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1

Canada and Veterinary Parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology tradition for its conference is to present some highlights of the country hosting the event, and with an emphasis on the history of, and research in, veterinary parasitology. A review of Canada's peoples, physiography, climate, natural resources, agriculture, animal populations, pioneers in veterinary parasitology, research accomplishments by other veterinary parasitologists, centres

J. Owen D. Slocombe

2009-01-01

2

[Parasitism and ecological parasitology].  

PubMed

Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given. PMID:21874841

Balashov, Iu S

3

[Quality control in parasitology].  

PubMed

Between 1990 and 1996 we coordinated a Quality Control (QC) Program in Parasitology directed to Public Health Institutions in Spain. Periodically, parasited specimens, mainly feces or blood, were sent to Microbiology Laboratories for identification. Each QC was accompanied by a short clinic and epidemiological information in order to help in the diagnostic approach. After the answers to the QC were received a bulletin that included the solution to the QC, comments on the several answers received and a chapter with parasitological themes related with the QC, was sent to each participating Laboratory. The bulletin was accompanied by a card that included a photograph and a short description of the organism object of the QC. PMID:12056259

Vasallo Matilla, F

2001-01-01

4

The future of veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current evidence suggests research in veterinary parasitology is in decline despite its importance. This is particularly true in the UK where research funds have been diverted into BSE. Decline in interest in veterinary parasitology is at least in part due to the success of major pharmaceutical companies in producing a range of effective and safe anti-parasitic drugs. Research is needed

G. C. Coles

2001-01-01

5

Teaching human parasitology in China.  

PubMed

China has approximately one-fifth of the world's population. Despite the recent success in controlling major parasitic diseases, parasitic diseases remain a significant human health problem in China. Hence, the discipline of human parasitology is considered as a core subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of the medical sciences. We consider the teaching of human parasitology to be fundamental to the training of medical students, to the continued research on parasitic diseases, and to the prevention and control of human parasitic diseases. Here, we have summarized the distribution of educational institutions in China, particularly those that teach parasitology. In addition, we have described some existing parasitology courses in detail as well as the teaching methods used for different types of medical students. Finally, we have discussed the current problems in and reforms to human parasitology education. Our study indicates that 304 regular higher education institutions in China offer medical or related education. More than 70 universities have an independent department of parasitology that offers approximately 10 different parasitology courses. In addition, six universities in China have established excellence-building courses in human parasitology. PMID:22520237

Zhao, Guanghui; He, Shenyi; Chen, Lin; Shi, Na; Bai, Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2012-04-20

6

Teaching human parasitology in China  

PubMed Central

China has approximately one-fifth of the world’s population. Despite the recent success in controlling major parasitic diseases, parasitic diseases remain a significant human health problem in China. Hence, the discipline of human parasitology is considered as a core subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of the medical sciences. We consider the teaching of human parasitology to be fundamental to the training of medical students, to the continued research on parasitic diseases, and to the prevention and control of human parasitic diseases. Here, we have summarized the distribution of educational institutions in China, particularly those that teach parasitology. In addition, we have described some existing parasitology courses in detail as well as the teaching methods used for different types of medical students. Finally, we have discussed the current problems in and reforms to human parasitology education. Our study indicates that 304 regular higher education institutions in China offer medical or related education. More than 70 universities have an independent department of parasitology that offers approximately 10 different parasitology courses. In addition, six universities in China have established excellence-building courses in human parasitology.

2012-01-01

7

[Problems of medical parasitology].  

PubMed

Situation on parasitic disease in Russia remains complex. Reduction of parasitology personnel had a negative impact on the quality of epidemiological control in the field of parasitic diseases and resulted in a decrease of awareness of physicians of therapeutic-prophylaxis institutions. The situation was aggravated by a lack of anti-malaria preparations and insufficient specter of anti-helminthic drugs. Uncontrolled increase of the number of domestic and stray dogs in cities was the reason for increase of morbidity by helminthoses and zoonoses--toxocarosis and dirofilariasis. Emergence in the south of Krasnodar Region of effective carriers Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus became a serious threat to biological safety of the country. These mosquitos are effective carriers of causative agents of mosquito viral fevers: yellow, Dengue, Chikungunya et al. PMID:23805663

Sergiev, V P

8

The history of Italian parasitology.  

PubMed

The history of Italian parasitology can be subdivided into two periods: pre-Redi and post-Redi. The first period includes the contributions to parasitology by savants who operated during the Roman, medieval and Renaissance eras; the second period started in 1668 when Francesco Redi published his experiments to debunk the theory of spontaneous generation; the work of Redi was subsequently continued by Vallisnieri, Spallanzani and others. The latter period includes classic contributions in the field of parasitology provided by veterinarians such as Ercolani, Perroncito, Piana and Rivolta, and by physicians such as Bassi, Grassi, Golgi, and Celli. Also, two outstanding pages of medical parasitology were written during this period--the unraveling and defeat of St. Gotthard's disease and the conquering of malaria on Italian soil--both accomplished through the generous efforts of dedicated individuals. PMID:11516576

Roncalli Amici, R

2001-07-12

9

History of Human Parasitology  

PubMed Central

Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis.

Cox, F. E. G.

2002-01-01

10

Teaching veterinary parasitology: the North American perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists (AAVP) initiated a study of parasitology curricula in veterinary schools in the US and Canada in November 1989. An ad hoc committee (Task Force) and then the Education Committee developed a position paper on teaching parasitology in veterinary colleges. In addition to confirming the importance of parasitology as a discipline they recommended a set

Bert E Stromberg

2002-01-01

11

Enteric parasitology. Interpreting laboratory reports.  

PubMed Central

Intestinal parasites are common in the stools of human beings. With care and due attention to the techniques of testing, they are relatively easy to find. Unfortunately, deciding on the clinical importance of stool findings is often difficult. This article is an introduction and guide to interpreting enteric parasitology laboratory reports.

MacPherson, D. W.

1995-01-01

12

Various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology, including the disciplinary, the problem-oriented and combined approaches. In the disciplinary approach, parasitology is taught in the classical manner as a coherent subject, covering parasite morphology, biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, pathology, immunology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, therapy, control, and prevention. Problem-oriented teaching approaches the subjects

B Gottstein; J Eckert

2002-01-01

13

Undergraduate teaching of veterinary parasitology in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The undergraduate teaching of veterinary parasitology in an African perspective is reviewed. Information was gathered from 8 of approximately 20 veterinary schools\\/faculties in Africa. In order to compare teaching in the different schools a standard questionnaire was designed for collecting data on different aspects of the curriculum, including the curriculum structure, the year(s) in which veterinary parasitology is taught, the

S Mukaratirwa

2002-01-01

14

Teaching of veterinary parasitology: the Italian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The curriculum in veterinary medicine in Italy is undergoing important changes, as in the rest of Europe. The 2001 fall semester will mark the beginning of a new format for the degree in veterinary medicine and these changes will obviously affect the teaching of veterinary parasitology. In Italy, veterinary parasitology is usually taught in the third year with a disciplinary

L Kramer; C Genchi

2002-01-01

15

Parasitology: United Kingdom National Quality Assessment Scheme.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To assess the results from parasitology laboratories taking part in a quality assessment scheme between 1986 and 1991; and to compare performance with repeat specimens. METHODS: Quality assessment of blood parasitology, including tissue parasites (n = 444; 358 UK, 86 overseas), and faecal parasitology, including extra-intestinal parasites (n = 205; 141 UK, 64 overseas), was performed. RESULTS: Overall, the standard of performance was poor. A questionnaire distributed to participants showed that a wide range of methods was used, some of which were considered inadequate to achieve reliable results. Teaching material was distributed to participants from time to time in an attempt to improve standards. CONCLUSIONS: Since the closure of the IMLS fellowship course in 1972, fewer opportunities for specialised training in parasitology are available: more training is needed. Poor performance in the detection of malarial parasites is mainly attributable to incorrect speciation, misidentification, and lack of equipment such as an eyepiece graticule.

Hawthorne, M.; Chiodini, P. L.; Snell, J. J.; Moody, A. H.; Ramsay, A.

1992-01-01

16

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount) and/or pinworm preparations and, if necessary, refer specimens to another laboratory appropriately certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for...

2009-10-01

17

42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Parasitology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1264, and §§ 493.1281 through...

2010-10-01

18

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount) and/or pinworm preparations and, if necessary, refer specimens to another laboratory appropriately certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for...

2010-10-01

19

42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Parasitology, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, § 493.1264, and §§ 493.1281 through...

2009-10-01

20

[Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].  

PubMed

An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced different theoretical interpretations. The third period in the history of parasitology lasted from the mid 19th century to the end of World War I. At that time a common agreement was established in all Europe, with regard to interpretation of standards inspired by positivism, i.e. verification of empirical statements through observation. Parasitology emerged as a separate discipline. Theoretical barriers limiting its progress and setting the questions were overcome. The contagion concept was reinstated. The colonial conquests solving demography problem provided the most important social impulse for the progress in parasitology. It was supported by governments interested in having their colonies free from diseases, mainly malaria and other tropical diseases, and thus safe for the European pioneer settlers. There was also development of parasitological scientific institutions (institutes of tropical medicine) and didactics. After World War I parasitology entered the fruitful stage of discipline development which resulted in a division into subdisciplines and a progress of new scientific fields. Its theoretical standards have become fixed and provided a basis for preventive programmes against parasite diseases, supported financially by European goverments, USA and some other countries. Those programmes were executed both in the home countries and in the colonies. After World War II, in the fourth stage of parasitology development, attention was mainly paid to local natural environment in order to diagnose parasites and their vectors. At the same time, parasitology became an applied science practiced in many specialized centres not only at universities. Presently, the main aims of parasitology are studies on biodiversity of parasites and environmental protection in the developed countries, and within tropical medicine as the travel medicine, because of rapid increase of tourism. PMID:16913523

Lonc, Elzbieta; P?onka-Syroka, Bozena

2005-01-01

21

Fact or Artifact: A Parasitology Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This parasitology tutorial, from the University of Alberta (Canada)'s Microbiology & Public Health section, is intended to help microscopists in differentiating clinically important parasites from artifacts (e.g., materials from other sites in the body). A combination of color-image illustrations and text, this straightforward site highlights the important distinguishing characters of numerous parasites. The site is organized into six main sections: Introduction, Contents, Protozoans, Helminths, Artifacts, and Comparisons; a small selection of links to other parasitology Websites completes this resource.

22

Cuban parasitology in review: a revolutionary triumph.  

PubMed

Although the population of Hispaniola, Cuba's most similar neighbour in the Caribbean, continues to be threatened by parasitic diseases (including malaria), many tropical parasitic infections in Cuba have been eliminated or controlled. However, some parasitic infections remain important in the Cuban population, and the occurrence of vectors and the high possibility of introduction of parasites mean that Cuban diagnosticians must remain alert. Some key aspects of human parasitology in Cuba are reviewed here, including historical information, comparative data from Hispaniola and Jamaica, and how Cuba strives to maintain and improve its control against parasitic infections. Data from recent key novel parasitology research conducted in Cuba are also described. PMID:18723396

Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Fernández, Fidel Angel Núñez; Robertson, Lucy J

2008-08-22

23

Veterinary Parasitology: Looking to the Next Millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Veterinary parasitology’ has traditionally been concerned with the control of parasites of livestock and companion animals, with emphasis on chemotherapy and immunoprophylaxis. This will continue, but there must be less reliance on chemical control; the development of alternative strategies will be a major goal over the next ten years. Here, Andrew Thompson takes an optimistic look at the challenges, strengths

R. C. A. Thompson

1999-01-01

24

Trends in teaching parasitology: the American situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic infections in both humans and animals are still rampant and appear to be increasing. There is a need for parasitologists, human and animal doctors to contribute toward the global eradication of communicable and food-borne diseases. The need for teaching parasitology, the recommendations and future perspectives are discussed in this article, and it is proposed that macrobiology should be recognized

Alex D. W. Acholonu

2003-01-01

25

Application of molecular biology in veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of applications of molecular biology in veterinary parasitology is increasing rapidly. The techniques used with eukaryotic cells are generally applicable to the study of parasites and their hosts. The polymerase chain reaction is particularly important for identification and diagnosis of parasites, as well as for many other applications. With species and type specific probes or primers, sensitivities and

Roger Prichard

1997-01-01

26

PCR-based technology in veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA technology is having a major impact in many areas of veterinary parasitology. In particular, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has found broad applicability because its sensitivity permits enzymatic amplification of gene fragments from minute quantities of nucleic acids derived from limited amounts of parasite material. This paper discusses some recent applications of PCR-based methods to parasites and highlights their

Robin B. Gasser

1999-01-01

27

Veterinary parasitology teaching in eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are tendencies in universities globally to change undergraduate teaching in veterinary parasitology. To be able to give considered advice to universities, faculties, governmental bodies and professional societies about a discipline and to establish how particular changes may impact on the quality of a course, is the requirement to record and review its current status. The present paper contributes toward

R. B. Gasser; I. Beveridge; N. C. Sangster; G. Coleman

2002-01-01

28

Real-time quantitative PCR in parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard techniques for counting parasites are often time-consuming, difficult and inaccurate, and occasionally unpleasant. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction has recently been applied to parasitology, specifically Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Leishmania and Neospora. These techniques are truly quantitative, give results over a range of 6–7 orders of magnitude, are quick to perform and require no manipulations post-amplification. They can be used to

Andrew S. Bell; Lisa C. Ranford-Cartwright

2002-01-01

29

Southeast Asian tropical medicine and parasitology network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SEAMEO TROPMED Network is a regional cooperative network established in 1967 for education, training and research in tropical medicine and public health under the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Organization. The Network operates through four Regional Centers with respective areas of specialization and host institutions: Community Nutrition\\/Tropmed Indonesia; Microbiology, Parasitology and Entomology\\/Tropmed Malaysia; Public Health\\/Tropmed Philippines; and Tropical Medicine\\/Tropmed

Jitra Waikagul

2006-01-01

30

WAAVP\\/Pfizer Award for Excellence in Teaching Veterinary Parasitology: Teaching of veterinary parasitology – quo vadis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some thoughts on training and recruitment of academic teachers and future trends in teaching veterinary parasitology are presented with emphasis on the European situation. It is underlined that research is an indispensable basis for academic teaching. Besides a broad scientific background of the teacher, motivation and teaching methods are also important. Many academic teachers do not receive formal training in

J Eckert

2000-01-01

31

Teaching of undergraduate veterinary parasitology: the South American perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undergraduate teaching of veterinary parasitology in South American countries is basically similar to most of the veterinary schools and offers lectures and practicals in parasitology (P) predominantly in the second year of the curriculum, and parasitic diseases (PD) in the third year, but in some schools also in the fourth and fifth years. However, there is a great variation in

M. C. R Vieira-Bressan

2002-01-01

32

Parasitological and molecular diagnosis in experimental Strongyloides venezuelensis infection.  

PubMed

Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode of rats which is frequently used as a model to study human and animal strongyloidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between parasitological and molecular diagnosis in Strongyloides venezuelensis infection. PCR assays were used to detect S. venezuelensis DNA in fecal samples obtained from experimentally infected Rattus norvegicus. The results showed a higher sensitivity of the PCR assay in detecting the infection compared to parasitological methods. PMID:23563772

Paula, Fabiana Martins; Sitta, Renata Barnabé; Malta, Fernanda Mello; Gottardi, Maiara; Corral, Marcelo Andreetta; Gryschek, Ronaldo César Borges; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

33

Parasitology: diagnostic yield of stool examination.  

PubMed Central

To assess the need for routinely submitting three stool samples per patient for recovery of enteric parasites, we reviewed the records of our parasitology laboratory for 1985-87 to determine the number of parasites that would not have been detected if only one or two samples had been submitted. A total of 16% of all stool samples were positive. For each sample that was positive for a parasite (index sample) a search was done for other stool samples, positive or negative, received from the same patient within 6 days of reception of the index sample. We identified 676 sets of two (276) or three (400) samples of which at least 1 was positive. A total of 93% of the enteric parasites were detected in the first sample in the two-sample sets. Among the three-sample sets 90% of the parasites were detected in the first sample, 8% in the second and 2% in the third. We recommend waiting for the result from the first stool sample rather than routinely submitting three samples for recovery of enteric parasites.

Senay, H; MacPherson, D

1989-01-01

34

The evolution of metabolic profiling in parasitology.  

PubMed

The uses of metabolic profiling technologies such as mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in parasitology have been multi-faceted. Traditional uses of spectroscopic platforms focused on determining the chemical composition of drugs or natural products used for treatment of parasitic infection. A natural progression of the use of these tools led to the generation of chemical profiles of the parasite in in vitro systems, monitoring the response of the parasite to chemotherapeutics, profiling metabolic consequences in the host organism and to deriving host-parasite interactions. With the dawn of the post-genomic era the paradigm in many research areas shifted towards Systems Biology and the integration of biomolecular interactions at the level of the gene, protein and metabolite. Although these technologies have yet to deliver their full potential, metabolic profiling has a key role to play in defining diagnostic or even prognostic metabolic signatures of parasitic infection and in deciphering the molecular mechanisms underpinning the development of parasite-induced pathologies. The strengths and weaknesses of the various spectroscopic technologies and analytical strategies are summarized here with respect to achieving these goals. PMID:20441681

Holmes, E

2010-05-05

35

Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China.  

PubMed

Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

2012-11-01

36

The role of molecular biology in veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tools of molecular biology are increasingly relevant to veterinary parasitology. The sequencing of the complete genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and other helminths and protozoa is allowing great advances in studying the biology, and improving diagnosis and control of parasites. Unique DNA sequences provide very high levels of specificity for the diagnosis and identification of parasite species and strains, and

Roger Prichard; Andy Tait

2001-01-01

37

Behavioral parasitology and perspectives on miracidial host-finding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes and outlines a new interdiscipline, ‘behavioral parasitology,’ and presents some interpretations in one of the leading themes of this field, miracidial chemosensitivity to snails. Controversies over miracidial attraction and species-specificity are considered from the standpoints of the distinction between taxis and kinesis, the need for a stimulus gradient, and the possibility of an early phase in a

Kenneth S. Saladin

1979-01-01

38

WAAVP\\/Pfizer Award for Excellence in Veterinary Parasitology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being presented with the WAAVP Pfizer award for excellence in parasitological research is the pinnacle of my career. In accepting I acknowledge the support that I have received from workmates, colleagues, friends and family over the years that I have been involved in this field of endeavour. Parasitic disease is the most significant threat to the Australian sheep industry. A

D. R Hennessy

2000-01-01

39

The future of veterinary parasitology: a time for change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of veterinary parasitology is discussed at a time when R&D funding from the pharmaceutical industry is declining, yet the opportunities for veterinary parasitologists to diversify their activities has never been greater. Emerging and re-emerging areas requiring input from veterinary parasitologists include: veterinary public health; conservation and wildlife diseases; emerging and exotic infectious diseases; surveillance strategies; economic effects of

R. C. A Thompson

2001-01-01

40

Teaching of undergraduate veterinary parasitology in some European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review revealed that at 20 veterinary faculties in European countries parasitology is represented in the curriculum of veterinary medicine with an average of 105 core contact hours, devoted to lectures (58%) and practicals (42%). However, there is a high diversity between faculties with ranges of total contact hours between 48 and 156. Three faculties are close to the minimum

J. Vercruysse; J. Eckert

2002-01-01

41

The Problem of Auto-Correlation in Parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explaining the contribution of host and pathogen factors in driving infection dynamics is a major ambition in parasitology. There is increasing recognition that analyses based on single summary measures of an infection (e.g., peak parasitaemia) do not adequately capture infection dynamics and so, the appropriate use of statistical techniques to analyse dynamics is necessary to understand infections and, ultimately, control

Laura C. Pollitt; Sarah E. Reece; Nicole Mideo; Daniel H. Nussey; Nick Colegrave

2012-01-01

42

PARASITOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION OF URBAN SLUDGE USED FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sludge re-use in agriculture has increased in many countries, but this practice must be associated with a knowledge of the pathogens present in these sludges. The aim of this study was to determine the parasitic contamination of helminths found in urban sludges. Parasitological analysis was then performed on 99 samples collected by the waste recycling mission for agricultural purposes: urban

Philippe Gaspard; Jacques Wiart; Janine Schwartzbrod

1997-01-01

43

[Application of mind map in teaching of medical parasitology].  

PubMed

To improve the teaching quality of medical parasitology, mind map, a simple and effective learning method, was introduced. The mind map of each chapter was drawn by teacher and distributed to students before the class. It was helpful for teacher to straighten out the teaching idea, and for students to grasp the important learning points, perfect the class notes and improve learning efficiency. The divergent characteristics of mind map can also help to develop the students' innovation ability. PMID:23484262

Zhou, Hong-Chang; Shao, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Bo-Ying

2012-12-30

44

Raphaël Blanchard, parasitology, and the positioning of medical entomology in Paris.  

PubMed

The histories of medical entomology and parasitology are entwined. Raphaël Blanchard (1857-1919), Chair of Medical Natural History and Parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, organized the teaching of medical entomology and civilian colonial medicine. He also founded and edited the journal Archives de Parasitologie and started the Institute de Médecine Coloniale where he mentored many foreign students and researchers. Additionally, Blanchard is important for his scientific internationalism and medical historical work on the cultural location of parasitology and for training the future professors of parasitology Jules Guiart, Emile Brumpt, and Charles Joyeux. PMID:20055230

Osborne, M A

2008-12-01

45

External quality assessment schemes raise standards: evidence from the UKNEQAS parasitology subschemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The burden of parasitic disease imported into the temperate zone is increasing, and in the tropics remains very high. Thus, high quality diagnostic parasitology services are needed, but to implement clinical governance a measure of quality of service is required.Aim: To examine performance in the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Parasitology for evidence of improved standards

M M Kettelhut; P L Chiodini; H Edwards; A Moody

2003-01-01

46

Status of medical parasitology in South Africa: new challenges and missed opportunities.  

PubMed

In South Africa medical parasitology is neglected due to a shift in funding priorities to focus on HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Evidence suggests that helminth infections have deleterious effects on HIV and tuberculosis. A multisectoral approach involving key government and research institutions is required to rekindle interest in medical parasitology. PMID:22525798

Mkhize-Kwitshana, Zilungile L; Mabaso, Musawenkosi H L

2012-04-21

47

[Design and trial of computer test system for experiment courses of human parasitology].  

PubMed

Based on the traditional experimental test of human parasitology, a reform was conducted to avoid the shortage of specimens and a disclosure of test questions. An experimental test system of human parasitology based on client/server (C/S) structure was therefore developed. This practicable system can increase the efficiency and fairness of examination and reduce cost. PMID:21970118

Liao, Hua; Ling, Jin; Su, Shui-Lian; Zeng, Jie; Xie, Qiong-Jun

2011-06-01

48

The Problem of Auto-Correlation in Parasitology  

PubMed Central

Explaining the contribution of host and pathogen factors in driving infection dynamics is a major ambition in parasitology. There is increasing recognition that analyses based on single summary measures of an infection (e.g., peak parasitaemia) do not adequately capture infection dynamics and so, the appropriate use of statistical techniques to analyse dynamics is necessary to understand infections and, ultimately, control parasites. However, the complexities of within-host environments mean that tracking and analysing pathogen dynamics within infections and among hosts poses considerable statistical challenges. Simple statistical models make assumptions that will rarely be satisfied in data collected on host and parasite parameters. In particular, model residuals (unexplained variance in the data) should not be correlated in time or space. Here we demonstrate how failure to account for such correlations can result in incorrect biological inference from statistical analysis. We then show how mixed effects models can be used as a powerful tool to analyse such repeated measures data in the hope that this will encourage better statistical practices in parasitology.

Pollitt, Laura C.; Reece, Sarah E.; Mideo, Nicole; Nussey, Daniel H.; Colegrave, Nick

2012-01-01

49

The problem of auto-correlation in parasitology.  

PubMed

Explaining the contribution of host and pathogen factors in driving infection dynamics is a major ambition in parasitology. There is increasing recognition that analyses based on single summary measures of an infection (e.g., peak parasitaemia) do not adequately capture infection dynamics and so, the appropriate use of statistical techniques to analyse dynamics is necessary to understand infections and, ultimately, control parasites. However, the complexities of within-host environments mean that tracking and analysing pathogen dynamics within infections and among hosts poses considerable statistical challenges. Simple statistical models make assumptions that will rarely be satisfied in data collected on host and parasite parameters. In particular, model residuals (unexplained variance in the data) should not be correlated in time or space. Here we demonstrate how failure to account for such correlations can result in incorrect biological inference from statistical analysis. We then show how mixed effects models can be used as a powerful tool to analyse such repeated measures data in the hope that this will encourage better statistical practices in parasitology. PMID:22511865

Pollitt, Laura C; Reece, Sarah E; Mideo, Nicole; Nussey, Daniel H; Colegrave, Nick

2012-04-12

50

Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania (Mahale). In this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in Mahale: red colobus (Procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), and chimpanzees. Fecal samples were examined microscopically, and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, larvae, and adult worms. Three nematodes (Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris sp.), Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba spp. were found in all five primate species. The following infections were identified: Bertiella studeri was found in chimpanzees and yellow baboons; Balantidium coli was found in yellow baboons; three nematodes (Streptopharagus, Primasubulura, an undetermined genus of Spirurina) and Dicrocoeliidae gen. sp. were found in red-tailed monkeys, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons; Chitwoodspirura sp. was newly identified in red colobus and red-tailed monkeys; Probstmayria gombensis and Troglocorys cava were newly identified in chimpanzees, together with Troglodytella abrassarti; and Enterobius sp. was newly identified in red colobus. The parasitological data reported for red colobus, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons in Mahale are the first reports for these species. PMID:22661394

Kooriyama, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hideo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio; Nishida, Toshisada; Iwaki, Takashi

2012-06-04

51

Fifty Years of the Korean Society for Parasitology  

PubMed Central

In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future.

2009-01-01

52

Clinical and parasitological study on scabies in Sirte, Libya.  

PubMed

The present work aimed to determine the risk factors, clinical and parasitological skin lesion features and effective drug regimens. Study was carried out on 200 patients referred to dermatology outpatient clinics in Sirte-Libya. Each was subjected to detailed questionnaire, dermatological skin examination, parasitological skin scraping test (SST), burrow ink test (BIT), drug administration and follow up. Results revealed that females 59%, children 37.5% and military personnel 18% of immigrant families were particularly prone to scabies infestation. Effective risk factors included overcrowding, bed sharing, low hygienic and education levels. Commonest skin lesions included erythematous papules 93%, excoriated papules 77.5%, burrows 66%, pustulation 31%, vesicles 21.5 and nodules 3%. Predilection lesion sites were hand 86%, wrist 82%, abdomen 56%, male external genitalia 64.5% and female breast 28%. Specific SST was positive in 67.3% of cases, particularly sensitive in early cases with short itching duration. BIT was positive in 62%. Topical permethrin proved more effective than precipitated sulpher with cure rates of of 100% and 85.3% in 21% and 75% of cases, respectively. Ivermectin was 100% effective in 4% of cases. PMID:21268539

Fathy, Fouad M; El-Kasah, Fathi; El-Ahwal, Abdulla M

2010-12-01

53

Graph methods for the investigation of metabolic networks in parasitology.  

PubMed

Recently, a way was opened with the development of many mathematical methods to model and analyze genome-scale metabolic networks. Among them, methods based on graph models enable to us quickly perform large-scale analyses on large metabolic networks. However, it could be difficult for parasitologists to select the graph model and methods adapted to their biological questions. In this review, after briefly addressing the problem of the metabolic network reconstruction, we propose an overview of the graph-based approaches used in whole metabolic network analyses. Applications highlight the usefulness of this kind of approach in the field of parasitology, especially by suggesting metabolic targets for new drugs. Their development still represents a major challenge to fight against the numerous diseases caused by parasites. PMID:20444302

Cottret, Ludovic; Jourdan, Fabien

2010-05-06

54

Insecticide resistance in head lice: clinical, parasitological and genetic aspects.  

PubMed

Insecticide treatment resistance is considered to be a major factor in the increasing number of infestations by head lice. The large insecticide selection pressure induced by conventional topical pediculicides has led to the emergence and spread of resistance in many parts of the world. Possible mechanisms of resistance include accelerated detoxification of insecticides by enzyme-mediated reduction, esterification, oxidation that may be overcome by synergistic agents such as piperonyl butoxide, alteration of the binding site, e.g. altered acetylcholinesterase or altered nerve voltage-gated sodium channel, and knockdown resistance (kdr). Clinical, parasitological and molecular data on resistance to conventional topical pediculicides show that treatments with neurotoxic insecticides have suffered considerable loss of activity worldwide. In particular, resistance to synthetic pyrethroids has become prominent, probably because of their extensive use. As other treatment options, including non-insecticidal pediculicides such as dimeticone, are now available, the use of older insecticides, such as lindane and carbaryl, should be minimized, owing to their loss of efficacy and safety concerns. The organophosphorus insecticide malathion remains effective, except in the UK, mostly in formulations that include terpineol. PMID:22429458

Durand, R; Bouvresse, S; Berdjane, Z; Izri, A; Chosidow, O; Clark, J M

2012-04-01

55

External quality assessment schemes raise standards: evidence from the UKNEQAS parasitology subschemes  

PubMed Central

Background: The burden of parasitic disease imported into the temperate zone is increasing, and in the tropics remains very high. Thus, high quality diagnostic parasitology services are needed, but to implement clinical governance a measure of quality of service is required. Aim: To examine performance in the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Parasitology for evidence of improved standards in parasite diagnosis in clinical specimens. Methods: Analysis of performance was made for the period 1986 to 2001, to look for trends in performance scores. Results: An overall rise in performance in faecal and blood parasitology schemes was found from 1986 to 2001. This was seen particularly in the identification of ova, cysts, and larvae in the faecal scheme, the detection of Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium vivax in the blood scheme, and also in the correct identification of non-malarial blood parasites. Despite this improvement, there are still problems. In the faecal scheme, participants still experience difficulty in recognising small protozoan cysts, differentiating vegetable matter from cysts, and detecting ova and cysts when more than one species is present. In the blood scheme, participants have problems in identifying mixed malarial infections, distinguishing between P ovale and P vivax, and estimating the percentage parasitaemia. The reasons underlying these problems have been identified via the educational part of the scheme, and have been dealt with by distributing teaching sheets and undertaking practical sessions. Conclusions: UK NEQAS for Parasitology has helped to raise the standard of diagnostic parasitology in the UK.

Kettelhut, M M; Chiodini, P L; Edwards, H; Moody, A

2003-01-01

56

A Preliminary Parasitological Survey of Hepatozoon Spp. Infection in Dogs in Mashhad, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology. Methods The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs). Results Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254). Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29%) were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs. Conclusion This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran.

Amoli, AA Rahmani; Khoshnegah, J; Razmi, GhR

2012-01-01

57

An assessment of the utilization of diagnostic parasitology laboratory services in Ontario  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Diagnostic parasitology services in Ontario were assessed to determine whether the reduction in the number of provider laboratories from 209 to 70 over the period 1977 to 1994 has affected the availability and quality of service. DESIGN: A questionnaire on parasitology practice was distributed to all laboratories. Responses were validated against data from the requisitions, work cards and reports submitted by licensed parasitology laboratories in a pattern-of-practice survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Laboratories in Ontario are licensed by the provincial Ministry of Health and subjected to mandatory proficiency testing. Laboratories not licensed in parasitology may receive specimens for referral to another facility for processing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessment included receipt of fecal specimens for parasitology, on-site testing, the limitation of testing, work referred elsewhere for primary investigation or confirmation, laboratory to which work was referred, and the turnaround time for both on-site and referred work. RESULTS: Ninety-eight per cent of 338 laboratories returned the questionnaire. Three hundred and six received specimens for parasitology. Sixty-four performed the testing. Of the remainder, 235 referred to 40 laboratories. Approximately 31,000 specimens were processed monthly, with 78% examined within private laboratories and 62% having a turnaround time of at least three days. The yield of positive findings was 3% or more of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of fecal parasites has been reliably determined and the genus, species and stage of the organism correctly identified. Utilization must be improved through understanding of the factors increasing the pretest likelihood of a positive finding.

Richardson, Harold; Fleming, Christine; Palmer, Josephine; Chen, Erluo; Lannigan, Robert

1996-01-01

58

Comparative diagnosis of parasitological, serological, and molecular tests in dourine-suspected horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on comparative sensitivity of parasitological, serological, and molecular tests on 237 horses originating from two dourine-suspected\\u000a districts of Arsi-Bale highlands of Ethiopia was conducted to determine the prevalence of the disease and degree of agreement\\u000a of the diagnostic tests. Accordingly, the prevalence of the disease was found to be 4.6%, 36.7%, and 47.6% by parasitological\\u000a Woo test, RoTat 1.2

Fikru Regassa Gari; Hagos Ashenafi; Alemu Tola; Bruno M. Goddeeris; Filip Claes

2010-01-01

59

Application of Cognitive Engineering Principles to the Redesign of a Dichotomous Identification Key for Parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dichotomous identification keys are used throughout biology for identification of plants, insects, and parasites. However, correct use of identification keys can be difficult as they are not usually intended for novice users who may not be familiar with the terminology used or with the morphology of the organism being identified. Therefore, we applied cognitive engineering principles to redesign a parasitology

Kimberly A. Smith-Akins; Sharon McLane; Thomas M. Craig; Todd R. Johnson

2006-01-01

60

Progress in paediatric parasitology: a preface to a topic focusing on ever younger subjects.  

PubMed

Without realizing it perhaps, the research activities of many parasitologists are often focused upon the study of parasites most commonly found in children. Though there is little recognition of paediatric parasitology as a separate topic within medical parasitology, with the global interest in promotion of maternal and child health, alleviation of diseases associated with poverty and requirements of 'child-sized' medicines, a more formal consideration is now timely. Recent research, for example, has highlighted that defining precisely the 'first-age' at which parasites interfere with a child's health, or normal developmental processes, is being revised. Attention is now drawn towards ever younger subjects, for parasites have the capacity to also influence the health of the foetus within the in utero environment, altering immune-development. These subtle, yet evolutionary profound interactions perhaps manifest themselves as to why some children are more prone to infection(s), develop overt disease and sadly die while others do not. Here, we address the growing importance of paediatric parasitology and its applications within disease control strategies as highlighted in the 2010 Autumn Symposium of the British Society of Parasitology. PMID:21923961

Stothard, J Russell; Chiodini, Peter; Booth, Mark

2011-10-01

61

Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: Evidence from morphology and parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population differentiation of seven flatfish species, Citharus linguatula, Lepidorhombus boscii, Platichthys flesus, Microchirus azevia, Solea lascaris, Solea senegalensis and Solea solea, widely distributed along the eastern north Atlantic and occurring in sympatry along the Portuguese coast was studied using morphological and parasitological data. Fish were obtained from commercial fishing vessels operating in three locations along the Portuguese coast (north,

Joana F. Marques; Célia M. Teixeira; Henrique N. Cabral

2006-01-01

62

Review The Interplay of Molecular Biology and Veterinary Parasitology: A Need of the Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tools of molecular biology are increasingly relevant to veterinary parasitology. The techniques used with eukaryotic cells are generally applicable to the study of parasites and their hosts. The sequencing of the complete genomes of helminths and protozoa is allowing great advances in studying the biology, and improving diagnosis and control of parasites. Unique DNA sequences provide very high levels

ABDUL JABBAR; ZAFAR IQBAL; GHULAM MUHAMMAD; MUHAMMAD NISAR KHAN; RAO ZAHID ABBAS; ZIA-UD-DIN SANDHU; MUHAMMAD LATEEF

63

Parasitological and immunological follow-up of American tegumentary leishmaniasis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term evaluation of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis patients was conducted to detect immunological and\\/or parasitological indicators associated with cure or protection against leishmaniasis. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) patients from endemic areas of Leishmania braziliensis infection in Brazil were studied during the active disease, at the end of therapy, and up to 10 years after the end

Sergio G. Coutinho; Claude Pirmez; Alda Maria Da-Cruz

2002-01-01

64

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): the 50th anniversary in 2013--history, achievements, and future perspectives.  

PubMed

In 2013 the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) can celebrate its 50th anniversary. At this occasion in this article selected historical data are updated, and the achievements and future perspectives of the WAAVP are discussed. Although the WAAVP is a small association with only a few hundred members, it has been able to develop remarkable activities. Between 1963 and 2011 the WAAVP has organized 23 international scientific congresses, and the 24th conference will take place in Perth, Western Australia, in 2013. These conferences have achieved a high degree of international recognition as indicated by relatively large numbers of participants (up to ~800). Furthermore, the WAAVP has promoted veterinary parasitology in various ways, such as publishing international guidelines (efficacy evaluation of antiparasitic drugs, parasitological methods, standardized nomenclature of animal parasitic diseases "SNOAPAD"), stimulating international discussions on teaching and continued education ("colleges of veterinary parasitology") and by supporting the high quality journal "Veterinary Parasitology" which is the official organ of the WAAVP. In retrospect, the development of the WAAVP can be classified as very successful. New challenges associated with global changes (growth of the world population, urbanization, climate change, new developments in animal and plant production, etc.) will require new efforts in research in various fields, including veterinary parasitology. Future activities of WAAVP may include inter alia: (a) support of international parasitological networks; (b) stimulation of coordinated research aimed at the solution of defined problems; (c) increasing the exposure of WAAVP to parasitology from hitherto neglected regions of the world; (d) strengthening of official links to international organizations (FAO, WHO, etc.); (e) continuation of guideline preparation; and (d) preparation and international distribution of high quality electronic programs for self-education in veterinary parasitology. PMID:23683652

Eckert, J

2013-04-06

65

Web-Based Virtual Microscopy for Parasitology: A Novel Tool for Education and Quality Assurance  

PubMed Central

Background The basis for correctly assessing the burden of parasitic infections and the effects of interventions relies on a somewhat shaky foundation as long as we do not know how reliable the reported laboratory findings are. Thus virtual microscopy, successfully introduced as a histopathology tool, has been adapted for medical parasitology. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens containing parasites in tissues, stools, and blood have been digitized and made accessible as a “webmicroscope for parasitology” (WMP) on the Internet (http://www.webmicroscope.net/parasitology).These digitized specimens can be viewed (“navigated” both in the x-axis and the y-axis) at the desired magnification by an unrestricted number of individuals simultaneously. For virtual microscopy of specimens containing stool parasites, it was necessary to develop the technique further in order to enable navigation in the z plane (i.e., “focusing”). Specimens were therefore scanned and photographed in two or more focal planes. The resulting digitized specimens consist of stacks of laterally “stiched” individual images covering the entire area of the sample photographed at high magnification. The digitized image information (?10 GB uncompressed data per specimen) is accessible at data transfer speeds from 2 to 10 Mb/s via a network of five image servers located in different parts of Europe. Image streaming and rapid data transfer to an ordinary personal computer makes web-based virtual microscopy similar to conventional microscopy. Conclusion/Significance The potential of this novel technique in the field of medical parasitology to share identical parasitological specimens means that we can provide a “gold standard”, which can overcome several problems encountered in quality control of diagnostic parasitology. Thus, the WMP may have an impact on the reliability of data, which constitute the basis for our understanding of the vast problem of neglected tropical diseases. The WMP can be used also in the absence of a fast Internet communication. An ordinary PC, or even a laptop, may function as a local image server, e.g., in health centers in tropical endemic areas.

Linder, Ewert; Lundin, Mikael; Thors, Cecilia; Lebbad, Marianne; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Helin, Heikki; Leiva, Byron; Isola, Jorma; Lundin, Johan

2008-01-01

66

A bibliometric analysis of research productivity in Parasitology by different world regions during a 9-year period (1995–2003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to estimate the research productivity of different world regions in the field of Parasitology. METHODS: Using the PubMed database we retrieved articles from journals included in the \\

Matthew E Falagas; Paraskevi A Papastamataki; Ioannis A Bliziotis

2006-01-01

67

Performance of Clinical Laboratories in South African Parasitology Proficiency Testing Surveys between 2004 and 2010  

PubMed Central

Performance in proficiency testing (PT) schemes is an objective measure of a laboratory's best performance. We examined the performance of participants in two parasitology PT schemes in South Africa from 2004 through 2010. The average rates of acceptable scores over the period were 58% and 66% for the stool and blood parasite schemes, respectively. In our setting, participation in PT alone is insufficient to improve performance; a policy that provides additional resources and training seems necessary.

Dini, Leigh; Frean, John

2012-01-01

68

Performance of clinical laboratories in South African parasitology proficiency testing surveys between 2004 and 2010.  

PubMed

Performance in proficiency testing (PT) schemes is an objective measure of a laboratory's best performance. We examined the performance of participants in two parasitology PT schemes in South Africa from 2004 through 2010. The average rates of acceptable scores over the period were 58% and 66% for the stool and blood parasite schemes, respectively. In our setting, participation in PT alone is insufficient to improve performance; a policy that provides additional resources and training seems necessary. PMID:22814470

Poonsamy, Bhavani; Dini, Leigh; Frean, John

2012-07-18

69

Clinical, serological, and parasitological analysis of snakes naturally infected with Cryptosporidium serpentis.  

PubMed

Infection by Cryptosporidium serpentis is one of the most important diseases in reptiles and is characterized by chronic clinical or subclinical infection and the presence of hypertrophic gastritis, food regurgitation, progressive weight loss, mortality, and intermittent or continuous shedding of oocysts in the feces. The objectives of this study were to standardize an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against C. serpentis and to evaluate the clinical, parasitological, and humoral immune response in snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis. Twenty-one snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis and housed at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, underwent clinical and parasitological analyses for C. serpentis infection through daily records of clinical signs and a monthly survey of fecal shedding of oocysts using the Kinyoun's acid-fast staining. The serological evaluation was performed monthly by indirect ELISA using crude total antigen from oocysts of C. serpentis to detect anti-C. serpentis antibodies. Clinical symptoms consisted of food regurgitation, inappetence, and progressive weight loss. The parasitological analysis revealed intermittent fecal shedding of a variable number of oocysts in all snakes, with positivity in 85.32% (157/184) of the samples. The indirect ELISA was positive in 68.25% (86/126) of the samples. A humoral immune response was observed in most animals; however, fluctuating antibodies levels, leading to alternating positive and negative results, were observed in most snakes. PMID:24041484

Paiva, Philipp Ricardo S O; Grego, Kathleen F; Lima, Valéria M F; Nakamura, Alex A; da Silva, Deuvânia C; Meireles, Marcelo V

2013-08-29

70

Posttherapeutic cure criteria in Chagas' disease: conventional serology followed by supplementary serological, parasitological, and molecular tests.  

