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1

Teaching human parasitology in China  

PubMed Central

China has approximately one-fifth of the world’s population. Despite the recent success in controlling major parasitic diseases, parasitic diseases remain a significant human health problem in China. Hence, the discipline of human parasitology is considered as a core subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of the medical sciences. We consider the teaching of human parasitology to be fundamental to the training of medical students, to the continued research on parasitic diseases, and to the prevention and control of human parasitic diseases. Here, we have summarized the distribution of educational institutions in China, particularly those that teach parasitology. In addition, we have described some existing parasitology courses in detail as well as the teaching methods used for different types of medical students. Finally, we have discussed the current problems in and reforms to human parasitology education. Our study indicates that 304 regular higher education institutions in China offer medical or related education. More than 70 universities have an independent department of parasitology that offers approximately 10 different parasitology courses. In addition, six universities in China have established excellence-building courses in human parasitology. PMID:22520237

2012-01-01

2

History of Human Parasitology  

PubMed Central

Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

Cox, F. E. G.

2002-01-01

3

Parasitology: United Kingdom National Quality Assessment Scheme.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To assess the results from parasitology laboratories taking part in a quality assessment scheme between 1986 and 1991; and to compare performance with repeat specimens. METHODS: Quality assessment of blood parasitology, including tissue parasites (n = 444; 358 UK, 86 overseas), and faecal parasitology, including extra-intestinal parasites (n = 205; 141 UK, 64 overseas), was performed. RESULTS: Overall, the standard of performance was poor. A questionnaire distributed to participants showed that a wide range of methods was used, some of which were considered inadequate to achieve reliable results. Teaching material was distributed to participants from time to time in an attempt to improve standards. CONCLUSIONS: Since the closure of the IMLS fellowship course in 1972, fewer opportunities for specialised training in parasitology are available: more training is needed. Poor performance in the detection of malarial parasites is mainly attributable to incorrect speciation, misidentification, and lack of equipment such as an eyepiece graticule. PMID:1452791

Hawthorne, M.; Chiodini, P. L.; Snell, J. J.; Moody, A. H.; Ramsay, A.

1992-01-01

4

[Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].  

PubMed

An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced different theoretical interpretations. The third period in the history of parasitology lasted from the mid 19th century to the end of World War I. At that time a common agreement was established in all Europe, with regard to interpretation of standards inspired by positivism, i.e. verification of empirical statements through observation. Parasitology emerged as a separate discipline. Theoretical barriers limiting its progress and setting the questions were overcome. The contagion concept was reinstated. The colonial conquests solving demography problem provided the most important social impulse for the progress in parasitology. It was supported by governments interested in having their colonies free from diseases, mainly malaria and other tropical diseases, and thus safe for the European pioneer settlers. There was also development of parasitological scientific institutions (institutes of tropical medicine) and didactics. After World War I parasitology entered the fruitful stage of discipline development which resulted in a division into subdisciplines and a progress of new scientific fields. Its theoretical standards have become fixed and provided a basis for preventive programmes against parasite diseases, supported financially by European goverments, USA and some other countries. Those programmes were executed both in the home countries and in the colonies. After World War II, in the fourth stage of parasitology development, attention was mainly paid to local natural environment in order to diagnose parasites and their vectors. At the same time, parasitology became an applied science practiced in many specialized centres not only at universities. Presently, the main aims of parasitology are studies on biodiversity of parasites and environmental protection in the developed countries, and within tropical medicine as the travel medicine, because of rapid increase of tourism. PMID:16913523

Lonc, Elzbieta; P?onka-Syroka, Bozena

2005-01-01

5

Scientific report Molecular biology tools in parasitology.  

E-print Network

Scientific report Molecular biology tools in parasitology. Their use for identification with molecular biology tools as well as for those who were naive in this respect. The project was that 2 groups of researchers, naive or familiar with molecular biology, could communicate. More than 120 played the game

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China  

PubMed Central

Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

2012-01-01

7

[Human parasitology teaching in the 21st century].  

PubMed

Multimedia techniques were applied in parasitological teaching and experimental practices. In order to strengthen the practical ability of the undergraduate students, reform was conducted including a prioritization of the teaching content, use of series micro-slides and video show, etc. PMID:16866147

Tian, Xi-feng; Han, Xiu-ling; He, Bao-ling; Zhao, Li-na; Huo, Xiao-qing

2006-02-28

8

An integrated parasitology: revealing the elephant through tradition and invention.  

PubMed

The field of parasitology contributes to the elucidation of patterns and processes in evolution, ecology, and biogeography that are of fundamental importance across the biosphere, leading to a thorough understanding of biodiversity and varied responses to global change. Foundations from taxonomic and systematic information drive biodiversity discovery and foster considerable infrastructure and integration of research programs. Morphological, physiological, behavioral, life-history, and molecular data can be synthesized to discover and describe global parasite diversity, in a timely manner. In fully incorporating parasitology in policies for adaptation to global change, parasites and their hosts should be archived and studied within a newly emergent conceptual universe (the 'Stockholm Paradigm'), embracing the inherent complexity of host-parasite systems and improved explanatory power to understand biodiversity past, present, and future. PMID:25488772

Hoberg, Eric P; Agosta, Salvatore J; Boeger, Walter A; Brooks, Daniel R

2014-12-01

9

[Application of mind map in teaching of medical parasitology].  

PubMed

To improve the teaching quality of medical parasitology, mind map, a simple and effective learning method, was introduced. The mind map of each chapter was drawn by teacher and distributed to students before the class. It was helpful for teacher to straighten out the teaching idea, and for students to grasp the important learning points, perfect the class notes and improve learning efficiency. The divergent characteristics of mind map can also help to develop the students' innovation ability. PMID:23484262

Zhou, Hong-Chang; Shao, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Bo-Ying

2012-12-30

10

[Francesco Redi and the birth of experimental parasitology].  

PubMed

Francesco Redi (1626-1697) born in Arezzo (Tuscany, Italy), an encyclopedic mind simultaneously naturalist, physician and poet is the founder of scientific and experimental parasitology by his works published in 1668 and 1684. In the first he showed the impossibility of spontaneous generation of insects (flies) and in the second are described over hundred species of parasites (helminths, mites, insects) from vertebrates and invertebrates with excellent illustrations. He has also recommended various antiparasitic remedies and specified their pharmacological action. It is besides under his influence that two of his disciples: Bonomo and Cestoni will rediscover and redescribe in 1687 the itch-mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). PMID:11625103

Ioli, A; Petithory, J C; Théodoridès, J

1997-01-01

11

Fifty Years of the Korean Society for Parasitology  

PubMed Central

In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future. PMID:19885338

2009-01-01

12

The Quality of Methods Reporting in Parasitology Experiments  

PubMed Central

There is a growing concern both inside and outside the scientific community over the lack of reproducibility of experiments. The depth and detail of reported methods are critical to the reproducibility of findings, but also for making it possible to compare and integrate data from different studies. In this study, we evaluated in detail the methods reporting in a comprehensive set of trypanosomiasis experiments that should enable valid reproduction, integration and comparison of research findings. We evaluated a subset of other parasitic (Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, Trichuris and Schistosoma) and non-parasitic (Mycobacterium) experimental infections in order to compare the quality of method reporting more generally. A systematic review using PubMed (2000–2012) of all publications describing gene expression in cells and animals infected with Trypanosoma spp was undertaken based on PRISMA guidelines; 23 papers were identified and included. We defined a checklist of essential parameters that should be reported and have scored the number of those parameters that are reported for each publication. Bibliometric parameters (impact factor, citations and h-index) were used to look for association between Journal and Author status and the quality of method reporting. Trichuriasis experiments achieved the highest scores and included the only paper to score 100% in all criteria. The mean of scores achieved by Trypanosoma articles through the checklist was 65.5% (range 32–90%). Bibliometric parameters were not correlated with the quality of method reporting (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.05). Our results indicate that the quality of methods reporting in experimental parasitology is a cause for concern and it has not improved over time, despite there being evidence that most of the assessed parameters do influence the results. We propose that our set of parameters be used as guidelines to improve the quality of the reporting of experimental infection models as a pre-requisite for integrating and comparing sets of data. PMID:25076044

Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Bramhall, Michael; Noyes, Harry; Cruickshank, Sheena; Stevens, Robert; Brass, Andy

2014-01-01

13

Onchocerciasis in southwestern Sudan: parasitological and clinical characteristics.  

