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1

British society for parasitology.  

PubMed

Now boasting a healthy membership of more than 1,500 individuals, the British Society for Parasitology was formed in 1962 and is a window into the fascinating world of infectious diseases and parasites. PMID:24823578

Ryan, Bridget

2014-05-14

2

42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Condition: Parasitology. 493.1204 Section 493...Testing § 493.1204 Condition: Parasitology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Parasitology, the laboratory must meet the...

2009-10-01

3

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parasitology. 493.917 Section 493.917...and Subspecialty § 493.917 Parasitology. (a) Types of services offered by laboratories. In parasitology there are two types of...

2010-10-01

4

42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Condition: Parasitology. 493.1204 Section 493...Testing § 493.1204 Condition: Parasitology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Parasitology, the laboratory must meet the...

2013-10-01

5

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Parasitology. 493.917 Section 493.917...and Subspecialty § 493.917 Parasitology. (a) Types of services offered by laboratories. In parasitology there are two types of...

2013-10-01

6

42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Condition: Parasitology. 493.1204 Section 493...Testing § 493.1204 Condition: Parasitology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Parasitology, the laboratory must meet the...

2010-10-01

7

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Parasitology. 493.917 Section 493.917...and Subspecialty § 493.917 Parasitology. (a) Types of services offered by laboratories. In parasitology there are two types of...

2009-10-01

8

The future of veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current evidence suggests research in veterinary parasitology is in decline despite its importance. This is particularly true in the UK where research funds have been diverted into BSE. Decline in interest in veterinary parasitology is at least in part due to the success of major pharmaceutical companies in producing a range of effective and safe anti-parasitic drugs. Research is needed

G. C. Coles

2001-01-01

9

History of Human Parasitology  

PubMed Central

Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis.

Cox, F. E. G.

2002-01-01

10

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Parasitology. 493.1264 Section 493.1264 Public Health ...Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1264 Standard: Parasitology. (a) The laboratory must have available a...

2010-10-01

11

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Parasitology. 493.1264 Section 493.1264 Public Health ...Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1264 Standard: Parasitology. (a) The laboratory must have available a...

2013-10-01

12

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 5 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Standard: Parasitology. 493.1264 Section 493.1264 Public Health ...Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1264 Standard: Parasitology. (a) The laboratory must have available a...

2009-10-01

13

Parasitology and Pathology of Marine Organisms of the World Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Communications treating general or historical aspects; Communications treating parasitology and/or pathology of fishes; Communications treating parasitology and/or pathology of mollusks and crustaceans; Communications treating parasitology and/o...

W. J. Hargis

1985-01-01

14

42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 5 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Standard; Parasitology. 493.829 Section 493.829 Public Health CENTERS...Any Combination of These Tests § 493.829 Standard; Parasitology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event...

2009-10-01

15

42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Parasitology. 493.829 Section 493.829 Public Health CENTERS...Any Combination of These Tests § 493.829 Standard; Parasitology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event...

2010-10-01

16

42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Parasitology. 493.829 Section 493.829 Public Health CENTERS...Any Combination of These Tests § 493.829 Standard; Parasitology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event...

2013-10-01

17

[Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].  

PubMed

An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced different theoretical interpretations. The third period in the history of parasitology lasted from the mid 19th century to the end of World War I. At that time a common agreement was established in all Europe, with regard to interpretation of standards inspired by positivism, i.e. verification of empirical statements through observation. Parasitology emerged as a separate discipline. Theoretical barriers limiting its progress and setting the questions were overcome. The contagion concept was reinstated. The colonial conquests solving demography problem provided the most important social impulse for the progress in parasitology. It was supported by governments interested in having their colonies free from diseases, mainly malaria and other tropical diseases, and thus safe for the European pioneer settlers. There was also development of parasitological scientific institutions (institutes of tropical medicine) and didactics. After World War I parasitology entered the fruitful stage of discipline development which resulted in a division into subdisciplines and a progress of new scientific fields. Its theoretical standards have become fixed and provided a basis for preventive programmes against parasite diseases, supported financially by European goverments, USA and some other countries. Those programmes were executed both in the home countries and in the colonies. After World War II, in the fourth stage of parasitology development, attention was mainly paid to local natural environment in order to diagnose parasites and their vectors. At the same time, parasitology became an applied science practiced in many specialized centres not only at universities. Presently, the main aims of parasitology are studies on biodiversity of parasites and environmental protection in the developed countries, and within tropical medicine as the travel medicine, because of rapid increase of tourism. PMID:16913523

Lonc, Elzbieta; P?onka-Syroka, Bozena

2005-01-01

18

Fact or Artifact: A Parasitology Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This parasitology tutorial, from the University of Alberta (Canada)'s Microbiology & Public Health section, is intended to help microscopists in differentiating clinically important parasites from artifacts (e.g., materials from other sites in the body). A combination of color-image illustrations and text, this straightforward site highlights the important distinguishing characters of numerous parasites. The site is organized into six main sections: Introduction, Contents, Protozoans, Helminths, Artifacts, and Comparisons; a small selection of links to other parasitology Websites completes this resource.

19

Assessment of a novel method for teaching veterinary parasitology.  

PubMed

A student-centered innovative method of teaching veterinary parasitology was launched and evaluated at the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) in St. Kitts, where Parasitology is a required course for second-semester veterinary students. A novel method, named Iron Parasitology, compared lecturer-centered teaching with student-centered teaching and assessed the retention of parasitology knowledge of students in their second semester and again when they reached their seventh semester. Members of five consecutive classes chose to participate in Iron Parasitology with the opportunity to earn an additional 10 points toward their final grade by demonstrating their knowledge, communication skills, clarity of message, and creativity in the Iron Parasitology exercise. The participants and nonparticipants were assessed using seven parameters. The initial short-term study parameters used to evaluate lecturer- versus student-centered teaching were age, gender, final Parasitology course grade without Iron Parasitology, RUSVM overall grade point average (GPA), RUSVM second-semester GPA, overall GPA before RUSVM, and prerequisite GPA before RUSVM. The long-term reassessment study assessed retention of parasitology knowledge in members of the seventh-semester class who had Iron Parasitology as a tool in their second semester. These students were invited to complete a parasitology final examination during their seventh semester. There were no statistically significant differences for the parameters measured in the initial study. In addition, Iron Parasitology did not have an effect on the retention scores in the reassessment study. PMID:24503903

Pereira, Mary Mauldin; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathleen E; Wallace, Charles E; Krecek, Rosina C

2014-01-01

20

PCR-based technology in veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA technology is having a major impact in many areas of veterinary parasitology. In particular, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has found broad applicability because its sensitivity permits enzymatic amplification of gene fragments from minute quantities of nucleic acids derived from limited amounts of parasite material. This paper discusses some recent applications of PCR-based methods to parasites and highlights their

Robin B. Gasser

1999-01-01

21

Application of molecular biology in veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of applications of molecular biology in veterinary parasitology is increasing rapidly. The techniques used with eukaryotic cells are generally applicable to the study of parasites and their hosts. The polymerase chain reaction is particularly important for identification and diagnosis of parasites, as well as for many other applications. With species and type specific probes or primers, sensitivities and

Roger Prichard

1997-01-01

22

Veterinary Parasitology: Looking to the Next Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary parasitology has traditionally been concerned with the control of parasites of livestock and companion animals, with emphasis on chemotherapy and immunoprophylaxis. This will continue, but there must be less reliance on chemical control; the development of alternative strategies will be a major goal over the next ten years. Here, Andrew Thompson takes an optimistic look at the challenges, strengths

R. C. A. Thompson

1999-01-01

23

Trends in teaching parasitology: the American situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic infections in both humans and animals are still rampant and appear to be increasing. There is a need for parasitologists, human and animal doctors to contribute toward the global eradication of communicable and food-borne diseases. The need for teaching parasitology, the recommendations and future perspectives are discussed in this article, and it is proposed that macrobiology should be recognized

Alex D. W. Acholonu

2003-01-01

24

A history of the Journal of Parasitology.  

PubMed

The present issue is Number 1 of Volume 100, The Journal of Parasitology. All 6 numbers of this, our Centennial Volume, are dedicated to those in the past who have contributed in any manner to the Journal's success as a national and international broker for parasitology. Our essay on the history of the Journal is divided into 3 parts. The first extends from 1914 to 1932, i.e., 'the beginning', when Henry Baldwin Ward was Editor and owned the Journal. The 'middle years' continue from 1933, when Ward gave the Journal to the American Society of Parasitologists, to 1961. The 'current period' carries on from 1961 to the present, our Centennial year. Obviously, we cannot provide a great many specific details for each era, but we have made an effort to identify some of the events, issues, and people that have played a significant role in our Journal's history. PMID:23947661

Esch, Gerald; Desser, Sherwin; Nickol, Brent

2014-02-01

25

Real-time quantitative PCR in parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard techniques for counting parasites are often time-consuming, difficult and inaccurate, and occasionally unpleasant. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction has recently been applied to parasitology, specifically Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Leishmania and Neospora. These techniques are truly quantitative, give results over a range of 67 orders of magnitude, are quick to perform and require no manipulations post-amplification. They can be used to

Andrew S. Bell; Lisa C. Ranford-Cartwright

2002-01-01

26

WAAVP\\/Pfizer Award for Excellence in Teaching Veterinary Parasitology: Teaching of veterinary parasitology quo vadis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some thoughts on training and recruitment of academic teachers and future trends in teaching veterinary parasitology are presented with emphasis on the European situation. It is underlined that research is an indispensable basis for academic teaching. Besides a broad scientific background of the teacher, motivation and teaching methods are also important. Many academic teachers do not receive formal training in

J Eckert

2000-01-01

27

Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China  

PubMed Central

Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China.

Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

2012-01-01

28

WAAVP\\/Pfizer Award for Excellence in Veterinary Parasitology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being presented with the WAAVP Pfizer award for excellence in parasitological research is the pinnacle of my career. In accepting I acknowledge the support that I have received from workmates, colleagues, friends and family over the years that I have been involved in this field of endeavour. Parasitic disease is the most significant threat to the Australian sheep industry. A

D. R Hennessy

2000-01-01

29

Behavioral parasitology and perspectives on miracidial host-finding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes and outlines a new interdiscipline, behavioral parasitology, and presents some interpretations in one of the leading themes of this field, miracidial chemosensitivity to snails. Controversies over miracidial attraction and species-specificity are considered from the standpoints of the distinction between taxis and kinesis, the need for a stimulus gradient, and the possibility of an early phase in a

Kenneth S. Saladin

1979-01-01

30

The role of molecular biology in veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tools of molecular biology are increasingly relevant to veterinary parasitology. The sequencing of the complete genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and other helminths and protozoa is allowing great advances in studying the biology, and improving diagnosis and control of parasites. Unique DNA sequences provide very high levels of specificity for the diagnosis and identification of parasite species and strains, and

Roger Prichard; Andy Tait

2001-01-01

31

Clinical and parasitological study on scabies in Sirte, Libya.  

PubMed

The present work aimed to determine the risk factors, clinical and parasitological skin lesion features and effective drug regimens. Study was carried out on 200 patients referred to dermatology outpatient clinics in Sirte-Libya. Each was subjected to detailed questionnaire, dermatological skin examination, parasitological skin scraping test (SST), burrow ink test (BIT), drug administration and follow up. Results revealed that females 59%, children 37.5% and military personnel 18% of immigrant families were particularly prone to scabies infestation. Effective risk factors included overcrowding, bed sharing, low hygienic and education levels. Commonest skin lesions included erythematous papules 93%, excoriated papules 77.5%, burrows 66%, pustulation 31%, vesicles 21.5 and nodules 3%. Predilection lesion sites were hand 86%, wrist 82%, abdomen 56%, male external genitalia 64.5% and female breast 28%. Specific SST was positive in 67.3% of cases, particularly sensitive in early cases with short itching duration. BIT was positive in 62%. Topical permethrin proved more effective than precipitated sulpher with cure rates of of 100% and 85.3% in 21% and 75% of cases, respectively. Ivermectin was 100% effective in 4% of cases. PMID:21268539

Fathy, Fouad M; El-Kasah, Fathi; El-Ahwal, Abdulla M

2010-12-01

32

External quality assessment schemes raise standards: evidence from the UKNEQAS parasitology subschemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The burden of parasitic disease imported into the temperate zone is increasing, and in the tropics remains very high. Thus, high quality diagnostic parasitology services are needed, but to implement clinical governance a measure of quality of service is required.Aim: To examine performance in the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Parasitology for evidence of improved standards

M M Kettelhut; P L Chiodini; H Edwards; A Moody

2003-01-01

33

Gnathostoma binucleatum: pathological and parasitological aspects in experimentally infected dogs.  

PubMed

Lesions and antibody kinetics produced by inoculation of Gnathostoma binucleatum larvae into dogs are described, as well as the morphology of the recovered parasites. In four out of five infected bitches parasite phases were found in the stomach. Only one bitch eliminated eggs and adult parasite phases in feces. In this bitch, the prepatency period lasted 22 weeks and the patency period 14 weeks. Necropsy results showed a copiously vascularized 8-cm diameter fibrous nodule lodged in the greater curvature of the stomach. Two bitches that eliminated no eggs showed 1- to 2-cm diameter nodules on the gastric wall, with five juvenile phases in each. One bitch that eliminated no eggs and exhibited no gastric nodules showed juvenile parasites on the gastric wall. Results confirm dogs as definitive hosts of this parasite. New data on the pathological and parasitological aspects of canine gnathostomosis are presented. PMID:20599438

Alvarez-Guerrero, C; Muoz-Guzmn, M A; Buenda-Jimnez, J A; Alba-Hurtado, F

2011-01-01

34

[Geographical Information Systems and remote sensing technologies in parasitological epidemiology].  

PubMed

Parasites have natural habitats in the same way as a species: they are found in focal areas where the spatial distribution of the parasite, host, vector and required environmental conditions coincide. The spatial distribution of parasites is, therefore, a function of the interaction between abiotic and biotic environmental factors. The boundaries of distributions are not strictly fixed in space and time and may fluctuate with climate and other components of the environment or anthropical factors. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies are being used increasingly to study the spatial and temporal patterns of disease. GIS can be used to complement conventional ecological monitoring and modelling techniques, and provide means to portray complex relationships in the ecology of disease. In addition, the use of GIS and RS to identify environmental features allows determination of risk factors and delimitation of areas at risk, permitting more rational allocation of resources for cost-effective control. Since 1996, GIS have been used in our territorial cross-sectional and longitudinal parasitological surveys in order to experiment new applications to plan sampling protocols and to display quickly, clearly, and analytically the spatial and/or temporal distribution of parasitological data. The use of GIS allowed us to draw the following types of descriptive parasitological maps: distribution maps, distribution maps with proportioned peaks, choroplethic maps with proportioned peaks, point distribution maps and point distribution maps with proportioned peaks. In a recent study, GIS and RS technologies have been used also to identify environmental features that influence the distribution of paramphistomosis in sheep from the southern Italian Apennines and to develop a preliminary risk assessment model. A GIS was constructed using RS and landscape feature data together with paramphistome positive survey records from 197 georeferenced ovine farms with animals pasturing in an area of the southern Italian Apennines. The GIS for the study area was constructed utilizing the following environmental variables: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), land cover, elevation, slope, aspect, and total length of rivers. In addition, data regarding the presence of watercourses smaller than rivers, namely, streams, springs and brooks were recorded in the field. All these variables were then calculated for "buffer zones" consisting of the areas included in a circle of 3 Km diameter centred on 197 farms. The environmental data obtained were analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses using the paramphistome farm coprological status (positive/negative) as the dependent variable. A multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis model was developed that included moors and heathland, sclerophyllus and coniferous forest vegetation, autumn-winter NDVI and presence of streams, springs and brooks on pasture. The variables entered in the model are consistent with the environmental requirements of paramphistomes and their snail intermediate host. In particular, the land cover types entered in the model in this area are indicators of marginal uncultivable and sloping zones where typically there is the presence of water (permanently or temporarily). In addition, since NDVI can be used as an indicator of regional thermal-moisture regime, the distribution of farms positive for paramphistomosis corresponding to relatively high values of winter NDVI indicated the presence of adequate moisture and temperatures favourable to the rumen fluke and the snails. In conclusion, GIS and RS are useful to define the habitats of parasites, especially for those with strong environmental determinants, and to produce forecasting maps requested for the planning and the monitoring of control strategies on small and large scale. PMID:15305690

Rinaldi, L; Cascone, C; Sibilio, G; Musella, V; Taddei, R; Cringoli, G

2004-06-01

35

Parasitology in East Germany--roots, period of the G.D.R., future.  

PubMed

The paper starts with a historical reflection on the region and on famous scientific personalities which worked up parasitological problems on the territory of East Germany. Native scientists like J. L. Frisch, C. A. Rudolphi, R. Leuckart, A. C. Gerlach, R. Virchow, R. Koch, R. von Ostertag, W. Nller, R. Wetzel made in fundamental contributions to the growth of knowledge in General and Special Parasitology. The parasitological institutions existing in East Germany are represented briefly. The parasitologists of East Germany, nearly 160,--biologists, physicians and veterinarians--among them more than 50 specialized parasitologists were associated in the Parasitological Society of the G.D.R. since 1961. A review is given of actual parasitological problems of agricultural and other domestic animals, fair game animals, of bees and freshwater fish as well as of the most important parasitoses of man frequent in East Germany, under the aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis and control. The rapid evolution of an intensive animal production under large scale management conditions required a permanent control of infestation with pathogenic protozoans, arthropods and helminths. Some selected results achieved in research and practice are represented. The epidemiological situation referring to parasitic zoonoses is favourable at present. Since 1970 a group of experts from East Germany working successfully in Mongolia on the systematic control of ectoparasites of farm animals together with Mongolian parasitologists. It is considered to be necessary to make an international agreement in parasitological research in future more than till now. PMID:2039094

Hiepe, T

1991-02-01

36

Clinical, parasitological and social studies on Wuchereria bancrofti in Egypt.  

PubMed

This study was conducted on patients attending Al-Hussein University Hospital and Mansura University Hospitals. Sheets were filled out on each patient (age, residence, occupation, family similar condition, travelling, disease duration, symptoms suggesting acute dermatolymphangitis attacks, frequency and duration. They were 25 lymphoedema patients and 8 controls (17 males & 16 females) and subjected to clinical and parasitological examinations. According to residence, five patients were from Giza Govemorate (18.18%), four from Dakahlia G. (12.12%), four from Gharbia G. (12.12%), five from Menoufia G. (15.15%), four from Sharkia G. (12.12%), two cases from Kafr Elsheikh G. (6.06%) and one patient from Assiut G. (3.03%). In controls, 6 were from Al-Hussein Cairo G. (15.15%), and two cases (6.06) from Al-Abbassia. They were 48% farmers (10 male & 2 female); 4% grocers (1 male); 8% carpenters (2 male); and 40% house wife (10 female). According to lymphedema site: 3 cases (12%) were bilateral lower limbs lymphedema (2 female & 1 male), 13 cases (52%) had right lower limb lymphedema (6 female & 7 male), and 9 cases (36%) had left lower limb lymphedema (4 female & 5 male). They were 18 (72%) with below knee extension of lymphedema (10 male & 8 female) and 7 (28%) above knee extension of lymphedema (3 male & 4 female). Grade of lymphedema was one case (male) with grade II lymphedema (4%), 13 cases (52%) with grade III (7 male & 6 female) and 11 cases (44%) with grade IV (5 male & 6 female). Duration of lymphedema was one case with grade II lymphedema in a period of 3 years, 13 cases with grade III lymphedema and the durations of lymphedema for these cases were (one case with 5 years duration, 3 cases were > 6-9 years,6 cases were > 9-12 years and 3 cases were > 12 years) and 11 cases with grade IV lymphedema and duration of lymphedema for these cases were (one case with 6 years duration, 2 cases were > 6-9 years,3 cases were > 9-12 years and 5 cases were > 12 years). PMID:21634252

Tayel, Samy El Sheikh A; Sharapy, Alaa El Din M K; El Shazly, Atef M A; Shahat, Samir A; Zaalouk, Tarek Kh; Al Sayed, Mohammed Y S

2011-04-01

37

Canine leishmaniasis: clinical, parasitological and entomological follow-up after chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Six naturally infected dogs [two with no signs of leishmaniasis ('asymptomatic'), two with a few signs ('oligosymptomatic') and two with many signs ('polysymptomatic')] were studied before and after chemotherapy. Another two, non-infected dogs were kept as controls. The dogs were studied clinically, haematologically and parasitologically five times over 11 months and their infectivity to sandflies was evaluated before and after the treatment. The 'asymptomatic' dogs were as infective to sandflies as the 'symptomatic' before treatment but all dogs were un-infective for at least a few months following chemotherapy. Treatment led to a temporary improvement in the clinical and biochemical condition of most of the dogs, the symptomatic dogs becoming asymptomatic, but parasitological cure was uncommon after 10 months' follow-up. There was often no correlation between clinical condition, parasitological condition and infectivity to sandflies. Some dogs from both the 'asymptomatic' and 'symptomatic' groups became infective to sandflies several months post-treatment. PMID:7979624

Alvar, J; Molina, R; San Andrs, M; Tesouro, M; Nieto, J; Vitutia, M; Gonzlez, F; San Andrs, M D; Boggio, J; Rodriguez, F

1994-08-01

38

[Results of parasitological passportization of sewage treatment works in the South Federal District].  

PubMed

Developed parasitological passports for sewage treatment works have been issued in the subjects of the Southern Federal District. Its some regions have areas inadequately covered by centralized water drainage. New waste treatment technologies and disinvasion agents have not been virtually introduced. No proper significance is attached to the parasitological studies of epidemiologically significant substrates, such as waste waters and their sludge. The positive results of dehelmintization and disinvasion are stated from the absence of helminth eggs rather than from the comparative results of sewer clearing from the invasion principle and their viability loss. Standard guides corresponding to the profile of objects are inadequately used in day-to-day work. PMID:22308716

Khromenkova, E P; Vaserin, Iu I; Dimidova, L L; Upyrev, A V

2011-01-01

39

CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN COLOMBIA: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLINICAL AND PARASITOLOGIC STATUS AND INFECTIVITY FOR SAND FLIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the reservoir competency of canines with distinct clinical presentations of Leishmania chagasi infection. The parasitologic status of asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs was determined by standard culture methods Infectivity was assessed by multiple xenodiagnoses with Lutzomyia longipalpis, over a period of 2-11 months. Asymp- tomatic dogs were non-infective (0 of 5) while 2 of 7 oligosymptomatic dogs infected L.

BRUNO L. TRAVI; CARLOS J. TABARES; HORACIO CADENA; CRISTINA FERRO; YANETH OSORIO

2001-01-01

40

Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: Evidence from morphology and parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population differentiation of seven flatfish species, Citharus linguatula, Lepidorhombus boscii, Platichthys flesus, Microchirus azevia, Solea lascaris, Solea senegalensis and Solea solea, widely distributed along the eastern north Atlantic and occurring in sympatry along the Portuguese coast was studied using morphological and parasitological data. Fish were obtained from commercial fishing vessels operating in three locations along the Portuguese coast (north,

Joana F. Marques; Clia M. Teixeira; Henrique N. Cabral

2006-01-01

41

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): the 50th anniversary in 2013--history, achievements, and future perspectives.  

PubMed

In 2013 the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) can celebrate its 50th anniversary. At this occasion in this article selected historical data are updated, and the achievements and future perspectives of the WAAVP are discussed. Although the WAAVP is a small association with only a few hundred members, it has been able to develop remarkable activities. Between 1963 and 2011 the WAAVP has organized 23 international scientific congresses, and the 24th conference will take place in Perth, Western Australia, in 2013. These conferences have achieved a high degree of international recognition as indicated by relatively large numbers of participants (up to ~800). Furthermore, the WAAVP has promoted veterinary parasitology in various ways, such as publishing international guidelines (efficacy evaluation of antiparasitic drugs, parasitological methods, standardized nomenclature of animal parasitic diseases "SNOAPAD"), stimulating international discussions on teaching and continued education ("colleges of veterinary parasitology") and by supporting the high quality journal "Veterinary Parasitology" which is the official organ of the WAAVP. In retrospect, the development of the WAAVP can be classified as very successful. New challenges associated with global changes (growth of the world population, urbanization, climate change, new developments in animal and plant production, etc.) will require new efforts in research in various fields, including veterinary parasitology. Future activities of WAAVP may include inter alia: (a) support of international parasitological networks; (b) stimulation of coordinated research aimed at the solution of defined problems; (c) increasing the exposure of WAAVP to parasitology from hitherto neglected regions of the world; (d) strengthening of official links to international organizations (FAO, WHO, etc.); (e) continuation of guideline preparation; and (d) preparation and international distribution of high quality electronic programs for self-education in veterinary parasitology. PMID:23683652

Eckert, J

2013-08-01

42

A bibliometric analysis of research productivity in Parasitology by different world regions during a 9-year period (19952003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to estimate the research productivity of different world regions in the field of Parasitology. METHODS: Using the PubMed database we retrieved articles from journals included in the \\

Matthew E Falagas; Paraskevi A Papastamataki; Ioannis A Bliziotis

2006-01-01

43

Performance of Clinical Laboratories in South African Parasitology Proficiency Testing Surveys between 2004 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Performance in proficiency testing (PT) schemes is an objective measure of a laboratory's best performance. We examined the performance of participants in two parasitology PT schemes in South Africa from 2004 through 2010. The average rates of acceptable scores over the period were 58% and 66% for the stool and blood parasite schemes, respectively. In our setting, participation in PT alone is insufficient to improve performance; a policy that provides additional resources and training seems necessary.

Dini, Leigh; Frean, John

2012-01-01

44

Performance of clinical laboratories in South African parasitology proficiency testing surveys between 2004 and 2010.  

PubMed

Performance in proficiency testing (PT) schemes is an objective measure of a laboratory's best performance. We examined the performance of participants in two parasitology PT schemes in South Africa from 2004 through 2010. The average rates of acceptable scores over the period were 58% and 66% for the stool and blood parasite schemes, respectively. In our setting, participation in PT alone is insufficient to improve performance; a policy that provides additional resources and training seems necessary. PMID:22814470

Poonsamy, Bhavani; Dini, Leigh; Frean, John

2012-10-01

45

[Harmonization of microbiologicaland parasitological indices of epidemic safety of drinking water with the international requirements].  

PubMed

For the purpose of harmonization of microbiological and parasitological indices and benchmarks there was performed the comparative analysis of the requirements for the quality of drinking water in respect of the epidemic safety on the basic regulations of Russia, the Directive Council of the European Union EU, WHO, the United States, Canada, Australia, Finland, Sweden, Brazil, France, Japan and China. As a result, there were revealed the priority bacteriological, virological and parasitological parameters: E. coli--indicator of recent fecal contamination, coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria colony count (Heterotrophic plate count), which is in the water legislation of the Russian Federation is characterized as total bacterial count (TBC), being an integral index of the quality of wastewater treatment technologies and hygienic condition of the water supply systems, coliphages as an indicator of viral contamination. In the Guidelines for drinking-water quality control, WHO and a set of countries there is recommended a more wide range of indicators: enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enteroviruses, parasitological indices. With aim of harmonization of the requirements for the quality of drinking water in the Russian Federation with international approaches to the revision of the Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPin) 2.1.4.1074 into the project there are introduced priority indicator parameters of bacterial, viral and parasitic contamination of water, evidence-based guidelines. PMID:24340910

Ivanova, L V; Artemova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zaga?nova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasniak, A V; Korne?chuk, S S; Shustova, S S

2013-01-01

46

Clinical, serological, and parasitological analysis of snakes naturally infected with Cryptosporidium serpentis.  

PubMed

Infection by Cryptosporidium serpentis is one of the most important diseases in reptiles and is characterized by chronic clinical or subclinical infection and the presence of hypertrophic gastritis, food regurgitation, progressive weight loss, mortality, and intermittent or continuous shedding of oocysts in the feces. The objectives of this study were to standardize an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against C. serpentis and to evaluate the clinical, parasitological, and humoral immune response in snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis. Twenty-one snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis and housed at the Butantan Institute, So Paulo, Brazil, underwent clinical and parasitological analyses for C. serpentis infection through daily records of clinical signs and a monthly survey of fecal shedding of oocysts using the Kinyoun's acid-fast staining. The serological evaluation was performed monthly by indirect ELISA using crude total antigen from oocysts of C. serpentis to detect anti-C. serpentis antibodies. Clinical symptoms consisted of food regurgitation, inappetence, and progressive weight loss. The parasitological analysis revealed intermittent fecal shedding of a variable number of oocysts in all snakes, with positivity in 85.32% (157/184) of the samples. The indirect ELISA was positive in 68.25% (86/126) of the samples. A humoral immune response was observed in most animals; however, fluctuating antibodies levels, leading to alternating positive and negative results, were observed in most snakes. PMID:24041484

Paiva, Philipp Ricardo S O; Grego, Kathleen F; Lima, Valria M F; Nakamura, Alex A; da Silva, Deuvnia C; Meireles, Marcelo V

2013-11-15

47

Posttherapeutic cure criteria in Chagas' disease: conventional serology followed by supplementary serological, parasitological, and molecular tests.  

PubMed

We performed a critical study of conventional serology, followed by supplementary serological, parasitological, and molecular tests, to assess the response to etiologic treatment of Chagas' disease. A group of 94 Chagas' disease patients treated with benznidazole at least 10 years earlier were evaluated from the laboratory and clinical points of view. When conventional serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect immunofluorescence [IIF], and indirect hemagglutination [IHA]) and classic criteria (consistent results with any two of the three tests) or more rigorous criteria (consistent results from the three tests) were used, 10.6% and 8.5% of patients were considered treated and cured (TC) by classic and rigorous criteria, respectively. Patients were then evaluated using supplementary (recombinant ELISA and Trypanosoma cruzi excreted-secreted antigen blotting [TESA-blot]), parasitological (hemoculture), and molecular (PCR) tests. The results of recombinant ELISA were similar to those with the rigorous criterion (three consistent test results). The TESA-blot group showed a higher percentage (21.3%) of negative results than the groups defined by either cure criterion. Hemoculture and PCR gave negative results for all treated and cured (TC) patients, regardless of the criterion used. Recombinant ELISA and TESA-blot tests showed negative results for 70% and 87.5% of the patients categorized as TC by the classic and three-test criteria, respectively. For patients with discordant conventional serology, the supplementary serological and molecular tests were the decisive factor in determining therapeutic failure. Clinical evaluation showed that 62.5% of TC patients presented with the indeterminate form of the disease. Additionally, treated patients with negative TESA-blot results should be reevaluated later with all methodologies used here to verify whether TESA-blot is a reliable way to determine early parasitological cure of Chagas' disease. PMID:22739694

Machado-de-Assis, G F; Silva, A R; Do Bem, V A L; Bahia, M T; Martins-Filho, O A; Dias, J C P; Albajar-Vias, P; Torres, R M; Lana, M

2012-08-01

48

[Sanitary and parasitological characteristics of environmental objects in the Republic of Bashkortostan].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of sanitary and parasitological studies of natural portable water, sewage, its deposits, soil, and other environmental objects in the Republic of Bashkortostan. The high extensive rates (14.2 to 91.6%) of semination with helminth eggs and pathogenic intestinal protozoan cysts. This indicates that there are conditions for a high risk for contamination of the population with the pathogens of parasitic diseases in the Republic of Bashkortostan. To prevent parasitic diseases, the author emphasizes the need of developing new and effective technologies for the protection and disinvasion of environmental objects in the Republic of Bashkortostan. PMID:17657953

Musyrgalina, F F

2007-01-01

49

A retrospective examination of paleoparasitology and its establishment in the journal of parasitology.  

PubMed

Abstract :? Volume 95 (2009) of the Journal of Parasitology represented a significant benchmark in the history of paleoparasitology when it received on the cover formal recognition as a topical area for publication. This retrospective examination chronicles the emergence of paleoparasitology, from its origins as an adjunct contribution to the study of prehistoric human populations to its modern expression as a sub-disciplinary interest. The aim of paleoparasitology is to elucidate the temporal and spatial dimensions of parasitism from the fossil record of human and non-human host populations. PMID:24588553

Faulkner, Charles T; Reinhard, Karl J

2014-06-01

50

Diagnosis of subclinical equine theileriosis in center of Iran using parasitological and molecular methods.  

PubMed

A total of 105 blood samples from healthy horses from different stables in Yazd province, center of Iran, were examined for the presence of Theileria equi infection using parasitological and molecular methods. Out of the 105 samples, the parasitological method detected T. equi infection in 5 (4.76%) cases while the PCR method gave 24 (22.86%) positive results. Age, gender and breed were not determined as risk factors for T. equi infection in this study. Since blood samples were taken from healthy animals, this implies that 22.86% of horses had subclinical theileriosis in the current study. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that T. equi is present in horses in the center of Iran. Despite the healthy appearance of horses, these carrier animals can transmit the parasites to ticks and are a potential continuous source for maintaining and disseminating the organisms to the horse population. We concluded that it is important to make further studies on definitive host and vectors in the respective areas. PMID:24862050

Bahrami, S; Ghadrdan, A R; Mirabdollahi, S M; Fayed, M R

2014-03-01

51

Comparative diagnosis of parasitological, serological, and molecular tests in dourine-suspected horses.  

PubMed

Study on comparative sensitivity of parasitological, serological, and molecular tests on 237 horses originating from two dourine-suspected districts of Arsi-Bale highlands of Ethiopia was conducted to determine the prevalence of the disease and degree of agreement of the diagnostic tests. Accordingly, the prevalence of the disease was found to be 4.6%, 36.7%, and 47.6% by parasitological Woo test, RoTat 1.2 and 18S PCR tests, respectively. The seroprevalence of the disease was 27.6% in CATT/Trypanosoma evansi test. In Ethiopia, it was for the first time that trypanosomes from dourine suspected horses were demonstrated in 4.6% of the animals using Woo test. The findings of the present study disclosed that dourine is highly prevalent and one of the major diseases of horses in the area. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in prevalence of the disease between districts, sexes, and age groups of the animals. However, there was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease between emaciated and animals with good body condition. Assessment of the degree of agreement of the diagnostic tests employed revealed low to fair (k = 01 - 04) with significantly higher sensitivity by PCR than other tests. PMID:20526860

Gari, Fikru Regassa; Ashenafi, Hagos; Tola, Alemu; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Claes, Filip

2010-12-01

52

[Parasitological analysis of the untreated wastewater of the "Ville Haute" urban emissary (Mamora district, Kenitra, Morocco)].  

PubMed

The domestic wastewaters of the city of Kenitra (North-East of Morocco) are rejected without preliminary processing by six emissaries into the Sebou river, the Atlantic Ocean and the Fouarate lake. The present study is based on a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the wastewater parasites load of the "Ville Haute" urban district of Maamora (Kenitra, Morocco). Untreated wastewater samples taken at the exit of the urban emissary are pretreated and analysed by the modified Bailenger method at the parasitological and hydrobiological laboratory of the Sciences Faculty of Kenitra (Ibn Tofail University). For diagnostic confirmation purposes, other complementary analysis were made at the parasitological laboratory of the National Institute of Hygiene (Rabat) The results obtained pointed to the existence of the helminths parasites eggs of Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis spp., Taenia spp and Fasciola hepatica species with respective concentrations of 3 eggs/L, 17 eggs/L, 7 eggs/L, 2 eggs/L, 1 eggs/L and 1 egg/L. The mean concentration is about 31 eggs/L of untreated wastewater. Furthermore, on the samples examined, the percentages of positives tests is 86% for nematodes, 10% for cestodes, and 4% for trematodes. At the end of this preliminary study we insist on the very high level of parasitic helminths transported by untreated wastewater and we recommend that those wastewater be processed before there are recycled in the Sebou river. PMID:15047445

Zamo, Annie-Claude Nsom; Belghyti, Driss; Lyagoubi, Mohammed; Elkharrim, Khadija

2003-01-01

53

Laser-assisted microdissection: a new tool for aquatic molecular parasitology.  

PubMed

Laser-assisted microdissection (LMD) has been developed to isolate distinct cell populations from heterogeneous tissue sections, cytological preparations, or live cell samples. Downstream applications typically include gene expression studies using real-time PCR and array platforms, diagnostic PCR, and protein expression studies. LMD techniques are now commonplace in mainstream biological research and clearly have suitable applications in the field of aquatic pathology and parasitology. The present study used LMD to isolate 2 dinoflagellate parasites (Hematodinium spp.) from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 2 crustacean hosts, Cancer pagurus and Portunus trituberculatus. DNA was isolated from LMD parasite preparations, and partial regions (up to 300 bp) of the small subunit and the first internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene complex from the Hematodinium spp. were PCR amplified using diagnostic primers. The amplification products were sequenced to confirm the identity of the targeted regions. The techniques, applications, and limitations of LMD to address questions in aquatic molecular pathology and parasitology are discussed. PMID:19149378

Small, H J; Sturve, J; Bignell, J P; Longshaw, M; Lyons, B P; Hicks, R; Feist, S W; Stentiford, G D

2008-11-20

54

Evaluation of nifurtimox treatment of chronic Chagas disease by means of several parasitological methods.  

PubMed

Currently, evaluation of drug efficacy for Chagas disease remains a controversial issue with no consensus. In this work, we evaluated the parasitological efficacy of Nifurtimox treatment in 21 women with chronic Chagas disease from an area of endemicity in Chile who were treated according to current protocols. Under pre- and posttherapy conditions, blood (B) samples and xenodiagnosis (XD) samples from these patients were subjected to analysis by real-time PCR targeting the nuclear satellite DNA of Trypanosoma cruzi (Sat DNA PCR-B, Sat DNA PCR-XD) and by PCR targeting the minicircle of kinetoplast DNA of T. cruzi (kDNA PCR-B, kDNA PCR-XD) and by T. cruzi genotyping using hybridization minicircle tests in blood and fecal samples of Triatoma infestans feed by XD. In pretherapy, kDNA PCR-B and kDNA PCR-XD detected T. cruzi in 12 (57%) and 18 (86%) cases, respectively, whereas Sat DNA quantitative PCR-B (qPCR-B) and Sat DNA qPCR-XD were positive in 18 cases (86%) each. Regarding T. cruzi genotype analysis, it was possible to observe in pretherapy the combination of TcI, TcII, and TcV lineages, including mixtures of T. cruzi strains in most of the cases. At 13 months posttherapy, T. cruzi DNA was detectable in 6 cases (29.6%) and 4 cases (19.1%) by means of Sat DNA PCR-XD and kDNA PCR-XD, respectively, indicating treatment failure with recovery of live parasites refractory to chemotherapy. In 3 cases, it was possible to identify persistence of the baseline genotypes. The remaining 15 baseline PCR-positive cases gave negative results by all molecular and parasitological methods at 13 months posttreatment, suggesting parasite response. Within this follow-up period, kDNA PCR-XD and Sat DNA qPCR-XD proved to be more sensitive tools for the parasitological evaluation of the efficacy of Nifurtimox treatment than the corresponding PCR methods performed directly from blood samples. PMID:23836179

Muoz, Catalina; Zulantay, Ins; Apt, Werner; Ortiz, Sylvia; Schijman, Alejandro G; Bisio, Margarita; Ferrada, Valentina; Herrera, Cinthya; Martnez, Gabriela; Solari, Aldo

2013-09-01

55

An internationally recognized quality assurance system for diagnostic parasitology in animal health and food safety, with example data on trichinellosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quality assurance (QA) system was developed for diagnostic parasitology and implemented for several diagnostic assays including fecal flotation and sedimentation assays, trichomonad culture assay, and the testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella to facilitate consistently reliable results. The system consisted of a validated test method, procedures to confirm laboratory capability, and protocols for documentation, reporting, and monitoring.

Alvin A. Gajadhar; Lorry B. Forbes

2002-01-01

56

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines for evaluating the effectiveness of anthelmintics in chickens and turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been prepared to assist in the planning, operation and interpretation of studies designed to assess the effectiveness of drugs against helminth parasites of chickens and turkeys. They are the first to be compiled under the auspices of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) for these parasites. The advantages and disadvantages of the widely

T. A Yazwinski; H. D Chapman; R. B Davis; T Letonja; L Pote; L Maes; J Vercruysse; D. E Jacobs

2003-01-01

57

"Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important

Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

2013-01-01

58

[The large island--impressions of a medical parasitological trip to Madagascar].  

PubMed

The course of an investigation trip through Madagascar is sketched. It allowed to analyze the parasitological situation. It is explained with the sociological and economical facts and the unusual fauna of this island. The two biggest problems are Malaria tropica and schistosomatosis (bilharziasis). Further, Ancylostoma, Ascaris, taeniids, and Wuchereria occur. Plague is rare. Fasciola gigantica has been introduced since short time only. Introduction of other parasites must be feared. Sleeping illness and nagana are lacking, as well as rabies, yellow fever, Fasciola hepatica, Echinococcus granulosus, Hymenolepis nana, Trichinella spiralis and Dracunculus medinensis. Effective control measures may not be reasonable at present because of the socio-economic structure as a result of the former colonial status. PMID:7235291

Soprunov, F F

1981-02-01

59

Submicroscopic infections among children with adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to re-assess the treatment outcomes of Gabonese children, treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artesunate-mefloquine (AM) and categorized by microscopy as adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR), using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Dried blood spots were collected at day 0 and day 28 and stevor gene amplification was performed to detect Plasmodium falciparum infections. Plasmodial DNA was found in 27.5% (n=19/69) of the isolates collected at day 28; this proportion was 34.3% (n=12/35) in the SP group and 20.6% (n=7/34) in the AM group. This study underlines the need of an accurate and more appropriate technique such as PCR to evaluate antimalarial drug efficacy during clinical trials. PMID:24561075

Mawili-Mboumba, D P; Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Kombila, M

2014-06-01

60

Parasitological risk assessment from wastewater reuse for disposal in soil in developing countries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to analyze the parasitological risks of treated wastewater reuse from a stabilization pond in the city of Piracicaba, in the State of So Paulo (Brazil), and the level of treatment required to protect public health. Samples were taken from raw and treated wastewater in stabilization ponds and submitted to a parasitological, microbiological and physicochemical analysis. The study revealed on treated wastewater the presence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli with an average density of 1 cysts L(-1) and 6 eggs L(-1), respectively. For Ascaris, the annual risks of infection due to the accidental ingestion of wastewater irrigation were 7.5 10(-2) in 208 days and 8.7 10(-2) in 240 days. For Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in treated wastewater, the average density was 1.0 10(5) MPN/100 ml and 2.7 10(4) MPN/100 ml respectively, representing 99% and 94% removal efficiency, respectively. For BOD, COD, TS and TSS removal efficiency was 69, 80, 50 and 71%, respectively. The removal efficiency for nitrogen; ammonia nitrogen and total phosphate was 24, 19 and 68%, respectively. The average density of helminths eggs in treated wastewater is higher compared to the density of the limit value of ?1 egg L(-1) and tolerable risk is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Multiple barriers are necessary for the reduction of organic matter, chemical contaminants and parasites from treated wastewater. Standards for the sanitary control of treated wastewater to be reused in agricultural irrigation areas should be compiled for developing countries in order to minimize public health risks. PMID:22466580

Cutolo, Silvana A; Piveli, Roque P; Santos, Jferson G; Montes, Clia R; Sundefeld, Gilberto; Campos, Fbio; Gomes, Tamara M; Melfi, Adolpho J

2012-01-01

61

Comparative feasibility of implementing rapid diagnostic test and microscopy for parasitological diagnosis of malaria in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background In Uganda, parasite-based diagnosis is recommended for every patient suspected to have malaria before prescribing anti-malarials. However, the majority of patients are still treated presumptively especially in low-level health units. The feasibility of implementing parasite-based diagnosis for uncomplicated malaria in rural health centres (HCs) was investigated with a view to recommending measures for scaling up the policy. Methods Thirty HCs were randomized to implement parasite-based diagnosis based on rapid diagnostic tests [RDTs] (n = 10), blood microscopy (n = 10) and presumptive diagnosis (control arm) (n = 10). Feasibility was assessed by comparing the proportion of patients who received parasite-based diagnosis; with a positive malaria parasite-based diagnosis who received artemether-lumefantrine (AL); with a negative malaria parasite-based diagnosis who received AL; and patient waiting time. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00565071. Results 102, 087 outpatients were enrolled. Patients were more likely to be tested in the RDT 44, 565 (96.6%) than in microscopy arm 19, 545 (60.9%) [RR: 1.59]. RDTs reduced patient waiting time compared to microscopy and were more convenient to health workers and patients. Majority 23, 804 (99.7%) in presumptive arm were prescribed AL. All (100%) of patients who tested positive for malaria in RDT and microscopy arms were prescribed anti-malarials. Parasitological-based diagnosis significantly reduced AL prescription in RDT arm [RR: 0.62] and microscopy arm [RR: 0.72] compared to presumptive treatment. Among patients not tested in the two intervention arms, 12, 044 (96.1%) in microscopy and 965 (61.6%) in RDT arm were treated with AL [RR: 1.56]. Overall 10, 558 (29.4%) with negative results [5, 110 (23.4%) in RDT and 5, 448 (39.0%) in microscopy arms] were prescribed AL. Conclusion It was more feasible to implement parasite-based diagnosis for malaria using RDT than with microscopy. A high proportion of patients with negative malaria results are still prescribed anti-malarials. There is need to increase access to parasite-based diagnosis where microscopy is used. In order to fully harness the benefits of parasitological confirmation of malaria, it is necessary to reduce the prescription of anti-malarials in negative patients.

2011-01-01

62

The parasitological and serological prevalence of tsetse-transmitted bovine trypanosomosis in the Eastern Caprivi (Caprivi District, Namibia).  

PubMed

Between August 1995 and June 1997 a survey to determine the distribution of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis was conducted in the Eastern Caprivi (Caprivi District, Namibia). A total of 1,481 adult cattle was examined at 33 sampling sites. Direct parasitological diagnostic tests were used and eluted blood spots were screened for the presence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies. Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomal infections were detected in 66 animals (4.5%) from 14 different locations. The parasitological and serological prevalence of trypanosomosis was highest in the Mamili area. Trypanosomosis was virtually absent in the Linyanti/Chobe area and the target barrier along the Kwando River had significantly reduced the prevalence of trypanosomosis in cattle grazing to the east of it. This suggests that anti-trypanosomal antibody prevalence data can be used to evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of tsetse control measures. Survey results suggest that in the Katima Mulilo area, trypanosomal infections were being acquired when cattle grazed along the Zambezi River. Moreover, survey results indicate that tsetse have not been able to establish themselves in the Katima Mulilo area. The parasitological prevalence in a herd and the respective prevalence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies was significantly correlated to the percentage of anaemic animals in that herd. Furthermore, the parasitological prevalence in a herd was positively correlated with the prevalence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies of that herd. It is concluded that the prevalence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies in a herd can be used as an additional indicator of the extent of infection in that particular herd. PMID:10486826

van den Bossche, P; Mudenge, D; Mubanga, J; Norval, A

1999-06-01

63

Comparison of Clinical and Parasitological Data from Controlled Human Malaria Infection Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Exposing healthy human volunteers to Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is an accepted tool to evaluate preliminary efficacy of malaria vaccines. To accommodate the demand of the malaria vaccine pipeline, controlled infections are carried out in an increasing number of centers worldwide. We assessed their safety and reproducibility. Methods We reviewed safety and parasitological data from 128 malaria-nave subjects participating in controlled malaria infection trials conducted at the University of Oxford, UK, and the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, The Netherlands. Results were compared to a report from the US Military Malaria Vaccine Program. Results We show that controlled human malaria infection trials are safe and demonstrate a consistent safety profile with minor differences in the frequencies of arthralgia, fatigue, chills and fever between institutions. But prepatent periods show significant variation. Detailed analysis of Q-PCR data reveals highly synchronous blood stage parasite growth and multiplication rates. Conclusions Procedural differences can lead to some variation in safety profile and parasite kinetics between institutions. Further harmonization and standardization of protocols will be useful for wider adoption of these cost-effective small-scale efficacy trials. Nevertheless, parasite growth rates are highly reproducible, illustrating the robustness of controlled infections as a valid tool for malaria vaccine development.