PubMed

We performed a critical study of conventional serology, followed by supplementary serological, parasitological, and molecular tests, to assess the response to etiologic treatment of Chagas' disease. A group of 94 Chagas' disease patients treated with benznidazole at least 10 years earlier were evaluated from the laboratory and clinical points of view. When conventional serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect immunofluorescence [IIF], and indirect hemagglutination [IHA]) and classic criteria (consistent results with any two of the three tests) or more rigorous criteria (consistent results from the three tests) were used, 10.6% and 8.5% of patients were considered treated and cured (TC) by classic and rigorous criteria, respectively. Patients were then evaluated using supplementary (recombinant ELISA and Trypanosoma cruzi excreted-secreted antigen blotting [TESA-blot]), parasitological (hemoculture), and molecular (PCR) tests. The results of recombinant ELISA were similar to those with the rigorous criterion (three consistent test results). The TESA-blot group showed a higher percentage (21.3%) of negative results than the groups defined by either cure criterion. Hemoculture and PCR gave negative results for all treated and cured (TC) patients, regardless of the criterion used. Recombinant ELISA and TESA-blot tests showed negative results for 70% and 87.5% of the patients categorized as TC by the classic and three-test criteria, respectively. For patients with discordant conventional serology, the supplementary serological and molecular tests were the decisive factor in determining therapeutic failure. Clinical evaluation showed that 62.5% of TC patients presented with the indeterminate form of the disease. Additionally, treated patients with negative TESA-blot results should be reevaluated later with all methodologies used here to verify whether TESA-blot is a reliable way to determine early parasitological cure of Chagas' disease. PMID:22739694

Machado-de-Assis, G F; Silva, A R; Do Bem, V A L; Bahia, M T; Martins-Filho, O A; Dias, J C P; Albajar-Viñas, P; Torres, R M; Lana, M

2012-06-27

71

Environmental parasitology. Interactions between parasites and pollutants in the aquatic environment.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been an increasing number of papers showing how parasitism and pollution can interact with each other in aquatic organisms. Among the variety of investigated aspects especially the combined effects of pollution and simultaneous infection on the health of aquatic hosts (molluscs, crustaceans, fish, mammals) is of considerable interest. Effects of pollution on the occurrence and distribution of parasites is another interesting field of "Environmental Parasitology" attracting increasing attention. This mini-review presents some promising examples of interdisciplinary studies paying attention to the fact that under natural conditions no organism will only be affected by either parasites or pollution. PMID:18814718

Sures, B

2008-09-01

72

[Liver fluke infestation in New World camelids. Parasitology, pathology, clinical findings and therapy].  

PubMed

In Llamas and Alpacas infestation with Fasciola hepatica or Dicrocoelium dendriticum can cause liver damage, sometimes even with lethal outcome. Once infected South American Camelids (SACs) react more sensitively to these parasites than other domestic ruminants. We report here on the pathology, parasitology, clinics and therapy of this disease. Concerning Dicrocoelium dendriticum we describe own clinical results and therapeutic outcome in addition to the pathological investigation. According to anatomic corrosion casts, the bile ducts of SACs show more similarity with the equine bile system than with the bile system of domestic ruminants. PMID:10384709

Gunsser, I; Hänichen, T; Maierl, J

1999-05-01

73

[Means for improving the teaching of parasitology in higher medical academic institutions].  

PubMed

In our country's population, the high incidence of parasitoses of various origin is largely due to physicians' poor knowledge of parasitology. Information on major parasitic diseases, provided to students at all higher medical educational establishments, is fragmentary and scarce. For effective preparation of some graduates, the Medical Prevention Faculty, Department of Epidemiology, Saint Petersburg State Medical Academy, has elaborated a model programme for subsequent 3-year postgraduate training both of professionally qualified epidemiologists and parasitologists (1 year for medical postgraduates and 2 years for junior doctors who will specialize in a particular field). This programme provides a comprehensive theoretical background, practical skills, and preparation for making researches, investigations, and practical work. PMID:9608211

Iafaev, R Kh; Avtushenko, E G; Mezhazakis, F I

74

[Comparative value of parasitological and immunological investigations in the diagnosis of chronic schistosomiasis].  

PubMed

Two group of patients including 63 urinary schistosomiasis and 49 intestinal schistosomiasis were studied with the following investigations: microscopic examination of stools and urines, rectal mucosae biopsy, total IgE dosages, plasmatic proteins values and indirect immunofluorescence. The data obtained led to the following conclusions: --Recovery must be based on the microscopic observation of stools and/or urines and R. M. B. --I. F. I. and IgE dosages alone were not sufficient. --Protides evaluations (IgA, IgG, IgM, orosomucoid, haptoglobin) did not show any informative values and did not seem to be linked with the parasitologic disease. PMID:7285269

Deluol, A M; Savel, P; Lancastre, F; Cenac, J; Piéron, R

75

A RETROSPECTIVE EXAMINATION OF SPOROZOITE AND TROPHOZOITE-INDUCED INFECTIONS WITH PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM: DEVELOPMENT OF PARASITOLOGIC AND CLINICAL IMMUNITY DURING PRIMARY INFECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective analysis was made of the parasitologic and fever records of 318 patients who had been infected with the El Limon, Santee Cooper, or McLendon strains of Plasmodium falciparum for treatment of neuro- syphilis between 1940 and 1963 to determine the development of parasitologic and clinical immunity during primary infection. The presence of fever > 101°F and > 104°F,

WILLIAM E. COLLINS; GEOFFREY M. JEFFERY

76

Bibliometric Analysis of Parasitological Research in Iran and Turkey: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background This study was designed to assess and compare the quantity and quality of Iranian and Turkish researchers working in the field of Parasitology from bibliometric point of view. Methods To assess the contributions and achievements of the Iranian and Turkish parasitologists, bibliometric analysis was carried out based on the citation data retrieved from Web of Science. Results The absolute productivity of Turkish and Iranian parasitologists’ papers has almost tripled for Turkey, from 12 papers in 2002 to 36 papers in 2011, and decuple for Iran, from 10 papers to 123 from 2002 to 2010. The average number of citation per article is about 5.8 and 4 for Turkish and Iranian parasitologists’ papers, respectively. The “Veterinary Parasitology” journal was the most cited journal in both countries. The majority (more than 90%) of cited items was foreign journal articles and one half of all references in journals articles dated 11 and 12 years while one half of cited books was dated within 14 to16 years for Turkish and Iranian papers, respectively. Conclusion Based on observed data and applied model, it is anticipated that the total number of Iranian and Turkish parasitologists’ publications in Web of Science will exceed of 2512 and 240 articles per annum for Iranian and Turkish in 2020, respectively.

Rashidi, A; Rahimi, B; Delirrad, M

2013-01-01

77

Toward Molecular Parasitologic Diagnosis: Enhanced Diagnostic Sensitivity for Filarial Infections in Mobile Populations?  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of filarial infections among individuals residing in areas where the disease is not endemic requires both strong clinical suspicion and expert training in infrequently practiced parasitological methods. Recently developed filarial molecular diagnostic assays are highly sensitive and specific but have limited availability and have not been closely evaluated for clinical use outside populations residing in areas of endemicity. In this study, we assessed the performance of a panel of real-time PCR assays for the four most common human filarial pathogens among blood and tissue samples collected from a cohort of patients undergoing evaluation for suspected filarial infections. Compared to blood filtration, real-time PCR was equally sensitive for the detection of microfilaremia due to Wuchereria bancrofti (2 of 46 samples positive by both blood filtration and PCR with no discordant results) and Loa loa (24 of 208 samples positive by both blood filtration and PCR, 4 samples positive by PCR only, and 3 samples positive by blood filtration only). Real-time PCR of skin snip samples was significantly more sensitive than microscopic examination for the detection of Onchocerca volvulus microfiladermia (2 of 218 samples positive by both microscopy and PCR and 12 samples positive by PCR only). The molecular assays required smaller amounts of blood and tissue than conventional methods and could be performed by laboratory personnel without specialized parasitology training. Taken together, these data demonstrate the utility of the molecular diagnosis of filarial infections in mobile populations.

Fink, Doran L.; Fahle, Gary A.; Fischer, Steven; Fedorko, Daniel F.; Nutman, Thomas B.

2011-01-01

78

[Historical context of parasitological studies in tropical area, malaria as an example].  

PubMed

Review paper deals with the historical analysis of intellectual activity of some famous parasitologists working in tropics on malaria in the XIX/XX century: A. Laveran (1845-1922), R. Ross (1857-1932), P. Manson (1844-1922), B. Grassi (1854-1925), and other Nobelprize researchers: P. H. Müller (1899-1965) and J. W. von Jauregg (1857-1940). Those chief investigations are interpreted from the point of view of the so-called anthropology of knowledge based on L. Fleck's (1896-1961) philosophy and sociology of science. Parasitological investigations, especially in the field of malaria, were undertaken in the developed economically countries in answer to the social demands. It was connected with development of colonies and the needs of stabilization of epidemiological situation in tropics. To mid of the eigthies of 19th century the lack of positive effects resulted from the theoretical barriers and conservative thinking style of the European academic society. It caused that great parasitological discoveries of the etiological agents of parasitic diseases (like plasmodia, life cycle in malaria) took place behind university circles. They were done by the physicians - general practitioners--in the colony areas. Doctors A. Laveran, P. Manson and R. Ross were not restricted by traditional standards and the obliging normative concepts in the academic naturalism. Those medical men worked out a new impulse for parasitology and supported an idea based on the rule that each disease should be assigned with the materialistic biological factor (pathogen). In the years 1800-1900 the old and a new concepts were competed in the natural sciences and medicine. Near year 1900 a new way in the context of modern interpretations was brought into general use. It was proved experimentally that etiological theory of parasitic disease was more practically usuful. It resulted in the formation of the effective prophylactic theory as well as the development of research in the field of chemotherapy. For that reason this thinking style was accepted by the state authorities and armies interested in possessing colonies. The governments organized and financed scientific institutes of tropical medicine and the hygienic parasitological journals. Also the researchers (A. Laveran, R. Ross, P. Manson) were rewarded for their epoch-making investigations in tropical disease problems. At the same time the progress in parasitology was prompted and the old theories in old thinking style were eliminated as false because of their practical uselessness. Their followers lost status of authorities. This analysis proved that external factors of science, i.e. social needs in historic periods play real role in the promoting of changes of scientific standards in the perception of new standards. Social needs form the broad social-cultural context of scientific activity and they influence seriously the way of thinking and investigations practice. PMID:18075149

Lonc, Elzbieta; P?onka-Syroka, Bozena

2007-01-01

79

Evaluation of nifurtimox treatment of chronic chagas disease by means of several parasitological methods.  

PubMed

Currently, evaluation of drug efficacy for Chagas disease remains a controversial issue with no consensus. In this work, we evaluated the parasitological efficacy of Nifurtimox treatment in 21 women with chronic Chagas disease from an area of endemicity in Chile who were treated according to current protocols. Under pre- and posttherapy conditions, blood (B) samples and xenodiagnosis (XD) samples from these patients were subjected to analysis by real-time PCR targeting the nuclear satellite DNA of Trypanosoma cruzi (Sat DNA PCR-B, Sat DNA PCR-XD) and by PCR targeting the minicircle of kinetoplast DNA of T. cruzi (kDNA PCR-B, kDNA PCR-XD) and by T. cruzi genotyping using hybridization minicircle tests in blood and fecal samples of Triatoma infestans feed by XD. In pretherapy, kDNA PCR-B and kDNA PCR-XD detected T. cruzi in 12 (57%) and 18 (86%) cases, respectively, whereas Sat DNA quantitative PCR-B (qPCR-B) and Sat DNA qPCR-XD were positive in 18 cases (86%) each. Regarding T. cruzi genotype analysis, it was possible to observe in pretherapy the combination of TcI, TcII, and TcV lineages, including mixtures of T. cruzi strains in most of the cases. At 13 months posttherapy, T. cruzi DNA was detectable in 6 cases (29.6%) and 4 cases (19.1%) by means of Sat DNA PCR-XD and kDNA PCR-XD, respectively, indicating treatment failure with recovery of live parasites refractory to chemotherapy. In 3 cases, it was possible to identify persistence of the baseline genotypes. The remaining 15 baseline PCR-positive cases gave negative results by all molecular and parasitological methods at 13 months posttreatment, suggesting parasite response. Within this follow-up period, kDNA PCR-XD and Sat DNA qPCR-XD proved to be more sensitive tools for the parasitological evaluation of the efficacy of Nifurtimox treatment than the corresponding PCR methods performed directly from blood samples. PMID:23836179

Muñoz, Catalina; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Ortiz, Sylvia; Schijman, Alejandro G; Bisio, Margarita; Ferrada, Valentina; Herrera, Cinthya; Martínez, Gabriela; Solari, Aldo

2013-07-08

80

An internationally recognized quality assurance system for diagnostic parasitology in animal health and food safety, with example data on trichinellosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quality assurance (QA) system was developed for diagnostic parasitology and implemented for several diagnostic assays including fecal flotation and sedimentation assays, trichomonad culture assay, and the testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella to facilitate consistently reliable results. The system consisted of a validated test method, procedures to confirm laboratory capability, and protocols for documentation, reporting, and monitoring.

Alvin A. Gajadhar; Lorry B. Forbes

2002-01-01

81

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines for evaluating the effectiveness of anthelmintics in chickens and turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been prepared to assist in the planning, operation and interpretation of studies designed to assess the effectiveness of drugs against helminth parasites of chickens and turkeys. They are the first to be compiled under the auspices of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) for these parasites. The advantages and disadvantages of the widely

T. A Yazwinski; H. D Chapman; R. B Davis; T Letonja; L Pote; L Maes; J Vercruysse; D. E Jacobs

2003-01-01

82

Paleo-parasitological study on the soils collected from archaeological sites in old district of Seoul City  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paleo-parasitological study was performed on soil samples from archaeological sites in the old district of Seoul Metropolitan City (Old Seoul City) where the capital of the Joseon Kingdom was constructed about 600 years ago. The sampling sites were the original locations of the Royal Palace Wall, Yukjo Street and the Royal Arsenal. Microscopic examinations showed that parasite eggs of

Dong Hoon Shin; Chang Seok Oh; Sang Jun Lee; Jong Yil Chai; Jaehyup Kim; Soong Deok Lee; Jun Bum Park; In-hwa Choi; Hye Jung Lee; Min Seo

2011-01-01

83

"Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

2013-01-01

84

Health status of salmonids in river systems in Natal. I. Collection of fish and parasitological examination.  

PubMed

A detailed microbiological and parasitological survey of salmonids and indigenous fish in the upper reaches of selected river systems in Natal was undertaken. Fish were collected from the rivers by electro-fishing, from dams by gill netting and from hatcheries along the rivers. A total of 678 fish from 26 different sites along 8 river systems were collected. No parasites could be detected on fish from four of the rivers tested. Parasites were, however, detected on fish from large production sites in Natal and in the rivers feeding these sites. Parasites which were detected were Ichthyopthirius multifiliis, various Trichodina spp., Apiosoma sp. and Gyrodactylus sp. The heads of all fish estimated to be less than one year of age were collected and examined for the spores of Myxosoma cerebralis. All of the samples were found to be free of this parasite. PMID:1881656

Bragg, R R

1991-06-01

85

[Difference analysis among majors in medical parasitology exam papers by test item bank proposition].  

PubMed

The quality index among "Medical Parasitology" exam papers and measured data for students in three majors from the university in 2010 were compared and analyzed. The exam papers were formed from the test item bank. The alpha reliability coefficients of the three exam papers were above 0.70. The knowledge structure and capacity structure of the exam papers were basically balanced. But the alpha reliability coefficients of the second major was the lowest, mainly due to quality of test items in the exam paper and the failure of revising the index of test item bank in time. This observation demonstrated that revising the test items and their index in the item bank according to the measured data can improve the quality of test item bank proposition and reduce the difference among exam papers. PMID:22908821

Jia, Lin-Zhi; Ya-Jun, Ma; Cao, Yi; Qian, Fen; Li, Xiang-Yu

2012-04-30

86

Application of Cognitive Engineering Principles to the Redesign of a Dichotomous Identification Key for Parasitology  

PubMed Central

Dichotomous identification keys are used throughout biology for identification of plants, insects, and parasites. However, correct use of identification keys can be difficult as they are not usually intended for novice users who may not be familiar with the terminology used or with the morphology of the organism being identified. Therefore, we applied cognitive engineering principles to redesign a parasitology identification key for the Internet. We addressed issues of visual clutter and spatial distance by displaying a single question couplet at a time and by switching to the appropriate next couplet after the user made a choice. Our analysis of the original paper-based key versus the Web-based approach found that of 26 applicable cognitive engineering principles, the paper key did not meet 4 (15%) and partially met 11 (42%). In contrast, the redesigned key met 100% of 32 applicable cognitive engineering principles.

Smith-Akin, Kimberly A.; McLane, Sharon; Craig, Thomas M.; Johnson, Todd R.

2006-01-01

87

Parasitologic analyses of the sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) at Beza Mahafaly, Madagascar.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional parasitologic survey of a population of wild sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) was conducted at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwest Madagascar. Ninety fecal samples were collected from thirty 1- to 30-yr-old male and female sifakas, and the formalin-preserved and polyvinyl alcohol-preserved specimens were examined using the zinc sulfate flotation and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation techniques. No intestinal parasites were recovered, possibly because the sifakas are arboreal in a dry, riverine habitat and lack human contact. Low rates of parasitic infection may have contributed to the evolution of later age at first reproduction and longer reproductive lifespan, for body mass, in Propithecus compared with other placental mammals. PMID:14582790

Muehlenbein, Michael P; Schwartz, Marion; Richard, Alison

2003-09-01

88

Parasitological risk assessment from wastewater reuse for disposal in soil in developing countries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to analyze the parasitological risks of treated wastewater reuse from a stabilization pond in the city of Piracicaba, in the State of São Paulo (Brazil), and the level of treatment required to protect public health. Samples were taken from raw and treated wastewater in stabilization ponds and submitted to a parasitological, microbiological and physicochemical analysis. The study revealed on treated wastewater the presence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli with an average density of 1 cysts L(-1) and 6 eggs L(-1), respectively. For Ascaris, the annual risks of infection due to the accidental ingestion of wastewater irrigation were 7.5 × 10(-2) in 208 days and 8.7 × 10(-2) in 240 days. For Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in treated wastewater, the average density was 1.0 × 10(5) MPN/100 ml and 2.7 × 10(4) MPN/100 ml respectively, representing 99% and 94% removal efficiency, respectively. For BOD, COD, TS and TSS removal efficiency was 69, 80, 50 and 71%, respectively. The removal efficiency for nitrogen; ammonia nitrogen and total phosphate was 24, 19 and 68%, respectively. The average density of helminths eggs in treated wastewater is higher compared to the density of the limit value of ?1 egg L(-1) and tolerable risk is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Multiple barriers are necessary for the reduction of organic matter, chemical contaminants and parasites from treated wastewater. Standards for the sanitary control of treated wastewater to be reused in agricultural irrigation areas should be compiled for developing countries in order to minimize public health risks. PMID:22466580

Cutolo, Silvana A; Piveli, Roque P; Santos, Jéferson G; Montes, Célia R; Sundefeld, Gilberto; Campos, Fábio; Gomes, Tamara M; Melfi, Adolpho J

2012-01-01

89

Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views oncold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D  

PubMed Central

This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

Malagon, Filiberto

2008-01-01

90

Comparative feasibility of implementing rapid diagnostic test and microscopy for parasitological diagnosis of malaria in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background In Uganda, parasite-based diagnosis is recommended for every patient suspected to have malaria before prescribing anti-malarials. However, the majority of patients are still treated presumptively especially in low-level health units. The feasibility of implementing parasite-based diagnosis for uncomplicated malaria in rural health centres (HCs) was investigated with a view to recommending measures for scaling up the policy. Methods Thirty HCs were randomized to implement parasite-based diagnosis based on rapid diagnostic tests [RDTs] (n = 10), blood microscopy (n = 10) and presumptive diagnosis (control arm) (n = 10). Feasibility was assessed by comparing the proportion of patients who received parasite-based diagnosis; with a positive malaria parasite-based diagnosis who received artemether-lumefantrine (AL); with a negative malaria parasite-based diagnosis who received AL; and patient waiting time. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00565071. Results 102, 087 outpatients were enrolled. Patients were more likely to be tested in the RDT 44, 565 (96.6%) than in microscopy arm 19, 545 (60.9%) [RR: 1.59]. RDTs reduced patient waiting time compared to microscopy and were more convenient to health workers and patients. Majority 23, 804 (99.7%) in presumptive arm were prescribed AL. All (100%) of patients who tested positive for malaria in RDT and microscopy arms were prescribed anti-malarials. Parasitological-based diagnosis significantly reduced AL prescription in RDT arm [RR: 0.62] and microscopy arm [RR: 0.72] compared to presumptive treatment. Among patients not tested in the two intervention arms, 12, 044 (96.1%) in microscopy and 965 (61.6%) in RDT arm were treated with AL [RR: 1.56]. Overall 10, 558 (29.4%) with negative results [5, 110 (23.4%) in RDT and 5, 448 (39.0%) in microscopy arms] were prescribed AL. Conclusion It was more feasible to implement parasite-based diagnosis for malaria using RDT than with microscopy. A high proportion of patients with negative malaria results are still prescribed anti-malarials. There is need to increase access to parasite-based diagnosis where microscopy is used. In order to fully harness the benefits of parasitological confirmation of malaria, it is necessary to reduce the prescription of anti-malarials in negative patients.

2011-01-01

91

Parasitological and malacological surveys reveal urogenital schistosomiasis on Mafia Island, Tanzania to be an imported infection.  

PubMed

To confirm the local endemicity of Schistosoma haematobium on Mafia Island, Tanzania, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys were undertaken in July 2006 with parasitological investigations supplemented with case-history questionnaires. A total of 238 children (125 girls and 113 boys, mean age of 13.9 years) across 9 primary schools were examined. The prevalence of micro-haematuria and egg-patent infection was 18.1% (CI95=9.6-33.6) and 4.2% (CI95=1.9-7.6), respectively but a strong female bias was observed for micro-haematuria (5.6F:1M) contrasting with a strong male bias for the presence of eggs (1F:4M). All egg-patent infections were of light-intensity (<10eggs/10ml). No clear associations between infection prevalence and local water-contact, by school, were found and all 10 of the egg-positive children had a travel history to the nearby mainland or Zanzibar. Inspection of community diagnostic registers at Kilindoni Hospital revealed a low proportion (<2%) of egg-patent infection for 20,306 samples tested in the 2000-2005 period. A total of 43 freshwater sites, a third of which were previously sampled in 1999 and 2002, were surveyed and 11 species of freshwater mollusc were found. Four species of Bulinus (B. nasutus, B. forskalii, B. barthi and B. sp.) were encountered across 13 sites with B. nasutus restricted to 3 of these towards the north of the island. No collected snail was observed to shed schistosome cercariae. Further characterisation of B. nasutus and S. haematobium included infection challenge on two occasions, with miracidia obtained from egg-patent children from Mafia and Unguja islands as well as DNA barcoding of snails and schistosomes. B. nasutus was shown refractory to infection. With the substantial travel to and from Mafia, the refractory nature of local snails and evidence from DNA barcoding in schistosomes and snails, we conclude that urogential schistosomiasis is an imported infection. PMID:23010161

Stothard, J Russell; Ameri, Haji; Khamis, I Simba; Blair, Lynsey; Nyandindi, Ursuline S; Kane, Richard A; Johnston, David A; Webster, Bonnie L; Rollinson, David

2012-09-23

92

Integrating molecular and morphological approaches for characterizing parasite cryptic species: implications for parasitology.  

PubMed

Herein we review theoretical and methodological considerations important for finding and delimiting cryptic species of parasites (species that are difficult to recognize using traditional systematic methods). Applications of molecular data in empirical investigations of cryptic species are discussed from an historical perspective, and we evaluate advantages and disadvantages of approaches that have been used to date. Developments concerning the theory and practice of species delimitation are emphasized because theory is critical to interpretation of data. The advantages and disadvantages of different molecular methodologies, including the number and kind of loci, are discussed relative to tree-based approaches for detecting and delimiting cryptic species. We conclude by discussing some implications that cryptic species have for research programmes in parasitology, emphasizing that careful attention to the theory and operational practices involved in finding, delimiting, and describing new species (including cryptic species) is essential, not only for fully characterizing parasite biodiversity and broader aspects of comparative biology such as systematics, evolution, ecology and biogeography, but to applied research efforts that strive to improve development and understanding of epidemiology, diagnostics, control and potential eradication of parasitic diseases. PMID:21281559

Nadler, Steven A; DE León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

2011-02-01

93

[Investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine].  

PubMed

The paper assesses the investigations on leishmaniases at the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine in 1920 to 2009. The analysis includes papers on biology, ecology, taxonomy, and experimental transmission of the agents of leishmaniases via the bites of sand flies, the principle in the control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) during the agricultural development of extensive territories in the Karshin steppe, on quantitative approaches in the epidemiology of ZCL, a search for Russian effective medicaments to treat patients with this disease and the development of criteria for selecting L. major strains for individual and mass vaccinations against ZCL, the revision of Leishmania circulating in great gerbil populations, and the description of the new species L. turanica, an important parasite for L. major persistence from one transmission season to the next. The first investigations on leishmaniasis were made by Prof. E.I. Martsinovsky, the founder and the first director of the Institute in the early 20th century. PMID:21400708

Kellina, O I; Strelkova, M V

94

Current problems concerning parasitology and mycology with regard to diseases of the skin and its appendages.  

PubMed

Current issues concerning Parasitology and Mycology with regard to diseases of the skin and its appendages are presented. Aspects of diagnostics, clinical picture and therapy of skin and nail mycoses, as well as difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of both native parasitoses (toxoplasmosis) and imported human tropical parasitoses (malaria, filariosis) have been emphasised. The clinical importance of environmental mould fungi in nosocomial infections and fungal meningitis, as well as selected properties of fungi isolated from patients with head and neck neoplasms treated by radiotherapy are discussed. Other mycological topics include the characteristics of newly-synthesized thiosemicarbazides and thiadiazoles as potential drugs against toxoplasmosis and their biological activity against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, selected molecular mechanisms of resistance to azoles, Candida albicans strains and a new tool (barcoding DNA) for describing the biodiversity of potential allergenic molds. The importance of environmental factors in pathogenesis of mycoses and parasitoses is noted. The characteristics of pathogenic fungi isolated from natural ponds in Bialystok and potentially pathogenic yeast-like fungi isolated from children's recreation areas in Lodz are presented. The ongoing problem of anthropozoonoses is considered, as are the roles of stray cats and dogs in contaminating soil with the developing forms of intestinal parasites. The characteristics of the human microbiome, including population composition, activity and their importance in normal human physiology, are presented, as are the major goals of the Human Microbiome Project initiated by National Institutes of Health (NIH). PMID:23444796

B?aszkowska, Joanna; Wójcik, Anna

2012-01-01

95

[Current panorama of the teaching of microbiology and parasitology in Spain].  

PubMed

The training program of residents in microbiology and parasitology in Spain includes clinical skills, ranging from the diagnostic approach to the patient and adequate sample collection for diagnosis of infectious diseases to antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures. Training also includes new challenges in clinical microbiology that ensure residents' participation in infection control programs of health-care associated infections, training in the resolution of public health problems, and application of new molecular microbiology methods. Specialization in clinical microbiology may be undertaken by graduates in Medicine, Biology, Biochemistry and Chemistry. The training is performed in accredited microbiology laboratories at different hospitals (n = 61) across the country through 4-year residency programs. In the last few years, there has been a major imbalance between the number of intended residents (0.17 per 100,000 inhabitants) and those graduating as specialists in clinical microbiology (0.13 per 100,000 inhabitants), with wide variations across the country. The current tendency in Europe is to strengthen the role of clinical microbiologists as key figures in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and in public health microbiology. Training programs have been hampered by the practice of sending samples for microbiological tests to external, centralized multipurpose laboratories with few clinical microbiologists and without a core curriculum. Essential elements in the training of specialists in clinical microbiology are a close relationship between the laboratory and the clinical center and collaboration with other specialists. PMID:21129582

Cantón, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, María Isabel; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique

2010-10-01

96

[Parasitology and entomology in the 29th century in Latin American narrative].  

PubMed

In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies). PMID:11338977

Schenone, H

97

A parasitological survey of natural water springs and inhabitants of a tourist city in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in main springs of Campos do Jordão, an important tourist city, in Brazil and to gather the largest amount of parasitological data from autochthonous population that live in rural areas of this city. The membrane filtration technique followed by direct immunofluorescence assay was employed for concentration and visualization of waterborne protozoa. In the period between June 2003 and May 2004, the presence of at least one pathogenic protozoa was detected in 25.0% (3/12) of the springs studied, with mean concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and 0.07 to 0.1 Giardia sp. cysts/L. The coproparasitological investigation conducted in dwellers from two rural communities from this city revealed that 49.2% (91/185) of people had intestinal parasites. Among pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium was the most prevalent species (8.1%) followed by Giardia duodenalis (5.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (2.7%), and Blastocystis hominis (2.2%). The most prevalent geohelminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (14.9%) and Trichuris trichiura (9.7%). This study demonstrated the contamination and the distribution of intestinal parasites, especially Cryptosporidium and Giardia species, in different springs of an important tourist city in Brazil, highlighting the need of monitoring natural water sources. The high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis detected in some specific populations of this city may function as a link of transmission of different intestinal parasitosis due to soil and water contamination, contributing to the maintenance of parasite life cycles. Therefore, the inclusion of consistent public health interventions with measures that include the protection of springs, the installation of minimum health infrastructure, and primary education of the population are widely necessary, aiming the control and prevention of parasite infections. PMID:22217166

Branco, Nilson; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

2012-01-04

98

The Rücker-Markov invariants of complex Bio-Systems: applications in Parasitology and Neuroinformatics.  

PubMed

Rücker's walk count (WC) indices are well-known topological indices (TIs) used in Chemoinformatics to quantify the molecular structure of drugs represented by a graph in Quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QSAR/QSPR) studies. In this work, we introduce for the first time the higher-order (kth order) analogues (WCk) of these indices using Markov chains. In addition, we report new QSPR models for large complex networks of different Bio-Systems useful in Parasitology and Neuroinformatics. The new type of QSPR models can be used for model checking to calculate numerical scores S(Lij) for links Lij (checking or re-evaluation of network connectivity) in large networks of all these fields. The method may be summarized as follows: (i) first, the WCk(j) values are calculated for all jth nodes in a complex network already created; (ii) A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to seek a linear equation that discriminates connected or linked (Lij=1) pairs of nodes experimentally confirmed from non-linked ones (Lij=0); (iii) The new model is validated with external series of pairs of nodes; (iv) The equation obtained is used to re-evaluate the connectivity quality of the network, connecting/disconnecting nodes based on the quality scores calculated with the new connectivity function. The linear QSPR models obtained yielded the following results in terms of overall test accuracy for re-construction of complex networks of different Bio-Systems: parasite-host networks (93.14%), NW Spain fasciolosis spreading networks (71.42/70.18%) and CoCoMac Brain Cortex co-activation network (86.40%). Thus, this work can contribute to the computational re-evaluation or model checking of connectivity (collation) in complex systems of any science field. PMID:23454544

González-Díaz, Humberto; Riera-Fernández, Pablo; Pazos, Alejandro; Munteanu, Cristian R

2013-02-27

99

Frontiers of parasitology research in the People's Republic of China: infection, diagnosis, protection and surveillance.  

PubMed

Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China) from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China), covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled "Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China" (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011) and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i) development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii) updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii) improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world. PMID:23036110

Chen, Jun-Hu; Wang, Hen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Bergquist, Robert; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2012-10-04

100

Frontiers of parasitology research in the People's Republic of China: infection, diagnosis, protection and surveillance  

PubMed Central

Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China) from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China), covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled “Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China” (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011) and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i) development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii) updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii) improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world.

2012-01-01

101

Knowledge and interests of Romanian medical students in parasitology, tropical and travel medicine.  

PubMed

As travel has become easier and faster, the rate of tropical infections across the world is expected to increase; more students working abroad are going to encounter these diseases more often. Disorders of parasitic etiology play an important role in travel and tropical medicine. The aim of our study was to assess the preclinical students' knowledge regarding parasitic diseases, tropical and travel medicine in the broad context of their professional background. A total of 346 Romanian medical students completed a 13-item questionnaire on the above-mentioned topics. In order to allow for complex evaluation, the questionnaire also included items related to their extracurricular training as well as their future perspectives. The majority of the students (97.7%) declared they had prior knowledge (before studying parasitology) of malaria. Most of the responders (90.2%) knew that a journey in (sub)tropical regions requires adequate prophylactic measures. About a quarter of those interviewed (26.4%) would agree to practice tropical medicine after graduation. They were mainly interested in helping people from underdeveloped countries regardless of remuneration (52.7%). The majority of students (59.8%) wished to practice clinical medicine. It has been observed that fewer than 5% of the questioned students had ever read a scientific paper or book in the field of tropical medicine. English was the most commonly spoken foreign language (92.8%), and 99.1% of students had at least intermediate computer skills. Finally, 71.6% of students would choose to practice the specialty of travel medicine if it were available in Romania. The implementation of appropriate measures towards the globalization of medical teaching in Romanian universities should represent an important issue in this new millennium, in which borders between various nations are starting to fade; otherwise the next generations of physicians will lose the chance to gain wider experiences and share the international influences on health. PMID:21781951

Neghina, Raul; Calma, Crenguta Livia; Neghina, Adriana Maria

2011-07-14

102

Serological and parasitological response in chronic Chagas patients 3 years after nifurtimox treatment  

PubMed Central

Background With declining vectorial transmission, Chagas disease predominantly affects adults nowadays. The efficacy of nifurtimox in the chronic phase in adult patients is poorly known, particularly in regions where there is no risk of reinfection. Recommendations for treatment outcome assessment rely on serological follow-up. We evaluated the serological and parasitological response to nifurtimox in a cohort of adult patients three years post-treatment in Switzerland. Methods Patients treated with nifurtimox in 2008 during a cross-sectional study in Geneva, Switzerland, were contacted for follow-up in 2011. Two ELISAs and a rapid immunochromatographic test were used to test 2008 and 2011 serum samples simultaneously. In addition, conventional and real-time PCR were performed on 2011 samples. Results Thirty-seven (84.1%) of 44 eligible patients, predominantly female, middle-aged, Bolivians at the indeterminate stage, were enrolled. All 2011 ELISA and immunochromatographic tests were positive. Twenty-eight (75.7%) patients presented a lower optical density (OD) in 2011 compared to 2008. This OD difference was significant in both commercial (P?

2013-01-01

103

A bibliometric analysis of research productivity in Parasitology by different world regions during a 9-year period (1995-2003)  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to estimate the research productivity of different world regions in the field of Parasitology. Methods Using the PubMed database we retrieved articles from journals included in the "Parasitology" category of the "Journal Citation Reports" database of the Institute for Scientific Information for the period 1995–2003. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology we developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analysing: (1) the total number of publications, (2) the mean impact factor of all papers, and (3) the product of the above two parameters, (4) the research productivity in relation to gross domestic product of each region, and (5) the research productivity in relation to gross national income per capita and population of each region. Results Data on the country of origin of the research was available for 18,110 out of 18,377 articles (98.6% of all articles from the included journals). Western Europe exceeds all world regions in research production for the period studied (34.8% of total articles), with USA ranking second (19.9%), and Latin America & the Caribbean ranking third (17.2%). The mean impact factor in articles published in Parasitology journals was highest for the USA (1.88). Oceania ranked first in research productivity when adjustments for both the gross national income per capita (GNIPC) and population were made. Eastern Europe almost tripled the production of articles from only 1.9% of total production in 1995 to 4.3% in 2003. Similarly, Latin America and the Caribbean and Asia doubled their production. However, the absolute and relative production by some developing areas, including Africa, is still very low, despite the fact that parasitic diseases are major public health problems in these areas. Conclusion Our data suggest that more help should be provided by the developed nations to developing areas for improvement of the infrastructure of research.

Falagas, Matthew E; Papastamataki, Paraskevi A; Bliziotis, Ioannis A

2006-01-01

104

An internationally recognized quality assurance system for diagnostic parasitology in animal health and food safety, with example data on trichinellosis.  

PubMed

A quality assurance (QA) system was developed for diagnostic parasitology and implemented for several diagnostic assays including fecal flotation and sedimentation assays, trichomonad culture assay, and the testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella to facilitate consistently reliable results. The system consisted of a validated test method, procedures to confirm laboratory capability, and protocols for documentation, reporting, and monitoring. Specific system components included a quality assurance manual, training program, proficiency panels, inter-laboratory check-sample exchange program, assay critical control points, controls, and audits. The quality assurance system of the diagnostic laboratory was audited according to ISO/IEC Standard 17025 by an international third party accrediting body and accredited as a testing laboratory for the specific parasitology tests. Test results generated from the laboratory were reliable and scientifically defensible according to the defined parameters of the tests and were therefore valid for a variety of purposes, including food safety, international trade, and declaration of disease status in an animal, herd, farm, or region. The system was applicable to various test methods for the detection of parasites in feces or other samples, and a digestion test system developed for Trichinella was used as an example. A modified tissue digestion assay was developed, validated, and implemented by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Centre for Animal Parasitology for efficiency and quality assurance. The details of the method were properly documented for routine testing and consisted of a homogenization process, an incubation at 45+/-2 degrees C, and two sequential sedimentations in separatory funnels to concentrate and clarify final aliquots for microscopic examination. To facilitate consistently reliable test results, 14 critical control points were identified and monitored, analysts were certified, and the test system verified through the use of validation data, proficiency samples, and training modules. PMID:11751008

Gajadhar, Alvin A; Forbes, Lorry B

2002-01-01

105

[The singular story of Doctor Worm -Nicholas Andry de Boisregard- and of his daughters Parasitology and Orthopaedics].  

PubMed

Homini verminoso or Dr. Worm were the nicknames that Nicholas Aindry won in life for his consecration to the study of intestinal worms and for his bad temper, which led him to fiercely attack the surgeons. The article reassumes the studies and contributions that gave Andry the title of Father of Parasitology and the candidacy to Father of Orthopaedics, and mentions some other candidates to this honor. Quite a man, he had -besides his biological one- two famous daughters, growing till our days; wrote at least three valuable books; and planted the immortal "tree of Andry", the symbol of Orthopaedics. PMID:23282505

Ledermann, Walter

2012-10-01

106

Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira\\u000a highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission.\\u000a Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted

Solomon Tesfaye; Yeshambel Belyhun; Takele Teklu; Tesfaye Mengesha; Beyene Petros

2011-01-01

107

Bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: Parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background To clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes. Results A total of 239 cattle were sampled across eight locations ranging in elevation from 1112-2072?m. Faecal material was examined for presence of Fasciola eggs and sera were tested by ELISA for antibodies against Fasciola antigens. Bolstering this, 38 cattle at slaughter from 2 abattoir sites at 1150?m and 1947?m were inspected; in addition, wild buffalo stool (n?=?10) opportunistically picked within Mount Elgon National Park (MENP) at 3640?m was examined. By faecal egg detection, prevalence of Fasciola gigantica at low (<1500?m) and high (>1500?m) altitude sites was 43.7% (95% CI 35.4-52.2) and 1.1% (95% CI 0.0-6.0), respectively, while by ELISA was much higher, low altitude - 77.9% (95% CI 69.7-85.4) and high altitude - 64.5% (95% CI 51.3-76.3). The decline in prevalence with increasing altitude was corroborated by abattoir sampling. Thirty seven aquatic habitats, ranging from 1139-3937?m in altitude were inspected for freshwater snails, 12 of which were within MENP. At lower altitudes, Lymnaea (Radix) natalensis was common, and often abundant, but at higher altitudes became much rarer ceasing to be found above 1800?m. On the other hand, Lymnaea (Galba) truncatula was found only at altitudes above 3000?m and within MENP alone. The snail identifications were confirmed by DNA analysis of the ribosomal 18S gene. Conclusions Active infections of F. gigantica in cattle are common in lower altitude settings but appear to diminish with increasing elevation. This is likely due to a growing paucity of intermediate hosts, specifically populations of L. natalensis for which a natural boundary of 1800?m appeared. Although F. hepatica was not encountered, the presence of several populations of L. truncatula at elevations over 3000?m point towards a potential transmission zone within MENP should this parasite be introduced.

2012-01-01

108

Babesiosis in dogs and cats--expanding parasitological and clinical spectra.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis caused by different Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and global significance. Historically, Babesia infection in dogs was identified based on the morphologic appearance of the parasite in the erythrocyte. All large forms of Babesia were designated Babesia canis, whereas all small forms of Babesia were considered to be Babesia gibsoni. However, the development of molecular methods has demonstrated that other Babesia species such as Babesia conradae, Babesia microti like piroplasm, Theileria spp. and a yet unnamed large form Babesia spp. infect dogs and cause distinct diseases. Babesia rossi, B. canis and Babesia vogeli previously considered as subspecies are identical morphologically but differ in the severity of clinical manifestations which they induce, their tick vectors, genetic characteristics, and geographic distributions, and are therefore currently considered separate species. The geographic distribution of the causative agent and thus the occurrence of babesiosis are largely dependent on the habitat of relevant tick vector species, with the exception of B. gibsoni where evidence for dog to dog transmission indicates that infection can be transmitted among fighting dog breeds independently of the limitations of vector tick infestation. Knowledge of the prevalence and clinicopathological aspects of Babesia species infecting dogs around the world is of epidemiologic and medical interest. Babesiosis in domestic cats is less common and has mostly been reported from South Africa where infection is mainly due to Babesia felis, a small Babesia that causes anemia and icterus. In addition, Babesia cati was reported from India and sporadic cases of B. canis infection in domestic cats have been reported in Europe, B. canis presentii in Israel and B. vogeli in Thailand. Babesiosis caused by large Babesia spp. is commonly treated with imidocarb dipropionate with good clinical response while small Babesia spp. are more resistant to anti-babesial therapy. Clinical and parasitological cure are often not achieved in the treatment of small Babesia species infections and clinical relapses are frequent. The spectrum of Babesia pathogens that infect dogs and cats is gradually being elucidated with the aid of molecular techniques and meticulous clinical investigation. Accurate detection and species recognition are important for the selection of the correct therapy and prediction of the course of disease. PMID:21571435

Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad

2011-04-19

109

[Historical review on the development of medical parasitology in China during the years of 1871-2006].  

PubMed

The present review deals with the representative research papers on human parasites and parasitic diseases in China over the past hundred years (1871-2006). As the views focused on the development of the medical parasitology, the historical background and progressive characters in the period of fermentation, origination, and expansion have been discussed. The check list of the first cases of human parasitic diseases reported in China during 1871-2006 contained 128 species of parasitic pathogens, and among them 38 species were the newly revisional records. The citation from Faust's paper (1923) proved that previous record of "the first case of Eurytrema pancreaticum from Hongkong" was an absurdly mistake. The human infections of Diphyllobothrium latum, Toxocara canis, and Triodontophorus minor discovered by Lin (1924) from Beijing were the first records in the country. A doubtful malaria case reported from Chongqing by Hung (1944) should be revised as the first case of babesiosis in China. The above-presented examples suggest that the truthful record of parasitic pathogens is an important base for the discovery history of parasitic diseases. With comments on the research progress of human parasitic diseases in different historical stages, it seems that the trends of medical parasitology development in China have been synchronous with the research activities in the area. PMID:18038794

Qu, Feng-yi

2007-08-01

110

A parasitological, molecular and serological survey of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs around the Aegean coast of Turkey.  

PubMed

Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by the tick-borne protozoon Hepatozoon spp. The prevalence of the infection in the Aegean coast of Turkey was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using blood samples from 349 dogs collected from Central Aydin, Kusadasi, Selcuk, Central Manisa, Bodrum and Marmaris within the Aegean coast of Turkey. The indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the detection of Hepatozoon canis antibodies was also used to detect the exposure rate to H. canis. PCR amplifying a 666bp fragment of 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. was used in the epidemiological survey. The prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 10.6% by blood smear parasitology and 25.8% by PCR. IFAT revealed that 36.8% of serum samples were positive for antibodies reactive with Hepatozoon spp. The PCR products of 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. isolated from six infected dogs, one isolate originating from each of the six different locations, were sequenced. The results of sequence analysis indicate that they are closely related to Indian and Japanese isolates of H. canis. This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of H. canis infection in the dog, in Turkey. PMID:16229952

Karagenc, Tulin Ilhan; Pasa, Serdar; Kirli, Gulcan; Hosgor, Murat; Bilgic, Huseyin Bilgin; Ozon, Yavuz Hakan; Atasoy, Abidin; Eren, Hasan

2005-10-17

111

Evaluation of immunological, parasitological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection before and after chemotherapy treatment with praziquantel in experimentally infected Nectomys squamipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In low endemicity areas of schistosomiasis, the recommended diagnostic method of coprological examination results in an underestimation of infection cases. Alternative diagnostic methods have been developed, such as immunodiagnostic and molecular techniques. In this study we evaluated three methods used in the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection: parasitological (Kato-Katz), immunological (ELISA) and molecular (real time PCR), and also investigated the

Rosana Gentile; Margareth Maria Lessa Gonçalves; Sócrates Fraga da Costa Neto; Maristella Matos da Costa; Regina Helena Saramago Peralta; José Mauro Peralta

2011-01-01

112

Cooperia punctata trickle infections: parasitological parameters and evaluation of a Cooperia recombinant 14.2 kDa protein ELISA for estimating cumulative exposure of calves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups of four calves each were trickle infected with three different levels of Cooperia punctata: 310 (group A), 1250 (group B) and 5000 (group C) third stage infective larvae (L3) twice a week over a 17-week period. Group D was the non-infected control group. Parasitological parameters as faecal egg counts (epg), worm burdens, size of worms and number of

A. P Yatsuda; F. N. J Kooyman; H. W Ploeger; M. C. R Vieira-Bressan; E de Vries; M Eysker

2002-01-01

113

Gordon Research Conference on Molecular and Immunological Aspects of Parasitology Held at New London, New Hampshire on 7-11 Aug 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1989 Gordon Research Conference on Molecular and Immunological Aspects of Parasitology was held at Colby-Sawyer College, New London, NH, August 7-11, 1989. A large amount of new and exciting data was presented and resulted in long and wide ranging dis...