PubMed

Parasitological and clinical observations were made on residents of Pongo Nuer, a village in the province of Bahr El Ghazal, southwestern Sudan. Of 202 skin biopsies, 189 (94%) were positive for microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus. Nodules were most common around the pelvic girdle and rare on the limbs or head. Microfilarial intensities, ranging up to 1,094 mf/mg of skin, were highest at the iliac crest and shoulder; they increased rapidly in childhood but then appeared to reach a plateau maintained through adult life. Nodule presence and number, especially at multiple sites, was significantly related to skin microfilarial intensity. Dermal manifestations of O. volvulus infection were widespread and severe, ranging from acute maculopapular eruptions to chronic, diffuse, and degenerative changes, even in young adults. However, high skin microfilarial intensities were found in asymptomatic individuals; conversely, lowest intensities were in those with severest maculopapular lesions, suggesting that host response was a major determinant of disease outcome. Microfilariae were detected in the cornea or anterior chamber of the eyes of one third of those examined in all age groups, but lesions of the posterior segment, including optic neuritis, chorioretinitis, and pigmentary abnormalities, were considered responsible for visual deficits in the population sample. Some pathologic changes in the anterior segment attributable to microfilariae were more common in the young than in adults but there was no preponderance of sclerosing keratitis in adults, contrary to expectations in hyperexposed individuals in a Sudan savannah zone. The best correlate of the presence of microfilariae in the eye was the intensity of infection in shoulder skin snips. Little value could be derived from data on outer canthus samples, either in terms of severity of ocular infection or disease. Microfilaremia was common (76%) but in only one case was attributed to O. volvulus; the remainder were due to Mansonella perstans. PMID:3826496

Mackenzie, C D; Williams, J F; O'Day, J; Ghalal, I; Flockhart, H A; Sisley, B M

1987-03-01

14

Journal of Parasitology NORTH AMERICAN TRANSMISSION OF HEMOSPORIDIAN PARASITES IN THE  

E-print Network

'S THRUSH (CATHARUS USTULATUS), A MIGRATORY SONGBIRD --Manuscript Draft-- Manuscript Number: GE-3134R2 Full (Catharus ustulatus), a migratory songbird." as a Research Note to the Journal of Parasitology. We have made (CATHARUS USTULATUS), A MIGRATORY SONGBIRD Molly Dodge, Susan L. Guers*, Ã?a an H. Sekercio lu, and Ravinder

Sehgal, Ravinder

15

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 114 (2001) 169181 Telomere shortening and cell cycle arrest in Trypanosoma brucei  

E-print Network

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 114 (2001) 169­181 Telomere shortening and cell cycle arrest in Trypanosoma brucei expressing human telomeric repeat factor TRF1 Jorge L. Mun~oz-Jorda´n, George A.M. Cross brucei has telomeres composed of 15 kb tracts of TTAGGG repeats that end in 3% overhangs and form t

Cross, George

16

Veterinary Parasitology 193 (2013) 365374 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

Direct Veterinary Parasitology journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/vetpar Toxocara canis: Molecular basis Keywords: Antibodies Diagnosis Larva migrans Mucins Surface coat a b s t r a c t Toxocara canis has in the closely related Toxocara cati, but all other antigenic determinants are very similar between the two

Maizels, Rick

17

[Harmonization of microbiologicaland parasitological indices of epidemic safety of drinking water with the international requirements].  

PubMed

For the purpose of harmonization of microbiological and parasitological indices and benchmarks there was performed the comparative analysis of the requirements for the quality of drinking water in respect of the epidemic safety on the basic regulations of Russia, the Directive Council of the European Union EU, WHO, the United States, Canada, Australia, Finland, Sweden, Brazil, France, Japan and China. As a result, there were revealed the priority bacteriological, virological and parasitological parameters: E. coli--indicator of recent fecal contamination, coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria colony count (Heterotrophic plate count), which is in the water legislation of the Russian Federation is characterized as total bacterial count (TBC), being an integral index of the quality of wastewater treatment technologies and hygienic condition of the water supply systems, coliphages as an indicator of viral contamination. In the Guidelines for drinking-water quality control, WHO and a set of countries there is recommended a more wide range of indicators: enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enteroviruses, parasitological indices. With aim of harmonization of the requirements for the quality of drinking water in the Russian Federation with international approaches to the revision of the Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPin) 2.1.4.1074 into the project there are introduced priority indicator parameters of bacterial, viral and parasitic contamination of water, evidence-based guidelines. PMID:24340910

Ivanova, L V; Artemova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zaga?nova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasniak, A V; Korne?chuk, S S; Shustova, S S

2013-01-01

18

A retrospective examination of paleoparasitology and its establishment in the Journal of Parasitology.  

PubMed

Volume 95 (2009) of the Journal of Parasitology represented a significant benchmark in the history of paleoparasitology when it received on the cover formal recognition as a topical area for publication. This retrospective examination chronicles the emergence of paleoparasitology, from its origins as an adjunct contribution to the study of prehistoric human populations to its modern expression as a sub-disciplinary interest. The aim of paleoparasitology is to elucidate the temporal and spatial dimensions of parasitism from the fossil record of human and non-human host populations. PMID:24588553

Faulkner, Charles T; Reinhard, Karl J

2014-06-01

19

Diagnosis of subclinical equine theileriosis in center of Iran using parasitological and molecular methods.  

PubMed

A total of 105 blood samples from healthy horses from different stables in Yazd province, center of Iran, were examined for the presence of Theileria equi infection using parasitological and molecular methods. Out of the 105 samples, the parasitological method detected T. equi infection in 5 (4.76%) cases while the PCR method gave 24 (22.86%) positive results. Age, gender and breed were not determined as risk factors for T. equi infection in this study. Since blood samples were taken from healthy animals, this implies that 22.86% of horses had subclinical theileriosis in the current study. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that T. equi is present in horses in the center of Iran. Despite the healthy appearance of horses, these carrier animals can transmit the parasites to ticks and are a potential continuous source for maintaining and disseminating the organisms to the horse population. We concluded that it is important to make further studies on definitive host and vectors in the respective areas. PMID:24862050

Bahrami, S; Ghadrdan, A R; Mirabdollahi, S M; Fayed, M R

2014-03-01

20

Comparison of parasitological, immunological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis in dogs with different clinical signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming to improve the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in an endemic area of the Northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil, the efficacy of parasitological, immunological and molecular diagnostic methods were studied. Dogs with and without clinical signs of the disease and positive for Leishmania, by direct parasite identification on lymph node smears and\\/or specific antibody detection by ELISA,

M. A. B. Moreira; M. C. R. Luvizotto; J. F. Garcia; C. E. P. Corbett; M. D. Laurenti

2007-01-01

21

A comparative evaluation of parasitological tests and a PCR for Trypanosoma evansi diagnosis in experimentally infected water buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study five parasitological methods and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were compared for the diagnostic sensitivity for Trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected water buffaloes over a period of 15 weeks. The combined estimates of sensitivity (CEse) of the PCR proved to be highest at 78.2%, closely followed by the mouse inoculation (MI), the micro-haematocrite centrifugation technique (MHCT) and

W. G Holland; F Claes; L. N My; N. G Thanh; P. T Tam; D Verloo; P Büscher; B Goddeeris; J Vercruysse

2001-01-01

22

Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, Vol. 96, No. 3, 265270 (2002) Towards a standard battery of microsatellite markers for  

E-print Network

Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, Vol. 96, No. 3, 265­270 (2002) Towards a standard. ASHFORD*, P. A. BATES*, S. J. KEMP and H. A. NOYES *Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place recent. © 2002 The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine DOI: 10.1179/000349802125000790 #12;266 JAMJOOM

Steve Kemp

23

Parasitology Today, vol. 16, no. 3, 2000 127 A number of parasite genome projects are under way, and  

