. In the study, EgHF (E.granulosus hydatid fluid) antigens were prepared in our laboratory from the liver cyst fluids of sheeps with cystic echinococcosis, however Em2 (E.multilocularis metacestode-purified laminated layer) and EmII/3-10 (E.multilocularis recombinant protoscolex tegument) antigens were provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute. Flat bottom ELISA plates were covered with EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the concentrations of 2.5 g, 1 g and 0.18 g per well, respectively, and all sera were tested by EgHF-ELISA, Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA methods. For each tests, the samples which were reactive above the cut-off value (mean OD of negative controls+2 SD) were accepted as positive. The sensitivity of the ELISA tests performed with EgHF, Em2 and Em2II/3-10 antigens were estimated as 100%, 90% and 90%, respectively, whereas the specificity were 63%, 91% and 91%, respectively. When Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA tests were evaluated together, the specificity increased to 96%. Our data indicated that the highest sensitivity (100% with EgHF-ELISA) and specificity (96% with Em2-ELISA + EmII/3-10-ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of AE can be achieved by the combined use of the ELISA tests with three different antigens. It was concluded that the early and accurate diagnosis of AE in our country which is endemic for that disease, could be supported by the use of highly specific serological tests such as Em2-ELISA ve EmII/3-10-ELISA contributing radiological data. PMID:25052112

Pekta?, Bayram; Altinta?, Nazmiye; Akpolat, Nezahat; Gottstein, Bruno

2014-07-01

419

Efficacy of praziquantel and reinfection patterns in single and mixed infection foci for intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis in Cameroon.  

PubMed

The regular administration of the anthelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to school-aged children (and other high-risk groups) is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control. Whilst the performance of PZQ against single schistosome species infections is well-known, performance against mixed species infections is less so, as are patterns of re-infection following treatment. To address this, a study using a double treatment with PZQ, administered at 40 mg/kg spaced by 3 weeks, took place in two mixed intestinal-urogenital schistosomiasis foci in northern Cameroon (Bessoum and Ouro-Doukoudje) and in one single intestinal schistosomiasis infection focus (Makenene). A total of just under 1000 children were examined and the Schistosoma-infected children were re-examined at several parasitological follow-ups over a 1-year period posttreatment. Overall cure rates against Schistosoma spp. in the three settings were good, 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI)=77.9-87.7%) in Bessoum, 89.0% (95% CI=79.1-94.6%) in Ouro Doukoudje, and 95.3% (95% CI=89.5-98.0%) in Makenene. Interestingly, no case of mixed schistosome infection was found after treatment. Cure rates for S. mansoni varied from 99.5% to 100%, while that for S. haematobium were considerably lower, varying from 82.7% to 88.0%. Across transmission settings, patterns of re-infection for each schistosome species were different such that generalizations across foci were difficult. For example, at the 6-month follow-up, re-infection rates were higher for S. haematobium than for S. mansoni with re-infection rates for S. haematobium varying from 9.5% to 66.7%, while for S. mansoni, lower rates were observed, ranging between nil and 24.5%. At the 12-month follow-up, re-infection rates varied from 9.1% to 66.7% for S. haematobium and from nil to 27.6% for S. mansoni. Alongside these parasitological studies, concurrent malacological surveys took place to monitor the presence of intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis. In the two northern settings, three species of Bulinus (intermediate host snail of S. haematobium) were collected; i.e. Bulinus truncatus, B. globosus and B. senegalensis, however, Biomphalaria pfeifferi (intermediate host snail of S. mansoni) was much rarer despite repeated and intensive searching and was suggestive of limited local transmission potential of S. mansoni during this time. While this study highlights that performance of PZQ was satisfactory in this region, with somewhat greater impact upon intestinal than urogenital schistosomiasis, the dynamics of local transmission are shown, however, to be complex. PMID:23791803

Tchuem Tchuent, Louis-Albert; Momo, Sabine C; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David

2013-11-01

420

[Schistosomiasis endemic in Burkina Faso].  

PubMed

Burkina Faso, through the works of many teams of the OCCGE based in Bobo-Dioulasso, has signi-ficant data on several tropical endemics of which schistosomiasis. With the complementary works, it appears to be possible to establish a distribution of the schistosomiasis which reveals its importance. It will be the first stage of the planned national control program. The parasitologic data-gathering which covers the period of 1951 to 2000, used all the standard techniques. It is about Kato-Kartz and MIF for the intestinal schistosomiasis, centrifugation, filtration, serology reagent strips, macroscopy of urines and echography of the urinary system for the urinary schistosomiasis. All the eleven medical areas of the country have many sites submitted to parasitologic investigation. As regard the distribution of the two parasites involved with man (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), the data of prevalence (1% to 100%) and their distribution confirm their endemicity and the focal transmission. S. mansoni is located in eight medical areas particularly in the South and the West. S. haematobium is present in all the eleven medical areas of the country. In hydraulic planning as Sourou where the prevalences went from 23% to 70% for S. haematobium and from 0% to 69% for S. mansoni between 1987 and 1998. The situation requires a continuous monitoring. The spatial distribution of the six species of intermediate hosts shows that Bulinus truncatus and B. senegalensis Soudano-Sahelian species are present in all the ecological zones. B. globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi meet preferentially in the southern half of the country which reinforces the observation according to which the 14th northern parallel is often considered as the limit of septentrional extension of these two species. The other species Bulinus forskalii and B umbilicatus could have preference areas. All the species show a certain affinity with a type of biotope. The rarity and temporary aquatic systems lead to a concentration of the domestic and especially entertaining children activities around these biotopes very often contaminated. The phenomenon is amplified by the increase of contacts man-water, whose frequency and intensity are themselves dependent on activities related to hydro-agricultural planning. The analysis of the data shows, that in terms of colonization of the biotopes by molluscs and the relations between parasites and intermediate and final hosts, hydraulic planning turns out to be an amplifying factor of the species proliferation and parasitic flux host-parasite. PMID:15104159