E. R. Pfefferkorn

1990-01-01

114

In Their Own Words Or: Symptoms of Morgellons and Neurocutaneous Syndrome (Ncs) Upon First Examination at the Parasitology Center, Inc. (Pci)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon first examination at Parasitology Center, Inc. (PCI), Scottsdale, Arizona, prospective Neuro- cutaneous Syndrome (NCS) and Morgellons patients are required to fill out a Requisition Form in which they are asked to describe their symptoms. The body of this article is a compilation of statements by 166 patients in their own words, describing their symptoms at the time, the cause

Omar M. Amin

2010-01-01

115

Origin and history to date of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation.  

PubMed

The origin of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation is described. The 16th WAAVP Conference held in South Africa in 1997 generated a surplus of ZAR 430 460 (US$ 70 116). This was invested and a foundation established to manage the fund with the intention of using it to the mutual advantage of the WAAVP and African veterinary parasitologists. To date, more than 110 scholarship applications have been screened, and 51 full and partial scholarships awarded to young African veterinary parasitologists to attend subsequent biennial WAAVP Conferences. This investment has grown into a very successful endowment currently valued at US$ 206 553. This article is written in response to many queries across the globe about the origin of this fund and how it has been invested, managed, sustained and utilised. PMID:21826831

Krecek, R C; Penzhorn, B L; de Waal, D T; Peter, R J; Prichard, R; Sumption, D

2011-03-01

116

Experimental chemotherapy of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: persistence of parasite antigens and positive serology in parasitologically cured mice.  

PubMed Central

Mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, but parasitologically cured after specific chemotherapy, continued to exhibit positive indirect immunofluorescence serological tests 3-6 months after the therapy. Treatment of trypanosome antigens with monospecific antisera produced in rabbits, and examination by immunoelectron-microscopy following peroxidase labelling disclosed the presence of membrane deposits in cell processes in the spleens of the mice. Similar deposits were observed in the external membranes of T. cruzi amastigotes in the spleens of acutely infected mice, but not in normal control mice. No reaction occurred in tissues not previously treated with the monospecific anti-T. cruzi serum. Positive cells in treated and cured mice, as well as in the not cured or untreated control mice, were located in germinal centres of the splenic white pulp and presented long and branching cytoplasmic processes, which are indicative of dendritic cells of the lymphoid follicles of the spleen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Andrade, S. G.; Freitas, L. A.; Peyrol, S.; Pimentel, A. R.; Sadigursky, M.

1991-01-01

117

[The teaching of microbiology and parasitology in undergraduate medical education and its adaptation to the European Higher Education Area].  

PubMed

The creation of the European Higher Education Area provides a series of opportunities for far-reaching reform of medical education and changes in the way both students and teachers work. The Bologna process must be implemented before 2010 in signatory countries, which include Spain, and must allow education and academic titles to be homologated. Medical degrees must consist of 360 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits, divided into six academic years (60 credits per academic year). The Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Barcelona has already put the finishing touches to a proposal for the distribution of subjects in the new curriculum. This proposal strengthens and reassesses the teaching of microbiology and parasitology compared with current curricula, giving these subjects appropriate weight in undergraduate medical education. The teaching of medical microbiology and parasitology is included as a core subject worth 8 ECTS in the third year and two free-choice modules of 2.5 and 3 ECTS to be taken in the first semesters of the fifth and sixth years as part of the minor in "Clinical and Experimental Laboratory"(30 ECTS). The teaching of microbiology will also play an important role in the Integrated Learning in Medicine (INTEL-M) course in the third, fourth and fifth years. INTEL-M is an innovation in the syllabus based on the joint planning, organization and evaluation of a series of subjects (24.5 ECTS) that are developed in small groups of students and in the form of problem-based learning. PMID:21129581

Ruiz, Vicente Ausina; Otero, Beatriz Mirelis; Pastor, Guillem Prats

2010-10-01

118

Bibliometric Analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: Measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse Databases  

PubMed Central

The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indixes were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades.

2009-01-01

119

The use of fish metabolic, pathological and parasitological indices in pollution monitoring . II. The Red Sea and Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

??The complex interactions between parasites, hosts and the environment are influenced by the stability of the ecosystem. Heteroxenous parasites, with complex, multiple-host life cycles, can persist only in habitats where the full range of their required hosts are present. Conversely, in impoverished environments such as those impacted by environmental stress, monoxenous species that have simple, single-host life cycles are likely to predominate. In the present study, we analyzed the ratio between heteroxenous and monoxenous (H/M) parasites as well as parasite species richness (SH/SM) and species diversity in rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) collected from several sites in the Red Sea. The rabbitfish is a Suez Canal immigrant, well established in the eastern Mediterranean, and fish were also collected from a site on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Separate treatment of the micro- and macroparasite components of the rabbitfish parasite communities in the Red Sea suggested that macroparasites only - monogenea and gut parasites - were better indicators than the parasite community as a whole. Quantification of macroparasites is accurate, saves time and effort, produces more accurate data and better differentiates between sites. Higher H/M ratios and SH/SM ratios were found in the rabbitfish collected at the ecologically stable habitat of the coral reef compared to rabbitfish from sandy habitat or mariculture-impacted sandy habitat. The results of the study emphasized the negative impacts of cage mariculture on the environment. The rabbitfish collected near the mariculture farms supported the poorest and least diverse parasite communities of all sampled sites, with virtual depletion of heteroxenous species, and even reduction of gill monogenean infections on the hosts. When results from the Mediterranean sites were compared with those of the Red Sea, the data showed full representation of monoxenous parasites (all but one of Red Sea origin), while heteroxenous species were completely absent. We may therefore regard the Mediterranean as a simulation model for a severely environmentally deteriorated, impoverished habitat, in which all or part of the intermediate host species have been depleted, enabling survival of the monoxenous parasite species only. Parasitological investigations were supplemented by testing the activity of cytochrome P 450- dependent mono-oxygenase EROD as a measure of exposure, and lysosomal stability as a measure of toxic effect in the liver of rabbitfish. The results underline the parasitological findings, showing that fish caught at the impacted sandy beach location in the Red Sea have significantly higher EROD activity and a decreased membrane stability compared with animals from the coral reef. In comparison, EROD activity values in rabbitfish from the Mediterranean Sea were double, while lysosomal membrane stability was half that measured at the most impacted Red Sea location.

Diamant, A.; Banet, A.; Paperna, I.; Westernhagen, H. v.; Broeg, K.; Kruener, G.; Koerting, W.; Zander, S.

120

A comparative study on specific antibodies and circulating antigen (CAA) in serum and parasitological findings for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in an endemic area in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

A baseline study to evaluate the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection as well as the diagnostic efficacy of serodiagnostic tests was performed in Kabaganga village, Kome island, Lake Victoria, Tanzania. A total of 1108 individuals were examined parasitologically and clinically. Egg excretion was demonstrated by one-sample Kato-Katz test. Specific IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against S. mansoni adult worm (SAWA) and

Camilla Håkangård; A. M. Deelder; R. M. Gabone; L.-Å. Nilsson; Ö. Ouchterlony

1996-01-01

121

[The results of hacettepe university faculty of medicine parasitology laboratory in 2003-2012: evaluation of 10 years].  

PubMed

Objective: Parasitic diseases are common throughout the world. Evaluation of regional epidemiological data is needed to determine protective measures and treatment strategies. Methods: This study evaluates the parasites detected in Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Parasitology Laboratory. Results: Of the 87,100 clinical samples evaluated in the study, 85,707 (98.4%) were from stool samples. Parasites were shown in 3,681 (4.2%) of the samples from 2,906 patients. The most common parasites were Giardia intestinalis (40%), Blastocystis spp. (22%), Entamoeba coli (12%), Dientamoeba fragilis (9%), Enterobius vermicularis (5%), Echinococcus spp. (4%) and Taenia spp. (3%) respectively. When distribution among years was evaluated, G. intestinalis, the most common parasite, had a tendency to decrease after 2004 whereas cases with Blastocystis spp. showed a clear increase in 2011 and 2012. The downward trend in parasite-positive cases also stopped in the last two years, in parallel to the increase of Blastocystis spp. During the study, Leishmania spp. and Plasmodium spp. were detected in four patients each. Conclusion: This study evaluated the results of a laboratory that scans a large number of patients in our region. Data obtained from different regions will allow to direct strategies to diagnose, treat and implement preventive measures against parasitic diseases in our country. (Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2013; 37: 97-101). PMID:23955906

Gülmez, Dolunay; Sar?ba?, Zeynep; Akyön, Yakut; Ergüven, Sibel

2013-01-01

122

[Performance and parasitologic infestation of male dairy cattle supplemented with proteic salt containing or not homeopathic medicines].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and parasitologic infection of male dairy cattle submitted to supplemental proteic salt with and without the use of homeopathic medicines. Were used crossbred Gir x Holstein castrated males calves, with 10 months of age and live weight of 150.75 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with eight replicates per treatment, totaling 16 animals. The calves of each treatment remained in a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, managed in continuous grazing system for 8 months. The treatments employed were: supplementation with 300 g/animal/day of protein (40% of crude protein (CP) and 25% CP in the dry and rainy season, respectively) added or not with 5 g/animal/day of the homeopathic medicines FATOR PRO® and C & MC®. The addition of homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) the development of body male crossbred to pasture. The counting of the larvae and adults of ticks in scrapings were lower (P < 0.05) in animals that did not receive homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement. The females tick in the body anterior third (simplifying counting), nymphs in scrapings and the number of eggs per gram of helminths were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments. It was concluded that the use of homeopathic medicines did not affect the development of male crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy cattle neither their parasitic infection. PMID:20059813

Signoretti, Ricardo D; Veríssimo, Cecília José; De Souza, Fernando Henrique M; Garcia, Tamires Da S; De Oliveira, Elisa Marcela; De Souza, Karen G; Mourão, Gerson Barreto

2008-09-01

123

Effect of Experimental Infection with Haemonchus contortus on Parasitological and Local Cellular Responses in Resistant and Susceptible Young Creole Goats  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to evaluate the relationships of cellular changes in the abomasal mucosa and parasitological parameters, by comparing resistant and susceptible young Creole goats (kids) after experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus. The kids were infected over 2 periods (challenges 1 and 2) of 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Fecal egg count (FEC), blood eosinophilia, packed cell volume (PCV), and body weight were weekly monitored. At the end of both challenges a subgroup of kids was slaughtered for nematode burden measurements and analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the abomasal mucosa. The average daily gain was higher in resistant kids after both challenges. Blood eosinophilia and FEC were higher in susceptible kids after both challenges. The number of immature worms and the means of female length were lower after challenge 2 whatever the genetic status. No differences were observed in the eosinophil and mononuclear cell infiltration between challenges 1 and 2 and resistant and susceptible kids. Globule leukocyte infiltration was found higher after the challenge 1 in resistant kids. This effect of the genetic status on globule leukocytes counts but not on the other inflammatory cell highlights the need for further study on the functional activity of these cell populations.

Bambou, J. C.; Larcher, T.; Cei, W.; Dumoulin, P. J.; Mandonnet, N.

2013-01-01

124

Parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium.  

PubMed

The parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium were studied. A total of 16 guinea-pigs were divided into four groups (four per group): non-immunosuppressed, non-infected group (NN); immunosuppressed, non-infected group (IN); immunosuppressed, infected group (II); non-immunosuppressed, infected group (NI). The IN and II groups were immunosuppressed with 5 mg/kg prednisolone while the II and NI animals were infected with 200-300 S. haematobium cercariae. Excretion of eggs in urine/faeces, worm burden and histopathology of some vital organs of the guinea-pigs were studied. Eggs of S. haematobium were observed in the urine of the NI and II groups from 9 weeks post-infection and in faeces from 10 and 13 weeks post-infection for the NI and II groups, respectively. However, II animals excreted more viable eggs in urine and faeces than those of the NI group. Worm recovery at 14 weeks post-infection showed that NI and II guinea-pigs had more female worms than male worms and a greater proportion of worm recovery for NI animals was of immature worms. Significant differences (P < 0.05) existed between female, male and immature worm burden of the two groups but not in their total worm burden (P>0.05). Histological changes, which were notably reactions to adult S. haematobium worms, were observed in the organs of the NI and II groups but these changes were seen more in the organs of the immunosuppressed, infected (II) than in the non-immunosuppressed, infected (NI) guinea-pigs. The results suggest that immunosuppression before infection increased worm survival and had a moderate effect on liver and bladder histology of S. haematobium infected guinea-pigs. PMID:21929842

Okeke, O C; Ubachukwu, P O; Okafor, F C; Shoyinka, S V O

2011-09-20

125

Soviet Research in Parasitology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Changes in physiology and size of Ixodidae ticks when feeding repeatedly on the same animals; Specificity of Coccidia of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Aristichthys nobilis and Carps; Methods of studying natural infestation of chiggers by Tsutsuga...

V. A. Musatov V. A. Musselius N. I. Kudryashova E. M. Kheisin V. I. Vashkov

1968-01-01

126

Updates in immunoassays: parasitology.  

PubMed

Although most clinical laboratories use microscopy and routine O&P procedures when identifying parasitic infections, there are several parasites that are better detected through serological means. Toxoplasma, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were discussed along with immunoassays used for their detection. Immunoassays provide quick results and are less labor intensive than specimen concentration and slide preparation for microscopic examination. These assays are easy to use and provide sensitive and specific results. Some clinical laboratories no longer perform O&Ps in house and refer specimens to reference laboratories for evaluation. By using immunoassays, some of the more common parasites can be identified in a timely manner reducing turn-around times. Some controversy exists over the use of IIF and EIA tests used for ANA testing along with measuring CRPs and PCT as predictors of bacterial sepsis and septic shock. Regardless of the methodology discussed in this series of articles, there are pros and cons to the various immunoassays available. Determining the most appropriate assay based on patient population and volume is governed by the institution and its patients' needs. In conclusion, immunoassays, whether manual or automated, are easy to use, cost effective and allow the medical laboratory professional to provide quick and accurate results to the clinician so the most appropriate treatment can be administered to the patient. The ultimate goal of healthcare professionals is to provide the highest quality of medical care in a timely manner. The use of immunoassays in the clinical laboratory allows the healthcare team to successfully achieve this goal. PMID:22953520

Josko, Deborah

2012-01-01

127

Bioinformatics meets parasitology.  

PubMed

The advent and integration of high-throughput '-omics' technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics and lipidomics) are revolutionizing the way biology is done, allowing the systems biology of organisms to be explored. These technologies are now providing unique opportunities for global, molecular investigations of parasites. For example, studies of a transcriptome (all transcripts in an organism, tissue or cell) have become instrumental in providing insights into aspects of gene expression, regulation and function in a parasite, which is a major step to understanding its biology. The purpose of this article was to review recent applications of next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatic tools to large-scale investigations of the transcriptomes of parasitic nematodes of socio-economic significance (particularly key species of the order Strongylida) and to indicate the prospects and implications of these explorations for developing novel methods of parasite intervention. PMID:21615422

Cantacessi, C; Campbell, B E; Jex, A R; Young, N D; Hall, R S; Ranganathan, S; Gasser, R B

2012-05-01

128

Physiology, pharmacology and parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing resistance to current chemical classes of broad-spectrum anthelmintics and insecticides presents an undeniable threat to the long-term viability of the animal health industry. Alternative treatment strategies including vaccines, biological control and breeding of parasite-resistant animals are unlikely to be widely available in the near future and even then they will be integrated with chemotherapy. The significant cost of

D. R. Hennessy

1997-01-01

129

PARASITOLOGY: The Malarial Secretome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The malaria parasite is a wily pathogen that resides comfortably within its parasitophorous vacuole in the host red blood cell. By skillfully exporting its own proteins across the parasitophorous vacuole membrane into the erythrocyte cytosol and plasma membrane, the malaria parasite ensures a steady supply of nutrients. As Przyborski and Lanzer discuss in their Perspective, the discovery of a host cell-targeting sequence in these exported parasite proteins reveals how the parasite accomplishes this task (Marti et al.; Hiller et al.).

Jude Przyborski (Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg;Department of Parasitology); Michael Lanzer (Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg;Department of Parasitology)

2004-12-10

130

A comparative study on specific antibodies and circulating antigen (CAA) in serum and parasitological findings for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni in an endemic area in Tanzania.  

PubMed

A baseline study to evaluate the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection as well as the diagnostic efficacy of serodiagnostic tests was performed in Kabaganga village, Kome island, Lake Victoria, Tanzania. A total of 1108 individuals were examined parasitologically and clinically. Egg excretion was demonstrated by one-sample Kato-Katz test. Specific IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies against S. mansoni adult worm (SAWA) and egg (SEA) antigens as well as circulating anodic antigen (CAA) were determined in serum samples from 250 of these subjects. As a control population 41 individuals from a non-endemic area were examined parasitologically, clinically and serologically. In the parasitologically examined Kabaganga population 45% were excreting eggs. The pattern of egg excretion was typical for an endemic area with a peak in the age group 10-14 years. Sixty-five percent of the serologically tested villagers were positive in the CAA test. A total of 80% were positive in either of the two tests, indicating an active infection. In 67-95% of these individuals the levels of isotype specific antibodies were increased. The prevalence of CAA positivity corresponded fairly well with that of Kato-Katz results in the age groups 10-29 years, but in the younger age groups a considerably greater number of individuals were positive in the CAA test than in the Kato-Katz test. The results obtained indicate that virtually all of the Kabaganga villagers, regardless of age, had an ongoing, active infection or had previously been infected with S. mansoni. This population, therefore, may be useful for evaluation of the diagnostic efficacy of various antibody tests. The highest degree of discrimination between the endemic and the non-endemic village populations was noted for anti-egg IgG4 antibodies. It is concluded that the combined determination of parasite eggs in faeces and CAA in serum provides high sensitivity as regards active infection. Increased levels of isotype-specific antibodies, particularly of the IgG4 subclass, is a sensitive indicator of past or present infection, and the prevalence of individuals with such increased levels may be a simple and reliable indicator of the frequency of schistosomiasis in a community. PMID:8790772

Håkangård, C; Deelder, A M; Gabone, R M; Nilsson, L A; Ouchterlony, O

1996-05-01

131

Exames parasitológicos, imunoistoquímicos e histopatológicos para detecção de Leishmania chagasi em tecidos esplênicos de cães com leishmaniose visceral Parasitological, immunohistochemical and histopathological study for Leishmania chagasi detection in spleenic tissues of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis - CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics

Karen Ingrid Tasca; Wilma Aparecida; Starke Buzetti; Michely da Silva Tenorio; Silvana de Cássia Paulan

2009-01-01

132

[International collaboration of the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine: assistance for public health in the Republic of Guinea].  

PubMed

Within the framework of international collaboration, the E.I. Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine (IMPTM), I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, assisted the Public Health System of the Republic of Guinea in detecting, diagnosing, studying, and preventing tropical infections of viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies, and in training national scientific manpower. The work was under way in the Soviet-Guinea Research Microbiology and Virology Laboratory, USSR Ministry of Health, in the Republic of Guinea (now the Pasteur Institute in Guinea (PIG)) in 1978-1991. The circulation of pathogens of a number of tropical infections, the fauna of vectors and carriers of transmissible infections, and their involvement of the circulation of pathogens of these diseases were found in this period. Consultative-and-methodological and medical assistance was given; national higher- and middle-level brainpower trained. It is expedient to restore scientific ties between the IMPTM and the PIG. PMID:22536739

Konstantinov, O K

133

[Parasitological profile of two forms of schistosomiasis (urinary and intestinal forms) at ten sites in Burkina Faso (Sub-Saharan Africa country)].  

PubMed

In spite of great progress in schistosomiasis control during the last decade in Burkina Faso, this disease remains a public health concern in the country. Indeed, our study consisted of the analysis of parasitological data related to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni and in malacological investigations. The prevalence rate of Schistosoma haematobium varies from 3.3% to 50.4% and from 3.3% to 39.1% for Schistosoma mansoni, but only in the western part of Burkina Faso. Schoolboys are more infested than girls, but the phenomenon is reversed in adults. Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus senegalensis and Bulinus globosus were collected during this study. Thus, the behavioral factors as well as the dynamics and the distribution of the intermediate mollusks play a major role in the persistence of the disease. PMID:23916210

Zongo, Dramane; Kabre, B Gustave; Dayeri, Dianou; Savadogo, Boubacar; Poda, Jean-Noël

2013-07-18

134

Studies on Parasitologic and Haematologic Activities of an Enaminone Derivative of 4-Hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one Against Murine Schistosomiasis Mansoni  

PubMed Central

The activity of a novel enaminone derivative of 4–hydroxyquinoline, BDHQ, was screened for its effectiveness against murine schistosomiasis by electron microscopy and parasitologic studies. The correlation of these studies with serum levels of IFN–gamma and IgE is described. Two groups of 10 mice each were treated with different doses of BDHQ, and their results were correlated with the control and praziquantel (PZQ)–treated groups. Parasitologic study revealed significant reduction in mature worms and tissue egg loads in BDHQ– and PZQ–treated groups, whereas immature worms revealed significant reduction in BDHQ groups only. The group treated with a higher dose of BDHQ showed significant reductions in intestinal ova count when compared with the PZQ–treated group. Ultrastructural examination of the worm revealed significant degeneration of the spines and tegument in all treated groups, while the genital system was affected in BDHQ–treated groups only. BDHQ showed considerable effect on cellular activation where serum levels of IFN–gamma were significantly increased in comparison to control, while anti–soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) IgE was significantly increased in comparison to both the control and PZQ–treated groups. Ultrastructural examination revealed cellular activation in buffy coat and the liver in both the BDHQ– and PZQ–treated groups in comparison to the untreated one, whereas in the bone marrow and spleen, evidence of cellular activation was remarkable in the BDHQ–treated groups. In conclusion, BDHQ exhibits high levels of activity against adult and juvenile stages of these parasites, which may be due to its mixed cellular and humoral immunologic mechanisms, as demonstrated by the significant increase of serum levels of IgE and IFN–gamma shown on electron microscopy. Therefore, our results support the comparative advantage that BDHQ has over PZQ.

El-Shennawy, Amal M.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Mohamed Abass

2007-01-01

135

Studies on parasitologic and haematologic activities of an enaminone derivative of 4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one against murine schistosomiasis mansoni.  

PubMed

The activity of a novel enaminone derivative of 4-hydroxyquinoline, BDHQ, was screened for its effectiveness against murine schistosomiasis by electron microscopy and parasitologic studies. The correlation of these studies with serum levels of IFN-gamma and IgE is described. Two groups of 10 mice each were treated with different doses of BDHQ, and their results were correlated with the control and praziquantel (PZQ)-treated groups. Parasitologic study revealed significant reduction in mature worms and tissue egg loads in BDHQ- and PZQ-treated groups, whereas immature worms revealed significant reduction in BDHQ groups only. The group treated with a higher dose of BDHQ showed significant reductions in intestinal ova count when compared with the PZQ-treated group. Ultrastructural examination of the worm revealed significant degeneration of the spines and tegument in all treated groups, while the genital system was affected in BDHQ-treated groups only. BDHQ showed considerable effect on cellular activation where serum levels of IFN-gamma were significantly increased in comparison to control, while anti-soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) IgE was significantly increased in comparison to both the control and PZQ-treated groups. Ultrastructural examination revealed cellular activation in buffy coat and the liver in both the BDHQ- and PZQ-treated groups in comparison to the untreated one, whereas in the bone marrow and spleen, evidence of cellular activation was remarkable in the BDHQ-treated groups. In conclusion, BDHQ exhibits high levels of activity against adult and juvenile stages of these parasites, which may be due to its mixed cellular and humoral immunologic mechanisms, as demonstrated by the significant increase of serum levels of IgE and IFN-gamma shown on electron microscopy. Therefore, our results support the comparative advantage that BDHQ has over PZQ. PMID:17435624

El-Shennawy, Amal M; Mohamed, Amira H; Abass, Mohamed

2007-01-23

136

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in ruminants (bovine, ovine, caprine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first edition of the W.A.A.V.P. anthelmintic guidelines for ruminants was published in 1982. Since then improved parasitological procedures have been developed, new therapeutic and prophylactic products have appeared requiring different test methods, and registration authorities are requesting more detailed record keeping and data validation. This second edition addresses these developments and fulfills the original goal of publishing guidelines for

I. B. Wood; N. K. Amaral; K. Bairden; J. L. Duncan; T. Kassai; J. B. Malone; J. A. Pankavich; R. K. Reinecke; O. Slocombe; S. M. Taylor; J. Vercruysse

1995-01-01

137

Therapeutic action of MK-436 (2,5-nitroimidazole) on Trypanosoma cruzi infections in mice: a parasitological, serological, histopathological, and ultrastructural study*  

PubMed Central

The anti-protozoal drug MK-436 (3-(1-methyl-5-nitroimidazol-2-yl)-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-1,2-benzisoxazole) was found to be effective against Trypanosoma cruzi infections in mice (2 daily doses of 250 mg per kg body weight). Parasitaemia disappeared within 24 hours of treatment which was commenced during the early or late stages of acute infection. Intracellular T. cruzi parasites were also affected by the drug, ultrastructural findings showing severe cytoplasmic vacuolization and membrane alterations. Positive serological responses persisted in the majority of treated and parasitologically cured mice in the study. Cure rates varied from 72% to 100% and were similar regardless of the T. cruzi strain used (Y strain, type I; 12 SF strain, type II; or Colombian strain, type III). However, the proportion of positive serological tests and the frequency of inflammatory lesions were greatest for mice that were infected with the Colombian strain of the parasite. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6

Andrade, S. G.; Silva, R. C.; Santiago, C. M. G.; Freitas, L. A. R.

1987-01-01

138

Comparison of passive fecal flotation run by veterinary students to zinc-sulfate centrifugation flotation run in a diagnostic parasitology laboratory.  

PubMed

The sensitivity of fecal examination methods can be influenced by both technician error and methodology. In this analysis, we compared the results of 335 passive fecal flotation examinations performed on the feces of stray dogs by 3rd-yr veterinary students at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, to the results obtained through zinc-sulfate centrifugation performed by the diagnostic parasitology laboratory on the same fecal samples. The students' passive flotation results agreed with the laboratory zinc-sulfate centrifugation for only 62.4% of samples. Students were able to diagnose 75.0% of Ancylostoma caninum cases, 71.4% of Toxocara canis cases, 54.2% of Trichuris vulpis cases, 26.7% of Cystoisospora spp. (C. ohioensis-like and C. canis) cases, and 14.7% of Giardia lamblia cases. There were also 70 instances where students reported the presence of parasites in the sample that were not diagnosed by zinc-sulfate centrifugation. Based on the overall study findings, passive fecal flotation examinations run in private practice could be missing up to 50.5% of infected dogs, due to either technician error or inherent limitations to the passive fecal flotation technique. PMID:19284803

Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J

2009-03-13

139

The Use of Bivariate Spatial Modeling of Questionnaire and Parasitology Data to Predict the Distribution of Schistosoma haematobium in Coastal Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Questionnaires of reported blood in urine (BIU) distributed through the existing school system provide a rapid and reliable method to classify schools according to the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, thereby helping in the targeting of schistosomiasis control. However, not all schools return questionnaires and it is unclear whether treatment is warranted in such schools. This study investigates the use of bivariate spatial modelling of available and multiple data sources to predict the prevalence of S. haematobium at every school along the Kenyan coast. Methodology Data from a questionnaire survey conducted by the Kenya Ministry of Education in Coast Province in 2009 were combined with available parasitological and environmental data in a Bayesian bivariate spatial model. This modeled the relationship between BIU data and environmental covariates, as well as the relationship between BIU and S. haematobium infection prevalence, to predict S. haematobium infection prevalence at all schools in the study region. Validation procedures were implemented to assess the predictive accuracy of endemicity classification. Principal Findings The prevalence of BIU was negatively correlated with distance to nearest river and there was considerable residual spatial correlation at small (?15 km) spatial scales. There was a predictable relationship between the prevalence of reported BIU and S. haematobium infection. The final model exhibited excellent sensitivity (0.94) but moderate specificity (0.69) in identifying low (<10%) prevalence schools, and had poor performance in differentiating between moderate and high prevalence schools (sensitivity 0.5, specificity 1). Conclusions Schistosomiasis is highly focal and there is a need to target treatment on a school-by-school basis. The use of bivariate spatial modelling can supplement questionnaire data to identify schools requiring mass treatment, but is unable to distinguish between moderate and high prevalence schools.

Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Mwandawiro, Charles; Brooker, Simon J.

2013-01-01

140

Evaluation of immunological, parasitological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection before and after chemotherapy treatment with praziquantel in experimentally infected Nectomys squamipes.  

PubMed

In low endemicity areas of schistosomiasis, the recommended diagnostic method of coprological examination results in an underestimation of infection cases. Alternative diagnostic methods have been developed, such as immunodiagnostic and molecular techniques. In this study we evaluated three methods used in the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection: parasitological (Kato-Katz), immunological (ELISA) and molecular (real time PCR), and also investigated the sensitivity of each technique in the cure determination after treatment with praziquantel using the water rat Nectomys squamipes, a natural reservoir for S. mansoni, as an experimental model. Two infection laboratory experiments were carried out. The first experiment aimed to observe the evolution of the immunological response in the first moments after infection and in the first months after treatment. The second experiment aimed to compare the efficacy of the three diagnostic techniques after infection and after treatment over a more extended time period. In the first experiment, 44% of the infected animals showed IgG reactivity after two weeks of infection, and 94% were positive based on serology 30 days after infection. The serological IgG titers increased just after infection but decreased gradually after treatment. In the second experiment, 89% of the animals showed positive IgG titers 22 days after infection. Only 68% of the animals showed positive results on the coproscopic diagnostic analysis and 79% did so by qPCR, 50 days after infection. Treated animals showed negative results on coproscopy one month after treatment but remained positive by serology even 12 months after treatment, although showing a decline in immunologic reaction after treatment. By qPCR analysis, all animals showed negative results three months after treatment, except for one animal. The parasitosis can be detected by coproscopy only six weeks after infection, and by serology 14 days after infection. The qPCR was a better diagnostic method for confirming the infection cure of S. mansoni. In early infection, this method was less efficient than serology but was slightly more efficient than the Kato-Katz method. We suggest that the methods should be used in low endemic areas as follows: serology should be used in the initial diagnosis in a population with potential positive cases; subsequently, coproscopy should be used in IgG positive cases to confirm the current infection; and qPCR should be used to evaluate the infection cure after treatment and is also a very valuable tool when there are cases showing positive IgG and negative coproscopy. PMID:21458922

Gentile, Rosana; Gonçalves, Margareth Maria Lessa; da Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; da Costa, Maristella Matos; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Peralta, José Mauro

2011-03-12

141

[The campaign against malaria in central western Madagascar: comparison of lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT house spraying. II--Parasitological and clinical study].  

PubMed

For malaria vector control in Madagascar, 10 WP (lambda-cyhalothrin 10% wettable powder) was compared with DDT 75% WP for house-spraying, from November 1997 to September 1998. This study was implemented at the fringe of the malaria epidemic zone, in villages on western slopes of the central highlands, outside the area covered for the past five years by routine DDT house-spraying (OPID). Four types of treatment were compared in different areas: 1) DDT 2 g ai/m2 and 2) lambda-cyhalothrin 30 mg ai/m2 in previously unsprayed villages, 3) no intervention (control); 4) yearly DDT spraying (OPID fifth cycle). To investigate the malariological impact of spraying, cross-sectional surveys of the village populations were performed in each study area at intervals of two months, before and after spraying. In the newly sprayed areas, from December to June, malaria indices decreased by 62% in the ICON area and 44% in the DDT area, whereas in the unsprayed village malaria increased by 32% during the same season. There was a similar decrease in the number of gametocyte carriers in the newly sprayed areas. Active malaria case detection among febrile individuals was performed fortnightly in each village outside the OPID area. Results showed decreased malaria incidence from February (two months post-spraying) in the sprayed villages, despite the rainy season, whereas in the unsprayed area the decline occurred only after the main transmission season. This study demonstrated that, parasitologically as well as entomologically, house-spraying with residual insecticide (DDT or ICON) was an effective method for controlling malaria on the western fringes of the Madagascar highlands epidemic zone. Both products were effective, but ICON had slightly better impact than DDT, i.e. more reduction of malaria indices and of vector longevity, less irritancy of mosquitoes. For best results in this area of transition between stable and unstable malaria, we recommend earlier annual spraying (as soon as November) and extension of the OPID barrier towards western and northern slopes of the Plateau. PMID:11802267

Cot, M; Brutus, L; Le Goff, G; Rajaonarivelo, V; Raveloson, A

2001-12-01

142

PCR amplification reactions in parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of PCR systems for the detection and identification of pathogenic human parasites has only recently started. Evaluation of most of these methods is still lacking. Most likely these methods will need considerable improvement before reliable diagnostic methods become available. Only for some parasitic diseases, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis, PCR has already proven to be of potential diagnostic value,

Henk L. Smits; Rudy A. Hartskeerl

1995-01-01

143

Current Concepts in Parasitology: Onchocerciasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Onchocerciasis, a filarial infection transmitted by black flies, has taken its toll of countless generations of Africans. Today, it afflicts 40 million and has blinded between one-quarter and one-half million persons. The causal organism, Onchocerca volvu...

D. H. Connor

1977-01-01

144

[A case study of singular spectrum analysis application in parasitology: dynamics of prevalence of Cryptocotyle concavum and Bunocotyle progenetica trematode parthenitae in Hydrobia ventrosa snails at the White Sea].  

PubMed

In this study parasitological data were analyzed by different methods of revealing the structure of time series, namely auto-correlation analysis (ACA), Fourier spectrum analysis (SA) and singular spectrum analysis (SSA), and the results of these analysis were compared (SSA makes it possible to present non-stationary time series as a sum of independent components and to determine the contribution of each component into the dispersion of the initial series--Golyandina et al., 2001). This case study was based on the result of 10-year-long monitoring of changes in the prevalence of Cryptocotyle concavum and Bunocotyle progenetica trematode parthenitae in intertidal snails Hydrobia ventrosa at the White Sea (in total, 45 observations). ACA did not reveal any statistically significant oscillations in the analyzed series. The application of SSA and SA allowed us to reveal at least two quasi-periodical components. In addition, SSA made it possible to reveal a significant dome-shaped trend in the prevalence of B. progenetica parthenitae, which were described by SA as an oscillation with a period equal to the duration of the study, as well as to give proof that there was no trend in the changes of C. concavum parthenitae prevalence. The components (modes) extracted by the SSA described the changes in the prevalence better that the harmonics extracted by the SA. In particular, SSA modes (contrary to SA harmonics) reflected that the amplitude of oscillations of the B. progenetica prevalence increased as the prevalence grew. The sums of SSA modes correlated more with initial prevalence series that the sums of SA harmonics. A possible interpretation of the trends and modes extracted by the SSA in the light of the transmission features of the investigated trematode species in the study area was proposed. PMID:23866616

Levakin, I A; Nikolaev, K E; Galaktionov, K V

145

Identification of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate-mefloquine combination in an area along the Thai-Myanmar border: integration of clinico-parasitological response, systemic drug exposure, and in vitro parasite sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Background A markedly high failure rate of three-day artesunate-mefloquine was observed in the area along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods Identification of Plasmodium falciparum isolates with intrinsic resistance to each component of the artesunate-mefloquine combination was analysed with integrated information on clinico-parasitological response, together with systemic drug exposure (area under blood/plasma concentration-time curves (AUC)) of dihydroartemisinin and mefloquine, and in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum in a total of 17 out of 29 P. falciparum isolates from patients with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Analysis of the contribution of in vitro parasite sensitivity and systemic drug exposure and relationship with pfmdr1 copy number in the group with sensitive response was performed in 21 of 69 cases. Results Identification of resistance and/or reduced intrinsic parasitocidal activity of artesunate and/or mefloquine without pharmacokinetic or other host-related factors were confirmed in six cases: one with reduced sensitivity to artesunate alone, two with resistance to mefloquine alone, and three with reduced sensitivity to artesunate combined with resistance to mefloquine. Resistance and/or reduced intrinsic parasitocidal activity of mefloquine/artesunate, together with contribution of pharmacokinetic factor of mefloquine and/or artesunate were identified in seven cases: two with resistance to mefloquine alone, and five with resistance to mefloquine combined with reduced sensitivity to artesunate. Pharmacokinetic factor alone contributed to recrudescence in three cases, all of which had inadequate whole blood mefloquine levels (AUC0-7days). Other host-related factors contributed to recrudescence in one case. Amplification of pfmdr1 (increasing of pfmdr1 copy number) is a related molecular marker of artesunate-mefloquine resistance and seems to be a suitable molecular marker to predict occurrence of recrudescence. Conclusions Despite the evidence of a low level of a decline in sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates to artemisinins in areas along the Thai-Myanmar border, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) would be expected to remain the key anti-malarial drug for treatment of multidrug resistance P. falciparum. Continued monitoring and active surveillance of clinical efficacy of ACT, including identification of true artemisinin resistant parasites, is required for appropriate implementation of malaria control policy in this area.

2013-01-01

146

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) The laboratory must have available a reference collection of slides or photographs and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use these references in the laboratory for appropriate comparison with diagnostic...

2009-10-01

147

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) The laboratory must have available a reference collection of slides or photographs and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use these references in the laboratory for appropriate comparison with diagnostic...

2010-10-01

148

Molecular parasitology in the twenty first century  

PubMed Central

Protist parasites cause important human and animal diseases and because of their early divergence from other eukaryotes they possess structural and biochemical characteristics not found in other cells. The completion of the genome projects of most human protist parasites and the development of novel molecular tools for their study guarantee a rapid progress in understanding how they invade, modify, and survive within their hosts. The ultimate goal of these studies will be the identification of targets for the design of drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines. In addition, the accessibility of some of these parasites to multiple genetic manipulations have transformed them in model systems in cell and molecular biology studies that could lead to the understanding of basic biological processes, as well as their evolution and pathogenesis. Here we discuss the biochemical and molecular peculiarities of these parasites and the molecular tools available for their study.

Docampo, Roberto

2012-01-01

149

42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Proficiency Testing by Specialty and Subspecialty for Laboratories Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.829 Standard;...

2010-10-01

150

42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

Proficiency Testing by Specialty and Subspecialty for Laboratories Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.829 Standard;...

2012-10-01

151

Companion animal parasitology: a clinical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there have been many changes to the ways that clinical veterinary science is conducted and nowhere is this more evident than in companion animal practice. Veterinarians working with pet dogs and cats are facing new challenges associated with the emergence and re-emergence of parasitic diseases. Some, such as Neospora caninum, have been recently recognised; others like Giardia

Peter J Irwin

2002-01-01

152

Molecular parasitology in the 21st century.  

PubMed

Protist parasites cause important human and animal diseases, and because of their early divergence from other eukaryotes they possess structural and biochemical characteristics not found in other cells. The completion of the genome projects of most human protist parasites and the development of novel molecular tools for their study guarantee a rapid progress in understanding how they invade, modify and survive within their hosts. The ultimate goal of these studies will be the identification of targets for the design of drugs, diagnostics and vaccines. In addition, the accessibility of some of these parasites to multiple genetic manipulations has converted them into model systems in cell and molecular biology studies that could lead to the understanding of basic biological processes, as well as their evolution and pathogenesis. In the present chapter we discuss the biochemical and molecular peculiarities of these parasites and the molecular tools available for their study. PMID:22023438

Docampo, Roberto

2011-01-01

153

42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

Proficiency Testing by Specialty and Subspecialty for Laboratories Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.829 Standard;...

2011-10-01

154

Parasitology Survey in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For this survey, a total of 3,207 blood smears, 2,066 stool specimens and 969 sera were examined. Sixty (1.9%) inhabitants had malaria (Plasmodium vivax 41, P. falciparum 19), and 20 had Brugia malayi microfilaraemia. The most common intestinal helminths ...

J. H. Cross M. D. Clarke W. C. Cole J. C. Lien F. Partono

1976-01-01

155

42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Proficiency Testing by Specialty and Subspecialty for Laboratories Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.829 Standard;...

2009-10-01

156

PARASITOLOGY: A Game of Cat and Mouth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been remarkably successful, infecting 30 to 50% of the world's population, many of whom are asymptomatic. In their Perspective, Volkman and Hartl discuss new work (Su et al.) that reveals the secret of the parasite's success. The three predominant strains of T. gondii-sibling progeny of a single cross that took place 10,000 years ago-all show greatly enhanced oral transmission between intermediate vertebrate hosts.

Sarah K. Volkman (Harvard School of Public Health;Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases); Daniel L. Hartl (Harvard University;Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology)

2003-01-17

157

PARASITOLOGY: Enhanced: New Ways to Control Malaria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites and insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors necessitates the development of new methods to combat malaria. In their Perspective, Hemingway and Craig explore transmission-blocking therapies that aim to prevent transmission of the reproductive stages of the malaria parasite from the insect vector to the human host when the mosquito takes its next blood meal. As part of this endeavor, they discuss new work by Osta et al. that identifies three mosquito genes affecting the sexual development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito gut.

Janet Hemingway (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine;); Alister Craig (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine;)

2004-03-26

158

Parasitology Results from a MEDCAP in Africa.  

PubMed

The Medical Civil Action Program (MEDCAP) is an important tool that is utilized to support the larger missions in all areas of current operations. In Ethiopia, MEDCAPs are one of many tools commanders use to earn the trust and confidence of the local population. There are many ways to implement a MEDCAP and this paper will highlight one such successful engagement. This mission was intended in increase the medical capacity of host nation (HN) medical personnel and increase HN confidence in their government to provide for essential services. The mission was broken into four phases similar to traditional MEDCAPs, but with a significant difference. PMID:22173596

Franklin, Brad; Swierczewski, Brett

2011-01-01

159

Urban parasitology: visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.  

PubMed

Since the early 1980s, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) which is, in general, a rural zoonotic disease, has spread to the urban centers of the north, and now the south and west of Brazil. The principal drivers differ between cities, though human migration, large urban canid populations (animal reservoir), and a decidedly peripatetic and adaptable sand fly vector are the primary forces. The exact number of urban cases remains unclear as a result of challenges with surveillance. However, the number of urban cases registered continues to increase annually. Most control initiatives (e.g. culling infected dogs and household spraying to kill the sand fly) could be effective, but have proven hard to maintain at large scales due to logistical, financial and other reasons. In this article, the urbanization of VL in Brazil is reviewed, touching on these and other topics related to controlling VL within and outside Brazil. PMID:21596622

Harhay, Michael O; Olliaro, Piero L; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

2011-05-18

160

Arctic parasitology: why should we care?  