E-print Network

Parasitology Today, vol. 16, no. 3, 2000 127 A number of parasite genome projects are under way for the analysis of parasite genomes. The nucleotide sequences of the entire genomes of sev- eral organisms analysis, or via the so-called `functional gen- omics approach'1. In parasitic species, such analysis may

Ramaswamy, Ram

24

Parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in West Wellega, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Onchocerciasis is a disease of public health and socio-economic importance in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess parasitological and clinico-epidemiological features of onchocerciasis in the Anfilo District, West Wellega, prior to implementation of Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) to generate epidemiological and parasitological data for use in control program of the disease and subsequent evaluation of CDTI. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anfilo District of West Wellega zone during a period of 1 month: from mid-August to mid-September 2006. Data on socio-demographic characteristics were collected using a standardized questionnaire prepared for this purpose. All persons were examined clinically for skin signs and symptoms of onchocerciasis. Two skin snips, one from each side of the gluteal fold were taken using blood lancet and sterilized razor blade and examined for microfilaria. All data were categorized, coded, entered in a data base and analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. for windows. A total of 1114 individuals ?15 years were examined for microfilariae (mf) of Onchocerca volvulus and onchocercal skin disease (OSD). The prevalence of onchocercal (mf) carrier was 74.8% (833/1114). In both genders, the prevalence of onchocerciasis showed direct correlations with the age of individuals (R (2) = 0.79, P < 0.05). The infection rate varied with the occupation of the study subjects, with preponderance among farmers. Among the subjects with onchocerciasis, the mf density ranged from 1.0 to 711.0 per mg of skin snip with a mean density (SD) and median values of 32.1 (61.5) and 10.4 respectively. The overall community microfilariae load (CMFL), the most sensitive parasitological indicator of onchocerciasis was 19.6. The pervasiveness of OSD among the study subjects was 26.4%. OSD was more frequent in males (32.4%) than their female counterparts (20.8%, P < 0.05). The overall prevalence of onchocercal nodule carrier, the symptom opted for determining the community-wide prevalence of onchocerciasis was 12.1%. Leopard skin, the proxy of longstanding infection of onchocerciasis in the community, was also relatively high (19.1%). The abundance of mf in skin would definitely lead to high transmission potential in the Anfilo District. The situation in the Anfilo District should call for continued CDTI, owing to success of similar recommendations for such programmes in other parts of the country and elsewhere. PMID:23542576

Dori, Geme Urge; Belay, Tariku; Belete, Habtamu; Panicker, K N; Hailu, Asrat

2012-04-01

25

Parasitological survey on wild carnivora in north-western Tohoku, Japan.  

PubMed

In the winter of 1997-1998, we collected parasitological data from 60 wild carnivora in the north-western part of Tohoku region, Japan. These included 7 foxes (Vulpes vulpes japonica), 20 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), 29 martens (Martes melampus melampus), 3 weasels (two Mustela sibirica itatsi and one M. nivalis namiyei), and one Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma). Roundworms (Toxocara canis in foxes and Toxocara tanuki in raccoon dogs), hookworms (Ancylostoma kusimaense and Arthrostoma miyazakiense) and Molineus sp. in the small intestine were the most prevalent in foxes and raccoon dogs. In martens, Aonchotheca putorii in the stomach, Concinnum ten in the pancreatic duct, Molineus sp. and Euryhelmis costaricensis in the small intestine were the most prevalent. Collected parasites include some new helminth species for this region or Japan; the strobilar stage of Taenia polyacantha from foxes, Pygidliopsis summa from a raccoon dog, Eucoleus aerophilus, A. putorii, and Soholiphyme baturini from martens. PMID:10535507

Sato, H; Inaba, T; Ihama, Y; Kamiya, H

1999-09-01

26

Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.  

PubMed

In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

2014-03-01

27

Parasitological risk assessment from wastewater reuse for disposal in soil in developing countries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to analyze the parasitological risks of treated wastewater reuse from a stabilization pond in the city of Piracicaba, in the State of São Paulo (Brazil), and the level of treatment required to protect public health. Samples were taken from raw and treated wastewater in stabilization ponds and submitted to a parasitological, microbiological and physicochemical analysis. The study revealed on treated wastewater the presence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli with an average density of 1 cysts L(-1) and 6 eggs L(-1), respectively. For Ascaris, the annual risks of infection due to the accidental ingestion of wastewater irrigation were 7.5 × 10(-2) in 208 days and 8.7 × 10(-2) in 240 days. For Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in treated wastewater, the average density was 1.0 × 10(5) MPN/100 ml and 2.7 × 10(4) MPN/100 ml respectively, representing 99% and 94% removal efficiency, respectively. For BOD, COD, TS and TSS removal efficiency was 69, 80, 50 and 71%, respectively. The removal efficiency for nitrogen; ammonia nitrogen and total phosphate was 24, 19 and 68%, respectively. The average density of helminths eggs in treated wastewater is higher compared to the density of the limit value of ?1 egg L(-1) and tolerable risk is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Multiple barriers are necessary for the reduction of organic matter, chemical contaminants and parasites from treated wastewater. Standards for the sanitary control of treated wastewater to be reused in agricultural irrigation areas should be compiled for developing countries in order to minimize public health risks. PMID:22466580

Cutolo, Silvana A; Piveli, Roque P; Santos, Jéferson G; Montes, Célia R; Sundefeld, Gilberto; Campos, Fábio; Gomes, Tamara M; Melfi, Adolpho J

2012-01-01

28

Early parasitological response following artemisinin-containing regimens: a critical review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Parasitaemia on Day 3 has been proposed as a useful alert of potential artemisinin resistance, however, the normal variation of parasite clearance observed in artemisinin-based combination therapy clinical trials is poorly documented. Methods The trends in early parasitological response following treatment with an artemisinin anti-malarial regimen were reviewed. A PubMed literature search identified all studies using an artemisinin regimen for uncomplicated falciparum malaria published between January 2000 and December 2011. Data from clinical studies were extracted for analysis using a standardized questionnaire. Results In total 65,078 patients were enrolled into 213 clinical trials with 413 treatment arms containing either an artemisinin derivative alone (n=26) or in combination with a partner drug (n=387). The proportion of patients remaining parasitaemic at 24, 48 and 72 hours was documented in 115 (28%), 167 (40%) and 153 (37%) treatment arms, respectively. Excluding resistance studies in Cambodia, the median proportion of patients still parasitaemic was 53.8% [range 3–95, IQR=30.5-69.2] on Day 1, 6% [range 0–65.9, IQR=2-11.5] on Day 2 and 0 [range 0–12.6, IQR=0-2] on Day 3. Comparing studies from 2000 to 2005 and 2006 to 2011, the median proportion of patients reported to remain parasitaemic at 72 hours decreased in Africa (1.2% vs 0%, p=0.007), but increased in Asia (0.4% vs 3.9%, p=0.076). In 95% of studies the proportion of patients with peripheral parasitaemia was less than 6% at 72 hours. Conclusions These results highlight the normal distribution of early parasitological responses following ACT, and the influence that heterogeneity in study design, host and parasite factors have in confounding a surveillance system based on Day 3 parasite positivity. Greater understanding of factors influencing parasite clearance is crucial, but will require analysis of pooled data from individual patient records. PMID:23602021

2013-01-01

29

Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views oncold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D  

PubMed Central

This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

Malagón, Filiberto

2008-01-01

30

Parasitological and hematological aspects of co-infection with Angiostrongylus vasorum and Ancylostoma caninum in dogs.  

PubMed

Dogs are frequently infected by one or more species of endoparasites, which can lead to secondary infections that cause high morbidity and death. In this context, 2 nematode species are of veterinary importance: Angiostrongylus vasorum, which is a parasite of the pulmonary artery and right ventricle in domestic and wild canids, and Ancylostoma caninum, which is a parasite of the small intestine in felids and domestic and wild canids. We used 20 mongrel dogs that were divided into groups and infected as follows: Group A included 5 uninfected dogs, Group B included 5 dogs infected with A. vasorum, Group C included 5 dogs infected with A. caninum, and Group D included 5 dogs co-infected with A. vasorum and A. caninum. Parasitological and hematological monitoring were performed. The counts of larvae and eggs shed in the feces varied throughout the collection period. Moreover, negativation was not observed in any of the infected groups. The animals in Group C had macrocytic and hypochromic anemia, whereas the animals in Group D had macrocytic and normochromic anemia. Infected dogs also presented with eosinophilia and lymphocytosis. These data from coproparasitological techniques provide an improved assessment of disease severity and a more thorough understanding of parasitism in the host. PMID:24373514

Dracz, Ruth Massote; Mozzer, Lanuze Rose; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Lima, Walter dos Santos

2014-02-24

31

Use of parasitological culture to detect Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in naturally infected dogs.  