Roestenberg, Meta; O'Hara, Geraldine A.; Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Epstein, Judith E.; Edwards, Nick J.; Scholzen, Anja; van der Ven, Andre J. A. M.; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Sauerwein, Robert W.

2012-01-01

64

Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia: relationship between clinical and parasitologic status and infectivity for sand flies.  

PubMed

We studied the reservoir competency of canines with distinct clinical presentations of Leishmania chagasi infection. The parasitologic status of asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs was determined by standard culture methods Infectivity was assessed by multiple xenodiagnoses with Lutzomyia longipalpis, over a period of 2-11 months. Asymptomatic dogs were non-infective (0 of 5) while 2 of 7 oligosymptomatic dogs infected L longipalpis, transmitting the parasites at low rates (range 0.9-5.2% of engorged flies). Polysymptomatic dogs transmitted L. chagasi more frequently (4 of 8 dogs) and reached higher infection rates (range 5.0-22.5% of engorged flies). The skin of the ear tended to be more infective to sand flies than that of the abdomen. Polymerase chain reaction hybridization (PCR-H) was a sensitive method for detection of L. chagasi, yielding the highest positive rate in serum (16 of 17 dogs) with no distinction between clinical groups. No association between skin positivity by PCR-H and infectivity to sand flies was found. The infectivity of dogs from clinically comparable groups from Colombian and Mediterranean foci differed. This may be a reflection of varied nutritional conditions or vector competency of distinct sand fly species. PMID:11442205

Travi, B L; Tabares, C J; Cadena, H; Ferro, C; Osorio, Y

2001-01-01

65

[Epidemiology of parasitic diseases, hypereosinophilia, IgE from tropical and European parasitological origins].  

PubMed

Etiologic investigations of hypereosinophilia, often accompanied by IgE elevation, depends on the patient's geographic origin and travel history. In France, helminth diseases are the only parasitoses associated with hypereosinophilia. Some, such as oxyurosis in children, are frequent but generally mild. More severe but less frequent infections include distomatoses, trichinellosis, taeniasis, echinococcosis and visceral larva migrans. Among subjects originating from or having travelled to tropical areas with poor hygiene, eosinophilia may be due to early intense polyparasitism and has little etiologic value. In Gabon, a warm, humid country in equatorial Africa, schoolchildren harbor an average of three different parasites capable of inducing hypereosinophilia or serum IgE elevation. These children's eosinophil counts start to rise at very young age, after weaning and contact with soil, and continue to increase rapidly until adulthood. Average values across all age groups are 1580 eosinophils/mm3 and 3300 kU IgE/L. Direct diagnosis of chronic parasitic infections is often possible in this setting, and specific treatments can be prescribed. In contrast, hypereosinophilia has less etiologic significance in patients originating from or having travelled to the tropics and who present to European parasitology units. Direct examination is rarely positive, and the etiologic diagnosis will thus be guided by epidemiologic, clinical and serologic findings. These findings are sometimes sufficient to initiate probabilistic treatment with albendazole, ivermectin and praziquentel. PMID:21171249

Richard-Lenoble, Dominique; Kombila, Maryvonne; Gendrel, Dominique

2010-03-01

66

Current problems concerning parasitology and mycology with regard to diseases of the skin and its appendages.  

PubMed

Current issues concerning Parasitology and Mycology with regard to diseases of the skin and its appendages are presented. Aspects of diagnostics, clinical picture and therapy of skin and nail mycoses, as well as difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of both native parasitoses (toxoplasmosis) and imported human tropical parasitoses (malaria, filariosis) have been emphasised. The clinical importance of environmental mould fungi in nosocomial infections and fungal meningitis, as well as selected properties of fungi isolated from patients with head and neck neoplasms treated by radiotherapy are discussed. Other mycological topics include the characteristics of newly-synthesized thiosemicarbazides and thiadiazoles as potential drugs against toxoplasmosis and their biological activity against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, selected molecular mechanisms of resistance to azoles, Candida albicans strains and a new tool (barcoding DNA) for describing the biodiversity of potential allergenic molds. The importance of environmental factors in pathogenesis of mycoses and parasitoses is noted. The characteristics of pathogenic fungi isolated from natural ponds in Bialystok and potentially pathogenic yeast-like fungi isolated from children's recreation areas in Lodz are presented. The ongoing problem of anthropozoonoses is considered, as are the roles of stray cats and dogs in contaminating soil with the developing forms of intestinal parasites. The characteristics of the human microbiome, including population composition, activity and their importance in normal human physiology, are presented, as are the major goals of the Human Microbiome Project initiated by National Institutes of Health (NIH). PMID:23444796

B?aszkowska, Joanna; Wjcik, Anna

2012-01-01

67

Integrating genetic and parasitological approaches in the frame of multidisciplinary fish stock analysis.  

PubMed

To assess fish stocks boundaries and state, the tools of population genetics have been widely used, contributing to the evaluation of relevant parameters such as the identification of stock boundaries, the assessment of gene flow and the estimation of effective population size. Also, increasing evidences show that the monitoring of the genetic diversity level is a reliable method to check the status of fish stocks. However, genetics cannot answer all the questions. For example, in high gene flow species the genetic approach could have not enough resolution to identify stock limits, while the use of parasites as biological tags could provide insights into stock structure. Even better, the so-called holistic approach, applying simultaneously a wide range of complementary techniques, is the only one considered able to provide a reliable and complete picture of fish stocks and to address a sustainable exploitation of marine resources. The work will present some examples from multidisciplinary studies concerning commercially relevant species with different biological features: the demersal European hake (Merluccius merluccius), the small pelagic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and the large pelagic swordfish (Xiphias gladius). In all these case studies merging genetic, parasitological and environmental data helped to reveal the real patterns of stocks structure. PMID:18410069

Cimmaruta, R; Mattiucci, S; Nascetti, G

2007-09-01

68

Parasitological characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni infection in swiss mice with underlying malnutrition.  

PubMed

The effects of a protein-restricted diet (8% protein, 81% carbohydrate and 11% lipids) on Schistosoma mansoni infectivity, fecal egg excretion and intestinal egg distribution in Swiss (SW) mice were studied. Pregnant mice received a deficient diet from the middle of gestation until delivery. Seven-days-old mice were exposed to 50 cercariae (BH strain, Brazil). Offspring mice had a free access to the deficient diet since lactation until adulthood. The controls were fed with a commercial mice diet. A parasitological examination was performed between six and eight weeks post-infection while both groups were necropsied one week later. Mice on the experimental diet showed a significant loss in body weight. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in pre-patent period, kinetics of egg excretion and worm recovery from mice on either diet. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found concerning to the percentage of deposited eggs in the distal segment of the small intestine from hosts on the experimental diet. Our data suggest that experimental malnutrition induced for a long term has no detrimental effect on the acute schistosomiais infection in SW mice. PMID:12426609

Simes, Carla; Neves, Renata Heisler; Barros, Lucas de Andrade; Brito, Patrcia Dias; Cravo, Cristiane Oliveira; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Machado-Silva, Jos Roberto

2002-01-01

69

The use of fish metabolic, pathological and parasitological indices in pollution monitoring . I. North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

??An integrated biological effect monitoring concept has been tested in flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) from four locations with different anthropogenic impact in the German Bight. During 3 years of sampling, biomarkers at all levels of biological organisation from the molecular to the ecosystem level were applied and tested on 742 individual fish of body lengths between 18 and 25 cm. At the ecosystem level, the fish were taken as a habitat for the parasite assemblage. The hypothesis was that changes in the environment might lead to changes in the species diversity of parasites and in the infection intensity of single species, as well as between heteroxenic and monoxenic parasite species (H/M ratio). At the molecular level, activity of the CYP1A-dependent monooxygenase ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) was used as a biomarker of exposure. At the subcellular level, the integrity of lysosomal membranes in hepatocytes was taken as an indicator of non-specific acute and chronic toxic effects. Both biomarkers are recommended by the ICES Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment for the application in biological effects monitoring programmes. In addition, neutral lipid content in the liver was used as a marker for pathologically induced fat accumulation. In the same individual fish, a new method for the measurement of macrophage aggregate activity in the liver was tested for its application and reliability in reflecting immunosuppression. Tests were accompanied by chemical analysis of standard organochlorine and heavy metal residues in flounder tissue. A total of 33 parasite species were found. As an indicator species, the mean abundance of Trichodina sp. reflected best the pollution gradient observed with highest infection intensity at the most polluted location. Species diversity was significantly higher in fish caught near the reference site and significantly lower in fish from the polluted Elbe estuary. The use of the heteroxenous/monoxenous species ratio as a marker was not useful at the locations investigated because of the dominance of heteroxenous species at all habitats. Since EROD activity and macrophage aggregate activity were dependent on sex and maturity of female flounder, only male fish were taken into consideration for the integrated evaluation of data. All biochemical and histochemical tests were able to reflect accurately the site-specific differences, as well as an observed pollution event at the end of 1995 as determined by chemical analyses. The correlation analysis revealed a connection not only between the single parasitological and biochemical parameters but also within these groups. The non-specific immune response and Trichodina infection intensity were correlated with all other parameters, leading to the assumption that these may serve as links between the lowest and the highest levels of biological organisation. The simultaneous use of metabolic and parasitological results facilitated the interpretation of the observed variations of the data and the distinction between natural variation and pollution-mediated effects.

Broeg, K.; Zander, S.; Diamant, A.; Krting, W.; Krner, G.; Paperna, I.; Westernhagen, H. v.

70

Serological and parasitological response in chronic Chagas patients 3 years after nifurtimox treatment  

PubMed Central

Background With declining vectorial transmission, Chagas disease predominantly affects adults nowadays. The efficacy of nifurtimox in the chronic phase in adult patients is poorly known, particularly in regions where there is no risk of reinfection. Recommendations for treatment outcome assessment rely on serological follow-up. We evaluated the serological and parasitological response to nifurtimox in a cohort of adult patients three years post-treatment in Switzerland. Methods Patients treated with nifurtimox in 2008 during a cross-sectional study in Geneva, Switzerland, were contacted for follow-up in 2011. Two ELISAs and a rapid immunochromatographic test were used to test 2008 and 2011 serum samples simultaneously. In addition, conventional and real-time PCR were performed on 2011 samples. Results Thirty-seven (84.1%) of 44 eligible patients, predominantly female, middle-aged, Bolivians at the indeterminate stage, were enrolled. All 2011 ELISA and immunochromatographic tests were positive. Twenty-eight (75.7%) patients presented a lower optical density (OD) in 2011 compared to 2008. This OD difference was significant in both commercial (P?

2013-01-01

71

Parasitological and nutritional situation of school children in the Sukaraja district, West Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

A parasitological survey of children aged 8 to 10 years from ten schools located in the rural district Sukaraja, West Java, Indonesia was conducted in December 1995. A total of 348 fecal samples were examined by using modified Kato-Katz thick smear techniques, 365 blood samples for the measurement of hemoglobin concentration, and anthropometric data were obtained from 404 participants. Four nematode (hookworm taken as one species), two cestode and nine protozoan species were detected, but no trematode infection was observed. Among helminths, soil-transmitted nematode infections were predominant, Trichuris trichiura with a prevalence of 76% being the most common infection, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (44%). Hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were found in 9% and 3% of the children examined, respectively. Among protozoa, Blastocystis hominis was by far the most common species, detected in 60% of volunteers cases. For the helminths A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm, school to school differences in parasite prevalence and infection intensity were observed; these were probably due to different socioeconomic and sanitary-environmental conditions. Intensity of Ascaris and hookworm infection tended to be highly over-dispersed; 85% of the worms identified were harbored by 15% and 7% of the children, respectively. Nutritional status was characterized by an average anemia rate of 13% and a prevalence of 51% stunting. All nutritional indicators differed significantly from school to school. Intensity of geohelminths infection could not be associated to the observed nutritional indicators. Thus, there must be additional factors contributing to the studied nutritional indicators of the school children which overlay a possible influence of moderate to heavy worm burden. PMID:9322303

Pegelow, K; Gross, R; Pietrzik, K; Lukito, W; Richards, A L; Fryauff, D J

1997-03-01

72

Frontiers of parasitology research in the People's Republic of China: infection, diagnosis, protection and surveillance  

PubMed Central

Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China) from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China), covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011) and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i) development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii) updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii) improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world.

2012-01-01

73

[Effect of steam application based on microbiological and parasitologic test procedures].  

PubMed

In the present study steam application was investigated with regard to microbicidal and parasiticidal effects. The cleaning apparatus used (Uninova Company) works at a boiler pressure of about 5 bar and consequently with a temperature up to 155 degrees C inside the boiler. Whereas the ambient atmosphere working temperature of steam is slightly below 100 degrees C. The tests are based on the DVG guidelines for testing chemical disinfectants (2). Different steaming times and distances were used in germ carrier tests with three different germ carriers (tile, wood, carpet) and three different test germs (Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans) in order to determine the optimum conditions for biocidal effects of steam-application. These optimum conditions were additionally tested with two test viruses (ECBO- and Reo-virus) and a parasitological resting form (ascarid worm eggs). Swirling of germs caused by steam turbulence was minimized by covering the steam outlet nozzle with cloth. The experiments showed logarithmical reduction factors of at least 5.0 in the germ count at steaming times of 5 seconds and a steaming distance of 2.5 cm for all three test germs on all three germ carriers (mean of 10 repeated tests). The virological tests showed good disinfection results after a steaming time of only 2 seconds using aseptic gauze as germ carrier and also after 5 seconds using wood as a carrier. Finally in testing vitality of undeveloped Ascarid worm eggs only 2 seconds of steam treatment proved to be sufficient for a 100 percent destruction. According to the present results steam treatment is most likely to become a valuable, ecologically compatible method in controlling hygienic problems, with a potential of partly replacing chemical disinfectants. In particular we see applications in keeping pets and companion animals, provided the above mentioned rules are followed (steaming distance 2.5 cm; steaming time 5 seconds; cloth). In farm animal stables steam disinfection seems harder to achieve because of large, rough surfaces and economical reasons as e.g. expenditure of time and energy. PMID:9916288

Haas, A; Platz, S; Eichhorn, W; Kaaden, O R; Unshelm, J

1998-12-01

74

Bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: Parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background To clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes. Results A total of 239 cattle were sampled across eight locations ranging in elevation from 1112-2072?m. Faecal material was examined for presence of Fasciola eggs and sera were tested by ELISA for antibodies against Fasciola antigens. Bolstering this, 38 cattle at slaughter from 2 abattoir sites at 1150?m and 1947?m were inspected; in addition, wild buffalo stool (n?=?10) opportunistically picked within Mount Elgon National Park (MENP) at 3640?m was examined. By faecal egg detection, prevalence of Fasciola gigantica at low (<1500?m) and high (>1500?m) altitude sites was 43.7% (95% CI 35.4-52.2) and 1.1% (95% CI 0.0-6.0), respectively, while by ELISA was much higher, low altitude - 77.9% (95% CI 69.7-85.4) and high altitude - 64.5% (95% CI 51.3-76.3). The decline in prevalence with increasing altitude was corroborated by abattoir sampling. Thirty seven aquatic habitats, ranging from 1139-3937?m in altitude were inspected for freshwater snails, 12 of which were within MENP. At lower altitudes, Lymnaea (Radix) natalensis was common, and often abundant, but at higher altitudes became much rarer ceasing to be found above 1800?m. On the other hand, Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula was found only at altitudes above 3000?m and within MENP alone. The snail identifications were confirmed by DNA analysis of the ribosomal 18S gene. Conclusions Active infections of F. gigantica in cattle are common in lower altitude settings but appear to diminish with increasing elevation. This is likely due to a growing paucity of intermediate hosts, specifically populations of L. natalensis for which a natural boundary of 1800?m appeared. Although F. hepatica was not encountered, the presence of several populations of L. truncatula at elevations over 3000?m point towards a potential transmission zone within MENP should this parasite be introduced.

2012-01-01

75

Evaluation of myrrh (Mirazid) therapy in fascioliasis and intestinal schistosomiasis in children: immunological and parasitological study.  

PubMed

A total of 21 children with fascioliasis (8 males and 13 females) with mean age of 10.4 years, 8 children with schistosomiasis mansoni (6 males and 2 females) with mean age of 11.37 years were treated with Myrrh (Mirazid) which is an oleo-gum resin from the stem of Commiphora molmol tree (Family Burseraceae). Also, ten healthly cross matched children were utilized as controls. Diagnosis was based on the detection of Fasciola hepatica or Schistosoma mansoni eggs in stool by Kato-Katz technique. Mirazid was given as 10 mg/kg/d an hour before breakfast for 3 consecutive days in schistosomiasis and for 6 days in fascioliasis. Clinical evaluation and stool analysis were done initially and at 2, 4 and 12 weeks post treatment to evaluate cure. Rectal snip was done for responding schistosomiasis cases to confirm recovery. Automated complete blood count with manual assessment of eosinophils, serum total IgE (enzyme immunoassay) and in vitro cytokines assay (IL-1 beta, IL-4, IL-5) by ELISA were performed for all subjects before treatment and repeated 12 weeks only for patients after therapy. Parasitologic cure was 90.9% in fascioliasis and 100% in schistosomiasis at 4 weeks post treatment. After a second dose Fasciola patients who remained positive were cured. Total IgE was significantly higher in Fasciola and Schistosoma patients before treatment compared to control (p < 0.001; 0.005 respectively) and decreased significantly with therapy (p = 0.001; 0.036). IL-1beta was higher in both patient groups than control (p < 0.001; 0.003) and decreased significantly 12 weeks after therapy to control level (p < 0.001; 0.017). IL-5 was high before treatment in both groups (p = 0.041; 0.027) and decreased significantly after 12 weeks after therapy (p = 0.005; 0.012). IL-4 did not differ from control before therapy (p = 0.58; 0.79) but increased significantly after treatment in both patient groups (p = 0.04; 0.02). It is concluded that Mirazid is an effective fasciolicidal and schistosomicidal drug. IL-1beta and IL5 were high in fascioliasis and schistosomiasis, but decreased with therapy denoting immunopathogenesis. The depressed IL-4 production may be a parasite immune evasion or host regulatory mechanism and cytokines levels may be criteria of cure. PMID:15587320

Soliman, Othman E; El-Arman, Mohammed; Abdul-Samie, Elham R; El-Nemr, Hosam I; Massoud, Ahmed

2004-12-01

76

Parasitological impact of 2-year preventive chemotherapy on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are among the neglected tropical diseases in Africa. A national control program for these diseases was initiated in Uganda during March 2003. Annual treatment with praziquantel and albendazole was given to schoolchildren in endemic areas and to adults in selected communities where local prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in schoolchildren was high. Methods The impact of the treatment program was monitored through cohorts of schoolchildren and adults. Their infection status with S. mansoni and STH was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at annual follow-ups. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni and STH before and after treatment were analyzed. Results Two rounds of treatment significantly reduced the prevalence of S. mansoni infection in schoolchildren across three regions in the country from 33.449.3% to 9.729.6%, and intensity of infection from 105.7386.8 eggs per gram of faeces (epg) to 11.684.1 epg. The prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced from 41.257.9% to 5.516.1%, and intensity of infection from 186.9416.8 epg to 3.736.9 epg. The proportion of children with heavy S. mansoni infection was significantly reduced from 15% (95% CI 13.416.8%) to 2.3% (95% CI 1.63.0%). In adults, significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni and hookworm infections was also observed. More importantly, the prevalence and intensity of both S. mansoni and hookworm infections in the cohorts of newly-recruited 6-year-olds who had never previously received treatment decreased significantly over 2 years: 34.9% (95% CI 31.937.8%) to 22.6% (95% CI 19.925.2%) and 171.1 epg (95% CI 141.5200.7) to 72.0 epg (95% CI 50.993.1) for S. mansoni; and 48.4% (95% CI 45.451.5) to 15.9% (95% CI 13.618.2) and 232.7 epg (95% CI 188.4276.9) to 51.4 epg (95% CI 33.469.5) for hookworms, suggesting a general decline in environmental transmission levels. Conclusion Annual anthelminthic treatment delivered to schoolchildren and to adults at high risk in Uganda can significantly reduce the prevalence and intensity of infection for schistosomiasis and STH, and potentially also significantly reduce levels of environmental transmission of infection.

Zhang, Yaobi; Koukounari, Artemis; Kabatereine, Narcis; Fleming, Fiona; Kazibwe, Francis; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Stothard, J Russell; Webster, Joanne P; Fenwick, Alan

2007-01-01

77

Performance of Parasitological and Molecular Techniques for the Diagnosis and Surveillance of Gambiense Sleeping Sickness  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recently, improvements have been made to diagnostics for gambiense sleeping sickness control but their performance remains poorly documented and may depend on specimen processing prior to examination. In a prospective study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we compared the diagnostic performance of several parasite detection techniques, immune trypanolysis and of m18S PCR on whole blood stored in a stabilisation buffer or dried on filter paper. Methods Individuals with CATT whole blood (WB) titer ?1?4 or with clinical signs indicative for sleeping sickness were examined for presence of trypanosomes in lymph node aspirate (LNA) and/or in blood. Blood was examined with Capillary Centrifugation Technique (CTC), mini-Anion Exchange Centrifugation Technique (mAECT) and mAECT on buffy coat (BC). PCR was performed on whole blood (i) stored in guanidine hydrochloride EDTA (GE) stabilisation buffer and (ii) dried on filter paper, and repeatability and reproducibility were assessed. Immune trypanolysis (TL) was performed on plasma. Results A total of 237 persons were included. Among 143 parasitologically confirmed cases, 85.3% had a CATT-WB titre of ?1/8, 39.2% were positive in LNA, 47.5% in CTC, 80.4% in mAECT-WB, 90.9% in mAECT-BC, 95.1% in TL and up to 89.5% in PCR on GE-stabilised blood. PCR on GE-stabilised blood showed highest repeatability (87.8%) and inter-laboratory reproducibility (86.9%). Of the 94 non-confirmed suspects, respectively 39.4% and 23.4% were TL or PCR positive. Suboptimal specificity of PCR and TL was also suggested by latent class analysis. Conclusion The combination of LNA examination with mAECT-BC offered excellent diagnostic sensitivity. For PCR, storage of blood in stabilisation buffer is to be preferred over filter paper. TL as well as PCR are useful for remote diagnosis but are not more sensitive than mAECT-BC. For TL and PCR, the specificity, and thus usefulness for management of non-confirmed suspects remain to be determined.

Mumba Ngoyi, Dieudonne; Ali Ekangu, Rosine; Mumvemba Kodi, Marie France; Pyana, Patient Pati; Balharbi, Fatima; Decq, Melanie; Kande Betu, Victor; Van der Veken, Wim; Sese, Claude; Menten, Joris; Buscher, Philippe; Lejon, Veerle

2014-01-01

78

Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: the Sampling Site within Lesions Influences the Sensitivity of Parasitologic Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Parasitologic confirmation of cutaneous leishmaniasis is obligatory before chemotherapy can be considered. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings taken from indurated borders of ulcers has been routinely used as primary method of diagnosis. In this report we compared the sensitivity of examination of dermal scrapings taken from the bottoms of ulcers (BDS) with that of dermal scrapings taken from indurated active margins of lesions (MDS) in a total of 115 patients. The sensitivities of the microscopic examination were 90.4 and 78.3% for BDS and MDS samples, respectively. When the PCR method was used with a group of 40 patients, we also observed a higher sensitivity when BDS samples were examined (80.8% in BDS samples versus 57.7% in MDS samples). The improvement of the diagnostic sensitivity in the BDS samples appears to be related to the higher parasite load and more easily detectable morphology of amastigotes in the centers of the ulcers. Other parasitologic diagnostic methods, such as culture and histopathologic examination of biopsies, are less sensitive (67.5 and 64.3%, respectively). Aspirate culture, however, was shown to be the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of patients with chronic ulcers. When microscopic examinations of both MDS and BDS samples are combined, the sensitivity of diagnosis may rise up to 94%. We therefore recommend this method as a primary routine procedure for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Ramirez, Jose Robinson; Agudelo, Sonia; Muskus, Carlos; Alzate, Juan Fernando; Berberich, Christof; Barker, Douglas; Velez, Ivan Dario

2000-01-01

79

Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia: the sampling site within lesions influences the sensitivity of parasitologic diagnosis.  

PubMed

Parasitologic confirmation of cutaneous leishmaniasis is obligatory before chemotherapy can be considered. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings taken from indurated borders of ulcers has been routinely used as primary method of diagnosis. In this report we compared the sensitivity of examination of dermal scrapings taken from the bottoms of ulcers (BDS) with that of dermal scrapings taken from indurated active margins of lesions (MDS) in a total of 115 patients. The sensitivities of the microscopic examination were 90.4 and 78.3% for BDS and MDS samples, respectively. When the PCR method was used with a group of 40 patients, we also observed a higher sensitivity when BDS samples were examined (80.8% in BDS samples versus 57.7% in MDS samples). The improvement of the diagnostic sensitivity in the BDS samples appears to be related to the higher parasite load and more easily detectable morphology of amastigotes in the centers of the ulcers. Other parasitologic diagnostic methods, such as culture and histopathologic examination of biopsies, are less sensitive (67.5 and 64.3%, respectively). Aspirate culture, however, was shown to be the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of patients with chronic ulcers. When microscopic examinations of both MDS and BDS samples are combined, the sensitivity of diagnosis may rise up to 94%. We therefore recommend this method as a primary routine procedure for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:11015400

Ramrez, J R; Agudelo, S; Muskus, C; Alzate, J F; Berberich, C; Barker, D; Velez, I D

2000-10-01

80

[Parasitological, immunohistochemical and histopathological study for Leishmania chagasi detection in splenic tissues of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis].  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis--CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics (8 dogs), oligosymptomatics (17 dogs) and symptomatics (9 dogs). After the accomplishment of all diagnostic tests, 22 dogs were considered positives (64.7%) and 12 (35.3%) were negatives to CVL. From these positive dogs, 1/22 (4.5%) was asymptomatic, 12/22(54.5%) were oligosymptomatics and 8/22 (40.1%) were symptomatics. The histopathological study in spleen tissues from positive, especially symptomatic dogs, showed a diffuse chronic inflammation with thickness of capsular and trabecular regions and there was extensive morphologic alteration of the red and white pulp by the presence of abundant macrophages full with amastigotes, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction and haemorrhagic areas. The data of this work from histopathologic examination and direct microscopic visualization of L. (L.) chagasi showed that the spleen was an useful organ to collect sample tissues for CVL diagnosis. The immunostaining detected the highest number of positive dogs and were considered an important and conclusive method to be used in addition to parasitological methods for CVL, particularly in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic dogs. PMID:19500457

Tasca, Karen Ingrid; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke; Tenorio, Michely da Silva; Paulan, Silvana de Cssia; Lima, Flvia Luna; de Queiroz, Nina Mari Gual Pimenta; Machado, Rosngela Zacarias; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Souza; Neves, Maria Francisca; de Noronha, Antonio Carlos Faconti; de Assis, Juliana

2009-01-01

81

One-year clinical and parasitological follow-up of dogs treated with marbofloxacin for canine leishmaniosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this international, multicentric, and non-comparative field trial was to obtain complementary data on long-term clinical and parasitological follow-up of dogs treated with marbofloxacin for canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Seventy-four dogs with clinical signs of CanL and without severe renal failure were recruited in France, Spain and Italy, and 61 of them were part of the analysis. Each dog was treated with palatable tablets of marbofloxacin at 2 mg/kg once a day for 28 days. A clinical and parasitological follow-up was performed regularly up to 12 months. Efficacy was demonstrated in 42 dogs (68.9%), within 51 days (mean value), 10 of them (23.8%) being clinically cured after 3 months. A decrease of 61% in the sum of clinical scores was observed after 3 months. Haemato-biochemical parameters improved in general, supporting the observed clinical efficacy. Relapse was observed in 20/38 dogs (52.6%) approximately 5.5 months after treatment completion. The blood parasite load generally developed in conformity with the clinical outcome, even if exceptions were not rare. Lymph nodes remained positive by culture or PCR for a long time, even in dogs for which a good clinical response was observed. Despite the incomplete parasite clearance, as is also the case with other anti-leishmanial drugs, these results nevertheless confirm the relevance of marbofloxacin as a CanL treatment. PMID:22130335

Rougier, Sandrine; Hasseine, Lilia; Delaunay, Pascal; Michel, Grgory; Marty, Pierre

2012-05-25

82

In Their Own Words Or: Symptoms of Morgellons and Neurocutaneous Syndrome (Ncs) Upon First Examination at the Parasitology Center, Inc. (Pci)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon first examination at Parasitology Center, Inc. (PCI), Scottsdale, Arizona, prospective Neuro- cutaneous Syndrome (NCS) and Morgellons patients are required to fill out a Requisition Form in which they are asked to describe their symptoms. The body of this article is a compilation of statements by 166 patients in their own words, describing their symptoms at the time, the cause

Omar M. Amin

2010-01-01

83

[Onychomycosis in Morocco: experience of the parasitology and medical mycology laboratory from Rabat children hospital (1982-2003)].  

PubMed

Cases of onychomycosis diagnosed by mycological examination in the parasitology and mycology laboratory (Children Hospital, Rabat, Marocco) over the 22-year period, between 1982 and 2003, have been reviewed. 17,177 dermatophytes have been isolated in 4,940 patients. Dermatophytes presented 61.46% of onychomycosis, yeasts Candida albicans were responsible in 25.5%, moulds in 1.53% and for 12% fungi identification was not determined (positive direct examination or negative direct examination and culture despite typical clinical aspect). The most frequent dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum (83.6%), followed by Trichophyton violaceum var. glabrum (9%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (6.9%). Candida albicans was the prevalent yeast. Moulds were mainly Fusarium spp. (47%), followed Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (16%) and Aspergillus spp. (12%). Dermatophytes and moulds most commonly infected the toenails, yeasts the fingernails. PMID:16330383

Boukachabine, K; Agoumi, A

2005-01-01

84

High Parasitological Failure Rate of Visceral Leishmaniasis to Sodium Stibogluconate among HIV Co-infected Adults in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Antimonials are still being used for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment among HIV co-infected patients in East-Africa due to the shortage of alternative safer drugs like liposomal amphotericin B. Besides tolerability, emergence of resistance to antimonials is a major concern. Objectives This study was aimed at assessing the clinical outcome of VL-HIV co-infected patients when treated with sodium stibogluconate (SSG). Methods Retrospective patient record analysis of VL-HIV co-infected patients treated at a clinical trial site in north-west Ethiopia was done. Patients with parasitologically confirmed VL and HIV co-infection treated with SSG were included. The dose of SSG used was 20 mg Sb5 (pentavalent antimony)/kg and maximum of 850 mg Sb5 for 30 days. The clinical outcomes were defined based on the tissue aspiration results as cure or failure, and additionally the safety and mortality rates were computed. Results The study included 57 patients treated with SSG and by the end of treatment only 43.9% of patients were cured. The parasitological treatment failure and the case fatality rate were 31.6% and 14.0% respectively. SSG was discontinued temporarily or permanently for 12 (21.1%) cases due to safety issues. High baseline parasite load (graded more than 4+) was significantly associated with treatment failure (odds ratio?=?8.9, 95% confidence interval?=?.5-51.7). Conclusion SSG is not only unsafe, but also has low effectiveness for VL-HIV patients. Safe and effective alternative medications are very urgently needed. Drug sensitivity surveillance should be introduced in the region.

Diro, Ermias; Lynen, Lutgarde; Mohammed, Rezika; Boelaert, Marleen; Hailu, Asrat; van Griensven, Johan

2014-01-01

85

The use of fish metabolic, pathological and parasitological indices in pollution monitoring . II. The Red Sea and Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

??The complex interactions between parasites, hosts and the environment are influenced by the stability of the ecosystem. Heteroxenous parasites, with complex, multiple-host life cycles, can persist only in habitats where the full range of their required hosts are present. Conversely, in impoverished environments such as those impacted by environmental stress, monoxenous species that have simple, single-host life cycles are likely to predominate. In the present study, we analyzed the ratio between heteroxenous and monoxenous (H/M) parasites as well as parasite species richness (SH/SM) and species diversity in rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) collected from several sites in the Red Sea. The rabbitfish is a Suez Canal immigrant, well established in the eastern Mediterranean, and fish were also collected from a site on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Separate treatment of the micro- and macroparasite components of the rabbitfish parasite communities in the Red Sea suggested that macroparasites only - monogenea and gut parasites - were better indicators than the parasite community as a whole. Quantification of macroparasites is accurate, saves time and effort, produces more accurate data and better differentiates between sites. Higher H/M ratios and SH/SM ratios were found in the rabbitfish collected at the ecologically stable habitat of the coral reef compared to rabbitfish from sandy habitat or mariculture-impacted sandy habitat. The results of the study emphasized the negative impacts of cage mariculture on the environment. The rabbitfish collected near the mariculture farms supported the poorest and least diverse parasite communities of all sampled sites, with virtual depletion of heteroxenous species, and even reduction of gill monogenean infections on the hosts. When results from the Mediterranean sites were compared with those of the Red Sea, the data showed full representation of monoxenous parasites (all but one of Red Sea origin), while heteroxenous species were completely absent. We may therefore regard the Mediterranean as a simulation model for a severely environmentally deteriorated, impoverished habitat, in which all or part of the intermediate host species have been depleted, enabling survival of the monoxenous parasite species only. Parasitological investigations were supplemented by testing the activity of cytochrome P 450- dependent mono-oxygenase EROD as a measure of exposure, and lysosomal stability as a measure of toxic effect in the liver of rabbitfish. The results underline the parasitological findings, showing that fish caught at the impacted sandy beach location in the Red Sea have significantly higher EROD activity and a decreased membrane stability compared with animals from the coral reef. In comparison, EROD activity values in rabbitfish from the Mediterranean Sea were double, while lysosomal membrane stability was half that measured at the most impacted Red Sea location.

Diamant, A.; Banet, A.; Paperna, I.; Westernhagen, H. v.; Broeg, K.; Kruener, G.; Koerting, W.; Zander, S.

86

Effect of experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus on parasitological and local cellular responses in resistant and susceptible young Creole goats.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the relationships of cellular changes in the abomasal mucosa and parasitological parameters, by comparing resistant and susceptible young Creole goats (kids) after experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus. The kids were infected over 2 periods (challenges 1 and 2) of 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Fecal egg count (FEC), blood eosinophilia, packed cell volume (PCV), and body weight were weekly monitored. At the end of both challenges a subgroup of kids was slaughtered for nematode burden measurements and analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the abomasal mucosa. The average daily gain was higher in resistant kids after both challenges. Blood eosinophilia and FEC were higher in susceptible kids after both challenges. The number of immature worms and the means of female length were lower after challenge 2 whatever the genetic status. No differences were observed in the eosinophil and mononuclear cell infiltration between challenges 1 and 2 and resistant and susceptible kids. Globule leukocyte infiltration was found higher after the challenge 1 in resistant kids. This effect of the genetic status on globule leukocytes counts but not on the other inflammatory cell highlights the need for further study on the functional activity of these cell populations. PMID:23936855

Bambou, J C; Larcher, T; Ce, W; Dumoulin, P J; Mandonnet, N

2013-01-01

87

Clinical, parasitologic, and immunologic evolution in dogs experimentally infected with sand fly-derived Leishmania chagasi promastigotes.  

PubMed

Experimental infection of dogs with Leishmania infantum has yielded heterogeneous clinical, parasitologic, and immunologic results. We studied dogs infected with 10(5) or 10(4) sand fly-derived promastigotes delivered by the intradermal (ID) or intravenous (IV) routes. Total mortality over 1 year post-infection reached 23.8%. The mortality and proportion of sustained polysymptomatic dogs was highest in the IV-10(5) group. The early appearance of polysymptoms was associated with an increased risk of progression to death. Dissemination of the parasite to lymph nodes was faster, and the subsequent infectivity to sand flies higher, in the IV compared with ID-infected dogs. Parasite-specific IgG1 or IgG2 production was similar among the groups, but higher interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression was associated with polysymptomatic dogs. On the basis of the data obtained from this study, a sample size analysis using different endpoints for future vaccine trials is described. PMID:19996427

Travi, Bruno L; Osorio, Elvia Yaneth; Saldarriaga, Omar A; Cadena, Horacio; Tabares, Carlos Javier; Peniche, Alex; Lee, Shuko; Melby, Peter C

2009-12-01

88

Antimonial treatment of hamsters infected with Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis: assessment of parasitological cure with different therapeutic schedules.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to establish the effective dose and route of administration of Glucantime for treating hamsters infected with Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis and to use this method to test new treatment regimens to attain clinical and parasitological cure. In the first experiments animals were inoculated subcutaneously in the hind foot with 5 x 10(6) promastigotes of L. panamensis (HOM/COL/84/1099) from a 6 d culture. One month after inoculation, Glucantime was administered intramuscularly (i.m.) at 20, 40 or 60 mg/kg/d for 20 d to groups of hamsters. Only 60 mg/kg/d resulted in both clinical improvement and parasite elimination from the skin and draining lymph node. In the second set of experiments, i.m., local and combined antimonial regimens were compared. The local regimen, of 4 intralesional (i.l.) injections of 4 mg of antimony at 5 d intervals, and the combined regimen (i.m. and i.l.), were more efficient at clearing parasites than the systemic (i.m.) schedule, especially when a low dosage of Glucantime (30 mg/kg/d x 20 d) was used. The results suggest that combining local treatment and low systemic dosages of antimonials results in clearance of L. panamensis. PMID:8266413

Travi, B L; Martinez, J E; Zea, A

1993-01-01

89

Effect of Experimental Infection with Haemonchus contortus on Parasitological and Local Cellular Responses in Resistant and Susceptible Young Creole Goats  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to evaluate the relationships of cellular changes in the abomasal mucosa and parasitological parameters, by comparing resistant and susceptible young Creole goats (kids) after experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus. The kids were infected over 2 periods (challenges 1 and 2) of 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Fecal egg count (FEC), blood eosinophilia, packed cell volume (PCV), and body weight were weekly monitored. At the end of both challenges a subgroup of kids was slaughtered for nematode burden measurements and analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the abomasal mucosa. The average daily gain was higher in resistant kids after both challenges. Blood eosinophilia and FEC were higher in susceptible kids after both challenges. The number of immature worms and the means of female length were lower after challenge 2 whatever the genetic status. No differences were observed in the eosinophil and mononuclear cell infiltration between challenges 1 and 2 and resistant and susceptible kids. Globule leukocyte infiltration was found higher after the challenge 1 in resistant kids. This effect of the genetic status on globule leukocytes counts but not on the other inflammatory cell highlights the need for further study on the functional activity of these cell populations.

Bambou, J. C.; Larcher, T.; Cei, W.; Dumoulin, P. J.; Mandonnet, N.

2013-01-01

90

Performance of LBSap Vaccine after Intradermal Challenge with L. infantum and Saliva of Lu. longipalpis: Immunogenicity and Parasitological Evaluation  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the search for new vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis has intensified. However, the pattern related to immune protection during long periods after experimental infection in vaccine trials is still not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the immunogenicity and parasitological levels after intradermal challenge with Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland extract in dogs immunized with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as an adjuvant (LBSap vaccine). The LBSap vaccine elicited higher levels of total anti-Leishmania IgG as well as both IgG1 and IgG2. Furthermore, dogs vaccinated had increased levels of lymphocytes, particularly circulating B cells (CD21+) and both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. LBSap also elicited an intense in vitro cell proliferation associated with higher levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes specific for vaccine soluble antigen and soluble lysate of L. infantum antigen even 885 days after experimental challenge. Furthermore, LBSap vaccinated dogs presented high IFN-? and low IL-10 and TGF-?1 expression in spleen with significant reduction of parasite load in this tissue. Overall, our results validate the potential of LBSap vaccine to protect against L. infantum experimental infection and strongly support further evaluation of efficiency of LBSap against CVL in natural infection conditions.

Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Braga, Samuel Leoncio; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; de Lana, Marta; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Marques, Marcos Jose; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

2012-01-01

91

Comparative evaluation of real time PCR assay with conventional parasitological techniques for diagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi in cattle and buffaloes.  

PubMed

For comparative evaluation, a real time PCR assay was standardized by using TaqMan primer and probe targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region of rRNA for Trypanosoma evansi and sensitivity was evaluated by using DNA, extracted from diethyleamino ethane cellulose purified trypanosomes and trypanosomes infected whole blood of mice. The minimum detection limit for purified trypanosomal DNA was 0.01 ng (? 0.33 genomic DNA of T. evansi) whereas for whole blood the minimum detection limit was 0.1 ng (? 6.12 genomic DNA). T. evansi infected mice blood samples were collected at different interval post infection and were analysed by conventional parasitological methods (CPT) viz. wet blood smear, thin blood smear, thick blood smear, quantitative buffy coat and real time PCR and found that TaqMan assay was two fold sensitive than CPT in case of in vivo infectivity in mice and gave positive signal at 36 h post infection where as QBC and blood smear examination was able to detect at 60 h and 72 h post infection respectively. A total 109 (80 cattle and 29 buffaloes) blood samples were collected from in and around Ludhiana district and analysed by CPT and real time PCR. The overall prevalence of T. evansi by CPT in cattle and buffaloes was 2.75 per cent. The prevalence rate was 2.5 per cent in cattle and 3.45 per cent in buffaloes. By real time PCR overall prevalence was 12.84 per cent in cattle and buffaloes, with a prevalence rate of 12.50 per cent in cattle and 13.79 per cent in buffaloes. PMID:22858228

Sharma, Parul; Juyal, P D; Singla, L D; Chachra, Deepti; Pawar, H

2012-12-21

92

Genotypic analysis of ?-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment  

PubMed Central

Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM nave community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. ?-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the ?-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p<0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM nave community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the ?-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance.

Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O.; Prichard, Roger K.

2012-01-01

93

Parasitological diagnosis combining an internally controlled real-time PCR assay for the detection of four protozoa in stool samples with a testing algorithm for microscopy.  

PubMed

Molecular detection of gastrointestinal protozoa is more sensitive and more specific than microscopy but, to date, has not routinely replaced time-consuming microscopic analysis. Two internally controlled real-time PCR assays for the combined detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Dientamoeba fragilis in single faecal samples were compared with Triple Faeces Test (TFT) microscopy results from 397 patient samples. Additionally, an algorithm for complete parasitological diagnosis was created. Real-time PCR revealed 152 (38.3%) positive cases, 18 of which were double infections: one (0.3%) sample was positive for E. histolytica, 44 (11.1%) samples were positive for G. lamblia, 122 (30.7%) samples were positive for D. fragilis, and three (0.8%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium. TFT microscopy yielded 96 (24.2%) positive cases, including five double infections: one sample was positive for E. histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 29 (7.3%) samples were positive for G. lamblia, 69 (17.4%) samples were positive for D. fragilis, and two (0.5%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium hominis/Cryptosporidium parvum. Retrospective analysis of the clinical patient information of 2887 TFT sets showed that eosinophilia, elevated IgE levels, adoption and travelling to (sub)tropical areas are predisposing factors for infection with non-protozoal gastrointestinal parasites. The proposed diagnostic algorithm includes application of real-time PCR to all samples, with the addition of microscopy on an unpreserved faecal sample in cases of a predisposing factor, or a repeat request for parasitological examination. Application of real-time PCR improved the diagnostic yield by 18%. A single stool sample is sufficient for complete parasitological diagnosis when an algorithm based on clinical information is applied. PMID:19624500

Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L E S; Wallinga, J A; Ruijs, G J H M; Bruins, M J; Verweij, J J

2009-09-01

94

Entomological and parasitological impacts of indoor residual spraying with DDT, alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin in the western foothill area of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background In Madagascar, indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticide was part of the national malaria control programme since the middle of the twentieth century. It was mainly employed in the highlands and the foothill areas, which are prone to malaria epidemics. Prior to a policy change foreseeing a shift from DDT to pyrethroids, a study was carried out to assess the entomological and parasitological impacts of IRS in areas with DDT or pyrethroids and in areas without IRS. Methods The study was carried out from October 2002 to February 2005 in three communes of the western foothill area of Madagascar. Two communes received IRS with DDT in February 2003, then IRS with pyrethroids (alphacypermethrin or deltamethrin) in February 2004. The third commune remained untreated. Mosquitoes were collected at night using human landing catches and early in the morning in resting places. Blood smears were obtained from schoolchildren and microscopically examined for Plasmodium presence. Results In total, 18,168 human landing mosquitoes and 12,932 resting anophelines were collected. The Anopheles species caught comprised 10 species. The main and most abundant malaria vector was Anopheles funestus (72.3% of human-seeking malaria vectors caught indoors). After IRS had taken place, this species exhibited a lower human biting rate and a lower sporozoite index. Overall, 5,174 blood smears were examined with a mean plasmodic index of 19.9%. A total of four Plasmodium species were detected. Amongst tested school children the highest plasmodial index was 54.6% in the untreated commune, compared to 19.9% in the commune sprayed with DDT and 11.9% in the commune sprayed with pyrethroid. The highest prevalence of clinical malaria attacks in children present at school the day of the survey was 33% in the untreated commune compared to 8% in the areas which received IRS. Conclusion In terms of public health, the present study shows (1) a high efficacy of IRS with insecticide, (2) a similar efficacy of DDT and pyrethroid and (3) a similar efficacy of alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin. The use of IRS with DDT and pyrethroid greatly decreased the vector-human contact, with an associated decrease of the plasmodial index. However malaria transmission did not reach zero, probably due to the exophilic host-seeking and resting behaviours of the malaria vectors, thus avoiding contact with insecticide-treated surfaces indoors. The study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the IRS implementation and the need for complementary tools for an optimal vector control in Madagascar.

2014-01-01

95

Results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from cats and dogs in Germany between 2003 and 2010.  

PubMed

In a retrospective study, the results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from 8,560 cats and 24,677 dogs between January 2003 and December 2010 in Germany were analysed. 30.4 % of the examined dogs and 22.8 % of the cats were infected with endoparasites. The examination of the faecal samples from dogs revealed stages of Giardia spp. (18.6 %), Toxocara canis (6.1 %), Toxascaris leonina (0.6 %), Ancylostomatidae (2.2 %), Trichuris vulpis (1.2 %), Capillaria spp. (1.3 %), Crenosoma vulpis (0.4 %), Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.5 %), Taeniidae (0.4 %), Dipylidiidae (< 0.1 %), Mesocestoides spp. (< 0.1 %), Isospora spp. (5.6 %), I. ohioensis-complex (3.9 %), I. canis (2.4 %), Sarcocystis spp. (2.2 %) and Hammondia heydorni/Neospora caninum (0.3 %). Dogs in the age groups up to 3 months and > 3 up to 6 months of age showed significantly higher infection rates with Giardia spp. (37.5 % and 38.2 %, respectively), Toxocara canis (12.0 % and 12.4 %, respectively), Toxascaris leonina (1.1 % and 1.6 %, respectively), Isospora spp. (23.4 % and 11.8 %, respectively), I. ohioensis-complex (15.6 % and 7.2 %, respectively) and I. canis (11.8 % and 5.2 %, respectively) compared to older dogs. In faecal samples from cats, stages of Giardia spp. (12.6 %), Toxocara cati (4.7 %), Toxascaris leonina (0.1 %), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (0.2 %), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (0.5 %), Capillaria spp. (1.0 %), Taeniidae (0.6 %), Dipylidium caninum (< 0.1 %) Mesocestoides spp. (< 0.1 %), Isospora spp. (6.0 %), I. felis (4.4 %), I. rivolta (2.2 %), Toxoplasma gondii/Hammondia hammondi (0.8 %) and Sarcocystis spp. (0.3 %) were detected. Cats in the age groups up to 3 months and > 3 up to 6 months of age showed significantly higher infection rates with Giardia spp. (19.5 % and 24.0 %, respectively), T. cati (8.1 % and 6.9 %, respectively), Isospora spp. (12.8 % and 8.6 %, respectively), I. felis (10.0 % and 5.9%, respectively) and I. rivolta (4.6 % and 2.9%, respectively) compared to older cats. PMID:21739375

Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

2011-08-01

96

PARASITOLOGY: The Malarial Secretome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The malaria parasite is a wily pathogen that resides comfortably within its parasitophorous vacuole in the host red blood cell. By skillfully exporting its own proteins across the parasitophorous vacuole membrane into the erythrocyte cytosol and plasma membrane, the malaria parasite ensures a steady supply of nutrients. As Przyborski and Lanzer discuss in their Perspective, the discovery of a host cell-targeting sequence in these exported parasite proteins reveals how the parasite accomplishes this task (Marti et al.; Hiller et al.).