PubMed

The significant impact on human and animal health from parasitic infections in tropical regions is well known, but parasites of medical and veterinary importance are also found in the Arctic. Subsistence hunting and inadequate food inspection can expose people of the Arctic to foodborne parasites. Parasitic infections can influence the health of wildlife populations and thereby food security. The low ecological diversity that characterizes the Arctic imparts vulnerability. In addition, parasitic invasions and altered transmission of endemic parasites are evident and anticipated to continue under current climate changes, manifesting as pathogen range expansion, host switching, and/or disease emergence or reduction. However, Arctic ecosystems can provide useful models for understanding climate-induced shifts in host-parasite ecology in other regions. PMID:21419701

Davidson, Rebecca; Simard, Manon; Kutz, Susan J; Kapel, Christian M O; Hamnes, Inger S; Robertson, Lucy J

2011-03-16

161

Environmentally safe parasitology fixative and stain  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A fixative-stain system, which gives superior preservation of nuclear detail, is free from toxic mercury compounds, and which is simple and easy to use, includes a zinc salt and a cobalt salt, in combination, as a fixative, and at least one of Chlorazol Black E, Fast Green FCF and May-Grunwald stains, and preferably the three in admixture, as a staining composition. The fixative may also be used alone. The present fixative-stain system is suitable for fixing and staining all types of parasites such as enteric and other parasites which infect animals and humans.

1996-04-16

162

Parasitological Survey in Gorontalo North Sulawesi, Indonesia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey for blood and intestinal parasites was carried out in the municipality of Gorontalo on the Minahasa peninsula of North Sulawesi. A total of 156 stool specimens were obtained from 83 males and 73 females. Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides,...

E. E. Stafford S. Masri K. Sorensen

1976-01-01

163

[Diagnostic kits in parasitology: which controls?].  

PubMed

The development of new diagnostic tools particularly for some parasitic "neglected diseases", is slowed or even hindered by limited resources assigned for basic and applied research in public institution and private sector. Even if the time-line and costs needed for developing a new In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) test are generally lower compared to vaccines or new drugs, industry is poorly engaged in investing resources due to the perception of limited markets. To accelerate the development of diagnostics for the world's most deadly diseases, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and the Gates Foundation, last year launched a new initiative, FIND (Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, www.finddiagnostics.org). The aim is to "apply the latest biotechnology innovations to develop and validate affordable diagnostic tests for diseases of the developing world". Ideally, a new diagnostic test should be accurately evaluated prior to use in medical practice. The first step would be a pre-clinical evaluation, an analytic study to determine its laboratory performance. A crucial point in this phase is the calibration of reagents (antigens, antibodies, DNA probes, etc.) against a standard reference preparation. WHO, through the WHO International Laboratories for Biological Standards, "provides International Biological Reference Preparations which serve as reference sources of defined biological activity expressed in an internationally agreed unit" (www.who.int/biologicals/IBRP/index.htm). Standardization allows "comparison of biological measurements worldwide" and ensures the reliability of diagnostic procedures. These preparations are generally intended for use in the characterization of the activity of secondary reference preparations (regional, national or in-house working standards). Unfortunately, international reference standards for parasitic diseases are not available at present, except for Toxoplasma antibodies. The first international standard reagent for Anti-Toxoplasma Serum was established in 1968 and at present, an international standard reference serum, Anti-toxoplasma serum, human TOXM is available at the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in UK. Several collaborative, multicenter studies were carried out to assess the performance of different methods and commercial tests for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, by providing to participating laboratories a panel of well-defined sera to be tested. A four-phase process following well-accepted methodological standards for the development of diagnostics, analogous to those internationally accepted for drugs and vaccines was recently proposed. The pre-clinical evaluation, the analytic study to assess sensitivity, specificity, predictive values in laboratory (phase I), should be followed by a proof of principle study to distinguish diseased from healthy persons in easily accessible populations (phase II). The evaluation of test performance in populations of intended use (phase III), and finally the delineation of cost-effectiveness and societal impact of new tests in comparison with existing tools (phase IV) should complete the validation procedure. In this context, national regulatory agencies play a major role in pre-market approval and post-market surveillance of IVDs. The European Community in 1998 approved a directive (Directive 98/79/EC) which rules the marketing of IVD medical devices, in order to harmonise the performance levels and standards in European countries. But, among IVDs for parasitic diseases, only those to detect congenital toxoplasmosis are submitted to defined procedures to provide the verification of products before their placing on the market and the surveillance after their marketing by a notified body, which perform appropriate examinations, tests and inspections to production facilities to verify if the device meets the requirements of the directive. In U.

Rossi, P

2004-06-01

164

The Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. About this article This article is being provided to filariasis.net with the agreement of Maney Publishing and the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. You are free to download this article for education and teaching purposes, however, you must not post this article on any other web site or media, without first obtaining permission from Maney Publishing. 2. About the

Leeds LS

165

Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Parasitology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual presents techniques for the collection and examination of specimens in the diagnosis of parasitic disease and in field surveys conducted to determine the extent of parasitic infections in human and animal populations. It discusses areas in which parasites are most likely to be found and the relationships of parasites, vectors, and…

Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

166

[Statistical models for spatial analysis in parasitology].  

PubMed

The simplest way to study the spatial pattern of a disease is the geographical representation of its cases (or some indicators of them) over a map. Maps based on raw data are generally "wrong" since they do not take into consideration for sampling errors. Indeed, the observed differences between areas (or points in the map) are not directly interpretable, as they derive from the composition of true, structural differences and of the noise deriving from the sampling process. This problem is well known in human epidemiology, and several solutions have been proposed to filter the signal from the noise. These statistical methods are usually referred to as Disease Mapping. In geographical analysis a first goal is to evaluate the statistical significance of the heterogeneity between areas (or points). If the test indicates rejection of the hypothesis of homogeneity the following task is to study the spatial pattern of the disease. The spatial variability of risk is usually decomposed into two terms: a spatially structured (clustering) and a non spatially structured (heterogeneity) one. The heterogeneity term reflects spatial variability due to intrinsic characteristics of the sampling units (e.g. igienic conditions of farms), while the clustering term models the association due to proximity between sampling units, that usually depends on ecological conditions that vary over the study area and that affect in similar way breedings that are close to each other. Hierarchical bayesian models are the main tool to make inference over the clustering and heterogeneity components. The results are based on the marginal posterior distributions of the parameters of the model, that are approximated by Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods. Different models can be defined depending on the terms that are considered, namely a model with only the clustering term, a model with only the heterogeneity term and a model where both are included. Model selection criteria based on a compromise between degree of complexity and goodness of fit are then needed to discriminate among them, because each specification has a different biological meaning. Our aim is to demonstrate that these techniques can be used to study the geographical distribution of a parasite infection. Our analyses are based on data collected in 142 farms of the province of Latina. In each breeding a fixed number of sheeps has been sampled (20) and checked for the presence of C. daubneyi. We have specified a Binomial model for the proportion of infected animals in each breeding. The heterogeneity component is modelled in a standard way, while we have used different prior specifications for the clustering term to show how they affect the results. When we use the usual specification also for clustering, the two models show a completely different spatial pattern of infection, probably because the intrinsic spatial structure of the clustering term tend to bias our inferences. The selection criterion indicates in this case the heterogeneity model as the "best" one. However, if we modify the prior so that a lower degree of spatial interaction is assumed, the clustering model is less complex and its goodness of fit better and it should be preferred. PMID:15305691

Biggeri, A; Catelan, D; Dreassi, E; Lagazio, C; Cringoli, G

2004-06-01

167

[Procedure and indications of stool examination in parasitology].  

PubMed

Intestinal parasites are a public health problem in the world especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Despite the improvement in living standards and healthy conditions, these parasitoses remain relatively frequent in Tunisia. Stool specimen examination keeps the fundamental test for screening and diagnosis. It is to directly search the parasite. Respect for the right procedure of collection of stool is an essential step for the reliability and proper interpretation of results of this examination. PMID:22693081

Trabelsi, Sonia; Aouinet, Amira; Khaled, Samira

2012-06-01

168

Malarial Ecology, Transmission, Immunology, Parasitology and Prophylaxis in Kenya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Western Kenya is endemic for some of the highest transmission rates of Plasmodium falciparum in the world. It therefore offers the most rigorous test of the efficacy of candidate vaccines. The planned field evaluation of the recombinant vaccine RTS,S-TRAP...

D. K. Koech

2000-01-01

169

PARASITOLOGY: When the Host Is Smarter Than the Parasite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The wily malaria parasite has become resistant to many affordable frontline antimalarial drugs, and new drug targets are desperately needed. Reporting in a Perspective on new work (Zhang et al.), Goldberg suggests that we look for drug targets among proteins that are shared by the host and parasite but whose synthesis is regulated in a different way.

Daniel E. Goldberg (Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Washington University; Department of Medicine and Department of Molecular Microbiology)

2002-04-19

170

Ocular toxoplasmosis I: parasitology, epidemiology and public health.  

PubMed

Ocular toxoplasmosis results from retinal infection with the protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite, which exists as multiple clonal subpopulations and in three stages, is capable of replication in any nucleated cell of its primary feline or multiple paratenic hosts. Human seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis is high across the globe, but with geographic variation. While prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis is not well documented, toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is the commonest form of posterior uveitis in many countries. Correlation of parasite genotype with disease is an important area of new research. Ocular infection with T. gondii often follows ingestion of bradyzoites in undercooked infected meat. Oocysts may survive for an extended period in the environment, and water contaminated with oocysts is an important source in toxoplasmosis epidemics. Ocular toxoplasmosis is preventable by a combination of community activities and personal measures. Public health action is well justified by the considerable burden of congenital and postnatal infections. PMID:22594908

Furtado, João M; Winthrop, Kevin L; Butler, Nicholas J; Smith, Justine R

2012-07-11

171

Genomics: from novel genes to new therapeutics in parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of rapid DNA sequencing technologies is generating vast quantities of raw genomic information ranging from in-depth analysis of the expressed genes to complete sequencing of genomes at an increasing rate (bioinformatics). However, it is the functional characterisation of a specific gene product that is the key limiting factor for validation as targets for high throughput assay development. The

Jesus A. Gutierrez

2000-01-01

172

Hotel Intestine: laboratory for parasitology: Gregarine Information Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thorough NSF funded research site dedicated to insect parasite fauna, especially the gregarines. This page is a work in progress as research develops. Some gregarine keys are included online, as well as survey results, and some systematics.

0002-11-30

173

A new lungworm in muskoxen: an exploration in Arctic parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruminants are vital elements of the Holarctic ecosystem. Little is known, however, of the structure or biology of their parasite fauna, particularly in North America. Global warming, coupled with increasing human activity in the Arctic, requires enhanced international interdisciplinary efforts to better understand the many factors, including parasites, that influence the population health of caribou, reindeer, muskoxen and wild sheep.

Susan J Kutz; Eric P Hoberg; Lydden Polley

2001-01-01

174

PCR as a diagnostic and quantitative technique in veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 15 years, there has been a dramatic evolution in molecular approaches to study parasites and parasitic diseases. Many of these advancements have been brought about through the development of new applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enhancements in sensitivity that can be achieved using PCR now permit scientists to investigate changes at the level of a

Dante S. Zarlenga; James Higgins

2001-01-01

175

Marine parasitology with special reference to Japanese fisheries and mariculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine parasites with special relation to Japanese fisheries and mariculture include various types of pathogens: those causing mortality, deformity, weight loss, etc.; those giving unesthetic appearances to the hosts; those which are zoonotic. Japanese mariculture typically utilizes net cage culture systems in coastal areas. Parasite invasion in such systems is more difficult to control practically than in freshwater facilities. The

K. Ogawa

1996-01-01

176

Environmental parasitology: relevancy of parasites in monitoring environmental pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites can interact with environmental pollution in different ways. On the one hand, parasites can interfere with established bioindication procedures owing to their effects on the physiology and behaviour of the host. This could lead both to false-negative and false-positive indications of pollution. On the other hand, parasites can be used as effect indicators and as accumulation indicators because of

Bernd Sures

2004-01-01

177

Parasitologic and pathologic observations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).  

PubMed

This study describes the parasites and related pathologic observations in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). In total, 48 birds were examined and 41 sparrows were found to be infected with one or more endoparasites (85.4%). The most common parasites were liver trematodes identified as Brachydistomum microscelis and Brachydistomum gracupicae. In addition, coccidia and a cestode (Infula spp.) were observed. In one bird, one female Tetrameres sp. and one female Microtetrameres sp. were found in the proventriculus. No blood parasite was found after examination of the blood smears. No gross pathologic lesion was seen in the organs except for the proventriculus, gut, and liver. At histologic examination small necrotic areas and inflammatory reactions were seen in the liver and the gastrointestinal system related to the parasites. Incidentally, anthracosis was diagnosed in 23 and mild pneumonia in 12 of the lungs. PMID:24063083

Ozmen, Ozlem; Adanir, Ramazan; Haligur, Mehmet; Albayrak, Tamer; Kose, Onur; Ipek, Volkan

2013-09-01

178

Blowfly Strike and Maggot Therapy: From Parasitology to Medical Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Patients, especially elderly and diabetic ones, may develop chronic wounds on the leg and foot, so called ulcers, which are\\u000a open sores that go through the skin. These often tend not to heal due to insufficient circulation, will eventually get infected,\\u000a and might result in serious consequences such as amputation. Physicians all over the world are involved in the daily

Heike Heuer; Lutz Heuer

179

Selected Topics in Laboratory Animal Medicine. Volume VIII. Parasitology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major parasites of laboratory animals are divided into eight groups: Insects, arachnids, pentastomes, acanthocephalids, unicellular parasites (protozoan), cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes. A broad review is presented of the major characteristics th...

G. W. Irving

1972-01-01

180

[Parasitological prevalence of cart-horses in Curitiba, Paraná].  

PubMed

The carthorses are used as an alternative for people of low income for collecting recyclable material. However, these horses are managed without proper assistance, suffering several problems, among them the parasites. In this study we used 41 animals, their body condition score and other parameters were analyzed and parasite egg count was performed from fecal samples. It was determined the absence of eggs on 12% and parasite infection in 88%. Strongylids were found in all contaminated animals, often associated with oocysts or Parascaris equorum. This condition may be due to poor nutritional management and unreasonable work load that these animals are submitted. There is an urgent need for improvements in the management of health and parasites control programs to these animals. PMID:20059842

Ferraro, Caio Cézar; Kloss, Annelise B; De Souza, Damaris F; Deconto, Ivan; Biondo, Alexander W; Molento, Marcelo B

2008-09-01

181

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free Ranging Coyotes ...  

Treesearch

Forest Products Lab ... Description: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven ... Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit.

182

Bibliography on Medical Parasitology in Indonesia, 1855-1968.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work is a collection of titles of published information on the parasites of man found in Indonesia (formerly Netherlands Indies) or reported in investigations on Indonesian material. Included are some titles of articles dealing with animal parasites t...

H. Lim

1974-01-01

183

Parasitology survey in the Palu Valley, central Sulawesi (Celebes), Indonesia.  

PubMed

A survey was undertaken in the Palu Valley, Central Sulasesi to determine whether schisto somiasis japonica was endemic in the area and to determine the prevalences rates of intestinal and blood parasites. Seven villages along the Palu River drainage system with an estimated popualtion of 18,700 were surveyed and 2,433 stools, 3,651 blood smears and 1,167 sera were collected and examined. PMID:176737

Cross, J H; Clarke, M D; Carney, W P; Putrali, J; Joesoef, A; Sajidiman, H; Partono, F; Hudojo; Oemijati, S

1975-09-01

184

Schistosomal Colonic Polyposis: Clinical, Radiological and Parasitological Study,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One hundred and eight male Egyptian farmers with schistosomal colonic polyposis were reviewed. All patients gave a history of bloody diarrhea. Sixty-one patients presented with finger clubbing, and four of these patients had painful, tender and swollen wr...

N. A. El-Masry Z. Farid S. Bassily M. E. Kilpatrick R. H. Watten

1986-01-01

185

Gordon Research Conference on Molecular and Immunological Aspects of Parasitology (1987).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This conference on Molecular and Biochemical Parasitiology proved to be very popular. The organizers were forced to turn down over 100 applicants in order to limit the size to 135, the maximum allowed. A wide variety of topics were discussed. The identifi...

E. R. Pfefferkorn

1987-01-01

186

Parasitological survey of mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae, in the Pacoti River Estuary, Ceará State, Brazil.  

PubMed

The mangrove oyster, Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia, Ostreidae) is commonly collected by fisherwomen in the estuaries of the Ceará State (CE), Northeastern Brazil. Despite the socioeconomic importance of this natural resource, there are few studies on the health of the oysters in this region. This study aimed to survey pathological changes in the mangrove oyster C. rhizophorae in the estuary of the Pacoti River, CE. Adult oysters were collected in August 2008 (N=450) and December 2009 (N=450) at three sites of the Pacoti estuary and in 2010 (N=600) samplings were done quarterly at one site which has showed the higher prevalence de Perkinsus. Macroscopical and histological analyses were used to evaluate pathological changes, Ray's Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (RFTM) to detect Perkinsus spp. and polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and DNA sequencing to identify Perkinsus species. In 2009, RFTM assay detected Perkinsus sp. infecting the tissues of C. rhizophorae with low prevalences of 1.3%, 6.7% e 7.3% in sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and in 2010, in site 3, prevalence was 2% (12 of 600 oysters). PCR did not confirm any positive case in 2009 and only 5 in 2010. The phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that the Perkinsus species infecting oysters C. rhizophorae of this study belongs to Perkinsus beihaiensis. The histology confirmed 11 cases of Perkinsus sp. infecting the C. rhizophorae in 2009, and only two cases in 2010. Nematopsis sp. was the protozoan observed with greater prevalence (up 96.7%). Other found protozoa were: Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Ancistrocoma - like and an unknown ovarian parasite. The metazoa found were the polychaete Polydora with high prevalences, a turbellarian, possibly of the genus Urastoma, an unidentified digenean metacercariae and larvae of cestode Tylocephalum. A continuous monitoring of diseases in bivalves from this natural population is recommended, since the phylogenetic analyses indicate the occurrence of P. beihaiensis infecting oysters C. rhizophorae whose pathogenic potential is unknown. PMID:23147104

Sabry, Rachel Costa; Gesteira, Tereza Cristina Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Aimê Rachel Magenta; Barracco, Margherita Anna; Guertler, Cristhiane; Ferreira, Liana Pinho; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; da Silva, Patrícia Mirella

2012-11-10

187

Experimentally induced Faciola hepatica infection in white-tailed deer. I. Clinicopathological and parasitological features.  

PubMed Central

Six white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and six sheep were inoculated with metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Two animals of each species were given 100, 500 or 2500 metacercariae. Clinicopathological features of these infections were determined by analyses of blood samples collected each week from inoculated deer and sheep as well as from two noninoculated animals of each species. One animal in each inoculated group was killed and examined at six weeks postinoculation and the remainder at 15 weeks postinoculation. Compared with the values obtained from noninoculated controls, eosinophilia, hyperproteinemia and hyperglobulinemia occured in inoculated deer. There were no other significant changes in hematological values or in serum aspartate aminotransferase levels. Marked leukocytosis and eosinophilia, with hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels and mild macrocytic normochromic anemia characterized the infection in lambs. Although approximately 29% of the inoculum was recovered from the hepatic parenchyma of the sheep, F. hepatica was found in only one of six inoculated deer. A patent infection was established in this deer and constitutes the second report of mature F. hepatica in this host. Images Fig. 1.

Presidente, P J; McCraw, B M; Lumsden, J H

1975-01-01

188

Trichinella spp. infection in horses of Romania: Serological and parasitological survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivorous animals are usually, by virtue of their diet, outside the major transmission cycles of Trichinella spp. However, since 1975, the year of the first report of human trichinellosis caused by the consumption of infected horse meat, the domestic horse has appeared as a novel vector of Trichinella spp. infection to humans, with 15 outbreaks documented in France and Italy.

Radu Blaga; Carmen M. Cretu; Calin Gherman; Alina Draghici; Edoardo Pozio; Karsten Noeckler; Christian M. O. Kapel; Ion Dida; Vasile Cozma; Pascal Boireau

2009-01-01

189

Serum biochemistry, serology, and parasitology of boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the Northwest Territories, Canada.  

PubMed

Boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are an ecologically and culturally important wildlife species and now range almost exclusively in the boreal forests of Canada, including the Northwest Territories, northern Alberta, and British Columbia. Boreal caribou are threatened throughout their Canadian range because of direct and indirect natural and anthropogenic factors. In the Northwest Territories, however, they have a continuous range that overall has not yet been subjected to the same degree of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation and degradation that has occurred elsewhere in Canada. To monitor the health of boreal caribou populations and individuals, we collected blood from 104 adult, female boreal caribou captured between March 2003 and February 2006 and measured serum biochemical parameters. Serum creatinine was higher in pregnant than in nonpregnant caribou. Several biochemical parameters differed among years, but they tended to be similar to those reported for reindeer. Serum antibodies were found to an alphaherpesvirus, Toxoplasma gondii, and to the Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in 37.5, 2.9, and 1.3% of boreal caribou, respectively. Fecal samples were collected from 149 boreal caribou, and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts, Giardia sp. cysts, trichostrongyle ova, dorsal-spined nematode larvae, cestode ova, and Eimeria sp. were found. Trypanosoma sp. was detected in the blood of 72.1% of boreal caribou. Eimeria sp., Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia sp. have not been previously reported in boreal caribou. PMID:20966261

Johnson, Deborah; Harms, N Jane; Larter, Nicholas C; Elkin, Brett T; Tabel, Henry; Wei, Guojian

2010-10-01

190

Towards a nucleic acid-based diagnosis in clinical parasitology and mycology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMultiple in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the diagnosis of parasitic and fungal diseases have been reported. Encouraging results have been published to anticipate or improve the diagnosis. However, the absence of standardized methods has led to discrepant results. As a consequence, these tests are not recognized as consensual diagnostic criteria.

Stéphane Bretagne; Jean-Marc Costa

2006-01-01

191

How to make DNA count: DNA-based diagnostic tools in veterinary parasitology.  

PubMed

Traditional methods for the diagnosis of parasitic helminth infections of livestock have a number of limitations, such as the inability to distinguish mixed-species infections, a heavy reliance on technical experience and also sub-sampling errors. Some of these limitations may be overcome through the development of rapid and accurate DNA-based tests. For example, DNA-based tests can specifically detect individual species in a mixed infection at either the larval or egg stages, in the absence of morphological differences among species. Even so, some diagnostic problems remain the same, irrespective of whether a DNA-based or traditional method is used. For example, sub-sampling errors from an aggregated distribution are likely to persist. It is proposed, however, that DNA-based diagnostic technologies offer an opportunity to expand diagnostic capabilities, and are discussed in the current review. The future introduction of DNA-based diagnostic technologies into routine diagnostic settings will also be discussed. PMID:22169224

Hunt, P W; Lello, J

2011-11-20

192

[Failure to offer parasitology screening to vulnerable migrants in France: Epidemiology and consequences.  

PubMed

The "Consultations de Diagnostic et d'Orientation" (CDO), created in 1998 by the Paris Health Department, are medical consultations for vulnerable populations, which are held in municipal clinics, free of charge. More than two-thirds of CDO patients come from Africa. Our study was designed to assess and analyze whether these clinics offered consulting migrants screening for intestinal parasitic and Schistosoma haematobium infections.Material and methodsThis retrospective study included all immigrants attending CDO for the first time at four Parisian municipal free clinics during 2003. Univariate and multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, and geographic origin were conducted. An interview with one of the CDO physicians provided qualitative data to round out the quantitative data from the record analysis.ResultsThe study included 503 migrants eligible for screening for intestinal parasitic infections because they come from regions where these infections are endemic; among them 481 were also eligible for urine screening for Schistosoma haematobium (SH). The sociodemographic characteristics for the entire sample (not significantly different from the 481-person subgroup) were: sex ratio (M/W): 4:1; more than 50% were 35 years old or younger; and more than 50% had no health insurance coverage. Overall, around 80% came from sub-Saharan Africa, around 16% from North Africa or the Middle East, and 4.5% from Asia or South America. Screening for intestinal or urinary parasitic infections was not offered to 3 out of 5 migrants from endemic areas. Screening for intestinal parasites was offered less often to migrants from regions other than sub-Saharan Africa, to those older than 35 years of age, and to those without abdominal symptoms. Schistosoma haematobium urine screening was proposed less often to those from North Africa or the Middle East, to those older than 35 years of age, and to those without either abdominal or genitourinary symptoms. Microscopic examination of urine for Schistosoma haematobium was performed for 171 patients; 22 positive results were reported, with viable SH eggs (13%). Microscopic examination of stool for ova and parasites was performed for 161 patients; 32 had positive results (20%). These included 14 cases of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (our laboratory cannot distinguish the 2 strains).DiscussionThe failure to offer screening affects sub-Saharan Africans less than other migrants, perhaps because of a particular visibility due to their mass (they are the most prominent subgroup of migrants) or their higher frequency of abdominal/genitourinary symptoms. Nevertheless, more than 50% of them were not asked to undergo parasite screening, although they are the group with the highest rate of intestinal/urinary parasitosis. The most common and dangerous parasite found was Schistosoma haematobium; we do not know the pathogenicity of the Entamoeba found. Reasons for the frequent failure to suggest these screenings may include that physicians consider parasitosis as diseases of secondary importance, or have forgotten its symptoms, epidemiology, cycles, means of diagnosis, or treatment. Patients accepted the screening well when it was offered. Reasons during the course of consultation might have included insufficient time for pre-test counselling, some difficulties in communicating with the patient in French, or an overriding request or complaint from the patient. We propose the following strategy for parasite screening in CDO: standard "stool ova and parasite exams" proposed to any migrant in France for less than 5 years except sub-Saharan Africans, who should receive presumptive anti-parasite treatment instead; microscopic examination of urine for Schistosoma haematobium for sub-Saharan Africans from endemic regions. This detection can avoid - if treatment is early enough - severe uronephrological complications, which are rare but costly from a health care perspective (bladder tumor, renal failure). Physicians in non-tropical settings must remember to consider parasite infections when

Deniaud, François; Rouessé, Charles; Collignon, Anne; Domingo, Anita; Rigal, Laurent

2011-02-15

193

Systems parasitology: effects of Fasciola hepatica on the neurochemical profile in the rat brain.  

PubMed

We characterize the integrated response of a rat host to the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica using a combination of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic profiles (liver, kidney, intestine, brain, spleen, plasma, urine, feces) and multiplex cytokine markers of systemic inflammation. Multivariate mathematical models were built to describe the main features of the infection at the systems level. In addition to the expected modulation of hepatic choline and energy metabolism, we found significant perturbations of the nucleotide balance in the brain, together with increased plasma IL-13, suggesting a shift toward modulation of immune reactions to minimize inflammatory damage, which may favor the co-existence of the parasite in the host. Subsequent analysis of brain extracts from other trematode infection models (i.e. Schistosoma mansoni, and Echinostoma caproni) did not elicit a change in neural nucleotide levels, indicating that the neural effects of F. hepatica infection are specific. We propose that the topographically extended response to invasion of the host as characterized by the modulated global metabolic phenotype is stratified across several bio-organizational levels and reflects the direct manipulation of host-nucleotide balance. PMID:20664642

Saric, Jasmina; Li, Jia V; Utzinger, Jürg; Wang, Yulan; Keiser, Jennifer; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Beckonert, Olaf; Sharabiani, Mansour T A; Fonville, Judith M; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Holmes, Elaine

2010-07-01

194

Future challenges for parasitology: vector control and one health in the Americas.  

PubMed

"One Health" is a term that encapsulates and underscores the inherent interrelatedness of the health of people, animals, and the environment. Vector-borne infections are central in one health. Many arthropod vectors readily feed on humans and other animals, serving as an ideal conduit to move pathogens between a wide spectrum of potential hosts. As ecological niches flux, opportunities arise for vectors to interact with novel species, allowing infectious agents to broaden both geographic and host ranges. Habitat change has been linked to the emergence of novel human and veterinary disease agents, and can dramatically facilitate expansion opportunities by allowing existing vector populations to flourish and by supporting the establishment of new pathogen maintenance systems. At the same time, control efforts can be hindered by the development of parasiticide and pesticide resistance, foiling efforts to meet these challenges. Using examples drawn from representative diseases important in one health in the Americas, including rickettsial infections, Lyme borreliosis, Chagas disease, and West Nile virus, this paper reviews key aspects of vector-borne disease maintenance cycles that present challenges for one health in the Americas, including emergence of vector-borne disease agents, the impact of habitat change on vector-borne disease transmission, and the complexities faced in developing effective control programs. Novel strategies will be required to effectively combat these infections in the future if we are to succeed in the goal of fostering an environment which supports healthy animals and healthy people. PMID:23623185

Little, Susan E

2013-04-06

195

Molecular genetic approaches to parasite identification: their value in diagnostic parasitology and systematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of approaches is available to parasitologists to aid in specific parasite identification and to formulate phylogenetic relationships. This review emphasises the usefulness of molecular genetic techniques, especially DNA-based procedures, in addressing problems of identification, characterisation and phylogeny of parasites. It should be stressed that an understanding of the various DNA approaches, techniques and target genes most likely

D. P. McManus; J. Bowles

1996-01-01

196

Environmental parasitology: What can parasites tell us about human impacts on the environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of ways that environmental changes affect parasites, suggesting that information on parasites can indicate anthropogenic impacts. Parasitism may increase if the impact reduces host resistance or increases the density of intermediate or definitive hosts. Parasitism may decrease if definitive or intermediate host density declines or parasites suffer higher mortality directly (eg. from toxic effects on parasites)

K. D. Lafferty

1997-01-01

197

Environmental Parasitology: Y~hat can Parasites tell us about Human Impacts on the Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of ways that environmental changes affect parasites, suggesting that information on parasites can indicate anthropogenic impacts. Parasitism may in- creese if the ~mpact reduces host resistance or increases the density of intermediate or definitive hosts. Parasitism may decrease if definitive or intermediate host density declines or parasites suffer higher mortality directly (eg. from toxic effects on

K. D. Lafferty

1997-01-01

198

Parasitological studies of the lizard, Ludakia stellio in Arish, North Sinai Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

In the lizard, Laudakia stellio, the gastrointestinal tract harboured four helminthic-parasites: two nematodes Spauligodon auziensis (Seurate, 1917) Paraparyngodon bulbosus (Linstow, 1897), two larval stages of nematode, and one cestode, Oochoristica sp. (Kennedy et al., 1982). The total infection rate of L. stellio was 93%. Out of 45 L. stellio examined, 42 were infected with number of parasites ranged from 0-72 and mean intensity 11.57. Parasites burden on their host populations was highly aggregated with k value was 0.01. No significant correlation was found between host weight and intensity of infection. The histopathological impact of infection was examined indicating the tissue reaction against the parasite at the site of attachment. PMID:16927877

Ghobashy, Mahi A

2006-08-01

199

[Experience with a clinical parasitological examination in a clonorchiasis focus in the Amur River region].  

PubMed

The clinical manifestations of clonorchiasis were studied in 190 patients in the Amur River region. The severity of the disease correlated with the excretion rates of Clonorchis eggs. The peculiarity of the region is a rather low egg excretion; 66.8% of patients excreted as many as 100 eggs/g, 27.3%, up to 1000 eggs/g. Most examinees (94.3%) suffered from chronic gastroduodenitis and functional disorders of the biliary system. PMID:9445987

Dyk, L M; Posokhov, P S; Dobrykh, V A; Markina, L G; Kozyreva, T G

200

Molecular and parasitological detection of Trypanosoma evansi in Camels in Ismailia, Egypt.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) is an endemic disease of camels and other domestic animals in Egypt. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical T. evansi infection among camels in Ismailia, Egypt, as well as survey their owners for T. evansi infection. The diagnostic sensitivity of three different PCR assays for detection of T. evansi in blood samples was evaluated. Blood samples were collected from 100 camels and 20 of their owners in the Ismailia governorate. Results revealed that the percentage of infected of camels with T. evansi vary with the detection method, ranging from 10% to 46% by PCR compared to 12% by microscopic examination of stained blood smears. Targeting the highly repeated sequence of mini-chromosome satellite DNA (TBR1/2 primer set) was more often seen in the PCR method (46% positive) compared to targeting ITS 1 (16% positive) or RoTat 1.2 VSG (10% positive) sequences. A partial sequence of RoTat 1.2 VSG gene was identical to the T. evansi sequences reported from India and Kenya, but varied similarity was seen when aligned with Egyptian T. evansi sequences. None of the camel owners were positive for T. evansi by microscopic examination of stained blood smears or PCR assays. PCR assay based on TBR sets is useful in the diagnosis and control disease and reducing economic losses. PMID:24029715

Elhaig, Mahmoud M; Youssef, Ahmed I; El-Gayar, Amal K

2013-08-14

201

[Mapping of parasitological environmental data: the tick Ixodes ricinus--a case of study].  

PubMed

While the mapping of health data is not new for epidemiologists the incorporation of differentiated environmental factors, e.g., temperature, rainfall, humidity, elevation, vegetation type, host abundance and distribution, zoonotic reservoirs of infection can create a new opportunities for parasitologists. Suitable tools for spatial modeling of health problems and pathogen occurrence in space and time are provided by geographic information system (GIS). It is computer-based system which integrates, storages, edits, analyses, shares and displays information. This software system is based on connection between information--data and their location. GIS applications allow users to create interactive queries, analyze spatial information, edit data and maps. GIS is very useful to define the habitats of parasites, especially for the ticks which are strong depended on environmental conditions. Mapping not only enables to create maps based on field monitoring but also to create forecasting maps for prevention and control strategies on small and large scale. Up to now ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBD) having strong relationship with the ecosystem are highly amenable to predictive mapping. The aim of study is the characterization of procedural steps with regard to entering field environmental data to GIS database and their visualization on digital maps. The field date of tick monitoring conducted in April 2008 in the Wroc?aw area (the Osobowicki Forest) made possible to create digital database. ArcView as one of three separate software products of ArcGIS (a scalable framework for implementing GIS) was used to create an interactive maps. Visualization of the data which are stored in tables of attributes made possible to show legibly the distribution of I. ricinus on the analysed area. Mapping of I. ricinus occurrence on digital maps enable to indicate areas of the highest risk of biting and potential tick-borne diseases. PMID:20209815

Kiewra, Dorota; Lonc, Elzbieta; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna

2009-01-01

202

Laser-assisted microdissection: a new tool for aquatic molecular parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser-assisted microdissection (LMD) has been developed to isolate distinct cell popula- tions from heterogeneous tissue sections, cytological preparations, or live cell samples. Downstream applications typically include gene expression studies using real-time PCR and array platforms, diag- nostic PCR, and protein expression studies. LMD techniques are now commonplace in mainstream biological research and clearly have suitable applications in the field of

H. J. Small; J. Sturve; J. P. Bignell; M. Longshaw; B. P. Lyons; R. Hicks; S. W. Feist; G. D. Stentiford

2008-01-01

203

'Schistosoma Mansoni' and 'S. Haematobium' Infections in Egypt. II. Quantitative Parasitological Findings at Necropsy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adult Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni were recovered at autopsy. The number of eggs of both species present in the tissues and passed in the excreta was related to the number of female worms (worm pairs) recovered. Only 26% of S. haematobium infect...

A. W. Cheever I. A. Kamel A. M. Elwi J. E. Mosimann R. Danner

1977-01-01

204

The use of fish metabolic, pathological and parasitological indices in pollution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex interactions between parasites, hosts and the environment are influenced by the stability of the ecosystem. Heteroxenous\\u000a parasites, with complex, multiple-host life cycles, can persist only in habitats where the full range of their required hosts\\u000a are present. Conversely, in impoverished environments such as those impacted by environmental stress, monoxenous species that\\u000a have simple, single-host life cycles are likely

A. Diamant; A. Banet; I. Paperna; H. v. Westernhagen; K. Broeg; G. Kruener; W. Koerting; S. Zander

1999-01-01

205

History of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty years ago the first meeting of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitiology (WAAVP) was held in Hannover, Germany. We now have a thriving, internationally recognized organization; the meetings attract hundreds of scientists, attendance is increasing with almost every meeting. It is a useful time to review our beginnings, our development and our future. Our history has

John B. Malone; E. J. L. Soulsby; Raffaele Roncalli

2004-01-01

206

The Utrecht model of teaching veterinary medicine and the role of veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, established a new curriculum for teaching veterinary medicine in 1995 with the main objectives to improve the problem-solving and communication competences of the students and their scientific education. Because it is accepted that graduates cannot get a starting competence in all fields of the veterinary profession, a differentiation of education focused on

M Eysker

2002-01-01

207

Veterinary parasitology in South Africa: Some highlights of the past 100 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons for the wide range of parasites occurring in South Africa are mentioned. An account is given of the establishment of veterinary research and training in South Africa. Some major breakthroughs and advances in the study or the control of ecto- and endoparasites as well as protozoal diseases are listed.

B. L. Penzhorn; R. C. Krecek

1997-01-01

208

Female genital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium Clinical and parasitological findings in women in rural Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 51 women with urinary schistosomiasis haematobium were examined in order to identify diagnostic indicators for female genital schistosomiasis (FGS). Patients were selected at random from the outpatient department of the Mangochi District Hospital, Malawi. The medical histories were recorded according to a pre-designed questionnaire and the women were subjected to a thorough gynaecological examination including colposcopy and

Eyrun Floerecke Kjetland; Gabriele Poggensee; Gertrud Helling-Giese; Joachim Richter; Aimee Sjaastad; Lester Chitsulo; Newton Kumwenda; Svein Gunnar Gundersen; Ingela Krantz; Hermann Feldmeier

1996-01-01

209

Seroepidemiological and parasitological evaluation of the heterogeneity of malaria infection in the Gambia  

PubMed Central

Background As countries make progress in malaria control, transmission may be reduced to such an extent that few cases occur, and identification of the remaining foci of transmission may require a combination of surveillance tools. The study explored the usefulness of parasite prevalence, seroprevalence and model-estimated seroconversion rates for detecting local differences in malaria transmission in a West African country. Methods Age-stratified cross-sectional surveys were conducted during the wet season in 2008 and the following dry season in 2009 in The Gambia. In each season, 20 village communities were sampled from six diverse areas throughout the country. A total of 7,586 participants were surveyed, 51% (3,870) during the wet season. Parasites were detected by thick film slide microscopy, and anti-MSP1-19 antibodies were detected by ELISA using eluted dried blood from filter papers. Results Overall parasite prevalence was 12.4% in the wet season and 2.2% in the dry season, with village-specific parasite prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 45.9% in the wet season and from 0.0 to 13.2% in the dry season. Prevalence was highest in the eastern part of the country. Serological indices also varied between villages, indicating local heterogeneity in transmission, and there was a high correlation between wet and dry season estimates across the villages. The overall prevalence of anti-MSP119 antibodies was similar in the wet (19.5%) and in the dry (19.6%) seasons. Conclusion The study illustrates the utility of measuring both parasite prevalence and serological indices for monitoring local variation in malaria transmission, which are more informative than single measures as control intensifies and malaria declines. Measurements of seropositivity have the logistical advantage of being relative stable seasonally so that sampling at any time of year may be conducted.

2013-01-01

210

Parasitology as a Teaching Tool: Isolation of Apicomplexan Cysts from Store-Bought Meat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are obstacles to teaching science; however, these obstacles are not insurmountable. One obstacle is the students themselves. Students often labor under the misconception or anxiety that the course material will be too difficult to understand, or boring (mind-numbing), or that the information learned will not be applicable in their…

Eggleston, Tracy L.; Fitzpatrick, Eileen; Hager, Kristin M.

2008-01-01

211

Babesiosis in dogs and cats—Expanding parasitological and clinical spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine babesiosis caused by different Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and global significance. Historically, Babesia infection in dogs was identified based on the morphologic appearance of the parasite in the erythrocyte. All large forms of Babesia were designated Babesia canis, whereas all small forms of Babesia were considered to be Babesia gibsoni. However, the development

Laia Solano-Gallego; Gad Baneth

2011-01-01

212

Canova medication modifies parasitological parameters in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to evaluate the effect of the Canova® medication, a homeopathic immune-system modulator, on the evolution of infection induced by the Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain in mice. The animals were divided into five groups: (i) untreated infected controls (I), (ii) infected animals treated with benznidazole (Bz), (iii) infected animals treated with the Canova medication (CM),

Aurea Regina Telles Pupulin; Silvana Marques-Araujo; Max Jean Ornelas Toledo; Mônica Lúcia Gomes; Edilson Takejima; Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman; Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado

2010-01-01

213

Hematology, parasitology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

PubMed

Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P<0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P<0.05). Twenty-one adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology. PMID:19617502

Miller, Debra Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H Scott; Miller, Karl V; Baldwin, Charles A

2009-07-01

214

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected;\\u000afrom 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven;\\u000ajuvenile (three males, one female, three not;\\u000areported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans);\\u000aon the US Department of Energys Savannah;\\u000aRiver Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant;\\u000a(P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were;\\u000anoted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin,;\\u000aand hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex;\\u000aoccurred

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; Anita Merrill; John Kilgo; H. Ray; Karl Karl V. Miller; A. Charles

2009-01-01

215

78 FR 12323 - Announcement of the Re-Approval of the Commission on Office Laboratory Accreditation (COLA) as an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...including Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis...including Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including...

2013-02-22

216

75 FR 48698 - Medicare, Medicaid and CLIA Programs; COLA (Formerly the Commission on Office Laboratory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...including Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis...including Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including...

2010-08-11

217

Parasitological and molecular study of the furcocercariae from Melanoides tuberculata as a probable agent of cercarial dermatitis.  

PubMed

Cercarial dermatitis is caused by animal schistosomes in many parts of the world including Iran. Various stages of the parasites have been studied in intermediate and definitive hosts in northern and southwestern Iran; however, no molecular investigation for species identification and classification of these agents has been carried out, so far. In the present study, more than 3,800 aquatic snails were collected from water sources of Khuzestan, southwest Iran. The snails were identified as Lymnaea gedrosiana, Radix auricularia, Melanoides tuberculata, Melanopsis sp. and Physa acuta. They were examined for schistosome cercariae. Two specimens of M. tuberculata were infected with ocellate furcocercariae belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. Molecular studies were carried on these schistosomatid samples. Both samples belong to an unknown schistosome species and genus in sister position to Gigantobilharzia-Dendritobilharzia clade. They differ from other species in their ITS sequence region as well as in their intermediate host specificity--This is one of the first reports on schistosome cercariae from M. tuberculata and the first including molecular data. Due to adaptability and invasiveness of this snail species, this new schistosome species, as a potential causative agent of cercarial dermatitis in humans, needs to be studied further. PMID:21046153

Karamian, Mehdi; Aldhoun, Jitka A; Maraghi, Sharif; Hatam, Gholamreza; Farhangmehr, Babak; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud

2010-11-03

218

Parasitological and molecular study of the furcocercariae from Melanoides tuberculata as a probable agent of cercarial dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cercarial dermatitis is caused by animal schistosomes in many parts of the world including Iran. Various stages of the parasites\\u000a have been studied in intermediate and definitive hosts in northern and southwestern Iran; however, no molecular investigation\\u000a for species identification and classification of these agents has been carried out, so far. In the present study, more than\\u000a 3,800 aquatic snails

Mehdi Karamian; Jitka A. Aldhoun; Sharif Maraghi; Gholamreza Hatam; Babak Farhangmehr; Seyed Mahmoud Sadjjadi

2011-01-01

219

Overcoming language and cultural barriers: a graphical communication tool to perform a parasitological screening in two vulnerable populations from Argentina.  