Poda, J N; Traor, A; Sondo, B K

2004-02-01

421

Development of a new version of the Liverpool Malaria Model. II. Calibration and validation for West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In the first part of this study, an extensive literature survey led to the construction of a new version of the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM). A new set of parameter settings was provided and a new development of the mathematical formulation of important processes related to the vector population was performed within the LMM. In this part of the study, so far undetermined model parameters are calibrated through the use of data from field studies. The latter are also used to validate the new LMM version, which is furthermore compared against the original LMM version. Methods For the calibration and validation of the LMM, numerous entomological and parasitological field observations were gathered for West Africa. Continuous and quality-controlled temperature and precipitation time series were constructed using intermittent raw data from 34 weather stations across West Africa. The meteorological time series served as the LMM data input. The skill of LMM simulations was tested for 830 different sets of parameter settings of the undetermined LMM parameters. The model version with the highest skill score in terms of entomological malaria variables was taken as the final setting of the new LMM version. Results Validation of the new LMM version in West Africa revealed that the simulations compare well with entomological field observations. The new version reproduces realistic transmission rates and simulated malaria seasons are comparable to field observations. Overall the new model version performs much better than the original model. The new model version enables the detection of the epidemic malaria potential at fringes of endemic areas and, more importantly, it is now applicable to the vast area of malaria endemicity in the humid African tropics. Conclusions A review of entomological and parasitological data from West Africa enabled the construction of a new LMM version. This model version represents a significant step forward in the modelling of a weather-driven malaria transmission cycle. The LMM is now more suitable for the use in malaria early warning systems as well as for malaria projections based on climate change scenarios, both in epidemic and endemic malaria areas. PMID:21410939

2011-01-01

422

Global food security: the impact of veterinary parasites and parasitologists.  

PubMed

Global food security will require the production of more food using resources including land more efficiently, and with less waste. This goal must be achieved within the context of climate change and while ensuring minimal adverse environmental impact from both crop and livestock production. Disease, especially infectious disease, is a main constraint of biologically efficient livestock production and both endemic and exotic disease results in mortality and morbidity and hence less food than should ideally be available in current farming systems. A significant proportion of diseases affect the safety of food supplies, in addition to or instead of, their effect on volume and quality of food products. Parasitological diseases including those caused by nematodes, trematodes, protozoa and ectoparasites, have widely differing effects on meat, milk and fibre production and many new technologies have been developed in order to prevent or treat them. Approaches to developing better control of parasites have included livestock breeding strategies, improved nutrition and management, and the development of new drugs, diagnostic tests and vaccines. Some of the most important examples include both the development of new anthelmintic products, and better means of using existing drugs in order to maximise their effectiveness in the face of rapidly increasing parasite resistance; diagnostic tests which are able to detect low levels of nucleic acids or proteins from infectious agents rapidly; and vaccines derived from either native or recombinant proteins and designed to stimulate the most appropriate protective response from livestock species. Some of the parasitic diseases affect restricted regions around the world, however most affect very large global populations. The development of technologies of suitable and affordable livestock products for use in developing countries where most pressure on increased production for food will occur, provides a particular challenge. Most if not all new technologies form part of integrated management schemes on farms and these vary hugely in differing systems and geographical regions of the world. If the benefit of improved technologies for optimal health, welfare and biological efficiency of livestock is to be realised, then the veterinary, farming, commercial animal health and public service communities need to learn lessons from past successes and failures in the delivery of newly developed technologies to the farmer. The combination of technology and rural development in the veterinary parasitological field has played a key role in current food production and is well placed to continue this trend to help in ensuring future food requirements for the world. PMID:23622818

Fitzpatrick, J L

2013-08-01

423

A Combination of the Kato-Katz Methods and ELISA to Improve the Diagnosis of Clonorchiasis in an Endemic Area, China  

PubMed Central

Background Examination of feces by light microscopy is widely used for specific parasitological diagnosis of clonorchiasis. However, the true incidence of infection is underestimated owing to the high missing diagnosis rate of this method. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used for the detection and control of clonorchiasis but the practicality of this method is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ELISA as a supplementary method for the diagnosis of clonorchiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study recruited 2,359 clinically suspected patients from Heilongjiang Province, China. In all, 954 cases were identified as antibody-positive by immunoglobulin (IgG)-ELISA and 495 individuals were diagnosed as egg-positive by the Kato-Katz (KK) method. The seropositive and egg-negative individuals were re-examined by repeated egg counts and/or the number of KK slides and 18 (18.18%) cases were confirmed as clonorchiasis. The 40.44%, antibody-positive rate determined by IgG-ELISA was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the 21.75% egg-positive rate found by examination of feces. A Bayesian approach indicated that the prevalence of clonorchiasis in this region was 22.27% and that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IgG-ELISA were 98.7%, 76.53%, 54.66% and 99.52%, respectively. The agreement between the two methods was moderate (kappa value?=?0.564). The clonorchiasis patients lived mainly along the Songhua River. The risk factors, except for ethnic factors, were estimated effectively by both methods. Conclusions/Significance The present study suggested that clonorchiasis was widely distributed in Heilongjiang Province, China. The missing diagnosis rate was high using the KK technique alone. The combination of immunological methods and parasitological techniques could improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the missing diagnosis rate. ELISA used as an auxiliary diagnostic method was realistic and practical for a large-scale screening test, monitoring the prevalence and assessing the risk factors of clonorchiasis. PMID:23056547

Wen, Jingshan; Li, Yihong; Shu, Jing; Ling, Hong; Zhang, Fengmin

2012-01-01

424

Gastrointestinal parasites of free-living Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the Northern Red Sea, Egypt.  