PubMed

In Brazil, although the domestic dog is a major target for the control actions for visceral leishmaniasis, knowledge gaps of the Leishmania species present in those animals still exist in many endemic areas. The objective of this study was the use of parasitological culture as a diagnosis tool and identification of species of Leishmania and other trypanosomatids in the canine population in the city of Cuiaba/Mato Grosso. Biological samples such as blood, intact skin fragments, cutaneous ulcers, and bone marrow were collected during a cross-sectional study and cultured on biphasic medium (Novy-MacNeil-Nicolle [NNN]/Schneider's). Leishmania isolates were characterized through isoenzyme electrophoresis. Isolates were obtained from 11.2% (n=54) of the 482 animals studied considering the different anatomical sites investigated. Leishmania chagasi was confirmed in 8.3% (n=40) dogs and Trypanosoma caninum in 2.9% (n=14). The sample of intact skin presented a higher chance of isolation of L. chagasi in symptomatic dogs and bone marrow in asymptomatic dogs (p<0.05). The results presented in this study emphasize the value of culture and confirm, for the first time, the circulation of L. chagasi in the canine population in different neighborhoods of the city of Cuiaba and broaden the knowledge of the geographical distribution of T. caninum in Brazil. PMID:21919725

de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sorte, Eveline da Cruz Boa; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda Aranega; Dutra, Valéria; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

2011-12-01

32

The Rücker-Markov invariants of complex Bio-Systems: applications in Parasitology and Neuroinformatics.  

PubMed

Rücker's walk count (WC) indices are well-known topological indices (TIs) used in Chemoinformatics to quantify the molecular structure of drugs represented by a graph in Quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QSAR/QSPR) studies. In this work, we introduce for the first time the higher-order (kth order) analogues (WCk) of these indices using Markov chains. In addition, we report new QSPR models for large complex networks of different Bio-Systems useful in Parasitology and Neuroinformatics. The new type of QSPR models can be used for model checking to calculate numerical scores S(Lij) for links Lij (checking or re-evaluation of network connectivity) in large networks of all these fields. The method may be summarized as follows: (i) first, the WCk(j) values are calculated for all jth nodes in a complex network already created; (ii) A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to seek a linear equation that discriminates connected or linked (Lij=1) pairs of nodes experimentally confirmed from non-linked ones (Lij=0); (iii) The new model is validated with external series of pairs of nodes; (iv) The equation obtained is used to re-evaluate the connectivity quality of the network, connecting/disconnecting nodes based on the quality scores calculated with the new connectivity function. The linear QSPR models obtained yielded the following results in terms of overall test accuracy for re-construction of complex networks of different Bio-Systems: parasite-host networks (93.14%), NW Spain fasciolosis spreading networks (71.42/70.18%) and CoCoMac Brain Cortex co-activation network (86.40%). Thus, this work can contribute to the computational re-evaluation or model checking of connectivity (collation) in complex systems of any science field. PMID:23454544

González-Díaz, Humberto; Riera-Fernández, Pablo; Pazos, Alejandro; Munteanu, Cristian R

2013-03-01

33

[Approaches to developing a procedure for mapping water basin regions, by using the parasitological criteria].  

PubMed

The structure of a parasite system is formed and its functioning takes place in qualitatively different environments. The aquatic environment serves as a source of new elements and modules, energy, and information for parasite systems. And the parasite systems, for their part, affect the physical and biological parameters of the environment. Many intestinal infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms generally characterized by an acute disease course are related to a water factor. Such are typhus, typhoids, dysentery, cholera, salmonellosis, virus hepatitis, and others. Many parasitic diseases caused by pathogenic intestinal protistae (lambliasis, amebiasis, balantidiasis), blood parasite protistae (malaria), helminthes (opisthorchiasis, fascioliasis, diphyllobothriasis, cercariosis, pseudoamphistomosis) are also closely related to a water factor. Ascaridiasis, hymenolepiasis, trichocephalosis, and echinococcosis have a less close but still self-evident relationship to a water factor. The clbse relationships of many parasitic diseases to a water factor are also determined by the fact that the life cycles of many parasites necessarily include various intermediate hosts and parasite vectors, such as fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, and insects, which are aquatic organisms at some stages of their life. The results of continuous exposure of people to parasitic diseases are quite similar to the suppressive effects of the environment in the ecologically troublesome regions. The most prognostically useful information is formed while mapping by medical and ecological regions, by employing a combination of current mathematical and cartographical methods. The former include cluster analysis, quartering method, informational logical analysis, which are all described in this article and others. Regional mapping using the parasitological criteria should achieve at least two goals: 1) a scientific one that aids in finding causative connections and to prognosticate a situation; 2) a practical one that assists in developing regional programs for disease control and prevention. It is necessary to use the recommendations described in detail in the article in order to have the maximum results during medical and ecological mapping by the regions with a future goal of obtaining useful prognostic information. PMID:21932540

Beér, S A; Él'piner, L I; Voronin, M V

2011-01-01

34

Parasitological and clinical characterization of Simulium neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in western Uganda.  

PubMed

In the forests of western Uganda onchocerciasis is transmitted by Simulium neavei s.s. Since little is known about the infection transmitted by this vector, a survey was made in 1991 with special regard to adult persons of 15 years and older in the 13 villages of the parish Kigoyera 40 km northeast of Fort Portal. 3268 (52%) of the 6271 registered inhabitants were examined clinically and parasitologically. The highest microfilaria (mf) densities were found on the buttocks, lower ones on the shoulders and the lowest on the ankles. In the parish the standardised prevalence of mf carriers was 62%. The crude prevalences of adult mf carriers ranged from 80% to 95% in the 13 villages. Densities of 100 mf/snip or more were found in 25% of male persons. The community microfilarial load (CMFL) in skin snips from the buttocks was 49 mf/snip, ranging from 22 to 93 in the 13 villages. The standardised prevalence of nodule carriers was 25% and the mean nodule load was 1.9 nodules per nodule carrier. Among 3420 nodules 90% were found on the pelvic girdle. The standardised prevalence of onchocercal dermatitis was 19%. The crude rates ranged within the age groups in males from 20% to 45% and in females from 16% to 41%. The standardised prevalence of persons presenting mf in the anterior chamber of the eye was 24% and the CMFL in the anterior chamber ranged between 1.2 and 3.3 mf/chamber in six villages. Standardised rates were 1.6% for sclerosing keratitis and 0.9% for reduced vision of 3/60 or less. These prevalences of eye lesions are comparable to those observed in West African forest areas. The CMFLs and the prevalences of mf and nodule carriers represent suitable criteria for community diagnosis of S. neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in Uganda to guide ivermectin treatment, whereas the prevalence of "leopard skin" is not useful. Immigrants living less than five years in the endemic focus should be excluded from the assessment of mf carrier rates and those living there less than ten years from rapid assessment of nodule carrier rates. PMID:8134773

Fischer, P; Kipp, W; Bamuhiga, J; Binta-Kahwa, J; Kiefer, A; Büttner, D W

1993-12-01

35

Performance of Parasitological and Molecular Techniques for the Diagnosis and Surveillance of Gambiense Sleeping Sickness  