PubMed

This is an exploratory study of the application of a support tool for the detection of asymptomatic subjects carrying enteric parasites in two vulnerable populations in Argentina: a shantytown in the city of Buenos Aires and a rural Wichí indigenous community in the province of Chaco. The ethnic and cultural diversity, high illiteracy rate, and language barriers called for the development of an auxiliary resource to explain stool sample collection procedures. In individual interviews with each family, the authors used two instructional guidance leaflets in comic strip format depicting the procedures. They evaluated the acceptance of the graphical communication tool on the basis of the number of retrieved samples. Percentages of respondent families were 72.2% and 66.7%, respectively. Definitive validation of these instruments would allow their use in community studies, community service learning experiences, and research on aboriginal communities that would otherwise be excluded from studies on health status. PMID:23066862

Buyayisqui, María Pía; Bordoni, Noemí; Garbossa, Graciela

2012-10-15

220

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology Release of metabolic enzymes by Giardia in response to interaction with intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Giardia lamblia, an important cause of diarrheal disease, resides in the small intestinal lumen in close apposition to epithelial cells. Since the disease mechanisms underlying giardiasis are poorly understood, elucidating the specific interactions of the parasite with the host epithelium is likely to provide clues to understanding the pathogenesis. Here we tested the hypothesis that contact of Giardia lamblia with intestinal epithelial cells might lead to release of specific proteins. Using established co-culture models, intestinal ligated loops and a proteomics approach, we identified three G. lamblia proteins (arginine deiminase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase and enolase), previously recognized as immunodominant antigens during acute giardiasis. Release was stimulated by cell–cell interactions, since only small amounts of argi-nine deiminase and enolase were detected in the medium after culturing of G. lamblia alone. The secreted G. lamblia proteins were localized to the cytoplasm and the inside of the plasma membrane of trophozoites. Furthermore, in vitro studies with recombinant arginine deiminase showed that the secreted Giardia proteins can disable host innate immune factors such as nitric oxide production. These results indicate that contact of Giardia with epithelial cells triggers metabolic enzyme release, which might facilitate effective colonization of the human small intestine.

Ringqvist, Emma; Palm, J.E. Daniel; Skarin, Hanna; Hehl, Adrian B.; Weiland, Malin; Davids, Barbara J.; Reiner, David S.; Griffiths, William J.; Eckmann, Lars; Gillin, Frances D.; Svard, Staffan G.

2012-01-01

221

World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of equine anthelmintics  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been designed to assist in the planning, operation and interpretation of studies which would serve to assess the efficacy of drugs against internal parasites of horses. Although the term anthelmintic is used in the title and text, these guidelines include studies on drug efficacy against larvae of horse bot flies, Gasterophilus spp., which are non-helminth parasites commonly

J. L. Duncan; E. M. Abbott; J. H. Arundel; M. Eysker; T. R. Klei; R. C. Krecek; E. T. Lyons; C. Reinemeyer; J. O. D. Slocombe

2002-01-01

222

Epidemiology and control of intestinal schistosomiasis on the Sesse Islands, Uganda: integrating malacology and parasitology to tailor local treatment recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background Intestinal schistosomiasis is often widespread among the populations living around Lake Victoria and on its islands. The Sesse Island group (containing some 84 islands), however, is typically assumed to be a low prevalence zone, with limited transmission, but has never been surveyed in detail. Here, we present a rapid mapping assessment, bringing together snail and parasite information, at 23 sites for the presence of intermediate host snails and at 61 sites for the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in school-aged children (N = 905). Two different diagnostic tools were used and compared at 45 of these sites: Kato-Katz thick faecal smears and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine dipsticks. Results Biomphalaria snails were found at 11 sites but in low numbers; none was found shedding schistosome cercariae. At 22 out of the 45 sites, local prevalence by urine and/or stool diagnostics was in excess of 50%, although mean prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis overall was 34.6% (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 31.0-38.3%) by Kato-Katz and 46.5% (95% CI = 42.7-50.4%) by CCA if 'trace' reactions were considered infection-positive (if considered infection-negative, mean prevalence was 28.1% (95% CI = 24.7-31.7%)). Diagnostic congruence between CCA and Kato-Katz was poor and significant discordance in estimated prevalence by location was found, with each often inferring different mass drug administration regimes. Conclusions Accurate estimation of schistosome prevalence is important for determining present and future treatment needs with praziquantel; the wide range of schistosome prevalence across the Sesse Island group requires a treatment regime largely tailored to each island. In high prevalence locations, further malacological sampling is required to confirm the extent of local transmission, especially on the northern islands within the group. The observation that different diagnostic tests can provide varying results in terms of estimating prevalence by location, and hence change treatment recommendations, suggests that care must be taken in interpreting raw prevalence data. In particular, further research into the reasons for the differences in the poorer performance of the CCA test should be pursued.

2010-01-01

223

Trypanosoma vivax Infections: Pushing Ahead with Mouse Models for the Study of Nagana. I. Parasitological, Hematological and Pathological Parameters  

PubMed Central

African trypanosomiasis is a severe parasitic disease that affects both humans and livestock. Several different species may cause animal trypanosomosis and although Trypanosoma vivax (sub-genus Duttonella) is currently responsible for the vast majority of debilitating cases causing great economic hardship in West Africa and South America, little is known about its biology and interaction with its hosts. Relatively speaking, T. vivax has been more than neglected despite an urgent need to develop efficient control strategies. Some pioneering rodent models were developed to circumvent the difficulties of working with livestock, but disappointedly were for the most part discontinued decades ago. To gain more insight into the biology of T. vivax, its interactions with the host and consequently its pathogenesis, we have developed a number of reproducible murine models using a parasite isolate that is infectious for rodents. Firstly, we analyzed the parasitical characteristics of the infection using inbred and outbred mouse strains to compare the impact of host genetic background on the infection and on survival rates. Hematological studies showed that the infection gave rise to severe anemia, and histopathological investigations in various organs showed multifocal inflammatory infiltrates associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver, and cerebral edema. The models developed are consistent with field observations and pave the way for subsequent in-depth studies into the pathogenesis of T. vivax - trypanosomosis.

Chamond, Nathalie; Cosson, Alain; Blom-Potar, Marie Christine; Jouvion, Gregory; D'Archivio, Simon; Medina, Mathieu; Droin-Bergere, Sabrina; Huerre, Michel; Goyard, Sophie; Minoprio, Paola

2010-01-01

224

Evaluation of parasitological and immunological aspects of acute infection by Ancylostoma caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense in mixed-breed dogs.  

PubMed

This study compared the course of infection by Ancylostoma caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense in mixed-breed dogs infected with L3 larvae. Dogs infected with A. caninum eliminated more eggs than did those infected with A. braziliense. A total of 38 % of A. caninum and 44 % of A. braziliense larvae were recovered as adult worms. There were no marked clinical abnormalities in dogs with either infection. A. caninum was associated with anemia and an increased number of circulating neutrophils, whereas infection with A. braziliense led to a decrease in the number of leukocytes. The humoral response against excreted and secreted antigens from adult worms was more sensitive and specific than the response induced with the crude antigen. No immune response was observed for either crude or excreted-secreted (ES) antigens from larvae of either species. A nonspecific response against the crude antigen of A. braziliense was found at 0 and 7 days postinfection and maintained throughout the infection period. However, antibody titers against ES antigens were elevated in A. caninum infection at patency and death, showing that this antigen has a higher specificity. The immune response elicited by infection with A. braziliense in dogs has not been described previously. No significant differences were observed in the infection processes of the two Ancylostoma species, except for the higher number of eggs eliminated from dogs infected with A. caninum, which may indicate a better evolutionary adaptation of the parasite to its host in comparison with A. braziliense. PMID:23494155

Dias, Sílvia Regina Costa; Cunha, Denílson Eduardo Silva; da Silva, Sydnei Magno; Dos Santos, Hudson Andrade; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Rabelo, Elida Mara Leite

2013-03-14

225

Parasitological and new molecular-phylogenetic characterization of the malaria parasite Plasmodium tejerai in South American penguins.  

PubMed

This study is the first report on mortality of Spheniscus magellanicus, penguin of South America, caused by Plasmodium tejerai, which was identified using morphological and molecular analyses. Blood stages (trophozoites, meronts and gametocytes) were reported and illustrated. The necropsy revealed marked splenomegaly and pulmonary edema, as well as moderate hepatomegaly and hydropericardium. The histopathology revealed the presence of tissue meronts in the macrophages and endothelial cells of multiple organs. The molecular analyses showed 5.6% of genetic divergence in cytochrome b gene between P. tejerai and Plasmodium relictum. Morphology of blood and tissue stages of P. tejerai is similar to P. relictum; the distinction between these two species requires experience in the identification of avian Plasmodium species. Molecular studies associated with reliably identified morphological species are useful for barcoding and comparisons with previous studies of wildlife malaria infections as well as for posterior phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. S. magellanicus is a new host record of P. tejerai, which is the virulent parasite and worth more attention in avian conservation and veterinary medicine projects in South America. PMID:23269202

Silveira, Patricia; Belo, Nayara O; Lacorte, Gustavo A; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Steindel, Mário; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Valki?nas, Gediminas; Braga, Erika M

2012-12-23

226

Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis. PMID:18188597

Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

2008-01-06

227

Failure of imidocarb dipropionate to eliminate Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs based on parasitological and molecular evaluation methods.  

PubMed

The efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate for the treatment of Hepatozoon canis infection was studied in three naturally infected asymptomatic dogs followed longitudinally over 8 months. Response to treatment was followed by monitoring blood counts, parasitemia levels in blood, parasite in concentrated buffy-coat smears and by PCR. The dogs were initially treated with a low dose of 3 mg/kg imidocarb dipropionate twice a month and when parasitemia persisted after five treatments, with the regular dose of 6 mg/kg. In one dog, H. canis gamonts were no longer detectable by blood and buffy-coat microscopy after 2 months of therapy with 6 mg/kg while in the two other dogs gamonts were intermittently found in blood but persistently detectable in buffy-coat smears during the whole study period. Furthermore, combined therapy with doxycycline monohydrate administered at 10 mg/kg/day PO for 4 weeks also failed to eliminate H. canis. PCR revealed that parasite DNA was present in the blood of all dogs at all sampling dates regardless of treatment refuting the effectiveness of treatment suggested by negative blood microscopy. Detection of H. canis in buffy coat was found to be twice as sensitive than by blood smear and detection by PCR was even more sensitive revealing infection in eight samples (16% of total samples) negative by blood and buffy-coat microscopy. In conclusion, imidocarb dipropionate was not effective in eliminating H. canis from dogs treated repeatedly over 8 months. Microscopical detection is not sufficient for the evaluation of treatment response in H. canis infection and follow up by molecular techniques is recommended. PMID:20444549

Sasanelli, Mariateresa; Paradies, Paola; Greco, Beatrice; Eyal, Osnat; Zaza, Valeria; Baneth, Gad

2010-04-08

228

[Results of parasitological examinations of faecal samples from horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, hedgehogs and rabbits between 1998 and 2002].  

PubMed

The results of coproscopical examinations in horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, hedgehogs and rabbits between 1998 and 2002 are presented. In 4399 samples from horses 37.4% stages of strongylids, 1.4% anoplocephalids, 1.3% Strongyloides westeri, 0.9% Parascaris equorum, 0.04% Oxyuris equi, 0.04% Eimeria sp. and 0.04% Fasciola hepatica were found. In 998 samples of cattle 22.1% stages of strongylids, 11.2% of Eimeria spp., 3.5% of cryptosporidium, 2.9% of Moniezia spp., 1.3% of Trichuris spp., 0.7% of Dictyocaulus sp., 0.6% of Fasciola hepatica, 0.6% of Strongyloides sp., 0.5% of Nematodirus spp. and 0.4% of Capillaria sp. could be detected. In 524 samples of sheep 60.7% eggs of strongylids, 43.1% oozysts of Eimeria spp., 11.1% stages of Nematodirus spp., 9.5% of Moniezia spp., 7.8% of Trichuris spp., 6.7% of Strongyloides sp., 1.7% of Fasciola hepatica, 1% of Capillaria spp., 0.4% of protostrongylidae, 0.2% of Skrjabinema sp. and 0.2% of Dictyocaulus sp. were found. 33.9% of the 118 samples of goats that were examined were positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp., 30.5% for eggs of strongylids, 6.8% for Nematodirus spp., 4.2% for Trichuris spp., 3.4% for Moniezia spp., 0.8 for protostrongylids and 0.8% for Strongyloides sp. 5.7% of 1427 samples of pigs contained stages of strongylids, 1.5% of Ascaris suum, 0.4% of Isospora, 0.3% of Eimeria spp., 0.3% of Trichuris sp., 0.1% of Giardia sp., 0.1% of cryptosproidium as well as 0.1% of metastrongylids. In 1281 of the samples of dogs 2.3% Giardia sp., 2.3% Isospora sp., 2.2% Toxocara canis, 1.4% ancylostomids, 0.8% taeniids, 0.6% larvae of Crenosoma sp., 0.2% Capillaria sp, 0.2% Trichuris vulpis and 0.2% Hammondia-like oocysts were found. In 441 samples of cats 10.7% stages of Isospora sp., 3.9% eggs of Toxocara cati, 1.6% of ancylostomids, 1.4% of taeniids, 1.1% of Giardia sp., 0.7% of Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 0.7% of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, 0.5% of Toxascaris leonina and 0.2% of Capillaria spp. were found. Furthermore 0.2% of the samples contained proglottids of Mesocestoides and 0.2% stages of Dipylidium sp. Eggs of Capillaria sp. were found in 33% of the 106 samples of hedgehogs, larvae of Crenosoma striatum in 27.4%, oocysts of Isospora sp. in 5.7% of the cases. In 232 samples of rabbits 56.9% oocysts of Eimeria sp., 4.8% stages of Passalurus ambiguus, 1.3% of strongylids, 0.9% of Strongyloides sp., 0.4% of trematodes were found. PMID:15287577

Epe, C; Coati, N; Schnieder, T

2004-06-01

229

A Case of Probable Mixed-Infection with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp.: CT and Parasitological Findings  

PubMed Central

We report here a human case probably mixed-infected with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp. who was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan, serological findings, and/or fecal examination. The patient was a 43-year-old Korean female and was admitted to Kyung Hee University Hospital with the complaints of fever and abdominal pain. On admission, marked eosinophilia was noted in her peripheral blood. CT scan showed specific lesions for clonorchiasis and fascioliasis in the liver, along with lesions suggestive of amebic abscess. Micro-ELISA revealed positive results for the 2 helminthic infections. Eggs of C. sinensis and trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were observed in the stool. Treatment with praziquantel followed by metronidazole and tinidazole reduced abnormalities in the liver and eosinophilia. This is the first case report of a possible co-infection with 2 kinds of liver flukes in the Republic of Korea.

Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Yun, Ji Hye; Kim, Jeong Ju; Choi, Won Hyung; Oh, In Hwan; Song, Hyun Ouk

2010-01-01

230

Dermatological and parasitological evaluation of infestations with chewing lice (Werneckiella equi) on horses and treatment using imidacloprid.  

PubMed

Lice infestations in horses caused by the chewing louse Werneckiella (Damalinia) equi are observed worldwide. In the present study, the efficacy of 10% imidacloprid was tested on horses naturally infested with lice. Two groups of animals received a double application of 4 ml and 8 ml Advantage 10% spot-on on day 0 and 28 either. Horses, presenting dermatological signs with negative lice counts, were also included in this investigation. 40.86% of the horses presented positive lice counts and 84.21% of these animals showed clinical dermatologic signs. 65.45% of the lice-negative horses also showed clinical manifestations. Two days after treatment, lice counts dropped in both the treatment groups and on day 56, all animals were free of alive lice, and dermatological lesions decreased significantly (P<0.001) in both the lice-positive and the negative animals. No correlation (P>0.050) between lice burden and clinical signs was detected. PMID:15940520

Mencke, N; Larsen, K S; Eydal, M; Sigurethsson, H

2005-06-07

231

Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in naturally infected dogs and cats using serological, parasitological and molecular methods.  

PubMed

Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and a risk factor for parasite transmission. In this study we assessed the relative performance of a polymerase chain reaction assay targeted to minicircle DNA (kDNA-PCR) in reference to conventional serological tests, a rapid dipstick test and xenodiagnosis to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs and cats from an endemic rural area in northeastern Argentina. A total of 43 dogs and 13 cats seropositive for T. cruzi by an immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), which had been examined by xenodiagnosis, were also tested by kDNA-PCR. kDNA-PCR was nearly as sensitive as xenodiagnosis for detecting T. cruzi-infectious dogs and cats. kDNA-PCR was slightly more sensitive than xenodiagnosis in seropositive dogs (91% versus 86%, respectively) and cats (77% against 54%, respectively), but failed to detect all of the seropositive individuals. ELISA and IHA detected all xenodiagnosis-positive dogs and both outcomes largely agreed (kappa coefficient, ?=0.92), whereas both assays failed to detect all of the xenodiagnosis-positive cats and their agreement was moderate (?=0.68). In dogs, the sensitivity of the dipstick test was 95% and agreed closely with the outcome of conventional serological tests (?=0.82). The high sensitivity of kDNA-PCR to detect T. cruzi infections in naturally infected dogs and cats supports its application as a diagnostic tool complementary to serology and may replace the use of xenodiagnosis or hemoculture. PMID:23499860

Enriquez, G F; Cardinal, M V; Orozco, M M; Schijman, A G; Gürtler, R E

2013-03-13

232

75 FR 39948 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; “Antiparasitic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...share their results with the veterinary parasitology community. FDA plans to survey scientists...veterinarians with expertise in veterinary parasitology using a web-based tool. The questions...disagreement within the veterinary parasitology community. The survey will query...

2010-07-13

233

76 FR 29762 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...share their results with the veterinary parasitology community. FDA plans to survey scientists...veterinarians with expertise in veterinary parasitology using a Web-based tool. The questions...disagreement within the veterinary parasitology community. The survey will query...

2011-05-23

234

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs in chickens and turkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been written to aid in the design, implementation and interpretation of studies for the assessment of drug efficacy against Eimeria species in chickens and turkeys. The information provided deals with many aspects of how to conduct controlled studies in battery cages (dose determination), floor pens (dose confirmation), and commercial facilities (field effectiveness studies), the selection of birds,

P. A Holdsworth; D. P Conway; M. E McKenzie; A. D Dayton; H. D Chapman; G. F Mathis; J. T Skinner; H.-C Mundt; R. B Williams

2004-01-01

235

Studies on the parasitology, phylogeography and the evolution of host-parasite interactions for the snail intermediate hosts of medically important trematode genera in Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

In this chapter a review of research published since 2000 on the biology of the snail intermediate hosts of trematode parasites of medical importance in Southeast Asia, and related taxa is presented. Recent taxonomic revisions of the first intermediate hosts of Paragonimus in the region are considered and an account of changes in current perspectives regarding the evolution of intermediate-host:parasite associations for both Paragonimus and Schistosoma is given. The latest phylogeographical hypotheses for Schistosoma, Paragonimus, Fasciola and Fasciolopsis are also reviewed and compared. Work performed in the region on the snail intermediate hosts of other less studied parasites, such as Opisthorchis/Clonorchis and haplorchids, is also described. PMID:20627149

Attwood, Stephen W

2010-01-01

236

A novel alternative method for 3D visualisation in Parasitology: the construction of a 3D model of a parasite from 2D illustrations.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) models of the marginal hooks, dorsal and ventral anchors, bars and haptoral reservoirs of a parasite, Sundatrema langkawiense Lim & Gibson, 2009 (Monogenea) were developed using the polygonal modelling method in Autodesk 3ds Max (Version 9) based on two-dimensional (2D) illustrations. Maxscripts were written to rotate the modelled 3D structures. Appropriately orientated 3D haptoral hard-parts were then selected and positioned within the transparent 3D outline of the haptor and grouped together to form a complete 3D haptoral entity. This technique is an inexpensive tool for constructing 3D models from 2D illustrations for 3D visualisation of the spatial relationships between the different structural parts within organisms. PMID:20962723

Teo, B G; Sarinder, K K S; Lim, L H S

2010-08-01

237

Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard (Lyon 1658-Paris 1742): the inventor of the word "orthopaedics" and the father of parasitology.  

PubMed

This is an historical essay about Nicolas Andry, a French medical doctor (Lyon 1658-Paris 1742) who wrote in 1741 the famous book called "L'orthopedie", which was soon after translated into English (1742) "Orthopaedia or the art of correcting and preventing deformities in children". His life and works are detailed as the containment of the book composed of two volumes and many engravings (the crooked tree has become the symbol of numerous orthopaedic societies around the world). A discussion of semantics (ORTHO-PEDIE) and evolution of the meaning of this word is also discussed. PMID:21804898

Kohler, Remi

2010-04-15

238

Future challenges for parasitology: vector control and 'One health' in Europe: the veterinary medicinal view on CVBDs such as tick borreliosis, rickettsiosis and canine leishmaniosis.  

PubMed

The medical as well as the veterinary importance of parasitic arthropods or ectoparasites in general terms, is characterized by the primary or secondary impact on the health of humans and companion animals alike. The parasitic arthropods addressed here are those ectoparasites belong to the class of insects, such as fleas and sand flies, or the subclass of acarids, such as ticks. These parasitic arthropods interact intensively with their hosts by blood feeding. Fleas, sand flies and ticks hold the vector capacity to transmit pathogens such as virus, bacteria or protozoa to cats, dogs and humans. The diseases caused by these pathogens are summarized under the terms canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD), feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) or metazoonoses. In small animal practice, it is important to understand that the transmitted pathogen may either lead to a disease with clinical signs, or more often to asymptomatic, clinically healthy, or silent infections. Blocking of the vector-host interactions, the blood feeding and subsequently the transmission of pathogens during blood feeding is a key element of CVBD control. The focus of this review is on the current knowledge of the epidemiology of parasitic vectors and three important CVBDs they transmit; rickettsiosis, tick borreliosis and canine leishmaniosis from a European perspective, and how veterinary medicine may contribute to the challenges of CVBDs and their control. Prevention of CVBDs is fundamentally based on ectoparasite control. Ectoparasite management in cats and dogs is important not only for the health and well-being of the individual companion animal but for public health in general and is therefore a perfect example of the 'One health' approach. PMID:23680539

Mencke, Norbert

2013-04-06

239

Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard (Lyon 1658-Paris 1742): the inventor of the word "orthopaedics" and the father of parasitology  

PubMed Central

This is an historical essay about Nicolas Andry, a French medical doctor (Lyon 1658–Paris 1742) who wrote in 1741 the famous book called “L’orthopedie”, which was soon after translated into English (1742) “Orthopaedia or the art of correcting and preventing deformities in children”. His life and works are detailed as the containment of the book composed of two volumes and many engravings (the crooked tree has become the symbol of numerous orthopaedic societies around the world). A discussion of semantics (ORTHO-PEDIE) and evolution of the meaning of this word is also discussed.

2010-01-01

240

New Markov-autocorrelation indices for re-evaluation of links in chemical and biological complex networks used in metabolomics, parasitology, neurosciences, and epidemiology.  

PubMed

The development of new methods for the computational re-evaluation of links in chemical and biological complex networks is very important to save time and resources. The Moreau-Broto autocorrelation indices (MBis) are well-known topological indices (TIs) used in QSAR/QSPR studies to encode the structural information contained in molecular graphs. In addition, MBis and similar autocorrelation measures have been used to study other systems like, for example, proteins. In the present work, MBis are combined with Markov chains to develop a general class of stochastic MBis of order k (MB(k)) that is used to encode the structural information contained in different types of large complex networks. The MB(k) values obtained for the nodes (centralities) of these networks are used as input variables to seek QSPR-like equations (by means of linear discriminant analysis) in which the outputs are numerical scores S(L(ij)) that allow us to discriminate between connected and nonconnected nodes and therefore re-evaluate the connectivity of the whole network. The models developed in this work produced the following results in terms of overall accuracy for network reconstruction: metabolic networks (72.10%), parasite-host networks (88.70%), CoCoMac brain cortex coactivation network (81.89%), and fasciolosis spreading network (86.39%). PMID:23121444

González-Díaz, Humberto; Riera-Fernández, Pablo

2012-11-26

241

[Intestinal trematodiases (metagonimiasis, nanophyetiasis): clinico-parasitological research and the first trial of using Azinox in a focus of the lower Amur River valley].  

PubMed

A focus of metagonimiasis and nanophyetiasis is described with the average human prevalence of 66.7 and 4.2%, respectively and low intensity of invasions (less than 100 eggs per 1 g). Metagonimiasis and nanophyetiasis are clinically expressed as chronic enterocolitis. A high effect of a single dose 10 mg/kg of azinox against metagonimiasis (98%) and nanophyetiasis (100%) was shown. The treatment course was proved to be useful in the foci of the Amur basin. PMID:1435530

Bronshte?n, A M; Korablev, V N; Iarotski?, L S

242

PCR Diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis taichui Infections in a Lao Community in an Area of Endemicity and Comparison of Diagnostic Methods for Parasitological Field Surveys?  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchiasis is a major public health problem in Southeast Asia. Affected individuals often have mixed infections with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal flukes such as Haplorchis taichui. The usual methods of diagnosing these infections involve the demonstration of fluke eggs in stool samples under light microscopy, but sensitivity and specificity are low. We developed two PCR tests that detect and discriminate between O. viverrini and H. taichui infections. PCR tests were validated by stool samples from purged individuals. We then applied the PCR tests to estimate the prevalence of O. viverrini and H. taichui infections from a random sample of individuals selected from a community in an area of endemicity in Khong District, Laos. PCR results were compared with those from the Kato-Katz (KK) method and the formalin-ether concentration technique (FECT). When validated with purge results, PCR tests of O. viverrini and H. taichui had sensitivities of 93.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85.8 to 97.9%) and 73.3% (95% CI, 60.3 to 83.9%) and could detect as little as 0.75 pg DNA and 1.32 ng DNA, respectively. The PCR-determined community prevalences of O. viverrini and H. taichui infections were 63.9% (95% CI, 54.1 to 72.9%) and 30.6% (95% CI, 22.1 to 40.2%), respectively. Using PCR as the gold standard to detect O. viverrini, three KK thick smears performed comparably well, whereas one KK smear and FECT were poorer (sensitivities of 91.4% [95% CI, 81.0 to 97.1%,], 62.3% [95% CI, 49.8 to 73.7%], and 49.3% [95% CI, 37.0 to 61.6%], respectively). PCR may be a valuable and sensitive diagnostic tool, particularly for low-intensity O. viverrini and H. taichui infections.

Lovis, Leonore; Mak, Tippi K.; Phongluxa, Khampheng; Soukhathammavong, Phonepasong; Sayasone, Somphou; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter; Keiser, Jennifer; Felger, Ingrid

2009-01-01

243

Production and parasitological characteristics of invasive short-cycle fish species in water bodies on the eastern slope of the Southern Urals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of planned or accidental fish intro? duction, rapid dispersal and range expansion are char? acteristic primarily of shortcycle species, i.e., small, early maturing fishes with partial spawning. A special place in the problem of population outbreaks and invasions belongs to the role of invasive species in the trophic structure of new biocenoses and also their role as

K. A. Korlyakov; K. A. Dubchak

2010-01-01

244

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of ectoparasiticides against myiasis causing parasites on ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been prepared to assist in the planning, conduct and interpretation of studies for the assessment of efficacy of ectoparasiticides against the myiasis causing parasites of ruminants. These guidelines specifically focus on larvicidal efficacy against myiasis causing flies. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination and dose confirmation studies, field studies, record keeping and result

P. A. Holdsworth; J. Vercruysse; S. Rehbein; R. J. Peter; C. De Bruin; T. Letonja; P. Green

2006-01-01

245

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of ectoparasiticides against biting and nuisance flies on ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been prepared to assist in the planning, conduct and interpretation of studies for the assessment of the efficacy of ectoparasiticides (excluding repellents) against the biting and nuisance dipteran flies of ruminants. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination and dose confirmation studies, field studies, record keeping and result interpretation. These guidelines advocate the use

P. A. Holdsworth; J. Vercruysse; S. Rehbein; R. J. Peter; C. De Bruin; T. Letonja; P. Green

2006-01-01

246

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of acaricides against ticks (Ixodidae) on ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been prepared to assist in the planning, conduct and interpretation of studies for the assessment of the efficacy of acaricides (excluding vaccines and other bio-control agents) against single and multi-host ticks (Ixodidae) on ruminants. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping and result interpretation. The use of

P. A. Holdsworth; D. Kemp; P. Green; R. J. Peter; C. De Bruin; N. N. Jonsson; T. Letonja; S. Rehbein; J. Vercruysse

2006-01-01

247

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of acaricides against (mange and itch) mites on ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been prepared to assist in the planning, conduct and interpretation of studies for the assessment of the efficacy of acaricides against mange and itch mites on ruminants. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping and result interpretation. These guidelines also are intended to assist the investigators on

J. Vercruysse; S. Rehbein; P. A. Holdsworth; T. Letonja; R. J. Peter

2006-01-01

248

World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): Second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines are provided for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine which, in conjunction with other sets of guidance such as those of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH GL7 and VICH GL16), should encourage the adoption of uniform registration requirements globally. Testing of efficacy should be carried out according to

D. R. Hennessy; C. Bauer; J. C. Boray; G. A. Conder; A. Daugschies; M.-V. Johansen; C. Maddox-Hyttel; A. Roepstorff

2006-01-01

249

Parasitologic Assessment of Two-Dose and Monthly Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria during Pregnancy with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTP-SP) in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTP-SP) is a key strategy in the control of malaria in pregnancy. However, reports of increasing level of resistance to SP using nonpregnant populations have made it imperative for the continuous monitoring of the efficacy of SP in pregnant women. This study assessed using microscopy, monthly dosing and the standard two-dose regimen among 259 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Lagos, Nigeria that consented 122 in the two-dose arm (Arm A) and 137 in the monthly dose arm (Arm B). Baseline parasitaemia in the two groups was 5 (4.1%) and 3 (2.2%) in Arms A and B, respectively. Few of the women developed parasitaemia after the initial SP dose in Arms A 4 (3.3%) and B 2 (1.5%). However, none of the women had malaria infection after the second dose in both Arms. Although IPTP-SP is suggestive of protecting the women from malaria infection, there was no significant difference observed between the two dosing schemes.

Agomo, Chimere O.; Oyibo, Wellington A.; Odukoya-Maije, Funke

2011-01-01

250

Trypanocide treatment among adults with chronic Chagas disease living in Santa Fe city (Argentina), over a mean follow-up of 21 years: parasitological, serological and clinical evolution.  

PubMed

The efficacy of treatment with nifurtimox and/or benznidazole among adults with chronic Chagas disease with no previous electrocardiographic disturbances was evaluated over a mean follow-up of 21 years, by means of conventional serology, xenodiagnosis, clinical examination, electrocardiograms and chest X-ray. One hundred and eleven patients, between 17 and 46 years old, were studied: 54 underwent treatment (nifurtimox 27, benznidazole 27) and 57 remained untreated (control group). Xenodiagnosis was performed on 65% of them: 36/38 of the treated and 9/34 of the untreated patients had previous positive xenodiagnosis. Post-treatment, 133 xenodiagnoses were performed on 41 patients, all resulting negative. In the control group, 29 xenodiagnoses were performed on 14 patients; 2 resulted positive. Sera stored during the follow-up were simultaneously analyzed through conventional serology tests (IHA; DA-2ME; IIF). The serological evolution in the treated group was: a) 37% underwent negative seroconversion (nifurtimox 11, benznidazole 9); b) 27.8% decreased titers (nifurtimox 9, benznidazole 6), 9 showed inconclusive final serology (nifurtimox 7, benznidazole 2); c) 35.2% remained positive with constant titers (nifurtimox 7; benznidazole 12). The control group conserved the initial antibody levels during the follow-up. In the clinical evolution, 2/54 (3.7%) of the treated and 9/57 (15.8%) of the untreated patients showed electrocardiographic disturbances attributable to Chagas myocardiopathy, with a statistically relevant difference (p<0.05). Treatment caused deparasitation in at least 37% of the chronically infected adults and a protective effect on their clinical evolution. PMID:17486245

Fabbro, Diana L; Streiger, Mirtha L; Arias, Enrique D; Bizai, María L; del Barco, Mónica; Amicone, Norberto A

251

Diagnosis of Rhodesian Sleeping Sickness in the Lambwe Valley (1980-1984). (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In primary Rhodesian sleeping sickness patients, parasitological diagnosis was best performed by rodent inoculation of blood (98.5%+) followed by Giemsa-stained thick blood smears (93.3%+). Parasitological diagnosis in relapse patients was sometimes impos...

B. T. Wellde D. A. Chumo M. J. Reardon J. Nawiri J. Olando

1989-01-01

252

[Hydatid fertility and protoscolex viability in humans: study of 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 and analyzed at the parasitology laboratory of the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers].  

PubMed

An analysis at the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers examined 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 to determine the fertility rate of metacestodes and the viability of protoscolices. The fertility rate of the hydatid cysts in humans was 88.4% and the protoscolex viability rate 74.5%. The fertility and viability rates found here are high, despite the use of scolicides. PMID:24001653

Zait, H; Boulahbel, M; Zait, F; Achir, I; Guerchani, M T; Chaouche, H; Ladjadje, Y; Hamrioui, B

2013-05-01

253

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestation on dogs and cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities accruing from animal

A. A. Marchiondo; P. A. Holdsworth; P. Green; B. L. Blagburn; D. E. Jacobs

2007-01-01

254

Automated reading and processing of quantitative IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE isotypic agglutination results in microplates Development and application in parasitology-mycology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microplate agglutination techniques represent a simple and commonly used approach for the quantitative or qualitative isotypic analysis of specific antibodies. However, they require optical reading by the investigator and are thus prone to an important degree of variability. In order to solve some of the problems associated with the variability of optical readings, we have used an automatic reader scanning

D. Aubert; F. Foudrinier; M. L. Kaltenbach; D. Guyot-Walser; C. Marx-Chemla; R. Geers; H. Lepan; J. M. Pinon

1995-01-01

255

Application of Radioisotopes in the Diagnosis of Fascioliasis. Part of a Coordinated Program on Isotopes and Radiation in Animal Parasitology and Immunology. Final Report for the Period of 15 December 1975 - 14 December 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fascioliasis is an important parasitic disease of grazing cattle and sheep. The experimental approach included the production of metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica from Lymnae tomentosa, infection of experimental animals, separation of fractions from whol...

J. Tomanek

1977-01-01

256

Incidence and Time Course of Leishmania infantum Infections Examined by Parasitological, Serologic, and Nested-PCR Techniques in a Cohort of Naõ ¨ve Dogs Exposed to Three Consecutive Transmission Seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most experience in the comparison of diagnostic tools for canine leishmaniasis comes from cross-sectional surveys of dogs of different ages and breeds and in cases with unknown onset and duration of leishmaniasis. A longitudinal study was performed on 43 beagle dogs exposed to three transmission seasons (2002 to 2004) of Mediterranean leishmaniasis and examined periodically over 32 months through bone

Gaetano Oliva; Aldo Scalone; Valentina Foglia Manzillo; Marina Gramiccia; Annalisa Pagano; Luigi Gradoni

257

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of ectoparasiticides against biting lice, sucking lice and sheep keds on ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

These guidelines have been prepared to assist in the design, implementation and interpretation of studies for the assessment of the efficacy of ectoparasiticides against biting and sucking lice and sheep keds on ruminants. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping and result interpretation. These guidelines advocate the use of pen

P. A. Holdsworth; J. Vercruysse; S. Rehbein; R. J. Peter; T. Letonja; P. Green

2006-01-01

258

Automated reading and processing of quantitative IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE isotypic agglutination results in microplates. Development and application in parasitology-mycology.  

PubMed

Microplate agglutination techniques represent a simple and commonly used approach for the quantitative or qualitative isotypic analysis of specific antibodies. However, they require optical reading by the investigator and are thus prone to an important degree of variability. In order to solve some of the problems associated with the variability of optical readings, we have used an automatic reader scanning each of the 96 wells of a standard microplate in 32 different locations. The inherent advantages of the automatic reader were further maximized by coupling it to a dedicated computer running customized software designed to process data coming on-line from the spectrophotometer. This approach has been applied to the diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis and candidosis. Suspensions of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites or of sensitised erythrocytes were used for the determination of IgG antibodies or the quantification of IgM, IgA, or IgE specific isotypes. This procedure allows the simple and reproducible collection of objective results. Moreover, it permits a reduction in cut-off values and direct interpretation of results with automatic conversion of scores into titer, units, index, or into any other scale appropriate for standardization purposes. PMID:7594632

Aubert, D; Foudrinier, F; Kaltenbach, M L; Guyot-Walser, D; Marx-Chemla, C; Geers, R; Lepan, H; Pinon, J M

1995-10-26

259

Research and increase of expertise in arachno-entomology are urgently needed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the contents of international journals of parasitology dealing with broader topics inside this field show that\\u000a rather a few papers appear with studies in the discipline of arachno-entomology. In the journals Journal of Parasitology, Parasitology Research and Trends in Parasitology, the relations of published papers on protozoology, helminthology and arachno-entomology showed that in all three journals,\\u000a papers on protozoans

Heinz Mehlhorn; Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid; Saleh Al-Quraishy; Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar

260

Amphotericin B deoxycholate treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with newer modes of administration and precautions: a study of 938 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of 938 parasitologically confirmed patients with visceral leishmaniasis treated with amphotericin B (1 mg\\/kg bodyweight daily infused in 2 h for 20 days), 935 were cured clinically, 933 parasitologically and 931 ultimately (no relapse within 6 months). Two parasitologically ‘not cured’ and 4 relapsed patients were cured with 25 infusions, and 1 with double relapse with 30 infusions. The

C. P. Thakur; R. K. Singh; S. M. Hassan; R. Kumar; S. Narain; Ashok Kumar

1999-01-01

261

Research and increase of expertise in arachno-entomology are urgently needed.  

PubMed

Considering the contents of international journals of parasitology dealing with broader topics inside this field show that rather a few papers appear with studies in the discipline of arachno-entomology. In the journals Journal of Parasitology, Parasitology Research and Trends in Parasitology, the relations of published papers on protozoology, helminthology and arachno-entomology showed that in all three journals, papers on protozoans were the most common, while those on helminths of any kind reached the second place being rather as common as the protozoan papers in Parasitology Research and in the Journal of Parasitology. In Trends of Parasitology, however, the papers on helminths reached only about 25% of the numbers published on protozoan topics. But in all three journals-and this is important-the papers on arachno-entomological themes were scarce reaching less than the half of the protozoan papers in Parasitology Research, and only about 15% in the Journal of Parasitology and in the Trends of Parasitology. These disproportions between the three great subdivisions of targets in the focus of parasitological research are dangerous, since this lack exists already for several decades and thus led to a backlog of unsolved increasing problems that are caused by ticks, mites, insects and/or parasitic crustaceans especially in times of intensive globalization and global warming. Studies on the biology, vectorship, invasion and spreading of wanted vectors and on the control of pests and parasites belonging to the field of arachno-entomology are urgently needed. PMID:21732184

Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

2011-07-06

262

Etiologic Study of Diarrheal Disease in Vietnam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bacteriological and parasitological studies were performed on stool specimens from 987 U. S. Marines admitted to a hospital because of diarrhea: more than one-half had recently returned from field operations. Infection with shigella spp. was proved in 290...

D. W. Forman M. J. Tong K. D. Murrell J. H. Cross

1971-01-01

263

Diagnosis of AIDS-Related Intestinal Parasites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are all protozoan parasites which infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans, are known agents of diarrhea, and are difficult to diagnosis using traditional parasitologic techniques. Cryptosporid...

B. L. Ungar

1988-01-01

264

Parasitic Infections of Man and Animals in Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Classification of internal parasites of man and animals in Hawaii(Protozoa, Nemathelminthes (Roundworms), Platyhelminthes (Tapeworms and Flukes)); Life cycles of parasites; Routes of infection of internal parasites; Mollusks of parasitological i...

J. E. Alicata

1964-01-01

265

Carol O. Tacket, MD Curriculum Vitae  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Teaching Awards 2004: Teaching Commendation in Host Defenses and Infectious Diseases Virology/Parasitology Section (among top six lecturers ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

266

Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guidance  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Sci., vol. 222:83-118. • Ogawa, K. 1996. Marine parasitology with special reference to Japanese fisheries and mariculture. Vet. Parasitol. 64:95-105. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

267

Francesco Redi: (1626-1697) Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia article about a scientist in the 1600s who was interested in experimental toxicology, parasitology, entomology and developmental biology. He used microscopy to argue against spontaneous generation.

Kimberly A Buettner (Arizona State University Embryo Project Encyclopedia)

2012-02-23

268

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 3. Trematoda and Cestoda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

269

Proceedings of the Midwest Furbearer Workshop (14th). Held in Wakefield, Michigan on April 2-4, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Ecological Studies of Wolves on Isle Royale Rolf O. Peterson; Session 1: Society, Politics, and Furbearer Management; Session II: Furbearer Toxicology, Parasitology, and Restraint; Session III: Fisher and Marten Management in the Upper Great Lak...

D. Wagner R. Earle T. Reis

1996-01-01

270

9 CFR 130.17 - User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests...17 User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests...sites. (a) User fees for veterinary diagnostics tests performed...00 161.00 165.00 Parasitology Test 29.00...

2010-01-01

271

9 CFR 130.17 - User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests...17 User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests...sites. (a) User fees for veterinary diagnostics tests performed...00 161.00 165.00 Parasitology Test 29.00...

2009-01-01

272

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 4. Namatoda and Acanthocephala.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

273

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 2. Protozoa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

274

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 6, Section C: Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

275

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 6, Sections A-B: Subject Headings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

276

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 5. Arthropoda and Miscellaneous Phyla.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

277

42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and virology. Specific criteria for these subspecialties are found at §§ 493.911 through...

2011-10-01

278

77 FR 36488 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on a variety of health- related analyses such as tissue histology, contaminants analyses, infectious disease research, parasitology studies, and stable isotope work. Additionally, tissues would be collected to augment the National Marine Mammal...

2012-06-19

279

42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and virology. Specific criteria for these subspecialties are found at §§ 493.911 through...

2012-10-01

280

Comparative Clinical Study of Mefloquine and Chloroquine in the Treatment of Vivax Malaria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty-six patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria were evaluated for their clinical and parasitological response to the two single doses of mefloquine in comparison with the standard 3-day treatment with chloroquine. The patients were randomly distributed ...

A. K. Alcantara C. V. Uylangco R. P. Sangalang J. H. Cross

1985-01-01

281

Schistosomiasis and Other Human Parasitoses of Lake Lindu in Central Sulawesi (Celebes), Indonesia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The isolated Lake Lindu Valley of Central Sulawesi is the only reported Indonesian focus of oriental schistosomiasis. In April 1972 a parasitological survey involving over 1,400 people was conducted in the valley's four villages. Schistosoma japonicum inf...

M. D. Clarke W. P. Carney J. H. Cross P. Hadidjaja S. Oemijati

1973-01-01

282

Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Sodium Stibogluconate (Pentostam) vs. Ketoconazole for Treating Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Guatemala.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine the relative efficacy and toxicity of stibogluconate and ketoconazole for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, we conducted a comparative trial in which 120 Guatemalan men with parasitologically proven cutaneous leishmaniasis were random...

T. R. Navin

1991-01-01

283

Evaluation of Sodium Stibogluconate (Pentostam) and Ketoconazole in the Treatment of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guatemalans with parasitologically proven cutaneous leishmaniasis were randomly and equally divided into 3 treatment groups: those receiving sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), 20 mg antimony/kg/day iv for 20 days; those receiving ketoconazole (600 mg/day ...