Jude Przyborski (Universit¤tsklinikum Heidelberg;Department of Parasitology); Michael Lanzer (Universit¤tsklinikum Heidelberg;Department of Parasitology)

2004-12-10

97

Physiology, pharmacology and parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing resistance to current chemical classes of broad-spectrum anthelmintics and insecticides presents an undeniable threat to the long-term viability of the animal health industry. Alternative treatment strategies including vaccines, biological control and breeding of parasite-resistant animals are unlikely to be widely available in the near future and even then they will be integrated with chemotherapy. The significant cost of

D. R. Hennessy

1997-01-01

98

Schistosomiasis mansoni: follow-up of control program based on parasitologic and serologic methods in a Brazilian community of low endemicity.  

PubMed

A field survey on schistosomiasis was carried out in 1998, in the municipality of Pedro de Toledo, a low endemic area in the state of So Paulo, Brazil. According to the parasitologic Kato-Katz method, the prevalence rate was 1.6%, with an infection intensity of 40.9 eggs per gram of stool. By the immunofluorescence test (IFT) for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in the serum, IgG-IFT and IgM-IFT, respectively, prevalence indices of 33.2% and 33.5% were observed. To assess the impact of the schistosomiasis control program in the area, parasitologic and serologic data obtained in 1998, analyzed according to the age, sex, and residence zone, were compared to previous data obtained in a epidemiologic study carried out in 1980, when prevalence indices were of 22.8% and 55.5%, respectively by Kato-Katz and IgG-IFT. A significant fall of the prevalence was observed, indicating that the control measures were effective. Nonetheless, residual transmission was observed, demonstrating the need for a joint effort to include new approaches for better understanding the real situation and improving the control of the disease in low endemic areas. PMID:14595468

Burlandy-Soares, Lanny Cristina; de Souza Dias, Luiz Cndido; Kanamura, Hermnia Yohko; de Oliveira, Edward Jos; Ciaravolo, Ricardo Mario

2003-09-01

99

Exames parasitolgicos, imunoistoqumicos e histopatolgicos para deteco de Leishmania chagasi em tecidos esplnicos de ces com leishmaniose visceral Parasitological, immunohistochemical and histopathological study for Leishmania chagasi detection in spleenic tissues of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis - CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics

Karen Ingrid Tasca; Wilma Aparecida; Starke Buzetti; Michely da Silva Tenorio; Silvana de Cssia Paulan

2009-01-01

100

Comparative evaluation of parasitology and serological tests in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in India: a phase III diagnostic accuracy study.  

PubMed

In this phase III trial for diagnostics for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India, we compared parasitological diagnosis with several serological tests: direct agglutination test (freeze dried; DAT-FD), rK-39 strip test, rK-26 strip test and a latex agglutination test for antigen detection in urine (KAtex) in 452 subjects from the endemic regions of Bihar, India. The subjects were segregated into four categories: 230 confirmed patients, 52 probable cases, 70 non-cases and 100 healthy endemic controls. The first two groups were used for estimating sensitivity, the latter two for specificity. Sensitivity of DAT-FD was 98.9%, rK-39: 98.9%, KAtex: 67.0% and rK-26: 21.3%. Sensitivity of DAT-FD on blood taken on filter paper (DAT-FDF) was 99.3%, which was comparable with that using serum. Specificity of serological tests was comparable and high (DAT-FD and DAT-FDF: 94%, rK-39 strip test: 97%, KAtex: 99% and rK-26 strip test: 100%). The classical 'gold standard' parasitological demonstration in splenic smear performed poorly as it missed 18.4% of cases that benefited from VL treatment. Reproducibility of the serological tests between field and central laboratories was excellent (kappa = 1.0, 0.99, 0.96 and 0.94 respectively for microscopy, DAT-FD, rK-39 strip test and rK-26 strip test). A high degree of agreement was observed between DAT-FD and rK-39 strip test (kappa = 0.986). Although DAT-FD and rK-39 strip test were highly sensitive with excellent specificity, the ease of use of the latter makes it most suitable for the diagnosis of VL in the field conditions. PMID:17300637

Sundar, S; Singh, R K; Bimal, S K; Gidwani, K; Mishra, A; Maurya, R; Singh, S K; Manandhar, K D; Boelaert, M; Rai, M

2007-02-01

101

Studies on Parasitologic and Haematologic Activities of an Enaminone Derivative of 4-Hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one Against Murine Schistosomiasis Mansoni  

PubMed Central

The activity of a novel enaminone derivative of 4hydroxyquinoline, BDHQ, was screened for its effectiveness against murine schistosomiasis by electron microscopy and parasitologic studies. The correlation of these studies with serum levels of IFNgamma and IgE is described. Two groups of 10 mice each were treated with different doses of BDHQ, and their results were correlated with the control and praziquantel (PZQ)treated groups. Parasitologic study revealed significant reduction in mature worms and tissue egg loads in BDHQ and PZQtreated groups, whereas immature worms revealed significant reduction in BDHQ groups only. The group treated with a higher dose of BDHQ showed significant reductions in intestinal ova count when compared with the PZQtreated group. Ultrastructural examination of the worm revealed significant degeneration of the spines and tegument in all treated groups, while the genital system was affected in BDHQtreated groups only. BDHQ showed considerable effect on cellular activation where serum levels of IFNgamma were significantly increased in comparison to control, while antisoluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) IgE was significantly increased in comparison to both the control and PZQtreated groups. Ultrastructural examination revealed cellular activation in buffy coat and the liver in both the BDHQ and PZQtreated groups in comparison to the untreated one, whereas in the bone marrow and spleen, evidence of cellular activation was remarkable in the BDHQtreated groups. In conclusion, BDHQ exhibits high levels of activity against adult and juvenile stages of these parasites, which may be due to its mixed cellular and humoral immunologic mechanisms, as demonstrated by the significant increase of serum levels of IgE and IFNgamma shown on electron microscopy. Therefore, our results support the comparative advantage that BDHQ has over PZQ.

El-Shennawy, Amal M.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Mohamed Abass

2007-01-01

102

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in ruminants (bovine, ovine, caprine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first edition of the W.A.A.V.P. anthelmintic guidelines for ruminants was published in 1982. Since then improved parasitological procedures have been developed, new therapeutic and prophylactic products have appeared requiring different test methods, and registration authorities are requesting more detailed record keeping and data validation. This second edition addresses these developments and fulfills the original goal of publishing guidelines for

I. B. Wood; N. K. Amaral; K. Bairden; J. L. Duncan; T. Kassai; J. B. Malone; J. A. Pankavich; R. K. Reinecke; O. Slocombe; S. M. Taylor; J. Vercruysse

1995-01-01

103

Evaluation of parasitological and immunological parameters of Leishmania chagasi infection in BALB/c mice using different doses and routes of inoculation of parasites.  

PubMed

Experimental vaccines to protect against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been developed by using BALB/c mice infected with a large (10? to 10?) inoculum of parasites. Remarkably, prior literature has reported that the poor protection observed is mainly due to the high susceptibility of this strain. To determine factors inherent to mice that might abrogate vaccine-induced efficacy, the present research sought to investigate the impact of the administration of different infective inoculums of Leishmania chagasi (syn. L. infantum) in BALB/c mice, evaluating subcutaneous and intravenous routes of administration as well as parasitological and immunological parameters over different periods of time. This study shows that the injection of a highly infective inoculum in mice, through both subcutaneous and intravenous routes, results in a sustained infection. The mice developed a high parasite load in the liver; however, these values diminished over time. This result did not corroborate with the parasite load in the bone marrow and brain and proved to be expressively different in the spleen and draining lymph nodes, where the values increased over time. Mice infected with a low dose of parasites (10) showed a certain resistance against infection, based mainly on the IFN-? and oxide nitric production. Considering all the elements, it could be concluded that the models employing high doses (10?) of L. chagasi in BALB/c mice can bring about an imbalance in the animals' immune response, thus allowing for the development of the disease at the expense of efficacy within the vaccine candidates. PMID:21915627

Oliveira, Dulcilene M; Costa, Mariana Amlia F; Chavez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Valadares, Diogo G; Duarte, Mariana C; Costa, Lourena E; Martins, Vivian T; Gomes, Rosngela F; Melo, Maria N; Soto, Manuel; Tavares, Carlos Alberto P; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio F

2012-03-01

104

A serological, parasitological and clinical evaluation of untreated Chagas disease patients and those treated with benznidazole before and thirteen years after intervention  

PubMed Central

The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Patients who presented with the indeterminate form of the disease at the beginning of the study exhibited less clinical progression (17.4%) compared with the untreated group (56.5%). Therefore, this global analysis revealed that etiological treatment with benznidazole may benefit patients with respect to the clinical progression of Chagas disease and the prognosis, particularly when administered to patients with the indeterminate form of the disease.

Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Diniz, Glaucia Alessio; Montoya, Roberto Araujo; Dias, Joao Carlos Pinto; Coura, Jose Rodrigues; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Albajar-Vinas, Pedro; Torres, Rosalia Morais; de Lana, Marta

2013-01-01

105

Albendazolesulphoxide concentrations in plasma and hydatid cyst and prediction of parasitological and clinical outcomes in patients with liver hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus.  

PubMed

Aim. To investigate the relationship between plasma and cyst concentrations of albendazolesulphoxide (ASO) and their effects on parasitological findings and disease recurrence in patients with liver hydatidosis. Methods. The study was conducted at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases "Dr. Fran Mihaljevi?," Zagreb, Croatia, between August 2006 and January 2011. Consecutive patients (N=48, age 6-77 years) were treated with albendazole (35 mg/kg/d) over 28 days before surgical cyst removal (n=34) or percutaneous evacuation (PAIR) (n=14). Plasma ASO was determined on days 10 and 28 of treatment and cyst concentrations at surgery/PAIR. Results. Disease recurred in 3 surgically treated patients. Variability of ASO concentrations was substantial. Plasma concentrations on day 10 were higher than on day 28 (geometric means ratio [GMR] 2.00; 95%CI 1.38-2.91, P<0.001) and higher than cyst concentrations at the time of treatment (GMR=1.58, 1.01-2.34, P=0.045). Higher cyst (but not plasma) concentrations were independently associated with lower odds of protoscolex motility (OR=0.23, 0.01-0.70, P<0.001) and higher odds of protoscolex destruction (OR=1.17, 1.04-1.46, P<0.001). With adjustment for age and protoscolex motility, higher day 10 plasma concentrations (but not cyst concentrations) were associated with lower odds of disease recurrence (OR=0.49, 0.09-0.97, P=0.035). Plasma concentrations did not predict cyst concentrations. Conclusion. Viability of protoscolices progressively decreased with increasing ASO concentrations in the cyst. Data strongly suggested that higher plasma concentrations reduced the risk of disease recurrence. PMID:24778101

Skuhala, Tomislava; Trkulja, Vladimir; Runje, Mislav; Vukelic, Dalibor; Desnica, Bosko

2014-04-28

106

Albendazolesulphoxide concentrations in plasma and hydatid cyst and prediction of parasitological and clinical outcomes in patients with liver hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the relationship between plasma and cyst concentrations of albendazolesulphoxide (ASO) and their effects on parasitological findings and disease recurrence in patients with liver hydatidosis. Methods The study was conducted at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases Dr. Fran Mihaljevi?, Zagreb, Croatia, between August 2006 and January 2011. Consecutive patients (N?=?48, age 6-77 years) were treated with albendazole (3??5 mg/kg/d) over 28 days before surgical cyst removal (n?=?34) or percutaneous evacuation (PAIR) (n?=?14). Plasma ASO was determined on days 10 and 28 of treatment and cyst concentrations at surgery/PAIR. Results Disease recurred in 3 surgically treated patients. Variability of ASO concentrations was substantial. Plasma concentrations on day 10 were higher than on day 28 (geometric means ratio [GMR] 2.00; 95%CI 1.38-2.91, P?

Skuhala, Tomislava; Trkulja, Vladimir; Runje, Mislav; Vukelic, Dalibor; Desnica, Bosko

2014-01-01

107

The Use of Bivariate Spatial Modeling of Questionnaire and Parasitology Data to Predict the Distribution of Schistosoma haematobium in Coastal Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Questionnaires of reported blood in urine (BIU) distributed through the existing school system provide a rapid and reliable method to classify schools according to the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, thereby helping in the targeting of schistosomiasis control. However, not all schools return questionnaires and it is unclear whether treatment is warranted in such schools. This study investigates the use of bivariate spatial modelling of available and multiple data sources to predict the prevalence of S. haematobium at every school along the Kenyan coast. Methodology Data from a questionnaire survey conducted by the Kenya Ministry of Education in Coast Province in 2009 were combined with available parasitological and environmental data in a Bayesian bivariate spatial model. This modeled the relationship between BIU data and environmental covariates, as well as the relationship between BIU and S. haematobium infection prevalence, to predict S. haematobium infection prevalence at all schools in the study region. Validation procedures were implemented to assess the predictive accuracy of endemicity classification. Principal Findings The prevalence of BIU was negatively correlated with distance to nearest river and there was considerable residual spatial correlation at small (?15 km) spatial scales. There was a predictable relationship between the prevalence of reported BIU and S. haematobium infection. The final model exhibited excellent sensitivity (0.94) but moderate specificity (0.69) in identifying low (<10%) prevalence schools, and had poor performance in differentiating between moderate and high prevalence schools (sensitivity 0.5, specificity 1). Conclusions Schistosomiasis is highly focal and there is a need to target treatment on a school-by-school basis. The use of bivariate spatial modelling can supplement questionnaire data to identify schools requiring mass treatment, but is unable to distinguish between moderate and high prevalence schools.

Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Mwandawiro, Charles; Brooker, Simon J.

2013-01-01

108

Parasitological and biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with methanol extract from the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban.  

PubMed

This study aims to detect the antischistosomal properties of the plants' Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban methanol extract against Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice, including determination of total protein and albumin levels and the activities of alanine and aspartate transaminases (AlT, AsT) and acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP and AkP) enzymes in the serum of infected treated mice. Male Swiss albino mice were infected with S. mansoni and orally treated with methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg/day), C. dioscorides and S. sesban (1000 mg/kg/day from each) for 2 consecutive days 7 weeks post infection (PI). In addition, treatment of mice with the tested dose of each plant extract was successively done (i.e. the 1st extract followed by the 2nd and 3rd one with an hour interval). Parasitological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Nine weeks PI, the reduction rates of worm load/mouse treated with either C. dioscorides (1000 mg/kg), C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg) or S. sesban (1000 mg/kg) were 40.9%, 53.7% and 54.4%, respectively. Successive treatment raised the reduction rates of worm load/mouse to 66.3% and the ova/g tissue in liver to 76.9%. Moreover, serum total protein and albumin levels and activities of AlT, Ast, AcP and AkP enzymes of infected treated mice were improved in comparison with those of infected untreated ones. It is concluded that administration of C. dioscorides, C. ambrosioides and S. sesban methanol extract to infected mice exhibited a moderate antischistosomal effect. Successive treatment improved the antischistosomal properties of these plant species, hence ameliorated the liver functions of treated mice that may suggest degenerations of liver granulomas and regenerative changes. PMID:21740980

Kamel, E G; El-Emam, M A; Mahmoud, S S M; Fouda, F M; Bayaumy, F E

2011-12-01

109

PCR amplification reactions in parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of PCR systems for the detection and identification of pathogenic human parasites has only recently started. Evaluation of most of these methods is still lacking. Most likely these methods will need considerable improvement before reliable diagnostic methods become available. Only for some parasitic diseases, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis, PCR has already proven to be of potential diagnostic value,

Henk L. Smits; Rudy A. Hartskeerl

1995-01-01

110

[A case study of singular spectrum analysis application in parasitology: dynamics of prevalence of Cryptocotyle concavum and Bunocotyle progenetica trematode parthenitae in Hydrobia ventrosa snails at the White Sea].  

PubMed

In this study parasitological data were analyzed by different methods of revealing the structure of time series, namely auto-correlation analysis (ACA), Fourier spectrum analysis (SA) and singular spectrum analysis (SSA), and the results of these analysis were compared (SSA makes it possible to present non-stationary time series as a sum of independent components and to determine the contribution of each component into the dispersion of the initial series--Golyandina et al., 2001). This case study was based on the result of 10-year-long monitoring of changes in the prevalence of Cryptocotyle concavum and Bunocotyle progenetica trematode parthenitae in intertidal snails Hydrobia ventrosa at the White Sea (in total, 45 observations). ACA did not reveal any statistically significant oscillations in the analyzed series. The application of SSA and SA allowed us to reveal at least two quasi-periodical components. In addition, SSA made it possible to reveal a significant dome-shaped trend in the prevalence of B. progenetica parthenitae, which were described by SA as an oscillation with a period equal to the duration of the study, as well as to give proof that there was no trend in the changes of C. concavum parthenitae prevalence. The components (modes) extracted by the SSA described the changes in the prevalence better that the harmonics extracted by the SA. In particular, SSA modes (contrary to SA harmonics) reflected that the amplitude of oscillations of the B. progenetica prevalence increased as the prevalence grew. The sums of SSA modes correlated more with initial prevalence series that the sums of SA harmonics. A possible interpretation of the trends and modes extracted by the SSA in the light of the transmission features of the investigated trematode species in the study area was proposed. PMID:23866616

Levakin, I A; Nikolaev, K E; Galaktionov, K V

2013-01-01

111

PARASITOLOGY: Enhanced: New Ways to Control Malaria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites and insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors necessitates the development of new methods to combat malaria. In their Perspective, Hemingway and Craig explore transmission-blocking therapies that aim to prevent transmission of the reproductive stages of the malaria parasite from the insect vector to the human host when the mosquito takes its next blood meal. As part of this endeavor, they discuss new work by Osta et al. that identifies three mosquito genes affecting the sexual development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito gut.

Janet Hemingway (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine;); Alister Craig (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine;)

2004-03-26

112

Companion animal parasitology: a clinical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there have been many changes to the ways that clinical veterinary science is conducted and nowhere is this more evident than in companion animal practice. Veterinarians working with pet dogs and cats are facing new challenges associated with the emergence and re-emergence of parasitic diseases. Some, such as Neospora caninum, have been recently recognised; others like Giardia

Peter J Irwin

2002-01-01

113

PARASITOLOGY: A Game of Cat and Mouth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been remarkably successful, infecting 30 to 50% of the world's population, many of whom are asymptomatic. In their Perspective, Volkman and Hartl discuss new work (Su et al.) that reveals the secret of the parasite's success. The three predominant strains of T. gondii-sibling progeny of a single cross that took place 10,000 years ago-all show greatly enhanced oral transmission between intermediate vertebrate hosts.

Sarah K. Volkman (Harvard School of Public Health;Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases); Daniel L. Hartl (Harvard University;Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology)

2003-01-17

114

Malarial Ecology, Transmission, Immunology, Parasitology and Prophylaxis in Kenya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary purpose was to study various aspects of malaria risk assessment, prevention, and treatment. Scope of work included testing malaria vaccines and drugs, and basic work on immunology and mosquito transmission of malaria. Accomplishments included:...

D. K. Koech

1999-01-01

115

Nonresolution of an Amebic Liver Abscess after Parasitologic Cure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 43-year-old Filipino male was admitted to a Manila hospital with a 1 month history of epigastric pain and fever, and was found to have a palpable epigastric mass. Computerized tomography revealed a large hepatic abscess which serologically was shown to ...

G. Watt L. P. Padre B. Adapon J. H. Cross

1986-01-01

116

Selected Topics in Laboratory Animal Medicine. Volume VIII. Parasitology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major parasites of laboratory animals are divided into eight groups: Insects, arachnids, pentastomes, acanthocephalids, unicellular parasites (protozoan), cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes. A broad review is presented of the major characteristics th...

G. W. Irving

1972-01-01

117

Schistosomal Colonic Polyposis: Clinical, Radiological and Parasitological Study,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One hundred and eight male Egyptian farmers with schistosomal colonic polyposis were reviewed. All patients gave a history of bloody diarrhea. Sixty-one patients presented with finger clubbing, and four of these patients had painful, tender and swollen wr...

N. A. El-Masry Z. Farid S. Bassily M. E. Kilpatrick R. H. Watten

1986-01-01

118

Environmental parasitology: relevancy of parasites in monitoring environmental pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites can interact with environmental pollution in different ways. On the one hand, parasites can interfere with established bioindication procedures owing to their effects on the physiology and behaviour of the host. This could lead both to false-negative and false-positive indications of pollution. On the other hand, parasites can be used as effect indicators and as accumulation indicators because of

Bernd Sures

2004-01-01

119

Marine parasitology with special reference to Japanese fisheries and mariculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine parasites with special relation to Japanese fisheries and mariculture include various types of pathogens: those causing mortality, deformity, weight loss, etc.; those giving unesthetic appearances to the hosts; those which are zoonotic. Japanese mariculture typically utilizes net cage culture systems in coastal areas. Parasite invasion in such systems is more difficult to control practically than in freshwater facilities. The

K. Ogawa

1996-01-01

120

PARASITOLOGY: When the Host Is Smarter Than the Parasite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The wily malaria parasite has become resistant to many affordable frontline antimalarial drugs, and new drug targets are desperately needed. Reporting in a Perspective on new work (Zhang et al.), Goldberg suggests that we look for drug targets among proteins that are shared by the host and parasite but whose synthesis is regulated in a different way.

Daniel E. Goldberg (Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Washington University; Department of Medicine and Department of Molecular Microbiology)

2002-04-19

121

A new lungworm in muskoxen: an exploration in Arctic parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruminants are vital elements of the Holarctic ecosystem. Little is known, however, of the structure or biology of their parasite fauna, particularly in North America. Global warming, coupled with increasing human activity in the Arctic, requires enhanced international interdisciplinary efforts to better understand the many factors, including parasites, that influence the population health of caribou, reindeer, muskoxen and wild sheep.

Susan J Kutz; Eric P Hoberg; Lydden Polley

2001-01-01

122

Hotel Intestine: laboratory for parasitology: Gregarine Information Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thorough NSF funded research site dedicated to insect parasite fauna, especially the gregarines. This page is a work in progress as research develops. Some gregarine keys are included online, as well as survey results, and some systematics.

0002-11-30

123

PCR as a diagnostic and quantitative technique in veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 15 years, there has been a dramatic evolution in molecular approaches to study parasites and parasitic diseases. Many of these advancements have been brought about through the development of new applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enhancements in sensitivity that can be achieved using PCR now permit scientists to investigate changes at the level of a

Dante S. Zarlenga; James Higgins

2001-01-01

124

Genomics: from novel genes to new therapeutics in parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of rapid DNA sequencing technologies is generating vast quantities of raw genomic information ranging from in-depth analysis of the expressed genes to complete sequencing of genomes at an increasing rate (bioinformatics). However, it is the functional characterisation of a specific gene product that is the key limiting factor for validation as targets for high throughput assay development. The

Jesus A. Gutierrez

2000-01-01

125

Parasitological aspects of malaria persistence in Koraput district Orissa, India.  

PubMed

A sample survey in 37 villages covering 10,733 people in 1986-87 in the Koraput district, Orissa showed that the malaria prevalence is of a much higher order than that reported by the National Malaria Eradication Programme (annual parasite incidence between 14.3 and 26.8 during 1981-86). Out of 833 positives detected 714 had Plasmodium falciparum, 86 had P. vivax, 12 had P. malariae and 21 had mixed infections. There were 650 asymptomatic parasite carriers and 127 gametocyte carriers. The infant parasite rate was 15.82 per cent and average enlarged spleen (AES) in 2 to 9 yr old children was 1.98. In a year round fever survey in 22 villages, 5520 blood smears were collected and 1364 were found positive for malaria, with 77.3 per cent P. falciparum. In a mass blood survey conducted in a labour camp at an irrigation project, 610 people were examined, and 181 were positive. Nearly 40 per cent of migrants and 22 per cent of locals were positive, P. falciparum being dominant. PMID:2345029

Rajagopalan, P K; Das, P K; Pani, S P; Jambulingam, P; Mohapatra, S S; Gunasekaran, K; Das, L K

1990-01-01

126

Plague foci in Viet Nam: zoological and parasitological aspects.  

PubMed Central

Reported are the results of studies over the period 1989-94 on host-flea complexes in small mammals and their flea ectoparasites in and around a number of human settlements in Viet Nam in which human cases of plague had been found. Collections were also made in savanna and tropical forest areas within a 10-km radius of the settlements. The greatest numbers of small mammals, for the most part Rattus spp., and of the flea ectoparasite Xenopsylla cheopis were found in inhabited areas. X. cheopis was not found on any feral or sylvan mammal further than 0.6 km from settlements. A possible link between wild and commensal mammals may be provided by the flea Lentistivalius klossi, a specific parasite of squirrels and tree-shrews but also found in very small numbers on commensal rats. No zoonotic foci of plague were found in the immediate vicinity of the villages studied and it is most likely that plague persists in a commensal rat-X. cheopis cycle in and around human settlements in Viet Nam.

Suntsov, V. V.; Huong, L. T.; Suntsova, N. I.; Gratz, N. G.

1997-01-01

127

Parasitologic and pathologic observations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).  

PubMed

This study describes the parasites and related pathologic observations in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). In total, 48 birds were examined and 41 sparrows were found to be infected with one or more endoparasites (85.4%). The most common parasites were liver trematodes identified as Brachydistomum microscelis and Brachydistomum gracupicae. In addition, coccidia and a cestode (Infula spp.) were observed. In one bird, one female Tetrameres sp. and one female Microtetrameres sp. were found in the proventriculus. No blood parasite was found after examination of the blood smears. No gross pathologic lesion was seen in the organs except for the proventriculus, gut, and liver. At histologic examination small necrotic areas and inflammatory reactions were seen in the liver and the gastrointestinal system related to the parasites. Incidentally, anthracosis was diagnosed in 23 and mild pneumonia in 12 of the lungs. PMID:24063083

Ozmen, Ozlem; Adanir, Ramazan; Haligur, Mehmet; Albayrak, Tamer; Kose, Onur; Ipek, Volkan

2013-09-01

128

Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niteri, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes. PMID:25054488

Souza, Janana Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Ucha, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Ms, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Anbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

2014-06-01

129

[Chagas disease in the Chilean altiplane. Epidemiological, parasitological, and clinical aspects].  

PubMed

Chagas' disease is endemo-enzootic in periurban and rural sections of the first seven (18 degrees 30'-34 degrees 36' South lat.), out of the thirteen political-administrative regions of Chile. Permanent inhabited localities situated at different altitudes over the sea level (OSL) are classified in: coastal settlement (0-1,499 m OSL), intermediate settlement (1,500-3,000 m OSL) and altiplano settlement (> 3,000 m OSL). A total of 1,558 dwellings and their occupants from regions I and II were surveyed in 1982-1984 for different epidemiological Trypanosoma cruzi infection parameters. Hence, 261 dwellings, 189 domestic mammals and 517 people (ages 5- > or = 60 years) from the Altiplano settlement were studied. The results obtained were: 4(1.5%) and 2(0.8%) of dwellings infested with Triatoma infestans, according to occupants information and by observation of direct evidences respectively; 8(4.2%) animals (1 dog, 4 goats and 3 sheep) with a positive hemagglutination test (IHAT) for Chagas' disease; 21 people (4.1%) with a positive IHAT; 4(19.0%) and 3(14.3%), out of the 21 IHAT positive individuals with all types of electrocardiogram (EKG) abnormalities and EKG abnormalities suggestive of a chagasic etiology respectively, whereas 65(13.1%) and 15(3.0%), out of the 496 IHAT negative ones presented the same kinds of EKG abnormalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1844136

Villarroel, F; Schenone, H; Contreras, M C; Rojas, A; Hernndez, E

1991-01-01

130

Parasitological study of a population of Tiber River eels (Anguilla anguilla).  

PubMed

A study was conducted on the parasitofauna of Anguilla anguilla caught in the section of the Tiber river south of Rome (Italy). The sample examined consisted of 417 specimens that were classified by stage (elver, young yellow eel, yellow eel and silver eel) and season of sampling. The following species were identified: Trypanosoma granulosum, Eimeria anguillae, Myxidium giardi, Sphaerospora reichenowi, Myxobolus sp., Trichodina anguilli, Ichthyohodo sp., Gyrodactylus anguillae, Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, Raphidascaris acus, Acanthocephalus clavula. Each parasite species was considered in its prevalence according to stage and season. For some parasite the pathogenic effect was also examined in a histological study of serial sections. The results of the statistical analysis of the single parasitic infection as related to different seasons pointed to marked seasonal trends only in some species (Trypanosoma granulosum and Gyrodactylus anguillae). The intensity of infection assessed for acanthocephalan infection only was found to affect neither weight nor condition index (weight/length3). No difference in weight or condition index was found to be ascribable to the presence or absence of a species. An attempt to find a rule-of-thumb algorithm to gauge the overall effect to parasitic diseases failed to give sufficiently significant results. PMID:3508508

Orecchia, P; Bianchini, M; Catalini, N; Cataudella, S; Paggi, L

1987-04-01

131

A phylogeny for the pomatiopsidae (Gastropoda: Rissooidea): a resource for taxonomic, parasitological and biodiversity studies  

PubMed Central

Background The Pomatiopsidae are reported from northern India into southern China and Southeast Asia, with two sub-families, the Pomatiopsinae (which include freshwater, amphibious, terrestrial and marine species) and the freshwater Triculinae. Both include species acting as intermediate host for species of the blood-fluke Schistosoma which cause a public health problem in East Asia. Also, with around 120 species, triculine biodiversity exceeds that of any other endemic freshwater molluscan fauna. Nevertheless, the origins of the Pomatiopsidae, the factors driving such a diverse radiation and aspects of their co-evolution with Schistosoma are not fully understood. Many taxonomic questions remain; there are problems identifying medically relevant species. The predicted range is mostly unsurveyed and the true biodiversity of the family is underestimated. Consequently, the aim of the study was to collect DNA-sequence data for as many pomatiopsid taxa as possible, as a first step in providing a resource for identification of epidemiologically significant species (by non-malacologists), for use in resolving taxonomic confusion and for testing phylogeographical hypotheses. Results The evolutionary radiation of the Triculinae was shown to have been rapid and mostly post late Miocene. Molecular dating indicated that the radiation of these snails was driven first by the uplift of the Himalaya and onset of a monsoon system, and then by late-Pliocene global warming. The status of Erhaia as Anmicolidae is supported. The genera Tricula and Neotricula are shown to be non-monophyletic and the tribe Jullieniini may be polyphyletic (based on convergent characters). Triculinae from northern Vietnam could be derived from Gammatricula of Fujian/Yunnan, China. Conclusions The molecular dates and phylogenetic estimates in this study are consistent with an Australasian origin for the Pomatiopsidae and an East to West radiation via Oligocene Borneo-Philippines island hopping to Japan and then China (Triculinae arising mid-Miocene in Southeast China), and less so with a triculine origin in Tibet. The lack of monophyly in the medically important genera and indications of taxonomic inaccuracies, call for further work to identify epidemiologically significant taxa (e.g., Halewisia may be potential hosts for Schistosoma mekongi) and highlight the need for surveys to determine the true biodiversity of the Triculinae.

2014-01-01

132

Materials on Zoologico-Parasitologic Characteristics of Crimea Hemorrhagic Fever in Astrakhan Oblast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vector of CHF in Astrakhan Oblast, as in Crimea, proved to be Hyalomma pl. plumbeum Panz. ticks. The most important role in feeding immature stages of this tick belongs to rooks. Rooks are very numerous in regions with CHF incidence in Astrakhan Oblas...

Y. V. Zimina N. V. Birulya L. I. Zlutskaya T. P. Povalishina D. N. Stolbov

1968-01-01

133

Molecular and parasitological detection of Leishmania spp. in a dipteran of the species Tabanus importunus.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is an important chronic zoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania spp. The major vectors of this protozoosis are sand flies, and Lutzomyia longipalpis is considered the main species implicated in the transmission of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil. The presence of the parasite's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in ectoparasites such as ticks and fleas has prompted speculations about the existence of new vectors in the cycle of leishmaniasis. The aim of this paper is to report the molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in a horse fly of the species Tabanus importunus which parasitized an oligosymptomatic dog infected with Leishmania spp. Molecular amplification of the protozoan's DNA in the head, thoracic region and abdomen of the tabanid tested positive for Leishmania complex. This is the first report of the presence of DNA from Leishmania spp. in dipterous insects of the species T. importunus. PMID:24473890

Coelho, Willian Marinho Dourado; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

2013-01-01

134

The effectiveness of computer-based teaching packages in supporting student learning of parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of providing students with information via electronic notes, a website and a self-assessment quiz was assessed in three ways. Students' perceptions of each package were gauged through questionnaires; their patterns of use of the electronic support was monitored via the computer system and the effect of provision of these materials on performance was measured by marks in the

Alan Gunn; Sarah J Pitt

135

Parasitological and morphological study of Schistosoma mansoni and diabetes mellitus in mice.  

PubMed

Schistosomes are blood-dwelling flukes which are highly dependent on the host metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate possible relationship between streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the outcome of acute murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Male and female SW mice were treated by a single intraperitoneally injected dose of streptozotocin (180 mg/kg). Seven days after induction, both control and diabetic animals were infected with 70 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae (BH strain). Diabetics and their controls were weighed 45 days after birth and for the last time prior to killing. Susceptibility to infection was evaluated twice a week by quantifying fecal egg excretion 7-9 weeks post-infection by the Kato-Katz' thick smear method. Mice were euthanized the day after the last fecal examination was performed. Adult worms were recovered from the portal system and mesenteric veins, whereas liver and intestine were removed for enumeration of egg load. No differences in worm length or in measurements of the reproductive organs, tegument, and suckers were detected. Also oviposition was unaffected as the total number of eggs per female worm from the liver, the small and the large intestine was the same in both groups. An oogram evaluation revealed a lower percentage of mature (23.0% vs. 40.7%) and a higher percentage of immature (69.1% vs. 51.7%) eggs in the small intestine of the diabetic mice. We suggest that principally a hampered egg passage through the intestine tissue caused this reduction and that probably both the eggs and the impaired host response play a role. PMID:21708148

Hulstijn, Maarten; Barros, Lucas de Andrade; Neves, Renata Heisler; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Machado-Silva, Jos Roberto

2011-09-01

136

Bancroftian filariasis: clinical parasitologic and serologic evaluation after 4 years applying two antifilarial regimens.  

PubMed

In August 1 997, 124 individuals out ot 1,110 were selected as being seropositive for circulating filarial antigen OG4C3 (CFA). Ten healthy children proven negative for CFA were used as controls. The patients were classified into: G1 28 patients; 20 asymptomatic microfilaraemic and 8 symptomatic amicrofilaraemic (AMF), G2 80 patients, 22 asymptomatic MF, 48 asymptomatic AMF and 10 symptomatic AMF and G3 16 asymptomatic AMF. G1 was treated by single annual dose of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) (6mg/kg), G2 by single annual dose of albendazole 400 mg and DEC 6mg/kg and G3 untreated. Four years later (2001), patients Were re-evaluated. Microfilaraemia prevalence in MF patients was lowered to 20% (G1) and 9.1% (G2). Antigenaemia prevalence was lowered to 46.4%, 17.5% and 87.5% in the three groups respectively. The disease became manifested among the asymptomatic in 5% (G1) and 10% (G2), but 25% (G3). The four years lowered the prevalence of microfilaraemia, but it was not sufficient for its elimination from the blood. So, a program to eliminate filariasis should be extended beyond this period to achieve no transmission and minimizes newly cases. PMID:12512817

Abdul-Fattah, Mohiedden M; El-Karamany, Eman M N; El-Gindy, Alaa M L; Nimr, Wafaa Atwa; El-Shamy, Mostafa H A

2002-12-01

137

Physiological and parasitological responses to nematode infections of fattening cattle in the Western Pampas of Argentina.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of nematode infection was studied in fattening grazing cattle from weaning (April 1994) to market at the end of their second autumn (July 1995). Sixty Aberdeen Angus calves of seven months of age were randomly allocated by weight to two groups: GT, treated every three weeks with doramectin (200 mcg/kg); and GI, an infected group, only treated with fenbendazole (7.5 mg/kg) at weaning and on the 1st of October. The two groups were grazed together on contaminated lucerne pastures until July, on 'clean' oat pastures until October and again on contaminated lucerne until the end of the trial. Fecal egg counts (epg), herbage larvae (L3), serum pepsinogen (Pep) and blood eosinophils (Eo) were evaluated monthly. Eight steers were slaughtered for worm recovery, three in July 1994, three in December 1994 and two in July 1995. Grazing feed intake was estimated by fecal output (chromic oxide method)/l-diet digestibility and to measure non-specific response, Brucella antibodies were detected at 11 and 40 days post-vaccination in early winter. Fecal egg counts, Pep and Eo of GI increased (P<0.01) from April to July when there was a moderate-to-high level of infection. Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus and Cooperia were the predominant genera. By late winter, all parameters decreased on oat 'clean' pastures and increased again when cattle returned to moderately infected lucerne. During summer, the parameters measured reflected the negligible numbers of L3 on pastures until early autumn. At this time, increased numbers of L3 were followed by a moderate rise (P<0.01) of epg, Pep and Eo values. During winter, GT showed higher (P<0.04) Brucella antibody IgG titers while feed intake of GI was 24.9% depressed (P<0.02). There were total cumulative weight-gain (WG) differences (P<0.001) between groups (GT=263.1 kg; GI=214.3 kg). During the second autumn, the mean WG of GT steers was 16.6 kg greater (P<0.04) than that of GI. Vaccination titres against Brucella suggested non-specific depression of immunity, while higher Pep and Eo levels in second-year steers may have reflected hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:10030756

Suarez, V H; Lorenzo, R M; Busetti, M R; Santucho, G M

1999-02-25

138

Parasitological and immunological aspects of early Ascaris spp. infection in mice.  

PubMed

Studies related to the immunobiological aspects of an Ascaris spp. infection are still scarce, especially those that aim to elucidate the early events of the immune response. In this study, we demonstrated a novel standardized method for early experimental Ascaris infection, providing additional information about the infectivity of eggs embryonated in vitro as well as the influence of host age on development of the infection. Finally, we characterised the immunopathology of early infection, focusing on the tissue and systemic cytokine profiles and the histopathology of infection in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that the highest egg infectivity occurred on the 100th and 200th days of in vitro embryonation and that 8 week-old BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection than 16 week-old mice. Ascaris-infected mice showed an early, significant level of IL-5 production in the lungs 4 days p.i., followed by an increase in the level of neutrophils in the inflammatory infiltrate at 8 days p.i, which was correlated with the peak of larval migration in the tissue and a significant level of IL-6 production. The inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs was gradually replaced by mononuclear cells and eosinophils on the 10th and 12th days p.i., respectively, and an increase in TNF levels was observed. The downmodulation of systemic TCD4(+) cell numbers might suggest that T cell hyporesponsiveness was induced by the Ascaris spp. larvae, contributing to safeguarding parasite survival during larval migration. Taken together, the novel aspects of Ascaris infection presented here enabled a better understanding of the immunopathological events during larval migration, providing insight for further studies focused on immunisation and immunoprophylatic assays. PMID:23665127

Gazzinelli-Guimares, Pedro Henrique; Gazzinelli-Guimares, Ana Clara; Silva, Flaviane Nunes; Mati, Vitor Lus Tenrio; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Barbosa, Fernando Srgio; Passos, Lvia Silva Arajo; Gaze, Soraya; Carneiro, Cludia Martins; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

2013-08-01

139

Variation in clinical and parasitological traits in Pietrain and Meishan pigs infected with Sarcocystis miescheriana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future prophylaxis needs new concepts, including natural disease resistance of hosts against infectious agents. Genomic approaches to detect and improve disease resistance in farm animals and the molecular mechanisms involved in hostparasite interactions depend to a high degree on the trait differences between founder breeds, i.e. on the animal model. The present study evaluates differences in susceptibility\\/resistance against Sarcocystis miescheriana

G. Reiner; J. Eckert; T. Peischl; S. Bochert; T. Jkel; U. Mackenstedt; A. Joachim; A. Daugschies; H. Geldermann

2002-01-01

140

Molecular genetic approaches to parasite identification: their value in diagnostic parasitology and systematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of approaches is available to parasitologists to aid in specific parasite identification and to formulate phylogenetic relationships. This review emphasises the usefulness of molecular genetic techniques, especially DNA-based procedures, in addressing problems of identification, characterisation and phylogeny of parasites. It should be stressed that an understanding of the various DNA approaches, techniques and target genes most likely

D. P. McManus; J. Bowles

1996-01-01

141

Environmental Parasitology: Y~hat can Parasites tell us about Human Impacts on the Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of ways that environmental changes affect parasites, suggesting that information on parasites can indicate anthropogenic impacts. Parasitism may in- creese if the ~mpact reduces host resistance or increases the density of intermediate or definitive hosts. Parasitism may decrease if definitive or intermediate host density declines or parasites suffer higher mortality directly (eg. from toxic effects on

K. D. Lafferty

1997-01-01

142

Environmental parasitology: What can parasites tell us about human impacts on the environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of ways that environmental changes affect parasites, suggesting that information on parasites can indicate anthropogenic impacts. Parasitism may increase if the impact reduces host resistance or increases the density of intermediate or definitive hosts. Parasitism may decrease if definitive or intermediate host density declines or parasites suffer higher mortality directly (eg. from toxic effects on parasites)

K. D. Lafferty

1997-01-01

143

Towards a nucleic acid-based diagnosis in clinical parasitology and mycology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMultiple in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the diagnosis of parasitic and fungal diseases have been reported. Encouraging results have been published to anticipate or improve the diagnosis. However, the absence of standardized methods has led to discrepant results. As a consequence, these tests are not recognized as consensual diagnostic criteria.

Stphane Bretagne; Jean-Marc Costa

2006-01-01

144

Parasitological studies at a new breeding area of Oncomelania hupensis chiui in Taipei county, Taiwan.  

PubMed

Oncomelania hupensis chiui was found at the Jui-Ping area, Linkow District, Taipei County, Taiwan, which is located on the north coast of the island approximately 10 km of the mouth of the Tamasui River. The habitat of the snails at this area is similar to the type locality at Alilao, on the slope of the hills along of coast. The snails from this new breeding area, are similar to the Alilao snails, and are highly susceptible to the infection with geographic strains of Schistosoma japonicum including the Changhua, Ilan, Japanese, Philippine and Chinese strains. Examinations of 7,758 snails and intradermal tests on 736 inhabitants along with stool examinations of 622 people indicated that there was no evidence of the presence of Schistosoma japonicum at this area. Results obtained from stool examination demonstrated high prevalence of hookworm infection (53.4%) and relatively low infection rates of Asearis lumbricoides (37.0%) and Trichuris trichiura (14.1%). The protozoan infections were low in general. A single Scotch-tape technique for Enterobius vermicularis among 499 school children yielded a 55.7% infection rate. PMID:1243115

Chiu, J K; Lu, S C

1975-06-01

145

From the roots of parasitology: Hippocrates' first scientific observations in helminthology.  

PubMed

Although knowledge of intestinal parasites predates Hippocrates, the Hippocratic Corpus provides the first scientific observations about the clinical perception and treatment of helminthic diseases. These observations follow the scientific principles of Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, who relied on knowledge and observation. This article is based on a systematic study of the Hippocratic texts, and presents observations on diseases caused by intestinal parasites with respect to regularity of appearance, patient age, symptoms, and treatment. Three types of helminths are described: "helmins strongyle" (roundworm), "helmins plateia" (flatworm), and "ascaris" (which corresponds to Enterobius vermicularis). Helminthic diseases primarily appear during childhood, well after teething. The described systemic symptoms include weakness, sickness, discomfort, tiredness, anorexia, and emotional instability; gastrointestinal symptoms include change in bowel movements, vomiting, and colic pain in the epigastrium. We identified several accounts of cases of helminthic diseases in the Hippocratic texts. Of particular interest are the descriptions of a helminth emerging from a fistula in the navel region and the surgical treatment of helminthic diseases, reinforced by being described on a dedicatory inscription at the Asclepion in Epidaurus. We finally encountered the use of powerful purgatives as antihelminthics, which have been widely used, even into the 21st century. PMID:17918392

Trompoukis, Constantinos; German, Vasilios; Falagas, Matthew E

2007-08-01

146

Babesiosis in dogs and catsExpanding parasitological and clinical spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine babesiosis caused by different Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and global significance. Historically, Babesia infection in dogs was identified based on the morphologic appearance of the parasite in the erythrocyte. All large forms of Babesia were designated Babesia canis, whereas all small forms of Babesia were considered to be Babesia gibsoni. However, the development

Laia Solano-Gallego; Gad Baneth

2011-01-01

147

Parasitological impact of 2-year preventive chemotherapy on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are among the neglected tropical diseases in Africa. A national control program for these diseases was initiated in Uganda during March 2003. Annual treatment with praziquantel and albendazole was given to schoolchildren in endemic areas and to adults in selected communities where local prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in schoolchildren was high. METHODS: The impact

Yaobi Zhang; Artemis Koukounari; Narcis Kabatereine; Fiona Fleming; Francis Kazibwe; Edridah Tukahebwa; J Russell Stothard; Joanne P Webster; Alan Fenwick

2007-01-01

148

Molecular and parasitological detection of Trypanosoma evansi in Camels in Ismailia, Egypt.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) is an endemic disease of camels and other domestic animals in Egypt. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical T. evansi infection among camels in Ismailia, Egypt, as well as survey their owners for T. evansi infection. The diagnostic sensitivity of three different PCR assays for detection of T. evansi in blood samples was evaluated. Blood samples were collected from 100 camels and 20 of their owners in the Ismailia governorate. Results revealed that the percentage of infected of camels with T. evansi vary with the detection method, ranging from 10% to 46% by PCR compared to 12% by microscopic examination of stained blood smears. Targeting the highly repeated sequence of mini-chromosome satellite DNA (TBR1/2 primer set) was more often seen in the PCR method (46% positive) compared to targeting ITS 1 (16% positive) or RoTat 1.2 VSG (10% positive) sequences. A partial sequence of RoTat 1.2 VSG gene was identical to the T. evansi sequences reported from India and Kenya, but varied similarity was seen when aligned with Egyptian T. evansi sequences. None of the camel owners were positive for T. evansi by microscopic examination of stained blood smears or PCR assays. PCR assay based on TBR sets is useful in the diagnosis and control disease and reducing economic losses. PMID:24029715

Elhaig, Mahmoud M; Youssef, Ahmed I; El-Gayar, Amal K

2013-11-15

149

Effect of Mirazid in Schistosoma japonicum-infected mice: parasitological and pathological assessment.  

PubMed

Conflicting reports are found in the literature about the antischistosomal efficacy of Mirazid (MZ), which is a special formulation of myrrh obtained from the stem of the plant Commiphora molmol. This initiated the present study to assess this drug for the first time in experimental schistosomiasis japonicum. Mice were divided into four groups: infected untreated control (I); infected treated with MZ, 500mg/kg (II); infected treated with MZ, 250mg/kg (III); and infected treated with praziquantel (PZQ), 200mg/kg (IV). The drugs were given 7weeks post-infection for five successive days. All animals were killed 3weeks posttreatment. Results showed no signs of antibilharzial activity of MZ. Total worms, total tissue egg load, egg developmental stages, and granuloma area were not affected by any of the MZ treatment regimens as compared to the infected untreated group (P?>?0.05 for all variables). These results were in contrast to those obtained in PZQ-treated animals in which 82.82% total worm reduction, 94.62% egg reduction, and 86.35% granuloma area reduction were observed. Also, it significantly increased the percentage of dead ova and decreased the percentage of mature ova with complete absence of immature ones in comparison with the control group (P?