PubMed Central

Objectives Recently, improvements have been made to diagnostics for gambiense sleeping sickness control but their performance remains poorly documented and may depend on specimen processing prior to examination. In a prospective study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, we compared the diagnostic performance of several parasite detection techniques, immune trypanolysis and of m18S PCR on whole blood stored in a stabilisation buffer or dried on filter paper. Methods Individuals with CATT whole blood (WB) titer ?1?4 or with clinical signs indicative for sleeping sickness were examined for presence of trypanosomes in lymph node aspirate (LNA) and/or in blood. Blood was examined with Capillary Centrifugation Technique (CTC), mini-Anion Exchange Centrifugation Technique (mAECT) and mAECT on buffy coat (BC). PCR was performed on whole blood (i) stored in guanidine hydrochloride EDTA (GE) stabilisation buffer and (ii) dried on filter paper, and repeatability and reproducibility were assessed. Immune trypanolysis (TL) was performed on plasma. Results A total of 237 persons were included. Among 143 parasitologically confirmed cases, 85.3% had a CATT-WB titre of ?1/8, 39.2% were positive in LNA, 47.5% in CTC, 80.4% in mAECT-WB, 90.9% in mAECT-BC, 95.1% in TL and up to 89.5% in PCR on GE-stabilised blood. PCR on GE-stabilised blood showed highest repeatability (87.8%) and inter-laboratory reproducibility (86.9%). Of the 94 non-confirmed suspects, respectively 39.4% and 23.4% were TL or PCR positive. Suboptimal specificity of PCR and TL was also suggested by latent class analysis. Conclusion The combination of LNA examination with mAECT-BC offered excellent diagnostic sensitivity. For PCR, storage of blood in stabilisation buffer is to be preferred over filter paper. TL as well as PCR are useful for remote diagnosis but are not more sensitive than mAECT-BC. For TL and PCR, the specificity, and thus usefulness for management of non-confirmed suspects remain to be determined. PMID:24921941

Mumba Ngoyi, Dieudonné; Ali Ekangu, Rosine; Mumvemba Kodi, Marie France; Pyana, Patient Pati; Balharbi, Fatima; Decq, Mélanie; Kande Betu, Victor; Van der Veken, Wim; Sese, Claude; Menten, Joris; Büscher, Philippe; Lejon, Veerle

2014-01-01

36

One-year clinical and parasitological follow-up of dogs treated with marbofloxacin for canine leishmaniosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this international, multicentric, and non-comparative field trial was to obtain complementary data on long-term clinical and parasitological follow-up of dogs treated with marbofloxacin for canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Seventy-four dogs with clinical signs of CanL and without severe renal failure were recruited in France, Spain and Italy, and 61 of them were part of the analysis. Each dog was treated with palatable tablets of marbofloxacin at 2 mg/kg once a day for 28 days. A clinical and parasitological follow-up was performed regularly up to 12 months. Efficacy was demonstrated in 42 dogs (68.9%), within 51 days (mean value), 10 of them (23.8%) being clinically cured after 3 months. A decrease of 61% in the sum of clinical scores was observed after 3 months. Haemato-biochemical parameters improved in general, supporting the observed clinical efficacy. Relapse was observed in 20/38 dogs (52.6%) approximately 5.5 months after treatment completion. The blood parasite load generally developed in conformity with the clinical outcome, even if exceptions were not rare. Lymph nodes remained positive by culture or PCR for a long time, even in dogs for which a good clinical response was observed. Despite the incomplete parasite clearance, as is also the case with other anti-leishmanial drugs, these results nevertheless confirm the relevance of marbofloxacin as a CanL treatment. PMID:22130335

Rougier, Sandrine; Hasseine, Lilia; Delaunay, Pascal; Michel, Grégory; Marty, Pierre

2012-05-25

37

[Historical review on the development of medical parasitology in China during the years of 1871-2006].  

PubMed

The present review deals with the representative research papers on human parasites and parasitic diseases in China over the past hundred years (1871-2006). As the views focused on the development of the medical parasitology, the historical background and progressive characters in the period of fermentation, origination, and expansion have been discussed. The check list of the first cases of human parasitic diseases reported in China during 1871-2006 contained 128 species of parasitic pathogens, and among them 38 species were the newly revisional records. The citation from Faust's paper (1923) proved that previous record of "the first case of Eurytrema pancreaticum from Hongkong" was an absurdly mistake. The human infections of Diphyllobothrium latum, Toxocara canis, and Triodontophorus minor discovered by Lin (1924) from Beijing were the first records in the country. A doubtful malaria case reported from Chongqing by Hung (1944) should be revised as the first case of babesiosis in China. The above-presented examples suggest that the truthful record of parasitic pathogens is an important base for the discovery history of parasitic diseases. With comments on the research progress of human parasitic diseases in different historical stages, it seems that the trends of medical parasitology development in China have been synchronous with the research activities in the area. PMID:18038794

Qu, Feng-yi

2007-08-01

38

Comparing parasitological vs serological determination of Schistosoma haematobium infection prevalence in preschool and primary school-aged children: implications for control programmes.  

PubMed

To combat schistosomiasis, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that infection levels are determined prior to designing and implementing control programmes, as the treatment regimens depend on the population infection prevalence. However, the sensitivity of the parasitological infection diagnostic method is less reliable when infection levels are low. The aim of this study was to compare levels of Schistosoma haematobium infection obtained by the parasitological method vs serological technique. Infection levels in preschool and primary school-aged children and their implications for control programmes were also investigated. Infection prevalence based on serology was significantly higher compared with that based on parasitology for both age groups. The difference between infection levels obtained using the two methods increased with age. Consequentially, in line with the WHO guidelines, the serological method suggested a more frequent treatment regimen for this population compared with that implied by the parasitological method. These findings highlighted the presence of infection in children aged ?5 years, further reiterating the need for their inclusion in control programmes. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the importance of using sensitive diagnostic methods as this has implications on the required intervention controls for the population. PMID:24679476

Wami, Welcome M; Nausch, Norman; Bauer, Katharina; Midzi, Nicholas; Gwisai, Reggis; Simmonds, Peter; Mduluza, Takafira; Woolhouse, Mark; Mutapi, Francisca

2014-12-01

39

Bibliometric Analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: Measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse Databases  

PubMed Central

The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indixes were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades. PMID:19885331

2009-01-01

40

High Parasitological Failure Rate of Visceral Leishmaniasis to Sodium Stibogluconate among HIV Co-infected Adults in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Antimonials are still being used for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment among HIV co-infected patients in East-Africa due to the shortage of alternative safer drugs like liposomal amphotericin B. Besides tolerability, emergence of resistance to antimonials is a major concern. Objectives This study was aimed at assessing the clinical outcome of VL-HIV co-infected patients when treated with sodium stibogluconate (SSG). Methods Retrospective patient record analysis of VL-HIV co-infected patients treated at a clinical trial site in north-west Ethiopia was done. Patients with parasitologically confirmed VL and HIV co-infection treated with SSG were included. The dose of SSG used was 20 mg Sb5 (pentavalent antimony)/kg and maximum of 850 mg Sb5 for 30 days. The clinical outcomes were defined based on the tissue aspiration results as cure or failure, and additionally the safety and mortality rates were computed. Results The study included 57 patients treated with SSG and by the end of treatment only 43.9% of patients were cured. The parasitological treatment failure and the case fatality rate were 31.6% and 14.0% respectively. SSG was discontinued temporarily or permanently for 12 (21.1%) cases due to safety issues. High baseline parasite load (graded more than 4+) was significantly associated with treatment failure (odds ratio?=?8.9, 95% confidence interval?=?.5-51.7). Conclusion SSG is not only unsafe, but also has low effectiveness for VL-HIV patients. Safe and effective alternative medications are very urgently needed. Drug sensitivity surveillance should be introduced in the region. PMID:24854196

Diro, Ermias; Lynen, Lutgarde; Mohammed, Rezika; Boelaert, Marleen; Hailu, Asrat; van Griensven, Johan

2014-01-01

41

Triage and protocol recommendations for the parasitology laboratory based on an epidemiological investigation of parasite diagnostics in Ontario laboratories  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: A study was performed using a subset of Ontario laboratory parasitology data, with three objectives: to describe parasitic infections in Ontario; to identify risk factors for acquiring a parasitic infection using routinely collected information; and to use this information to assess current protocols for parasite testing in laboratories and, in turn, to propose alternatives to optimize the allocation of laboratory resources. METHODS: All parasitology records from January 4, 2010 to September 14, 2010 were reviewed descriptively and risk factor analyses were performed using information collected from requisitions. These results were used to develop preliminary alternative protocols, which considered high-throughput screening tests and inclusion/exclusion criteria for ova and parasite testing; these were then retrospectively analyzed with the dataset to determine appropriateness. RESULTS: Of the 29,260 records analyzed, 10% were multiple samples from single patients submitted on the same day, of which 98% had the same result. Three percent of all parasite tests were positive, with the most prevalent parasites being (in ascending order) Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar. Age and sex were found to be weak risk factors, while rural living was found to be a moderate risk factor for D fragilis, G lamblia and Cryptosporidium infections. The strongest risk factor was travel history, especially for nonendemic parasites. The retrospective analysis of six alternative protocols identified four that may be more efficient than current procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that current protocols may be redundant and can be optimized to target prevalent parasites and populations with high risk factors.