PubMed

The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna infecting the free-living and alive Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) inhabiting waters of the Red Sea at Hurghada, Egypt. A total of 94 individual faecal samples of the examined bottlenose dolphins were collected during several diving expeditions within their natural habitats. Using classical parasitological techniques, such as sodium acetate acetic acid formalin method, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears, coproantigen ELISA, PCR and macroscopical analyses, the study revealed infections with 21 different parasite species belonging to protozoans and metazoans with some of them bearing zoonotic and/or pathogenic potential. Four identified parasite species are potential zoonotic species (Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Ascaridida indet.); three of them are known to have high pathogenic potential for the examined dolphin species (Nasitrema attenuata, Zalophotrema spp. and Pholeter gastrophilus) and some appear to be directly associated with stranding events. In detail, the study indicates stages of ten protozoan species (Giardia spp., Sarcocystis spp., Isospora (like) spp., Cystoisospora (like) spp., Ciliata indet. I and II, Holotricha indet., Dinoflagellata indet., Hexamita (like) spp., Cryptosporidium spp.), seven trematode species (N. attenuata, Nasitrema spp. I and II, Zalophotrema curilensis, Zalophotrema spp., Pholeter gastrophilus, Trematoda indet.), one cestode species (Diphyllobothrium spp.), two nematode species (Ascaridida indet, Capillaria spp.) and one crustacean parasite (Cymothoidae indet.). Additionally, we molecularly identified adult worms of Anisakis typica in individual dolphin vomitus samples by molecular analyses. A. typica is a common parasite of various dolphin species of warmer temperate and tropical waters and has not been attributed as food-borne parasitic zoonoses so far. Overall, these parasitological findings include ten new host records for T. aduncus (i.e. in case of Giardia spp., Sarcocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Nasitrema spp., Zalophotrema spp., Pholeter gastrophilus, A. typica, Capillaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp. and Cymothoidae indet.). The present results may be used as a baseline for future monitoring studies targeting the impact of climate or other environmental changes on dolphin's health conditions and therefore contribute to the protection of these fascinating marine mammals. PMID:24477747

Kleinertz, S; Hermosilla, C; Ziltener, A; Kreicker, S; Hirzmann, J; Abdel-Ghaffar, F; Taubert, A

2014-04-01

425

Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distributed in some parts of the new world and old world. The disease is endemic in different parts of Iran. This review article has been focused on major topics of epidemiological aspects and clinical features of VL in Iran for the period of 2002 through 2012. For the detection of VL in humans as well as animal reservoir hosts, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using direct agglutination test (DAT) as a validated serological test. Parasitological examinations were performed on suspected VL patients as well as canines and rodents. Different molecular methods were used for identification of species and genotype/ or strain of Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans, animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Altogether, 1698 out of 36081 (4.7%) human serum samples collected from 5 distinct geographical zones showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ? 1:3200 using DAT. The majority of VL cases in the endemic areas were found among children up to 12 years old. Almost 75% of DAT-positive cases (?1:3200) in endemic areas showed clinical signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 217 hospitalized patients with DAT positive (?1:3200) results included paleness (99.5%), fever (96.9%), splenomegaly (91.5%), hepatomegaly (53.6%) and lymphadenopathy (21.1%). Integrated VL surveillance system in primary care using DAT, could decrease mortality and morbidity of the disease in the VL endemic areas of the northwestern Iran. Out of 7204 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in various geographical locations of Iran, 879 (12.2%) were DAT sero-positive at titers ? 1:320. L. infantum as the principal causative agent of the disease was isolated from infected humans, domestic and wild canines and rodents. The principal animal reservoir hosts of the infection are domestic and wild canines. Ph. kandelakii, Ph. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, Ph. tobbi in northwestern Iran; Ph. major s.l. (=Ph. neglectus), Ph. keshishiani, and Ph. alexandri in southern parts of Iran were molecularly and/or parasitologically positive for L. infantum infections. The zoonotic form of VL (ZVL) caused by L. infantum occurs sporadically in all geographical zones of Iran but in northwestern and southern parts of the country the disease is endemic. DAT as an appropriate and potential tool has been used for sero-diagnosis and sero-epidemiological of VL among humans as well as domestic and wild canines. PMID:24454426

Mohebali, Mehdi

2013-01-01

426

Mapping B-cell epitopes for the peroxidoxin of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and its potential for the clinical diagnosis of tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

The search toward the establishment of novel serological tests for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and proper differential diagnosis may represent one alternative to the invasive parasitological methods currently used to identify infected individuals. In the present work, we investigated the potential use of recombinant peroxidoxin (rPeroxidoxin) of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis as a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of human tegumentary (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Linear B-cell epitope mapping was performed to identify polymorphic epitopes when comparing orthologous sequences present in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent for Chagas disease (CD), and the Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris hosts. The serological assay (ELISA) demonstrated that TL, VL and CVL individuals showed high levels of antibodies against rPeroxidoxin, allowing identification of infected ones with considerable sensitivity and great ability to discriminate (specificity) between non-infected and CD individuals (98.46% and 100%; 98.18% and 95.71%; 95.79% and 100%, respectively). An rPeroxidoxin ELISA also showed a greater ability to discriminate between vaccinated and infected animals, which is an important requirement for the public campaign control of CVL. A depletion ELISA assay using soluble peptides of this B-cell epitope confirmed the recognition of these sites only by Leishmania-infected individuals. Moreover, this work identifies two antigenic polymorphic linear B-cell epitopes of L. braziliensis. Specific recognition of TL and VL patients was confirmed by significantly decreased IgG reactivity against rPeroxidoxin after depletion of peptide-1- and peptide-2-specific antibodies (peptide 1: reduced by 32%, 42% and 5% for CL, ML and VL, respectively; peptide-2: reduced by 24%, 22% and 13% for CL, ML and VL, respectively) and only peptide-2 for CVL (reduced 9%). Overall, rPeroxidoxin may be a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of TL, VL or CVL, as it has a higher agreement with parasitological assays and is better than other reference tests that use soluble Leishmania antigens for diagnosing CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC, Bio-manguinhos, FIOCRUZ). PMID:24921246

Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antnio de Oliveira; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Santos, Thas Teodoro de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Luza Teixeira; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; de Carvalho, Silvio Fernando Guimares; Coelho, Eduardo Antnio Ferraz; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

2014-01-01

427

Activities of the Triazole Derivative SCH 56592 (Posaconazole) against Drug-Resistant Strains of the Protozoan Parasite Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi in Immunocompetent and Immunosuppressed Murine Hosts  

PubMed Central

We have studied the in vivo activity of the new experimental triazole derivative SCH 56592 (posaconazole) against a variety of strains of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed murine hosts. The T. cruzi strains used in the study were previously characterized as susceptible (CL), partially resistant (Y), or highly resistant (Colombiana, SC-28, and VL-10) to the drugs currently in clinical use, nifurtimox and benznidazole. Furthermore, all strains are completely resistant to conventional antifungal azoles, such as ketoconazole. In the first study, acute infections with the CL, Y, and Colombiana strains in both normal and cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed mice were treated orally, starting 4 days postinfection (p.i.), for 20 consecutive daily doses. The results indicated that in immunocompetent animals SCH 56592 at 20 mg/kg of body weight/day provided protection (80 to 90%) against death caused by all strains, a level comparable or superior to that provided by the optimal dose of benznidazole (100 mg/kg/day). Evaluation of parasitological cure revealed that SCH 56592 was able to cure 90 to 100% of the surviving animals infected with the CL and Y strains and 50% of those which received the benznidazole- and nifurtimox-resistant Colombiana strain. Immunosuppression markedly reduced the mean survival time of untreated mice infected with any of the strains, but this was not observed for the groups which received SCH 56592 at 20 mg/kg/day or benznidazole at 100 mg/kg/day. However, the overall cure rates were higher for animals treated with SCH 56592 than among those treated with benznidazole. The results were confirmed in a second study, using the same model but a longer (43-dose) treatment period. Finally, a model for the chronic disease in which oral treatment was started 120 days p.i. and consisted of 20 daily consecutive doses was investigated. The results showed that SCH 56592 at 20 mg/kg/day was able to induce a statistically significant increase in survival of animals infected with all strains, while benznidazole at 100 mg/kg/day was able to increase survival only in animals infected with the Colombiana strain. Moreover, the triazole was able to induce parasitological cures in 50 to 60% of surviving animals, irrespective of the infecting strain, while no cures were obtained with benznidazole. Taken together, the results demonstrate that SCH 56592 has in vivo trypanocidal activity, even against T. cruzi strains naturally resistant to nitrofurans, nitroimidazoles, and conventional antifungal azoles, and that this activity is retained to a large extent in immunosuppressed hosts. PMID:10602737

Molina, Judith; Martins-Filho, Olindo; Brener, Zigman; Romanha, Alvaro J.; Loebenberg, David; Urbina, Julio A.

2000-01-01

428

Population Pharmacokinetics of Artesunate and Dihydroartemisinin following Intra-Rectal Dosing of Artesunate in Malaria Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Intra-rectal artesunate has been developed as a potentially life-saving treatment of severe malaria in rural village settings where administration of parenteral antimalarial drugs is not possible. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of intra-rectal artesunate and the relationship with parasitological responses in patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria. Methods and Findings Adults and children in Africa and Southeast Asia with moderately severe malaria were recruited in two Phase II studies (12 adults from Southeast Asia and 11 children from Africa) with intensive sampling protocols, and three Phase III studies (44 children from Southeast Asia, and 86 children and 26 adults from Africa) with sparse sampling. All patients received 10 mg/kg artesunate as a single intra-rectal dose of suppositories. Venous blood samples were taken during a period of 24 h following dosing. Plasma artesunate and dihydroartemisinin (DHA, the main biologically active metabolite) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The pharmacokinetic properties of DHA were determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Artesunate is rapidly hydrolysed in vivo to DHA, and this contributes the majority of antimalarial activity. For DHA, a one-compartment model assuming complete conversion from artesunate and first-order appearance and elimination kinetics gave the best fit to the data. The mean population estimate of apparent clearance (CL/F) was 2.64 (l/kg/h) with 66% inter-individual variability. The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) was 2.75 (l/kg) with 96% inter-individual variability. The estimated DHA population mean elimination half-life was 43 min. Gender was associated with increased mean CL/F by 1.14 (95% CI: 0.361.92) (l/kg/h) for a male compared with a female, and weight was positively associated with V/F. Larger V/Fs were observed for the patients requiring early rescue treatment compared with the remainder, independent of any confounders. No associations between the parasitological responses and the posterior individual estimates of V/F, CL/F, and AUC06h were observed. Conclusions The pharmacokinetic properties of DHA were affected only by gender and body weight. Patients with the lowest area under the DHA concentration curve did not have slower parasite clearance, suggesting that rectal artesunate is well absorbed in most patients with moderately severe malaria. However, a number of modelling assumptions were required due to the large intra- and inter-individual variability of the DHA concentrations. PMID:17132053