El-Malky, Mohamed A; Lu, Shao-Hong; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; Saudy, Niveen S; Ohta, Nobu

2013-01-01

150

Trichinella spp. infection in horses of Romania: serological and parasitological survey.  

PubMed

Herbivorous animals are usually, by virtue of their diet, outside the major transmission cycles of Trichinella spp. However, since 1975, the year of the first report of human trichinellosis caused by the consumption of infected horse meat, the domestic horse has appeared as a novel vector of Trichinella spp. infection to humans, with 15 outbreaks documented in France and Italy. Romania, one of the main countries exporting horses into the European Union (EU), experienced a dramatic increase of Trichinella spp. infection in both domestic pigs and humans in the 1990s. Some Trichinella spiralis-infected horses were exported to the EU during this period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in horses from Romania using both direct and indirect tests. Of 3000 serum samples tested in 2001, none were positive by ELISA using three different Trichinella antigens (crude; excretory/secretory, ES; stg-BSA antigens). Of 2992 serum samples tested in 2002, 17 (0.56%) showed optical density values higher than the cut-off in an ELISA using ES antigens and one was confirmed by western blot (WB). Four of the 17 ELISA positive horses, including the horse with a confirmed serology by WB, were subjected for intensive meat examination at slaughter, but no Trichinella spp. larvae were detected. Further, no Trichinella spp. larvae were detected by trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion of 25,838 horses slaughtered in Alexandria and Timisoara between 2001 and 2004. The false positive results obtained by serology confirm the previous work on the unreliability of serology for detection of Trichinella spp. infection in horses. Furthermore, the lack of detection of Trichinella spp. infected horses by artificial digestion, suggests a very low prevalence of infection in horses in Romania. PMID:19062194

Blaga, Radu; Cretu, Carmen M; Gherman, Calin; Draghici, Alina; Pozio, Edoardo; Noeckler, Karsten; Kapel, Christian M O; Dida, Ion; Cozma, Vasile; Boireau, Pascal

2009-02-23

151

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energys Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

2009-07-01

152

Parasitological and morphological findings in porcine isosporosis after treatment with symmetrical triazintriones.  

PubMed

Neonatal porcine isosporosis is known to cause serious economic losses in piglet farms by causing severe enteritis with dehydration, weight loss and reduced development in the affected animals, predominantly during the first weeks of life. In the present study, piglets experimentally infected with Isospora suis were treated with Bay Vi 9143, a symmetrical triazintrione, at different days post-infection. As shown by clinical and pathological examinations, Bay Vi 9143 is effective against the asexual and sexual stages of I. suis at all selected treatment times. However, the therapeutic use at an early stage of asexual multiplication is most effective before the onset of clinical symptoms. PMID:12856173

Bach, Ute; Kalthoff, Victoria; Mundt, Hans-Christian; Popp, Andreas; Rinke, Matthias; Daugschies, Arwid; Lttge, Bernhard

2003-09-01

153

The microbiological and parasitological status of laboratory animals from Accredited Breeders in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The incidence of significant organisms isolated from mice, hamsters, rats, guinea-pigs and rabbits from Accredited Breeders in the United Kingdom (1970-1974) is recorded. An improvement in quality in the case of mice, rats and guinea-pigs as a result of hysterectomy derivation is demonstrated, and the importance of the various organisms is discussed. There has been, over the years, a

Stephen Sparrow

1976-01-01

154

[Experience with a clinical parasitological examination in a clonorchiasis focus in the Amur River region].  

PubMed

The clinical manifestations of clonorchiasis were studied in 190 patients in the Amur River region. The severity of the disease correlated with the excretion rates of Clonorchis eggs. The peculiarity of the region is a rather low egg excretion; 66.8% of patients excreted as many as 100 eggs/g, 27.3%, up to 1000 eggs/g. Most examinees (94.3%) suffered from chronic gastroduodenitis and functional disorders of the biliary system. PMID:9445987

Dyk, L M; Posokhov, P S; Dobrykh, V A; Markina, L G; Kozyreva, T G

1997-01-01

155

Parasitological and clinical investigations on infections with the VS Romanian strain of Plasmodium malariae transmitted by Anopheles labranchiae atroparvus*  

PubMed Central

In order to contribute to knowledge of the sporogonic cycle of malaria parasites, 3 batches of Anopheles labranchiae atroparvus were infected with the VS Romanian strain of Plasmodium malariae by feeding them on 2 patients undergoing malariotherapy in Romania. Of the 310 infected mosquitos 59 were dissected for ookinetes, oocysts and sporozoites, and the rest were used for further clinical trials in England. Mature ookinetes were observed 18 hours after infection, and sporozoites were first observed in the salivary glands 19 days after infection. One of the main characteristics of the VS strain of P. malariae observed in Romania was the relatively large number of gametocytes and subsequent heavy infections it could produce. However, gametocytes were found only in the heart blood of 1 of the 4 subjects infected in England (on autopsy after accidental death); post mortem examination of the liver of the same subject failed to show exo-erythrocytic schizonts. None of the other 3 subjects showed gametocytes or infected mosquitos. On the basis of clinical symptoms, the incubation period of P. malariae in these subjects was found to be 18-19 days. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 1

Lupascu, G.; Constantinescu, P.; Negulici, E.; Shute, P. G.; Maryon, M. E.

1968-01-01

156

Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in naturally-infected dogs and cats using serological, parasitological and molecular methods  

PubMed Central

Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and a risk factor for parasite transmission. In this study we assessed the relative performance of a polymerase chain reaction assay targeted to minicircle DNA (kDNA-PCR) in reference to conventional serological tests, a rapid dipstick test and xenodiagnosis to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs and cats from an endemic rural area in northeastern Argentina. A total of 43 dogs and 13 cats seropositive for T. cruzi by an immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), which had been examined by xenodiagnosis, were also tested by kDNA-PCR. kDNA-PCR was nearly as sensitive as xenodiagnosis for detecting T. cruzi- infectious dogs and cats. kDNA-PCR was slightly more sensitive than xenodiagnosis in seropositive dogs (91% versus 86%, respectively) and cats (77% against 54%, respectively), but failed to detect all of the seropositive individuals. ELISA and IHA detected all xenodiagnosis-positive dogs and both outcomes largely agreed (kappa coefficient, ? = 0.92), whereas both assays failed to detect all of the xenodiagnosis-positive cats and their agreement was moderate (? = 0.68). In dogs, the sensitivity of the dipstick test was 95% and agreed closely with the outcome of conventional serological tests (? = 0.82). The high sensitivity of kDNA-PCR to detect T. cruzi infections in naturally-infected dogs and cats supports its application as a diagnostic tool complementary to serology and may replace the use of xenodiagnosis or hemoculture.

Enriquez, G.F.; Cardinal, M.V.; Orozco, M.M.; Schijman, A.G.; Gurtler, R.E.

2013-01-01

157

Clinical and Parasitological Protection in a Leishmania infantum-Macaque Model Vaccinated with Adenovirus and the Recombinant A2 Antigen  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe vector-born disease of humans and dogs caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites. Approximately 0.2 to 0.4 million new human VL cases occur annually worldwide. In the new world, these alarming numbers are primarily due to the impracticality of current control methods based on vector reduction and dog euthanasia. Thus, a prophylactic vaccine appears to be essential for VL control. The current efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine include the use of animal models that are as close to human VL. We have previously reported a L. infantum-macaque infection model that is reliable to determine which vaccine candidates are most worthy for further development. Among the few amastigote antigens tested so far, one of specific interest is the recombinant A2 (rA2) protein that protects against experimental L. infantum infections in mice and dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Primates were vaccinated using three rA2-based prime-boost immunization regimes: three doses of rA2 plus recombinant human interleukin-12 (rhIL-12) adsorbed in alum (rA2/rhIL-12/alum); two doses of non-replicative adenovirus recombinant vector encoding A2 (Ad5-A2) followed by two boosts with rA2/rhIL-12/alum (Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum); and plasmid DNA encoding A2 gene (DNA-A2) boosted with two doses of Ad5-A2 (DNA-A2+Ad5-A2). Primates received a subsequent infectious challenge with L. infantum. Vaccines, apart from being safe, were immunogenic as animals responded with increased pre-challenge production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies, though with some variability in the response, depending on the vaccine formulation/protocol. The relative parasite load in the liver was significantly lower in immunized macaques as compared to controls. Protection correlated with hepatic granuloma resolution, and reduction of clinical symptoms, particularly when primates were vaccinated with the Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum protocol. Conclusions/Significance The remarkable clinical protection induced by A2 in an animal model that is evolutionary close to humans qualifies this antigen as a suitable vaccine candidate against human VL.

Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Porrozzi, Renato; Pinto, Marcelo A.; Marchevsky, Renato S.; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle L.; Dutra, Miriam S.; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Fernandes, Ana-Paula; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

2014-01-01

158

Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis. PMID:18188597

Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

2008-04-01

159

[The sanitary and parasitological characteristics of environmental objects in the south of Russia. Wastewaters and their precipitations].  

PubMed

The relative uniformity of helminthic eggs has been noted in the wastewaters of the Rostov Region, Krasnodar Territory, and the Republic ofAdygea. An ovogram is mainly presented by the eggs of Ascaris, Toxocaras, and whipworms. By taking into account incomplete dehelmintization during waste treatment, 5,000 to 1,080,000 helminth eggs may annually come into the water reservoirs where purified wastewaters are discharged, 33% remaining viable. Irrespective of the efficiency of dehelmintization, wastewaters and their precipitations continue to remain epidemiologically dangerous substrates and to create prerequisites for the spread of an invasive source in the environment, by risking the infection of the population with parasitic diseases. PMID:18557361

Khromenkova, E P; Vaserin, Iu I; Romanenko, N A; Dimidova, L L; Upyrev, A V; Shishkanova, L V; Kovalev, E N; Moroz, N V; Liubimova, S V; Agirov, A Kh; Trufanov, N D; Papatsenko, L B; Pliasovitsa, S G; Viatkina, N A; Avsiukova, T M

2008-01-01

160

Parasitological and molecular study of the furcocercariae from Melanoides tuberculata as a probable agent of cercarial dermatitis.  

PubMed

Cercarial dermatitis is caused by animal schistosomes in many parts of the world including Iran. Various stages of the parasites have been studied in intermediate and definitive hosts in northern and southwestern Iran; however, no molecular investigation for species identification and classification of these agents has been carried out, so far. In the present study, more than 3,800 aquatic snails were collected from water sources of Khuzestan, southwest Iran. The snails were identified as Lymnaea gedrosiana, Radix auricularia, Melanoides tuberculata, Melanopsis sp. and Physa acuta. They were examined for schistosome cercariae. Two specimens of M. tuberculata were infected with ocellate furcocercariae belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. Molecular studies were carried on these schistosomatid samples. Both samples belong to an unknown schistosome species and genus in sister position to Gigantobilharzia-Dendritobilharzia clade. They differ from other species in their ITS sequence region as well as in their intermediate host specificity--This is one of the first reports on schistosome cercariae from M. tuberculata and the first including molecular data. Due to adaptability and invasiveness of this snail species, this new schistosome species, as a potential causative agent of cercarial dermatitis in humans, needs to be studied further. PMID:21046153

Karamian, Mehdi; Aldhoun, Jitka A; Maraghi, Sharif; Hatam, Gholamreza; Farhangmehr, Babak; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud

2011-04-01

161

A Case of Probable Mixed-Infection with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp.: CT and Parasitological Findings  

PubMed Central

We report here a human case probably mixed-infected with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp. who was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan, serological findings, and/or fecal examination. The patient was a 43-year-old Korean female and was admitted to Kyung Hee University Hospital with the complaints of fever and abdominal pain. On admission, marked eosinophilia was noted in her peripheral blood. CT scan showed specific lesions for clonorchiasis and fascioliasis in the liver, along with lesions suggestive of amebic abscess. Micro-ELISA revealed positive results for the 2 helminthic infections. Eggs of C. sinensis and trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were observed in the stool. Treatment with praziquantel followed by metronidazole and tinidazole reduced abnormalities in the liver and eosinophilia. This is the first case report of a possible co-infection with 2 kinds of liver flukes in the Republic of Korea.

Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Yun, Ji Hye; Kim, Jeong Ju; Choi, Won Hyung; Oh, In Hwan; Song, Hyun Ouk

2010-01-01

162

World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of equine anthelmintics  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been designed to assist in the planning, operation and interpretation of studies which would serve to assess the efficacy of drugs against internal parasites of horses. Although the term anthelmintic is used in the title and text, these guidelines include studies on drug efficacy against larvae of horse bot flies, Gasterophilus spp., which are non-helminth parasites commonly

J. L. Duncan; E. M. Abbott; J. H. Arundel; M. Eysker; T. R. Klei; R. C. Krecek; E. T. Lyons; C. Reinemeyer; J. O. D. Slocombe

2002-01-01

163

Epidemiological, parasitological and molecular aspects of Giardia duodenalis infection in children attending public daycare centers in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, associated risk factors and genotype of Giardia duodenalis infection in children attending public daycare centers in the city of Araguari, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 245 children aged 0-5 years, and questionnaires were asked about sociodemographic and hygiene-related characteristics. At the daycare centers where children tested positive, fecal samples were collected from the staff handling food, and from family members and domestic animals. Positive samples were analyzed at the dehydrogenase glutamate (gdh) locus to determine the genotype. The prevalence of G. duodenalis was 51.8%, and drinking unfiltered and unboiled water (OR 2.12, CI 1.26-3.69, p<0.001) and washing hands only with water (OR 2.14, CI 1.19-4.04, p<0.001) were related risk factors. No association was found between test-positive children and their family members, domestic animals and food handlers. An analysis of the sequences of 30 samples revealed that they all belonged to genotype B. PMID:22739043

Santos, Cynthia K S; Grama, Daliane F; Limongi, Jean E; Costa, Fabola C; Couto, Talles R; Soares, Rodrigo M; Mundim, Maria Jos S; Cury, Mrcia C

2012-08-01

164

Influence of toltrazuril treatment on parasitological parameters and health performance of piglets in the field--an Austrian experience.  

PubMed

Porcine coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis is one of the leading causes of neonatal diarrhea in suckling piglets. Currently the only registered drug for metaphylaxis is toltrazuril. To evaluate the effect of treatment on piglets from 7 Austrian farms without and 8 Austrian farms with toltrazuril application we examined oocyst excretion (including determination of oocysts per gram of feces; OPG), diarrhea (fecal score FS 1-4 with 3 and 4 being diarrhea), and general health (health score HS 1-4 with 3 and 4 describing poor health). Both groups included farms with different levels of hygiene. Samples from 265 litters without treatment, comprising 1588 individual samples, and 1548 samples from 258 treated litters were taken twice (around the 14th and the 21st day of life, respectively), examined by autofluorescence and, if positive, by McMaster counting. In both groups animals had less diarrhea and lower health scores during the second sampling but the treated piglets were always significantly healthier and had less diarrhea. The percentage of weaned piglets was higher in treated animals although this was not significant (p=0.052). In the first round of sampling 17.8% of the individual samples from untreated piglets were positive for oocysts (with a maximum prevalence on the 12-15th day of life) while in the treated piglets only 0.4% shed oocysts p<0.001). At the second sampling only 2.1% of the untreated animals and none of treated piglets excreted I. suis (p=0.083). Positive animals shed up to 8 10(3)OPG. There was an increased risk for infected piglets to develop diarrhea (odds ratio, OR 4.73) and poor health (OR 5.05) in untreated piglets, and poor hygiene without disinfection was identified as a risk factor for poor health (OR 1.90), diarrhea (OR 1.42) and oocyst excretion (OR 1.73). The risk of poor health (OR 2.89) and diarrhea (OR 1.44) was also increased for piglets under poor hygienic conditions receiving toltrazuril, so both metaphylaxis of coccidiosis and good hygiene are necessary to effectively control neonatal diarrhea. The costs of treatment are considerably lower than the estimated financial production losses. Therefore, treatment is recommended for farms where clinical coccidiosis is diagnosed. PMID:21820246

Kreiner, Tanja; Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Tichy, Alexander; Joachim, Anja

2011-12-29

165

Evaluation of Streck Tissue Fixative, a Nonformalin Fixative for Preservation of Stool Samples and Subsequent Parasitologic Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a study to evaluate Streck tissue fixative (STF) as a substitute for formalin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in fecal preservation. A comparison of formalin, PVA, (mercuric chloride based), and STF was done by aliquoting fecal samples into each fixative. Stool specimens were collected in Haiti, and parasites included Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endolimax nana,

EVA K. NACE; FRANK J. STEURER; MARK L. EBERHARD

1999-01-01

166

Superiority of the ELISA technique over parasitological methods for detection of trichinellosis in slaughtered pigs in Canada.  

PubMed

Trichinoscopic examination, pepsin-hydrogen chloride digestion and the ELISA assay were used in an epidemiological survey for the presence of Trichinella spiralis in slaughterhouse pigs over a period of 12 months. The first two methods failed to detect any cases of trichinellosis in sows aged between two to three years. The ELISA assay, however, detected a 2.5% prevalence amongst the 2046 blood specimens tested. Foci of T. spiralis are localized in certain regions only. The discrepancy between the results obtained is likely to be due to the low infection density, undetectable by conventional methods. It is postulated that pigs which are not confined indoors came in contact with the sylvatic strain of Trichinella which is known for low muscle invasiveness. PMID:3886108

Faubert, G M; Viens, P; Magluilo, P

1985-01-01

167

Superiority of the ELISA technique over parasitological methods for detection of trichinellosis in slaughtered pigs in Canada.  

PubMed Central

Trichinoscopic examination, pepsin-hydrogen chloride digestion and the ELISA assay were used in an epidemiological survey for the presence of Trichinella spiralis in slaughterhouse pigs over a period of 12 months. The first two methods failed to detect any cases of trichinellosis in sows aged between two to three years. The ELISA assay, however, detected a 2.5% prevalence amongst the 2046 blood specimens tested. Foci of T. spiralis are localized in certain regions only. The discrepancy between the results obtained is likely to be due to the low infection density, undetectable by conventional methods. It is postulated that pigs which are not confined indoors came in contact with the sylvatic strain of Trichinella which is known for low muscle invasiveness.

Faubert, G M; Viens, P; Magluilo, P

1985-01-01

168

Invasion biology meets parasitology: a case study of parasite spill-back with egyptian Fasciola gigantica in the invasive snail Pseudosuccinea columella.  

PubMed

The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in Africa and Asia. Cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to F. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. The introduced snail species Galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader Pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. Therefore, we investigated snails collected in irrigation canals in Fayoum governorate in Egypt for prevalence of trematodes with focus on P. columella and its role for the transmission of F. gigantica. Species were identified morphologically and by partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Among all 689 snails found at the 21 sampling sites, P. columella was the most abundant snail with 296 individuals (42.96%) and it was also the most dominant species at 10 sites. It was not found at 8 sites. Molecular detection by PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) revealed infections with F. gigantica (3.38%), Echinostoma caproni (2.36%) and another echinostome (7.09%) that could not be identified further according to its sequence. No dependency of snail size and trematode infection was found. Both high abundance of P. columella in the Fayoum irrigation system and common infection with F. gigantica might be a case of parasite spill-back (increased prevalence in local final hosts due to highly susceptible introduced intermediate host species) from the introduced P. columella to the human population, explaining at least partly the observed increase of reported fascioliasis-cases in Egypt. Eichhornia crassipes, the invasive water hyacinth, which covers huge areas of the irrigation canals, offers safe refuges for the amphibious P. columella during molluscicide application. As a consequence, this snail dominates snail communities and efficiently transmits F. gigantica. PMID:24523913

Grabner, Daniel S; Mohamed, Faten A M M; Nachev, Milen; Mabed, Eman M H; Sabry, Abdel Hameed A; Sures, Bernd

2014-01-01

169

Parasitologic Assessment of Two-Dose and Monthly Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria during Pregnancy with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTP-SP) in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTP-SP) is a key strategy in the control of malaria in pregnancy. However, reports of increasing level of resistance to SP using nonpregnant populations have made it imperative for the continuous monitoring of the efficacy of SP in pregnant women. This study assessed using microscopy, monthly dosing and the standard two-dose regimen among 259 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Lagos, Nigeria that consented 122 in the two-dose arm (Arm A) and 137 in the monthly dose arm (Arm B). Baseline parasitaemia in the two groups was 5 (4.1%) and 3 (2.2%) in Arms A and B, respectively. Few of the women developed parasitaemia after the initial SP dose in Arms A 4 (3.3%) and B 2 (1.5%). However, none of the women had malaria infection after the second dose in both Arms. Although IPTP-SP is suggestive of protecting the women from malaria infection, there was no significant difference observed between the two dosing schemes.

Agomo, Chimere O.; Oyibo, Wellington A.; Odukoya-Maije, Funke

2011-01-01

170

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs in chickens and turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been written to aid in the design, implementation and interpretation of studies for the assessment of drug efficacy against Eimeria species in chickens and turkeys. The information provided deals with many aspects of how to conduct controlled studies in battery cages (dose determination), floor pens (dose confirmation), and commercial facilities (field effectiveness studies), the selection of birds,

P. A Holdsworth; D. P Conway; M. E McKenzie; A. D Dayton; H. D Chapman; G. F Mathis; J. T Skinner; H.-C Mundt; R. B Williams

2004-01-01

171

Effect of meteorological factors on clinical malaria risk among children: an assessment using village-based meteorological stations and community-based parasitological survey  

PubMed Central

Background Temperature, rainfall and humidity have been widely associated with the dynamics of malaria vector population and, therefore, with spread of the disease. However, at the local scale, there is a lack of a systematic quantification of the effect of these factors on malaria transmission. Further, most attempts to quantify this effect are based on proxy meteorological data acquired from satellites or interpolated from a different scale. This has led to controversies about the contribution of climate change to malaria transmission risk among others. Our study addresses the original question of relating meteorological factors measured at the local scale with malaria infection, using data collected at the same time and scale. Methods 676 children (659 months) were selected randomly from three ecologically different sites (urban and rural). During weekly home visits between December 1, 2003, and November 30, 2004, fieldworkers tested children with fever for clinical malaria. They also collected data on possible confounders monthly. Digital meteorological stations measured ambient temperature, humidity, and rainfall in each site. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of clinical malaria given the previous month's meteorological conditions. Results The overall incidence of clinical malaria over the study period was 1.07 episodes per child. Meteorological factors were associated with clinical malaria with mean temperature having the largest effect. Conclusion Temperature was the best predictor for clinical malaria among children under five. A systematic measurement of local temperature through ground stations and integration of such data in the routine health information system could support assessment of malaria transmission risk at the district level for well-targeted control efforts.

Ye, Yazoume; Louis, Valerie R; Simboro, Seraphin; Sauerborn, Rainer

2007-01-01

172

Immunological and parasitological parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with crude extract from the leaves of Mentha x piperita L.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by an intravascular trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the drug used for treatment of schistosomiasis; nevertheless failure of treatment has been reported. Consequently, the identification of new effective schistosomicidal compounds is essential to ensure the effective control of schistosomiasis in the future. In this work we investigated the immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of the crude leaves extract of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Female Balb/c mice were infected each with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and divided into three experimental groups: (I) untreated; (II) treated daily with M. x piperita L. (100mg/kg) and III) treated on 1/42/43 days post-infection with Praziquantel (500mg/kg). Another group with uninfected and untreated mice was used as a control. Subsequently, seven weeks post-infection, S. mansoni eggs were counted in the feces, liver and intestine. Worms were recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system and counted. Sera levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-?, IgG1, IgE and IgG2a were assayed by ELISA. Animals treated with a daily dose of M. x piperita L. showed increased sera levels of IL-10, IFN-?, IgG2a and IgE. Besides, M. x piperita L. treatment promoted reduction in parasite burden by 35.2% and significant decrease in egg counts in the feces and intestine. PMID:24767421

Dejani, Naiara N; Souza, Las C; Oliveira, Sandra R P; Neris, Dbora M; Rodolpho, Joice M A; Correia, Ricardo O; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Sacramento, Luis V S; Faccioli, Lcia H; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

2014-08-01

173

Piscinoodinium pillulare (Schperclaus, 1954) Lom, 1981 (Dinoflagellida) infection in cultivated freshwater fish from the northeast region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Parasitological and pathological aspects.  

PubMed

The Aquaculture Center of Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, received fishes for diagnosis from fish farmers reporting fish crowding at pond edges and in water inlets. Fifty-three out of 194 cases showed round to oval, immobile whitish structures, measuring up to 162 microm diameter, identified as the dinoflagellate Piscinoodinium pillulare. In 34 diagnosed cases the parasites were present in the gills, in 2 on body surface, and 9 in both. Thirty-one out of 53 were tambacu hybrids hosts; 7, Piaractus mesopotamicus; 6, Colossoma macropomum; 5, Leporinus macrocephalus; 3, Oreochromis niloticus; and 1, Prochilodus lineatus. Fish showed increased mucous production on body surface and gills, while ecchymosis in the caudal peduncle and operculum was present. The gills also showed paleness, congestion, and petechiae. Histopathology presented a great number of trophonts situated between secondary lamellae, fixed to or detached from the epithelium. Primary lamellae presented interstitial hemorrhages, severe hyperplasia of the epithelium, goblet cells, and mononuclear infiltrates. The present work is the first report of P pillulare in Brazil and emphasizes the importance of this dinoflagellate which caused significant economic losses from 1995 through 1997. PMID:12071320

Martins, M L; Moraes, J R; Andrade, P M; Schalch, S H; Moraes, F R

2001-11-01

174

Parasitological and serological studies on the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) in Switzerland.  

PubMed

In the Canton of Zurich in Switzerland, 1,252 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined during 1990-1991 for intestinal stages of Echinococcus multilocularis using the mucosal smear technique. Special safety precautions were employed during examination. An average of 35% (432 foxes) were infected, mostly with low to medium numbers of gravid worms producing thick-shelled eggs. In the eleven districts of the Canton, prevalence rates varied between 13% and 57%. An average of 29% of the foxes had antibodies in serum or body fluid against a highly species-specific antigen of E. multilocularis (Em2-antigen). The fact that foxes with intestinal E. multilocularis infection have been found in all parts of the Canton of Zurich indicates a relatively high potential infection risk for humans, but apparently the risk is reduced by certain extrinsic or intrinsic factors which have yet to be determined. PMID:1305853

Ewald, D; Eckert, J; Gottstein, B; Straub, M; Nigg, H

1992-12-01

175

High plasma levels of nitrogen oxides are associated with severe disease and correlate with rapid parasitological and clinical cure in Plasmodium falciparum malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma levels of nitrogen oxide (NO), neopterin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were compared in 3 groups of Gabonese patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria before and after therapy: adults with uncomplicated malaria, children with uncomplicated malaria, and children with severe malaria. Plasma levels of all 3 molecules were significantly higher in severe malaria than in uncomplicated malaria. High levels of neopterin

Peter G. Kremsner; Stefan Winkler; Eckart Wildling; Javier Prada; Ulrich Bienzle; Wolfgang Graninger; Andreas K. Nssler

1996-01-01

176

[Intestinal trematodiases (metagonimiasis, nanophyetiasis): clinico-parasitological research and the first trial of using Azinox in a focus of the lower Amur River valley].  

PubMed

A focus of metagonimiasis and nanophyetiasis is described with the average human prevalence of 66.7 and 4.2%, respectively and low intensity of invasions (less than 100 eggs per 1 g). Metagonimiasis and nanophyetiasis are clinically expressed as chronic enterocolitis. A high effect of a single dose 10 mg/kg of azinox against metagonimiasis (98%) and nanophyetiasis (100%) was shown. The treatment course was proved to be useful in the foci of the Amur basin. PMID:1435530

Bronshte?n, A M; Korablev, V N; Iarotski?, L S

1992-01-01

177

76 FR 29762 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs, OMB, Attn: FDA Desk Officer, FAX: 202-395-7285...share their results with the veterinary parasitology community. FDA...veterinarians with expertise in veterinary parasitology using a Web-based...and disagreement within the veterinary parasitology community....

2011-05-23

178

75 FR 39948 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Antiparasitic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...share their results with the veterinary parasitology community. FDA plans to survey scientists...veterinarians with expertise in veterinary parasitology using a web-based tool. The questions...disagreement within the veterinary parasitology community. The survey will query...

2010-07-13

179

78 FR 12323 - Announcement of the Re-Approval of the Commission on Office Laboratory Accreditation (COLA) as an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General Immunology. Chemistry, including Routine Chemistry...Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology,...

2013-02-22

180

75 FR 48698 - Medicare, Medicaid and CLIA Programs; COLA (Formerly the Commission on Office Laboratory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General Immunology. Chemistry, including Routine Chemistry...Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology,...

2010-08-11

181

Automated reading and processing of quantitative IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE isotypic agglutination results in microplates Development and application in parasitology-mycology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microplate agglutination techniques represent a simple and commonly used approach for the quantitative or qualitative isotypic analysis of specific antibodies. However, they require optical reading by the investigator and are thus prone to an important degree of variability. In order to solve some of the problems associated with the variability of optical readings, we have used an automatic reader scanning

D. Aubert; F. Foudrinier; M. L. Kaltenbach; D. Guyot-Walser; C. Marx-Chemla; R. Geers; H. Lepan; J. M. Pinon

1995-01-01

182

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestation on dogs and cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities accruing from animal

A. A. Marchiondo; P. A. Holdsworth; P. Green; B. L. Blagburn; D. E. Jacobs

2007-01-01

183

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition: guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestations on dogs and cats.  

PubMed

These second edition guidelines, updated from the 2007 version (Marchiondo et al., 2007), are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. Major revisions to this second edition include guidelines on the assessment of systemic flea and tick products, an update of the geographical distribution of the common fleas and ticks species on dogs and cats, determination of flea and tick efficacy based on geometric versus arithmetic means with respect to geographic regulatory agencies, modification of tick categorization in the assessment of efficacy, expanded guidelines on repellency and anti-feeding effects, enhanced practical field study guidance, and considerations on the ranges of flea and ticks for infestations in laboratory studies. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist regulatory authorities involved in the approval and registration of new topical or systemic ectoparasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures. PMID:23741753

Marchiondo, A A; Holdsworth, P A; Fourie, L J; Rugg, D; Hellmann, K; Snyder, D E; Dryden, M W

2013-05-01

184

Morphology of Diagnostic Stages of Intestinal Parasites of Man.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Morphologic characteristics of the diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites of man presented in tabular form with accompanying drawings. The report is intended as a manual for ready reference by technologists doing parasitologic examinations.

M. M. Brooke D. M. Melvin

1978-01-01

185

[Blastocystosis: a high prevalence of cases found in patients from Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui State, Venezuela].  

PubMed

The parasitological examination of fecal samples from 98 patients from an Ambulatory Health Center of Soledad, Anzoategui, Venezuela revealed a rather high proportion of results positive for Blastocystis hominis (46.9%). PMID:16082488

Velsquez, Virma; Caldera, Rixcia; Wong, Wladimir; Cermeo, Gloria; Fuentes, Maximo; Blanco, Ytalia; Aponte, Maria; Devera, Rodolfo

2005-01-01

186

Parasites of Man in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parasitological and serological surveys of residents from four areas of South Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia, were conducted in 1972 under the auspices of the Indonesian Ministry of Heath to establish baseline data on the distribution and prevalence of co...

W. P. Carney J. H. Cross S. W. Joseph P. F. Van Peenen J. F. Duncan

1990-01-01

187

Human Malarias and Intestinal Parasites in Kresek, West Java, Indonesia, with a Cursory Serological Survey for Toxoplasmosis and Amoebiasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A parasitologic survey was conducted in the Kresek area of West Java, Indonesia. Stool specimens, finger bloods and sera were collected. In the stools of 603 persons examined by formalin-ether concentration methods trichuris trichiura (91%) Ascaris lumbri...

M. D. Clarke J. H. Cross J. J. Gunning D. Reynolds Oemijati

1973-01-01

188

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 7: Hosts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

189

Proceedings of the Midwest Furbearer Workshop (14th). Held in Wakefield, Michigan on April 2-4, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Ecological Studies of Wolves on Isle Royale Rolf O. Peterson; Session 1: Society, Politics, and Furbearer Management; Session II: Furbearer Toxicology, Parasitology, and Restraint; Session III: Fisher and Marten Management in the Upper Great Lak...

D. Wagner R. Earle T. Reis

1996-01-01

190

77 FR 36488 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Phocoena phocoena). Parts would be archived and used for research on a variety of health- related analyses such as tissue histology, contaminants analyses, infectious disease research, parasitology studies, and stable isotope work. Additionally,...

2012-06-19

191

76 FR 76416 - Request for Nominations of Candidates To Serve on the Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...including epidemiology, microbiology, bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, public health, entomology, clinical medicine, and veterinary medicine, as well as from the general public. Members may be invited to serve for...

2011-12-07

192

78 FR 40744 - Request for Nominations of Candidates To Serve on the Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...including epidemiology, microbiology, bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, public health, entomology, clinical medicine, and veterinary medicine, as well as from the general public. Members may be invited to serve for...

2013-07-08

193

42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and virology. Specific criteria for these subspecialties are found at §§ 493.911 through...

2013-10-01

194

Francesco Redi: (1626-1697) Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia article about a scientist in the 1600s who was interested in experimental toxicology, parasitology, entomology and developmental biology. He used microscopy to argue against spontaneous generation.

Kimberly A Buettner (Arizona State University Embryo Project Encyclopedia)

2012-02-23

195

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 6, Sections A-B: Subject Headings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

196

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 5. Arthropoda and Miscellaneous Phyla.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

197

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 4. Namatoda and Acanthocephala.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

198

ENTERIC PARASITES IN WORKERS OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED TO SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

To determine if parasitic infections occur more frequently among workers exposed to wastewater than among controls, parasitologic examinations were performed on stool specimens collected over a 12-month period from sewer and highway maintenance workers. Three of 56 sewer maintena...

199

CLINICAL RECOVERY AND LIMITED CURE IN CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS TREATED WITH AMINOSIDINE (PAROMOMYCIN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups of three, six, and 12 dogs with parasitologically proven clinical visceral leishmaniasis (Leishmania chagasi infection) were treated with intramuscular aminosidine sulfate at doses of 20 mg\\/kg\\/day for 15 days; 80 mg\\/kg\\/day for 20 days, and 40 mg\\/kg\\/day for 30 days, respectively. Follow-up was by parasitologic ex- amination of bone marrow and skin, serology using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody

J. A. VEXENAT; P. L. OLLIARO; J. A. FONSECA DE CASTRO; R. CAVALCANTE; J. H. FURTADO CAMPOS; J. P. TAVARES; M. A. MILES

200

Impact of Indoor Residual Spraying of Lambda-Cyhalothrin on Malaria Prevalence and Anemia in an Epidemic-Prone District of Muleba, North-Western Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The Government of Tanzania introduced indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Muleba district in north-western Tanzania after frequent malaria epidemics. Malaria parasitological baseline and two cross-sectional follow-up surveys were conducted in villages under the IRS program and those not under IRS to assess the impact of IRS intervention. After two rounds of IRS intervention there was a significant reduction of malaria parasitological indices in both two villages. In IRS villages overall, parasitemia prevalence was reduced by 67.2%, splenomegaly was reduced by 75.8%, whereas anemia was reduced by 50.5%. There was also a decline of malaria parasite density from 896.4 at baseline to 128.8 at second follow-up survey. Similarly, there was also a reduction of malaria parasitological indices in non-IRS villages; however, parasitological indices in IRS villages remained far below the levels in non-IRS villages. The reduction of malaria parasitological indices in non-IRS villages might have been contributed by interventions other than IRS.

Mashauri, Fabian M.; Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Magesa, Stephen M.; Kishamawe, Coleman; Mwanga, Joseph R.; Nnko, Soori E.; Malima, Robert C.; Mero, Chacha N.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.

2013-01-01

201

A systematic review on the treatment of giardiasis.  

PubMed

To assess the efficacy of treatment of parasitological excretion of cysts and trophozoites and symptoms of patients with giardiasis, a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials was conducted through extensive searches in Medline, Embase and Current Contents from 1966 till 1996 as well as manual reviews of 28 journals. The methodological quality of all trials was assessed by guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration. Thirty-one trials were included, only one of which had no serious methodological flaws. The mean score of parasitological examination was 4.8 out of a possible 15. There was a considerable effect in cure rate of treatment versus placebo (odds 9.3, 95% CI 4.69-18.4), but all 3 trials in this comparison had serious flaws. Metronidazole treatment over more than 3 days seems to achieve a better parasitological cure rate than other long treatment courses (pooled odds 2.6, 95% 1.7-3.8), but trials are clinically and statistically heterogeneous. Single-dose therapy is as effective as longer treatment courses (pooled odds 0.67, 95% 0.31-1.44). Within the single-dose regimens tinidazole (2 g) reaches a higher parasitological cure rate than other short therapies (pooled odds 55, 95% CI 3.7-8.3) with relatively few side-effects. Placebo-controlled trials with parasitological and clinical outcomes are needed. PMID:9018304

Zaat, J O; Mank, T G; Assendelft, W J

1997-01-01

202

Immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Fasciola gigantica paramyosin antigen  

PubMed Central

Background: Many immunological techniques have been developed over years using the different Fasciola antigens for diagnosis of parasitic infection and to replace the parasitological techniques, which are time consuming and usually lack sensitivity and reproducibility. Materials and Methods: In this study, Fasciola gigantica paramyosin (Pmy) antigen was early detected in cattle sera using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to evaluate the Pmy antigen performance in diagnosis. This work was conducted on 135 cattle blood samples, which were classified according to parasitological investigation into, healthy control (30), fascioliasis (75), and other parasites (30) groups. Results: The sensitivity of Sandwich ELISA was 97.33%, and the specificity was 95%, in comparison with parasitological examination, which recorded 66.66% sensitivity and 100% specificity, respectively. Conclusions: It was clear that the native F. gigantica Pmy is considered as a powerful antigen in early immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis, using a highly sensitive and specific sandwich ELISA technique.

Abou-Elhakam, Hany Mohamed Adel; Bauomy, Ibraheem Rabia; El Deeb, Somaya Osman; El Amir, Azza Mohamed

2013-01-01

203

Clinical and radiographic study of bone and joint lesions in 26 dogs with leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-six dogs with parasitologically confirmed leishmaniasis and abnormalities of gait were studied to determine the most common radiological patterns of bone and joint lesions. The clinical findings included either lameness, joint pain and crepitation, soft tissue swelling and\\/or muscle atrophy. Bone lesions were observed radiographically in 12 of the 26 dogs; the radius and ulna were affected in seven, the

A. Agut; N. Corzo; J. Murciano; F. G. Laredo; M. Soler

2003-01-01

204

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OFPLASMODIUM FALCIPARUMMALARIA IN TWO CAMEROONIAN VILLAGES: SIMBOK AND ETOA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of ongoing immunologic studies on immunity to Plasmodium falciparum, demographic, entomologic, parasitologic, and clinical studies were conducted in two Cameroonian villages located 3 km apart. Simbok (population 907) has pools of water present year round that provide breeding sites for Anopheles gambiae, whereas Etoa (population 485) has swampy areas that dry up annually in which A. funestus breed.

ISABELLA A. QUAKYI; ROSE G. F. LEKE; ROSA BEFIDI-MENGUE; MARTIN TSAFACK; DENNIS BOMBA-NKOLO; LUCIEN MANGA; VIVIANE TCHINDA; EMMANUEL NJEUNGUE; SAMUEL KOUONTCHOU; JOSEPHINE FOGAKO; PHILOMENA NYONGLEMA; LUCY THUITA HARUN; ROSINE DJOKAM; GRACE SAMA; ANA ENO; ROSETTE MEGNEKOU; SIMON METENOU; LEOPOLD NDOUTSE; ALBERT SAME-EKOBO; GRACE ALAKE; JEAN MELI; JULIA NGU; FELIX TIETCHE; JEANNE LOHOUE; JOE LOUIS MVONDO; EMMANUEL WANSI; ROBERT LEKE; ALAIN FOLEFACK; JUDE BIGOGA; CECILE BOMBA-NKOLO; VINCENT TITANJI; ANNIE WALKER-ABBEY; MICHAEL A. HICKEY; ARMEAD H. JOHNSON; DIANE WALLACE TAYLOR

2000-01-01

205

Natural Focus of Tsutsugamushi Fever.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a result of zoologo-parasitological investigations it was established that the fauna of small mammals and trombiculid mites of Southern Primorye is analogous to the fauna of carriers and vectors of R. tsutsugamushi in North Korea and Japan. It is made ...

I. V. Tarasevich S. M. Kulagin N. I. Kudryashova I. M. Gopachenko G. P. Somov

1965-01-01

206

Special traits of biology and of the parasite fauna of juvenile salmonid fish of the genus Salmo of the Tornio River system (The Baltic Sea basin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juveniles of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and trout S. trutta populating the system of the Tornio River (the Baltic Sea basin) are investigated. The obtained parasitological data indicate\\u000a the absence of rigid spatial and food competition between juvenile salmon and trout in the case of their cohabitation.

Yu. Yu. Barskaya; E. P. Ieshko; M. Kaukoranta; Yu. A. Shustov

2009-01-01

207

Comparison of different DNA preparation protocols for PCR diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomosis in Cte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a medical survey the sleeping sickness focus in Bonon, Ivory Coast, PCR with Trypanosoma brucei specific primers (TBR 12 from Parasitology 99 (1989) 57) was tested on DNA derived from blood samples. DNA purification using a chelating resin was performed either on whole blood or on the buffy coat prepared in two different ways. The preparation based on whole

P. Solano; V. Jamonneau; P. N'Guessan; L. N'Dri; N. N. Dje; T. W. Miezan; V. Lejon; P. Bscher; A. Garcia

2002-01-01

208

Evaluation of PCR for Diagnosis of Indian Kala-Azar and Assessment of Cure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was done to evaluate PCR with Ld1 primers for the diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and to assess its role in prediction of the disease outcome. The PCR assay was performed with DNA isolated from the peripheral blood of parasitologically confirmed cases of VL before the initiation of treatment, just after the end of treatment, and at

R. Maurya; R. K. Singh; B. Kumar; P. Salotra; M. Rai; S. Sundar

2005-01-01

209

Anti-Leishmania efecct of intralesional procane and dibucane in hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intralesional treatment (IL) with Procaine and Dibucaine was compared with standard dosages of Glucantime administered intramuscularly (IM) to attain clinical and parasitological cures in skin lesions in outbred male hamsters infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Results revealed that all drugs tested reduced significantly (P<0.01) average lesion sizes in experimental animals when compared with those untreated. Local

Dalmiro Jos Cazorla Perfetti; Auristela Snchez de Mirt; Mara Eugenia; Acosta Quintero; J. F. Torrealba

2006-01-01

210

Evaluation of ultrasonographic staging systems for the assessment of Schistosoma mansoni induced hepatic involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the sonographic assessment and grading of hepatosplenic morbidity induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection, several quantitative and qualitative classification systems have been used. In an attempt to evaluate two staging systems, a study was performed as part of a schistosomiasis research and control programme in Richard Toll, Senegal. A total of 700 residents of the township N'diangu were parasitologically, clinically

A. K Thomas; M Dittrich; R Kardorff; I Talla; A Mbaye; S Sow; M Niang; Y Yazdanpanah; F. F Stelma; B Gryseels; E Doehring

1997-01-01

211

Conventional PCR for molecular diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.  

PubMed

Strongyloidiasis is frequently asymptomatic and diagnosis of latent infection is difficult due to limitations of current parasitological and serological methods. This study aimed to verify the use of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for molecular diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Fresh stool samples were obtained from 103 individuals: 33 S. stercoralis positive, 30 positive for other parasites and 40 negative for parasitological methods. These samples were examined by the Lutz, Rugai and agar plate culture methods and conventional PCR assay. Two sets of primers (S. stercoralis species-specific and genus-specific sets), located in the 18S ribosomal RNA gene, were used for PCR. Of the 33 samples positive for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods, 28 (84.8%) were also detected by PCR assay using species-specific primers and 26 (78.8%) using genus-specific primers. Among the stool samples negative by parasitological methods, seven (17.5%) were positive by PCR using species-specific primers and two (5.0%) using genus-specific primers. In conclusion, the conventional PCR assay described in this study using a species-specific primer pair provided a molecular method for S. stercoralis diagnosis in human stool samples. PMID:24476900

Sitta, R B; Malta, F M; Pinho, J R; Chieffi, P P; Gryschek, R C B; Paula, F M

2014-04-01

212

ACUTE CHAGAS' DISEASE IN WESTERN VENEZUELA: A CLINICAL, SEROPARASITOLOGIC, AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected

NESTOR ANEZ; HUGO CARRASCO; HENRY PARADA; GLADYS CRISANTE; AGUSTINA ROJAS; NESTOR GONZALEZ; JOSE LUIS RAMIREZ; PALMIRA GUEVARA; CHRISTIAN RIVERO; RAFAEL BORGES; JOSE VICENTE SCORZA

213

A review of the present status of lymphatic filariasis in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing the current status of an infectious disease forms the starting point of any attempt at parasite control. Although data on the prevalence and distribution of lymphatic filariasis exist for Vietnam from the early 1900s, the present situation regarding the disease is less well-known. Here, we review the results of recent surveys conducted by the Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and

Dan Wolf Meyrowitsch; Nguyen Duy Toan; Hoang Thi Hao; Nguyen The Dan; Edwin Michael

1998-01-01

214

Parasites in cultured and feral fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites, causing little apparent damage in feral fish populations, may become causative agents of diseases of great importance in farmed fish, leading to pathological changes, decrease of fitness or reduction of the market value of fish. Despite considerable progress in fish parasitology in the last decades, major gaps still exist in the knowledge of taxonomy, biology, epizootiology and control of

Tom Scholz

1999-01-01

215

'Microsporidia'. Parasites of Fishes of the Caspian Sea ('Mikrosporidii'. Parazity Ryb Kaspiiskogo Morya).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a result of complete parasitological analysis of fishes of the Caspian, wide distribution of Microsporidia has been established in 13 species of fish, and new species of these parasites have been revealed: Plistophora siluri sp. n. from the intestine o...

A. A. Gasimagomedov I. V. Issi

1971-01-01

216

Genomic and genetic research on bursate nematodes: significance, implications and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular genetic research on parasitic nematodes (order Strongylida) is of major significance for many fundamental and applied areas of medical and veterinary parasitology. The advent of gene technology has led to some progress for this group of nematodes, particularly in studying parasite systematics, drug resistance and population genetics, and in the development of diagnostic assays and the characterisation of potential

Robin B Gasser; Susan E Newton

2000-01-01

217

Reversal of Hepatic Fibrosis after Praziquantel Therapy of Murine Schistosomiasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reprint examined the effect of parasitologic cure of S. mansoni infection on liver fibrosis in mice. Praziquantel, 250 mg/kg body weight, was administered orally to mice 8 weeks after infection with 50 S. mansoni cercariae. The authors assessed liver...

S. H. Morcos M. T. Khayyal M. M. Mansour S. Saleh E. A. Ishak

1985-01-01

218

Selection and quantification of infection endpoints for trials of vaccines against intestinal helminths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines against human helminths are being developed but the choice of optimal parasitological endpoints and effect measures to assess their efficacy has received little attention. Assuming negative binomial distributions for the parasite counts, we rank the statistical power of three measures of efficacy: ratio of mean parasite intensity at the end of the trial, the odds ratio of infection at

Neal Alexander; Bonnie Cundill; Lorenzo Sabatelli; Jeffrey M. Bethony; David Diemert; Peter Hotez; Peter G. Smith; Laura C. Rodrigues; Simon Brooker

219

Ethical considerations in an era of mass drug administration  

PubMed Central

In a Plenary debate at the 51st Spring meeting of the British Society of Parasitology, Bristol, UK, April 811, 2013, the bioethicist James Wilson used the value of a life in the present and future to question the effectiveness of current health strategies.