Maier, Allison; Krolik, Julia; Majury, Anna

2014-01-01

42

Parasitological, serological, and clinical evidence for high prevalence of podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis) in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Both podoconiosis (a geochemical non-filarial disease) and chronic filarial disease result in lower limb elephantiasis. The aims of the present study were to determine whether the elephantiasis in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia is filarial or non-filarial (podoconiosis) using serological, parasitological, and clinical examinations, and to estimate its prevalence. METHODS House-to-house visits were made in 330 randomly selected households. All household members that had elephantiasis were interviewed and clinically examined at the nearby health center to confirm presence of elephantiasis, check presence of scrotal swelling, and rule out other causes of lymphoedema. Midnight blood sample was obtained from each participant with elephantiasis for microscopic examination of W. bancrofti microfilaria. Day time blood sample was obtained from half of the participants for serological confirmation using the immuno-chromatographic test card. RESULTS Consistent with features of podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis), none of the elephantiasis cases had consistently worn shoes since childhood; 94.3% had bilateral swelling limited below the level of the knees; no individual had thigh or scrotal elephantiasis; parasitological test for microfilariae and serological tests for W. bancrofti antigen turned negative in all samples. The prevalence of the disease was 7.4%. Prevalence peaked in the third decade of life, which also includes the most economically active age groups. CONCLUSIONS This study has shown high prevalence of podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) and absence of filarial elephantiasis in Midakegn district. Prevention, treatment, and control of podoconiosis must be among the top priorities of public health programs in the district. PMID:22487446

Oli, Geleta Geshere; Ayele, Fasil Tekola; Petros, Beyene

2012-01-01

43

The use of fish metabolic, pathological and parasitological indices in pollution monitoring . II. The Red Sea and Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

??The complex interactions between parasites, hosts and the environment are influenced by the stability of the ecosystem. Heteroxenous parasites, with complex, multiple-host life cycles, can persist only in habitats where the full range of their required hosts are present. Conversely, in impoverished environments such as those impacted by environmental stress, monoxenous species that have simple, single-host life cycles are likely to predominate. In the present study, we analyzed the ratio between heteroxenous and monoxenous (H/M) parasites as well as parasite species richness (SH/SM) and species diversity in rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) collected from several sites in the Red Sea. The rabbitfish is a Suez Canal immigrant, well established in the eastern Mediterranean, and fish were also collected from a site on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Separate treatment of the micro- and macroparasite components of the rabbitfish parasite communities in the Red Sea suggested that macroparasites only - monogenea and gut parasites - were better indicators than the parasite community as a whole. Quantification of macroparasites is accurate, saves time and effort, produces more accurate data and better differentiates between sites. Higher H/M ratios and SH/SM ratios were found in the rabbitfish collected at the ecologically stable habitat of the coral reef compared to rabbitfish from sandy habitat or mariculture-impacted sandy habitat. The results of the study emphasized the negative impacts of cage mariculture on the environment. The rabbitfish collected near the mariculture farms supported the poorest and least diverse parasite communities of all sampled sites, with virtual depletion of heteroxenous species, and even reduction of gill monogenean infections on the hosts. When results from the Mediterranean sites were compared with those of the Red Sea, the data showed full representation of monoxenous parasites (all but one of Red Sea origin), while heteroxenous species were completely absent. We may therefore regard the Mediterranean as a simulation model for a severely environmentally deteriorated, impoverished habitat, in which all or part of the intermediate host species have been depleted, enabling survival of the monoxenous parasite species only. Parasitological investigations were supplemented by testing the activity of cytochrome P 450- dependent mono-oxygenase EROD as a measure of exposure, and lysosomal stability as a measure of toxic effect in the liver of rabbitfish. The results underline the parasitological findings, showing that fish caught at the impacted sandy beach location in the Red Sea have significantly higher EROD activity and a decreased membrane stability compared with animals from the coral reef. In comparison, EROD activity values in rabbitfish from the Mediterranean Sea were double, while lysosomal membrane stability was half that measured at the most impacted Red Sea location.

Diamant, A.; Banet, A.; Paperna, I.; Westernhagen, H. v.; Broeg, K.; Kruener, G.; Koerting, W.; Zander, S.

44

Effect of Experimental Infection with Haemonchus contortus on Parasitological and Local Cellular Responses in Resistant and Susceptible Young Creole Goats  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to evaluate the relationships of cellular changes in the abomasal mucosa and parasitological parameters, by comparing resistant and susceptible young Creole goats (kids) after experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus. The kids were infected over 2 periods (challenges 1 and 2) of 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Fecal egg count (FEC), blood eosinophilia, packed cell volume (PCV), and body weight were weekly monitored. At the end of both challenges a subgroup of kids was slaughtered for nematode burden measurements and analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the abomasal mucosa. The average daily gain was higher in resistant kids after both challenges. Blood eosinophilia and FEC were higher in susceptible kids after both challenges. The number of immature worms and the means of female length were lower after challenge 2 whatever the genetic status. No differences were observed in the eosinophil and mononuclear cell infiltration between challenges 1 and 2 and resistant and susceptible kids. Globule leukocyte infiltration was found higher after the challenge 1 in resistant kids. This effect of the genetic status on globule leukocytes counts but not on the other inflammatory cell highlights the need for further study on the functional activity of these cell populations. PMID:23936855

Bambou, J. C.; Larcher, T.; Ceï, W.; Dumoulin, P. J.; Mandonnet, N.

2013-01-01

45

Parasitological analysis of Leonese royalty from Collegiate-Basilica of St. Isidoro, León (Spain): helminths, protozoa, and mites.  

PubMed

The royal burial chamber of what is today the Collegiate-Basilica of St. Isidoro in León, Spain, built and remodeled between the 10th and 13th centuries and in the 20th century renamed the Kings' Pantheon, has 13 royal tombs that were opened in the presence of the Abbot-Prior of the Collegiate to enable a group of researchers to obtain all possible information from the royal remains. Several samples were sent to the Parasitology Unit of the Animal Pathology (Animal Health) Department at the Veterinary Faculty of León (Spain). In all the tombs, eggs and remains of nonparasitic mites were observed. In a piece of linen cloth from the bottom of 1 tomb, an Anoplocephala perfoliata egg was found. Furthermore, 4 mummified bodies were found. In 2 of these, those belonging to Infantes María and Fernando, Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found and in the latter Trichuris trichiura eggs. We have not found in the literature reviewed any records of studies of this kind carried out in Spain. PMID:14533684

Hidalgo-Argüello, M R; Díez Baños, N; Fregeneda Grandes, J; Prada Marcos, E

2003-08-01

46

An evaluation of melarsomine hydrochloride efficacy for parasitological cure in experimental infection of dairy cattle with Trypanosoma evansi in Thailand.  

PubMed

Melarsomine hydrochloride can cure Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels at a dose of 0·25 mg/kg, but at that dose relapses occur in cattle. In our study, the efficacy of an intramuscular injection of melarsomine hydrochloride at 0·5 mg/kg was assessed in 3 normal and 3 splenectomized dairy cattle experimentally infected with a stock of T. evansi from Thailand. The animals were monitored for 5 months by haematocrit centrifugation, blood- or cerebrospinal fluid-mouse inoculation, polymerase chain reaction, the card agglutination test (CATT) for T. evansi, and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay?T. evansi. Parasitological and DNA tests became and remained negative just after treatment. By the end of the experiment, CATT was negative and ELISA scores were below or very close to the cut-off value. One of the splenectomized cattle died from anaplasmosis during the experiment, but tested negative for surra. It was concluded that the parasites had been cleared from the cattle, and melarsomine hydrochloride at 0·5 mg/kg can be recommended for treatment against T. evansi infection in dairy cattle in Thailand. Further work is necessary to validate the efficacy of the treatment in the event of confirmed CSF-infection. PMID:21767438

Desquesnes, Marc; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Vergne, Timothée; Sarataphan, Nachai; Pranee, Rodtian; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

2011-08-01

47

Genotypic analysis of ?-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment  

PubMed Central

Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21 month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM naïve community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. ?-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the ?-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696 bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM naïve community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the ?-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362 bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance. PMID:24533268

Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O.; Prichard, Roger K.