Simpson, Julie A; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Barnes, Karen I; Perri, Gianni Di; Folb, Peter; Gomes, Melba; Krishna, Sanjeev; Krudsood, Srivicha; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Mansor, Sharif; McIlleron, Helen; Miller, Raymond; Molyneux, Malcolm; Mwenechanya, James; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Nosten, Francois; Olliaro, Piero; Pang, Lorrin; Ribeiro, Isabela; Tembo, Madalitso; van Vugt, Michele; Ward, Steve; Weerasuriya, Kris; Win, Kyaw; White, Nicholas J

2006-01-01

429

Human dirofilariosis in Poland: the first cases of autochthonous infections with Dirofilaria repens.  

PubMed

Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens Railliet et Henry, 1911 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) is a subcutaneous parasite of dogs and other carnivorous animals, with human acting as incidental hosts. D. repens occurs endemically in warm climates on various continents, in Europe mainly in Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to summarize information on human dirofilariosis in Poland, taking into consideration parasitological and epidemiological data. Between April 2009-December 2011, in the parasitological laboratories of Medical University in Warsaw and the National Institute of Public Health/National Institute of Hygiene, fragments of affected human tissues and parasite specimens were examined microscopically. Molecular methods were used to confirm the results from eight microscopic investigations. A literature review to summarize all data on dirofilarial infections in humans in Poland was conducted. In these investigations, autochthonous dirofilariosis was found in humans for the first time in Poland. During the last 3 years, 12 new cases of human D. repens dirofilariosis were recognized. Since 2007, a total of 18 D. repens infection have been found in humans in Poland. Parasitic changes were located in various parts of the body, in the form of subcutaneous nodules containing single nematodes surrounded by granulation tissue (15 cases). In 3 cases, a subconjuctival localization was found. Seventeen of the 18 described cases were noted in central Poland where dirofilariosis occured in dogs. In this area, autochtonous infection was identified in 3 women who had never left Poland in their lives; the others were probably infected outside the country while staying in endemic regions. Data on human and canine infection collected from central Poland during the last 5 years indicates that Dirofilaria repens has been introduced into our country, and that the infection is successfully spreading, with the border of the endemic area currently on 52N, 21E. To control the epidemiological situation it is necessary to identify D. repens hosts within local mosquito populations, and to monitor dogs. Because of the increasing number of cases of human infections, whether introduced or local, physicians should take dirofilariosis into consideration in differential diagnosis of skin and eye diseases. PMID:23020037

Cielecka, Danuta; ?arnowska-Prymek, Hanna; Masny, Aleksander; Salamatin, Ruslan; Weso?owska, Maria; Go??b, El?bieta

2012-01-01

430

Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kenyan children aged less than five years: results of an open-label, randomized, single-centre study  

PubMed Central

Background This open-label, randomized study evaluated efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children below five years of age, to build evidence on use of AL as first-line treatment and DP as second-line treatment in Kenya. Methods A total of 454 children aged six to 59 months with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized (1:1) to receive AL dispersible or DP paediatric tablets and followed up for 42 days. Primary efficacy variable was corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) rate on day 28. Secondary variables included corrected (day 14, 28 and 42), uncorrected (day 3, 14, 28 and 42) cure rates, parasitological failure at days 3, 14 and 42. Acceptability and tolerability of both drugs were assessed by caregiver questionnaire. Results On day 28, corrected ACPR rates for AL dispersible and DP paediatric were 97.8% (95% CI: 94.9-99.3) and 99.1% (95% CI: 96.8-99.9), respectively, in intention-to-treat population, with no significant treatment differences noted between AL dispersible and DP paediatric arms. Additionally, no significant differences were observed for PCR corrected cure rates on days 14 and ACPR on day 42 for AL dispersible (100%; 96.8%) and DP paediatric (100%; 98.7%). Similarly, for PCR uncorrected cure rates, no significant differences were seen on days 3, 14, 28, and 42 for AL dispersible (99.1%; 98.7%; 81.1%; 67.8%) and DP paediatric (100%; 100%; 87.7%; 70.5%). Parasite clearance was rapid, with approximately 90% clearance achieved in 40 hours in both treatment arms. Incidence of adverse events was related to underlying disease; malaria being reported in both treatment arms. One serious adverse event was noted in AL dispersible (0.42%) arm, not related to study drug. Adherence to treatment regimen was higher for children treated with AL dispersible (93.6%) compared to DP paediatric (85.6%). Acceptability of AL dispersible regimen was assessed as being significantly better than DP paediatric. Conclusions AL and DP were both efficacious and well tolerated, and had similar effects at day 42 on risk of recurrent malaria. No signs of Plasmodium falciparum tolerance to artemisinins were noted. Trial registration PACTR201111000316370. PMID:24472156

2014-01-01

431

Outcome of artemether-lumefantrine treatment for uncomplicated malaria in HIV-infected adult patients on anti-retroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria and HIV infections are both highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, with HIV-infected patients being at higher risks of acquiring malaria. The majority of antiretroviral (ART) and anti-malarial drugs are metabolized by the CYP450 system, creating a chance of drug-drug interaction upon co-administration. Limited data are available on the effectiveness of the artemether-lumefantrine combination (AL) when co-administered with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). The aim of this study was to compare anti-malarial treatment responses between HIV-1 infected patients on either nevirapine- or efavirenz-based treatment and those not yet on ART (control-arm) with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, treated with AL. Method This was a prospective, non-randomized, open-label study conducted in Bagamoyo district, with three arms of HIV-infected adults: efavirenz-based treatment arm (EFV-arm) n?=?66, nevirapine-based treatment arm (NVP-arm) n?=?128, and control-arm n?=?75, with uncomplicated malaria. All patients were treated with AL and followed up for 28days. The primary outcome measure was an adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) after treatment with AL by day 28. Results Day 28 ACPR was 97.6%, 82.5% and 94.5% for the NVP-arm, EFV-arm and control-arm, respectively. No early treatment or late parasitological failure was reported. The cumulative risk of recurrent parasitaemia was >19-fold higher in the EFV-arm than in the control-arm (Hazard ratio [HR], 19.11 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 10.534.5]; P?