T. R. Navin

1990-01-01

284

CLINICAL RECOVERY AND LIMITED CURE IN CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS TREATED WITH AMINOSIDINE (PAROMOMYCIN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three groups of three, six, and 12 dogs with parasitologically proven clinical visceral leishmaniasis (Leishmania chagasi infection) were treated with intramuscular aminosidine sulfate at doses of 20 mg\\/kg\\/day for 15 days; 80 mg\\/kg\\/day for 20 days, and 40 mg\\/kg\\/day for 30 days, respectively. Follow-up was by parasitologic ex- amination of bone marrow and skin, serology using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody

J. A. VEXENAT; P. L. OLLIARO; J. A. FONSECA DE CASTRO; R. CAVALCANTE; J. H. FURTADO CAMPOS; J. P. TAVARES; M. A. MILES

285

Failure of buparvaquone (Butalex) in the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniosis.  

PubMed

Buparvaquone (Butalex), a therapeutic for theileriosis, has been shown to have anti-leishmanial activity in vitro. Seven dogs with symptomatic, parasitologically positive, canine visceral leishmaniosis were treated with Butalex at 5 mg kg(-1) body weight using four doses over 12 days. Two animals showed minor clinical improvement (growth of healthy hair) but all remained parasitologically positive and disease progression was not halted. PMID:9652385

Vexenat, J A; Croft, S L; Furtado Campos, J H; Miles, M A

1998-05-01

286

Fasciola hepatica: Influence of Gender and Liver Biotransformations on Flukicide Treatment Efficacy of Rats Infested and Cured with Either Clorsulon\\/Ivermectin or Triclabendazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sibille, P., Calléja, C., Carreras, F., Bigot, K., Galtier, P., and Boulard, C. 2000. Fasciola hepatica: Influence of gender and liver biotransformations on flukicide treatment efficacy of rats infested and cured with either clorsulon\\/ivermectin or triclabendazole. Experimental Parasitology94, 227–237. Two fasciolicide preparations have been compared in 130 rats experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Parasitological, immunological, and biochemical parameters have been

Pierre Sibille; Cécile Calléja; Florence Carreras; Karine Bigot; Pierre Galtier; Chantal Boulard

2000-01-01

287

Impact of indoor residual spraying of lambda-cyhalothrin on malaria prevalence and anemia in an epidemic-prone district of Muleba, north-western Tanzania.  

PubMed

The Government of Tanzania introduced indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Muleba district in north-western Tanzania after frequent malaria epidemics. Malaria parasitological baseline and two cross-sectional follow-up surveys were conducted in villages under the IRS program and those not under IRS to assess the impact of IRS intervention. After two rounds of IRS intervention there was a significant reduction of malaria parasitological indices in both two villages. In IRS villages overall, parasitemia prevalence was reduced by 67.2%, splenomegaly was reduced by 75.8%, whereas anemia was reduced by 50.5%. There was also a decline of malaria parasite density from 896.4 at baseline to 128.8 at second follow-up survey. Similarly, there was also a reduction of malaria parasitological indices in non-IRS villages; however, parasitological indices in IRS villages remained far below the levels in non-IRS villages. The reduction of malaria parasitological indices in non-IRS villages might have been contributed by interventions other than IRS. PMID:23458959

Mashauri, Fabian M; Kinung'hi, Safari M; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Magesa, Stephen M; Kishamawe, Coleman; Mwanga, Joseph R; Nnko, Soori E; Malima, Robert C; Mero, Chacha N; Mboera, Leonard E G

2013-03-04

288

Immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Fasciola gigantica paramyosin antigen  

PubMed Central

Background: Many immunological techniques have been developed over years using the different Fasciola antigens for diagnosis of parasitic infection and to replace the parasitological techniques, which are time consuming and usually lack sensitivity and reproducibility. Materials and Methods: In this study, Fasciola gigantica paramyosin (Pmy) antigen was early detected in cattle sera using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to evaluate the Pmy antigen performance in diagnosis. This work was conducted on 135 cattle blood samples, which were classified according to parasitological investigation into, healthy control (30), fascioliasis (75), and other parasites (30) groups. Results: The sensitivity of Sandwich ELISA was 97.33%, and the specificity was 95%, in comparison with parasitological examination, which recorded 66.66% sensitivity and 100% specificity, respectively. Conclusions: It was clear that the native F. gigantica Pmy is considered as a powerful antigen in early immunodiagnosis of fascioliasis, using a highly sensitive and specific sandwich ELISA technique.

Abou-Elhakam, Hany Mohamed Adel; Bauomy, Ibraheem Rabia; El Deeb, Somaya Osman; El Amir, Azza Mohamed

2013-01-01

289

[Efficiency of standard versus instrumental studies in detecting helminth eggs].  

PubMed

Testing confirmed that the applied brush washing methods developed in the 1970s could provide the adequate representativeness of a sample and full information on the actual presence of helminth eggs in the objects under study. An instrumental study was found to increase the probability of helminth egg detection by up to 3.1 times due to the representativeness of a sample, to reduce the labor- and time-consumption to have analysis results, as well as to unify a procedure for sanitary parasitological studies of washouts, and to enhance the efficiency of the equipment already used in parasitology laboratories. PMID:23088142

Upyrev, A V; Khromenkova, E P; Tverdokhlebova, T I

290

FleaTickRisk: a meteorological model developed to monitor and predict the activity and density of three tick species and the cat flea in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical modelling is quite a recent tool in epidemiology. Geographical information system (GIS) com- bined with remote sensing (data collection and analysis) provide valuable models, but the integration of climatologic models in parasitology and epidemiology is less common. The aim of our model, called \\

Frédéric Beugnet; Karine Chalvet-Monfray; Harilaos Loukos

291

Epidemiology of parasitic protozoan infections in Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) on St Kilda  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The feral Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) population on Hirta, St Kilda, is host to a diverse component parasite community, but previous parasitological studies of the population have only focussed on the metazoan species. This paper reports the first epidemiological study of the protozoan species comprising Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and 11 species of Eimeria in Soay sheep across

B. H. CRAIG; J. G. PILKINGTON; L. E. B. KRUUK; J. M. PEMBERTON

2007-01-01

292

Antibacterial Effect of Some Plant Extracts on Selected Enterobacteriaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vernonia amygdalina (Bitterleaf), Eucalyptus citriodora (Eucalypt) and Phyllanthus amarus (Schum) were investigated for their antibacterial properties against pure cultures of clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. The isolates were obtained from dept of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Water and Ethanol were used in the crude extractions of

I. O. Sule; T. O. Agbabiaka

2008-01-01

293

Reversal of Hepatic Fibrosis after Praziquantel Therapy of Murine Schistosomiasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reprint examined the effect of parasitologic cure of S. mansoni infection on liver fibrosis in mice. Praziquantel, 250 mg/kg body weight, was administered orally to mice 8 weeks after infection with 50 S. mansoni cercariae. The authors assessed liver...

S. H. Morcos M. T. Khayyal M. M. Mansour S. Saleh E. A. Ishak

1985-01-01

294

OL-037 Effect of treatment with antifibrotic drugs in combination with PZQ in immunized Schistosoma mansoni infected murine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main problem in schistosomal hepatic morbidity is fibrosis and extensive scarring induced by living eggs. In this study, we tried to study the effect of treatment using antihelminthic drug (PZQ) and\\/or antifibrotic drugs (PTX and silymarin) in combination with immunization. The parasitological parameters, the dynamics of serum-specific immunoglobulins and splenic cytokines associated with changes in granuloma diameter were assessed.

Ibrahim Rabia; Faten Nagy; E. Ali; Amina Mohamed; Fayza EL-Assal; A. El-Amir

2010-01-01

295

CAUSES OF MORTALITY OF ALBATROSS CHICKS AT MIDWAY ATOLL  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for micro- biological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning,

Louis Sileo; Paul R. Sievert; Michael D. Samuel

1990-01-01

296

[A case of relapsing iridocyclitis in tropical malaria].  

PubMed

An African student developed bilateral relapsing iridocyclitis with increased intraocular pressure. General examinations and parasitological studies revealed tropical malaria. Etiotropic and local therapy normalized intraocular pressure and improved vision acuity of both eyes. This case should be borne in mind by general practitioners as a possibility of transportation of various tropical diseases. PMID:9484004

Kravchinina, V V; Dushin, N V; Beliaev, V S; Barashkov, V I; Gonchar, P A; Frolov, M A

297

Reversibility of Schistosoma mansoni-associated morbidity after yearly mass praziquantel therapy: ultrasonographic assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parasitological, clinical and ultrasonographic longitudinal study was undertaken in 1993 in a focus hyperendemic for Schistosoma mansoni infection in the central highlands of Madagascar. All the inhabitants were systematically treated with praziquantel. A complete examination and treatment were repeated each year. Among the 289 villagers who underwent the complete 3 years' follow up, 65·9% excreted eggs at the initial

P. Boisier; C.-E. Ramarokoto; V. E. Ravaoalimalala; L. Rabarijaona; J. Serieye; J. Roux; P. Esterre

1998-01-01

298

EVIDENCE FOR A LONG-TERM EFFECT OF A SINGLE DOSE OF PRAZIQUANTEL ON SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI INDUCED HEPATOSPLENIC LESIONS IN NORTHERN UGANDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment with praziquantel reduces the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, reversibility of periportal fibrosis of the liver, which potentially leads to fatal complications, is not unequiv- ocally substantiated. In the Nile District of Uganda, 460 patients were parasitologically (Kato-Katz method) and ultrasonographically examined during October 1991, October 1992, and May 1994. Treatment with praziquantel at a dosage

KATHRIN FRENZEL; LORENZ GRIGULL; EMMANUEL ODONGO-AGINYA; CHRISTOPHER M. NDUGWA

299

Are poor responses to praziquantel for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infections in Senegal due to resistance? An overview of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosoma mansoni to praziquantel in northern Senegal. Praziquantel at 40 mg\\/kg usually cures 70-90% of S. mansoni infections. In an initial trial in an epidemic S. mansoni focus in northern Senegal, only 18% of the cases became parasitologically negative 12 weeks after treatment, although the reduction in mean egg counts was within normal ranges (86%). Among other hypotheses to explain

B. Gryseels; A. Mbaye; S. J. De Vlas; F. F. Stelma; F. Guisse ´; L. Van Lieshout; D. Faye; M. Diop; A. Ly; L. A. Tchuem-Tchuente; D. Engels; K. Polman

2001-01-01

300

Schistosoma japonicum: Day to Day Variation in Excretion and Hatchability of Parasite Eggs in the Domestic Pig, Suis suis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giver, H., de Vlas, S. J., Johansen, M. V., Christensen, N. Ø., and Nansen, P. 2000. Schistosoma japonicum: Day to day variation in excretion and hatchability of parasite eggs in the domestic pig, Suis suis. Experimental Parasitology95, 8–18. The aim of the present study was to describe the course of an Schistosoma japonicum infection in individual pigs over time, with

H. Giver; S. J. de Vlas; M. V. Johansen; N. Ø. Christensen; P. Nansen

2000-01-01

301

Artesunate/Amodiaquine Malaria Treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa)  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6–59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5–87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008.

Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, Jose; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustin

2013-01-01

302

A COCKTAIL OF RECOMBINANTONCHOCERCA VOLVULUSANTIGENS FOR SEROLOGIC DIAGNOSIS WITH THE POTENTIAL TO PREDICT THE ENDEMICITY OF ONCHOCERCIASIS INFECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the evaluation of the potential of a serologic test to determine the endemicity of onchocercal infection in hyper, meso, and hypoendemic communities by the detection of antibodies to a cocktail of recombinant antigens. Parasitologic parameters of infection prevalence and intensity were compared with serologic results. Infection prevalence by serology was consistently but not significantly higher than that

JANETTE E. BRADLEY; BARBARA M. ATOGHO; LYNNE ELSON; GRAHAM R. STEWART; MICHEL BOUSSINESQ

303

Comparison of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decisions on individual or community treatment and evaluation of chemotherapy based control programs depend on parasitological diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of a single Kato-Katz thick smear and a single FLOTAC for the determination of the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 271 faecal specimens were collected from schoolchildren

Kassahun Habtamu; Abraham Degarege; Yemane Ye-Ebiyo; Berhanu Erko

304

One reserve, three primates: applying a holistic approach to understand the interconnections among ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), and humans (Homo sapiens) at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied cultural anthropological, ethological, and parasitological methodologies to investigate the interplay among three primate species, ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), and humans (Homo sapiens) who live within the same habitat (i.e. in sympatry) around the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. Through a fusion of these methodologies we hope to provide a holistic understanding of the advantages

James E. Loudon; Michelle L. Sauther; Krista D. Fish; Mandala Hunter-Ishikawa; Youssouf Jacky Ibrahim

305

Merozoite surface antigen 1 and 2 genotypes and rosetting of Plasmodium falciparum in severe and mild malaria in Lambaréné, Gabon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case-control study to investigate the distribution of Plasmodium falciparum genotypes in patients with severe and mild malaria. We compared clinical and parasitological data with the parasites' genotype and rosetting. The study group consisted of 100 children suffering severe malaria, defined as severe anaemia and hyperparasitaemia.These children were matched by age, sex and provenance with 100 children with

Jürgen F. T. Kun; Ruprecht J. Schmidt-Ott; Leopold G. Lehman; Bertrand Lell; Doris Luckner; Bernhard Greve; Peter Matousek; Peter G. Kremsner

1998-01-01

306

Reappraisal on anopheline mosquitoes of Garhwal region, Uttarakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & objectives: The study examines occurrence of anopheline mosquitoes in seven dis- tricts— Dehradun, Pauri, New Tehri, Hardwar, Rudraprayag, Chamoli and Uttarkashi of Garhwal region in Uttarakhand state, India. Methods: The methodological approach comprised sampling and processing of adult\\/immature mos- quitoes, data compilation, meteorological information and parasitological survey. Results: A total of 87 localities covering 24 tehsils\\/blocks were surveyed

N. Pemola Devi; R. K. Jauhari

307

SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUMIN THE PIG: THE HOST-PARASITE RELATIONSHIP AS INFLUENCED BY THE INTENSITY AND DURATION OF EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitologic, clinicopathologic, and pathologic aspects of Schistosoma japonicuminfections of varying durations and intensities were studied in growing pigs injected intramuscularly with a dose of either 0, 100, 500, or 2,000 cercariae and killed at 4, 11, 17, or 24 weeks postinfection (PI). The number of viable worm pairs decreased significantly in the high dose group after 11 weeks PI but

A. LEE WILLINGHAM III; MARIA HURST; HENRIK O. BØGH; MARIA V. JOHANSEN; RONNY LINDBERG; PETER NANSEN

308

Bayesian statistics for parasitologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian statistical methods are increasingly being used in the analysis of parasitological data. Here, the basis of differences between the Bayesian method and the classical or frequentist approach to statistical inference is explained. This is illustrated with practical implications of Bayesian analyses using prevalence estimation of strongyloidiasis and onchocerciasis as two relevant examples. The strongyloidiasis example addresses the problem of

Mar??a-Gloria Basáñez; Clare Marshall; Hélène Carabin; Theresa Gyorkos; Lawrence Joseph

2004-01-01

309

Giardia Cysts in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductions in annual rainfall in some regions and increased human consumption have caused a shortage of water resources at the global level. The recycling of treated wastewaters has been suggested for certain domestic, industrial, and agricultural activities. The importance of microbiological and parasitological criteria for recycled water has been repeatedly emphasized. Among water-borne pathogens, protozoa of the genera Giardia and

Simone M. Caccio; Marzia De Giacomo; Francesca A. Aulicino; Edoardo Pozio

2003-01-01

310

ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST STUDY OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN SHELLFISH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This collection of abstracts provides an account of four presentations at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the advancement of Veterninary Parasitology (WAAVP)(held in New Orleans, LA, USA from 10-14 August 2003)in a symposium session on zoonotic protozoan parasites foun...

311

A disease complex associated with pigeon circovirus infection, young pigeon disease syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to collect more convincing data on the aetiological agent of young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS), a comprehensive study was performed on pigeons in German lofts with or without outbreaks of YPDS. The investigations included examination of histories, clinical signs and pathology, as well as parasitological and microbiological analysis. Pigeons in their 4th to 12th week of life exhibited

Rüdiger Raue; Volker Schmidt; Markus Freick; Brinja Reinhardt; Reimar Johne; Ludger Kamphausen; Erhard F. Kaleta; Hermann Müller; Maria-Elisabeth Krautwald-Junghanns

2005-01-01

312

Evaluation of various diagnostic techniques for Trypanosoma evansi infections in naturally infected camels  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and eight camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Trypanosoma evansi endemic areas of the Thar Desert of Rajasthan State, India, were evaluated by various diagnostic tests including parasitological tests (wet blood film — WBF, stained thick blood film), chemical test (mercuric chloride), biological test (mouse subinoculation — MSI), and immunodiagnostic tests based on antibody detection (double immunodiffusion test — DID,

K. M. L. Pathak; Yadvendra Singh; N. V. Meirvenne; M. Kapoor

1997-01-01

313

Positive Montenegro skin test among patients with sporotrichosis in Rio De Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 52 patients with sporotrichosis confirmed by isolation of Sporothrix schenckii and reactivity to the Montenegro skin test (MST) during an ongoing outbreak of this mycosis in Rio de Janeiro. The objective was to emphasize the importance of parasitological confirmation and the possibility of incorrect diagnosis based on the lesion's appearance, epidemiological information, and immunological tests. The antigen used

Mônica Bastos de Lima Barros; Armando Schubach; Antônio Carlos Francesconi-do-Valle; Maria Clara Gutierrez-Galhardo; Tânia Maria Pacheco Schubach; Fátima Conceição-Silva; Mariza de Matos Salgueiro; Eliame Mouta-Confort; Rosani Santos Reis; Maria de Fátima Madeira; Tullia Cuzzi; Leonardo Pereira Quintella; Janaína Pinho da Silva Passos; Maria José Conceição; Mauro Célio de Almeida Marzochi

2005-01-01

314

FOREST MALARIA IN CHHINDWARA, MADHYA PRADESH, CENTRAL INDIA: A CASE STUDY IN A TRIBAL COMMUNITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitologic and entomologic cross-sectional surveys were carried out duringan outbreak of malaria between December 1998 and August 2000 in forest villages near the Mohkhed Primary Health Center in the Chhindwara District of Madhya Pradesh in central India. In December 1998, surveys showed that more than 70% of the fever cases had malaria, with 87% of the malaria caused by Plasmodium

NEERU SINGH; A. K. MISHRA; M. M. SHUKLA; S. K. CHAND

315

A Case of Visceral Leishmaniosis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) from Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern habitats of Croatia's gray wolf (Canis lupus) population are found in central and southern parts of Dalmatia. This region is recognized as an endemic region for canine visceral leishmaniosis, caused by Leish- mania infantum. In November 2003, a 4-yr-old male gray wolf was found dead in the northwestern border of this endemic region. Pathologic and parasitologic analysis, con-

A. Beck; R. Beck; J. Kusak; A. Gudan; F. Martinkovic; B. Artukovic; M. Hohs; A. Marinculic

316

Detection of Fasciola hepatica antigen in cattle faeces by a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoclonal antibody-based sandwich immunoassay (mAb sandwich ELISA) was developed for the detection of Fasciola hepatica antigen in the faeces of cattle. The assay was applied to samples from 100 cattle infected with F hepatica, 56 animals with parasitologically proven infections of other parasites and 100 uninfected animals. F hepatica antigen was detected in all the faecal samples from animals

B. E Duménigo; A. M Espino; C. M Finlay

1996-01-01

317

Wastewater treatment and reuse: Environmental health and safety considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the performance and hygienic evaluation of a conventional Egyptian activated sludge plant for effluent reuse was conducted. The assessment programme included raw wastewater quality, primary effluent quality, and secondary effluent quality, before and after chlorination in terms of physico?chemical parameters, bacteriological and parasitological examination and viral incidence. The result of the study indicated that the overall efficiency

Rifaat Abdel Wahaab

1995-01-01

318

Quinine-Resistant Malaria in Traveler Returning from Senegal, 2007  

PubMed Central

We describe clinical and parasitologic features of in vivo and in vitro Plasmodium falciparum resistance to quinine in a nonimmune traveler who returned to France from Senegal in 2007 with severe imported malaria. Clinical quinine failure was associated with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 829 nmol/L. Increased vigilance is required during treatment follow-up.

Pradines, Bruno; Pistone, Thierry; Briolant, Sebastien; Bertaux, Lionel; Receveur, Marie-Catherine; Parzy, Daniel; Millet, Pascal; Rogier, Christophe; Malvy, Denis

2010-01-01

319

Malaria incidence in relation to rice cultivation in the irrigated Sahel of Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven repeated cross-sectional parasitological surveys, collecting a total of 13,912 blood samples, were carried out from September 1995 to February 1998 in three irrigated rice growing villages and three villages without irrigated agriculture in the area surrounding Niono, Mali. Parasite prevalence varied according to season and agricultural zone, but showed similar patterns for villages within the same zone. Overall, malaria

Mahamadou Soumana Sissoko; Alassane Dicko; Olivier Johan Tavai Briët; Mady Sissoko; Issaka Sagara; Hawa Dembélé Keita; Moussa Sogoba; Christophe Rogier; Yeya Tiémoko Touré; Ogobara K. Doumbo

2004-01-01

320

Internal parasites of free-ranging guanacos from Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the winter of 2000, a greater than 80% reduction in the guanaco population located in Cabo Dos Bah??as Wildlife Reserve, Chubut, Argentina, was evident due to massive mortality attributed to starvation. Twelve guanacos were necropsied and samples were analyzed at the Parasitology Laboratory of Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Fecal analysis revealed developmental stages of Nematodirus

P. M. Beldomenico; M. Uhart; M. F. Bono; C. Marull; R. Baldi; J. L. Peralta

2003-01-01

321

Frontiers in anthelmintic pharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in anthelmintic pharmacology faces a grim future. The parent field of veterinary parasitology has seemingly been devalued by governments, universities and the animal industry in general. Primarily due to the success of the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics in cattle, problems caused by helminth infections are widely perceived to be unimportant. The market for anthelmintics in other host species that are

Timothy G. Geary; Nicholas C. Sangster; David P. Thompson

1999-01-01

322

The detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before revised World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines on the detection of anthelmintic resistance can be produced, validation of modified and new methods is required in laboratories in different parts of the world. There is a great need for improved methods of detection of anthelmintic resistance particularly for the detection of macrocyclic lactone resistance and for

G. C. Coles; F. Jackson; R. K. Prichard; G. von Samson-Himmelstjerna; A. Silvestre; M. A. Taylor; J. Vercruysse

2006-01-01

323

The selection of experimental doses and their importance for parasite success in metacercarial infection studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Experimental studies of parasite transmission are essential for advances in basic and applied parasitology. A survey of the results of published experiments can identify the determinants of both variation among studies in experimental design and of parasite infection success. Here, analyses are conducted on data compiled from a total of 106 metacercarial infection experiments (35 on Echinostomatidae, 37 on

R. POULIN

2010-01-01

324

Information on Vinchucas and Chagas disease.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following a significant increase in the number of vinchucas observed at La Silla during the last summer, the Director-General of ESO asked Prof. Hugo Schenone, Director of the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology of the University of Chile to pay a visit to La Silla to investigate the situation. The following gives a summary of the resulting report.

Schenone, H.

1981-12-01

325

Genetic engineering  

SciTech Connect

This series reviews new developments in recombinant DNA technology and its applications. Each volume consists of 3 - 4 mini-reviews. Volume 7 contains two articles on aspects of molecular parasitology and one review on gene expression in animal cells of biotechnological interest.

Rigby, P.

1988-01-01

326

77 FR 66625 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Infections and Cancer Parasitology. Date: November 28, 2012. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2012-11-06

327

A program to accredit laboratories for reliable testing of pork and horsemeat for Trichinella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has developed a program to accredit external laboratories to conduct Trichinella digestion assays for export purposes. Accredited laboratories are responsible for staffing, equipment and operating test facilities under the auspices and guidance of the CFIA. The CFIA's Centre for Animal Parasitology provides training, proficiency samples, audits and other support for the accreditation process. The

Lorry B. Forbes; W. Brad Scandrett; Alvin A. Gajadhar

2005-01-01

328

A program to accredit laboratories for reliable testing of pork and horsemeat for Trichinella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has developed a program to accredit external laboratories to conduct Trichinella digestion assays for export purposes. Accredited laboratories are responsible for staffing, equipment and operating test facilities under the auspices and guidance of the CFIA. The CFIA's Centre for Animal Parasitology provides training, proficiency samples, audits and other support for the accreditation process. The

Lorry B. Forbes; W. Brad Scandrett; Alvin A. Gajadhar

329

Reducing Intestinal Nematode Infection: Efficacy of Albendazole and Mebendazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of mebendazole and albendazole for treating intestinal nematode infections in human populations is raising concerns that careful monitoring pro- cedures should be in place to identify any emergence of drug resistance. In this article, Andy Bennett and Helen Guyatt discuss whether benchmark parasitological drug efficacy rates can be defined for these anthelmintics, by analysing published data on

Andrew Bennett; Helen Guyatt

2000-01-01

330

Study on Some Ectoparasitic Diseases of Catfish, Clarias gariepinus with their Control by Ginger, Zingiber officiale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitological investigation was performed in one hundred naturally collected Nile catfish Clarias gariepinus. It revealed skin and gill infestation with ectoparasitic protozoan Trichodina and Epistylis and monogenean Gyrodactylus spp. with average 20, 15 and 25%, respectively. The average of the total ectoparasitic infestation in the examined catfish was 60%.The significance of herbal control measures using ginger Zingiber officiale as a

J F. K. Abo-Esa

2008-01-01

331

The effect of treatment with eprinomectin on lungworms at early patency on the development of immunity in young cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to study the effect of topical application of eprinomectin at early patency on the build up of infection and development of protection against Dictyocaulus viviparus in young cattle. Three groups of six calves were used and parasitological and blood variables were monitored at weekly intervals throughout the trial. At the start of the experiment calves

Johan Höglund; Charina Gånheim; Stefan Alenius

2003-01-01

332

Drug resistance in parasites: can we stay ahead of the evolutionary curve?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The articles in this special issue of Trends in Parasitology document the current status of drug discovery in various helminth and protozoan parasitic infections. Parasitic diseases present a unique challenge to those who try to prevent or treat them. In most cases, the parasite has evolved to evade the human immune system, so the human host can control, but not

Carol Hopkins Sibley; Sonia Y. Hunt

2003-01-01

333

Ethical considerations in an era of mass drug administration.  

PubMed

In a Plenary debate at the 51st Spring meeting of the British Society of Parasitology, Bristol, UK, April 8-11, 2013, the bioethicist James Wilson used the value of a life in the present and future to question the effectiveness of current health strategies. PMID:23937995

Wharam, Barney; Lazarou, Luke

2013-08-09

334

Loa loa macrofilariasis in the eyelid: case report of the first periocular subcutaneous manifestation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of periocular subcutaneous macrofilariasis as an initial sign of a systemic Loa loa infection. Thorough history, eye examination, surgical intervention and parasitological analysis. A periocular adult Loa loa worm was extracted from the left upper eyelid of an Indian lady living in Mumbai after presenting to our department with\\u000a sensation of worm crawling under the left

Sayali Bhedasgaonkar; Rahul B. Baile; Snehal Nadkarni; Gayatri Jakkula; Pratik Gogri

335

Parasites in cultured and feral fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites, causing little apparent damage in feral fish populations, may become causative agents of diseases of great importance in farmed fish, leading to pathological changes, decrease of fitness or reduction of the market value of fish. Despite considerable progress in fish parasitology in the last decades, major gaps still exist in the knowledge of taxonomy, biology, epizootiology and control of

Tomáš Scholz

1999-01-01

336

Effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy used in the context of home management of malaria: A report from three study sites in sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) at the community level has been advocated as a means to increase access to effective antimalarial medicines by high risk groups living in underserved areas, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. This strategy has been shown to be feasible and acceptable to the community. However, the parasitological effectiveness of ACT when dispensed by community

Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi; Edmund N Browne; Fred Bateganya; Denis Yar; Christian Happi; Catherine O Falade; Grace O Gbotosho; Bidemi Yusuf; Samuel Boateng; Kefas Mugittu; Simon Cousens; Miriam Nanyunja; Franco Pagnoni

2008-01-01

337

Immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis by determination of the circulating antigens CAA and CCA, in particular in individuals with recent or light infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we evaluate determination of circulating anodic (CAA) and cathodic (CCA) antigen for the diagnosis of an active Schistosoma infection in humans, in comparison to the diagnostic performance of parasitological examination and the demonstration of specific antibodies. Illustrated by three different studies, which all deal with the diagnosis of either recent or low intensity infections, we further

L van Lieshout; A. M Polderman; A. M Deelder

2000-01-01

338

TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTION IN CATS FROM SAO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL: SEROPREVALENCE, OOCYST SHEDDING, ISOLATION IN MICE, AND BIOLOGIC AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cats are the most important hosts in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infections in humans and animals. Serologic and parasitologic prevalence of T. gondii were determined in 237 cats from 15 counties in São Paulo state, Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 1:25 dilution of serum of 84...

339

Results of Work on Acclimatization of Far Eastern Phytophagous Fishes and Measures for Their Further Assimilation and Study in New Regions (Itogi Raboty po Akklimatizatsii Dalnevostochnykh Rastitelnoyadnykh Ryb i Meropriyatiya po Ikh Dalneishemu Osvoeniyu i Izucheniyu v Novykh Raionakh).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the USSR, work has been carried out for a fairly long time on acclimatization of the phytophagous fishes in different waters. In the spring of 1961, collaborators of the Institute of Zoology and Parasitology of the Academy of Sciences of the Turkmen SS...

B. V. Verigin

1971-01-01

340

Sporotrichosis—The main differential diagnosis with tegumentary leishmaniosis in dogs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-four dogs from the State of Rio de Janeiro with ulcerated cutaneous lesions were submitted to clinical, dermatological, parasitological, mycological, histopathological and cytopathological exams, a leishmanin skin test, an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test for leishmaniosis, and nonspecific laboratory tests such as blood count and serum biochemistry. Sporothrix schenckii was isolated from 41 dogs and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis was isolated from

Isabele Barbieri dos Santos; Tânia M. P. Schubach; Luiz R. P. Leme; Thais Okamoto; Fabiano B. Figueiredo; Sandro A. Pereira; Leonardo P. Quintella; Maria de F. Madeira; Flávia Coelho; Rosani dos S. Reis; Armando de O. Schubach

2007-01-01

341

Familial aggregation of human susceptibility to co- and multiple helminth infections in a population from the Poyang Lake region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human helminthiases are common in China, especially in rural areas where sanitation conditions are poor. Co- and multiple infections with helminths are strikingly frequent. A cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey was carried out in a population of 3205 individuals belonging to 498 families from five villages in the Poyang Lake region, Jiangxi Province, China, to assess their helminth infection status

Magda K. Ellis; Giovanna Raso; Yue-Sheng Li; Zhu Rong; Hong-Gen Chen; Donald P. McManus

2007-01-01

342

'Microsporidia'. Parasites of Fishes of the Caspian Sea ('Mikrosporidii'. Parazity Ryb Kaspiiskogo Morya).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a result of complete parasitological analysis of fishes of the Caspian, wide distribution of Microsporidia has been established in 13 species of fish, and new species of these parasites have been revealed: Plistophora siluri sp. n. from the intestine o...

A. A. Gasimagomedov I. V. Issi

1971-01-01

343

Experimental cryptosporidiosis in kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical, pathological and parasitological features of cryptosporidiosis resulting from experimental inoculation with 6 × 106Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were studied in kids. Decreased appetite and depression became apparent 72 h post inoculation. Subsequently watery feces with clumps of mucus and color changes from brown to yellow were observed. The mean duration of diarrhea was 4.2 days. Oocyst shedding started 4

B?etislav Koudela; Vítovec Ji?í

1997-01-01

344

Experimental giardiasis in goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical, pathological and parasitological features of giardiasis resulting from experimental inoculation with 3 × 106Giardia cysts were studied in goat kids. All experimentally inoculated goat kids given Giardia cysts became infected. Three of the eight inoculated kids had decreased appetite, formless feces and become slightly depressed beginning 7 or 8 days post inoculation. The mean duration of the appearance

B?etislav Koudela; Ji?í Vítovec

1998-01-01

345

Use of Case Studies for Stimulating Thinking and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting that a case-study approach can stimulate student thinking and learning, this paper describes how students in a writing-intensive course on parasitology wrote brief medical case studies of parasites already studied for other students to read, evaluate, and identify the parasite. The paper presents a brief description of the course, an…

Zeakes, Samuel J.

346

Eye disease related to onchocerciasis: A clinical study in the Aratha-ú, Yanomami Tribe, Roraima State, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of ocular lesions due to onchocerciasis was evaluated among residents of the Yanomami Tribe, in the northern Amazon, Brazil, an endemic area for onchocerciasis. 83 natives were submitted to an ocular examination including an external examination, biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, and a fundus examination. Clinical, parasitological and serological tests were carried out simultaneously. The population demonstrated a high

Guilherme Herzog Neto; Karen Jaegger; Verônica Marchon-Silva; Regina Helena Santos Calvão-Brito; João Batista Vieira; Dalma Maria Banic; Marilza Maia-Herzog

2009-01-01

347

Artesunate/amodiaquine malaria treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa).  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6-59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5-87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008. PMID:23530078

Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, José; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín

2013-03-25

348

Genomic and genetic research on bursate nematodes: significance, implications and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular genetic research on parasitic nematodes (order Strongylida) is of major significance for many fundamental and applied areas of medical and veterinary parasitology. The advent of gene technology has led to some progress for this group of nematodes, particularly in studying parasite systematics, drug resistance and population genetics, and in the development of diagnostic assays and the characterisation of potential

Robin B Gasser; Susan E Newton

2000-01-01

349

Identification of trypanosomes isolated by KIVI from wild mammals in Côte d'Ivoire: diagnostic, taxonomic and epidemiological considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Côte d'Ivoire, a comparative study was carried out on 122 wild mammals by parasitological and serological examination and by in vitro isolation of trypanosomes from fresh blood (KIVI). Thirteen isolated stocks were studied by isoenzymes and compared with Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei bouaflé group reference stocks. Of the 122 animals, only 22 were positive on blood smears while

Philippe Truc; Pierre Formenty; Gérard Duvallet; Clarisse Komoin-Oka; Papa Boubacar Diallo; Francis Lauginie

1997-01-01

350

HUMAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS CAUSED BY TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI IN INDIA: THE FIRST CASE REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an Indian farmer who had fluctuating trypanosome parasitemia associated with febrile episodes for five months. Morphologic examination of the parasites indicated the presence of large numbers of trypanosomes belonging to the species Trypanosoma evansi, which is normally a causative agent of animal trypanosomiasis known as surra. Basic clinical and biologic examinations are described, using several assays, including parasitologic,

PRASHANT P. JOSHI; VIJAY R. SHEGOKAR; RAJARAM M. POWAR; STEPHANE HERDER; RAHUL KATTI; HARSHA R. SALKAR; VIBHAWARI S. DANI; ARADHANA BHARGAVA; JEAN JANNIN; PHILIPPE TRUC

351

Treatment and follow-up of the first case of human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in India.  

PubMed

The first reported human case of trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi was treated using suramin. Patient follow-up indicates that the drug and specific regimen used were well tolerated. Clinical, serological and parasitological investigations at 6 months indicate complete cure of the patient. Suramin should be considered in the treatment of other cases of human T. evansi infection, if they occur. PMID:16455122

Joshi, P P; Chaudhari, A; Shegokar, V R; Powar, R M; Dani, V S; Somalwar, A M; Jannin, J; Truc, P

2006-02-07

352

Redescription of Pseudanthobothrium hanseni Baer, 1956 and description of P. purtoni n. sp. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from different pairs of rajid skate hosts, with comments on the host-specificity of the genus in the northwest Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a parasitological survey of Leucoraja erinacea, L. ocellata, Malacoraja senta and Amblyraja radiata from Passamaquoddy Bay and waters surrounding the West Isles of the Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada, seven species of cestodes were\\u000a recovered. Examination of these skates revealed the presence of two distinct species of Pseudanthobothrium Baer, 1956: one was retrieved from M. senta and A. radiata,

H. S. Randhawa; G. W. Saunders; M. E. Scott; M. D. B. Burt

2008-01-01

353

Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses and Protection against Schistosomes Induced by a Radiation-Attenuated Vaccine in Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni vaccine is highly effective in rodents and primates but has never been tested in humans, primarily for safety reasons. To strengthen its status as a paradigm for a human recombinant antigen vaccine, we have undertaken a small-scale vaccination and challenge experiment in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Immunological, clinical, and parasitological parameters were measured in three animals after

MATTHIAS EBERL; JAN A. M. LANGERMANS; PATRICE A. FROST; RICHARD A. VERVENNE; GOVERT J. VAN DAM; A. M. Deelder; A. W. Thomas; P. S. Coulson; R. A. Wilson

2001-01-01

354

MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS AND DIAGNOSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This collection of articles provides an account of six presentations delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) in a symposium session on Molecular Systematics and Diagnosis, organised, chaired and edited by Robin B....

355

Impact of repeated large scale ivermectin treatments on the transmission of Loa loa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the impact of large-scale treatment with ivermectin on the transmission of loiasis in a forest village in south Cameroon where loiasis was highly endemic, with a prevalence of 30%. After one year of parasitological and entomological surveillance without treatment, all consenting residents aged >5 years received ivermectin 200 ?g\\/kg every 3 months. For ethical reasons, treatment was

J.-P. Chippaux; B. Bouchité; M. Boussinesq; S. Ranque; T. Baldet; M. Demanou

1998-01-01

356

Estimating the Number of Paediatric Fevers Associated with Malaria Infection Presenting to Africa's Public Health Sector in 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: As international efforts to increase the coverage of artemisinin-based combination therapy in public health sectors gather pace, concerns have been raised regarding their continued indiscriminate presumptive use for treating all childhood fevers. The availability of rapid-diagnostic tests to support practical and reliable parasitological diagnosis provides an opportunity to improve the rational treatment of febrile children across Africa. However, the

Peter W. Gething; Viola C. Kirui; Victor A. Alegana; Emelda A. Okiro; Abdisalan M. Noor; Robert W. Snow

2010-01-01

357

Increased early local immune responses and altered worm development in high-dose infections of mice susceptible to the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the number of larvae inoculated and filarial infection outcome is an important fundamental and epidemiological issue. Our study was carried out with BALB\\/c mice infected with the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis. For the first time, an immunological analysis of infection with various doses was studied in parallel with parasitological data. Mice were inoculated with 200, 60 or 25

Simon Babayan; Tarik Attout; Sabine Specht; Achim Hoerauf; Georges Snounou; Laurent Rénia; Masataka Korenaga; Odile Bain; Coralie Martin

2005-01-01

358

Cryptosporidium parvum:PCR-RFLP Analysis of the TRAP-C1 (Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein of Cryptosporidium1) Gene Discriminates between Two Alleles Differentially Associated with Parasite Isolates of Animal and Human Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spano, F., Putignani, L., Guida, S., Crisanti, A. 1998.Cryptosporidium parvum: PCR-RFLP analysis of the TRAP-C1 (thrombospondin-related adhesive protein ofCryptosporidium-1) gene discriminates between two alleles differentially associated with parasite isolates of animal and human origin.Experimental Parasitology90,195–198.

Furio Spano; Lorenza Putignani; Serena Guida; Andrea Crisanti

1998-01-01

359

Evaluation of ultrasonographic staging systems for the assessment of Schistosoma mansoni induced hepatic involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the sonographic assessment and grading of hepatosplenic morbidity induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection, several quantitative and qualitative classification systems have been used. In an attempt to evaluate two staging systems, a study was performed as part of a schistosomiasis research and control programme in Richard Toll, Senegal. A total of 700 residents of the township N'diangué were parasitologically, clinically

A. K Thomas; M Dittrich; R Kardorff; I Talla; A Mbaye; S Sow; M Niang; Y Yazdanpanah; F. F Stelma; B Gryseels; E Doehring

1997-01-01

360

Spatial and temporal variation in malaria transmission in a low endemicity area in northern Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Spatial and longitudinal monitoring of transmission intensity will allow better targeting of malaria interventions. In this study, data on meteorological, demographic, entomological and parasitological data over the course of a year was collected to describe malaria epidemiology in a single village of low transmission intensity. METHODS: Entomological monitoring of malaria vectors was performed by weekly light trap catches in

MJAM Oesterholt; JT Bousema; C Harris; P Lushino; A Masokoto; H Mwerinde; FW Mosha; CJ Drakeley

2006-01-01

361

Mapping the Probability of Schistosomiasis and Associated Uncertainty, West Africa  

PubMed Central

We aimed to map the probability of Schistosoma haematobium infection being >50%, a threshold for annual mass praziquantel distribution. Parasitologic surveys were conducted in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger, 2004–2006, and predictions were made by using Bayesian geostatistical models. Clusters with >50% probability of having >50% prevalence were delineated in each country.

Garba, Amadou; Sacko, Moussa; Toure, Seydou; Dembele, Robert; Landoure, Aly; Bosque-Oliva, Elisa; Gabrielli, Albis F.; Fenwick, Alan

2008-01-01

362

[Sulfonamide and toltrazuril therapy of experimental turkey coccidiosis].  

PubMed

Following experimental infection of caged turkeys with a mixed oocyst suspension of E. meleagrimitis, E. adenoeides and E. gallopavonis, the efficacy of sulfachlorpyrazine, sulfaquinoxaline + pyrimethamine, sulfaquinoxaline + diaveridine, and toltrazuril was investigated based on clinical and parasitological parameters. Infected turkeys developed severe clinical symptoms. Only weak symptoms were observed in those groups which were treated with the sulfa- and sulfa-DHFR-inhibitors. The toltrazuril-treated group remained free of clinical symptoms. At the 8th day after infection, the clinical lesions coincided with the intensity of the gut lesions together with parasitological findings based on microscopical examination of mucosal smears. The same coincidence was observed for parameters such as oocyst excretion and body weight development. PMID:2065608

Greuel, E; Mundt, H C; Cortez, S

1991-04-01

363

Individual variation and effect of priming dose level on establishment, growth and fecundity of Cooperia oncophora in re-infected calves.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of bovine anamnestic immunity on a range of parasitological variables. To this end, calves were primed with a single oral dose of 30000 or 100000 infective larvae (L3) of Cooperia oncophora, drenched with anthelmintic, maintained worm free in the following 2.5 months and subsequently re-infected with 100000 L3. Parasitological profiles of low, intermediate, and high responders were compared. The reduction in establishment of the worms was shown by a lower worm burden and increased percentage of fourth-stage (L4) larvae. Worm length and fecundity were similarly reduced by both priming doses but, the speed by which the effect occurred differed between animals primed with 30000 or 100000 L3. The difference in establishment between the responder types demonstrates that the ability of intermediate responders to mount a more effective and faster immune response compared to low responders is sustained after secondary infection. PMID:15002909

Kanobana, K; Ploeger, H W; Eysker, M; Vervelde, L

2004-01-01

364

Bayesian geostatistics in health cartography: the perspective of malaria  

PubMed Central

Maps of parasite prevalences and other aspects of infectious diseases that vary in space are widely used in parasitology. However, spatial parasitological datasets rarely, if ever, have sufficient coverage to allow exact determination of such maps. Bayesian geostatistics (BG) is a method for finding a large sample of maps that can explain a dataset, in which maps that do a better job of explaining the data are more likely to be represented. This sample represents the knowledge that the analyst has gained from the data about the unknown true map. BG provides a conceptually simple way to convert these samples to predictions of features of the unknown map, for example regional averages. These predictions account for each map in the sample, yielding an appropriate level of predictive precision.

Patil, Anand P.; Gething, Peter W.; Piel, Frederic B.; Hay, Simon I.

2011-01-01

365

Long-term follow-up of co-infected HIV and Trypanosoma cruzi Brazilian patients.  