2012-01-01

48

Itraconazole or allopurinol in the treatment of chronic American trypanosomiasis: the results of clinical and parasitological examinations 11 years post-treatment.  

PubMed

Eleven years after they had been given itraconazole or allopurinol for the treatment of chronic American trypanosomiasis, 109 adult patients were checked for electrocardiographic abnormalities and evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The parasitological investigations included xenodiagnosis, in which the faeces of Triatoma infestans that had fed on the patients were checked under the microscope for flagellates. In addition, a PCR-based assay and a hybridization assay were used to test blood samples from the patients, and faeces from the Tri. infestans that had fed on the patients, for Try. cruzi DNA. For the data analysis, the patients were divided into four groups known as normal/normal, abnormal/normal, normal/abnormal and abnormal/abnormal, according to whether the patients had been found to have normal or abnormal electrocardiograms (ECG) shortly before the first treatment and to have normal or abnormal ECG when checked at the 11-year follow-up. The 51 normal/normal and 24 normal/abnormal patients were assumed to have been in the 'indeterminate' phase of the disease when they were treated, whereas the 16 abnormal/normal and 18 abnormal/abnormal patients all had evidence of chagasic cardiopathy at that time. When checked 11 years post-treatment, 40 (78.4%), 17 (70.8%), 14 (87.5%) and 17 (94.4%) of these patients, respectively, were each found positive for Try. cruzi in at least one of the parasitological tests. The hybridization assay, whether applied to human blood or bug faeces, appeared a significantly more sensitive test than the PCR-based assays or microscopically assessed xenodiagnosis (P<0.05). Only the 21 patients who appeared to be negative for Try. cruzi could be considered parasitologically cured (although all still appeared to have anti-Try. cruzi antibodies in their blood). Only 13 of these parasitologically cured patients (seven of those treated with itraconazole and six of those given allopurinol) had normal ECG at the 11-year follow-up. In Chile at least, itraconazole, which caused fewer adverse effects than the allopurinol while being no less effective at preventing cardiopathy, appears to be the drug of choice to treat chronic American trypanosomiasis in adults. PMID:16297286

Apt, W; Arribada, A; Zulantay, I; Solari, A; Sánchez, G; Mundaca, K; Coronado, X; Rodríguez, J; Gil, L C; Osuna, A

2005-12-01

49

Entomological and parasitological impacts of indoor residual spraying with DDT, alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin in the western foothill area of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background In Madagascar, indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticide was part of the national malaria control programme since the middle of the twentieth century. It was mainly employed in the highlands and the foothill areas, which are prone to malaria epidemics. Prior to a policy change foreseeing a shift from DDT to pyrethroids, a study was carried out to assess the entomological and parasitological impacts of IRS in areas with DDT or pyrethroids and in areas without IRS. Methods The study was carried out from October 2002 to February 2005 in three communes of the western foothill area of Madagascar. Two communes received IRS with DDT in February 2003, then IRS with pyrethroids (alphacypermethrin or deltamethrin) in February 2004. The third commune remained untreated. Mosquitoes were collected at night using human landing catches and early in the morning in resting places. Blood smears were obtained from schoolchildren and microscopically examined for Plasmodium presence. Results In total, 18,168 human landing mosquitoes and 12,932 resting anophelines were collected. The Anopheles species caught comprised 10 species. The main and most abundant malaria vector was Anopheles funestus (72.3% of human-seeking malaria vectors caught indoors). After IRS had taken place, this species exhibited a lower human biting rate and a lower sporozoite index. Overall, 5,174 blood smears were examined with a mean plasmodic index of 19.9%. A total of four Plasmodium species were detected. Amongst tested school children the highest plasmodial index was 54.6% in the untreated commune, compared to 19.9% in the commune sprayed with DDT and 11.9% in the commune sprayed with pyrethroid. The highest prevalence of clinical malaria attacks in children present at school the day of the survey was 33% in the untreated commune compared to 8% in the areas which received IRS. Conclusion In terms of public health, the present study shows (1) a high efficacy of IRS with insecticide, (2) a similar efficacy of DDT and pyrethroid and (3) a similar efficacy of alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin. The use of IRS with DDT and pyrethroid greatly decreased the vector-human contact, with an associated decrease of the plasmodial index. However malaria transmission did not reach zero, probably due to the exophilic host-seeking and resting behaviours of the malaria vectors, thus avoiding contact with insecticide-treated surfaces indoors. The study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the IRS implementation and the need for complementary tools for an optimal vector control in Madagascar. PMID:24423246

2014-01-01

50

Efficacy of Cyclooctadepsipeptides and Aminophenylamidines against Larval, Immature and Mature Adult Stages of a Parasitologically Characterized Trichurosis Model in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Trichuris includes parasites of major relevance in veterinary and human medicine. Despite serious economic losses and enormous impact on public health, treatment options against whipworms are very limited. Additionally, there is an obvious lack of appropriately characterized experimental infection models. Therefore, a detailed parasitological characterization of a Trichuris muris isolate was performed in C57BL/10 mice. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacies of the aminophenylamidines amidantel, deacylated amidantel (dAMD) and tribendimidine as well as the cyclooctadepsipeptides emodepside and in particular PF1022A were analyzed. This was performed using various administration routes and treatment schemes targeting histotropic and further developed larval as well as immature and mature adult stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Duration of prepatent period, time-dependent localization of larvae during period of prepatency as well as the duration of patency of the infection were determined before drugs were tested in the characterized trichurosis model. Amidantel showed no effect against mature adult T. muris. Tribendimidine showed significantly higher potency than dAMD after oral treatments (ED50 values of 6.5 vs. 15.1 mg/kg). However, the opposite was found for intraperitoneal treatments (ED50 values of 15.3 vs. 8.3 mg/kg). When emodepside and PF1022A were compared, the latter was significantly less effective against mature adults following intraperitoneal (ED50 values of 6.1 vs. 55.7 mg/kg) or subcutaneous (ED50 values of 15.2 vs. 225.7 mg/kg) administration. Only minimal differences were observed following oral administration (ED50 values of 2.7 vs. 5.2 mg/kg). Triple and most single oral doses with moderate to high dosages of PF1022A showed complete efficacy against histotropic second stage larvae (3×100 mg/kg or 1×250 mg/kg), further developed larvae (3×10 mg/kg or 1×100 mg/kg) and immature adults (3×10 mg/kg or 1×100 mg/kg). Histotropic first stage larvae were only eliminated after three doses of PF1022A (3×100 mg/kg) but not after a single dose. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the cyclooctadepsipeptides are a drug class with promising candidates for further evaluation for the treatment of trichurosis of humans and livestock animals in single dose regimens. PMID:24587460

Kulke, Daniel; Krücken, Jürgen; Harder, Achim; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

2014-01-01

51

Comparison of Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Delayed-Type Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of invasive and non-invasive tests for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a large series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In this delayed-type cross-sectional study, 113 HIV-infected symptomatic patients were evaluated by an adjudication committee after clinical follow-up to establish the presence or absence of VL as the target condition (reference test). The index tests were recombinant K39 antigen-based immunochromatographic test (rK39), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), prototype kit of direct agglutination test (DAT-LPC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in peripheral blood. Compared with parasitological test and adjudication committee diagnosis or latent class model analyses, IFAT and rk39 dipstick test presented the lowest sensitivity. DAT-LPC exhibited good overall performance, and there was no statistical difference between DAT-LPC and qPCR diagnosis accuracy. Real-time PCR emerges as a less invasive alternative to parasitological examination for confirmation of cases not identified by DAT. PMID:23836568

Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; de Sousa, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas Nogueira, Betânia Mara; Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Oliveira, Edward; Assis, Tália Santana Machado; de Mendonça, Andréa Laender Pessoa; Pinto, Bruna Fernandes; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Rabello, Ana

2013-01-01

52

PARASITOLOGY: The Malarial Secretome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The malaria parasite is a wily pathogen that resides comfortably within its parasitophorous vacuole in the host red blood cell. By skillfully exporting its own proteins across the parasitophorous vacuole membrane into the erythrocyte cytosol and plasma membrane, the malaria parasite ensures a steady supply of nutrients. As Przyborski and Lanzer discuss in their Perspective, the discovery of a host cell-targeting sequence in these exported parasite proteins reveals how the parasite accomplishes this task (Marti et al.; Hiller et al.).