2014-01-01

432

Leishmania donovani: antagonistic effect of S-adenosyl methionine on ultrastructural changes and growth inhibition induced by sinefungin.  

PubMed

Sinefungin, an antifungal and antiparasitic nucleoside antibiotic, is a very potent antileishmanial agent in vitro and in vivo (Bachrach et al. 1980, FEBS Letters 121, 287-291; Neal et al. 1985, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79, 85-122). It was previously shown that this molecule is a competitive inhibitor of AdoMet for transmethylases (Paolantonacci et al. 1986, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 21, 47-54; Avila et al. 1987, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 26, 69-76) and that it induces shape changes of Leishmania donovani promastigotes as observed by light microscopy (Lawrence and Robert-Gero 1990; Bulletin de la Societ Franaise de Parasitologie 8, 13-18). In the present work the effect of the antibiotic on the ultrastructure was analyzed by electron microscopy. The main changes induced at sublethal concentrations (0.26 microM sinefungin for 16 hr) were progressive rounding, decreased motility, enlargement of the flagellar pocket, and shortening and loss of the external part of the flagellum. The comparison with control cells showed shorter Golgi saccules and fragmentation of the trans-Golgi network into vesicles, indicating a stimulated Golgi apparatus activity. This result, associated with the enlarged flagellar pocket, suggests an unbalanced cytoplasmic exchange between exocytosis and endocytosis. These effects are quite different from those induced by tunicamycin (Dagger et al. 1984, Biology of the Cell 50; 173-180) or paromomycin. In addition, other nucleoside and nonnucleoside growth inhibitors failed to induce similar changes. AdoMet antagonized the sinefungin-induced shape changes and ultrastructural modifications but had no effect with respect to other growth inhibitors. This suggests that the sinefungin activity at the cellular level is specifically related to competition with AdoMet. A comparative study of N-methylation and carboxylmethylation of proteins in sinefungin-treated promastigotes showed that the antibiotic preferentially inhibits the latter, catalyzed by protein-O-methyltransferases. These enzymes are known to regulate the function of various proteins involved in secretion. Overall the results suggest that one of the main targets of sinefungin in exponentially growing cells is the protein carboxylmethylation involved in membrane transport. PMID:1740179

Phelouzat, M A; Lawrence, F; Moulay, L; Borot, C; Schaeverbeke, J; Schaeverbeke, M; Robert-Gero, M

1992-03-01

433

Schistosoma mansoni infection in owl monkeys (Aontus nancymai): evidence for the early elimination of adult worms.  

PubMed

Detailed parasitologic, serologic, clinical and histopathologic studies were conducted in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymai) exposed to varying numbers of cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. All the experimental animals had clinical symptoms suggestive of infection (weight loss diarrhoea, mucus in stools, etc.) which were not seen in uninfected individuals. The only A. vociferans included in this study passed S. mansoni eggs 8 weeks after infection. None of the A. nancymai passed eggs in their faeces. No adult worms were recovered following perfusion of the sacrificed experimental monkeys, suggesting that they were early eliminated. Serological techniques (ELISA-SEA and COPT) allowed diagnosis of infection, starting 9 weeks post challenge, in all but one A. nancymai exposed to 100 cercariae. Granulomas containing eggs were observed predominantly in liver and less extensively in intestine, suggesting that adult worms were mainly lodged in the intrahepatic portal system. We conclude that A. nancymai is susceptible to infection with S. mansoi, with the worms reaching sexual maturity, but being eliminated shortly after oviposition. PMID:9777712

Noya, O; Gonzalez-Rico, S; Rodriguez, R; Arrechedera, H; Patarroyo, M E; Alarcon de Noya, B

1998-07-30

434

Do high levels of C-reactive protein in Tanzanian children indicate malaria morbidity.  

PubMed Central

Children under 6 years of age living in an area of Tanzania highly endemic for malaria were tested for C-reactive protein (CRP) in order to determine how the acute-phase response is related to malaria in children of different ages and to investigate whether serum CRP concentrations might be useful in the qualification of morbidity in such children. The median CRP level in the 629 finger-prick blood samples measured, 6.0 mg/liter, was much higher than that reported in the blood of children in Europe. The CRP concentration was correlated with recent illness reported by the parents. High CRP levels were most strongly associated with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in children under 1 year of age. In older children, lower levels of CRP were associated with parasitemia, and fewer children had increased CRP levels attributable to parasitemia. The levels of malaria-attributable CRP appear to track the acquisition of parasitological and clinical tolerance in this area with very high levels of P. falciparum transmission. Determination of CRP levels should be useful in the rapid assessment of the overall burden of morbidity, especially in infants. In areas where malaria is endemic, CRP associated with increased parasite densities provides an objective measure of malaria-specific morbidity. This would be an efficient approach to estimating malaria morbidity risks from small-scale serological surveys. PMID:8556482

Hurt, N; Smith, T; Teuscher, T; Tanner, M

1994-01-01

435

Cell density-dependent ectopic expression in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei.  