PubMed

Three cases of Trypanosoma cruzi-HIV co-infected haemophiliacs are described. Parasitological (xenodiagnosis, haemoculture, PCR) and immunological (CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, in vitro lymphoproliferative responses) studies were performed. Hybridization of isolated parasites with a specific probe confirmed the T. cruzi aetiology. We observed that despite the high parasitaemia, no clinical or parasitological evidence of T. cruzi reactivation was detected. CD4+ T cells decreased with time in two patients and the lymphocyte proliferative response to T. cruzi was very low in all patients. These data suggest that T. cruzi infection may have a long silent course in immunosuppressed HIV patients. Therefore, this parasitic infection should be investigated in any AIDS patient coming from areas endemic for Chagas' disease. PMID:15485703

Da-Cruz, A M; Igreja, R P; Dantas, W; Junqueira, A C V; Pacheco, R S; Silva-Gonçalves, A J; Pirmez, C

2004-12-01

366

[Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children living in a rural area of Burkina Faso in 2009].  

PubMed

In order to implement community case management of malaria strategy in a rural area of intense transmission, of children using artemether-lumefantrine combination, we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of the medicine. We conducted an open label and uncontrolled clinical trial in an unique centre from September 2009 to December 2009 in children 6-59 months old who consulted at health facilities for uncomplicated malaria. The primary endpoint was clinical and parasitological cure rate at day 28 corrected by PCR. In total 106 children were enrolled. Parasite clearance at day 2 was 99.04% and the adequate clinical and parasitological response corrected by PCR at day 28 was 90.5%. Our results confirm that artemether-lumefantrine combination is still effective. PMID:22322791

Siribié, M; Diarra, A; Tiono, A B; Soulama, I; Sirima, S B

2012-02-09

367

Molecular diagnostics and parasitic disease.  

PubMed

Molecular parasitology represents an emerging field in microbiology diagnostics. Although most assays use nonstandardized, laboratory-developed methods, a few commercial systems have recently become available and are slowly being introduced into larger laboratories. In addition, a few methodologies show promise for use in field settings in which parasitic infections are endemic. This article reviews the available techniques and their applications to major parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trichomoniasis. PMID:23931835

Vasoo, Shawn; Pritt, Bobbi S

2013-09-01

368

Efficacy of Amodiaquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Nigeria in an area with high-level resistance to Chloroquine and Sulphadoxine\\/Pyrimethamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falciparum Malaria is hyperendemic in southern Nigeria and chloroquine resistance is an increasing problem. Therefore, the parasitological and haematological response to treatment with amodiaquine was studied in children under 5 years during a 14-day follow-up. Of 105 children who accomplished the study (out of 114 who were enrolled), 95.3% were parasite-negative on thick blood film on day 7, which decreased to

Jens Graupner; Klaus Göbels; Martin P. Grobusch; Anne Lund; Joachim Richter; Dieter Häussinger

2005-01-01

369

Babesia bovis: Culture of Laboratory-Adapted Parasite Lines and Clinical Isolates in a Chemically Defined Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jackson, L. A., Waldron, S. J., Weier, H. M., Nicoll, C. L., and Cooke, B. M. 2001. Babesia bovis: Culture of laboratory-adapted parasite lines and clinical isolates in a chemically defined medium. Experimental Parasitology99, 168–174. Babesiosis caused by Babesia spp. is a disease of both veterinary and human importance. Here, we describe a method to continuously culture laboratory lines and

Louise A. Jackson; Susan J. Waldron; Heidi M. Weier; Claire L. Nicoll; Brian M. Cooke

2001-01-01

370

Effects of Insect Hormones on Hemagglutination Activity in Two Members of the Culex pipiens Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gelbic?, I., Olejn??c?ek, J., and Grubhoffer, L. 2001. Effects of insect hormones on hemagglutination activity in two members of the Culex pipiens complex. Experimental Parasitology100, 75–79. Effects of methoprene and 20-hydroxyecdysone on the development and hemagglutination activity (HA) were studied in both sexes of two members of the Culex pipiens complex—anautogenous C. p. quinquefasciatus and autogenous C. p. molestus. Juvenile

Libor Grubhoffer

2002-01-01

371

The Unfortunate Nurse A Case Study of Dengue Fever and Social Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on an actual incident in which dengue virus was transmitted by an accidental needlestick, this case study introduces students to “emerging pathogens” and other concepts in parasitology, immunology, epidemiology, and public policy. Students also read a primary paper and learn about two modern techniques widely used in medical and research settings (i.e., EIA and Taqman RT-PCR). The case is suitable for general education biology, cell biology, microbiology, immunology, and science and public policy courses.

Aguirre, Karen M.

2007-01-01

372

Fleas (Siphonaptera)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This large resource, by parasitology researchers at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, represents two decades of research on fleas (order Siphonaptera). The site covers (in varied detail) biology, morphology, taxonomy, hosts, distribution, and references/ links (paper and online). Also at the site is a database providing geographic distribution information by taxon (several options). A collection of spectacular scanning microscope images rounds out the site.

373

The Ceratopogonid Web Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Daniel Hagan of the Institute of Anthropology & Parasitology (Georgia Southern University) maintains this Webpage on the Dipteran family Ceratopogonidae. Known to the layperson as "nuisance pests," the Ceratopogonidae include such favorites as biting midges, bloodsucking midges, and sand flies. The homepage offers a wealth of information organized into several extensive bibliographies, checklists, and catalogs; the biannual Ceratopogonidae Information Exchange (CIE) Newsletter; a Directory of Ceratopogonid Researchers; and a collection of WWW links.

374

Trypanosoma vivax: Characterization of the Spliced-Leader Gene of a Brazilian Stock and Species-Specific Detection by PCR Amplification of an Intergenic Spacer Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventura, R. M., Paiva, F., Silva, R. A. M. S., Takeda, G. F., Buck, G. A., and Teixeira, M. M. G. 2001. Trypanosoma vivax: Characterization of the spliced-leader gene of a Brazilian stock and species-specific detection by PCR amplification of an intergenic spacer sequence. Experimental Parasitology99, 37–48. The sequence of the spliced-leader gene repeat of a Brazilian Trypanosoma vivax stock

Rogéria M Ventura; Fernando Paiva; Roberto A. M. S Silva; Gentilda F Takeda; Gregory A Buck; Marta M. G Teixeira

2001-01-01

375

Improving the detection limit of quantitative diagnosis of anti- S. haematobium antibodies using Falcon Assay Screening Test (FAST) ELISA by developing a new standard curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis are currently based on parasitological examinations of stool and urine for egg detection,\\u000a which is laborious and lacks sensitivity. There are many assays that detect the anti-schistosomal antibodies in patient sera.\\u000a One of these assays is the Falcon assay screening test (FAST) ELISA that uses adult worm microsomal antigen for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni, HAMA, MAMA

Mohamed Abdel-Fattah; Maged Al-Sherbiny; Ahmed Osman; Ragia Charmy; Victor Tsang

2011-01-01

376

Decline of placental malaria in southern Ghana after the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) has been adopted as policy by many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, data on the post-implementation effectiveness of this measure are scarce. METHODS: Clinical and parasitological parameters were assessed among women delivering at a district hospital in rural southern Ghana in the year 2000 when pyrimethamine chemoprophylaxis was recommended (n =

Lena Hommerich; Christa von Oertzen; George Bedu-Addo; Ville Holmberg; Patrick A Acquah; Teunis A Eggelte; Ulrich Bienzle; Frank P Mockenhaupt

2007-01-01

377

A Comparison of the Sensitivity and Fecal Egg Counts of the McMaster Egg Counting and Kato-Katz Thick Smear Methods for Soil-Transmitted Helminths  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Kato-Katz thick smear (Kato-Katz) is the diagnostic method recommended for monitoring large-scale treatment programs implemented for the control of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in public health, yet it is difficult to standardize. A promising alternative is the McMaster egg counting method (McMaster), commonly used in veterinary parasitology, but rarely so for the detection of STH in human stool.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe Kato-Katz

Bruno Levecke; Jerzy M. Behnke; Sitara S. R. Ajjampur; Marco Albonico; Shaali M. Ame; Johannes Charlier; Stefan M. Geiger; Nguyen T. V. Hoa; Romuald I. Kamwa Ngassam; Andrew C. Kotze; James S. McCarthy; Antonio Montresor; Maria V. Periago; Sheela Roy; Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté; D. T. C. Thach; Jozef Vercruysse

2011-01-01

378

Plasmodium falciparum Cytoadherence to Human Placenta: Evaluation of Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin 4Sulfate for Binding of Infected Erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valiyaveettil, M., Achur, R. N., Alkhalil, A., Ockenhouse, C. F., and Gowda, D. C. 2001. Plasmodium falciparum cytoadherence to human placenta: Evaluation of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin 4-sulfate for binding of infected erythrocytes. Experimental Parasitology99, 57–65. Chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) is known to mediate the adherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells (IRBCs) to human placenta. Recently, hyaluronic acid (HA)

Manojkumar Valiyaveettil; Rajeshwara N. Achur; Abdulnaser Alkhalil; Christian F. Ockenhouse; D. Channe Gowda

2001-01-01

379

Epidemiological aspects of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the Islamic Republic of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological study to examine the sero-prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) among domestic and wild canines in endemic foci of Iran was carried out during 1999–2003 to assess the distribution of the disease and the possible association between infection in dogs, wild canines and people. Anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT). Parasitological study was performed

Mehdi Mohebali; Homa Hajjaran; Yazdan Hamzavi; Iraj Mobedi; Shahnam Arshi; Zabih Zarei; Behnaz Akhoundi; Koroush Manouchehri Naeini; Reza Avizeh; Mehdi Fakhar

2005-01-01

380

Plasmodium yoelii:Identification of Rhoptry Proteins Using Monoclonal Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hienne, R., Ricard, G., Fusa??, T., Fujioka, H., Pradines, B., Aikawa, M., and Doury, J.-C. 1998.Plasmodium yoelii:Identification of rhoptry proteins using monoclonal antibodies.Experimental Parasitology90, 230–235. Thirteen monoclonal antibodies, obtained after immunization of mice withPlasmodium yoeliischizonts, were selected using immunofluorescence assay: they all presented typical fluorescence patterns of rhoptries. This antigen localization was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The molecular weights of

Remi Hienne; Gerome Ricard; Hisashi Fujioka; Bruno Pradines; Masamichi Aikawa; Jean-Claude Doury

1998-01-01

381

Plasmodium gallinaceum:Differential Killing of Some Mosquito Stages of the Parasite by Insect Defensin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shahabuddin, M., Fields, I., Bulet, P., Hoffmann, J. A., and Miller, L. H. 1998.Plasmodium gallinaceum:Differential killing of some mosquito stages of the parasite by insect defensin.Experimental Parasitology89, 103–112. We examined several insect antimicrobial peptides to study their effect onPlasmodium gallinaceumzygotes, ookinetes, oocysts, and sporozoites. Only two insect defensins—Aeschna cyanea(dragon fly) andPhormia terranovae(flesh fly)—had a profound toxic effect on the oocysts

Mohammed Shahabuddin; Iesha Fields; Philippe Bulet; Jules A. Hoffmann; Louis H. Miller

1998-01-01

382

Biological control: Implications of the analogy between the trophic interactions of insect pest-parasitoid and snail-trematode systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

KURIS, A. M., 1973. Biological control: implications of the analogy between the trophic interactions of insect pest-parasitoid and snail-trematode systems. Experi- mental Parasitology 33, 365-379. An analogy between the tropic interactions of insect pest-hymenopterous parasitoid and snail-larval trematode systems is proposed. The goal of most agricultural pest management programs is increase in production of a plant crop, the deleterious agent

ARMAND M. KURIS

1973-01-01

383

Humane teaching methods prove efficacious within veterinary and other biomedical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal use resulting in harm or death remains common within veterinary education, in disciplines such as surgery, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, pharmacology, and parasitology. However, many non-harmful alternatives now exist, including computer simulations, high quality videos, 'ethically-sourced cadavers,' such as from animals euthanized for medical reasons, preserved specimens, models and surgical simulators, non-invasive self-experimentation, and supervised clinical experiences. Studies of veterinary

Andrew Knight

384

Population Pharmacokinetics of Artesunate and Dihydroartemisinin following IntraRectal Dosing of Artesunate in Malaria Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIntra-rectal artesunate has been developed as a potentially life-saving treatment of severe malaria in rural village settings where administration of parenteral antimalarial drugs is not possible. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of intra-rectal artesunate and the relationship with parasitological responses in patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria.Methods and FindingsAdults and children in Africa and Southeast Asia with moderately severe malaria

Julie A Simpson; Tsiri Agbenyega; Karen I Barnes; Gianni Di Perri; Peter Folb; Melba Gomes; Sanjeev Krishna; Srivicha Krudsood; Sornchai Looareesuwan; Sharif Mansor; Helen McIlleron; Raymond Miller; Malcolm Molyneux; James Mwenechanya; Visweswaran Navaratnam; Francois Nosten; Piero Olliaro; Lorrin Pang; Isabela Ribeiro; Madalitso Tembo; Michele van Vugt; Steve Ward; Kris Weerasuriya; Kyaw Win; Nicholas J White

2006-01-01

385

Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following intra-rectal dosing of artesunate in malaria patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Intra-rectal artesunate has been developed as a potentially life-saving treatment of severe malaria in rural village settings where administration of parenteral antimalarial drugs is not possible. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of intra-rectal artesunate and the relationship with parasitological responses in patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria. Methods and Findings Adults and children in Africa and Southeast Asia with

Julie A. Simpson; Tsiri Agbenyega; Karen I. Barnes; Gianni Di Perri; Peter Folb; Melba Gomes; Sanjeev Krishna; Srivicha Krudsood; Vugt van M; Sharif Mansor; Helen McIlleron; Raymond Miller; Malcolm Molyneux; James Mwenechanya; Visweswaran Navaratnam; Francois Nosten; Piero Olliaro; Lorrin Pang; Isabela Ribeiro; Madalitso Tembo; Michele van Vugt; Steve Ward; Kris Weerasuriya; Kyaw Win; Nicholas J. White

2006-01-01

386

Fasciola hepatica: An Antigen Fraction Derived from Newly Excysted Juveniles, Containing an Immunoreactive 32-kDa Protein, Induces Strong Protective Immunity in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

van Milligen, F. J., Cornelissen, J. B. W. J., and Bokhout, B. A. 2000. Fasciola hepatica: An antigen fraction derived from newly excysted juveniles, containing an immunoreactive 32-kDa protein, induces strong protective immunity in rats. Experimental Parasitology94, 163–171. Crude antigens of adult Fasciola hepatica and of newly excysted juveniles (NEJ) and a low-molecular-weight fraction of antigen from NEJs were tested

Florine J. van Milligen; Jan B. W. J. Cornelissen; Ben A. Bokhout

2000-01-01

387

Mosquito PlasmodiumInteractions in Response to Immune Activation of the Vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowenberger, C. A., Kamal, S., Chiles, J., Paskewitz, S., Bulet, P., Hoffmann, J. A., and Christensen, B. M. 1999. Mosquito-Plasmodiuminteractions in response to immune activation of the vector.Experimental Parasitology91,59–69. During the development ofPlasmodiumsp. within the mosquito midgut, the parasite undergoes a series of developmental changes. The elongated ookinete migrates through the layers of the midgut where it forms the oocyst

Carl A. Lowenberger; Sofie Kamal; Jody Chiles; Susan Paskewitz; Philippe Bulet; Jules A. Hoffmann; Bruce M. Christensen

1999-01-01

388

Trypanosoma cruzi: Effect of Protein Kinase Inhibitors and Cytoskeletal Protein Organization and Expression on Host Cell Invasion by Amastigotes and Metacyclic Trypomastigotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procópio, D. O., da Silva, S., Cunningham, C. C., and Mortara, R. A. 1998.Trypanosoma cruzi: Effect of protein kinase inhibitors and cytoskeletal protein organization and expression on host cell invasion by amastigotes and metacyclic trypomastigotes.Experimental Parasitology90, 1–13. Although trypomastigotes are regarded as the classic infective forms ofT. cruzi, amastigotes generated extracellularly or released from infected cells during lysis may circulate

Daniela O. Procópio; Solange da Silva; C. Casey Cunningham; Renato A. Mortara

1998-01-01

389

[Species composition, localization, and dynamic of the development of subcutaneous gadfly larvae in the organism of marals].  

PubMed

The terms of the parasitizing of subcutaneous gadfly Hypoderma diana larvae in the organism of marals are established for the first time. The method of parasitological autopsies was used in this study. Localization, dynamic of the development and change of linear size and body weight of the H. diana larvae in the host organism are estimated. The survival rate of the gadfly from the moment of oviposition up to the fallout of the larvae for pupation is evaluated. PMID:16134788

Raabe, I Iu

390

Trypanosoma cruzi:Protective Response of Vaccinated Mice Is Mediated by CD8 +Cells, Prevents Signs of Polyclonal T Lymphocyte Activation, and Allows Restoration of a Resting Immune State after Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paiva, C. N., Castelo-Branco, M. T. L., Lannes-Vieira, J., and Gattass, C. R. 1999.Trypanosoma cruzi:Protective response of vaccinated mice is mediated by CD8+cells, prevents signs of polyclonal T lymphocyte activation, and allows restoration of a resting immune state after challenge.Experimental Parasitology91,7–19. Currently, there is no vaccine available against Chagas' disease. Immune abnormalities induced byT. cruzipose particular difficulties for vaccine development,

Cláudia N. Paiva; Morgana T. L. Castelo-Branco; Joseli Lannes-Vieira; Cerli R. Gattass

1999-01-01

391

Haemonchus contortus: Selection at a Glutamate-Gated Chloride Channel Gene in Ivermectin and Moxidectin-Selected Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blackhall, W. J., Pouliot, J.-F., Prichard, R. K., and Beech, R. N. 1998.Haemonchus contortus: Selection at a glutamate-gated chloride channel gene in ivermectin- and moxidectin-selected strains.Experimental Parasitology90, 42–48. Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of livestock is a serious problem worldwide. Ivermectin, an avermectin, and moxidectin, a milbemycin, are potent endectocides commonly used to control these parasites. The proposed mode of

William J. Blackhall; Jean-François Pouliot; Roger K. Prichard; Robin N. Beech

1998-01-01

392

CONTAMINACIÓN DE SUELOS CON HUEVOS DE Toxocara spp. (NEMATODA, ASCARIDIDA) EN PARQUES PÚBLICOS DE LA CIUDAD DE CORO, ESTADO FALCÓN, VENEZUELA. Soil Contamination With Toxocara spp. Eggs (Nematoda, Ascaridida) in Public Parks From Coro City, Falcon State, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive and transversal survey to establish contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs of soils from 38 public parks of the city of Coro, Falcon State, Venezuela, was carried out between February-March 2004. The soil samples were parasitologically processed using the technique of flotation with NaCl (modified Willis-Molloy). Texture, salinity (electric conductivity) and pH of the soils were also analyzed. Toxocara

Dalmiro José Cazorla Perfetti; Pedro Morales Moreno; María Eugenia; Acosta Quintero

393

Prevalence of Microsporidium and Other Intestinal Parasites in Children from Malatya, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasite infections are common during the critical developmental period in children. The occurrences of intestinal parasites\\u000a are also common in orphanage, nurseries and schools in Turkey. The study was carried out to determine the percentage of microsporidium\\u000a and intestinal parasites in children from Malatya, Turkey. This study was carried out at the Department of Parasitology of\\u000a Inonu University, Turgut Ozal

Sinan CalikUlku KaramanCemil Colak; Ulku Karaman; Cemil Colak

394

Parasitic infections in a New York City hospital: trends from 1971 to 1984.  

PubMed Central

We report the frequency of parasitic infections 1971-84 in a major New York City Medical Center whose catchment area includes many immigrants from Dominican Republic. Infection with 7,803 parasites was documented in 41,958 laboratory specimens. Trends were toward fewer total specimens being sent and fewer still being positive, although a rise in G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and Cryptosporidium is apparent in recent years. Parasitology laboratories should provide similar data to alert clinicians to the parasites prevalent locally.

Vermund, S H; LaFleur, F; MacLeod, S

1986-01-01

395

European Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda), intermediate hosts of trematodiases, based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae are of a great parasitological importance because of the very numerous helminth species they transmit, mainly trematodiases of large medical and veterinary impact. The present knowledge on the genetics of lymnaeids and on their parasite–host inter-relationships is far from being sufficient. The family is immersed in a systematic–taxonomic confusion. The necessity for a tool

M. D Bargues; M Vigo; P Horak; J Dvorak; R. A Patzner; J. P Pointier; M Jackiewicz; C Meier-Brook; S Mas-Coma

2001-01-01

396

Fasciola hepatica: Characterization and Cloning of the Major Cathepsin B Protease Secreted by Newly Excysted Juvenile Liver Fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilson, L. R., Good, R. T., Panaccio, M., Wijffels, G. L., Sandeman, R. M., and Spithill, T. W. 1998.Fasciola hepatica:Characterization and cloning of the major cathepsin B protease secreted by newly excysted juvenile liver fluke.Experimental Parasitology88, 85–94. Proteolytic activity present in the excreted\\/secreted (ES) material of newly excysted juvenile (NEJ)Fasciola hepaticawas biochemically analyzed. By gelatin substrate SDS-PAGE, only one region

Lachlan R. Wilson; Robert T. Good; Michael Panaccio; Gene L. Wijffels; R. Mark Sandeman; Terry W. Spithill

1998-01-01

397

Trypanosomatidae: PhytomonasDetection in Plants and Phytophagous Insects by PCR Amplification of a Genus-Specific Sequence of the Spliced Leader Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serrano, M. G., Nunes, L. R., Campaner, M., Buck, G. A., Camargo, E. P., and Teixeira, M. M. G. 1999. Trypanosomatidae:Phytomonasdetection in plants and phytophagous insects by PCR amplification of a genus-specific sequence of the spliced leader gene.Experimental Parasitology91, 268–279. In this paper we describe a method for the detection ofPhytomonasspp. from plants and phytophagous insects using the PCR technique

Myrna G. Serrano; Luiz R. Nunes; Marta Campaner; Gregory A. Buck; Erney P. Camargo; Marta M. G. Teixeira

1999-01-01

398

Versatile multispectral microscope based on light emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of a novel multispectral microscope, based on light-emitting diodes, capable of acquiring megapixel images in thirteen spectral bands from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The system captures images and spectra in transmittance, reflectance, and scattering modes. We present as examples of applications ground truth measurements for remote sensing and parasitology diagnostics. The system is a general purpose scientific instrument that could be used to develop dedicated simplified instruments with optimal bands and mode selection.

Brydegaard, Mikkel; Merdasa, Aboma; Jayaweera, Hiran; A?Lebring, Jens; Svanberg, Sune

2011-12-01

399

Factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript provides a summary of the results presented at a symposium organized to accumulate information on factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases. This symposium was part of the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), held in New Orleans, LA, USA, during August 10–14, 2003. Populations of

L. D. Foil; P. Coleman; M. Eisler; H. Fragoso-Sanchez; Z. Garcia-Vazquez; F. D. Guerrero; N. N. Jonsson; I. G. Langstaff; A. Y. Li; N. Machila; R. J. Miller; J. Morton; J. H. Pruett; S. Torr

2004-01-01

400

Bayesian risk maps for Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm mono-infections in a setting where both parasites co-exist  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in the use of Bayesian geostatistical models for predicting the spatial distribution of parasitic infections, including hookworm, Schistosoma mansoni and co-infections with both parasites. The aim of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of mono-infections with either hookworm or S. mansoni in a setting where both parasites co-exist. School-based cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire surveys

Giovanna Raso; Penelope Vounatsou; Donald P. McManus; Jürg Utzinger

2007-01-01

401

Plasmodium falciparum:Characterization of Organelle Migration during Merozoite Morphogenesis in Asexual Malaria Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taraschi, T. F., Trelka, D., Schneider, T., and Matthews, I. 1998.Plasmodium falciparum:Characterization of organelle migration during merozoite morphogenesis in asexual malaria infections.Experimental Parasitology88, 184–193. Treatment of asexualPlasmodium falciparuminfections with the microtubule stabilizing agents Taxol or epothilone A prevents the depolymerization of nuclear microtubules. Serial thin sectioning of treated parasites revealed the presence of polymerized nuclear microtubule assemblies extending from spindle

Theodore F. Taraschi; Darin Trelka; Timothy Schneider; Ian Matthews

1998-01-01

402

Comparison of the sensitivity of imprint and scraping techniques in the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in a referral centre in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease that presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations\\u000a making parasitological tests important for its diagnosis. Direct examination, although considered of low sensitivity is still\\u000a employed mainly in areas with poor laboratory infrastructure. The aim of this study was to standardize the method of collecting\\u000a and reading the scraping procedure and to then

Cintia Xavier de Mello; Armando de Oliveira Schubach; Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalho de Oliveira; Fátima Conceição-Silva; Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel; Marcelo Rosandiski Lyra; Érica Camargo Ferreira e Vasconcellos; Maria de Fátima Madeira

403

PREDICTIONS OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC IMPACT OF INTRODUCING A PRE-ERYTHROCYTIC VACCINE INTO THE EXPANDED PROGRAM ON IMMUNIZATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We predict the effects of introduction,of a pre-erythrocytic vaccine against Plasmodium,falciparum,into a malaria-endemic population in Africa. We use a stochastic simulation model that includes components of transmission, parasitology, and clinical epidemiology of malaria and was validated using the results of field trials of the RTS,S\\/AS02A vaccine. The results suggest that vaccines with efficacy similar to that of RTS,S\\/AS02A have

Nicolas Maire; Fabrizio Tediosi; Amanda Ross; Thomas Smith

404

Strongyloides myopotami in ctenomyid rodents: Transition from semi-aquatic to subterranean life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strongyloides myopotami, a parasite of Myocastor coypus (nutria or coypu), was found during an extensive parasitological survey carried out on parasitic helminths of 5 species of\\u000a subterranean rodents (tuco-tucos) belonging to the genus Ctenomys from Argentina and Uruguay. Strongyloides myopotami became known by causing “marsh itch” (also called “nutria itch” or “swimmer’s itch”), a severe rash caused by larvae that

María A. Rossin; Gabriela Varela; Juan T. Timi

2009-01-01

405

[Parasite fauna of the burbot Lota lota L. in body of water of the Kol'ski? peninsula].  

PubMed

The results of a parasitological study of the burbot Lota Iota L. inhabiting the Kola region are presented. 51 species of parasite were found on burbot in 16 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea and Barents Sea basins (Muxosporea - 7, Suctoria - 1, Peritricha - 6, Monogenea - 1, Cestoda - 6, Trematoda - 13, Nematoda - 6, Acanthocephala - 5, Hirudinea - 3, Bivalvia - 1 and Crustacea - 2 species). Data on the infestation of burbot by different parasite species and their prevalence in investigated waterbodies were obtained. PMID:16913298

Mitenev, V K; Shul'man, B S

406

Leishmania donovani: Evolution and Architecture of the Splenic Cellular Immune Response Related to Control of Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melby, P. C., Tabares, A., Restrepo, B. I., Cardona, A. E., McGuff, H. S., and Teale, J. M. 2001. Leishmania donovani: Evolution and architecture of the splenic cellular immune response related to control of infection. Experimental Parasitology99, 17–25. Infection with the protozoan Leishmania donovani in humans is usually subclinical. Parasites probably persist for the life of the host and the

Peter C. Melby; Adriana Tabares; Blanca I. Restrepo; Astrid E. Cardona; H. Stan McGuff; Judy M. Teale

2001-01-01

407

Babesia bovis:Common Protein Fractions Recognized by Oligoclonal B. bovis-Specific CD4 +T Cell Lines from Genetically Diverse Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stich, R. W., Rice-Ficht, A. C., Tuo, W., and Brown, W. C. 1999.Babesia bovis: Common protein fractions recognized by oligoclonalB. bovis-specific CD4+T cell lines from genetically diverse cattle.Experimental Parasitology91,40–51. CD4+helper T cells are believed to be important for inducing protective immunity againstBabesia bovisthrough the production of cytokines, including IFN-?, that will provide help to B lymphocytes for IgG production and

Roger W. Stich; Allison C. Rice-Ficht; Wenbin Tuo; Wendy C. Brown

1999-01-01

408

A real-time PCR protocol for simple and fast quantification of blood parasite infections in evolutionary and ecological studies and some data on intensities of blood parasite infections in a subtropical weaverbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several fields of research, such as immunoecology, evolutionary ecology, sexual selection, parasitology or host-parasite\\u000a coevolution, a reliable quantitative assessment of blood parasite infections is necessary for testing specific predictions\\u000a regarding relationships between the degree of infections and various parameters of interest. Here, we present a relatively\\u000a simple, fast and reliable protocol based on quantitative real-time PCR to determine the

Thomas W. P. FriedlElisabeth; Elisabeth Groscurth

409

Neospora caninum: Identification of 19-, 38-, and 40-kDa Surface Antigens and a 33-kDa Dense Granule Antigen Using Monoclonal Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schares, G., Dubremetz, J. F., Dubey, J. P., Bärwald, A., Loyens, A., and Conraths, F. J. 1999. Neospora caninum: Identification of 19-, 38-, and 40-kDa surface antigens and a 33-kDa dense granule antigen using monoclonal antibodies. Experimental Parasitology92, 109–119. Neospora caninum, a coccidian parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, can infect a broad host range and is regarded as an

G. Schares; J. F. Dubremetz; J. P. Dubey; A. Bärwald; A. Loyens; F. J. Conraths

1999-01-01

410

Serodiagnosis of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) Caused by Leishmania tropica in Sanliurfa Province, Turkey, Where ACL Is Highly Endemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the validity of the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the Western blotting test for the diagnosis of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) using serum samples obtained from 51 patients with parasitologically proven nontreated CL (NonT-CL patients) and 62 patients under treatment for CL (UT-CL patients). Additionally, 29 serum samples obtained from patients with

Fadile Yildiz Zeyrek; Metin Korkmaz; Yusuf Ozbel

2007-01-01

411

Internal parasites of giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) from Etosha National Park, Namibia.  

PubMed

During three seasonal periods, parasitological samples were collected from six giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) in the Etosha National Park, Namibia. The helminths recovered included Parabronema skrjabini, Skrjabinema spp., Haemonchus mitchelli and Echinococcus sp. larvae; Cytauxzoon sp. was the only hematozoan found. The low mean abundances of all helminths which ranged from 18 to 531 may be attributed to the low rainfall of this region or because the giraffe is not a preferred host for these species of helminths. PMID:2388363

Krecek, R C; Boomker, J; Penzhorn, B L; Scheepers, L

1990-07-01

412

Testing Promoter Activity in the Trypanosome Genome: Isolation of a Metacyclic-Type VSG Promoter, and Unexpected Insights into RNA Polymerase II Transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

McAndrew, M., Graham, S., Hartmann, C., and Clayton, C. 1998. Testing promoter activity in the trypanosome genome: Isolation of a metacyclic-type VSG promoter, and unexpected insights into RNA polymerase II transcription.Experimental Parasitology90, 65–76. In trypanosomes, most genes are arranged in polycistronic transcription units. Individual mRNAs are generated by 5?-transsplicing and 3? polyadenylation. Remarkably, no regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription

Michael McAndrew; Shiela Graham; Claudia Hartmann; Christine Clayton

1998-01-01

413

Co-trimoxazole compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenyan children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and co-trimoxazole were both effective in reducing fever, clearing parasitaemia and improving anaemia in children aged <5 years with uncomplicated malaria in 2 Kenyan endemic sites, Oyugis in the west and Tiwi on the coast. We compared the efficacy of these 2 regimens (in May–July 1998) by evaluating clinical and parasitological responses over 14 days. The combined incidence

S. A. Omar; A. Bakari; A. Owiti; I. S. Adagu; D. C. Warhurst

2001-01-01

414

Plasmodium yoelii: Effects of Red Blood Cell Modification and Antibodies on the Binding Characteristics of the 235-kDa Rhoptry Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ogun, S. A., Scott-Finnigan, T. J., Narum, D. L., Holder, A. A. 2000. Plasmiodium yoelii: Effects of red blood cell modification and antibodies on the binding characteristics of the 235-kDa Rhoptry Protein. Experimental Parasitology95, 187–195. The 235-kDa rhoptry protein of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii yoelii was shown to bind to the surface of mouse red blood cells in

Solabomi A. Ogun; Terry J. Scott-Finnigan; David L. Narum; Anthony A. Holder

2000-01-01

415

Antibody Responses to the Fucosylated LacdiNAc Glycan Antigen in Schistosoma mansoni-Infected Mice and Expression of the Glycan among Schistosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nyame, A. K., Leppänen, A. M., Bogitsh, B. J., and Cummings, R. D. 2000. Antibody responses to the fucosylated LacdiNAc glycan antigen in schistosoma mansoni-infected mice and expression of the glycan among schistosomes. Experimental Parasitology96, 202–212. Infections of animals with parasitic worms, such as Schistosoma mansoni, induce humoral immune responses to carbohydrate antigens, raising the possibility that such antigens might

A. Kwame Nyame; Anne M. Leppänen; Burton J. Bogitsh; Richard D. Cummings

2000-01-01

416

A Trypanosoma bruceiBloodstream Form Mutant Deficient in Ornithine Decarboxylase Can Protect against Wild-Type Infection in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutomba, M. C., Li, F., Gottesdiener, K. M., and Wang, C. C. 1999. ATrypanosoma bruceibloodstream form mutant deficient in ornithine decarboxylase can protect against wild-type infection in mice.Experimental Parasitology91,176–184. ATrypanosoma bruceibloodstream mutant in which both copies of the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene were knocked out (ODC mutant) was used to determine the biological functions of ODC inT. brucei.Growth of the

Martha C. Mutomba; Fengsheng Li; Keith M. Gottesdiener; Ching C. Wang

1999-01-01

417

[Danger signs in the malaria patient].  

PubMed

Danger signs are clinical indicators of severity and are useful to predict complications or death. In the malaria patient, clinical or parasitological signs can be easily be recognized during the acute phase of the illness that indicate serious complications. Danger signs include neurological change, abnormal breathing pattern, persistent vomiting and diarrhea, jaundice, bleeding, dark urine, delayed capillary refill, intense pallor, hyperpyrexia, hyperparasitemia and schizontemia. Timely recognition of these signs can lead to a decrease in cases with complications and deaths. PMID:20128356

Tobón, Alberto

2009-06-01

418

Progress in studies on Central Asian foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis: a review.  

PubMed

In this paper, studies on zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) are reviewed that were performed during the last ten years largely by scientists of the Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine. New data on the taxonomy of Leishmania circulating in populations of Rhombomys opimus, their main host, and the results of field and laboratory studies allowed revision of certain concepts generally accepted in epidemiology and epizootology of ZCL in Central Asia. PMID:8682405

Strelkova, M V

1996-01-01

419

Detection of Giardia lamblia Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens by a SolidPhase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay (Medical Chemical Corporation) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects Giardia lamblia in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens. Testing 106 Giardia-positive and 104 Giardia-negative stool specimens yielded a sensitivity of 97.2% and a specificity of 100% for the SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay. Revised ordering options related to diagnostic parasitology testing include ova and

Lynne S. Garcia; John Paul Garcia

2006-01-01

420

Mycétomes dermatophytiques du cuir chevelu : à propos de deux cas à  Microsporum langeronii et revue de la littérature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study report two cases of dermatophytic mycetoma of the scalp due to Microsporum langeronii, diagnosed in 1997 and 2002 in the departments of pathological anatomy and parasitology–mycology of the faculty of medecine of Libreville (Gabon). The paper also includes a review of published literature. Two patients, a 21 years-old women and a 12 years-old boy, presented a vegetative tumor suggestive of

S. Nzenze-Afene; B. Mabika; S. Ogoula Gerbex; M. Ferly Therizol; D. Minko Mi-Etoua; M. Kombila

2006-01-01

421

Freshwater snails in Asser region, Saudi Arabia with special refernce to the zoonotic trematode.  

PubMed

The present study gave information about the recent distribution of freshwater snails in Asser region, and the current status of trematode infection specially schistosomiasis within the snails. Fifteen localities were visited from Septeinber 2007 to December 2008 and the collected snails were examined for the presence of trematode infection. Seven species of snails were collected: Biomphalaria arabica, Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus beccari, Physa acuta, Lymnaea palustris, Lymnaea arabica and Melanoides tuberculata. The parasitological examination revealed none trematode immature stages. PMID:19795761

Bin Dajem, Saad M

2009-08-01

422

Spot light survey on fresh-water snails of medical importance in Al Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.  

PubMed

In a survey carried out during Summer and Autumn of 2004, for snails of medical importance, nine species were recovered. These were Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, B. pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, B. forskalii, Lymnaea natalensis, Bellamya (=Vivipara) unicolor, Physa acuta and Hydrobia musaensis. Parasitological examination revealed that B. alexandrina, B. glabrata and L. natalensis harboured immature stages of their concerned trematode parasites. Moreover, P. acuta harboured the immature stage of the nematode parasite Parastrongylus cantonensis. PMID:15880994

Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M; El Garhy, Manal F; Massoud, Ahmed M A

2005-04-01

423

Freeze-fracture cytochemistry of membrane cholesterol in Blastocystis hominis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yoshikawa H. & Hayakawa A. 1996. Freeze-fracture cytochemistry of membrane cholesterol in Blastocystis hominis. International Journal for Parasitology 26: 1111–1114. Membrane cholesterol in Blastocystis hominis was detected by freeze-fracture methods using a polyene antibiotic, filipin. Since the intramembrane particles (IMP) were distributed heterogeneously on both plasma and vacuole membranes, many IMF-free areas were observed. Even in filipin-treated cells, filipin-cholesterol complexes

Yoshikawa Hisao; Hayakawa Ayako

1996-01-01

424

Post-kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis: Facing the Challenge of Eliminating Kala-Azar from South Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a cutaneous complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) which usually appears\\u000a after treatment of a VL episode. The incidence of PKDL varies across countries and no up-to-date global estimate is available.\\u000a Parasitological diagnostic tests show either low sensitivity or are difficult to decentralize in the field (e.g., polymerase\\u000a chain reaction). Available treatments are long, costly, and

Philippe Desjeux; V. Ramesh

425

Invertebrate host-parasite relationships: convergent evolution of a tropomyosin epitope between Schistosoma sp., Fasciola hepatica, and certain pulmonate snails.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against Schistosoma mansoni tropomyosin isoform, SMTM (Xu et al. Experimental Parasitology 69, 373-392, 1989), were used to test for cross-reactivity with Biomphalaria glabrata antigens. One mAb (1F10) recognized antigens of 39, 41, and 80 kDa in a snail head/foot antigen preparation but not a hepatopancreas antigen preparation. Another mAb (1C1) cross-reacted with a 39-kDa antigen in the head/foot extract but not in the hepatopancreas extract. Epitope mapping revealed the 1F10 epitope to be between amino acids 135 and 188 of both Bg39 (Dissous et al. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 43, 245-256, 1990) and BgTMII (Weston and Kemp, Experimental Parasitology 76, 358-370, 1993), while the 1C1 epitope was located between amino acids 189 and 213 of BgTMII. Various invertebrate species, including members from Trematoda, Pulmonata, Annelida, and Arthropoda, were tested for cross-reactivity with the monoclonal antibodies. While the 1F10 mAb displayed broad invertebrate cross-reactivity, the 1C1 mAb cross-reactivity was restricted to schistosomes, F. hepatica, and the pulmonate snails B. glabrata and Physa sp. PMID:7512930

Weston, D; Allen, B; Thakur, A; LoVerde, P T; Kemp, W M

1994-05-01

426

Evaluation of chemotherapy with benznidazole and nifurtimox in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi strains of different types*  

PubMed Central

A test was made of the susceptibility of 30 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi to chemotherapy with nifurtimox (Bay 2502) and benznidazole (Ro 7-1051). The strains had previously been classified as type I, II, or III according to their morphobiological and isoenzymic characteristics. Three type I strains, 14 type II strains, and 13 type III strains were studied. Mice were infected with 2 × 105 blood forms of these parasites and treated for 90 days with benznidazole or nifurtimox. All the surviving mice were submitted to parasitological tests (direct parasitaemia, xenodiagnosis, inoculation in new-born mice, and haemoculture) and serological tests (indirect immunofluorescence). As the latter remained positive in about 80% of the parasitologically negative animals, the cure rates were based on the more reliable parasitological tests. Type I strains displayed high susceptibility, type II strains showed medium to high susceptibility, and type III strains were highly resistant to both drugs. The fact that a particular strain type, with its own level of susceptibility, usually predominates in a given geographical area may explain the contradictory results after chemotherapy from different endemic areas.

Andrade, S. G.; Magalhaes, J. B.; Pontes, A. L.

1985-01-01

427

Characterization of Trypanosoma brucei s.l. infecting asymptomatic sleeping-sickness patients in Côte d'Ivoire: a new genetic group?  

PubMed

Six villagers in the Sinfra focus of sleeping sickness in Côte d'Ivoire who in 1995 were asymptomatic and refusing treatment, despite then being serologically and parasitologically positive for trypanosomes, were followed-up, while still refusing treatment, until 2002. In 2002, five of the six cases remained serologically positive but no trypanosomes could be found in any of them by use of the classical parasitological methods. A PCR-based assay, however, revealed that all six had the DNA of Trypanosoma brucei s.l. in their blood, so confirming the low sensitivity of the classical parasitological tests. The analysis of satellite, minisatellite and microsatellite markers indicated that, in 2002, all six cases were infected with a 'new' distinct genetic group of T. brucei s.l. and four were co-infected with T. b. gambiense group 1. The epidemiological consequences of such co-infections are discussed. The 'new' group of T. brucei had a molecular pattern that differed from those of the classical T. b. gambiense group 1 and the 'bouaflé' group. PMID:15228714

Jamonneau, V; Ravel, S; Garcia, A; Koffi, M; Truc, P; Laveissière, C; Herder, S; Grébaut, P; Cuny, G; Solano, P

2004-06-01

428

Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine, and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon. METHODS: In a randomized study we evaluated the effectiveness and tolerance of (i) sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) (25 mg/kg body weight of sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg/kg of pyrimethamine in a single oral dose), (ii) amodiaquine (AQ) (30 mg/kg body weight in three divided daily doses), and (iii) the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination (SP+AQ) (same doses as in the other two treatment groups, given simultaneously on day 0) in young children in southern Cameroon. The parasitological and clinical responses were studied until day 28 in accordance with the modified 1996 WHO protocol for the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs. FINDINGS: Of 191 enrolled patients, 6 and 8 were excluded or lost to follow-up before day 14 and between day 14 and day 28, respectively. For the AQ-treated patients, parasitological and clinical evaluation on day 14 showed late treatment failure in 2 of 61 (3.3%) and adequate clinical response with parasitological failure in one (1.6%). There was an adequate clinical response in all patients treated with SP or SP+AQ. Therapeutic failure rates on day 28 were 13.6%, 10.2% and 0% in the SP, AQ, and SP+AQ groups, respectively. Anaemia improved in all three regimens. AQ produced faster fever clearance but was associated with more transient minor side-effects than SP. SP+AQ reduced the risk of recrudescence between day 14 and day 28 but increased the incidence of minor side-effects. CONCLUSION: SP+AQ can be recommended as a temporary means of slowing the spread of multidrug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Africa while the introduction of other combinations, including artemisinin derivatives, is awaited.