2013-01-01

220

Case Studies in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

Zeakes, Samuel J.

1989-01-01

221

Infection in the Classroom: Parasites as Models to Teach Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Society of Parasitologists established a five-year plan to educate various groups about parasites and parasitology, which were targeted at K-12 students and teachers, college students and teachers and biologists in other disciplines. This program also developed the idea to host a symposium and workshop for these targeted groups.

Seville, R. Scott; Couch, Lee; Seed, Richard; Chappell, Cynthia; Patton, Sharon

2004-01-01

222

Genetic engineering  

SciTech Connect

This series reviews new developments in recombinant DNA technology and its applications. Each volume consists of 3 - 4 mini-reviews. Volume 7 contains two articles on aspects of molecular parasitology and one review on gene expression in animal cells of biotechnological interest.

Rigby, P.

1988-01-01

223

Artesunate Plus Amodiaquine (AS+AQ) Versus Artemether -Lumefantrine (AL) for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa-A Meta-Analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to summarize the available data on the efficacy of Artesunate plus Amodiaquine (AS+AQ) versus Artemether -Lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa using uncorrected parasitaemia as a clinically relevant endpoint. Studies and conference abstracts identified through Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Ansinet, AJOL, Bioline, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group trials register, The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Science Citation Index, Lilacs, African Index Medicus, Clusty, Google, Yahoo and Microsoft search engines. Randomized controlled clinical trials comparing Artesunate-Amodiaquine versus Artemether-Lumefantrine, in Sub-Saharan Africa from January 2004 to June 2009, and which had at least 30 patients per study arm. The authors independently applied the inclusion criteria, assessed methodological quality and extracted data into a predesigned form. The outcome of interest was uncorrected day 28 parasitological failure. Data were then checked for agreement and double entered into RevMan version 5 for further analyses. Fifteen trials (4265 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Day 28 parasitological failure was lower for AL (286 of 2201 participants or 13.0 % failures) when compared with AS+AQ (446 of 2424 participants or 18.4% failures). The relative risk of parasitological failure with AS+AQ was higher when compared with AL (RR 1.65, 95% CI, 1.18-2.32). There were significant heterogeneity and inconsistencies in the studies. AL appears more effective at avoiding parasitological failure at days 28 than AS+AQ. PMID:23878697

Bello, Shaibu O; Chika, Aminu; Abdulgafar, Jimoh O

2010-01-01

224

Performance of three multi-species rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission in Ethiopia is unstable and variable, caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) is scaling up parasitological diagnosis of malaria at all levels of the health system; at peripheral health facilities this will be through use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). The present study compared three RDT products to provide

Ruth A Ashton; Takele Kefyalew; Gezahegn Tesfaye; Helen Counihan; Damtew Yadeta; Bonnie Cundill; Richard Reithinger; Jan H Kolaczinski

2010-01-01

225

WIDESPREAD ATYPICAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BY LEISHMANIA(L.) CHAGASI IN NICARAGUA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmania chagasi, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, has recently been associated with atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Central America; however, little comprehensive information about this disease is available. Clinical, epidemiologic, and parasitologic characteristics of 252 ACL cases and 44 VL cases in Nicaragua were analyzed. Visceral leishmaniasis is primarily associated with malnourished children less than

ALEJANDRO BELLI; DAVID GARCIA; XIOMARA PALACIOS; SONIA VALLE; ELSA VIDEA; ENA TINOCO; FRANCISCA MARIN; EVA HARRIS

1999-01-01

226

Incidence of clinical malaria in pregnant women exposed to intense perennial transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between pregnancy and malaria attacks was investigated from 1990 to 1994 among women in the village of Dielmo, a holoendemic area in Senegal where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Clinical and parasitological data collected during the daily follow-up of 48 pregnancies among 31 women were compared with those collected from the same women using the same methods

N. Diagne; C. Rogier; B. Cisse; J. F. Trape

1997-01-01

227

Diagnosing Medical Parasites: A Public Health Officers Guide to Assisting Laboratory and Medical Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parasitology is the study of parasites and as such does not include bacterial, fungal or viral parasites. Human parasites are separated into intestinal and blood-borne parasites. For a parasite to be defined as intestinal it must have an intestinal life-c...

D. B. White L. B. Noel M. J. Cuomo

2009-01-01

228

77 FR 66625 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Infections and Cancer Parasitology. Date: November 28, 2012. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2012-11-06

229

Entamoeba gingivalis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kansas State University offers a few pictures and interesting tidbits on tooth amoebas, the toothbrush-fleeing microscopic parasites found where the teeth meet the gums. These photos and facts are part of a tutorial for Steve J. Upton's Animal Parasitology course at Kansas State University. Interestingly, 1% of all females with IUD's harbor uterine E. gingivalis.

Upton, Steve J.

2007-10-11

230

Mapping the Probability of Schistosomiasis and Associated Uncertainty, West Africa  

PubMed Central

We aimed to map the probability of Schistosoma haematobium infection being >50%, a threshold for annual mass praziquantel distribution. Parasitologic surveys were conducted in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger, 20042006, and predictions were made by using Bayesian geostatistical models. Clusters with >50% probability of having >50% prevalence were delineated in each country.

Garba, Amadou; Sacko, Moussa; Toure, Seydou; Dembele, Robert; Landoure, Aly; Bosque-Oliva, Elisa; Gabrielli, Albis F.; Fenwick, Alan

2008-01-01

231

Histopathology of Five Species of Didymocystis spp. (Digenea: Didymozoidae) in Cage-reared Atlantic Bluefin Tuna ( Thunnus thynnus thynnus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first parasitological examinations of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus thynnus reared in the Adriatic Sea revealed high numbers of different digenean trematodes, belonging to family Didymozoidae. Five\\u000a species were the most frequently isolated: Coeliodidymocystis, abdominalis, Didymocystis wedli, Koellikerioides internogastricus, K. intestinalis and K. apicalis. Parasites were isolated from gills, gill rakers, intestine, serosa of pyloric caeca, and inner layers

I. Mladineo

2006-01-01

232

Therapeutic efficacy of mefloquine and sulfadoxine\\/ pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated pasmodium falciparum malaria in children, Metehara town, southeast Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The development of resistance by P. falciparum to most drugs used in prophylaxis and therapeutics underscores the need to investigate the sensitivity of local parasite isolates to the currently available standard antimalarial drugs. Objective: To assess parasitological resistance and therapeutic efficacy of mefloquine (MQ) and sulfadoxine\\/pyrimethamine (SP) in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Metehara town, southeast Ethiopia. Methods:

Moges Kassa; Yared Mekonnen; Tilahun Wolde Micheal; Hussien Mohamed; Samson Bulcha

233

Helminths in human carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the salient literature on selected helminths involved in carcinogenicity in humans and updates information in an earlier review on cancer and helminths by Mayer and Fried (2007, Advances in Parasitology 65, 239296). The earlier review was concerned with various helminths, i.e., trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes, that are definitely implicated as being carcinogenic. This review examines only those

Bernard Fried; Aditya Reddy; David Mayer

2011-01-01

234

Treatment Failure Related to Intrathecal Immunoglobulin M (IgM) Synthesis, Cerebrospinal Fluid IgM, and Interleukin10 in Patients with Hemolymphatic-Stage Sleeping Sickness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human African trypanosomiasis treatment is stage dependent, but the tests used for staging are contro- versial. Central nervous system involvement and its relationship with suramin treatment failure were assessed in 60 patients with parasitologically confirmed hemolymphatic-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection (white blood cell count of <5\\/l and no trypanosomes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)). The prognostic value of CSF interleukin-10,

Veerle Lejon; Jo Robays; Francois Xavier N'Siesi; D. Mumba; A. Hoogstoel; S. Bisser; H. Reiber; M. Boelaert; P. Buscher

2007-01-01

235

DETECTION OF LIGHT SUBUNIT NEUROFILAMENT AND GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OFTRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI GAMBIENSE-INFECTED PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light subunit neurofilament (NFL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) concentrations were de- termined in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 34 patients with human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), five serologically positive but parasitologically unconfirmed individuals, and four healthy controls without evidence of HAT. In patients with second stage HAT (n 5 30), NFL levels were abnormally elevated in 10 cases and GFAP

V. LEJON; L. E. ROSENGREN; P. BUSCHER; J.-E. KARLSSON; H. N. SEMA

1999-01-01

236

PREVALENCE OF AMPHISTOMES IN BLACK BENGAL GOATS IN MYMENSINGH DISTRICT  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the prevalence of amphistome parasites in Black Bengal goats slaughtered at different slaughterhouses of Mymensingh district, a total of 144 gastro-intestinal tracts were examined during the period of July 1998 to June 1999 in the Department of Parasitology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Out of 144 Black Bengal goats, 105 (72.92%) were infected with a single or multiple species

M. Z. Uddin; N. Begum; M. M. H. Mondal

2006-01-01

237

PREVALENCE, POPULATION DYNAMICS AND PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF INTESTINAL HELMINTHS IN BLACK BENGAL GOATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence, population dynamics and pathological effects of intestinal helminths in Black Bengal goats were studied by examining 150 viscera collecting from different slaughter houses of Mymensingh district from the period of November 2005 to May 2006 in the Department of Parasitology and Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, of which 94.67% goats were infected with one or more species of helminths.

U. K. Mohanta; T. Farjana; S. Majumder; M. M. H. Mondal

2007-01-01

238

Invited Review Innate and acquired control of trypanosome parasitaemia in Cape buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review discusses the roles of serum xanthine oxidase, serum catalase and trypanosome-specific immune responses in the regulation of the level of trypanosome parasitaemic waves in Cape buffalo. q 2001 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

S. J. Black; E. L. Sicard; N. Murphy; D. Nolan

239

Effects of previous suppressive anthelmintic treatments on subsequent nematode infection in fattening cattle in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of previous suppressive anthelmintic treatments after weaning on parasitological parameters and weight gain of cattle was studied in the Pampeana region of Argentina. The study was carried out at two grazing fattening periods: April 1995\\/July 1996 and April 1997\\/July 1998. During both periods, 60 weaned calves that grazed contaminated pastures, were divided into three groups during the first

V. H Suarez; M. R Busetti; F. J Babinec

2001-01-01

240

Bayesian statistics for parasitologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian statistical methods are increasingly being used in the analysis of parasitological data. Here, the basis of differences between the Bayesian method and the classical or frequentist approach to statistical inference is explained. This is illustrated with practical implications of Bayesian analyses using prevalence estimation of strongyloidiasis and onchocerciasis as two relevant examples. The strongyloidiasis example addresses the problem of

Mar??a-Gloria Basez; Clare Marshall; Hlne Carabin; Theresa Gyorkos; Lawrence Joseph

2004-01-01

241

Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - Need for surveillance and control  

PubMed Central

Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole.

Sasagawa, Emi; de Aguilar, Ana Vilma Guevara; de Ramirez, Marta Alicia Hernandez; Chevez, Jose Eduardo Romero; Nakagawa, Jun; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Kita, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

242

Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril\\u000a may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the

Serdar Pasa; Huseyin Voyvoda; Tulin Karagenc; Abidin Atasoy; Serkal Gazyagci

243

Epidemiology and biology of nematodofauna affecting Testudo hermanni , Testudo graeca and Testudo marginata in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tortoises of the genus Testudo living in Italy are Testudo hermanni, Testudo graeca and Testudo marginata. Although a great deal of information has been acquired on the internal medicine and surgery on these animals, little is known of their parasitological fauna. A survey on the presence of gastro-intestinal parasitic nematodes in tortoises bred in Italy was carried out to acquire

Donato Traversa; Gioia Capelli; Raffaella Iorio; Salah Bouamer; Angelo Cameli; Annunziata Giangaspero

2005-01-01

244

Parasite communities of Merluccius hubbsi from the Argentinian-Uruguayan common fishing zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is based on parasitological examinations of 159 specimens of Merluccius hubbsi (common hake) from the Argentinian-Uruguayan common fishing zone between June and December 1993.The examination extended the list of parasite species previously known from this host in the study area to the following taxa: Anthocotyle merluccii van Beneden and Hesse, 1863; Chondracanthus palpifer Wilson, 1912; Neobrachiella insidiosa f.

Norma Hayde Sardella; Juan Toms Timi

1996-01-01

245

Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes, Fasciola and Paramphistomum in cattle in Cambodia and their association with morbidity parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence and seasonal variations of helminth infections and their association with morbidity parameters were studied in traditionally reared Cambodian cattle. Four villages in two provinces of West Cambodia were visited on monthly intervals over a period of 11 months, during which 2391 animals were faecal and blood sampled for parasitological and haematological examinations. The body condition score (BCS), faecal consistency

Pierre Dorny; Valrie Stoliaroff; Johannes Charlier; Sothy Meas; San Sorn; Bunthon Chea; Davun Holl; Dirk Van Aken; Jozef Vercruysse

2011-01-01

246

Recrudescence of visceral leishmaniasis in Albania: retrospective analysis of cases during 1997 to 2001 and results of an entomological survey carried out during 2001 in some districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiological status of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is almost unknown to international health organizations and to the scientific community. Results from a retrospective analysis of recent VL cases, and from an entomological survey carried out in summer 2001 are reported here. From January 1997 to December 2001, 867 parasitologically confirmed VL cases were recorded in 35 of

E. Velo; S. Bino; G. Kuli-Lito; K. Pano; L. Gradoni; M. Maroli

2003-01-01

247

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-04-01

248

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp.

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-01-01

249

[Cyclospora cayetanensis - the rare causal agent of diarrhoeal diseases].  

PubMed

Cyclospora cayetanensis a casual agent of diarrhoeal diseases, was detected in 6 out of 3 097 patients between February 2009 and March 2010 using standard parasitological methods. Five cases were imported from the endemic countries. One patient was the first case with no travel history in the Czech Republic. PMID:21780026

Jelnkov, Alena; Kai?kov, Denisa; Valkoun, Antonn

2011-06-01

250

Trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) of freshwater fishes of the Zambesi River System, with a reappraisal of host specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of five years parasitological surveys were carried out on the freshwater fish fauna in the eastern Caprivi which included the upper Zambesi River, a section of the Chobe and Kwando Rivers, and vast swampy areas. This area is well known for its wide variety of indigenous fish and has so far not been influenced in any way

J. G. Van As; Linda Basson

1992-01-01

251

The detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before revised World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines on the detection of anthelmintic resistance can be produced, validation of modified and new methods is required in laboratories in different parts of the world. There is a great need for improved methods of detection of anthelmintic resistance particularly for the detection of macrocyclic lactone resistance and for

G. C. Coles; F. Jackson; R. K. Prichard; G. von Samson-Himmelstjerna; A. Silvestre; M. A. Taylor; J. Vercruysse

2006-01-01

252

Characterization of a recombinant immunodiagnostic antigen (NIE) from Strongyloides stercoralis L3-stage larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the process of internal autoinfection, even chronic asymptomatic infections with Strongyloides stercoralis have the potential to become severe disseminated disease with fatal outcome. Intermittent and scanty larval excretion makes parasitologic diagnosis difficult. Serodiagnosis is helpful, but antigen preparation from infective larvae requires access to patients or immunosuppressed experimental animals. For these reasons, attention has turned to recombinant antigens

Varatharajalu Ravi; Srinivasan Ramachandran; Robert W Thompson; John F Andersen; Franklin A Neva

2002-01-01

253

Household aggregation of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strongyloides stercoralis infections were shown to be aggregated in households in an urban slum community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Parasitological data on 880 residents living in 280 households were analysed statistically using 3 different tests, each of which yielded significant evidence of household aggregation of S. stercoralis infection. One test was applied to the data after stratification for 4 variables which

David J. Conway; Andrew Hall; Kazi Salim Anwar; Donald A. P. Bundy

1995-01-01

254

Bayesian geostatistics in health cartography: the perspective of malaria  

PubMed Central

Maps of parasite prevalences and other aspects of infectious diseases that vary in space are widely used in parasitology. However, spatial parasitological datasets rarely, if ever, have sufficient coverage to allow exact determination of such maps. Bayesian geostatistics (BG) is a method for finding a large sample of maps that can explain a dataset, in which maps that do a better job of explaining the data are more likely to be represented. This sample represents the knowledge that the analyst has gained from the data about the unknown true map. BG provides a conceptually simple way to convert these samples to predictions of features of the unknown map, for example regional averages. These predictions account for each map in the sample, yielding an appropriate level of predictive precision.

Patil, Anand P.; Gething, Peter W.; Piel, Frederic B.; Hay, Simon I.

2011-01-01

255

Assessing resistance of ivermectin and moxidectin against nematodes in cattle naturally infected using three different methodologies.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the faecal egg count efficacy test (FECET) to assess the resistance status of ivermectin (630 ?g/kg) and moxidectin (200 ?g/kg), using the controlled efficacy test as a reference, and whether the results of the EPG are equivalent to the efficacy results from the parasitological necropsies. Two experiments were conducted. The results demonstrate that it was not possible to demonstrate that the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and moxidectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies, mainly if the phenomenon of parasites resistance is not advanced in a determined field population. Maybe the FECET technique would be possibly better than the FECRT. The high anthelmintic efficacy of 200 ?g/kg moxidectin, in naturally infected cattle, against field population of nematodes that are resistant to 630 ?g/kg ivermectin, was observed in this study. PMID:24290235

Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Soares, Vando Edsio; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; de Matos, Lucas Vinicius Shigaki; Fvero, Flvia Carolina; da Costa, Alvimar Jos

2014-02-01

256

[Congenital Chagas disease in Crdoba, Argentina: epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects. Experience of 30 years of follow up].  

PubMed

Chagas'disease has a great epidemiological relevance. Most of infected children are asymptomatics, with low mortality rate. The most frequent clinical findings are hepatomegaly and splenomegaly Parasitological methods: fresh smears, microStrout and Hemoculture, sequentially performed, detect the parasite in almost 100% of infected children. The gold standard for immunodiagnosis are serological curves, due to the interference of maternal IgG. Infected children maintain their antibody levels , whereas non infected became negatives. IgM test show false positive and false negative results. In children acutely infected during the first year of life and in cases of congenital infection, we observed high serum levels of soluble receptors of TNFalpha, IL-2 and sCD8, with significantly post treatment decrease. In a prospective 30 years research, we observed high therapeutic efficacy when children were treated before 3 years of life with benznidazol or nifurtimox, with good clinical evolution, together with parasitological and serological negativization. PMID:16482811

Moya, Pedro; Basso, Beatriz; Moretti, Edgardo

2005-01-01

257

[Sulfonamide and toltrazuril therapy of experimental turkey coccidiosis].  

PubMed

Following experimental infection of caged turkeys with a mixed oocyst suspension of E. meleagrimitis, E. adenoeides and E. gallopavonis, the efficacy of sulfachlorpyrazine, sulfaquinoxaline + pyrimethamine, sulfaquinoxaline + diaveridine, and toltrazuril was investigated based on clinical and parasitological parameters. Infected turkeys developed severe clinical symptoms. Only weak symptoms were observed in those groups which were treated with the sulfa- and sulfa-DHFR-inhibitors. The toltrazuril-treated group remained free of clinical symptoms. At the 8th day after infection, the clinical lesions coincided with the intensity of the gut lesions together with parasitological findings based on microscopical examination of mucosal smears. The same coincidence was observed for parameters such as oocyst excretion and body weight development. PMID:2065608

Greuel, E; Mundt, H C; Cortez, S

1991-04-01

258

Albendazole treatment for Giardia intestinalis infections in school children.  

PubMed

A randomized controlled trial, 113 school children with Giardia intestinalis infection were treated with albendazole or tinidazole. Albendazole 400 mg once a day x 3 days and tinidazole 50 mg/kg single dose were given orally to 62 and 51 children, respectively. Parasitological cure was documented when there were > or = 2 times negative stool examination for G. intestinalis at 1-2 weeks after therapy. Thirty-one of 62 (50%) children treated with albendazole and 49 of 51 (96.1%) children treated with tinidazole had parasitological cure (p < 0.001). No major side effects were observed except one case in tinidazole group had severe headache for 30 hours. Albendazole appears to be safe and produced a moderate cure rate for G. intestinalis infection when a 3 day anthelmintic regimen is given. PMID:10695793

Pengsaa, K; Sirivichayakul, C; Pojjaroen-anant, C; Nimnual, S; Wisetsing, P

1999-03-01

259

Ultrasonographic appearance of colon taeniasis.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with abdominal pain, nausea, loss of appetite, and frequent stools in whom the routine ultrasonographic examination demonstrated a double-reflective, ribbon-like structure in the lumen of the initial segment of the ascending colon, which suggested colon taeniasis. Because the initial parasitologic analysis yielded negative results and application of albendazol did not have any therapeutic effect, the diagnosis was confirmed by barium enema and subsequently by parasitologic examination of proglottids passed in the stool after application of niclosamide. The double-reflective, ribbon-like structure in the lumen of the intestine seems to be specific to the ultrasonographic appearance of intestinal taeniasis. Transcutaneous ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract, performed as a screening method before conventional radiologic or endoscopic examination, can point to the ultimate diagnosis of colon taeniasis. PMID:11270533

Fabijani?, D; Giunio, L; Ivani, N; Fabijani?, A; Miri?, D; Kardum, D

2001-03-01

260

First detection of acalculous cholecystitis associated with Sarcocystis infection in a patient with AIDS.  

PubMed

Acalculous cholecystitis and cholangitis are increasingly being recognized as complications of AIDS. The opportunistic parasites that have been most commonly associated with these disorders are Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. The authors performed a parasitological survey on the gallbladder tissue sections of patients underwent cholecystectomy due to chronic acalculous cholecystitis at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Light microscopic investigation in more than three hundred archived histopathological slides revealed the presence of sexual stages (i.e., mature sporocysts) of a coccidial protozoan in a patient with AIDS who developed acalculous cholecystitis as confirmed by histological, parasitological and molecular tests in which Sarcocystis species was the only identifiable pathogen in gallbladder sections. In the best of our knowledge it's the first documented case of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis due to Sarcocystis parasite in an Iranian AIDS patient from worldwide. PMID:24827104

Agholi, Mahmoud; Heidarian, Hamid Reza; Moghadami, Mohsen; Hatam, Gholam Reza

2014-06-01

261

Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of excretory secretory antigens in humans with fascioliasis.  

PubMed Central

A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed for the detection of Fasciola hepatica excretory secretory (ES) antigens in stool specimens of infected humans. The assay uses antibodies against F. hepatica ES antigens. A monoclonal antibody (ES78, mouse immunoglobulin G2a) was used to capture ES antigens, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody, peroxidase conjugate, was used to identify ES antigens. Thirteen of 14 patients with parasitological evidence of fascioliasis had a detectable concentration of ES antigens (more than 15 ng/ml). None of the stool specimens from controls and from patients with parasites other than F. hepatica showed a positive reaction, suggesting the absence of cross-reactions in this assay. When the 14 patients were retested 2 months after treatment, all of the specimens from the 11 parasitologically cured patients were negative by the antigen detection assay while the specimens from the 3 patients with persisting F. hepatica eggs in their stools remained positive.

Espino, A M; Finlay, C M

1994-01-01

262

Freshwater snails in Asser region, Saudi Arabia with special refernce to the zoonotic trematode.  

PubMed

The present study gave information about the recent distribution of freshwater snails in Asser region, and the current status of trematode infection specially schistosomiasis within the snails. Fifteen localities were visited from Septeinber 2007 to December 2008 and the collected snails were examined for the presence of trematode infection. Seven species of snails were collected: Biomphalaria arabica, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus beccari, Physa acuta, Lymnaea palustris, Lymnaea arabica and Melanoides tuberculata. The parasitological examination revealed none trematode immature stages. PMID:19795761

Bin Dajem, Saad M

2009-08-01

263

Report on the occurrence of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in southern Brazil, in a new intermediate host from the genus Sarasinula (Veronicellidae, Gastropoda).  

PubMed

Veronicellid slugs are the main intermediate hosts for Angiostrongylus costaricencis. In a rural locality in Nova Itaberaba (SC, southern Brazil) Sarasinula linguaeformis was identified as a crop pest. The parasitological examination revealed A. costaricencis infection in 43 out ot 50 slugs. The prevalence of 86% and the individual parasitic burdens are the highest sofar reported in Brazil and S. linguaeformis is the first species from the genus Sarasinula to be identified as intermediate host for A. costaricencis in southern Brazil. PMID:11340504

Laitano, A C; Genro, J P; Fontoura, R; Branco, S S; Maurer, R L; Graeff-Teixeira, C; Milanez, J M; Chiaradia, L A; Thom, J W

2001-01-01

264

Strongyloides myopotami in ctenomyid rodents: Transition from semi-aquatic to subterranean life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strongyloides myopotami, a parasite of Myocastor coypus (nutria or coypu), was found during an extensive parasitological survey carried out on parasitic helminths of 5 species of\\u000a subterranean rodents (tuco-tucos) belonging to the genus Ctenomys from Argentina and Uruguay. Strongyloides myopotami became known by causing marsh itch (also called nutria itch or swimmers itch), a severe rash caused by larvae that

Mara A. Rossin; Gabriela Varela; Juan T. Timi

2009-01-01

265

Detection of Giardia lamblia Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens by a SolidPhase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay (Medical Chemical Corporation) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects Giardia lamblia in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens. Testing 106 Giardia-positive and 104 Giardia-negative stool specimens yielded a sensitivity of 97.2% and a specificity of 100% for the SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay. Revised ordering options related to diagnostic parasitology testing include ova and

Lynne S. Garcia; John Paul Garcia

2006-01-01

266

Skewing of cytokine profiles towards T helper cell type 2 response in visceral leishmaniasis patients unresponsive to sodium antimony gluconate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-two parasitologically confirmed visceral leishmanisis (VL) patients and 23 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls were recruited between April 2001 and March 2002 and studied for intracellular cytokine production after stimulation in vitro using a Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter-based intracellular cytokine assay. The VL patients were given i.m. sodium antimony gluconate at a dose of 20 mg\\/kg bodyweight daily for 28

C. P. Thakur; D. K. Mitra; S. Narayan

2003-01-01

267

Investigation of polyamine metabolism by high-performance liquid chromatographic and gas chromatographic profiling methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of polyamines, polyamine conjugates and their metabolites in tissues, cells and extracellular fluids are used in biochemistry, (micro)biology, oncology and parasitology. Decarboxylation of ornithine yields putrescine. Aminopropylation of putrescine yields spermidine, and aminopropylation of spermidine yields spermine. Spermidine and spermine are retroconverted to putrescine and spermidine, respectively, by initial N-acetylation and subsequent polyamine oxidation. The intermediate N-acetylputrescine, N1-acetylspermidine and

Frits A. J. Muskiet; Bernard Dorhout; Gita A. van den Berg; Jan Hessels

1995-01-01

268

A rare case of cutaneous larva migrans due to Gnathostoma sp.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old lady presented with recurrent erythematous skin lesions in different parts of the body for 3 months. There were several episodes of worm coming out of the lesions. Examination of the worms in the parasitology laboratory revealed it to be a larva of Gnathostoma sp. She was advised treatment with Albendazole for 21 days, and there was no recurrence of lesions. PMID:22885209

Mukherjee, A; Ahmed, N H; Samantaray, J C; Mirdha, B R

2012-01-01

269

Haemonchus contortus: Selection at a Glutamate-Gated Chloride Channel Gene in Ivermectin and Moxidectin-Selected Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blackhall, W. J., Pouliot, J.-F., Prichard, R. K., and Beech, R. N. 1998.Haemonchus contortus: Selection at a glutamate-gated chloride channel gene in ivermectin- and moxidectin-selected strains.Experimental Parasitology90, 4248. Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of livestock is a serious problem worldwide. Ivermectin, an avermectin, and moxidectin, a milbemycin, are potent endectocides commonly used to control these parasites. The proposed mode of

William J. Blackhall; Jean-Franois Pouliot; Roger K. Prichard; Robin N. Beech

1998-01-01

270

Climate, Cattle Rearing Systems and African Animal Trypanosomosis Risk in Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Background In sub-Saharan countries infested by tsetse flies, African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is considered as the main pathological constraint to cattle breeding. Africa has known a strong climatic change and its population was multiplied by four during the last half-century. The aim of this study was to characterize the impact of production practices and climate on tsetse occurrence and abundance, and the associated prevalence of AAT in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings Four sites were selected along a South-north transect of increasing aridity. The study combines parasitological and entomological surveys. For the parasitological aspect, blood samples were collected from 1,041 cattle selected through a stratified sampling procedure including location and livestock management system (long transhumance, short transhumance, sedentary). Parasitological and serological prevalence specific to livestock management systems show a gradual increase from the Sahelian to the Sudano-Guinean area (P<0.05). Livestock management system had also a significant impact on parasitological prevalence (P<0.05). Tsetse diversity, apparent densities and their infection rates overall decreased with aridity, from four species, an apparent density of 53.1 flies/trap/day and an infection rate of 13.7% to an absence at the northern edge of the transect, where the density and diversity of other biting flies were on the contrary highest (p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance The climatic pressure clearly had a negative impact on tsetse abundance and AAT risk. However, the persistency of tsetse habitats along the Mouhoun river loop maintains a high risk of cyclical transmission of T. vivax. Moreover, an epidemic mechanical livestock trypanosomosis cycle is likely to occur in the northern site, where trypanosomes are brought in by cattle transhuming from the tsetse infested area and are locally transmitted by mechanical vectors. In Burkina Faso, the impact of tsetse thus extends to a buffer area around their distribution belt, corresponding to the herd transhumance radius.

Pagabeleguem, Soumaila; Sangare, Mamadou; Bengaly, Zakaria; Akoudjin, Massouroudin; Belem, Adrien M. G.; Bouyer, Jeremy

2012-01-01

271

[Helminths of Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 from Szczecin area].  

PubMed

In 2006, an emaciated female peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus was found near its nest, and died soon after. Parasitological research involved digestive tract and respiratory system, kidney and liver. In air sacs, nematode Serratospiculum tendo (Nitzsch, 1857), which causes the falcon disease serratospiculiasis, was found, and in the digestive tract trematodes Strigeafalconis Szidat, 1928, Conodiplostomum spathula (Creplin, 1829), and a cestode Cladotaenia cylindracea (Bloch, 1782). PMID:18702320

Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Okulewicz, Anna; Sitko, Jilj

2008-01-01

272

Epidemiological aspects of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the Islamic Republic of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological study to examine the sero-prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) among domestic and wild canines in endemic foci of Iran was carried out during 19992003 to assess the distribution of the disease and the possible association between infection in dogs, wild canines and people. Anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT). Parasitological study was performed

Mehdi Mohebali; Homa Hajjaran; Yazdan Hamzavi; Iraj Mobedi; Shahnam Arshi; Zabih Zarei; Behnaz Akhoundi; Koroush Manouchehri Naeini; Reza Avizeh; Mehdi Fakhar

2005-01-01

273

Plasmodium yoelii:Differences in the Transcription of the 235-kDa Rhoptry Protein Multigene Family in Lethal and Nonlethal Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preiser, P. R. and Jarra, W. 1998.Plasmodium yoelii: Differences in the transcription of the 235-kDa rhoptry protein multigene family in lethal and nonlethal lines.Experimental Parasitology89,5057. We have compared the transcription of the 235-kDa rhoptry protein (p235) multigene family in the lethal (YM) and nonlethal (17X) lines of the rodent malaria parasitePlasmodium yoelii. This protein is thought to be involved in

Peter R. Preiser; William Jarra

1998-01-01

274

First record of Nippotaenia mogurndae Yamaguti and Miyata, 1940 (Cestoda, Nippotaeniidae), a parasite introduced with Chinese sleeper to Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parasitological survey of an Asian fish, Chinese sleeper Perccottus glenii, inhabiting the W?oc?awek Reservoir on the lower Vistula River (central Poland) revealed the occurrence of an exotic cestode\\u000a Nippotaenia mogurndae Yamaguti and Miyata, 1940, which spreads spontaneously with a host to European waters. This paper documented the first record\\u000a of the parasite in Poland. Specimens were described, and the

Katarzyna Mierzejewska; Andrzej Martyniak; Tomasz Kakareko; Piotr Hliwa

2010-01-01

275

Nitric Oxide Synthase in Filariae: Demonstration of Nitric Oxide Production by Embryos in Brugia malayi and Acanthocheilonema viteae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pfarr, K. M., Qazi, S., and Fuhrman, J. A. 2001. Nitric oxide synthase in filariae: Demonstration of nitric oxide production by embryos in Brugia malayi and Acanthocheilonema viteae. Experimental Parasitology97, 205214. The radical gas nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from l-arginine and molecular oxygen. Nitric oxide is an important signaling molecule in invertebrate and vertebrate

Kenneth M. Pfarr; Sanjive Qazi; Juliet A. Fuhrman

2001-01-01

276

Hymenolepis diminuta:Mucosal Mastocytosis and Intestinal Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy Occur in Tapeworm-Infected Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dwinell, M. B., Wise, R. M., Bass, P., and Oaks, J. A. 1998.Hymenolepis diminuta:Mucosal mastocytosis and intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy occur in tapeworm-infected rats.Experimental Parasitology89,92102. The mechanisms mediating motility changes during noninvasive tapeworm infection have not been characterized. In contrast, host intestinal motility changes during invasive nematode infection are mediated by mucosal mast cells (MMC). The purpose of this study

Michael B. Dwinell; Ruth M. Wise; Paul Bass; John A. Oaks

1998-01-01

277

High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Carabao from Samar Province, the Philippines: Implications for Transmission and Control  

PubMed Central

Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines, China and Indonesia, and infects more than 40 mammalian host species, all of which can act as reservoirs of infection. In China, water buffaloes have been shown to be major reservoirs of human infection. However, in the Philippines, carabao have not been considered important reservoir hosts for S. japonicum due to the low prevalence and infection intensities reported, the only exception being a qPCR-based study indicating 51% of carabao were S. japonicum-positive. However, the low prevalence found for the same animals when using conventional copro-parasitological techniques means that there is still confusion about the role of carabao in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonicum. To address this inconsistency, and to shed light on the potential role of carabao in the transmission of S. japonicum in the Philippines, we undertook a pilot survey, collecting fecal samples from animals in Western Samar Province and we used a combination of molecular and copro-parasitological techniques to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum. We found a high prevalence of S. japonicum in the carabao using a validated real-time PCR (qPCR) and a copro-parasitological tool, the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique. A much lower prevalence of S. japonicum was recorded for the same fecal samples using conventional PCR, the Kato-Katz technique and miracidial hatching. These results suggest that, due to their low diagnostic sensitivity, traditional copro-parasitological techniques underestimate infection in carabao. The use of FEA-SD and qPCR provides a more accurate diagnosis. Based on these findings, the role of bovines in the transmission of S. japonicum appears to be more important in the Philippines than previously recognized, and this may have significant implications for the future control of schistosomiasis there, particularly as, in contrast with previous surveys, we found an unprecedented high prevalence of S. japonicum in humans.

Gordon, Catherine A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gray, Darren J.; Olveda, Remigo M.; Jarilla, Blanca; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Ross, Allen G.; McManus, Donald P.

2012-01-01

278

Bionomics of malaria vectors in two physiographically different areas of the epidemic-prone Thar Desert, north-western Rajasthan (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entomological and parasitological investigations were carried out on malaria vectors and disease prevalence in two sets of villages, the highly irrigated Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana (IGNP) command-area villages (Madassar and Awai), and the truly desertic non-command (unirrigated) area villages (Kanasar and Khetusar), located in different ecological conditions in the Thar Desert, north-western Rajasthan (India). Malaria prevalence, as determined through sustained

B. K Tyagi; S. P Yadav

2001-01-01

279

The Ceratopogonid Web Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Daniel Hagan of the Institute of Anthropology & Parasitology (Georgia Southern University) maintains this Webpage on the Dipteran family Ceratopogonidae. Known to the layperson as "nuisance pests," the Ceratopogonidae include such favorites as biting midges, bloodsucking midges, and sand flies. The homepage offers a wealth of information organized into several extensive bibliographies, checklists, and catalogs; the biannual Ceratopogonidae Information Exchange (CIE) Newsletter; a Directory of Ceratopogonid Researchers; and a collection of WWW links.

280

Fleas (Siphonaptera)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This large resource, by parasitology researchers at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, represents two decades of research on fleas (order Siphonaptera). The site covers (in varied detail) biology, morphology, taxonomy, hosts, distribution, and references/ links (paper and online). Also at the site is a database providing geographic distribution information by taxon (several options). A collection of spectacular scanning microscope images rounds out the site.

281

Development of Leishmania donovani in Phlebotomus argentipes & Ph. papatasi fed on kala-azar patients in Bihar.  

PubMed

A total of 258 laboratory bred Ph. argentipes was fed on untreated parasitologically confirmed kala-azar patients. Successful development of parasites was noted in 0.54 per cent Ph. argentipes fed during the day and 5.33 per cent fed during the night. However, none of the 245 laboratory bred Ph. papatasi fed on the same patients, was found positive for successful development of L. donovani in the foregut. PMID:1937591

Mukhopadhyay, A K; Mishra, R N

1991-05-01

282

What would PCR assessment change in the management of fevers in a malaria endemic area? A school-based study in Benin in children with and without fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A recent school-based study in Benin showed that applying a policy of anti-malarial prescriptions restricted to parasitologically-confirmed cases on the management of fever is safe and feasible. Additional PCR data were analysed in order to touch patho-physiological issues, such as the usefulness of PCR in the management of malaria in an endemic area or the triggering of a malaria

Jean-Franois Faucher; Agns Aubouy; Todognon Bhton; Patrick Makoutode; Grace Abiou; Justin Doritchamou; Pascal Houz; Edgard Ouendo; Philippe Deloron; Michel Cot

2010-01-01

283

Treatment of Dientamoeba fragilis infection with paromomycin.  

PubMed

Treatment with paromomycin (25-35 mg/kg/d for 7 days) was evaluated prospectively in 15 children with Dientamoeba fragilis infection after 1-month follow-up. At the end of the study, parasitologic effectiveness and clinical improvement were observed in 12/15 (80%) and 13/15 (87%) patients, respectively. Paromomycin appears to be an effective drug for treatment of D. fragilis infection in children. PMID:17195717

Vandenberg, Olivier; Souayah, Hichem; Mouchet, Franoise; Dediste, Anne; van Gool, Tom

2007-01-01

284

Efficacy of dapsone with pyrimethamine (Maloprim) for malaria prophylaxis in Maputo, Mozambique.  

PubMed

In a randomized controlled study of malaria prophylaxis, dapsone-pyrimethamine at a weekly dosage of dapsone 50-100 mg with pyrimethamine 6.25-12.5 mg or placebo was administered to 166 school children for 17 weeks. Fortnightly parasitological controls revealed 28 infections in the placebo group and none in the dapsone-pyrimethamine group. It is concluded that weekly dapsone-pyrimethamine is effective for the prophylaxis of falciparum malaria in Mozambique. PMID:1505413

Pividal, J; Viktinski, V; Streat, E; Schapira, A

1992-06-01

285

Histopathological, Lymphoscintigraphical, and Immunological Changes in the Inguinal Lymph Nodes of Rhesus Monkeys during the Early Course of Infection with Brugia malayi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dennis, V. A., Lasater, B. L., Blanchard, J. L., Lowrie, R. C., Jr., and Campeau, R. J. 1998. Histopathological, lymphoscintigraphical, and immunological changes in the inguinal lymph nodes of rhesus monkeys during the early course of infection withBrugia malayi. Experimental Parasitology.89, 143152. The relationship of the early lymphatic pathophysiological alterations with those of tissue inflammatory and cellular responses in the

Vida A Dennis; Barbara L Lasater; James L Blanchard; Robert C Lowrie; Richard J Campeau

1998-01-01

286

Response of Corriedale and Crioula Lanada Sheep to Artificial Primary Infection with Haemonchus Contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical, parasitological and biochemical parameters were evaluated in Corriedale and Crioula Lanada sheep after a single experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus. Ten 4-month-old worm-free lambs, of each breed, were infected with 200 L3H. contortus per kg live weight and four uninfected animals of each breed were used as controls. Every week, the animals were weighed and blood and faecal samples

P. A. Bricarello; S. M. Gennari; T. C. G. Oliveira-Sequeira; C. M. S. L. Vaz; I. Gonalves de Gonalves; F. A. M. Echevarria

2002-01-01

287

A Comparison of the Sensitivity and Fecal Egg Counts of the McMaster Egg Counting and Kato-Katz Thick Smear Methods for Soil-Transmitted Helminths  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Kato-Katz thick smear (Kato-Katz) is the diagnostic method recommended for monitoring large-scale treatment programs implemented for the control of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in public health, yet it is difficult to standardize. A promising alternative is the McMaster egg counting method (McMaster), commonly used in veterinary parasitology, but rarely so for the detection of STH in human stool.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe Kato-Katz

Bruno Levecke; Jerzy M. Behnke; Sitara S. R. Ajjampur; Marco Albonico; Shaali M. Ame; Johannes Charlier; Stefan M. Geiger; Nguyen T. V. Hoa; Romuald I. Kamwa Ngassam; Andrew C. Kotze; James S. McCarthy; Antonio Montresor; Maria V. Periago; Sheela Roy; Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuent; D. T. C. Thach; Jozef Vercruysse

2011-01-01

288

Babesia bovis: Culture of Laboratory-Adapted Parasite Lines and Clinical Isolates in a Chemically Defined Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jackson, L. A., Waldron, S. J., Weier, H. M., Nicoll, C. L., and Cooke, B. M. 2001. Babesia bovis: Culture of laboratory-adapted parasite lines and clinical isolates in a chemically defined medium. Experimental Parasitology99, 168174. Babesiosis caused by Babesia spp. is a disease of both veterinary and human importance. Here, we describe a method to continuously culture laboratory lines and

Louise A. Jackson; Susan J. Waldron; Heidi M. Weier; Claire L. Nicoll; Brian M. Cooke

2001-01-01

289

[First record of Microsomacanthus tuvensis Spasskaya et Spasskii, 1961 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) in Poland].  

PubMed

During standard parasitological studies of the tufted duck Aythya fuligula, obtained from fishermen from West Pomerania in December 2007, three cestode specimens were found in the jejunum of one male host. They were determinated as Microsomacanthus tuvensis (Spasskaya et Spasskii, 1961) on the basis of the cirrus's and cirrus sac's size and vagina's shape. This is the first record of this species in Poland. PMID:20209817

Krlaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta

2009-01-01

290

Trypanosome infections and tick infestations: susceptibility in NDama, Gobra zebu and GobraNDama crossbred cattle exposed to natural challenge and maintained under high and low surveillance of trypanosome infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility to trypanosome infections and tick infestations was assessed in 51 NDama, 48 Gobra zebu and 37 GobraNDama crossbred (F1) cattle exposed to field-tick infestations and natural high tsetse challenge over more than one year. From these cattle, 12 animals of each breed were randomly selected and examined parasitologically for trypanosome infections and packed cell volume (PCV) twice a week

R. C Mattioli; J Jaitner; D. J Clifford; V. S Pandey; A Verhulst

1998-01-01

291

International Study to Evaluate PCR Methods for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation.Methodology\\/FindingsAn international collaborative study

Alejandro G. Schijman; Margarita Bisio; Liliana Orellana; Mariela Sued; Toms Duffy; Ana M. Mejia Jaramillo; Carolina Cura; Frederic Auter; Vincent Veron; Yvonne Qvarnstrom; Stijn Deborggraeve; Gisely Hijar; Ins Zulantay; Ral Horacio Lucero; Elsa Velazquez; Tatiana Tellez; Zunilda Sanchez Leon; Lucia Galvo; Debbie Nolder; Mara Monje Rumi; Jos E. Levi; Juan D. Ramirez; Pilar Zorrilla; Mara Flores; Maria I. Jercic; Gladys Crisante; Nstor Aez; Ana M. De Castro; Clara I. Gonzalez; Karla Acosta Viana; Pedro Yachelini; Faustino Torrico; Carlos Robello; Patricio Diosque; Omar Triana Chavez; Christine Aznar; Graciela Russomando; Philippe Bscher; Azzedine Assal; Felipe Guhl; Sergio Sosa Estani; Alexandre DaSilva; Constana Britto; Alejandro Luquetti; Janis Ladzins

2011-01-01

292

The Unfortunate Nurse A Case Study of Dengue Fever and Social Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on an actual incident in which dengue virus was transmitted by an accidental needlestick, this case study introduces students to “emerging pathogens” and other concepts in parasitology, immunology, epidemiology, and public policy. Students also read a primary paper and learn about two modern techniques widely used in medical and research settings (i.e., EIA and Taqman RT-PCR). The case is suitable for general education biology, cell biology, microbiology, immunology, and science and public policy courses.

Aguirre, Karen M.

2007-01-01

293

Plasmodium falciparum: Gene Mutations and Amplification of Dihydrofolate Reductase Genes in Parasites Grown in Vitro in Presence of Pyrimethamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thaithong, S., Ranford-Cartwright, L. C., Siripoon, N., Harnyuttanakorn, P., Kanchanakhan, N. S., Seugorn, A., Rungsihirunrat, K., Cravo, P. V. L., and Beale, G. H. 2001. Plasmodium falciparum: Gene mutations and amplification of dihydrofolate reductase genes in parasites grown in vitro in presence of pyrimethamine. Experimental Parasitology98, 5970. Samples of three pyrimethamine-sensitive clones of Plasmodium falciparum were grown for periods of

S. Thaithong; L. C. Ranford-Cartwright; N. Siripoon; P. Harnyuttanakorn; N. S. Kanchanakhan; A. Seugorn; K. Rungsihirunrat; P. V. L. Cravo; G. H. Beale

2001-01-01

294

Evaluation of Em18-, Em16-, Antigen B-Western blots, Em2 plus-ELISA and four other tests for differential serodiagnosis of alveolar and cystic echinococcosis patients in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and 20 cystic echinococcosis (CE) cases in humans, confirmed clinically or pathologically, were analyzed serologically by Em18-, Em16-, Antigen B subunit (8 kDa)-Western blots (Em18-, Em16-, AgB-WBs) and five other serological tests including commercially available Em2plus-ELISA and IHA. Some serologically doubtful AE cases were rechecked parasitologically or histopathologically. In Em18-WB and Em2plus-ELISA, five and four of

Akira Ito; Liang Ma; Malgorzata Paul; Jerzy Stefaniak; Zbigniew S. Pawlowski

1998-01-01

295

Effi cacy and eff ectiveness of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus artesunate-mefl oquine in falciparum malaria: an open-label randomised comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We did an open randomised comparison of 3-day regimens of artesunate-mefl oquine (12\\/25 mg\\/kg) versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (63\\/50 mg\\/kg) for the treatment of children aged 1 year or older and in adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Rakhine State, western Myanmar. Within each group, patients were randomly assigned supervised or non-supervised treatment. The primary endpoint was the PCR-confi rmed parasitological

Frank Smithuis; Moe Kyaw Kyaw; Ohn Phe; Khin Zarli Aye; Lhin Htet; Marion Barends; Niklas Lindegardh; Thida Singtoroj; Elizabeth Ashley; Saw Lwin; Kasia Stepniewska; Nicholas J White

2006-01-01

296

Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following intra-rectal dosing of artesunate in malaria patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Intra-rectal artesunate has been developed as a potentially life-saving treatment of severe malaria in rural village settings where administration of parenteral antimalarial drugs is not possible. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of intra-rectal artesunate and the relationship with parasitological responses in patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria. Methods and Findings Adults and children in Africa and Southeast Asia with

Julie A. Simpson; Tsiri Agbenyega; Karen I. Barnes; Gianni Di Perri; Peter Folb; Melba Gomes; Sanjeev Krishna; Srivicha Krudsood; Vugt van M; Sharif Mansor; Helen McIlleron; Raymond Miller; Malcolm Molyneux; James Mwenechanya; Visweswaran Navaratnam; Francois Nosten; Piero Olliaro; Lorrin Pang; Isabela Ribeiro; Madalitso Tembo; Michele van Vugt; Steve Ward; Kris Weerasuriya; Kyaw Win; Nicholas J. White

2006-01-01

297

The prevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic dogs in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the prevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic dogs in Finland, which is known to have a high prevalence of Trichinella infection in sylvatic hosts. Altogether 727 dog serum samples were tested serologically by ELISA with ES-antigen in dilutions 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, and 1:400. Additionally, muscle samples from 102 dogs front leg extensors were tested parasitologically

Leena Oivanen; Anu Nreaho; Saija Jokela; Ulla Rikula; Ray Gamble; Antti Sukura

2005-01-01

298

Detection of Leishmania infantum cryptic infection in asymptomatic blood donors living in an endemic area (Eivissa, Balearic Islands, Spain) by different diagnostic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of cryptic leishmaniasis in blood donors from a Spanish endemic area, (Eivissa Island) was studied using various immunological and parasitological methods. Sera from 656 blood donors were analysed: 16 (2.4%) were positive by ELISA and 50 (7.6%) by Western blot. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and buffy coat (BC) samples, were analyzed by culture and nested-PCR. DNA of

C Riera; R Fisa; M Udina; M Gllego; M Portus

2004-01-01

299

Accuracy of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in community studies and their impact on treatment of malaria in an area with declining malaria burden in north-eastern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDespite some problems related to accuracy and applicability of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), they are currently the\\u000a best option in areas with limited laboratory services for improving case management through parasitological diagnosis and\\u000a reducing over-treatment. This study was conducted in areas with declining malaria burden to assess; 1) the accuracy of RDTs\\u000a when used at different community settings, 2)

Deus S Ishengoma; Filbert Francis; Bruno P Mmbando; John PA Lusingu; Pamela Magistrado; Michael Alifrangis; Thor G Theander; Ib C Bygbjerg; Martha M Lemnge

2011-01-01

300

[Parasite fauna of the burbot Lota lota L. in body of water of the Kol'ski? peninsula].  