PubMed

Ectopic expression of either wild type or mutant proteins is a standard method in cell biology, and a vital part of the tool kit of molecular parasitology. During study of protein expression levels mediating intracellular trafficking, we became aware of highly variable expression between experiments. When investigated systematically it became apparent that ectopic expression of proteins from a ribosomal promoter diminished at high cell culture density in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei. This phenomenon was not restricted to expression of a specific protein or cell line or the vector backbone. While procyclic form cells did not exhibit detectable density-related expression changes, bloodstream form cells manifest significant reduction in expression at high density, confirmed by qRT PCR, Western blotting and fluorescence microscopy. Culturing in conditioned media unveiled a similar reduction in expression at lower cell densities. Taken together we concluded that this effect is likely related to the influence of a diffusible factor present in conditioned media and has implications for accurate quantification of ectopic expression using transgenic expression systems. PMID:23538029

Ali, Moazzam; Field, Mark C

2013-06-01

436

Chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate versus chlorproguanil-dapsone: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial in African children, adolescents, and adults with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

PubMed

This multi-center, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy study compared the efficacy and safety of chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) and chlorproguanil-dapsone (CPG-DDS) in the treatment of falciparum malaria in Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria). Six hundred patients (>or= 1 year of age) received CDA 2.0/2.5/4.0 mg/kg, and 292 CPG-DDS 2.0/2.5 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days. Day 28 parasitologic cure rate (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-corrected, per-protocol population) was 89.1% (416/467) for CDA, non-inferior but also superior to CPG-DDS, 83.0% (176/212) (treatment difference 6.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 11.9). Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) genotype was available for 844/892 (95%) patients. Occurrences of a composite hemoglobin safety endpoint (hemoglobin drop >or= 40 g/L or >or= 40% versus baseline, hemoglobin < 50 g/L, or blood transfusion) were CDA 13/44 (30%), CPG-DDS 7/24 (29%) in G6PD-deficient patients versus CDA 4/448 (< 1%), CPG-DDS 6/221 (3%) in G6PD-normal patients. No deaths occurred. CDA was more efficacious than CPG-DDS. However, the hemolytic potential in G6PD-deficient patients does not support further development of CDA. PMID:19996424

Tiono, Alfred B; Dicko, Alassane; Ndububa, Dennis A; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Pitmang, Simon; Awobusuyi, Jacob; Pamba, Allan; Duparc, Stephan; Goh, Li-Ean; Harrell, Emma; Carter, Nick; Ward, Stephen A; Greenwood, Brian; Winstanley, Peter A

2009-12-01

437

Parasites as biological tags to assess host population structure: Guidelines, recent genetic advances and comments on a holistic approach?  

PubMed Central

We review the use of parasites as biological tags of marine fishes and cephalopods in host population structure studies. The majority of the work published has focused on marine fish and either single parasite species or more recently, whole parasite assemblages, as biological tags. There is representation of host organisms and parasites from a diverse range of taxonomic groups, although focus has primarily been on host species of commercial importance. In contrast, few studies have used parasites as tags to assess cephalopod population structure, even though records of parasites infecting cephalopods are well-documented. Squid species are the only cephalopod hosts for which parasites as biological tags have been applied, with anisakid nematode larvae and metacestodes being the parasite taxa most frequently used. Following a brief insight into the importance of accurate parasite identification, the population studies that have used parasites as biological tags for marine fishes and cephalopods are reviewed, including comments on the dicyemid mesozoans. The advancement of molecular genetic techniques is discussed in regards to the new ways parasite genetic data can be incorporated into population structure studies, alongside host population genetic analyses, followed by an update on the guidelines for selecting a parasite species as a reliable tag candidate. As multiple techniques and methods can be used to assess the population structure of marine organisms (e.g. artificial tags, phenotypic characters, biometrics, life history, genetics, otolith microchemistry and parasitological data), we conclude by commenting on a holistic approach to allow for a deeper insight into population structuring. PMID:25197624

Catalano, Sarah R.; Whittington, Ian D.; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.

2013-01-01

438

Haematological characteristics associated with parasitism in bream, Abramis brama orientalis.  

PubMed

A parasitological investigation was done on 175 specimens. Infections of A. brama orientalis were analyzed according to the age and sex. The fish also were examined for evaluation changes of haematological parameters in relation to parasitic infection. Four parasites were found, including-Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda), Diplostomum spathaceum (Platyhelminthes) and Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora). Among identified parasites maximum prevalence and mean intensity were related to Ligula intestinalis and Caryophyllaeus laticeps respectively. The values of prevalence and mean intensity showed significant differences among ages. Our results revealed prevalence, mean intensity and abundance had not significant difference between males and females. Parasite infection provoked reduction (P<0.05) in haematocrit, mean cell volume and lymphocyte. On the other hand, significant increase (P<0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), mean cell haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil in blood of infected fish was observed. Significant differences were detected for the WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil (infected versus uninfected by Trichodina sp., Diplostomum spathaceum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps). In addition to WBC and lymphocytes, significant change was observed for the haemoglobin (Hb) (infected versus uninfected by Ligula intestinalis). PMID:25320488

Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Khara, Hossein; Movahed, Rashideh; Sayadborani, Mohammad; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Ahmadnezhad, Mohadesseh; Rahbar, Mina; Rad, Amir Sajedi

2014-12-01

439

Gentamicin-Attenuated Leishmania infantum Vaccine: Protection of Dogs against Canine Visceral Leishmaniosis in Endemic Area of Southeast of Iran  