Basco, Leonardo K.; Same-Ekobo, Albert; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Ndounga, Mathieu; Metoh, Theresia; Ringwald, Pascal; Soula, Georges

2002-01-01

429

Experimental evaluation of xenodiagnosis to detect trypanosomes at low parasitaemia levels in infected hosts  

PubMed Central

In Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) endemic areas, there are a number of subjects that are positive to serological tests but in whom trypanosomes are difficult to detect with the available parasitological tests. In most cases and particularly in West Africa, these subjects remain untreated, thus posing a fundamental problem both at the individual level (because of a possible lethal evolution of the disease) and at the epidemiological level (since they are potential reservoirs of trypanosomes). Xenodiagnosis may constitute an alternative for this type of cases. The objective of this study was to update the use of xenodiagnosis to detect trypanosomes in infected host characterized by low parasitaemia levels. This was carried out experimentally by infecting cattle and pigs with Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei gambiense respectively, and by feeding tsetse flies (Glossina morsitans submorsitans and G. palpalis gambiensis, from the CIRDES colonies) on these animals at a time when the observed blood parasitaemia were low or undetectable by the classical microscopic parasitological tests used for the monitoring of infected animals. Our results showed that: i) the G. p. gambiensis colony at CIRDES could not be infected with the T. b. gambiense stocks used; ii) midgut infections of G. m. submorsitans were observed with both T. congolense and T. b. gambiense; iii) xenodiagnosis remains positive even at very low blood parasitaemia for both T. congolense and T. b. gambiense; and iv) to implement T. b. gambiense xenodiagnosis, batches of 20 G. m. submorsitans should be dissected two days after the infective meal. These results constitute a first step toward a possible implementation of xenodiagnosis to better characterize the parasitological status of seropositive individuals and the modalities of parasite transmission in HAT foci.

Wombou Toukam, C.M.; Solano, P.; Bengaly, Z.; Jamonneau, V.; Bucheton, B.

2011-01-01

430

Funding options for research: facing the market as well as government.  

PubMed

Parasitology is a challenge. At one level, the structural and genetic complexities of parasites provide ample technical challenges in regard to an understanding of parasite variability and adaptability, epidemiological diversity, drug resistance, etc. The intricacies of host parasite relationships including the immunology of parasitism will continually surprise yet frustrate the vaccine developer and keep the bravest immunoparasitologist busy and creative for decades. As if the technical considerations were not challenging enough, we see difficulties arising in sustaining a research endeavour and preserving a critical mass of researchers through the generation of high-level, long-term funding support. Contributing to this situation is the fact that most parasitic diseases of major impact in humans are largely centred around the rural poor in tropical, less industrially-developed countries and therefore of little or of fickle interest to the strictly commercially oriented. Moreover, the focus in the rural industries has moved away from aspects of on-farm production with lower priority given to studies on even the 'economically-important' parasites of livestock. It is contended that this may change again with pressures and clear marketing advantages to preserving a 'clean and green' image for Australia's primary industries. Overall, the extraordinary technical and conceptual advances in recent times have been tempered by uncertainties in research funding and severe cuts from some traditional sources for both fundamental and strategic/applied research in Parasitology. Several have highlighted the fact that deliverables in terms of new methods of disease control have been sparse and some claims made in the past have certainly been exaggerated. Yet the prospects and achievements at the front end of the long R&D pathway have never been brighter. In this article we examine the merits of a 'portfolio approach' to generating research funds in Parasitology and Science and Technology in Australia more generally, with an emphasis on strategies that, through welding good science with clear, medium-term product objectives, increase research funding opportunities. PMID:10480719

Mitchell, G; Nossal, G

1999-06-01

431

[Candidiasis: molecular basis of parasitic adaptation of opportunistic pathogenic protists].  

PubMed

Candida albicans is a versatile organism living as a commensal of the gastro-intestinal tract and having the ability to invade host tissues and to initiate serious diseases under the appropriate environmental conditions. The molecular basis for adherence, invasion, interactions with specific and non-specific immune factors have been studied in parallel to structural characteristics of the yeast. The main parasitologic features are closely linked to phenotypic variations. In this respect, mannoproteins are strongly involved in the cell wall variations. The study of the oligomannosidic repertoire represents one of the essential steps for the understanding of host-parasite relationships. PMID:2264674

Poulain, D

1990-01-01

432

Possible artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant malaria in Nigeria: a report of three cases.  

PubMed

Artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant malaria is rare in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization identifies monitoring and surveillance using day-3 parasitaemia post-treatment as the standard test for identifying suspected artemisinin resistance. We report three cases of early treatment failure due to possible artemisinin-based combination therapy-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All cases showed adequate clinical and parasitological responses to quinine. This study reveals a need to re-evaluate the quality and efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy agents in Nigeria and Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23982103

Ajayi, Nnennaya Anthony; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna

433

The Grapes of Staph: Doc Kaiser's Microbiology Web Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Gary Kaiser of The Community College of Baltimore County at Catonsville (Maryland) put together this Lecture/ Lab teaching resource on Microbiology. Organized into four units, the main topics in the Lecture Guide section include Bacteria and Fungi; Protozoa, Viruses, and Nonspecific Body Defenses; Immune Responses; and Microbial Genetics/ Metabolism. Each unit contains a brief summary of the topic, with several links to color illustrations or animations. The online Microbiology Lab Manual covers 22 full labs, from the basics of microscope use and the sizes/ shapes of microorganisms through parasitology. While the site connection is a bit slow, the content/ layout is decent, making this a useful overview and solid introduction to microbiology.

Kaiser, Gary E.

434

The Grapes of Staph: Doc Kaiser's Microbiology Web Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Gary Kaiser of The Community College of Baltimore County at Catonsville (Maryland) put together this Lecture/ Lab teaching resource on Microbiology. Organized into four units, the main topics in the Lecture Guide section include Bacteria and Fungi; Protozoa, Viruses, and Nonspecific Body Defenses; Immune Responses; and Microbial Genetics/ Metabolism. Each unit contains a brief summary of the topic, with several links to color illustrations or animations. The online Microbiology Lab Manual covers 22 full labs, from the basics of microscope use and the sizes/ shapes of microorganisms through parasitology. While the site connection is a bit slow, the content/ layout is decent, making this a useful overview and solid introduction to microbiology.

Kaiser, Gary E.

2005-11-11

435

[An investigation of parasites of goldfish (Carassius carassius L., 1758) in Kovada Lake.].  

PubMed

The aim of this study, carried out from 25.03.2003-17.02.2004, was to determine the ectoparasites and endoparasites of goldfish (Carassius carassius L., 1758) inhabiting Kovada Lake. A total of 102 specimens were caught monthly and investigated parasitologically. As a result of the investigation, the ectoparasites, Dactylogyrus anchoratus, Dactylogyrus minutus, Argulus foliceaus and Trachellobdella torquata, and the endoparasite Contracaecum sp. were found in the goldfish. Among these, Dactylogyrus minutus and Trachellobdella torquata have been recorded for the first time in goldfish in Turkey. PMID:17160823

Tek?n-Özan, Selda; Kir, Ismail

2005-01-01

436

The reception by French physicians of Chagas' discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi and American trypanosomiasis (1909-1925).  

PubMed

As soon as they were published early in 1909, Chagas's articles on Trypanosoma cruzi and American trypanosomiasis became the topic of discussions in France. The description of T. cruzi and Chagas disease was added to parasitology textbooks as early as 1912, and elicited active research, particularly on the part of French parasitologist Emile Brumpt. He contributed towards eluciding the lifecycle of T. cruzi and the different ways it could infect humans. Laboratory research on T. cruzi was interrupted by First World War and was not resumed afterwards on the same scale, although interest in the epidemiology of Chagas disease continued. PMID:20027917

Gachelin, Gabriel; Opinel, Annick

2009-07-01

437

Malaria epidemics in Europe after the First World War: the early stages of an international approach to the control of the disease.  

PubMed

The severity and endemicity of malaria declined gradually in Europe until WWI. During and after the war, the number of malaria cases increased substantially and peaked in 1922-1924. This prompted the Hygiene Commission of the League of Nations to establish a Malaria Commission in 1923 to define the most efficient anti-malaria procedures. Additionally, between 1924 and 1930 there were several international meetings and collaborations concerning malaria, which involved the main institutes of parasitology and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Commission reports, the guidelines for anti-malaria campaigns and the scientific programs which came out of these meetings and collaborations are analyzed in the present paper. PMID:21779694

Gachelin, Gabriel; Opinel, Annick

2011-06-01

438

Artemisinin-based combination therapies: a vital tool in efforts to eliminate malaria  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine has led to the recent adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as the first line of treatment against malaria. ACTs comprise semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives paired with distinct chemical classes of longer acting drugs. These artemisinins are exceptionally potent against the pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium parasites and also act on the transmissible sexual stages. These combinations increase the rates of clinical and parasitological cures and decrease the selection pressure for the emergence of antimalarial resistance. This Review article discusses our current knowledge about the mode of action of ACTs, their pharmacological properties and the proposed mechanisms of drug resistance.

Eastman, Richard T.; Fidock, David A.

2010-01-01

439

Investigation of Yersinia pestis in Xenopsylla astia.  

PubMed

In this study, at the Department of Parasitology in the Pasteur Institute of Iran, Xenopsylla were allowed to feed on mice infected with Yersinia pestis. After 24-48 hours, they were killed by ether and kept in alcohol (70%) for 20 minutes. They were then examined for pathological signs and bacilli in different tissues and organs, longitudinally and cross-sectionally. The samples were studied using conjugated antibody and fluorescence microscopy. The results of this study revealed that the bacilli are abundant in the proventriculus after 6 hours, but it was found in other organs, rarely. PMID:19238669

Nekouie, Hassan; Razavi, Mohamad Reza; Seyedipoor, Gholamhosein

2003-01-01

440

Highly diluted medication reduces parasitemia and improves experimental infection evolution by Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

Background There is no published information about the use of different protocols to administer a highly diluted medication. Evaluate the effect of different protocols for treatment with biotherapic T. cruzi 17 dH (BIOTTc17dH) on clinical/parasitological evolution of mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain. Methods A blind, randomized controlled trial was performed twice, using 60 28-day-old male Swiss mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain, in five treatment groups: CI - treated with a 7% ethanol-water solution, diluted in water (10 ?L/mL) ad libitum; BIOTPI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 ?L/mL) ad libitum during a period that started on the day of infection; BIOT4DI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 ?L/mL) ad libitum beginning on the 4th day of infection; BIOT4-5–6 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2?mL/ animal/day) on the 4th, 5th and 6th days after infection; BIOT7-8–9 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2?mL/ animal/day) on the 7th, 8th and 9th days after infection. We evaluated: parasitemia; total parasitemia (Ptotal); maximum peak of parasites; prepatent period (PPP) - time from infection to detection of the parasite in blood; patent period (PP) - period when the parasitemia can be detected in blood; clinical aspects; and mortality. Results Parasitological parameters in the BIOTPI and mainly in the BIOT4PI group showed better evolution of the infection compared to the control group (CI), with lower Ptotal, lower maximum peak of parasites, higher PPP, lower PP and longer survival times. These animals showed stable body temperature and higher weight gain and water consumption, with more animals having normal-appearing fur for longer periods. In contrast, groups BIOT4-5–6 and BIOT7-8–9 showed worse evolution of the infection compared to the control group, considering both parasitological and clinical parameters. The correlation analysis combined with the other data from this study indicated that the prepatent period is the best parameter to evaluate the effect of a medication in this model. Conclusions The BIOT4DI group showed the best clinical and parasitological evolution, with lower parasitemia and a trend toward lower mortality and a longer survival period. The prepatent period was the best parameter to evaluate the effect of a medication in this model.

2012-01-01

441

Isolation of Merozoite Rhoptries, Identification of Novel Rhoptry-Associated Proteins from Plasmodium yoelii, P. chabaudi, P. berghei,and Conserved Interspecies Reactivity of Organelles and Proteins with P. falciparumRhoptry-Specific Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sam-Yellowe, T. Y., Del Rio, R. A., Fujioka, H., Aikawa, M., Yang, J.-C., and Yakubu, Z., 1998. Isolation of merozoite rhoptries, identification of novel rhoptry-associated proteins fromPlasmodium yoelii, P. chabaudi, P. berghei,and conserved interspecies reactivity of organelles and proteins withP. falciparumrhoptry-specific antibodies.Experimental Parasitology89,271–284. Rhoptries were isolated from merozoites ofP. yoelii(17 XL),P. chabaudi adamiandP. berghei(K-173), using sucrose gradient density centrifugation. Mouse

T. Y. Sam-Yellowe; R. A. Del Rio; H. Fujioka; M. Aikawa; J.-C. Yang; Z. Yakubu

1998-01-01

442

Prevalence of onchocerciasis in Blue Nile valley of western Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A epidemiological study of Onchocerciasis among different ethnic groups in the Blue Nile valley of Western Ethiopia was conducted to obtain baseline data on disease prevalence, skin snips samples were obtained from 493 persons, representing different ethnic groups (Nilotic and Oromos), living under different geographic and climatic conditions (lowlands, Midland and highland) or Mendi district for parasitological verification. A total of 169 (34%) had microfilariae of the skin by direct microscopy. The highest prevalence rate (81%) was found among the Nilotic people living along the southern banks of the Blue Nile River. Most patient had wide spread skin infection. Epidemiological differences were also observed. PMID:8077003

Jira, C

443

[The studies of the invasion of Alaria alata (Goeze,1782) in the Province of Kuyavia and Pomerania].  

PubMed

The studies were conducted between 1999 and 2001 in two hunting regions. Larval alariosis was revealed in the boars only in one of the studied regions. In this region, the results of the parasitological studies, conducted towards A. alata in the direct host (domestic dogs) and indirect hosts (snails: Planorbis planorbis and Anisus vortex as well as frogs: Rana temporaria and Rana terrestris) were also positive. The lack of the host snails A. alata in the other region might have resulted from no presence of the parasite in the boar. PMID:16894758

Wójcik, A R; Franckiewicz-Grygon, B; Zbikowska, E

2001-01-01

444

Coproscopical investigations of the European otter (Lutra lutra) from Bia?owieza Primeval Forest.  

PubMed

The parasitofauna of the European otter (Lutra lutra) remains poorly known in Poland. In the presented study 106 fecal samples from otters living in the Bia?owieza Primeval Forest were examined, using standard flotation and sedimentation methods. We found that the overall prevalence of parasitic infections was 30.1%. Eggs of Alaria alata (0.9%), Opistorchis or Metorchis sp. (5.7%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.9%) and Aonchotheca putori (1.9%) were identified, but in other cases the species of parasite could not be reliably determined. Parasitological dissections should give better results in future studies. PMID:20707304

Górski, Pawe?; Zalewski, Andrzej; Kazimierczak, Katarzyna; Kotomski, Grzegorz

2010-01-01

445

[An unusual cause of hemoptysis: a leech].  

PubMed

We report an exceptional case of hemoptysis observed in a 71-year-old woman with an uneventful past history. After 48 hours of admission, the patient spontaneously expelled a leech from the nose. The parasite was examined in parasitology laboratory, which confirmed the hemiptera. The infestation of the airway by a leech is not uncommon; however, this diagnosis is rarely mentioned. The clinical symptoms are variable depending on location and the diagnosis should be made rapidly to prevent complications. Whatever the localization, removing the parasite is difficult. Evolution after treatment is rapidly favorable, with complete disappearance of symptoms. PMID:23010062

Hanim, F Z; Bourkadi, J E; Cherkaoui, F Z; Soualhi, M; Zahraoui, R; Marc, K; Benamour, J; Iraqi, G

2012-09-23

446

Use of ivermectin for the management of scabies in a nursing home.  

PubMed

Ivermectin was used for the treatment of a scabies outbreak in a nursing home. Among the 128 residents, 42 presented pruritus or cutaneous lesions and scabies was parasitologically demonstrated in seven patients. All residents were treated with two 12 mg doses of ivermectin given two weeks apart. Ivermectin treatment associated with procedures for environmental disinfection led to the control of the outbreak. In only one case, was there a failure of the treatment. It is concluded that oral ivermectin is an effective and practical therapy for scabies in nursing homes. PMID:10491498

Dannaoui, E; Kiazand, A; Piens, M; Picot, S

1999-09-01

447

Human fascioliasis.  

PubMed

Fasciola hepatica, a zoonotic liver fluke, can also cause disease in humans. Common symptoms are epigastric pain, upper abdominal pain and malaise. Fever and arthralgia are common in acute fascioliasis. Eosinophilia is the predominant laboratory finding, especially in patients with the acute form of the disease. Diagnosis and treatment is not easy, as physicians rarely encounter this disease, and effective drugs are not available in many countries. Human fascioliasis may be underestimated. Patients with eosinophilia and abdominal pain should be evaluated for F. hepatica infestation by parasitological, radiological and serological tests. PMID:15113313

Saba, R; Korkmaz, M; Inan, D; Mamiko?lu, L; Turhan, O; Günseren, F; Cevikol, C; Kabaalio?lu, A

2004-05-01

448

Improving the detection of anthelmintic resistance: evaluation of faecal egg count reduction test procedures suitable for farm routines.  

PubMed

The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the main method of detection of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in nematodes of veterinary importance. However, although the FECRT is standardised, the diagnostic performance of this method has not been fully characterised. In this survey Monte Carlo routines were used to simulate the estimation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) with several FECRT protocols that were performed under different field and laboratory conditions. The goal was to determine, from a practical viewpoint, the most suitable protocols for farm routines and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of FECRTs across different parasitological scenarios with several levels of AR. The simulated field procedures included variations in the sample size and the sampling (or not) of a control group, whereas the simulated laboratory procedures comprised group mean individual-based vs. composite-based FECR estimations and variations in the egg detection threshold of the McMaster technique. For composite procedures, the random weight variations among individual samples and an increased number of McMaster chamber counts were also simulated. The results showed that FECRTs were moderately affected by inaccuracy but crucially affected by imprecision, and both parameters were clearly dependent on the parasitological conditions and the laboratory and field procedures used. An individual-based FECRT method performed without a control group was the most appropriate to quantify the AR, whereas a composite-based method with a control group was the easiest method for discriminating susceptible and resistant parasite populations. More interestingly, the diagnostic performance of the simulated FECRT methods was low for the procedures that are currently recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) and for many of the typical field and laboratory procedures that are currently implemented. Therefore, the results suggest that the diagnostic performance of the FECRT should be re-evaluated, and the recommendations of the W.A.A.V.P. should be redefined. Finally, theoretic critical conditions for FECRT procedures have been defined to improve future AR surveys and to allow the interpretation of FECRT results with the necessary caution according to the diagnostic performance expected for every FECRT procedure and parasitological scenario. PMID:23537948

Calvete, Carlos; Uriarte, Joaquin

2013-03-13

449

A program to accredit laboratories for reliable testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella.  

PubMed

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has developed a program to accredit external laboratories to conduct Trichinella digestion assays for export purposes. Accredited laboratories are responsible for staffing, equipment and operating test facilities under the auspices and guidance of the CFIA. The CFIA's Centre for Animal Parasitology provides training, proficiency samples, audits and other support for the accreditation process. The program has also been adapted for use in laboratories conducting Trichinella digestion tests for surveillance and food safety purposes and provides a useful template for others wishing to develop similar systems. PMID:15993541

Forbes, Lorry B; Scandrett, W Brad; Gajadhar, Alvin A

2005-09-01

450

The parasite fauna of stray domestic cats ( Felis catus ) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred forty feral domestic cats trapped between 2004 and 2008 in the city centre and the suburb districts of Dubai,\\u000a as well as in desert biotopes, were subjected to a complete parasitological dissection. The established parasite fauna consisted\\u000a of Cystoisospora felis (12.9%), Cystoisospora rivolta (9.2%), Toxoplasma\\/Hammondia (0.8%), Heterophyes heterophyes (2.5%), Heterophyopsis continua (0.4%), Joyeuxiella spp. (65.8%), Diplopylidium noelleri (37.1%),

Rolf K. Schuster; Katja Thomas; Saritha Sivakumar; Declan O’Donovan

2009-01-01

451

Investigation of parasites in sludges and disinfection techniques. Final report, August 1979-May 1982  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the research grant were to: assess the presence and densities of resistant stages of parasites in municipal wastewater sludges (sewage) in northern United States; compare the results of the study with the results of a previous study of sludges in southern United States; to evaluate several decontamination techniques for their effectiveness in inactivating parasites in waste sludges; and develop a standard method for the parasitologic examination of waste sludges. Sludge samples from all phases of treatment (i.e., primary, etc.) were collected during the fall, winter and summer from 48 municipal wastewater treatment plants located in New York, Ohio, Minnesota, and Washington.

Reimers, R.S.; Little, M.D.; Englande, A.J.; McDonell, D.B.; Bowman, D.D.

1985-11-01

452

Tolciclate versus miconazole, a double-blind trial in patients with dermatomycosis.  

PubMed

Eighty-one patients with dermatomycosis such as tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and pityriasis versicolor were treated with tolciclate 1% cream or miconazole 2% cream. Parasitological cure was obtained in 100% of the patients given tolciclate and in 97.4% of those given miconazole. Patients and investigator considered tolciclate treatment as excellent, respectively, in 76.2% and 73.8% of the cases. The corresponding figures for miconazole were 74.4% and 66.7%. Both treatments were well tolerated. PMID:6989684

Cucè, L C; Assunção, B F; Medawar, L G; Salibian, A; Groppi, W

1980-01-01

453

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly sensitive for diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) in an endemic area in Acre, Brazil, where Leishmania braziliensis is present. Leishmania DNA was detected 34 of 35 cases, yielding a positivity rate of 97.1%, which was higher than the positivity rates for all of the other diagnostic methods studied, namely Montenegro skin test (MST), anti-Leishmania serological testing and microscopic examination of lesion biopsy specimens. These findings have led us to propose guidelines for the diagnosis of ML that use PCR as the principal method of parasitological confirmation of cases. PMID:15777720

Oliveira, Jene Greyce S; Novais, Fernanda O; de Oliveira, Camila I; da Cruz Junior, Antonio C; Campos, Léon Fábio; da Rocha, Any V; Boaventura, Viviane; Noronha, Almério; Costa, Jackson M L; Barral, Aldina

2005-04-01

454

Giemsa-stained wet mount based method for reticulocyte quantification: a viable alternative in resource limited or malaria endemic settings.  

PubMed

The quantity of circulating reticulocytes is an important indicator of erythropoietic activity in response to a wide range of haematological pathologies. While most modern laboratories use flow cytometry to quantify reticulocytes, most field laboratories still rely on 'subvital' staining. The specialist 'subvital' stains, New Methylene Blue (NMB) and Brilliant Crésyl Blue are often difficult to procure, toxic, and show inconsistencies between batches. Here we demonstrate the utility of Giemsa's stain (commonly used microbiology and parasitology) in a 'subvital' manner to provide an accurate method to visualize and count reticulocytes in blood samples from normal and malaria-infected individuals. PMID:23565221

Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Russell, Bruce; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Chu, Cindy; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, Francois; Renia, Laurent

2013-04-02

455

Functional Genes and Proteins of Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

During the past several decades, researches on parasite genetics have progressed from biochemical and serodiagnostic studies to protein chemistry, molecular biology, and functional gene studies. Nowadays, bioinformatics, genomics, and proteomics approaches are being applied by Korean parasitology researchers. As for Clonorchis sinensis, investigations have been carried out to identify its functional genes using forward and reverse genetic approaches and to characterize the biochemical and biological properties of its gene products. The authors review the proteins of cloned genes, which include antigenic proteins, physiologic and metabolic enzymes, and the gene expression profile of Clonorchis sinensis.

Kim, Tae Im; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2009-01-01

456

Clonorchis sinensis: Molecular Cloning and Characterization of 28-kDa Glutathione S-Transferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kang, S-Y., Ahn, I.-Y., Park, C-Y., Chung, Y-B., Hong, S.-T., Kong, Y., Cho, S-Y., and Hong, S-J. 2001. Clonorchis sinensis: Molecular cloning and characterization of 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase. Experimental Parasitology97, 186–195. A 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase (Cs28GST) was purified from a Clonorchis sinensis cytosolic fraction through anion-exchange and glutathione-affinity column chromatographies. A monoclonal antibody raised against Cs28GST reacted specifically to the

Shin-Yong Kang; Il-Young Ahn; Chi-Young Park; Young-Bae Chung; Sung-Tae Hong; Yoon Kong; Seung-Yull Cho; Sung-Jong Hong

2001-01-01

457

Control of Shigella flexneri in Celebes black macaques (Macaca nigra).  

PubMed

Stool specimens collected systematically from a group of Celebes black macaques (Macaca nigra) with a high incidence of diarrhea were examined microbiologically. Numerous isolates of Shigella flexneri, Campylobacter jejuni and pathogenic Escherichia coli were recovered. Previous parasitology reports had revealed that the majority of the animals had Balantidium coli. Subsequently, the group was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin and tetracycline. After treatment, Shigella flexneri was not detected in the stool of any animal for 1 year, and the clinical condition of the group was improved. Reduced recovery rates were obtained with other enteric pathogens. PMID:3523037

Olson, L C; Bergquist, D Y; Fitzgerald, D L

1986-06-01

458

A preliminary survey for intestinal parasites in the Tis Abay town, northwest Ethiopia, with special references to Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

A parasitological survey was made in Tis Abay town, north western Ethiopia in January 1991. A total of 615 stool specimens were randomly collected from school and non-school populations. Prevalence rates for S. mansoni and other intestinal helminths were computed. Human behaviour and waste disposal were observed to be conducive for transmission of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted parasites. From the findings of this preliminary survey it is suggested that improvement of sanitary conditions and provision of a piped water supply to all households may reduce transmission of soil and water-borne infections. PMID:8513725

Erko, B; Tedla, S

1993-01-01

459

HIV/AIDS, parasites and co-infections: publication patterns in China  

PubMed Central

Background Since its discovery, HIV/AIDS has arguably captured more attention among the Chinese biomedical research community than most other infectious diseases. Traditional parasitic diseases, on the other hand, are perceived as being increasingly neglected. However, it has long been recognized that interactions between HIV and other infective agents, including parasites, influence the health status of people living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed at systematically reviewing the Chinese scientific literature on HIV/AIDS and parasites between 1986 and 2006 in order to substantiate or refute these claims, and to highlight neglected research areas. Results Searching the three largest Chinese scientific literature databases, in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) a total of 24,511 citations dealing with HIV/AIDS and 15,398 parasite-specific publications were identified. Wanfang Data and VIP Information (VIP) contained 15,925 and 13,873 entries dealing with HIV/AIDS respectively, while 12,043 and 7,068 hits were scored when searching for parasitological references. The number of publications dealing with HIV/AIDS in China increased exponentially from 6 in 1986 to 3,372 in 2006 whereas the publication activity in the field of parasitology was more erratic and lately started to decline. Epidemiology was the most-reported field of endeavor, accounting for 26.0% and 24.6% of the HIV/AIDS and parasitological literature, respectively, while publications dealing with health education only represented 2.9% and 0.7% of all publications, respectively. The total number of Chinese articles focusing on HIV/AIDS and parasite co-infection was 650, with large year-on-year differences in publication numbers. The single-most frequently studied system was HIV-Pneumocystis carinii co-infection. Conclusion The present study revealed that in China, the fields of parasitic diseases, especially opportunistic parasitic infections linked with HIV/AIDS, is increasingly neglected. This suggests a need to enhance research in the field of opportunistic parasitic infections and parasitology in general.

Tian, Li-Guang; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Jia-Xu; Chen, Shao-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2009-01-01

460

Communications: technology transfer in the developed world.  

PubMed

Support for research is increasingly dependent upon the results of that research having relevance to society's needs and public benefits. This increase pressure to move research results out of the laboratory and into the user's hands. To facilitate this, a variety of technology transfer mechanisms have evolved to facilitate transfer of knowledge and processes. These mechanisms, in addition to their implied benefits for the researchers and the user, often have certain consequences which are unanticipated and cause transfer to fail or not meet expectations. Foremost, cultural change on the part of both private organizations and public laboratories is probably necessary to allow effective partnerships. Coupled with the transfer of knowledge is the opportunity to more effectively explain to society the benefits it receives for its investments in research. Such communication has not been especially successful for veterinary parasitology. However, the revolution in communication (e.g. rise of mass media, computer networks) presents new opportunities to parasitologists to more effectively communicate both technology and knowledge directly to the users, and also to inform supporters, policy-makers and the general public of the relevance and importance of veterinary parasitology in improving society's well-being. This review will discuss these new instruments of communication, the need to construct better messages, the benefits of technology transfer and the various means to meet the challenges associated with transferring research innovation to the user and the marketplace. PMID:8893468

Murrell, K D

1996-08-01

461

Identification of Leishmania spp. by Molecular Amplification and DNA Sequencing Analysis of a Fragment of rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 ? †  

PubMed Central

Isoenzyme analysis of cultured parasites is the conventional approach for Leishmania species identification. Molecular approaches have the potential to be more sensitive and rapid. We designed PCR generic primers to amplify a segment of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) from multiple Leishmania species. To validate the selected ITS2 fragment, we tested clinical specimens and compared the species results obtained by the molecular approach (PCR followed by DNA sequencing analysis) with those from the parasitologic approach (in vitro culture followed by isoenzyme analysis). Among the 159 patients with clinical specimens positive by both approaches, a total of eight Leishmania species were identified. The species results were concordant for all but two patients: for one patient, the results were Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis by the molecular approach versus L. (V.) braziliensis by the parasitologic approach; for the other patient, the results were L. (Leishmania) tropica versus L. (L.) major, respectively. ITS2 PCR, followed by sequencing analysis, can be used to detect and discriminate among Leishmania species. The results confirmed our hypothesis that a region of the ITS2 gene can complement the characterization of Leishmania parasites at the species level. The approach we developed can be used as a diagnostic tool in reference laboratories with adequate infrastructure to perform molecular characterization of pathogens.

de Almeida, Marcos E.; Steurer, Francis J.; Koru, Ozgur; Herwaldt, Barbara L.; Pieniazek, Norman J.; da Silva, Alexandre J.

2011-01-01

462

High levels of Schistosoma mansoni infections among schoolchildren in central Sudan one year after treatment with praziquantel.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate the impact of praziquantel (PZQ) for the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection among schoolchildren in Al Gunaid in Central Sudan. A cohort of schoolchildren (6-15 years of age) was investigated before and 1 year after treatment with a single dose of PZQ 40 mg/kg. Parasitological examinations for S. mansoni were performed before and after treatment, and prevalence and intensity of infection were analysed. Of 2741 schoolchildren recruited from six elementary schools at baseline, 2521 were successfully traced and re-examined at follow-up, with two complete sets of longitudinal parasitological data on S. mansoni. Boys showed significantly higher prevalence of S. mansoni infection than girls. A single dose of PZQ reduced the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection by 36.7% (from 59.1 to 37.4%) and the intensity of infection by 41.1% (from 116.7 to 68.7 eggs per gram of stool) 1 year after treatment. The reduction in prevalence was significantly higher among the group of children with heavy infections (by 76.1%, from 6.7 to 1.6%) and among girls (by 54.1%, 42.3 to 19.4%) at 1 year after treatment. Thus, in spite of a significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection 1 year after PZQ treatment, the prevalence of the disease was still high and further research is needed on this topic. PMID:21729382

Ahmed, A M; El Tash, L A; Mohamed, E Y; Adam, I

2011-06-08

463

Reflections on the biochemistry of Echinococcus: past, present and future.  

PubMed

This review discusses 5 of my earliest papers on the biochemistry of larval Echinococcus published in Parasitology in the 1970s and 1980s. Two of the publications consider aspects of the basic biochemistry, intermediary metabolism and the regulation of respiratory pathways in E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, and emphasize the existence of inter- and intra-species variation in their general metabolism. The third reports on the detailed biochemical analysis of the tegumental surface of the protoscolex of E. granulosus, and the final 2 papers describe the genomic cloning of Echinococcus DNA fragments and their use, along with other DNA markers, in molecular identification of E. granulosus isolates collected worldwide from areas endemic for hydatid disease. A number of years have elapsed since these publications in Parasitology and, in this Centenary Issue article, I reflect briefly on some of the subsequent studies undertaken in these research areas that have advanced the field. As well, I provide brief insight on new research directions, emphasizing the impact of molecular biology and associated techniques on future studies of Echinococcus and hydatid disease. PMID:19250598

McManus, D P

2009-03-02

464

Ocular onchocerciasis and intensity of infection in the community. I. West African savanna.  

PubMed

A method is introduced for the analysis of community patterns of ocular onchocerciasis in relation to the intensity of infection as measured by the Community Microfilarial Load (CMFL). Specific features of this method are the clear definition of ocular lesions and their separation into early and advanced stages, and the estimation of the prevalence of onchocercal blindness after exclusion of other causes of blindness. The method is applied to the ophthalmological and parasitological data from 33 villages from the West African savanna in order to obtain a reference pattern for subsequent analyses of ocular onchocerciasis patterns from other bioclimatic zones. In the savanna, there exists a clear linear relationship between most indices of ocular onchocerciasis and the CMFL. Mean ocular microfilarial loads, prevalences of the advanced lesions of the anterior and posterior segment of the eye and prevalences of different classifications of blindness show a high degree of correlation with the CMFL, as does also early sclerosing keratitis. The correlation is poor for the other early ocular lesions. All relationships are similar for the two sexes with the exception of posterior segment lesions which remain more common in males after correction for intensity of infection. The CMFL is superior to the prevalence of microfilariae in the skin as an index of endemicity. It allows a good prediction of the severity of onchocercal ocular disease in savanna communities using parasitological information only. PMID:2617045

Remme, J; Dadzie, K Y; Rolland, A; Thylefors, B

1989-09-01

465

Impact of National Schistosomiasis Control Program in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Nile Delta, Egypt: an independent evaluation.  

PubMed

A longitudinal study has been conducted (1991-1997) to evaluate the impact of repeated selective chemotherapy on human transmission indices of Schistosoma mansoni infection. The study population included 8370 individuals inhabiting four villages and their satellites and representing high and low S. mansoni endemicity communities in Kafr EI-Sheikh governorate. A parasitological survey was conducted for three successive years (1991-1992 and 1993). Each time infected received praziquantel (PZQ) chemotherapy. In 1997, a fourth parasitological survey was done. During the period from 1994-1996 only routine diagnosis and treatment of schistosomiasis offered by the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP) was going on. Study results revealed a decrease in S. mansoni prevalence and intensity of infection in the first three years. The drop was marked after the first year. In 1997, after the cessation of active case finding and treatment by the project team, an upward trend was observed for both prevalence and geometric mean egg count (GMEC) especially for the high prevalence villages. However, all indices were kept at significant low levels as compared to base-line values in 1991. PMID:17217033

Barakat, R; Farghaly, A; El Morshedy, H; Hassan, M; Miller, de W

1998-01-01

466

Co-trimoxazole compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenyan children.  

PubMed

Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and co-trimoxazole were both effective in reducing fever, clearing parasitaemia and improving anaemia in children aged < 5 years with uncomplicated malaria in 2 Kenyan endemic sites, Oyugis in the west and Tiwi on the coast. We compared the efficacy of these 2 regimens (in May-July 1998) by evaluating clinical and parasitological responses over 14 days. The combined incidence of parasitological failure for the combined sites for co-trimoxazole was 14/123 (11%) and for SP 23/145 (16%) (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31-1.46, P = 0.289). The 14-day clinical failure rate for the combined sites for co-trimoxazole was 4/123 (3.3%), and for SP 8/145 (5.5%), (RR 1.69, 95% CI 0.91-3.15, P = 0.129). The results indicate that the risk of treatment failure for the 2 regimens was similar. The antimalarial use of co-trimoxazole in uncomplicated malaria needs further investigation, since the 10-12-h elimination half-life of both components should reduce selective pressure for resistance. In addition, use of a 2-day high-dose course, tested previously, requires further study to demonstrate its efficacy. PMID:11816440

Omar, S A; Bakari, A; Owiti, A; Adagu, I S; Warhurst, D C

467

Praziquantel for treatment of schistosomiasis in patients with advanced hepatosplenomegaly.  

PubMed

We evaluated praziquantel for therapy of active Schistosoma mansoni infection in 15 rural Egyptian males with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Criteria for inclusion in this study were two pre-treatment S. mansoni egg counts with a mean of greater than 100 eggs g-1 faeces and an enlarged spleen. Fourteen of 15 patients had hepatomegaly, five had ascites, and six had serum albumin below 3 g dl-1. Schistosoma haematobium infection (less than 10 eggs ml-1 urine) was present in three patients. Praziquantel was administered in a single oral dose of 30 mg kg-1 body weight. Eight of the 15 patients (53%) had mild and transient reactions in the form of fever (usually one day), gastrointestinal symptoms, headache and skin rash. Criteria for parasitological cure were the absence of live eggs in two stool samples and a negative rectal snip biopsy three months after therapy. Ten patients ceased to pass live eggs (cure rate 67%). For the five who were still passing live eggs there was a mean egg reduction of 95%. The three patients with S. haematobium demonstrated parasitological cures. We conclude that praziquantel is an effective and well tolerated drug for treatment of S. mansoni infection in patients with advanced hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, and it is the drug of choice for patients with coexisting S. haematobium infection. PMID:3938936

Bassily, S; Farid, Z; Dunn, M; el-Masry, N A; Stek, M

1985-12-01

468

[Co-occurrence of parasites sensu lato in alimentary tract of patients hospitalised in lower Silesia].  

PubMed

Up to now, the co-occurrence of parasites sensu stricto and fungi were confirmed mostly in the oral cavity. The aim of the present parallel parasitological and mycological investigations was to determine co-occurrence of protozoa, helminths and fungi (parasites sensu lato) both in smears from cavity and in stool samples of 93 patients undergoing the non-parasitological treatment in two hospitals of Lower Silesia (Poland). Among the examined patients parasites sensu lato (13 species) were found in 62 cases (63%). Trofozoites of Trichomonas tenax and/or Entamoeba gingivalis as well as fungi (Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. pseudotropicalis) occurred in 10% of the examined patients. Almost all infected cases (90%) were joined with infection of common invasion of protozoa and fungi. In stool common invasion of parasites sensu lato (Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia sp., Enterobius vermicularis as well as Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. pseudotropicalis, C. guilliermondii and Rhodotorula sp.) were found in 12% of the patiens. The co-occurrence of parasites and fungi was stated in the half of invasions. C. albicans was the most often co-occurring species in alimentary tract. PMID:16883695

Lonc, E; Klaus, A; Kiewra, D

2000-01-01

469

[Intestinal helminthiasis diagnosed in Dakar, Senegal].  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of digestive helminthiasis among patients referred to the laboratory of Parasitology and mycology at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar for examination of stool samples from 2004 to 2009. Of 1 526 direct stool examinations (Ritchie and Baerman techniques) analyzed at the laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology of Le Dantec Hospital from 2004 to 2009, 310 were positive for intestinal helminthiasis, for a prevalence of 20.3%. The main species found were: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, Tænia saginata and Tænia solium. Most patients had a single parasite (90.1%, versus 9% with two and 0.9% with three). Men are infected more often than women, accounting respectively for 58% and 42% of the infections, for a sex ratio of 1.38. Children aged 10 to 15 years had the highest prevalence of infection: 34.5%. The results show that digestive helminthiasis is endemic in Dakar, where it is necessary to implement campaigns of deworming, health education and environmental improvement. PMID:23695222

Ndiaye, D; Ndiaye, M; Gueye, P A L; Badiane, A; Fall, I D; Ndiaye, Y D; Faye, B; Ndiaye, J L; Tine, R; Ndir, O

470

Where are the parasites in food webs?  

PubMed Central

This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies) focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles.

2012-01-01

471

Hematologic and Clinical Aspects of Experimental Ovine Anaplasmosis Caused by Anaplasma ovis in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma ovis infections can cause clinical symptoms in acute phase and lead to huge economic losses in flocks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hematological and parasitological changes in experimental anaplasmosis in sheep with Iranian strain of A. ovis. Method Five male sheep without any blood parasite infection were selected. One hundred ml heparinized blood was collected from splenectomised sheep that showed 6% A. ovis parasitemia. Inoculums of 20 ml blood were administered intravenously to each test animal. Hematological, parasitological and clinical changes of experimental anaplasmosis were studied in 0-38 days post infection. Result Parasitemia was detected 3 days post infection and reached its maximum level on the day 12 of experiment in test animals. Then the parasitemia was declined, but the organism could be found persistently until the last day of study. The red cell counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration were decreased and mean corpuscular volume was increased significantly during the infection period. Reticulocytosis and basophilic stippling were also detected. No significant changes were observed in total and differential leukocyte count and animal body temperature. Conclusion Experimental A. ovis infection in sheep resulted in marked normocytic normochromic anemia at the beginning of the infection which became macrocytic normochromic by the development of the disease. There were negative correlations between parasitemia and RBC, PCV and Hb values, therefore hematological assessment can be considered as a practical diagnostic tool in ovine anaplasmosis.

Yasini, SP; Khaki, Z; Rahbari, S; Kazemi, B; Amoli, J Salar; Gharabaghi, A; Jalali, SM

2012-01-01

472

Diagnosis and treatment of demodectic blepharitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Demodex spp. in the eyelash follicles obtained from patients seen in our ophthalmology clinic, to define the symptoms of this infestation, and to examine the effectivity of the therapy. This study was conducted in Department of Ophthalmology and Parasitology, Dokuz Eylül University, School of Medicine. Our study included 82 cases that were seen in the Ophthalmology Department and Parasitology Department for various reasons. We have also observed that the presence of Demodex spp. provokes itching and redness in the eyes and that using baby shampoo for cleansing the face reduces the risk of infestation. After the treatment of 32 cases with 4% pilocarpin HCl gel, we achieved a total cure in 12 eyes (37.5%), partial improvement in 13 eyes (40.6%), (making a total of 25 eyes, 78.1%). The treatment was unsuccessful in 7 eyes (21.9%). In patients with Demodex spp. cleansing with baby shampoo and treating by pilocarpin gel may be used in treatment. PMID:19367544

Inceboz, Tonay; Yaman, Aylin; Over, Leyla; Ozturk, Arif Taylan; Akisu, Ciler

2009-01-01

473

Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis in respiratory secretions  

PubMed Central

Objective To communicate the presence of adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis, and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia. Methods The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Muñiz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation (1?500 r/min for 15 seconds). Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet. Results It revealed adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of S. stercoralis. Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples, gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite. Conclusions The presence of adult female S. stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient.

Bava, Bava Amadeo Javier; Cecilia, Dominguez; Alcides, Troncoso

2013-01-01

474

Diagnosis of Rhodesian sleeping sickness in the Lambwe Valley (1980-1984).  

PubMed

In primary Rhodesian sleeping sickness patients, parasitological diagnosis was best performed by rodent inoculation of blood (98.5%+) followed by Giemsa-stained thick blood smears (93.3%+). Parasitological diagnosis in relapse patients was sometimes impossible and clinical diagnosis based on CSF examination was necessary. Early during a disease outbreak in 1980, 89% of the infections were detected by mobile field teams, but once established in the endemic area a stationary diagnostic facility detected most of the cases. A total number of 23,751 examinations for Rhodesian sleeping sickness and malaria were made by mobile field teams during 1980-1984; 102 primary cases (0.43%) and 25 (0.10%) relapse cases were diagnosed. A total of 9339 individuals (39%) had patent malaria infections. The IFAT was positive in 89% of the primary sleeping sickness patients and 77% of the relapse patients. Seventy-nine per cent of the primary patients were positive in a CFT test, and 77% of the relapse patients were considered positive. PMID:2694986

Wellde, B T; Chumo, D A; Reardon, M J; Nawiri, J; Olando, J; Wanyama, L; Awala, J; Koech, D; Siongok, T A; Sabwa, C

1989-08-01

475

Helminths found in marmosets (Callithrix penicillata and Callithrixjacchus) introduced to the region of occurrence of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecusrosalia) in Brazil.  

PubMed

The introduction of exotic species can increase the risk of extinction of native species through the introduction of new diseases, predation or resource competition. The marmosets Callithrix penicillata and Callithrix jacchus and hybrids of these two species have been introduced to privately owned forests in the lowland Atlantic forest of the Rio de Janeiro State