PubMed

The results of a parasitological study of the burbot Lota Iota L. inhabiting the Kola region are presented. 51 species of parasite were found on burbot in 16 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea and Barents Sea basins (Muxosporea - 7, Suctoria - 1, Peritricha - 6, Monogenea - 1, Cestoda - 6, Trematoda - 13, Nematoda - 6, Acanthocephala - 5, Hirudinea - 3, Bivalvia - 1 and Crustacea - 2 species). Data on the infestation of burbot by different parasite species and their prevalence in investigated waterbodies were obtained. PMID:16913298

Mitenev, V K; Shul'man, B S

2006-01-01

301

[Chorioptic mange in dairy cattle: a new assessment for its control].  

PubMed

In the western region of Switzerland, the canton of Freiburg, the clinical and subclinical distribution of Chorioptes spp. was studied in 14 stables with tethered housing and 10 stables with loose housing, for a total of 667 dairy cows. Chorioptes infestations were diagnosed in 22 out of the 24 herds. In the 14 stables with tethered housing 33.8% of the dairy cows were clinically suspicious and 31% were found parasitologically positive. These values were higher than in the 10 stables with loose housing that had 26.5% clinically suspicious cases and 17.8% parasitologically positive cows. The collected clinical findings and parasitological diagnoses, as well as the analysed data of Chorioptes infestations allowed to determine a reference value for these herds which could be used by the practicing veterinarian as an aid in deciding whether to treat the whole herd or the single animal. In a cow population an amount of more than 12% of cows with clinically manifest Chorioptes spp. infestation reflects a problem concerning the whole herd and therefore the whole herd needs to be treated. If less than 12% of the cows are visibly infested and no subclinical Chorioptes cases are proven, then it only constitutes a problem of single animals and therefore can be dealt with individually. The treatment of the herds of two farms with tethered housing with Eprinomectin was very effective and showed a long lasting 100% antiparasitic effect which lasted more than 92 days after treatment. PMID:19863007

Kollbrunner, Markus; Pfister, Kurt; Luginbhl, Andreas

2009-01-01

302

A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas.

Carneiro, Teiliane Rodrigues; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; de Oliveira, Sara Menezes; Peralta, Jose Mauro; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer Moraes

2013-01-01

303

Natural infection of synathropic rodent species Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus by Leishmania infantum in Sesimbra and Sintra - Portugal  

PubMed Central

Background Canine leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is a parasitic zoonotic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae). Genus Phlebotomus is the biological vector in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World. The dog is the domestic reservoir host but other animals like the fox (Vulpes vulpes) and rodents are known to maintain the infection in both sylvatic and domestic cycles. Methods To identify the role of synanthropic rodents Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus as reservoir hosts for Leishmania infantum natural infection, 30 rodents were captured under a trap rodent control program in two private dog shelters from Sintra and Sesimbra, located in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, known to be endemic for canine leishmaniosis in Portugal. Tissue samples were screened for the presence of Leishmania amastigotes by qPCR and parasitological analysis. Results A total of 33.3% (9/27) of Mus musculus rodents revealed the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA while 29.6% (8/27) were positive in the parasitological analysis. Concerning Rattus norvegicus (n=3), one animal revealed infection only by parasitological analysis. Conclusions Our results identified for the first time in Portugal the presence of Leishmania infection in both rodent species. As susceptible hosts, infected Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus may increase the risk for dog and human infection in households and surrounding areas, enhancing the need for efficient rodent control measures in shelters and risk zones to prevent transmission of the infection.

2013-01-01

304

Mebendazole Compared with Secnidazole in the Treatment of Adult Giardiasis: A Randomised, No-Inferiority, Open Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

To compare the efficacy and safety of mebendazole and secnidazole in the treatment of giardiasis in adult patients, a single-centre, parallel group, open-label, randomized non-inferiority trial was carried out. One-hundred and 26 participants who had symptomatic Giardia mono-infection took part in the study. Direct wet mount and/or Ritchie concentration techniques and physical examinations were conducted at the time of enrolment and at the follow-up visit. The primary outcome measure was parasitological cure, performed at 3, 5, 10 days post-treatment. Negative faecal specimens for Giardia were ensured by the same parasitological techniques. At follow up (day 10) the parasitological cure rate for the per protocol populations was 88.7% (55/62) for MBZ and 91.8% (56/61) for SNZ. For the intention to treat populations the cure rate at the end of treatment was 85.9% (55/64) for MBZ and 90.3% (56/62) for SNZ. Both analyzes showed there was not significant statistical difference between MBZ and SNZ treatment efficacy. Both drugs were well tolerated, only mild, transient and self-limited side effects were reported and did not require discontinuation of treatment. A 3-day course of mebendazole seems to be as efficacious and safe for treatment of giardiasis as a single dose of secnidazole in adults.

Almirall, Pedro; Escobedo, Angel A.; Ayala, Idalia; Alfonso, Maydel; Salazar, Yohana; Canete, Roberto; Cimerman, Sergio; Galloso, Martha; Olivero, Ilmaems; Robaina, Maytee; Tornes, Karen

2011-01-01

305

Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine, and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon. METHODS: In a randomized study we evaluated the effectiveness and tolerance of (i) sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) (25 mg/kg body weight of sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg/kg of pyrimethamine in a single oral dose), (ii) amodiaquine (AQ) (30 mg/kg body weight in three divided daily doses), and (iii) the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination (SP+AQ) (same doses as in the other two treatment groups, given simultaneously on day 0) in young children in southern Cameroon. The parasitological and clinical responses were studied until day 28 in accordance with the modified 1996 WHO protocol for the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs. FINDINGS: Of 191 enrolled patients, 6 and 8 were excluded or lost to follow-up before day 14 and between day 14 and day 28, respectively. For the AQ-treated patients, parasitological and clinical evaluation on day 14 showed late treatment failure in 2 of 61 (3.3%) and adequate clinical response with parasitological failure in one (1.6%). There was an adequate clinical response in all patients treated with SP or SP+AQ. Therapeutic failure rates on day 28 were 13.6%, 10.2% and 0% in the SP, AQ, and SP+AQ groups, respectively. Anaemia improved in all three regimens. AQ produced faster fever clearance but was associated with more transient minor side-effects than SP. SP+AQ reduced the risk of recrudescence between day 14 and day 28 but increased the incidence of minor side-effects. CONCLUSION: SP+AQ can be recommended as a temporary means of slowing the spread of multidrug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Africa while the introduction of other combinations, including artemisinin derivatives, is awaited.

Basco, Leonardo K.; Same-Ekobo, Albert; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Ndounga, Mathieu; Metoh, Theresia; Ringwald, Pascal; Soula, Georges

2002-01-01

306

Field evaluation of a new antibody-based diagnostic for Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni at the point-of-care in northeast Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for use at the point-of-care (POC) are likely to become increasingly useful as large-scale control programmes for schistosomiasis get underway. Given the low sensitivity of the reference standard egg count methods in detecting light infections, more sensitive tests will be required to monitor efforts aimed at eliminating schistosomiasis as advocated by the World Health Assembly Resolution 65.21 passed in 2012. Methods A recently developed RDT incorporating Schistosoma mansoni cercarial transformation fluid (SmCTF) for detection of anti-schistosome antibodies in human blood was here evaluated in children (mean age: 7.65years; age range: 1-12years) carrying light S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections in a schistosome-endemic area of Zimbabwe by comparison to standard parasitological techniques (i.e. the Kato-Katz faecal smear and urine filtration). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) incorporating S. haematobium antigen preparations were also employed for additional comparison. Results The sensitivity of the SmCTF-RDT compared to standard parasitological methods was 100% while the specificity was 39.5%. It was found that the sera from RDT false-positive children showed significantly higher antibody titres in IgM-cercarial antigen preparation (CAP) and IgM-soluble egg antigen (SEA) ELISA assays than children identified by parasitology as true-negatives. Conclusions Although further evaluations are necessary using more accurate reference standard tests, these results indicate that the RDT could be a useful tool for the rapid prevalence-mapping of both S. mansoni and S. haematobium in schistosome-endemic areas. It is affordable, user-friendly and allows for diagnosis of both schistosome species at the POC.

2014-01-01

307

Efficacy of Myrrh in the treatment of schistosomiasis (haematobium and mansoni) in Ezbet El-Bakly, Tamyia Center, El-Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in Egypt, despite the continuous control effort. Most of the anti-schistosomal drugs have deleterious side effects or low efficacy. This necessitates a search for new safe and effective drug. A field survey was done in Ezbet El-Bakly (Tamyia Center) El-Fayoum Governorate to determine the magnitude of schistosomiasis haematobium and mansoni and to evaluate the efficacy of Mirazid (the oleo-resin extract from Myrrh of Commiphora molmol tree, family: Burseraceae) in the treatment of both types of schistosomiasis. Among the 1019 individuals parasitologically examined, the prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni were 4.2% and 2.4% respectively and the geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 33.2 eggs/10 ml urine and 113.3 eggs/gram stools. Most of the patients with haematobiasis and mansoniasis were <15 years (56.4% & 53.8%), males (56.4% & 53.8%) & illiterates (46.2% & 46.2%). All cases were treated by Myrrh (Mirazid) as two capsules (600 mg) on an empty stomach an hour before breakfast for six consecutive days and were followed up clinically and parasitologically by urine analysis by the sedimentation and nucleopore techniques and by hatching test and by stool analysis by sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques and by hatching test. The parasitological cure rate after three months was 97.4% and 96.2% for S. haematobium and S. mansoni cases with the marvelous clinical cure without any side-effects. Patients not completely responded to a single course of treatment showed marked reduction of egg intensity. It is concluded that Mirazid proved to be safe and very effective in treatment of S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections under field conditions. PMID:15287168

Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M

2004-08-01

308

Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests for the Diagnosis of Malaria, a Preliminary Analysis of the Global Fund Program Data, 2005 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria, in 2006 and 2010, recommend parasitological confirmation of malaria before commencing treatment. Although microscopy has been the mainstay of malaria diagnostics, the magnitude of diagnostic scale up required to follow the Guidelines suggests that rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) will be a large component. This study analyzes the adoption of rapid diagnostic testing in malaria programs supported by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund), the leading international funder of malaria control globally. Methods and Findings We analyzed, for the period 2005 to 2010, Global Fund programmatic data for 81 countries on the quantity of RDTs planned; actual quantities of RDTs and artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) procured in 2009 and 2010; RDT-related activities including RDTs distributed, RDTs used, total diagnostic tests including RDTs and microscopy performed, health facilities equipped with RDTs; personnel trained to perform rapid diagnostic malaria test; and grant budgets allocated to malaria diagnosis. In 2010, diagnosis accounted for 5.2% of malaria grant budget. From 2005 to 2010, the procurement plans include148 million RDTs through 96 malaria grants in 81 countries. Around 115 million parasitological tests, including RDTs, had reportedly been performed from 2005 to 2010. Over this period, 123,132 health facilities were equipped with RDTs and 137,140 health personnel had been trained to perform RDT examinations. In 2009 and 2010, 41 million RDTs and 136 million ACTs were purchased. The ratio of procured RDTs to ACTs was 0.26 in 2009 and 0.34 in 2010. Conclusions/significance Global Fund financing has enabled 81 malaria-endemic countries to adopt WHO guidelines by investing in RDTs for malaria diagnosis, thereby helping improve case management of acute febrile illness in children. However, roll-out of parasitological diagnosis lags behind the roll-out of ACT-based treatment, and will require prioritization of investments.

Zhao, Jinkou; Lama, Marcel; Korenromp, Eline; Aylward, Patrick; Shargie, Estifanos; Filler, Scott; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Atun, Rifat

2012-01-01

309

[Congenital Chagas disease in the city of Santa F. Diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

We studied 6123 pregnant women and their 341 newborn (NB), from Santa Fe city, by the following serological tests for chagasic infection: Direct Agglutination with and without 2-mercaptoethanol, Indirect Hemagglutination and Indirect Immunofluorescence test, and by identification of parasites by Fresh drops, Strout and/or by Xenodiagnosis. The prevalence of seropositivity found in pregnant women was of 14.62% with a 73% of migratory history. The parasitological studies yielded 9/341 incidence of transplacentary infection. Clinical examinations were made in the infected newborn (NB). They were treated with Benznidazol or Nifurtimox, and post-treatment evolution was evaluated. We registered connatal infection in twin-brothers. Brothers/sisters (siblings) of infected NB were also studied. Some of them were seropositive and the others seronegative. Results here obtained show that this way of transmission is important, and should be considered even in low endemicity areas. The parasitological assays proved to be decisive for the NB infection diagnosis (Table 1). The serological assays enabled us to follow the non-infected NB up to their negativization. A 6 month follow-up is recommended. It is impossible to define only one clinical outline because both symptomatic and asymptomatic infected NB may be found with gestational age at term and pre-term and when born with a weight above or below 2000 g. We obtained parasitological and serological negativization in all cases. The chagasic pregnant woman does not necessarily transmit the infection to all her descendents. Only 2.64% are infected. It is possible to systematize the diagnosis without extra resources beyond the usual ones. PMID:7565049

Streiger, M; Fabbro, D; del Barco, M; Beltramino, R; Bovero, N

1995-01-01

310

Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs.  

PubMed

Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the parasite in blood smears, and serologic assay. The animals were allocated randomly to one of two groups (n?=?6 in each group). Dogs in Imi group were given imidocarb dipropionate at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously in two injections 14 days apart. Imi plus Toltra group was given imidocarb dipropionate as dose mentioned above and toltrazuril at 10 mg/kg/day orally for the first five treatment days. Clinical findings, blood counts and parasitaemia levels in blood before and 14, 28 and 56 days after the initial treatment were performed to evaluate treatment response. The overall clinical efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate with and without toltrazuril was 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 21.0 and 25.6 days, respectively. A substantial main effect of time on mean PCV, Hb, WBC, neutrophil and PLT and gradual reduction of parasitaemia were significantly observed in both groups (P?parasitologic cure rate at the end of eight weekly observation period was 16.6% and 33.3% in Imi and Imi plus Toltra groups, respectively. Similar clinicopathologic and parasitologic responses were observed in both treated groups; thus, it was concluded that toltrazuril does not reveal additional benefit to imidocarb therapy in dogs with HCI. PMID:21472405

Pasa, Serdar; Voyvoda, Huseyin; Karagenc, Tulin; Atasoy, Abidin; Gazyagci, Serkal

2011-09-01

311

Efficacy of 5-Nitroimidazoles for the Treatment of Giardiasis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of giardiasis. We evaluated the efficacy of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) in the treatment of giardiasis in a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for RCTs evaluating the efficacy of 5-NI vs. control (placebo or active treatment) on parasitological cure in patients with parasitologically-demonstrated giardiasis. The search was performed in May 2013 with no language restriction by two authors independently. The efficacy outcome was parasitological cure, and harmful outcomes were abdominal pain, bitter or metallic taste, and headache. We included 30 RCTs (n?=?3,930). There was a significant and slightly higher response rate with 5-NI in giardiasis treatment (RR 1.06, 95%CI 1.021.11, p?=?0.005). There was high heterogeneity among studies (I2?=?72%). The response rates for metronidazole, tinidazole and secnidazole were similar (RR 1.05, 95%CI 1.011.09, p?=?0.01; RR 1.32 95%CI 1.101.59, p?=?0.003; and RR 1.18 95%CI 0.931.449, p?=?0.18, respectively). On subgroup analyses, the response rates did not vary substantially and high heterogeneity persisted (I2?=?57%80%). Harmful outcomes were uncommon, and 5-NIs were associated with lower risk of abdominal pain, and higher risk of both bitter or metallic taste and headache. Conclusions Studies investigating the efficacy of 5-NI in giardiasis treatment are highly heterogeneous. 5-NIs have a slightly better efficacy and worse profile for mild harmful outcomes in the treatment of giardiasis in comparison to controls. Larger high quality RCTs are needed to further assess efficacy and safety profiles of 5-NI.

Deshpande, Abhishek; Thota, Priyaleela; Roman, Yuani; Hernandez, Adrian V.

2014-01-01

312

Predictive role of polymerase chain reaction in the early diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection.  

PubMed

The efficacy of specific chemotherapy in congenital Chagas disease before the first year of life ranges between 90 and 100%. Between this age and 15 years of age, the efficacy decreases to around 60%. Therefore, early infection detection is a priority in vertical transmission. The aim of this work was to assess whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays a predictive role in the diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease as compared to conventional parasitological and serological methods. To this end, we studied a total of 468 children born to Trypanosoma cruzi seroreactive mothers came from Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay, who lived in the city of Buenos Aires and suburban areas (Argentina), a non-endemic area of this country. These children were assessed by PCR from 2004 to 2009 with the specific primers Tcz1 and Tcz2, and 121 and 122. PCR allowed detecting 49 T. cruzi-positive children. Eight of these 49 children were excluded from the analysis: six because they did not complete follow-up and two because the first control was performed after 12 months of age. Parasitological methods allowed detecting 25 positive children, 7 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.532.00 vs. 6.711.46 months; p=0.0002). Serological methods allowed detecting 16 positive children, 12 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.461.48 vs. 11.774.40 months; p<0.0001). None of the children negative by PCR was positive by serological or parasitological methods. This study shows that PCR allows early diagnosis in congenital Chagas disease. At present, an early positive PCR is not indicative for treatment. However, a positive PCR would alert the health system to search only those infected infants diagnosed by early PCR and thus generate greater efficiency in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital T. cruzi infection. PMID:24892867

Velzquez, Elsa B; Rivero, Roco; Rissio, Ana Mara De; Malagrino, Nora; Esteva, Mnica I; Riarte, Adelina Rosa; Ruiz, Andrs Mariano

2014-09-01

313

[Organization of studies of the "gnus" complex of bloodsucking dipterans (Diptera: Culicidae, Ceratopogonidae, Tabanidae) by Yu. S. Balashov].  

PubMed

The paper gives a historical account of investigations of mosquitoes, black flies and horseflies carried out by the staff of the Laboratory of Parasitology, Zoological Institute RAS, supervised by a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prof Yu. S. Balashov, during 1979-1994. The research team of the laboratory explored the local fauna, relative abundance, seasonal dynamics, diurnal activity, longevity of a mass flight activity, annual fluctuations of the number, and age content of populations of various mosquito, black fly and horsefly species in the territory of Leningrad, Novgorod and Pskov Provinces. Attack peculiarities of various horse fly species were studied with the use of individual labeling. PMID:24455908

Medvedev, S G

2013-01-01

314

[Knowledge of the endoparasitic fauna of Lama guanicoe Muller, 1776, from the Mitre Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].  

PubMed

Parasitological fauna of Lama guanicoe in the Peninsula Mitre, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, is analyzed in this paper. Coproparasitological tests of 58 samples were performed, and on this basis, the presence of the following genera was determined: Haemonchus, Marshallagia, Cooperia, Nematodirus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomun and Chavertia. Marshallagia and Chabertia are reported for the first time for this host. The dung piles are not considered as parasitic barriers. Infections occur in two seasons: at the beginning of the spring and at the beginning of summer, as a survival strategy of parasitic nematodes. Parasites of L. guanicoe would be secondarily acquired form cattle. PMID:2629773

Navone, G T; Merino, M L

1989-01-01

315

[Parasite fauna of the landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. in the basin of Namsen river].  

PubMed

The 26 specimens of the landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. from Namsen river and its tributary Melingselva river (central Norway) were studied by the method of complete parasitological examination in the period of 1997-1998. The 15 parasite species have been recovered. Ration of parasite with a direct and complex cycle is approximately equal, 6 and 9 respectively. Larval stages of parasites predominate among the parasites with a complex cycle. The parasite fauna fond in the landlocked Atlantic salmon is most similar to that in youngsters of the lake salmon (Salmo salar morpha sebago Girard) and the migrating Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). PMID:15069884

Shul'man, B S; Ieshko, E P; Shurov, I L; Ensen, B O; Ensen, A

2004-01-01

316

Saint Lucia revisited.  

PubMed

The eastern Caribbean island of Saint Lucia is now famous in parasitological history as the setting for a major programme of schistosomiasis control'. Perhaps less well-known are the island's effective control of many intestinal parasites, and elimination of malaria, such that the current patterns of mortality and other demographic indicators now resemble those of industrialized countries. More recently, the island has become the focus for another community-based health programme as the Caribbean region again comes to grips with Aedes aegypti and its recently imported relative, Aedes albopictus, important vectors of yellow fever and dengue viruses (see Box 1). PMID:15463009

Bos, R; Fvrier, M; Knudsen, A B

1988-10-01

317

Investigation of parasites in sludges and disinfection techniques. Final report, August 1979-May 1982  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the research grant were to: assess the presence and densities of resistant stages of parasites in municipal wastewater sludges (sewage) in northern United States; compare the results of the study with the results of a previous study of sludges in southern United States; to evaluate several decontamination techniques for their effectiveness in inactivating parasites in waste sludges; and develop a standard method for the parasitologic examination of waste sludges. Sludge samples from all phases of treatment (i.e., primary, etc.) were collected during the fall, winter and summer from 48 municipal wastewater treatment plants located in New York, Ohio, Minnesota, and Washington.

Reimers, R.S.; Little, M.D.; Englande, A.J.; McDonell, D.B.; Bowman, D.D.

1985-11-01

318

A case of visceral leishmaniosis in a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Croatia.  

PubMed

The southern habitats of Croatia's gray wolf (Canis lupus) population are found in central and southern parts of Dalmatia. This region is recognized as an endemic region for canine visceral leishmaniosis, caused by Leishmania infantum. In November 2003, a 4-yr-old male gray wolf was found dead in the northwestern border of this endemic region. Pathologic and parasitologic analysis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, indicated that lesions associated with infection by Leishmania infantum are, in this case, typical for visceral leshmaniosis commonly described in dogs. Review of the literature suggests that this is the first reported case of gray wolf death due to lesions caused by L. infantum. PMID:18436678

Beck, A; Beck, R; Kusak, J; Gudan, A; Martinkovic, F; Artukovic, B; Hohsteter, M; Huber, D; Marinculic, A; Grabarevic, Z

2008-04-01

319

A case report of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a Malaysian child.  

PubMed

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old Malaysian child. This case was initially reported as 'normal' after the examination of proglottids shed from the anus of the child at a private laboratory on two occasions. The putative proglottids shed was then referred to the Parasite Southeast Asia Diagnostic (Para:SEAD) Laboratory, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya for further examination. Microscopic examination confirmed that the child was infected with H. diminuta based on the characteristic eggs found in the proglottids. She was treated with a single dose praziquantel (20 mg/kg of body weight) and recovered well. PMID:22735844

Rohela, M; Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Kalaichelvan, B; Wan Hafiz, W I; Mohd Redzuan, A N

2012-06-01

320

Trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) of freshwater fishes of the family Anabantidae from the Okavango River and Delta (Botswana).  

PubMed

During parasitological surveys in the Okavango Delta and Panhandle in Botswana, two species of climbing perches belonging to the family Anabantidae were investigated for ectoparasites. The fishes were the blackspot climbing perch, Microctenopoma intermedium (Pellegrin) and the manyspined climbing perch, Ctenopoma multispine Peters. Five trichodinid species were found from the skin, fins and gills of these anabantids. One is a known species, i.e., Trichodina microspina Van As et Basson, 1992, for which a comparative description is provided. Four other species are described as new species using silver impregnation, i.e., Trichodina labyrinthipiscis sp. n., Trichodina anabantidarum sp. n., Tripartiella microctenopomae sp. n., and Tripartiella ctenopomae sp. n. PMID:12418809

Basson, Linda; Van As, Jo G

2002-01-01

321

[Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2012].  

PubMed

The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2012 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2012 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests. PMID:24630577

de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, Mara Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepcin

2014-02-01

322

The Grapes of Staph: Doc Kaiser's Microbiology Web Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Gary Kaiser of The Community College of Baltimore County at Catonsville (Maryland) put together this Lecture/ Lab teaching resource on Microbiology. Organized into four units, the main topics in the Lecture Guide section include Bacteria and Fungi; Protozoa, Viruses, and Nonspecific Body Defenses; Immune Responses; and Microbial Genetics/ Metabolism. Each unit contains a brief summary of the topic, with several links to color illustrations or animations. The online Microbiology Lab Manual covers 22 full labs, from the basics of microscope use and the sizes/ shapes of microorganisms through parasitology. While the site connection is a bit slow, the content/ layout is decent, making this a useful overview and solid introduction to microbiology.

Kaiser, Gary E.

2005-11-11

323

The Grapes of Staph: Doc Kaiser's Microbiology Web Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Gary Kaiser of The Community College of Baltimore County at Catonsville (Maryland) put together this Lecture/ Lab teaching resource on Microbiology. Organized into four units, the main topics in the Lecture Guide section include Bacteria and Fungi; Protozoa, Viruses, and Nonspecific Body Defenses; Immune Responses; and Microbial Genetics/ Metabolism. Each unit contains a brief summary of the topic, with several links to color illustrations or animations. The online Microbiology Lab Manual covers 22 full labs, from the basics of microscope use and the sizes/ shapes of microorganisms through parasitology. While the site connection is a bit slow, the content/ layout is decent, making this a useful overview and solid introduction to microbiology.

Kaiser, Gary E.

324

Prevalence of onchocerciasis in Blue Nile valley of western Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A epidemiological study of Onchocerciasis among different ethnic groups in the Blue Nile valley of Western Ethiopia was conducted to obtain baseline data on disease prevalence, skin snips samples were obtained from 493 persons, representing different ethnic groups (Nilotic and Oromos), living under different geographic and climatic conditions (lowlands, Midland and highland) or Mendi district for parasitological verification. A total of 169 (34%) had microfilariae of the skin by direct microscopy. The highest prevalence rate (81%) was found among the Nilotic people living along the southern banks of the Blue Nile River. Most patient had wide spread skin infection. Epidemiological differences were also observed. PMID:8077003

Jira, C

1993-01-01

325

[Cammalanus Railliet and Henry, 1915 (Nematoda, Camallanidae). Parasite from Hydrodynastes gigas (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae) from Argentine Chaco].  

PubMed

Adult specimens of Camallanus genus (Nematoda, Camallanidae), parasitizing a Hydrodynastes gigas (Serpentes, Colubridae) from Chaco in the North East of Argentina, are described for the first time. The morphologic and morphometric parasitological studies were carried out using diaphanization by lactophenol technique. The specimens described were drawn and photographed. With this investigation the analysis of the reptilian pathologies, the knowledge of which is necessary to make projects, to manage and control the biomedic aspects in breeders, zoos and/or reserves has started. Thus, it enables us to know associated nematofauna providing facts about the biodiversity of nematode parasites of reptiles. PMID:9302777

Ramallo, G

1996-01-01

326

Dipylidium caninum infection  

PubMed Central

Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child.

Cabello, Raul Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderon; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay

2011-01-01

327

[The experimental chemotherapy of larval alveolar echinococcosis. The search for an optimal regimen of albendazole use].  

PubMed

The antiechinococcal activity of albendazole resynthesized at the E. I. Martsinovski? Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine was studied on infection models in rats and mouse in different experimental modifications. The efficiency of the therapy was determined in relation to the dose of the drug and its routes administrations, to the single or intermittent daily dose, to the presence or absence of intervals in the treatment regimen, to dosage forms. The trials indicated that albendazole was most active against larval alveolar echinococcosis of mice or cotton rats when it was used with their feed, i.e. through the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:10414050

Dzhabarova, V I; Novik, T S

1999-01-01

328

Possible artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant malaria in Nigeria: a report of three cases.  

PubMed

Artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant malaria is rare in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization identifies monitoring and surveillance using day-3 parasitaemia post-treatment as the standard test for identifying suspected artemisinin resistance. We report three cases of early treatment failure due to possible artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All cases showed adequate clinical and parasitological responses to quinine. This study reveals a need to re-evaluate the quality and efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy agents in Nigeria and Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23982103

Ajayi, Nnennaya Anthony; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna

2013-01-01

329

Improving the detection of anthelmintic resistance: evaluation of faecal egg count reduction test procedures suitable for farm routines.  

PubMed

The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the main method of detection of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in nematodes of veterinary importance. However, although the FECRT is standardised, the diagnostic performance of this method has not been fully characterised. In this survey Monte Carlo routines were used to simulate the estimation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) with several FECRT protocols that were performed under different field and laboratory conditions. The goal was to determine, from a practical viewpoint, the most suitable protocols for farm routines and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of FECRTs across different parasitological scenarios with several levels of AR. The simulated field procedures included variations in the sample size and the sampling (or not) of a control group, whereas the simulated laboratory procedures comprised group mean individual-based vs. composite-based FECR estimations and variations in the egg detection threshold of the McMaster technique. For composite procedures, the random weight variations among individual samples and an increased number of McMaster chamber counts were also simulated. The results showed that FECRTs were moderately affected by inaccuracy but crucially affected by imprecision, and both parameters were clearly dependent on the parasitological conditions and the laboratory and field procedures used. An individual-based FECRT method performed without a control group was the most appropriate to quantify the AR, whereas a composite-based method with a control group was the easiest method for discriminating susceptible and resistant parasite populations. More interestingly, the diagnostic performance of the simulated FECRT methods was low for the procedures that are currently recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) and for many of the typical field and laboratory procedures that are currently implemented. Therefore, the results suggest that the diagnostic performance of the FECRT should be re-evaluated, and the recommendations of the W.A.A.V.P. should be redefined. Finally, theoretic critical conditions for FECRT procedures have been defined to improve future AR surveys and to allow the interpretation of FECRT results with the necessary caution according to the diagnostic performance expected for every FECRT procedure and parasitological scenario. PMID:23537948

Calvete, Carlos; Uriarte, Joaquin

2013-09-23

330

[Aythya fuligula--new host for Retinometra pittalugai Lopez-Neyra, 1932 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) recorded in Poland for the first time].  

PubMed

During standard parasitological studies of the tufted duck Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758), obtained from fishermen from West Pomerania, three cestode specimens were found in the jejunum of hosts. They were determined as Retinometra pittalugai (Lopez-Neyra, 1932) on the basis of the cirrus's size, shape of stylet and rostellar hooks. This is the first record of this species in Poland, since this parasite was earlier recorded only in Anas platyrhynchos f. dom., Aythya marila, A. ferina and Bucephala clangula in Spain, in Kamchatka and in Novosibirsk. PMID:19338226

Krlaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushin, Vadim V

2008-01-01

331

[Eosinophilia in a family from Bosnia].  

PubMed

We describe reference to a family from Bosnia that the diagnosis of Trichinellosis can be difficult despite notice of travel-history and eosinophilia but lack of further epidemiological datas and due to the rarity of this zoonosis. Clinical pattern of trichinellosis are fever, headache, myalgia, periorbital oedema, less frequently diarrhea and abdominal pain. Dreaded complications are myocarditis and encephalitis. High eosinophilia and increased creatine phosphocinase activity are the most frequently observed laboratory features. The detection of specific circulating antibodies or the parasitological examination of a muscle biopsy will confirm the diagnosis. The medical treatment includes albendazol and steroid. PMID:14727477

Lupinc, L; Markwalder, K; Nigg, C

2003-12-17

332

Coenurus gaigeri cyst in the thigh of a goat and its successful management.  

PubMed

A 11month old female goat was presented to Polyclinic, IVRI with the history of swelling in the left hind leg on the inner aspect of thigh and inguinal region. Physical and radiological examination revealed a large fluctuating fluid filled bladder with distinct dimension. The cyst was successfully removed along with its membrane and parasitological examination revealed it as a Coenurus gaigeri, the intermediate stage of T. multiceps gaigeri. The animal recovered completely by 10th postoperative day without any complications. This is being described in detail as under. PMID:25035586

Madhu, D N; Mahan, Tamil; Sudhakar, N R; S Maurya, P; Banerjee, P S; Sahu, Shivani; Pawde, A M

2014-09-01

333

Coproscopical investigations of the European otter (Lutra lutra) from Bia?owieza Primeval Forest.  

PubMed

The parasitofauna of the European otter (Lutra lutra) remains poorly known in Poland. In the presented study 106 fecal samples from otters living in the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest were examined, using standard flotation and sedimentation methods. We found that the overall prevalence of parasitic infections was 30.1%. Eggs of Alaria alata (0.9%), Opistorchis or Metorchis sp. (5.7%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.9%) and Aonchotheca putori (1.9%) were identified, but in other cases the species of parasite could not be reliably determined. Parasitological dissections should give better results in future studies. PMID:20707304

Grski, Pawe?; Zalewski, Andrzej; Kazimierczak, Katarzyna; Kotomski, Grzegorz

2010-01-01

334

[Strigiphilus strigis (Mallophaga: Philopteridae) in a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo interpositus) in Turkey].  

PubMed

In this study, a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo b. interpositus) was brought to the laboratory of Parasitology Department and was inspected for ectoparasites. Five Mallophaga specimens were collected from the eagle owl and they were mounted on slides in Faure forte medium after being cleared in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the lice were inspected and measured under the light microscope. All of the specimens were identified as Strigiphilus strigis (Pontoppidan 1763). This paper presents the first detection of S. strigis in Turkey. PMID:17471417

Dik, Bilal; Uslu, U?ur

2007-01-01

335

A large-scale field trial with dichlorvos as a residual fumigant insecticide in Northern Nigeria*  

PubMed Central

An extended field trial with dichlorvos was carried out in the Kankiya District of Northern Nigeria during 1963. Two types of dispenser were usedthe dichlorvos-impregnated-montan-wax type and the liquid-dichlorvos type. The objective of the trial was to see if dichlorvos would interrupt the transmission of malaria under local conditions when used at a dosage of one dispenser per 15 m3 of living space. On the basis of epidemiological findingsboth parasitological and entomologicalit was found that, owing to excessive ventilation in the huts treated, an adequate concentration of dichlorvos was not maintained, and transmission continued uninterrupted.

Foll, C. V.; Pant, C. P.; Lietaert, P. E.

1965-01-01

336

Efficacy of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, Mansa, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) decreases adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy. Zambia implemented its IPTp-SP programme in 2003. Emergence of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum threatens this strategy. The quintuple mutant haplotype (substitutions in N51I, C59R, S108N in dhfr and A437G and K540E in dhps genes), is associated with SP treatment failure in non-pregnant patients with malaria. This study examined efficacy of IPTp-SP and presence of the quintuple mutant among pregnant women in Mansa, Zambia. Methods In Mansa, an area with high malaria transmission, HIV-negative pregnant women presenting to two antenatal clinics for the 1st dose of IPTp-SP with asymptomatic parasitaemia were enrolled and microscopy for parasitaemia was done weekly for five weeks. Outcomes were parasitological failure and adequate parasitological response (no parasitaemia during follow-up). Polymerase chain reaction assays were employed to distinguish recrudescence from reinfection, and identify molecular markers of SP resistance. Survival analysis included those who had reinfection and incomplete follow-up (missed at least one follow-up). Results Of the 109 women included in the study, 58 (53%) completed all follow-up, 34 (31%) had incomplete follow-up, and 17 (16%) were lost to follow-up after day 0. Of those who had complete follow-up, 15 (26%, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1638]) had parasitological failure. For the 92 women included in the survival analysis, median age was 20years (interquartile range [IQR] 1822), median gestational age was 22weeks (IQR range 2024), and 57% were primigravid. There was no difference in time to failure in primigravid versus multigravid women. Of the 84 women with complete haplotype data for the aforementioned loci of the dhfr and dhps genes, 53 (63%, 95% CI [5070]) had quintuple mutants (two with an additional mutation in A581G of dhps). Among women with complete follow-up and quintuple mutants, 22% had parasitological failure versus 0% without (p?=?0.44). Conclusions While underpowered, this study found 26% failure rates of SP given the moderate prevalence of the quintuple mutant haplotype. Despite the presence of resistance, SP retained some efficacy in clearing parasites in pregnant women, and may remain a viable option for IPTp in Zambia.

2014-01-01

337

On the diagnosis and management of neurocutaneous syndrome, a toxicity disorder from dental sealants.  

PubMed

Neurocutaneous syndrome, a newly discovered toxicity disorder, is characterized by neurological sensations, pain, depleted energy, and memory loss as well as itchy cutaneous lesions that may invite various opportunistic infections. Components in the calcium hydroxide dental sealants Dycal, Life and Sealapex have been identified as sources of the observed symptoms. Sulfonamide and neurological toxicity issues are discussed, and three case histories are presented. Additional notes on zinc oxide, Fynal, IRM, and Sultan U/P sealers are also included. Diagnostic and management protocols at the Parasitology Center, Inc., are proposed. PMID:15553959

Amin, Omar M

2004-09-01

338

Artemisinin-based combination therapies: a vital tool in efforts to eliminate malaria  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxinepyrimethamine has led to the recent adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as the first line of treatment against malaria. ACTs comprise semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives paired with distinct chemical classes of longer acting drugs. These artemisinins are exceptionally potent against the pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium parasites and also act on the transmissible sexual stages. These combinations increase the rates of clinical and parasitological cures and decrease the selection pressure for the emergence of antimalarial resistance. This Review article discusses our current knowledge about the mode of action of ACTs, their pharmacological properties and the proposed mechanisms of drug resistance.

Eastman, Richard T.; Fidock, David A.

2010-01-01

339

Efficacy of doramectin in Trixacarus caviae infestation in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).  

PubMed

The present study was intended to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin against seven naturally Trixacarus caviae infested male guinea pigs. Multiple skin scrapings of all the seven guinea pigs were found microscopically positive for T. caviae mites. Clinically these animals revealed, more or less denuded, very red often thickened, and crustated cutaneous lesions restricted at the sacral region and back. Doramectin 1% (w/v) was administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 400?g/kg once weekly, which resulted in profound improvements in clinical conditions within 14days after the first doramectin application. It took almost 28days for the cutaneous lesions to disappear and to witness partial hair coat regrowth. Two moderately infested guinea pigs required only single injection of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure, while remaining five (one moderately infested and four severely infested) guinea pigs required two injections of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure. No adverse effects were revealed by any of the doramectin treated guinea pigs during the study period. Thus, it can be concluded from the present study that guinea pigs naturally infested by T. caviae mites can be cured safely using two doses of doramectin once in a week. PMID:24431558

Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Ahmed, Quazi Shahir; Sayedda, Kauser; Singh, Krishna Veer

2013-04-01

340

[Co-occurrence of parasites sensu lato in alimentary tract of patients hospitalised in lower Silesia].  

PubMed

Up to now, the co-occurrence of parasites sensu stricto and fungi were confirmed mostly in the oral cavity. The aim of the present parallel parasitological and mycological investigations was to determine co-occurrence of protozoa, helminths and fungi (parasites sensu lato) both in smears from cavity and in stool samples of 93 patients undergoing the non-parasitological treatment in two hospitals of Lower Silesia (Poland). Among the examined patients parasites sensu lato (13 species) were found in 62 cases (63%). Trofozoites of Trichomonas tenax and/or Entamoeba gingivalis as well as fungi (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. pseudotropicalis) occurred in 10% of the examined patients. Almost all infected cases (90%) were joined with infection of common invasion of protozoa and fungi. In stool common invasion of parasites sensu lato (Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia sp., Enterobius vermicularis as well as Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. pseudotropicalis, C. guilliermondii and Rhodotorula sp.) were found in 12% of the patiens. The co-occurrence of parasites and fungi was stated in the half of invasions. C. albicans was the most often co-occurring species in alimentary tract. PMID:16883695

Lonc, E; Klaus, A; Kiewra, D

2000-01-01

341

Evaluation of selected antiprotozoal drugs in the Babesia microti-hamster model.  

PubMed Central

The presently used therapy for Babesia microti infections, a combination of quinine and clindamycin, does not always result in parasitologic cures. To identify possible alternative chemotherapeutic agents for such infections, we screened, in the hamster-B. microti system, 12 antiprotozoal drugs that have either recently been released for human use or were in experimental stages of development at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research for the treatment of malaria and leishmaniasis. Several well-recognized antimalarial drugs, such as mefloquine, halofantrine, artesunate, and artelenic acid, exhibited little or no effect on parasitemia. Two 8-aminoquinolines, WR006026 [8-(6-diethylaminohexylamino)-6-methoxy-4-methylquinoline dihydrochloride] and WR238605 [8-[(4-amino-1-methylbutyl)amino]-2,6-dimethoxy-4-methyl-5 -(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy-7) quinoline succinate], produced clearance of patent parasitemia. Furthermore, blood from infected hamsters treated with WR238605 via an intramuscular injection failed to infect naive hamsters on subpassage, thus producing a parasitologic cure. These two compounds merit further screening in other systems and may prove useful in treating human babesiosis.

Marley, S E; Eberhard, M L; Steurer, F J; Ellis, W L; McGreevy, P B; Ruebush, T K

1997-01-01

342

Efficacy and Effectiveness of Mefloquine and Artesunate Combination Therapy for Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in the Peruvian Amazon  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the efficacy and effectiveness of mefloquine (MQ) plus artesunate (AS) to treat patients with uncomplicated malaria in the Peruvian Amazon Basin in April 2005March 2006. Patients ? 1 year of age with fever (axillary temperature ? 37.5C) or history of fever and Plasmodium falciparum monoinfection were included. Patients received antimalarial treatment with MQ (12.5 mg/kg/day for two days) and AS (4.0 mg/kg/day for three days) either by directly observed therapy or without directly observed therapy. After a 28-day follow-up, treatment efficacy and effectiveness were assessed on the basis of clinical and parasitologic outcomes. Ninety-six patients were enrolled in each study group; nine patients were lost to follow-up. All patients, except for one in the observed group, demonstrated adequate clinical and parasitologic response; none had detectable parasitemia on day 3. The efficacy of MQ + AS efficacy was 98.9% (95% confidence interval = 94.1100.0%) and the effectiveness was 100.0% (95% confidence interval = 95.9100.0%). Our study shows that MQ + AS is highly efficacious in the Peruvian Amazon.

de Oliveira, Alexandre Macedo; Chavez, Jorge; de Leon, Gabriel Ponce; Durand, Salomon; Arrospide, Nancy; Roberts, Jacquelin; Cabezas, Cesar; Marquino, Wilmer

2011-01-01

343

Evaluation of PCR for cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis and species identification using filter paper samples in Panama, Central America.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major vectorborne disease in Panama. In this study, the diagnostic performance and usefulness of two DNA extraction procedures from skin scraping samples collected on FTA filter paper for subsequent PCR diagnosis of CL was evaluated. A positive CL laboratory diagnosis was based on a positive parasitological test (Giemsa-stained smears or in vitro culture) and/or positive PCR test performed from skin scrapings collected in TE buffer (PCR-TE). Of 100 patients with skin lesions suggestive of CL, 82 (82%) were confirmed as CL positive. The sensitivity was calculated for each of the PCR approaches from samples collected on filter paper. The highest sensitivity was achieved by PCR-FTA processed by Chelex 100 (PCR-Chelex) (0.94). PCR-FTA extracted using the FTA purification reagent presented a lower sensitivity (0.60). Good concordance between routine PCR-TE and PCR-Chelex was observed (percent agreement=0.88, ? index=0.65). In conclusion, use of FTA filter paper for skin scraping collection combined with PCR is a reliable and convenient method for CL diagnosis in Panama, with comparable performance to the routine PCR method and with improved sensitivity compared with those of conventional parasitological methods. PMID:22818741

Miranda, A; Saldaa, A; Gonzlez, K; Paz, H; Santamara, G; Samudio, F; Calzada, J E

2012-09-01

344

Intestinal parasitic infections in Bekasi district, West Java, Indonesia and a comparison of the infection rates determined by different techniques for fecal examination.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine the current status of intestinal parasitic infections among schoolchildren in West Java, Indonesia, and to compare the infection rates obtained by three different methods of fecal examination. A total of 285 fecal samples were collected from 131 males and 154 females at a junior high school. Samples were brought to the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, and were examined for parasites by the Kato-Katz thick smear method (K-K). The residual samples were suspended in more than five volumes of 2% potassium dichromate solution and brought to the Department of Parasitology, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan, where they were examined for parasites by the Army Medical School method (AMS III) and by the Sucrose Centrifugal Flotation method (SFL). The K-K revealed a total of two helminths with a prevalence of 10% (29/285). In contrast, nine species of parasites, 31% (89/285) positive, were obtained by AMS III, while 10 species, 22% (62/285) were found by SFL. Overall, 12 species of parasites were detected by the three methods: four species of nematoda (Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Enterobius vermicularis); five species of protozoa (Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica-like cyst, E. coli, Cyclospora sp, Blastocystis hominis); two unidentified species of nematode eggs; and one unidentified species of mite egg. PMID:12693577

Uga, Shoji; Kimura, Daisuke; Kimura, Kenji; Margono, Sri S

2002-09-01

345

Changing patterns of malaria during 1996-2010 in an area of moderate transmission in Southern Senegal  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is reportedly receding in different epidemiological settings, but local long-term surveys are limited. At Mlomp dispensary in south-western Senegal, an area of moderate malaria transmission, year-round, clinically-suspected malaria was treated with monotherapy as per WHO and national policy in the 1990s. Since 2000, there has been a staggered deployment of artesunate-amodiaquine after parasitological confirmation; this was adopted nationally in 2006. Methods Data were extracted from clinic registers for the period between January 1996 and December 2010, analysed and modelled. Results Over the 15-year study period, the risk of malaria decreased about 32-times (from 0.4 to 0.012 episodes person-year), while anti-malarial treatments decreased 13-times (from 0.9 to 0.07 treatments person-year) and consultations for fever decreased 3-times (from 1.8 to 0.6 visits person-year). This was paralleled by changes in the age profile of malaria patients so that the risk of malaria is now almost uniformly distributed throughout life, while in the past malaria used to concern more children below 16 years of age. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence of malaria risk receding between 1996-2010 and becoming equal throughout life where transmission used to be moderate. Infection rates are no longer enough to sustain immunity. Temporally, this coincides with deploying artemisinin combinations on parasitological confirmation, but other contributing causes are unclear.