PubMed Central

An attenuated line of Leishmania infantum (L. infantum H-line) has been established by culturing promastigotes in vitro under gentamicin pressure. A vaccine trial was conducted using 103 naive dogs from a leishmaniosis non-endemic area (55 vaccinated and 48 unvaccinated) brought into an endemic area of southeast Iran. No local and/or general indications of disease were observed in the vaccinated dogs immediately after vaccination. The efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated after 24 months (4 sandfly transmission seasons) by serological, parasitological analyses and clinical examination. In western blot analysis of antibodies to L. infantum antigens, sera from 10 out of 31 (32.2%) unvaccinated dogs, but none of the sera from vaccinated dogs which were seropositive at >100, recognized the 21 kDa antigen of L. infantum wild-type (WT). Nine out of 31 (29%) unvaccinated dogs, but none of vaccinated dogs, were positive for the presence of Leishmania DNA. One out of 46 (2.2%) vaccinated dogs and 9 out of 31 (29%) unvaccinated dogs developed clinical signs of disease. These results suggest that gentamicin-attenuated L. infantum induced a significant and strong protective effect against canine visceral leishmaniosis in the endemic area. PMID:24743691

Daneshvar, Hamid; Namazi, Mohammad Javad; Kamiabi, Hossein; Burchmore, Richard; Cleaveland, Sarah; Phillips, Stephen

2014-01-01

440

Update: Cutaneous leishmaniasis in U.S. military personnel--Southwest/Central Asia, 2002-2004.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a sand fly-borne parasitic infection. Preliminary data about cases of CL in military personnel deployed to three countries (Afghanistan, Iraq, and Kuwait) in Southwest/Central Asia have been published previously. During August 2002-February 2004, Department of Defense (DoD) staff identified 522 parasitologically confirmed cases of CL in military personnel. Leishmania major was the etiologic agent for all 176 cases for which species data, obtained by isoenzyme electrophoresis of cultured parasites, are available. This update focuses on the 361 cases (69% of 522) in patients whose demographic data were collected systematically under treatment protocols for therapy with the pentavalent antimonial compound sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam(R); GlaxoSmithKline, United Kingdom) at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, District of Columbia. U.S. health-care providers should consider CL in persons with persistent skin lesions who were deployed to Southwest/Central Asia or who were in other areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:15057192

2004-04-01

441

Evaluation of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Suitable for Molecular Monitoring of Schistosome-Infected Snails in Field Laboratories  

PubMed Central

We previously described loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni DNA in infected snails. In the present study, we adapted the LAMP assay for application in field laboratories in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. Isolation of DNA was simplified by blotting snail tissue (extracted in NaOH/sodium dodecyl sulfate) onto treated membranes, which enabled preservation at ambient temperatures. A ready-mix of LAMP reagents, suitable for shipment at ambient temperature and storage in minimal refrigeration, was used. Local survey teams without experience in molecular biology acquired operational expertise with this test within a few hours. Fifty-four field-caught snails were tested locally by LAMP and 59 were tested at similar conditions in Jerusalem. The LAMP results were consistent with those of a polymerase chain reaction; only four samples showed false-negative results. Results indicate that LAMP assays are suitable for detection of S. haematobium and S. mansoni in low-technology parasitology laboratories in which schistosomiasis elimination activities are undertaken. PMID:23208875

Hamburger, Joseph; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Kariuki, Curtis; Wanjala, Atsabina; Mzungu, Elton; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric; King, Charles H.

2013-01-01

442

Parasitic Infections Based on 320 Clinical Samples Submitted to Hanyang University, Korea (2004-2011)  

PubMed Central

We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples. PMID:24850969

Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

2014-01-01

443

Comparison of nested PCR and microscopy for the detection of cryptosporidiosis in bovine calves.  

PubMed

The comparative efficacies of different conventional parasitological methods and nested PCR for diagnosis of bovine cryptosporidiosis in faecal samples were evaluated. Among the 100 samples collected from calves in and around Ludhiana Direct faecal smear staining technique revealed 25.0% positivity for the oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. with sensitivity and specificity of 68.12 and 92.98%, respectively. Zinc sulphate solution floatation and saturated sugar solution floatation staining techniques showed sensitivity and specificity of 83.92 and 96.36; 81.03 and 98.14%, respectively. Products of the primary PCR of Cryptosporidium spp. directed against small subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA when employed as template in nested PCR produced the amplicons of desired size (834bp) in 47.0% of the samples. Amplification of 834bp fragment was also observed in positive control, while no amplification was observed in negative control. Results indicated PCR assays as highly sensitive and specific techniques for the screening of the samples for Cryptosporidium spp. but in developing countries and under field conditions where limited resources do not allow the application of PCR assays, concentration staining methods are recommended. PMID:24505186

Bhat, S A; Dixit, M; Juyal, P D; Singh, N K

2014-03-01

444

Parasitic infections based on 320 clinical samples submitted to Hanyang University, Korea (2004-2011).  

PubMed

We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples. PMID:24850969

Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Ahn, Myoung-Hee

2014-04-01

445

[Study of the association between socio-environmental factors and the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in the suburbs of the city of Manaus in the state of Amazonas, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study assesses the association between socio-environmental factors and urban sanitation conditions with the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in a community on the periphery of the city of Manaus. The study comprised a socio-environmental survey and a parasitological inquiry. A heterogeneous community was revealed with some socio-economic and environmental differences between the micro-areas evaluated, even though the urban sanitation conditions were found to be predominantly precarious. The prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 44.2%. There was no significant difference between the micro-areas that could explain the occurrence of intestinal parasitosis. An association was found between intestinal parasitosis and residential building types, age bracket and the quality of the water used for personal hygiene and consumption in the home. Open air sewage wa