2011-01-01

346

Coprological analyses on apparently healthy Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) from two Swiss colonies.  

PubMed

To provide baseline parasitological data for health surveillance in free-ranging Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex), we assessed the endoparasite population and level of parasitism in apparently healthy ibex. Faecal samples from 148 ibex were collected between 2006 and 2008 in two different Swiss ibex colonies. They were analysed by coprology, including combined sedimentation/flotation method, sedimentation method, Baermann funnel technique and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Gastrointestinal parasites and lungworms were identified in 100% and 81.8% of the examined animals, respectively. Highest prevalences were recorded for gastrointestinal strongylids other than Nematodirus/Marshallagia spp. (100%), Eimeria spp. (100%), Muellerius spp. (79.8%) and Nematodirus/Marshallagia spp. (79.0%). We report for the first time Cryptosporidium sp. in free-ranging Alpine ibex and Cystocaulus spp. in free-ranging ibex from Switzerland. On average, ibex were infected with 3.9 different parasites taxa (range: 1-8). Parasite prevalence and diversity varied significantly between sexes, study sites and seasons. Parasite egg output was low in 95.7% and moderate in 5.3% of the samples. Overall, the results indicate that Alpine ibex are widely infected with endoparasites and suggest that multiple infections are very common in apparently healthy populations. Furthermore, our data underline the potential influence of factors such as sex, study site and season on parasitological findings. PMID:22119388

Marreros, Nelson; Frey, Caroline F; Willisch, Christian S; Signer, Claudio; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

2012-05-25

347

The Correlation between Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Bruxism among 3-6 Year-Old Children in Isfahan  

PubMed Central

Background: Given the fact that bruxism is a prevalent oral habit among children and a potential destructor of oral tissues, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between intestinal parasitic infections and bruxism among kindergarten children. Methods: Questionnaires were administered among parents of kindergarten children in Isfahan to select 50 children identified by their parents to have the habit of bruxism and 50 without the habit as control group. Informed consent was obtained prior to the investigation. Parents were delivered sampling instruments with proper instructions to collect stool samples from both groups for parasitological tests. The diagnostic parasitological tests involved the direct stool smear, formol-ether concentration, and Scotch tape tests. Comparison for the frequency distribution of intestinal parasitic infections between the two groups was performed using the chi-square test (? = 0.05). Results: Parasitic infections were observed in 19 (11/50 cases and 8/50 controls) children. A statistically significant relationship was observed between infection with pathogenic parasites and bruxism (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pathogenic parasites may serve as the cause of initiation of bruxism habits among children.

Tehrani, Maryam Haje Norouzali; Pestechian, Nader; Yousefi, Hoseinali; Sekhavati, Hajar; Attarzadeh, Hajar

2010-01-01

348

Helminths found in marmosets (Callithrix penicillata and Callithrixjacchus) introduced to the region of occurrence of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecusrosalia) in Brazil.  

PubMed

The introduction of exotic species can increase the risk of extinction of native species through the introduction of new diseases, predation or resource competition. The marmosets Callithrix penicillata and Callithrix jacchus and hybrids of these two species have been introduced to privately owned forests in the lowland Atlantic forest of the Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, the region of occurrence of the endangered golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia. Because the ecology and biology of the marmosets and tamarins is similar, there is a reasonable risk that the marmosets would transmit pathogens such as endo parasites. The objective of this study was to identify the helminth fauna present in the introduced marmosets through an analysis of fecal samples of wild caught animals, and to evaluate the parasitological profile according to age, sex and geographical location. Eggs belonging to the Acanthocephala and Nematoda were found in the feces. One nematode egg type was identified as being Primasubulura jacchi. The ocurrence of nematodes was higher in males, acanthocephala were found in all age groups and sexes and P. jacchi was found with higher frequency in adult females. The geographic distribution analysis revealed that some of the forests had a higher predominance of parasites. Little is known about the pathology of parasites in free living Neotropical mammals, and this knowledge would be necessary to infer about the risk (form a parasitological standpoint) that the marmoset presence represents for the survival of the endangered golden lion tamarin. PMID:20378249

dos Santos Sales, Indiara; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos Ramon; de Paula Santos, Clvis

2010-07-15

349

High levels of Schistosoma mansoni infections among schoolchildren in central Sudan one year after treatment with praziquantel.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate the impact of praziquantel (PZQ) for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection among schoolchildren in Al Gunaid in Central Sudan. A cohort of schoolchildren (6-15 years of age) was investigated before and 1 year after treatment with a single dose of PZQ 40mg/kg. Parasitological examinations for S. mansoni were performed before and after treatment, and prevalence and intensity of infection were analysed. Of 2741 schoolchildren recruited from six elementary schools at baseline, 2521 were successfully traced and re-examined at follow-up, with two complete sets of longitudinal parasitological data on S. mansoni. Boys showed significantly higher prevalence of S. mansoni infection than girls. A single dose of PZQ reduced the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection by 36.7% (from 59.1 to 37.4%) and the intensity of infection by 41.1% (from 116.7 to 68.7 eggs per gram of stool) 1 year after treatment. The reduction in prevalence was significantly higher among the group of children with heavy infections (by 76.1%, from 6.7 to 1.6%) and among girls (by 54.1%, 42.3 to 19.4%) at 1 year after treatment. Thus, in spite of a significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection 1 year after PZQ treatment, the prevalence of the disease was still high and further research is needed on this topic. PMID:21729382

Ahmed, A M; El Tash, L A; Mohamed, E Y; Adam, I

2012-06-01

350

The protective immune response produced in dogs after primary vaccination with the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish) remains effective against an experimental challenge one year later  

PubMed Central

Control of canine leishmaniasis is an important objective for the benefit of dogs living in or visiting endemic areas and for public health because of the zoonotic nature of this disease. Resistance or susceptibility to developing canine leishmaniasis after exposure to Leishmania infantum is primarily determined by the ability of the immune system to develop an appropriate Th1-dominated specific response to the parasite. For this reason there is a need for effective canine vaccines that can decrease the number of dogs developing progressive infections. In this study, we followed the impact of the LiESP/QA-21 canine vaccine (composed of excreted-secreted proteins of L. infantum and the QA-21 saponin adjuvant), recently launched commercially in Europe, on selected humoral and cellular immune parameters following an infectious intravenous challenge with L. infantum promastigotes administered one year after the primary vaccine course. We also followed parasitological parameters to determine the parasitological status of the challenged dogs. In contrast to controls, vaccinated dogs retained significantly stronger cell-mediated immune responses against the parasite despite a virulent challenge and had significantly lower mean parasite burdens at the end of the study, associated with a lower probability of developing active infections. These results confirm that the immune responses generated by vaccination with LiESP/QA-21 are still effective against an intravenous challenge one year after the primary vaccine course.

2014-01-01

351

Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis in respiratory secretions  

PubMed Central

Objective To communicate the presence of adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis, and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia. Methods The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Muiz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation (1?500 r/min for 15 seconds). Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet. Results It revealed adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of S. stercoralis. Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples, gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite. Conclusions The presence of adult female S. stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient.

Bava, Bava Amadeo Javier; Cecilia, Dominguez; Alcides, Troncoso

2013-01-01

352

Sensitivity and Specificity of In Situ Hybridization for Diagnosis of Cutaneous Infection by Leishmania infantum in Dogs  

PubMed Central

An accurate diagnosis of infection by Leishmania infantum in dogs is fundamental for the control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Histopathology (HP) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are frequently used for the histological diagnosis of L. infantum in dogs but have shown limited accuracy. To improve the sensitivity and specificity of the histological diagnosis of VL, we evaluated automated in situ hybridization (ISH) using a generic probe for Leishmania and a specific probe for L. infantum in surgical skin biopsy specimens of dogs. The ISH results were compared with those of HP and IHC, using parasitological culture as the reference standard. Skin samples from 51 dogs with cutaneous L. infantum infection and 51 noninfected dogs were randomly selected from samples of dogs from various cities in Brazil where canine VL is endemic. These samples were processed for parasitological culture, HP, IHC, and ISH using both probes. The sensitivities of ISH using the specific probe, ISH using the generic probe, IHC, and HP were, respectively, 74.5%, 70.6%, 69.5%, and 57.6%. The specificity of both ISH probes tested was 100%, and there was no cross-hybridization of the generic and specific probes with selected pathogenic fungi and protozoa. The specific probe discriminated L. infantum from the other species of Leishmania that infect dogs in the New World. ISH is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of L. infantum in histologic samples of skin from infected dogs and can be used on routine biopsy material to make a diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

Figueiredo, Fabiano B.; Wise, Annabel G.; Madeira, Maria F.; Oliveira, Raquel V. C.; Schubach, Tania M. P.; Kiupel, Matti; Langohr, Ingeborg M.

2013-01-01

353

A coprological survey of parasites in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Sector Santa Rosa, ACG, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Neotropical primate parasitology has been dominated by studies of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.), whereas the literature on the parasites of other platyrrhines is relatively sparse. We analysed the faeces of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in a Costa Rican tropical dry forest and recovered 8 parasite taxa (Filariopsis barretoi,Giardia duodenalis, Strongyloides sp., Prosthenorchis sp., a spirurid nematode, a subulurid nematode, a strongylid nematode and a cestode). F. barretoi and Strongyloides sp. were the most prevalent parasites and were recovered from 84 and 76% of the sampled individuals, respectively. Individual capuchins were infected with an average of 1.89 parasite species. Capuchins host a diverse suite of parasites belonging to several taxonomic groups (Nematoda, Cestoda, Acanthocephala, Protozoa) and including species with direct and indirect life cycles. Many capuchin parasites are transmitted through the consumption of invertebrate intermediate hosts making diet a critical component of capuchin-parasite ecology. This study represents the most intensive parasitological survey of wild capuchin monkeys to date. PMID:23571310

Parr, Nigel A; Fedigan, Linda M; Kutz, Susan J

2013-01-01

354

Effect of specific chemotherapy on the levels of lytic antibodies in Chagas's disease.  

PubMed

Clinical trials with compounds active in Chagas's disease have shown that after treatment parasitological diagnostic methods (xenodiagnosis) become repeatedly negative whereas conventional serology (immunofluorescence and complement fixation tests) persists steadily positive. Consequently, assessment of cure still remains controversial. This paper reports the influence of specific treatment on antibodies involved in the conventional serological diagnosis and on antibodies which bind to the living bloodstream forms and are related to host resistance. Antibodies lytic to Trypanosoma cruzi bloodstream stages were detected, through a complement-mediated lysis (CML) test, in: (a) 100% of 28 untreated patients; (b) 94% of a group of 21 treated patients in whom conventional serology remained positive, including those with persistently negative xenodiagnosis; (c) 0% of 17 normal controls. In some patients treated with a nitrofuran derivative (nifurtimox) or with a 2-nitroimidazole derivative (benznidazol), CML test became gradually negative whereas conventional serology continued to be positive. Finally, in five patients treated with benznidazol, serological tests, CML and xenodiagnosis became regularly negative, strongly suggesting parasitological cure. Those findings demonstrate a dissociation between the antibodies mediating serological diagnosis and those directed against living bloodstream parasites. Moreover, since in some patients both types of antibodies disappeared after treatment, the results suggest that cure of Chagas's disease should be based not only on negative xenodiagnosis but also on the elimination of specific antibodies detectable by conventional serology and CML test. PMID:6810519

Krettli, A U; Canado, J R; Brener, Z

1982-01-01

355

Reduction in incidence and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in under-5-year-old children by permethrin impregnation of mosquito nets*  

PubMed Central

The malaria incidence and prevalence rates among children who slept under permethrin-impregnated mosquito nets in four villages near Madang, Papua New Guinea, were compared with the rates among children who slept under unimpregnated nets in four paired control villages. Immediately following a parasitological survey in the eight villages, malaria parasites were cleared from the children with chemotherapy, and the mosquito nets in the four experimental villages were impregnated with permethrin. Follow-up parasitological surveys were performed 4 and 10 weeks later. Sporozoite rates in female mosquitos of the Anopheles punctulatus complex decreased significantly in two of the experimental villages after impregnation. Also, the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum between the 4-week and 10-week surveys was significantly lower among the 0-4-year olds in villages with impregnated nets than in those with unimpregnated nets, leading to reduced prevalence of P. falciparum in this age group. Use of permethrin-impregnated nets had no effect on the incidence or prevalence of P. falciparum among 5-9-year olds or on that of P. vivax among the 0-4- or 5-9-year olds.

Graves, P. M.; Brabin, B. J.; Charlwood, J. D.; Burkot, T. R.; Cattani, J. A.; Ginny, M.; Paino, J.; Gibson, F. D.; Alpers, M. P.

1987-01-01

356

Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.

Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

2014-01-01

357

Detection of Pathogenic Protozoa in the Diagnostic Laboratory: Result Reproducibility, Specimen Pooling, and Competency Assessment?  

PubMed Central

Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high.

Libman, M. D.; Gyorkos, T. W.; Kokoskin, E.; MacLean, J. D.

2008-01-01

358

Detection of pathogenic protozoa in the diagnostic laboratory: result reproducibility, specimen pooling, and competency assessment.  

PubMed

Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high. PMID:18448690

Libman, M D; Gyorkos, T W; Kokoskin, E; Maclean, J D

2008-07-01

359

Survey of Trypanosoma and Leishmania in wild and domestic animals in an Atlantic rainforest fragment and surroundings in the state of Esprito Santo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma and Leishmania infections affect wild and domestic animals and human populations. The growing process of deforestation and urbanization of Atlantic Rainforest areas has given rise to introduction of humans and domestic animals to the sylvatic cycles of Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Serological, parasitological, and molecular surveys among wild and domestic animals in the Corrego do Veado Biological Reserve, which is an Atlantic Rainforest fragment in the state of Esprito Santo, southeastern Brazil, were evaluated. In total, 154 wild animals of 25 species and 67 domestic animals (47 dogs and 20 horses) were sampled. All the domestic animals were serologically negative for anti-Leishmania infantum chagasi antibodies and negative in parasitological approaches. Only the Order Chiroptera presented positive blood cultures and cryopreserved isolates. The phylogenetic trees based on SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes confirmed the occurrence of Trypanosoma dionisii and provided the first record of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei in southeastern Brazil. The studies conducted in Atlantic Rainforest remaining trees provide the knowledge of parasite diversity or detect parasites that can accelerate the loss of hosts diversity. PMID:24897863

Acosta, Igor da C L; Da Costa, Andrea P; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

2014-05-01

360

Single-dose therapy for giardiasis in school-age children.  

PubMed

A randomized controlled trial was carried out to study the efficacy of combined albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of giardiasis in school-age children. Eighty-four children were randomly allocated to 3 groups: group 1 (n = 31) albendazole 400 mg combined with praziquantel 20 mg/kg; group 2 (n = 26) albendazole 800 mg as a single dose; group 3 (n = 27) tinidazole 50 mg/kg as a single dose. The treatment was considered curative when Giardia was not found in two consecutive stool samples. The parasitological cure rate was 74.2% for combined single-dose albendazole-praziquantel, 50% and 92.6% in the albendazole and tinidazole groups respectively (p = 0.0023). There was no statistically significant difference between the cure rates of the combined regimen and tinidazole (p > 0.05). This combined regimen was considered safe, with only minor side-effects being observed. Of the single-dose regimens, tinidazole still achieves the highest parasitological cure rate for giardiasis. The albendazole-praziquantel combined regimen may be an alternative single-dose therapy for giardiasis in children, especially as this combination will eradicate common intestinal protozoa and co-existing helminths. Whether the dosage of this combination treatment should be adjusted for G. intestinalis remains to be established by further study. PMID:12757214

Pengsaa, Krisana; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Pojjaroen-anant, Chanathep; Lapphra, Keswadee; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Wisetsing, Pataraporn; Nantha-aree, Panida; Chanthavanich, Pornthep

2002-12-01

361

High prevalence of dhfr triple mutant and correlation with high rates of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment failures in vivo in Gabonese children  

PubMed Central

Background Drug resistance contributes to the global malaria burden. Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) polymorphisms confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Methods The study assessed the frequency of SP resistance-conferring polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum-positive samples from two clinical studies in Lambarn. Their role on treatment responses and transmission potential was studied in an efficacy open-label clinical trial with a 28-day follow-up in 29 children under five with uncomplicated malaria. Results SP was well tolerated by all subjects in vivo. Three subjects were excluded from per-protocol analysis. PCR-corrected, 12/26 (46%) achieved an adequate clinical and parasitological response, 13/26 (50%) were late parasitological failures, while 1/26 (4%) had an early treatment failure, resulting in early trial discontinuation. Of 106 isolates, 98 (92%) carried the triple mutant dhfr haplotype. Three point mutations were found in dhps in a variety of haplotypic configurations. The 437G + 540E double mutant allele was found for the first time in Gabon. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of dhfr triple mutant with some dhps point mutations in Gabon, in line with treatment failures observed, and molecular markers of SP resistance should be closely monitored. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00453856

2011-01-01

362

Efficacy of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a diagnostic tool for schistosomiasis mansoni in individuals with low worm burden.  

PubMed

IgM-ELISA is an immunoenzymatic method useful for detection of IgM antibodies against a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen (AWA) that is soluble in trichloroacetic acid (AWA-TCA). This method was applied to three groups of individuals with different clinical and epidemiological characteristics, and the results compared with those obtained by other diagnostic methods: immunofluorescence test for detection of IgM antibodies (IgM-IFT) or IgG antibodies (IgG-IFT), ELISA for detection of IgG antibodies (IgG-ELISA), and two parasitological methods, Kato-Katz and miracidium hatching. The IgM-ELISA presented a sensitivity of 98%, when the parasitologic fecal examination was defined as reference diagnostic method, and a specificity of 98 and 97.3%, respectively for the group of clinically healthy individuals and other helminth carriers. A comparative analysis between the results of IgM-ELISA and those obtained by other serologic tests showed a good degree of agreement, with Kappa indices ranging from 0.95 to 0.98. The diagnostic efficacy of 97.8%, as determined with schistosomiasis patients with low parasitic burden, suggests the excellent performance of the IgM-ELISA and its usefulness for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis when applied in low endemic areas. PMID:16113891

Oliveira, Edward Jos de; Kanamura, Hermnia Yohko; Lima, Dirce Mary Correia

2005-07-01

363

[IgM-ELISA for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in low endemic areas].  

PubMed

An immunoenzymatic method for the detection of IgM antibodies (IgM-ELISA) against a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm antigen, soluble in trichloroacetic acid (TCA-soluble fraction), was evaluated for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples on filter paper were collected from a population living in the municipality of Pedro de Toledo, So Paulo State, and submitted to IgM-ELISA. The results were compared to those obtained by the IgM-immunofluorescence test (IgM-IFT) and the Kato-Katz parasitological method. Positive rates of 36.8%, 33.5%, and 1.6% were obtained respectively by the IgM-ELISA, IgM-IFT, and Kato-Katz methods. The geometric mean obtained by the parasitological method was 40.9 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The nearly perfect agreement observed between the two serological tests (Kappa index of 0,89) indicates good diagnostic performance by the evaluated test. IgM-ELISA is a potentially useful method for diagnosis of schistosomiasis in individuals with low worm burden. PMID:12700805

de Oliveira, Edward Jos; Kanamura, Hermnia Yoshio; Dias, Luiz Cndido de Souza; Soares, Lanny Cristina Burlandy; Lima, Dirce Mary Correia; Ciaravolho, Ricardo Mrio de Carvalho

2003-01-01

364

Evaluation of Onchocerca volvulus-specific IgG4 subclass serology as an index of onchocerciasis transmission potential of three Gabonese villages.  

PubMed Central

The major objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of IgG4 ELISA and Western blot analysis, using a crude extract of Onchocerca volvulus adult worms as antigens, for diagnosing onchocerciasis in a Gabonese paediatric population with mixed filarial infections. The subjects had loaisis, streptocercosis or mansonellosis in addition to onchocerciasis. Control sera from loaisis or mansonellosis subjects residing outside the endemic zone were used to provide the cut-off point for positive results. The IgG4 ELISA had a specificity of 96% but a lower sensitivity of 78.7%. It detected 25 onchocerciasis cases out of 65 individuals who were negative on parasitological examination. Furthermore, the ELISA provided a more accurate picture of onchocerciasis transmission in a village with very low skin microfilarial load. A 27.5-kD antigen was identified on Western blots as a marker of onchocerciasis. The paediatric population provided a reliable window for assessing the parasitologic and serologic parameters in the three villages with disparate levels of onchocerciasis transmission. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Egwang, T G; Duong, T H; Nguiri, C; Ngari, P; Everaere, S; Richard-Lenoble, D; Gbakima, A A; Kombila, M

1994-01-01

365

[Ten years of chloroquine efficacy for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria treatment, Turbo, Antioquia, 2002 and 2011].  

PubMed

Introduction: The therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs should be monitored continuously because of the emergence of drug resistance. In Colombia, there are few studies evaluating the efficacy of chloroquine in uncomplicated malaria by Plasmodium vivax . This study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine at two different times, with an interval of ten years, in the same municipality. Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic response to chloroquine for the treatment of uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in Turbo, Antioquia, in 2002, and to compare these results with those observed in 2011 in the same municipality. Materials and methods: Two studies included 152 volunteers (50 in 2002 and 102 in 2011), older than 5 years old, with uncomplicated malaria according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and simple infection with P. vivax. The efficacy of chloroquine, according to the current standard treatment of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) (1998) and WHO (2009), was monitored with 1,500 mg of chloroquine in 3 days and was followed clinically and parasitologically on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 in 2002, and also on day 28 in 2011. At the end of the follow-up a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/day of primaquine was administered to each patient for 14 days. Results: A hundred percent of the volunteers had adequate clinical and parasitological response in both studies. Conclusions: Chloroquine continues to be highly effective for the treatment of uncomplicated P. vivax malaria in Turbo, Antioquia, Colombia. PMID:24652179

Ros, Alexandra; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Blair, Silvia

2013-09-01

366

Transmission of intestinal schistosomiasis in Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Parasitological, malacological and transmission studies were made for a period of one year in the town of Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis mansoni in residents of Kebeles 8, 9 and 10 was 12%. The prevalence in Sertse Dengel school children was 45% and that in Dil Chibo school children was 32%. The peak prevalence in both sexes in school and non-school populations occurred in the age group 10-14 years. Intensity of infection showed a similar pattern of age variation as prevalence. Biomphalaria pfeifferi snail density peaked towards the end of the rainy season (September) in Lake Tana and around the middle of the dry season (January) on the shore of the River Abay. In September, infected snails were recovered from all collection sites. Of mice immersed in four water contact sites in September, schistosome infections developed in those immersed in three sites. Parasitological findings suggested that schistosomiasis infection rates depended on age and sex of individuals and geographical location of the place from the potentially infective water bodies. Snail population density and associated schistosomal infection in a human population depended on rainfall and associated ecological changes such as fluctuation in water level and vegetation density. As malacological findings and sentinel mouse immersion results indicated, it appeared that the main transmission season in Lake Tana region is towards the end of the rainy season although low level intermittent transmission may take place throughout the year. PMID:1954954

Erko, B; Tedla, S; Petros, B

1991-10-01

367

Where are the parasites in food webs?  

PubMed

This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies) focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles. PMID:23092160

Sukhdeo, Michael V K

2012-01-01

368

Nitazoxanide in the treatment of Ascaris lumbricoides in a rural zone of Colima, Mexico.  

PubMed

Intestinal parasites in Mexico are an endemic problem. A study was conducted in children, teenagers and adults in a rural community in Colima, Mexico to examine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to evaluate the parasitological and clinical efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ). Two hundred and eighty children, teenagers and adults participated in this study. Parasitological diagnosis from faeces was confirmed by three consecutive stool samples using the floatation concentration Faust method. Egg counts were performed as described by the Kato-Katz technique before and after treatment. A questionnaire was systematically applied to obtain information about socio-economic status and hygienic habits. One hundred and six participants (38%) were diagnosed as harbouring intestinal parasites, and 86 of them (81%) were infected with A. lumbricoides. All patients with ascariasis infections underwent a complete physical examination before and after NTZ treatment. NTZ resolved 88% of the ascariasis cases, with a 89% clinical efficacy, and there was a 97.5% reduction in the levels of morbidity. The most intense infections for A. lumbricoides were found in housewives, and statistically significant associations were found between ascariasis and the absence of drainage and living in houses with dirt floors. PMID:17594741

Galvan-Ramirez, M L; Rivera, N; Loeza, M E; Avila, X; Acero, J; Troyo, R; Bernal, R

2007-09-01

369

Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections in Kao District, north Halmahera, Indonesia.  

PubMed

A parasitological survey was conducted on the inhabitants of six villages of Kao District, Halmahera Island, North Maluku, Indonesia, in July 1993. A total of 422 fecal samples were examined by using Kato-Katz thick smear, modified Harada-Mori culture and formalin ether concentration techniques. Seven nematode species, ie Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis and unidentified rhabditoids of free-living nature, were detected. Trematode and cestode infection was not proven. Necator americanus was the predominant species of hookworm. Soil-transmitted nematode infections were highly prevalent. Among the young inhabitants aged less than 15, positive rates of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infections were 32.7, 52.7 and 68.6%, respectively. Among the people aged 15 or more, the positive rate for hookworm (85.9%) was much higher than that for Ascaris and Trichuris (13.5 and 40.5%, respectively). Egg count revealed that more than 90% of inhabitants with Trichuris or hookworm had light infections. The latrines in the surveyed area seemed to have only limited effects on the improvement of the parasitological status because the prevalence of Trichuris infections was much higher in a village where most houses were provided with latrines. These conflicting conditions were considered to have been caused by many factors including the inadequate structure of the latrines. PMID:7667724

Mangali, A; Sasabone, P; Syafruddin; Abadi, K; Hasegawa, H; Toma, T; Kamimura, K; Hasan, M; Miyagi, I; Mogi, M

1994-12-01

370

Imported leishmaniasis in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012: epidemiology, diagnostic techniques and sequence-based species typing from 195 patients.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is an imported disease in the Netherlands. We report data for the period between 2005 and 2012, on clinical presentation, country where leishmaniasis was acquired, and causative species, for 195 civilian and military patients who had travelled abroad. Most patients were affected by cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) (n=185 patients), while visceral leishmaniasis (VL) (n=8 patients) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (n=2 patients) were less frequently observed. All VL patients had been infected in Europe. CL was mainly acquired in Afghanistan, Surinam, Morocco and Spain. The majority of CL patients consisted of military personnel (55%, 102/185), 78 of whom had been infected during an outbreak in Afghanistan. Parasitological diagnosis was made by a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microscopy and culture. Compared to a standard of parasitological proof by any method other than the one under consideration, sensitivities of the individual methods ranged from 73% to 98%. Microscopy was least sensitive, but is fast and cheap. Mini-exon repeat PCR combines high sensitivity and specificity, and allows differentiation between species by sequencing of the PCR product. Eight different species or species complexes were identified, allowing species-specific therapy. Four patients proved infected with Leishmania naiffi, a hitherto rarely described cause of leishmaniasis. In comparison to previous decennia, an increase in cutaneous leishmaniasis was observed in our hospital, both in civilian and military patients who had travelled abroad. This calls for increased awareness among clinicians, availability of diagnostic tests and species-specific treatment guidelines in non-endemic countries. PMID:23929178

Bart, A; van Thiel, P P A M; de Vries, H J C; Hodiamont, C J; Van Gool, T

2013-01-01

371

Obituary  

PubMed

Sheila Willmott, (1921-1998)CAB International and the Editor, Assistant Editor and Editorial Board of the Journal of Helminthology wish to express their deepest sympathy to the family and friends of Sheila Willmott who died on 8 May 1998 after a very short illness. Sheila served as Editor of the Journal of Helminthology from 1980 to 1986.Dr Lotfi Khalil, formerly Deputy Director of the International Institute of Parasitology at St Albans, worked closely with Sheila and has written the following tribute.John W. Lewis, EditorSheila Willmott was a leading contributor to the dissemination of parasitic information before the development of computerization and information technology. She was born on 8 June, 1921, in London, and was educated at Tollington High School for Girls, Chelsea Polytechnic and University College, London. She did her PhD at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine under the supervision of Professor John Buckley, the subject of her thesis being the study of amphistome digeneans. Her studies were interrupted as a result of the Second World War when she was 'drafted' as a Rodent Instructor at the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. After completing her PhD, she was appointed Assistant Lecturer in Zoology at the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, Cardiff. In 1951, Professor R.T. Leiper, the Director of the Bureau of Agricultural Parasitology (Helminthology) recruited her as a Scientific Information Officer. She was appointed Assistant Director of the Bureau in 1954, and Director in 1961, where she stayed until her retirement in 1980.During her period as Director of the Bureau, which was sited in the White House in the centre of St Albans, she maintained and improved the high quality of Helminthological Abstracts and, in 1976, accepted the extra burden of starting and producing Protozoological Abstracts. In 1979, she initiated and edited a primary journal, Systematic Parasitology, devoted to papers on the taxonomy and systematics of parasites, published by Junk. The activities of the Bureau were greatly expanded and she initiated the taxonomic laboratories to provide a worldwide service for the identification of animal helminths and plant-parasitic nematodes and to undertake taxonomic research. A vast helminth reference collection was started, and the Bureau became a recognized centre for the deposition of type specimens. The library of the Bureau accumulated an enormous number of reference books, journals and reprints, and provided a photocopying service supplying, at short notice, copies of papers and publications. A number of books and other publications, including the CIH Keys to the Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates, were produced and edited by her and others. She also persuaded the Natural Environment Research Council to finance the Fisheries Helminthology Unit which she established at the Bureau in 1960, where it remained until it was transferred to Plymouth as part of the Institute for Marine Environmental Research. The Bureau's name and status were changed to the Commonwealth Institute of Helminthology, Commonwealth Institute of Parasitology and, finally, the International Institute of Parasitology.As Director, she travelled extensively and visited Commonwealth and other countries, where she gave a number of seminars on information services and the work of the Institute and the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) as a whole. She encouraged contact with Eastern Europe and visited Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria and the USSR. She initiated the system of exchange publications with these countries, and this resulted in the exposure of the literature from these countries to other research workers when abstracts of these papers appeared in Helminthological Abstracts in English. Her links with Eastern Europe resulted in her editing three volumes of taxonomic monographs produced in English by Czech and Russian scientists. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9765367

Khalil

1998-09-01

372

In memoriam: Adriano Mantovani, DVM, 1926-2012. One of the world's most prominent contributors to veterinary public health and a committed advocate of the importance of One Medicine.  

PubMed

Adriano Mantovani was born in 1926 in Altedo, Malalbergo (Bologna). After graduating in veterinary medicine from Bologna University in 1948, he gained his Masters in public health from the University of Minnesota in 1952 and qualified to lecture in microbiology and immunology in 1957 and in parasitology in 1963. He held numerous positions over the years: Assistant, Aide and Vice-Director of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Teramo(1949-1962), Researcher at the Faculty of Medicine in Rome (1962-1965), Professor of Infectious Diseases, Prophylaxis and Veterinary Police Work at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Bologna, Director of the Institute of the same name (1965-1982) and Research Manager and Director of the Parasitology Laboratory at the Italian National Institute of Health and the WHO/FAO Collaboration Centre for Veterinary Public Health in Rome (1983-1991). He was active in numerous national and international organisations, including as a member of the National Health Council (1974-1982), Secretary of the World Federation of Parasitologists (1971-1987) and from 1972 President, Vice President or presenter in various WHO, FAO and OIE working groups. He worked in numerous countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and North America as an expert, presenter and lecturer. From 1978, the year in which the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Plan was established, he was one of the major collaborators of the WHO Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre in Athens (MZCC). In 1989, he was the first Italian to be awarded the OIE's international award for contributions to veterinary public health and in 2001 was publicly recognised by the MZCC for his many years of activities carried out to support the zoonoses control plan and promote well-being in the Mediterranean. He had been a member of the Italian National Guard's Commission for Predicting and Preventing Great Risks since 1994. In 2002, he was presented with the Italian Parasitology Society's Battista Grassi medal. He covered leading roles in the executive boards of various Italian and international scientific associations, including the Italian Small Animal Veterinary Association, the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, the Italian Society of Tropical Medicine, the Italian Society of Parasitology, the World Association for the History of Veterinary Medicine and the World Small Animal Veterinary Association. Professor Mantovani's principal areas of activity were in veterinary public health, above all the epidemiology and control of zoonoses and animal diseases, veterinary urban hygiene, health education and veterinary actions in emergency situations. His interests were not limited to transmissible diseases but included all problems connected with the relationship between humans, animals and the environment in both urban and rural areas, especially disadvantaged areas. He was particularly involved in the development and organisation of public veterinary services, the social and economic aspects of health and animal production and prevention and control activities. He was a committed advocate of the overriding importance of One Medicine and inter- and intra-professional cooperation. He authored over 250 publications. PMID:22485009

2012-01-01

373

Management of febrile children under five years in hospitals and health centres of rural Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The case management of febrile children in hospitals and health centres pre-roll out of the new WHO policy on parasitological diagnosis was assessed. The delivery of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) at these two levels of the health system was compared. Methods Structured observations and exit interviews of 1,222 febrile children attending five hospitals and 861 attending ten health centres were conducted in six districts of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Effectiveness of delivery of case management of malaria was assessed. Proportions of children receiving ACT, anti-malarial monotherapy and antibiotics were described. Predictors of: a febrile child being given an ACT, a febrile child being given an antibiotic and of carers knowing how to correctly administer the ACT were assessed using logistic regression models stratified by hospitals and health centres. Results The systems effectiveness of delivering an ACT to febrile children diagnosed with malaria (parasitologically or clinically) was 31.4 and 42.4% in hospitals and health centres, respectively. The most ineffective process was that of ensuring that carers knew how to correctly administer the ACT. Overall 278 children who were not given an ACT were treated with anti-malarial monotherapy other than quinine. The majority of these children, 232/278 were given amodiaquine, 139 of these were children attending hospitals and 93 attending health centres. The cadre of health staff conducting consultation was a common predictor of the outcomes of interest. Presenting symptoms and examinations conducted were predictive of being given an ACT in hospitals and antibiotic in hospitals and health centres but not of being given an ACT in health centres. Treatment-seeking factors were predictive of being given an ACT if it was more than seven days since the fever began and an antibiotic in hospitals but not in health centres. Conclusion Interventions to improve adherence to negative parasitological tests are needed, together with guidance on dispensing of antibiotics, but improving the education of carers on how to administer ACT will lead to the greatest immediate increase in the effectiveness of case management. Guidance is needed on implementation of the new test-based treatment for malaria policy in health facilities.

2014-01-01

374

Geographical patterns and predictors of malaria risk in Zambia: Bayesian geostatistical modelling of the 2006 Zambia national malaria indicator survey (ZMIS)  

PubMed Central

Background The Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey (ZMIS) of 2006 was the first nation-wide malaria survey, which combined parasitological data with other malaria indicators such as net use, indoor residual spraying and household related aspects. The survey was carried out by the Zambian Ministry of Health and partners with the objective of estimating the coverage of interventions and malaria related burden in children less than five years. In this study, the ZMIS data were analysed in order (i) to estimate an empirical high-resolution parasitological risk map in the country and (ii) to assess the relation between malaria interventions and parasitaemia risk after adjusting for environmental and socio-economic confounders. Methods The parasitological risk was predicted from Bayesian geostatistical and spatially independent models relating parasitaemia risk and environmental/climatic predictors of malaria. A number of models were fitted to capture the (potential) non-linearity in the malaria-environment relation and to identify the elapsing time between environmental effects and parasitaemia risk. These models included covariates (a) in categorical scales and (b) in penalized and basis splines terms. Different model validation methods were used to identify the best fitting model. Model-based risk predictions at unobserved locations were obtained via Bayesian predictive distributions for the best fitting model. Results Model validation indicated that linear environmental predictors were able to fit the data as well as or even better than more complex non-linear terms and that the data do not support spatial dependence. Overall the averaged population-adjusted parasitaemia risk was 20.0% in children less than five years with the highest risk predicted in the northern (38.3%) province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least one bed net decreases by 40% (CI: 12%, 61%) compared to those without bed nets. Conclusions The map of parasitaemia risk together with the prediction error and the population at risk give an important overview of the malaria situation in Zambia. These maps can assist to achieve better resource allocation, health management and to target additional interventions to reduce the burden of malaria in Zambia significantly. Repeated surveys will enable the evaluation of the effectiveness of on-going interventions.

2010-01-01

375

Chlorproguanil-Dapsone-Artesunate versus Artemether-Lumefantrine: A Randomized, Double-Blind Phase III Trial in African Children and Adolescents with Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Chlorproguanil?dapsone?artesunate (CDA) was developed as an affordable, simple, fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination therapy for use in Africa. This trial was a randomized parallel-group, double-blind, double-dummy study to compare CDA and artemether?lumefantrine (AL) efficacy in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and further define the CDA safety profile, particularly its hematological safety in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) -deficient patients. Methods and Findings The trial was conducted at medical centers at 11 sites in five African countries between June 2006 and August 2007. 1372 patients (?1 to <15 years old, median age 3 years) with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were randomized (2?1) to receive CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg once daily for three days (N?=?914) or six-doses of AL over three days (N?=?458). Non-inferiority of CDA versus AL for efficacy was evaluated in the Day 28 per-protocol (PP) population using parasitological cure (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-corrected). Cure rates were 94.1% (703/747) for CDA and 97.4% (369/379) for AL (treatment difference 3.3%, 95%CI 5.6, ?0.9). CDA was non-inferior to AL, but there was simultaneous superiority of AL (upper 95%CI limit <0). Adequate clinical and parasitological response at Day 28 (uncorrected for reinfection) was 79% (604/765) with CDA and 83% (315/381) with AL. In patients with a G6PD-deficient genotype (94/603 [16%] hemizygous males, 22/598 [4%] homozygous females), CDA had the propensity to cause severe and clinically concerning hemoglobin decreases: the mean hemoglobin nadir was 75 g/L (95%CI 71, 79) at Day 7 versus 97 g/L (95%CI 91, 102) for AL. There were three deaths, unrelated to study medication (two with CDA, one with AL). Conclusions Although parasitologically effective at Day 28, the hemolytic potential of CDA in G6PD-deficient patients makes it unsuitable for use in a public health setting in Africa. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00344006

Premji, Zul; Umeh, Rich E.; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Esamai, Fabian; Ezedinachi, Emmanuel U.; Oguche, Stephen; Borrmann, Steffen; Sowunmi, Akintunde; Duparc, Stephan; Kirby, Paula L.; Pamba, Allan; Kellam, Lynda; Guiguemde, Robert; Greenwood, Brian; Ward, Stephen A.; Winstanley, Peter A.

2009-01-01

376

An outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in the Blue Nile State, Sudan  

PubMed Central

Background In this paper, we report an outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kurmuk District, Blue Nile State, Sudan that involved an infection with four Trypanosoma species in cattle. The outbreak occurred in June 2010 when indigenous cattle, mainly Kenana and Fulani breed types, crossed the national Sudanese border to Ethiopia and returned. A veterinarian was notified of massive deaths in the cattle populations that recently came from Ethiopia. All animals involved in the outbreak were from the nomadic Fulani group and resident local cattle were not infected and no death has been reported among them. A total of 210 blood samples were collected from the ear vein of cattle. A few samples were also collected from other domestic animals species. Parasitological examinations including hematocrit centrifugation techniques (HCT) and Giemsa-stained thin blood films were carried out. ITS1-PCR, which provides a multi-species-specific diagnosis in a single PCR, was performed. Findings Parasitological examinations revealed that 43% (91/210) of the affected cattle population was infected with two morphologically distinct trypanosomes. Seventy animals (33.3%) were infected with T. vivax and twenty one (10%) with T. congolense. In contrast, ITS1-PCR was able to identify four Trypanosoma species namely T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae and T. brucei in 56.7% (80/141). T. brucei showed the highest prevalence of 36.9% (52/141) and the lowest 19% (27/141) was displayed by T. congolense. Furthermore, and because ITS1-PCR could not differentiate between T. brucei subspecies, serum resistance-associated (SRA) gene based PCR was used to detect the human T. brucei rhodesiense in T. brucei positive samples. None of the samples was shown positive for T. b. rhodesiense. The identity of the 400 bp PCR product originating from T. simiae, was further confirmed by sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions The outbreak of bovine trypanosomiasis occurred in the Blue Nile State was caused by mixed infection of two or more Trypanosoma species and the conventional parasitological examinations were not reliable in identifying all the species of Trypanosoma involved in the outbreak. It is difficult to determine the cause of the disease for the reason that the current enzootic situation in the resident cattle in the region is poorly understood. The study concluded that there are at least four species of trypanosomes that caused this outbreak in the Blue Nile State. The presence of mixed infections might have exacerbated the severity of the disease. It is hypothesized that variant parasite type(s) might have been introduced to Sudanese cattle when they crossed to Ethiopia, a tsetse belt region.

2011-01-01

377

Intravenous artesunate for severe malaria in travelers, Europe.  

PubMed

Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self-limiting episode of unexplained hemolysis occurred after reduction of parasitemia levels. Five patients required a blood transfusion. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had received higher doses of IV artesunate than patients without hemolysis. IV artesunate was an effective alternative to quinine for treatment of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure. PMID:21529383

Zoller, Thomas; Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette; Gjorup, Ida; Richter, Joachim; Hugo-Persson, Mats; Mrch, Kristine; Foroutan, Behruz; Suttorp, Norbert; Yrek, Salih; Flick, Holger

2011-05-01

378

Persistent Giardia spp. and Trichuris spp. infection in maras (Dolichotis patagonum) at a zoo in Greece.  

PubMed

The mara (Dolichotis patagonum) is a species classified as "Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In the wild, it inhabits only Argentina, but it is also kept in zoos around the world. In order to investigate the endoparasites of the maras kept in the Attica Zoological Park, Greece, four fecal examinations were performed in a period of 4 yr (2008-2011) by standard parasitologic methods. Cysts of the protozoan parasite Giardia spp. and eggs of the nematode Trichuris spp. were found in all four examinations. The possible routes of infection of the maras and the importance of these parasites to other animals and to humans are discussed. PMID:23805557

Tahas, Stamatios Alan; Diakou, Anastasia

2013-06-01

379

The method used to sample ulcers influences the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Before beginning treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, parasitological confirmation of the disease is required. The most commonly used diagnostic procedures are microscopy and culture of samples taken from the active edge of the lesion. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of previous diagnostic procedures with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using smears taken from the edge of the lesion and its centre. The sensitivity was greater with smears taken from the centre of the lesion, both for microscopical examination (85%) and for PCR (81%), compared to those obtained from the edge of the lesion (69% and 58% respectively). When PCR was carried out on biopsy material from the edge of the lesion the sensitivity was 63%. PMID:12055833

Robinson, Ramrez Jos; Agudelo, Sonia; Muskus, Carlos; Alzate, Juan Fernando; Berberich, Christof; Barker, Douglas C; Vlez, Ivn Daro

2002-04-01

380

Parasites--the new frontier: celebrating Darwin 200  

PubMed Central

To Darwin, parasites were fascinating examples of adaptation but their significance as selective factors for a wide range of phenomena has only been studied in depth over the last few decades. This work has had its roots in behavioural/evolutionary ecology on the one hand, and in population biology/ecology on the other, thus shaping a new comprehensive field of evolutionary parasitology. Taking parasites into account has been a success story and has shed new light on several old questions such as sexual selection, the evolution of sex and recombination, changes in behaviour, adaptive life histories, and so forth. In the process, the topic of ecological immunology has emerged, which analyses immune defences in a framework of costs and benefits. Throughout, a recurrent theme is how to appropriately integrate the underlying mechanisms as evolved boundary conditions into a framework of studying the adaptive value of traits. On the conceptual side, major questions remain and await further study.

Schmid-Hempel, Paul

2009-01-01

381

Field efficacy of eprinomectin against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys.  

PubMed

A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPR) against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on fifteen animals. On day 0, donkeys received EPR pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended cattle dose. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. EPR was completely effective (100%) from day 7, until the end of the study. Clinically no adverse reactions were observed in any of donkeys treated. EPR was considered to be 100% effective against H. asini. This is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of EPR against a natural louse infestation in donkeys. PMID:23566937

Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galietti, Alfredo; Mariani, Ugo; Di Loria, Antonio; Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; Guccione, Jacopo; Gokbulut, Cengiz

2013-08-01

382

Intravenous Artesunate for Severe Malaria in Travelers, Europe  

PubMed Central

Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self-limiting episode of unexplained hemolysis occurred after reduction of parasitemia levels. Five patients required a blood transfusion. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had received higher doses of IV artesunate than patients without hemolysis. IV artesunate was an effective alternative to quinine for treatment of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure.

Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette; Gj?rup, Ida; Richter, Joachim; Hugo-Persson, Mats; M?rch, Kristine; Foroutan, Behruz; Suttorp, Norbert; Yurek, Salih; Flick, Holger

2011-01-01

383

Interlaboratory Optimization and Evaluation of a Serological Assay for Diagnosis of Human Baylisascariasis  

PubMed Central

A Western blot assay using a recombinant protein, recombinant Baylisascaris procyonis RAG1 protein (rBpRAG1), was developed for the diagnosis of human baylisascariasis concurrently by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, and the National Reference Centre for Parasitology (NRCP) in Montreal, Canada. Assay performance was assessed by testing 275 specimens at the CDC and 405 specimens at the NRCP. Twenty specimens from 16 cases of baylisascariasis were evaluated. Eighteen were positive, with the assay correctly identifying 14 of 16 patients. The rBpRAG1 Western blot assay showed no cross-reactivity with Toxocara-positive serum and had an overall sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 98%.

Rascoe, Lisa N.; Santamaria, Cynthia; Handali, Sukwan; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Kazacos, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

384

[Informative value of methods for laboratory diagnosis of Giardia infection].  

PubMed

The author assesses the informative value of two methods of laboratory diagnosis of L. intestinalis: serological assay using indirect immunofluorescence versus fecal Giardia antigen test using the immunochromatographic RIDA Quick Giardia test system. The results of these procedures were compared with those of fecal microscopy. The serological approach to diagnosing Giardia infection was found to be of low informative value. There is evidence suggesting the high specificity and sensitivity of detection of Giardia antibody in the feces, which allows it to be recommended in parasitological laboratory. It has been established that fecal prestorage in the Turdyev preservative can reduce the sensitivity of the RIDA Quick Giardia test system at the low concentration of parasitic cysts in the material being examined. PMID:18819425

Irikov, O A

2008-01-01

385

First autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and its main vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus. PMID:24142177

de Campos, Monique Paiva; da Silva, Denise Amaro; Madeira, Maria de Ftima; Velho, Artur Augusto Mendes; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges

2013-01-01

386

[Cestode of the family Hymenolepididae from ducks of Chukotka: Microsomacanthus parasobolevi sp. n.--a widely distributed parasite of eider ducks].  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Microsomacanthus Lopez-Neyra, 1942 is described. The material was collected from eider ducks (Somateria mollissima, S. fischeri, and S. spectabilis) in the Chaunskaya lowland (North-Western Chukotka). Microsomacanthus parasobolevi sp. n. differs from the closest species of this genus (M. polystictae Regel, 1988, M. sobolevi Spassky et Jurpalova, 1964; M. strictophalius Tolkatchieva, 1966) by the structure and size of the copulatory organ. Wide distribution of the new species was detected based on the cestodes collections from eider ducks of the Eastern Chukotka, Lena River mouth (in the museum of the Institute of the Parasitology RAS) and Iceland (Karl Skirnisson's cestode collection of the common eider). Furthermore, this species was reported once of the common eider in Newfoundland and Labrador, but erroneously identified as Hymenglejns (Microsomacanthnis) formosoides Spasskaja et Spassky, 1961 by Bishop and Threlfall (1974). PMID:15907028

Regel', K V

2005-01-01

387

Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis. PMID:24742904

Gomes, Smara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Mller, Gertrud

2014-08-01

388

Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction in the routine diagnosis for tegumentary leishmaniasis in a referral centre.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed in parallel to conventional methods at an American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) referral centre for diagnosis. Accuracy parameters for PCR were calculated using 130 patients with confirmed ATL (ATL group), 15 patients established with other diseases and 23 patients with a lesion suggestive of ATL, but without parasitological confirmation (NDEF group). PCR showed 92.3% sensitivity, 93.3% specificity, a 99.2% positive predictive value and a 13.84 positive likelihood ratio. In the NDEF group, PCR confirmed ATL in 13 of the 23 patients, seven of whom responded to leishmaniasis treatment and six who presented spontaneous healing of the lesion. PCR should be included in the routine diagnostic procedures for ATL, especially for cases found to be negative by conventional methods. PMID:20209340

Fagundes, Aline; Schubach, Armando; Paula, Cntia Cristiane de; Bogio, Alessandra; Antonio, Liliane de Ftima; Schiavoni, Patrcia Botelho; Monteiro, Vivian de Souza; Madeira, Maria de Ftima; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia Maria; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Azeredo-Coutinho, Rilza Beatriz Gayoso de; Pacheco, Rachel S; Marzochi, Mauro C A; Marzochi, Keyla B F

2010-02-01

389

[The case of acaridosis in African ostrich (Struthio camelus) breeding].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine a reason for failing health eondition and deaths among the ostriches in the newly-established breeding farm situated within the boundaries of Toru? Voivodship. Both initial observations and examinations of three alive and two dead birds presupposed an appearance of ectoparasitical disease. The autopsies were performed and the specimens for bacteriological and parasitological studies were subsequently obtained. The ectoparasitically-directed studies were the only positive result; the individuals of Cnemidocoptes mutans and unrecognised Acarina species were found. Although the overall treatment (Ivomec) and breeding-rooms extermination of vermin (Neguvon 2%) were held, health conditions of the ostriches failed to improve and, as a result, all the birds died. The breeding farm was closed down wich the owner having suffered financially. The study allowed to draw conclusions concerning reasons for Acarina invasion and subsequent deaths among the birds. PMID:16886464

Wjcik, A R; Grygon-Franckiewicz, B; Wasielewski, L; Zbikowska, E

1999-01-01

390

Use of RNAlater as a preservation method for parasitic coprology studies in wild-living chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the use of an RNA stabilisation buffer, RNAlater (Ambion, Austin, Texas), as a preservation medium for parasitic coprology analysis of faecal samples collected from chimpanzees living in the wild (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). Thirty faecal samples collected in the forests of south-east Cameroon (Mambele area) from 2003 to 2011 were preserved in RNAlater at ?80 C and analysed for their parasite content. We identified and counted parasitic elements and assessed their shape, size and morphology in relation to the storage time of the samples. We found that parasite elements were identifiable in RNAlater preserved samples after as many as 7 years, showing that RNAlater could be an effective and reliable preservation medium for coprology. Thus, its use could be an interesting way to optimise sample collection for several types of studies (parasitology and bacteriology/virology) at once, especially considering the logistically challenging and time-consuming field campaigns needed to obtain these faecal samples.

Drakulovski, P.; Locatelli, S.; Butel, C.; Pion, S.; Krasteva, D.; Mougdi-Pole, E.; Delaporte, E.; Peeters, M.; Mallie, M.

2013-01-01

391

Chapter 3. Recent advances in the biology of echinostomes.  

PubMed

This chapter examines the significant literature on the biology of echinostomes. The members of the family Echinostomatidae are medically and veterinary-important parasitic flatworms that invade humans, domestic animals and wildlife and also parasitize in their larval stages numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts. All echinostomes possess a complicated lifecycle expressed by: (i) alternation of seven generations known as the adult, egg, miracidium, sporocyst, redia, cercaria and metacercaria, and (ii) inclusion of three host categories known as the definitive host and first and second intermediate hosts. Moreover, echinostomes have served as experimental models in parasitology at all levels of organization. We discuss recent advances in several areas of the biological sciences that feature studies on echinostomes. Initially, we consider aspects of the lifecycle, development and systematics of selected members of the Echinostomatidae. We then highlight host-parasite interactions between echinostomes and their intermediate and definitive hosts with emphasis on the application of novel techniques to these topics. PMID:19622409

Toledo, Rafael; Esteban, Jos-Guillermo; Fried, Bernard

2009-01-01

392

[Return from the tropics: relevant diagnosis and rational therapy].  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal disorders, particularly diarrhoea, are the main reason to consult a physician after travelling to the tropics. Although mostly of infectious origin specific pathogens frequently cannot be demonstrated. As the majority of acute diarrhoeal episodes resolve without any specific therapy, bacterological and parasitological investigations should initially be ordered with reserve and economically. Fever after a stay in the tropics has to be always a matter of concern as it could be the expression of a potentially dangerous infection, e.g. falciparum malaria. The primary objective must be the exclusion of potentially life-threatening infections requiring a specific treatment. Numerous asymptomatic travellers returning from the tropics want their physicians to exclude an inapparent exotic infection. The value of such check-ups can be questioned, and there are just a few rational investigations in this particular context. PMID:9617212

Markwalder, K

1998-05-01

393

A decade of epigenetic research in Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

In the past ten years, the field of parasitology has witnessed an explosion of studies investigating gene regulation. In this review, we will describe recent advances largely stemming from the study of Toxoplasma gondii, a significant opportunistic pathogen and useful model for other apicomplexan protozoa. Surprising findings have emerged, including the discovery of a wealth of epigenetic machinery in these primitive eukaryotes, unusual histone variants, and a battery of plant-like transcription factors. We will elaborate on how these unusual features impact parasite physiology and potential therapeutics as we summarize some of the key discoveries from the last decade. We will close by proposing a few questions to address in the next ten years.

Dixon, Stacy E.; Stilger, Krista L.; Elias, Eliana V.; Naguleswaran, Arunasalam; Sullivan, William J.

2010-01-01

394

Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain).  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. PMID:16376469

Torres, Jordi; Peig, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Borrs, Miquel

2006-09-01

395

DNA barcoding of schistosome cercariae reveals a novel sub-lineage within Schistosoma rodhaini from Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Lake Victoria.  

PubMed

While Schistosoma rodhaini is typically considered a parasite of small mammals and is very scantly distributed in the Lake Victoria basin, it is known to hybridize with the more widespread Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of intestinal schistosomiasis. As part of broader parasitological and malacological surveys for S. mansoni across Lake Victoria, schistosome cercariae were harvested from a field-caught Biomphalaria choanomphala taken on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Uganda. Upon DNA barcoding, these cercariae were found to be a mixture of both S. rodhaini and S. mansoni, with further phylogenetic analysis revealing a hitherto unknown sub-lineage within S. rodhaini. Despite repeated sampling for eggs and miracidia from both chimpanzees and staff on Ngamba Island Sanctuary, detection of S. rodhaini within local definitive hosts awaits additional efforts, which should be mindful of a potential host role of spotted-necked otters. PMID:22448675

Standley, C J; Stothard, J R

2012-10-01

396

Pathogenesis of anemia in Trypanosoma brucei-infected mice.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of anemia was studied in trypanosome-infected mice. A strain of Trypanosoma brucei, TREU 667, was used which first produces an acute phase marked by waves of parasitemia. Erythrocytes from infected animals were coated with immunoglobulin M during or just before the waves of anemia and parasitological crises. Erythrocytes from normal animals could be sensitized with "precrisis" sera presumably containing antigen and antibody. These data suggest that anemia during the acute phase is due to sensitization of erythrocytes with immunoglobulin M-antigen complexes. The anemia is partially compensated by a strong erythropoietic response. The acute phase is followed by a chronic phase marked by a constant high parasitemia and immunosuppression. The less marked anemia occurring during this latter phase is due to hemodilution and perhaps a low but significant immune response to the parasites, which causes continuing erythrocyte sensitization by immunoglobulin M-antigen complexes.

Amole, B O; Clarkson, A B; Shear, H L

1982-01-01

397

The parasite fauna of stray domestic cats (Felis catus) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

Two hundred forty feral domestic cats trapped between 2004 and 2008 in the city centre and the suburb districts of Dubai, as well as in desert biotopes, were subjected to a complete parasitological dissection. The established parasite fauna consisted of Cystoisospora felis (12.9%), Cystoisospora rivolta (9.2%), Toxoplasma/Hammondia (0.8%), Heterophyes heterophyes (2.5%), Heterophyopsis continua (0.4%), Joyeuxiella spp. (65.8%), Diplopylidium noelleri (37.1%), Hydatigera taeniaeformis (16.7%), Taenia hydatigena (0.4%), Ancylostoma ceylanicum (8.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (0.8%), Toxocara mystax (2.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.8%), Pterygodermatites affinis (35.0%), Centrorhynchus aluconis (4.6%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (4.2%), Xenopsylla astia (3.8%) and Synosternus pallidus (4.2%). PMID:19238440

Schuster, Rolf K; Thomas, Katja; Sivakumar, Saritha; O'Donovan, Declan

2009-07-01

398

Giardia duodenalis infection: risk factors for children living in sub-standard settlements in Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to characterize Giardia duodenalis infection among children living in sub-standard settlement areas in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The cross-sectional epidemiological study included 590 children from 1 to 5 years of age. Data were collected from one child per selected family through home interviews with the parent or guardian and parasitological examination of stool samples. Thirty-one putative risk factors concerning family structure, socioeconomic status, and environmental factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 18% (106 children). Four potential risk factors were heavily associated with G. duodenalis infection: number of under-five children in the same household, index child's birth order, existence of a bathroom in the home, and drinking water source. PMID:17546340

Teixeira, Jlio Csar; Heller, Lo; Barreto, Mauricio L

2007-06-01

399

[Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to 3 antimalarials in Turbo (Antioquia, Colombia), 1998].  

PubMed

In 1998 we determined in vivo and in vitro the frequency and the degree of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to the three antimalarials (chloroquine, amodiaquine, and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine) most utilized in the municipality of Turbo (in the area of Urab, Antioquia, Colombia), in a sample representative of the population with malaria. We carried out clinical and parasitological analyses over a 14-day period using the standard test recommended by the World Health Organization. In vivo, P. falciparum showed resistance to chloroquine, amodiaquine, and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, with a frequency of 97%, 7%, and 13%, respectively. In vitro, the corresponding figures were 21%, 23%, and 9%, respectively. For chloroquine the level of agreement between the in vivo and in vitro results was 23%. PMID:11253274

Blair, S; Lacharme, L L; Fonseca, J C; Tobn, A

2001-01-01

400

[The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in The Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty Hospital between 2005 and 2008.].  

PubMed

A retrospective evaluation of the data from 14,246 patients with gastrointestinal complaints who presented at the parasitology laboratory of the Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty Hospital between January 2005 and December 2008 was carried out. Fecal samples of all patients were examined using native-Lugol and the trichrome and Kinyoun acid-fast staining method after sedimentation in fecal concentration tubes. One or more parasites were detected in 1320 (9.3%) of the patients. The distribution of the intestinal parasites was as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 689 (4.83%); nonpathogenic amoebas, 108 (21.82%); Giardia intestinalis, 320 (2.24%); Enterobius vermicularis, 23 (0.16%); Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 34 (0.24%); and other rare parasites, 78 (0.54%). The results of this study emphasize the fact that intestinal parasitic infections are still an important public health problem. PMID:20340084

Usluca, Selma; Inceboz, Tonay; Over, Leyla; Tuncay, Sema; Yalin, Glter; Arcak, Serap Sah?n; Ozko, Soykan; Aksoy, Umit; Akis, Ciler

2010-01-01

401

Nerocila species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.  

PubMed

Eleven Nerocila species are recorded from 22 marine fishes belonging to 15 families. Three, Nerocila arres, Nerocila depressa, and Nerocila loveni, are new for the Indian fauna. N. arres and Nerocila sigani, previously synonymized, are redescribed and their individuality is restored. Nerocila exocoeti, until now inadequately identified, is described and distinctly characterized. A neotype is designated. New hosts were identified for N. depressa, N. loveni, Nerocila phaiopleura, Nerocila serra, and Nerocila sundaica. Host-parasite relationships were considered. The parasitologic indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. A checklist of the nominal Nerocila species until now reported from Indian marine fishes was compiled. PMID:23324945

Trilles, Jean-Paul; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

2013-03-01

402

Setaria tundra in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)--new findings in Poland.  

PubMed

Setaria tundra is a filarioid nematode transmitted by mosquitoes, which is sporadically observed in Poland. Some ecological factors, such as the synurbisation of some wild ungulates and the climate changes observed in recent years, could affect the possibility of infection, especially with parasites transmitted by arthropod vectors. The study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Setaria sp. in roe deer populations in different environments. Parasitological dissections of 53 roe deer were performed. The animals were taken from the area of the Cracow agglomeration, and from arable and forest lands near the city. During the autopsy, nematode specimens (one to twelve per host) were found only in the abdominal cavity of roe deer from the urban area. All parasites were classified to Setaria tundra species on the basis of morphology and dimensions. The infection observed was probably associated with the specific environmental conditions of the urban area. PMID:24791344

Kowal, Jerzy; Korna?, S?awomir; Nosal, Pawe?; Basiaga, Marta; Lesiak, Maciej

2013-01-01

403

Fungal contamination of paraffin wax blocks in a pathology archive.  

PubMed

While searching for paraffin wax blocks for research purposes in our archive we detected numerous larval and some dead adult moths. Some wax blocks were riddled with a white-brown crumbling substance. The entire archive was checked and profoundly-infested blocks were separated from unaffected blocks. Mycological and parasitological investigations were performed. Fungi were identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction, which revealed high sequence homology to six different fungal species. The moths were determined to be Nemapogon personellus. A total of 8,484 wax blocks had to be removed from the archive and destroyed. Pathologists should be alerted to the importance of checking the humidity of the air where archival material is stored. PMID:21333307

Mller, K; Ellenberger, C; Aupperle, H; Schmschke, R; Scheller, R; Wittenbrink, M M; Schoon, H-A

2011-01-01

404

Modulation of specific biochemical blood parameters by helminth infection in laboratory Beagle dogs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the independent effect of helminths infection on biochemical blood parameters in Beagles intended for laboratory use which may contribute to a change of experimental results. As a result of research, the authors confirmed the negative effect of helminth invasion on the metabolism of the liver and kidney in laboratory dogs. Stool samples from thirty Beagle puppies were examined for parasites before the puppies were moved to the animal facility, and all were dewormed with Vetminth paste on the day they were moved. Stool examination was performed three more times and animals were given Drontal Plus flavor (Bayer) and Baycox 5% (Bayer). A fourth parasitological examination revealed no intestinal parasites in the feces. Three blood biochemical tests were performed. Experimental results clearly indicate the significant impact of intestinal parasites in dogs used in experiments. PMID:22844719

Szweda, M; Szarek, J; Babi?ska, I; Sok?, R; Ra?-Nory?ska, M; Ko?odziejska-Sawerska, A; Mecik-Kronenberg, T

2012-01-01

405

Treatment of Egyptian dicrocoeliasis in man and animals with Mirazid.  

PubMed

Two human cases with dicrocoeliasis dendriticum were successfully treated one with Praziquantel (25mg/kg 3 times daily after meals, for four successive days) and second with Mirazid (2 capsules of 300 mg. each, daily an hour before breakfast, for six successive days) as indicated clinically and parasitologically. On the other hand, one imported sheep and two locally bred goats naturally infected with D. dendriticum were successfully treated with Oleo-resin solution (dose of 6 ml of 10 gm% equal to 2 Mirazid capsules before breakfast) per os once daily for four successive days. The animals were slaughtered on 5th day. Mirazid (capsule or Oleo-resin solution) was effective against dicrocoeliasis in man and animal respectively. PMID:14964658

Massoud, Ahmed; Morsy, Tosson A; Haridy, Fouad M

2003-08-01

406

A new genus of dactylogyrid from the gills of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Maulln Basin, Patagonia, Chile.  

PubMed

During a parasitological survey of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) in the Maulln Basin (Chilean Patagonia), specimens of a new species of Monogenea were collected from the gills. This species is described as the only member of a proposed new genus, Inserotrema n. gen. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae), characterized by similar hooks with 2 subunits, overlapping gonads, coiled cirrus with counterclockwise rings, articulated accessory piece formed by 2 parts, a needlelike sclerite threading the distal part of the MCO, and a sclerotized midventral vagina. This new genus is proposed for dactylogyrids from gills of galaxiids (Galaxiidae). Inserotrema puyei n. sp. infects gills of G. maculatus from Llanquihue Lake, Maulln River, and Maulln Estuary. This is the first species of Ancyrocephalinae described from gills of a galaxiid. PMID:17626345

Viozzi, Gustavo P; Marin, Sandra L; Carvajal, Juan; Brugni, Norma; Mancilla, Melinka

2007-06-01

407

A human case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a child from eastern Sicily.  

PubMed

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old child living in a suburban area of Catania, Italy. This case was initially referred to us as Dipylidium caninum infection, which was not cured after being treated twice with mebendazole. However, by analyzing the clinical presentation and stool samples we arrived to the diagnosis of H. diminuta infection. The case presented with atypical allergic manifestations which had never been reported as clinical features of symptomatic H. diminuta infection; remittent fever with abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous itching, transient thoracic rash, and arthromyalgias. The patient was treated with a 7-day cycle of oral niclosamide, which proved to be safe and effective. This case report emphasizes that a correct parasitological diagnosis requires adequate district laboratories and trained personnel. In addition, we recommend the importance of reporting all H. diminuta infection cases, in order to improve knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment protocols. PMID:20585535

Patamia, Ildebrando; Cappello, Elisa; Castellano-Chiodo, Donato; Greco, Filippo; Nigro, Luciano; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-06-01

408

Stocks and seasonal migrations of the flounder Xystreurys rasile as indicated by its parasites.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were (1) to compare the structure and composition of parasite assemblages of the flounder Xystreurys rasile in two regions of the Argentine Sea in order to evaluate the hypothesis for the existence of different stocks, and (2) to test the hypothesis for X. rasile migration from the Argentine-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone (AUCFZ) towards more southern waters during spring. Parasitological evidence shows that at least two stocks of X. rasile inhabit the coastal and shelf waters of the northern Argentine Sea, one in El Rincn and the other in the AUCFZ. These stocks should be considered as discrete entities in management plans to ensure a sustainable use of these resources. The results also confirm the existence of migratory patterns in the northern stock. PMID:23991872

Alarcos, A J; Timi, J T

2013-09-01

409

[Accidental myiasis by Ornidia obesa in humans].  

PubMed

Dipterous of the genus Ornidia are pollinator bugs, but immature stages can be found in organic matter in decomposition. This article refers to a found of larvae of Ornidia obesa in humans feces. An eight years old child was treated in a medical clinic due to the presence of two larvae and one pupae in the feces, hyperthermia, intestinal obstruction and strong abdominal pain. Medical therapy consisted of Mebendazol and Ivermectin in the indicated doses. 24 hours after the administration of the drugs, several larvae were expelled with diarrheic feces. The material was taken to the Parasitological Veterinary Lab, and the larvae were classified belonging to the genus Ornidia. According to the literature, this specie of Diptera is not incriminated to cause myiasis in vertebrates. We think that this study reports a case of accidental myiasis in humans, were the patient may have ingested food with immature stages of the fly (eggs or larvae). PMID:20059825

Monteiro, Silvia G; Faccio, Lucian; Otto, Mateus Anderson; Soares, Joo Fabio; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Mazzanti, Alexandre

2008-09-01

410

Human host determinants influencing the outcome of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections  

PubMed Central

Since first identified, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness has been described as invariably fatal. Increasing data however argue that infection by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, the causative agent of HAT, results in a wide range of outcomes in its human host and importantly that a number of subjects in endemic areas are apparently able to control infection to low levels, undetectable by the classical parasitological tests used in the field. Thus, trypanotolerance seems to occur in humans as has already been described in cattle or in the rodent experimental models of infection. This review focuses on the description of the diversity of outcomes resulting from T. b. gambiense in humans and on the host factors involved. The consequences/impacts on HAT epidemiology resulting from this diversity are also discussed with regard to implementing sustainable HAT control strategies.

Bucheton, B; MacLeod, A; Jamonneau, V

2011-01-01

411

[Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2011].  

PubMed

The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (Sociedad Espaola de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologa Clnica [SEIMC]) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2011 controls. Overall, the results obtained in 2011 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. Nevertheless, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls, such as those offered by the SEIMC program, in order to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests. PMID:23453224

Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, Mara Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepcin

2013-02-01

412

Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa  

PubMed Central

Many attempts have been made to quantify Africas malaria burden but none has addressed how urbanization will affect disease transmission and outcome, and therefore mortality and morbidity estimates. In 2003, 39% of Africas 850 million people lived in urban settings; by 2030, 54% of Africans are expected to do so. We present the results of a series of entomological, parasitological and behavioural meta-analyses of studies that have investigated the effect of urbanization on malaria in Africa. We describe the effect of urbanization on both the impact of malaria transmission and the concomitant improvements in access to preventative and curative measures. Using these data, we have recalculated estimates of populations at risk of malaria and the resulting mortality. We find there were 1,068,505 malaria deaths in Africa in 2000 a modest 6.7% reduction over previous iterations. The public-health implications of these findings and revised estimates are discussed.

Hay, Simon I.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Snow, Robert W.

2011-01-01

413

[Investigation of vectors and reservoirs in an acute Chagas outbreak due to possible oral transmission in Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia].  

PubMed

Colombia recorded 11 cases of acute Chagas disease and 80 cases of oral contamination with Trypanosoma cruzi. The current study analyzes the entomological and parasitological characteristics of the outbreak in Aguachica, Cesar Department, in 2010. An interdisciplinary group of health professionals and regional university personnel conducted the laboratory tests in the patients and the investigation of the transmission focus. Eleven cases of acute Chagas diseases were detected in a single family in a dwelling with domiciliated triatomines and Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus, and two Didelphis marsupialis opossums infected with T. cruzi in Attalea butyracea and Elaeis oleifera palm trees in the urban area of Aguachica. The study analyzes the role of R. pallescens and palm trees in the wild cycle of T. cruzi and in oral transmission of Chagas disease. Sporadic incursions by wild R. pallescens, P. geniculatus, and E. cuspidatus from the nearby palm trees into human dwellings may cause increasingly frequent outbreaks of oral Chagas disease. PMID:24896050

Soto, Hugo; Tibaduiza, Tania; Montilla, Marleny; Triana, Omar; Surez, Diana Carolina; Torres Torres, Mariela; Arias, Mara Teresa; Lugo, Ligia

2014-04-01

414

Joseph Leidy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Joseph Leidy was the leading American expert on anatomy and vertebrate paleontology during the mid nineteenth century and author of over 200 scientific texts. Philadelphia's Academy of Natural Sciences, where Leidy worked, is fortunate to have a great portion of Leidy's collections. The Academy has put together this nice, illustrated site on Leidy's important work. The section on fossils includes a hypertext list of specific names with links to photographs, illustrations, and descriptions of the specimens. Be sure not to miss the section on the duckbilled dinosaur Hadrosaurus foulkii, the subject of Leidy's best known monograph. Other highlights are an overview of Leidy's other scientific work, including forays into parasitology and protozoology and his Professorship in Anatomy, a timeline biography, and a thorough index.

1998-01-01

415

[Human infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths in Calbuco County, X Region, Chile, 1997].  

PubMed

By the performance of parasitological examination of one fecal sample per individual, a total of 256 persons from a rural county in the X Region (41 degrees 50 minutes South lat., 73 degrees 05 minutes West long.) were studied. The general rates of infection by intestinal parasite and/or commensal protozoa and helminths found were: Giardia intestinalis 14.1%, Entamoeba histolytica 11.7%, Blastocystis hominis 36.0%, Entamoeba coli 9.8%, Endolimax nana 16.4%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 1.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides 13.7% and Trichuris trichiura 9.8%. The prevalence rates of intestinal infection led us to conclude that environmental conditions favorable for its transmission remain and show that intestinal parasitoses are still a public health problem in this region, affecting mostly children. PMID:9497539

Mercado, R; Otto, J P; Musleh, M; Prez, M

1997-01-01

416

Usefulness of Kato-Katz and trichrome staining as diagnostic methods for parasitic infections in clinical laboratories  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of the Kato-Katz technique and to re-evaluate other routine procedures conducted in the Microbiology Clinical Laboratory at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) and to throw light on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among a small group of food handlers in Muscat. Method: Faecal samples collected from food handlers were examined using five parasitological techniques. Results: Out of 100 faecal samples, 53 were positive for one or more of 11 intestinal parasites. The Kato-Katz and trichrome stain methods were found superior to the other techniques in detecting helminthic and protozoan infections, respectively. The auramine stain was useful only in detecting Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Conclusion: A combination of trichrome stain and Kato-Katz techniques for stool examination is sufficient and recommended for busy laboratories; auramine stain should be applied only to samples with suspected cryptosporidal infections.

Idris, Mohamed A; Al-Jabri, Ayda M

2001-01-01

417

Helminthiasis and toxoplasmosis among exotic mammals at the Santiago National Zoo.  

PubMed

Parasitologic evaluations of 112 fecal specimens from 292 mammals from the Santiago National Zoo (36 specimens were pooled specimens from greater than or equal to 2 animals) indicated that 51 mammals had protozoa or helminths in their feces. Most of the parasites in the herbivorous species were trichurids and strongylids, whereas most of the parasites in the carnivorous species were ascarids. Coccidia spp and Giardia spp were the most frequently detected protozoans in the mammals evaluated. Of 127 captive mammals serologically evaluated for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (indirect hemagglutination test), 35 (27.5%) were positive for T gondii: 7 (46.6%) of 15 carnivores, 24 (25.2%) of 95 artyodactyls, and 4 (22.5%) of 17 nonhuman primates. Antibodies against T gondii also were found in 8 of 10 domestic cats captured within the zoo and in 6 of 13 volunteer zookeepers. PMID:3505930

Gorman, T R; Riveros, V; Alcano, H A; Salas, D R; Thiermann, E R

1986-11-01

418

Redescription of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis metacercariae (Digenea: Clinostomidae) in cichlids from Lake Kinneret, Israel  

PubMed Central

Clinostomidae are digeneans characterized by a complex taxonomic history, continuously under revision based on both morphological and molecular analysis. Among the 14 species considered valid so far Clinostomum phalacrocoracis has been well described only at the adult stage, whereas the morphology of the metacercarial stage has been reported only once. During a parasitological survey carried out on 262 wild cichlids sampled from Lake Kinneret (Israel) metacercariae referable to C. phalacrocoracis were found in 18 fingerlings. In this study, we report this clinostomid species for the first time in wild fish from Israel describing the metacercarial stage of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis, coupling its morphological description with molecular analysis carried out on ITS rDNA and COI mtDNA sequences.

Caffara, Monica; Davidovich, Nadav; Falk, Rama; Smirnov, Margarita; Ofek, Tamir; Cummings, David; Gustinelli, Andrea; Fioravanti, Maria L.

2014-01-01

419

Evaluation of a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a nonendemic setting  

PubMed Central

The disappearance of lytic, protective antibodies (Abs) from the serum of patients with Chagas disease is accepted as a reliable indicator of parasitological cure. The efficiency of a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a purified, trypomastigote-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucin antigen for the serologic detection of lytic Abs against Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in a nonendemic setting using a panel of 92 positive and 58 negative human sera. The technique proved to be highly sensitive {100%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 96-100} and specific (98.3%; 95% CI = 90.7-99.7), with a kappa score of 0.99. Therefore, this assay can be used to detect active T. cruzi infection and to monitor trypanosomicidal treatment.

Izquierdo, Luis; Marques, Alexandre Ferreira; Gallego, Montserrat; Sanz, Silvia; Tebar, Silvia; Riera, Cristina; Quinto, Llorenc; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Almeida, Igor C; Gascon, Joaquim

2013-01-01

420

Evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis.  

PubMed

The diagnostic value of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the 5.8S rDNA of Dientamoeba fragilis was investigated as compared with conventional parasitologic methods including cultivation testing 959 fecal samples from 491 patients attending a tertiary-care hospital and suspected of having an intestinal parasitosis. The real-time PCR assay revealed 117 additional D. fragilis-positive samples as compared with conventional methods, showing 100% sensitivity and specificity in our experience. On the whole, D. fragilis infection was detected in 186 samples from 105 patients (21.4%, third in frequency among the diagnosed intestinal parasitoses). The evaluated real-time PCR assay represents an effective tool to obtain both an accurate diagnosis and a reliable epidemiologic picture of dientamoebiasis. PMID:20462728

Calderaro, Adriana; Gorrini, Chiara; Montecchini, Sara; Peruzzi, Simona; Piccolo, Giovanna; Rossi, Sabina; Gargiulo, Franco; Manca, Nino; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo

2010-07-01

421

[Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in Reggio Emilia (Italy) during 2009].  

PubMed

The purpose of this survey is to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Reggio Emilia during 2009. We analyzed 1961 samples from 1503 subjects: a copro-parasitological standard examination was performed in 1416 of the subjects and the scotch-test in the remaining 87. Of the 1503 subjects examined, 111 (7.4%) were positive for one or more parasites. Pathogenic parasites were found in 44 subjects (39.6% of all positive subjects) and non-pathogenic protozoa were found in 67 subjects (60.4% of all positive subjects). The most commonly found species were, of the protozoa, Blastocystis hominis, Dientamoeba fragilis and Giardia intestinalis and, of the helminths, Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia Spp. This epidemiological survey shows the need to pay more attention to immigrants and travellers to endemic areas as potential carriers of major parasitic infections in the community. PMID:20956870

Guidetti, Carlotta; Ricci, Lidia; Vecchia, Luigi

2010-09-01

422

Long-term effect of toltrazuril on growth performances of dairy heifers and beef calves exposed to natural Eimeria zuernii and Eimeria bovis infections.  

PubMed

The long-term effects of a toltrazuril treatment against natural Eimeria bovis and/or Eimeria zuernii infections were investigated in comparison with diclazuril and untreated controls on two dairy (Italian Friesian breed) and two beef (Chianina breed) farms. At each trial site, 30 calves were allocated into three groups of 10 calves each: T (treated with toltrazuril), D (treated with diclazuril) and C (left untreated). For 40 weeks post-treatment, the calves were weighed and examined clinically and parasitologically. The oocyst counts as well as the number of scour days were significantly lower in the T group than in the D and C groups. Final bodyweights and body condition scores of the T group exceeded those of groups C and D. The results confirmed that toltrazuril was highly efficacious, safe and provided productive benefits in dairy and beef calves. PMID:21144780

Veronesi, Fabrizia; Diaferia, Manuela; Viola, Orfeo; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili

2011-11-01

423

Equine verminous arteritis; efficiency and speed of larvicidal acitivty as influenced by dosage of albendazole.  

PubMed

Albendazole was effective in destroying Strongylus vulgaris larvae in verminous lesions of the cranial mesenteric artery when administered as a 20% suspension by stomach tube to ponies. Fifty mg/kg body weight administered twice a day for 2 days caused death and gradual disintegration of larvae over a period of 3 to 6 weeks with mild toxic signs appearing in 3 of 11 ponies. Higher total doses of albendazole (50 mg/kg twice a day for 4 days and 25 mg/kg three times a day for 5 days) lead to more rapid disintegration of the larvae but fatal toxicity was observed in 3 of 6 ponies so treated. In all cases, resolution of verminous arterial lesions was delayed until larva remains had disappeared from the lesions. A non-parametric analysis was applied to combined radiographic, pathologic and parasitologic observations and data for testing their statistical significance PMID:7408495

Georgi, J R; Rendano, V T; King, J M; Bianchi, D G; Theodorides, V J

1980-04-01

424

Helminth parasitic infections of the central nervous system: a diagnostic approach.  

PubMed

Helminth parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) occur worldwide with high prevalence in tropical and subtropical countries. Clinical evaluation of patients is mandatory, and it is convenient to group the clinical manifestations into syndromes: for example space-occupying lesions, meningitis, and encephalitis. The history should focus on residence or travel to endemic areas, diet, activities, intercurrent medical conditions, and associated clinical clues. Direct parasitological diagnosis can be reached by cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral tissue examination either by microscopy, culture, or immunological techniques. Immunodiagnosis by detection of parasite antibodies or antigens in serum could provide indirect evidence of parasitic infections. In addition, various imaging and radiological techniques e.g., computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) complement the diagnostic work-up of CNS diseases. Finally, the helminthic CNS infections of global impact, such as schistosomiasis, neurotoxocariasis, Strongyloides infection, neurotrichinosis, neurocysticercosis, and echinococcosis will be briefly discussed as regards the principal clinical and diagnostic features. PMID:24961012

Othman, Ahmad A; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Ganna, Ahmed A

2014-04-01

425

Selection and quantification of infection endpoints for trials of vaccines against intestinal helminths.  

PubMed

Vaccines against human helminths are being developed but the choice of optimal parasitological endpoints and effect measures to assess their efficacy has received little attention. Assuming negative binomial distributions for the parasite counts, we rank the statistical power of three measures of efficacy: ratio of mean parasite intensity at the end of the trial, the odds ratio of infection at the end of the trial, and the rate ratio of incidence of infection during the trial. We also use a modelling approach to estimate the likely impact of trial interventions on the force of infection, and hence statistical power. We conclude that (1) final mean parasite intensity is a suitable endpoint for later phase vaccine trials, and (2) mass effects of trial interventions are unlikely to appreciably reduce the force of infection in the community - and hence statistical power - unless there is a combination of high vaccine efficacy and a large proportion of the population enrolled. PMID:21435404

Alexander, Neal; Cundill, Bonnie; Sabatelli, Lorenzo; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Diemert, David; Hotez, Peter; Smith, Peter G; Rodrigues, Laura C; Brooker, Simon

2011-05-01

426

Selection and quantification of infection endpoints for trials of vaccines against intestinal helminths  

PubMed Central

Vaccines against human helminths are being developed but the choice of optimal parasitological endpoints and effect measures to assess their efficacy has received little attention. Assuming negative binomial distributions for the parasite counts, we rank the statistical power of three measures of efficacy: ratio of mean parasite intensity at the end of the trial, the odds ratio of infection at the end of the trial, and the rate ratio of incidence of infection during the trial. We also use a modelling approach to estimate the likely impact of trial interventions on the force of infection, and hence statistical power. We conclude that (1) final mean parasite intensity is a suitable endpoint for later phase vaccine trials, and (2) mass effects of trial interventions are unlikely to appreciably reduce the force of infection in the community and hence statistical power unless there is a combination of high vaccine efficacy and a large proportion of the population enrolled.

Alexander, Neal; Cundill, Bonnie; Sabatelli, Lorenzo; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Diemert, David; Hotez, Peter; Smith, Peter G.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Brooker, Simon

2011-01-01

427

Diagnostic performance indices for immunofluorescent tests and enzyme immunoassays of leishmaniasis sera from northern and north-eastern Brazil.  

PubMed Central

A total of 341 sera were screened for anti-Leishmania IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies by immunofluorescent (IF) tests and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). Altogether, 292 of the sera originated from patients with clinically as well as parasitologically diagnosed (positive lesion imprint or the Montenegro skin test) cutaneous leishmaniasis; 49 of the sera were from controls from the same base population. In terms of diagnostic performance, the ELISAs for IgG and IgM yielded indices of diagnostic utility, and the positive predictive value for the IgG-ELISA was 94.6%. A remarkably high specificity (100%) was obtained with the IgA-IF test, but its sensitivity was very low.

Guimaraes, M. C.; Celeste, B. J.; Franco, E. L.

1990-01-01

428

Failure of Duddingtonia flagrans to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in dairy ewes.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted on three Swiss farms to investigate the efficacy of Duddingtonia flagrans against naturally acquired infections of gastrointestinal nematodes in adult dairy sheep. On each farm the ewes were divided into two equal groups. One group received Duddingtonia during a period of 4 months at a daily dose rate of 10(6) chlamydospores per kilogram body weight, the second group acted as controls. At an overall moderate infection level in all farms D. flagrans did not have a significant effect on the observed parasitological parameters with the exception of a significantly reduced herbage infectivity in one farm. In contrast, the results from faecal cultures indicated a mean suppression of larval development during the fungus-feeding period between 82, 89 and 93% on the three farms, respectively. The discrepancy observed between the fungus efficacy in coprocultures and on pasture, which was also observed in several other studies deserves further research. PMID:17509766

Faessler, H; Torgerson, P R; Hertzberg, H

2007-06-20

429

Comparison of chloroquine, albendazole and tinidazole in the treatment of children with giardiasis.  

PubMed

In a comparative trial, 165 Cuban children with confirmed giardiasis were randomized to receive albendazole (400 mg/day for 5 days), chloroquine (10 mg/kg twice daily for 5 days) or tinidazole (50 mg/kg, as a single dose). Parasitological follow-up was based on faecal samples collected 7 and 10 days after the completion of treatment. The tinidazole and chloroquine appeared equally effective (P > 0.05), curing 91% and 86% of the children treated, respectively, and significantly better (P < 0.01) than the albendazole, which only cured 62% of the children given it. All three drugs were well accepted and tolerated, with only mild, transient and self-limiting side-effects reported. Chloroquine appears to be a good alternative to tinidazole for the treatment of paediatric patients with giardiasis. PMID:12831522

Escobedo, A A; Nez, F A; Moreira, I; Vega, E; Pareja, A; Almirall, P

2003-06-01

430

Helminths in human carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

This review examines the salient literature on selected helminths involved in carcinogenicity in humans and updates information in an earlier review on cancer and helminths by Mayer and Fried (2007, Advances in Parasitology 65, 239-296). The earlier review was concerned with various helminths, i.e., trematodes, cestodes, and nematodes, that are definitely implicated as being carcinogenic. This review examines only those helminths, all of which turn out to be trematodes, that are definitely implicated as being carcinogenic. These trematodes are the blood flukes Schistosoma haematobium, associated with inducing human carcinoma of the urinary bladder and the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, associated with inducing cancer of the bile duct (cholangiocarcinoma) and cancer of the liver (hepatocarcinoma) in humans. The review examines mainly the epidemiology and pathology of these helminthic infections in humans and considers what we know about the mechanisms associated with the carcinogenicity of these three trematodes in humans. PMID:20667649

Fried, Bernard; Reddy, Aditya; Mayer, David

2011-06-28

431

Moxidectin Efficacy in a Goat Herd with Chronic and Generalized Sarcoptic Mange  

PubMed Central

A case of sarcoptic mange affecting almost all the animals of a dairy goat herd is described. This pruritic skin disease led progressively to high mortality and dramatic drop of milk yield. The lesions of the affected goats were typical of a chronic and generalized-diffuse sarcoptic mange. Diagnosis was confirmed by skin scrapings and histopathology in which many mites were demonstrated. All surviving goats were treated with injectable moxidectin solution 1% (CYDECTIN-Fort Dodge) at the dose of 0.2?mg/kg, applied every 15 days for four times, subcutaneously. Although pruritus had decreased soon after the first treatment, a satisfactory healing of cutaneous lesions was witnessed 6 weeks after the beginning of moxidectin trial. Parasitological cure was achieved in all affected animals by the end of the trial. In the four monthly followups, no evidence of sarcoptic mange could be found.

Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Farmaki, Rania; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Elias; Karatzias, Harilaos; Koutinas, Alexander F.

2011-01-01

432

[Occurrence of Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) minutus (Schneider, 1866) (Nematoda, Oxyuridae) in Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 (Primates, Atelidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil].  

PubMed

This study aims to register the occurrence of Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) minutus in Alouatta guariba clamitans, in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Two specimens of A. guariba clamitans, died accidentally, have been necropsied for parasitological studies. Only the large intestine and caecum were infected by T. minutus. The parasitism intensity was 6650 parasites and the density was 2.6 parasites/cm3 of large intestine. In the caecum, the mean intensity was 6753 +/- 490.73 parasites, with mean density of 6.23 +/- 5.13 parasites/cm3. The present study supplies information on adult nematodes biometry and this is the first record of T. (T.) minutus in A. guariba clamitans from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. PMID:20624351

Souza, Danielle de Paiva; Magalhes, Cecilia Maria da Fonseca Ribeiro; Vieira, Fabiano Matos; Souzalima, Sueli de

2010-01-01

433

Parasites or Cohabitants: Cruel Omnipresent Usurpers or Creative "?minences Grises"?  

PubMed Central

This paper presents many types of interplays between parasites and the host, showing the history of parasites, the effects of parasites on the outcome of wars, invasions, migrations, and on the development of numerous regions of the globe, and the impact of parasitic diseases on the society and on the course of human evolution. It also emphasizes the pressing need to change the look at the parasitism phenomenon, proposing that the term cohabitant is more accurate than parasite, because every living being, from bacteria to mammals, is a consortium of living beings in the pangenome. Even the term parasitology should be replaced by cohabitology because there is no parasite alone and host alone: both together compose a new adaptive system: the parasitized-host or the cohabitant-cohabited being. It also suggests switching the old paradigm based on attrition and destruction, to a new one founded on adaptation and living together.

Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Lenzi, Henrique L.

2011-01-01

434

CellPress: Trends Journals Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sixteen review journals from Elsevier Trends Journals are now available online to BioMedNet members (BioMedNet membership is free but requires registration) via trends Online. Journals included in this service are Trends in Biochemical Sciences, Trends in Biotechnology, Trends in Cell Biology, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Drug Discovery Today, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Trends in Endocrinology, Trends in Genetics, Immunology Today, Trends in Microbiology, Molecular Medicine Today, Trends in Neuroscience, Parasitology Today, Pharmaceutical Science & Technology Today, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, and Trends in Plant Science. These journals are freely accessible until May 1, 1999. Afterwards, access is available only to subscribers of each particular Trends journal. Full-text articles from January 1998 can be viewed in both HTML and .pdf formats.

1998-01-01

435

[Surveillance of falciparum malaria susceptibility to antimalarial drugs and policy change in the Comoros].  

PubMed

Between May and June 2001, efficacy of chloroquine was assessed in 5 sentinel sites in the 3 Comoro islands. Among the 183 children, age range between 6 and 59 months, followed up for 14 days, clinical failure rates ranged between 31.2 and 73.1% and the total failure rate (clinical and parasitological) between 50 and 88.5%. Failures were mainly early treatment failures. The Ministry of health, during a consensus meeting decided to change the first line drug and to gather baseline information on the efficacy and the tolerance of the combination artemether-lumefantrine. Between June and September 2004, among the 164 children, age range between 6 and 59 months included, the success rate of the combination was 99.4% in the 3 sites with a follow-up of 28 days. No serious drug related adverse event was reported. PMID:17402684

Silai, R; Moussa, M; Abdalli Mari, M; Astafieva-Djaza, M; Hafidhou, M; Oumadi, A; Randrianarivelojosia, M; Said Ankili, A; Said Ahmed, B; Gayibor, A H; Ariey, F; Ringwald, P

2007-02-01

436

Microalbuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate in Paediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania donovani, is a serious form of leishmaniasis and fatal if untreated. Nearly half of the VL cases are children. There are very few studies of renal function in pediatric visceral leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate renal dysfunction by studying glomerular filtration rate (GFR), microalbuminuria, and microscopic examination of urine. Laboratory analysis was performed on blood and urine samples of 40 parasitologically confirmed pediatric VL cases. Laboratory data of urine examination showed albuminuria in 10% (4/40), white blood cells in 20% (8/40), hematuria in 10% (4/40), microalbuminuria in 37.5% (15/40), and decreased GFR in 27.5% (11/40). Renal involvement was manifested in most of the pediatric VL cases. These findings may help clinicians in decision making for safe and suitable antileishmanial treatment particularly in childhood VL.

Verma, Neena; Lal, Chandra Shekhar; Rabidas, Vidyanand; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Dharmendra; Kumar, Sanjay; Verma, Rakesh Bihari; Das, Pradeep

2013-01-01

437

Protozoan and myxozoan infections in wild gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) from North Lake of Tunis, Tunisia.  

PubMed

A total of 150 gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L., from North Lake of Tunis, Tunisia, were studied for protozoan and myxozoan parasites. The parasitological survey revealed the presence of ectoparasites (Amyloodinium ocellatum Brown, 1931, Trichodina lepsii Lom, 1962 on the gills) and endoparasites (Ceratomyxa sparusaurati Sitj-Bobadilla, Palenzuela et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1995 infecting the gallbladder, and Eimeria sparis Sitj-Bobadilla, Palenzuela et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1996 parasitizing the intestine). This is the first record of Amyloodinium ocellatum, Trichodina lepsii, Ceratomyxa sparusaurati, and Eimeria sparis in S. aurata from Tunisian waters. Data on prevalence and intensity of infection are provided. A comparison of the present species with previously described species in cultured gilthead seabream from other Mediterranean countries is also presented. In this study Trichodina lepsii is identified for the first time in Sparus aurata. A taxonomic description of this species based on silver nitrate method is provided. PMID:22807047

Bahri, Sihem

2012-06-01

438

Endoparasites of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in central Italy.  

PubMed

A parasitologic study on 129 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Tuscany (central Italy) was carried out in 2004-2006. Five intestinal species were found at necropsy: Dipylidium caninum (prevalence 57.3%), Mesocestoides lineatus (45.4%), Uncinaria stenocephala (39.1%), Toxocara canis (9.1%), and Toxascaris leonina (5.4%). Other parasites not associated with the intestine included Crenosoma vulpis (14.7%), Capillaria aerophila (7.0%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (7.0%), and filarial parasites (17.8%). Coprologic tests were less sensitive and less specific in identifying parasites than direct examinations at necropsy. Trichinella larvae were not found in muscles submitted to artificial digestion. By immunologic assay, antigens of Echinococcus spp. were detected in fecal samples of 20 foxes, but results could not be confirmed by fecal examination or molecular tests. PMID:19617506

Magi, M; Macchioni, F; Dell'omodarme, M; Prati, M C; Calderini, P; Gabrielli, S; Iori, A; Cancrini, G

2009-07-01

439

Detection of Cryptosporidium sp. in non diarrheal faeces from children, in a day care center in the city of So Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

The protozoan Cryptosporidium sp. has been frequently detected in faeces from children with persistent diarrhoea. This work achieved to investigate an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis, in a day care center, attending children of high socio-economic level, between 0 and six years old. The outbreak was detected through the network of public health, when stool samples, not diarrhoeic, were examined at the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute. Among the 64 examined children, 13 (20.3%) showed oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. in the faeces examined by Kinyoun technique: seven children one year old, three, two years old and three, three years old. Among the 23 examined adults, only a 22 years old woman, possibly having an immunocomprometiment, was positive. Clinical and epidemiological aspects were investigated by questionnaires, highlighting the occurrence of the outbreak in a very dry period. PMID:16547576

Carvalho-Almeida, Therezinha T; Pinto, Pedro Luis S; Quadros, Celma Maria S; Torres, Domingas M A G V; Kanamura, Hermnia Y; Casimiro, Anglica Maria

2006-01-01

440

Pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis, a clinical reevaluation.  

PubMed

Blastocystis (B.) hominis was considered to be a member of normal intestinal flora in the past, but in recent years it has been accepted as a very controversial pathogenic protozoan. In this study, 52 individuals whose stool examination revealed B. hominis were evaluated for clinical symptoms. Metronidazole was administered for 2 weeks to the patients infected with B. hominis. After 2 weeks of treatment they were called for a follow-up stool examination. No other bacteriological and parasitological agents were found during stool examination of these patients. The frequency rate of intestinal symptoms was 88.4% in the B. hominis cases. Abdominal pain was the most frequent symptom (76.9%). Diarrhea and distention followed at a rate of 50.0% and 32.6%. Intestinal symptoms may be seen frequently together with the presence of B. hominis and this protozoan may be regarded as an intestinal pathogen, especially when other agents are eliminated. PMID:17918055

Kaya, Seluk; Cetin, Emel Sesli; Arido?an, Buket Cicio?lu; Arikan, Salih; Demirci, Mustafa

2007-01-01