Jude Przyborski (Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg; Department of Parasitology)

2004-12-10

53

TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.18 No.6 June 2002 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/02/$ see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(02)02268-7  

E-print Network

in African children is cerebral malaria caused by the parasitic protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. EndemicTRENDS in Parasitology Vol.18 No.6 June 2002 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/02/$ ­ see front population of 2.4 billion. The most lethal form of the disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium

Hartl, Daniel L.

54

World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in ruminants (bovine, ovine, caprine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first edition of the W.A.A.V.P. anthelmintic guidelines for ruminants was published in 1982. Since then improved parasitological procedures have been developed, new therapeutic and prophylactic products have appeared requiring different test methods, and registration authorities are requesting more detailed record keeping and data validation. This second edition addresses these developments and fulfills the original goal of publishing guidelines for

I. B. Wood; N. K. Amaral; K. Bairden; J. L. Duncan; T. Kassai; J. B. Malone; J. A. Pankavich; R. K. Reinecke; O. Slocombe; S. M. Taylor; J. Vercruysse

1995-01-01

55

Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.  

PubMed

The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0.05) in comparison with the control group. In addition, the consumption of the dehydrated citrus pulp from animals infected with H. contortus (Experiment 1) caused lower hatching rates after 42 days of consumption (p<0.05), suggesting a tendency to shed fewer eggs to the environment. PMID:25282048

Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

2014-10-15

56

A serological, parasitological and clinical evaluation of untreated Chagas disease patients and those treated with benznidazole before and thirteen years after intervention  

PubMed Central

The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Patients who presented with the indeterminate form of the disease at the beginning of the study exhibited less clinical progression (17.4%) compared with the untreated group (56.5%). Therefore, this global analysis revealed that etiological treatment with benznidazole may benefit patients with respect to the clinical progression of Chagas disease and the prognosis, particularly when administered to patients with the indeterminate form of the disease. PMID:24037109

Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Diniz, Glaucia Alessio; Montoya, Roberto Araújo; Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Coura, José Rodrigues; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Torres, Rosália Morais; de Lana, Marta

2013-01-01

57

Albendazolesulphoxide concentrations in plasma and hydatid cyst and prediction of parasitological and clinical outcomes in patients with liver hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the relationship between plasma and cyst concentrations of albendazolesulphoxide (ASO) and their effects on parasitological findings and disease recurrence in patients with liver hydatidosis. Methods The study was conducted at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases “Dr. Fran Mihaljevi?,” Zagreb, Croatia, between August 2006 and January 2011. Consecutive patients (N?=?48, age 6-77 years) were treated with albendazole (3?×?5 mg/kg/d) over 28 days before surgical cyst removal (n?=?34) or percutaneous evacuation (PAIR) (n?=?14). Plasma ASO was determined on days 10 and 28 of treatment and cyst concentrations at surgery/PAIR. Results Disease recurred in 3 surgically treated patients. Variability of ASO concentrations was substantial. Plasma concentrations on day 10 were higher than on day 28 (geometric means ratio [GMR] 2.00; 95%CI 1.38-2.91, P?

Skuhala, Tomislava; Trkulja, Vladimir; Runje, Mislav; Vukeli?, Dalibor; Desnica, Boško

2014-01-01

58

Parasitological and biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with methanol extract from the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban.  

PubMed

This study aims to detect the antischistosomal properties of the plants' Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania sesban methanol extract against Schistosoma mansoni in infected mice, including determination of total protein and albumin levels and the activities of alanine and aspartate transaminases (AlT, AsT) and acid and alkaline phosphatases (AcP and AkP) enzymes in the serum of infected treated mice. Male Swiss albino mice were infected with S. mansoni and orally treated with methanol extract of the plants C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg/day), C. dioscorides and S. sesban (1000 mg/kg/day from each) for 2 consecutive days 7 weeks post infection (PI). In addition, treatment of mice with the tested dose of each plant extract was successively done (i.e. the 1st extract followed by the 2nd and 3rd one with an hour interval). Parasitological and biochemical parameters were assessed. Nine weeks PI, the reduction rates of worm load/mouse treated with either C. dioscorides (1000 mg/kg), C. ambrosioides (1250 mg/kg) or S. sesban (1000 mg/kg) were 40.9%, 53.7% and 54.4%, respectively. Successive treatment raised the reduction rates of worm load/mouse to 66.3% and the ova/g tissue in liver to 76.9%. Moreover, serum total protein and albumin levels and activities of AlT, Ast, AcP and AkP enzymes of infected treated mice were improved in comparison with those of infected untreated ones. It is concluded that administration of C. dioscorides, C. ambrosioides and S. sesban methanol extract to infected mice exhibited a moderate antischistosomal effect. Successive treatment improved the antischistosomal properties of these plant species, hence ameliorated the liver functions of treated mice that may suggest degenerations of liver granulomas and regenerative changes. PMID:21740980

Kamel, E G; El-Emam, M A; Mahmoud, S S M; Fouda, F M; Bayaumy, F E

2011-12-01

59

Biochemical and Parasitological Studies on the Effect of hUCB-Selected CD34+ Progenitor/Stem Cells in Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Placenta and blood that remained in the umbilical cord is routinely available as a discarded tissue after deliveries and it is free of any legal, moral, ethical or religious objections, providing a high number of multipotent CD34+ progenitor and stem cells. Using ex vivo isolated CD34+ cells from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) have emerged as promising candidates to treat various diseases, including exogenous pathogenic infections. We have expanded to build a rational approach to study the effect of CD34+ cells after damaged liver tissues by the devastating human parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Methods and Results: Experimental studies were conducted in the Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science and Departments of Parasitology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, SCU, Egypt. We have studied the impact of ex vivo preparation of CD34+ cells from hUCB on S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis de novo, and treated for shorter and longer periods in vivo. Ova count, ALT and albumin were measured at specific time interval and histopathological examination of liver was conducted to confirm the biochemical results. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by ANOVA between groups. It was found that the administration of CD34+ cells have modestly reduced liver damage; reduced the S. mansoni infection associated elevation in serum levels of ALT; significantly improved serum levels of albumin and reduced egg granuloma diameter in the livers. Conclusions: We demonstrated that CD34+ cells can markedly ameliorated liver fibrosis in vivo and may be beneficial for therapy to recover organ structure and/or function of S. mansoni-infected mice. PMID:25473447

Abou-Zied, Akram M.; Soliman, Rasha H.; Hefila, Shorouk M.; Imam, Samir A.

2014-01-01

60

Parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for monitoring the outcome of Community-Led Total Sanitation.  

PubMed

While preventive chemotherapy remains to be a major strategy for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) comprise the long-term strategy to achieve sustained control of STH. This study examined the parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines where two of the villages attained Open-Defecation-Free (ODF) status after introduction of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). A total of 341 children (89.0% of the total eligible population) submitted stool samples which were examined using the Kato-Katz technique. Results showed that 27.9% of the total stool samples examined had at least one type of STH (cumulative prevalence), while 7.9% had moderate-heavy intensity infections. Between the two villages where CLTS was introduced, Buenavista had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of STH at 67.4% (p<0.001) and prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity STH at 23.5% (p=0.000), while Caubang had a significantly lower cumulative prevalence at 4.9% and prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity at 1.8%. On the other hand, the non-CLTS villages of Bitoon and Saub had similar rates for cumulative prevalence (16.7% and 16.8%, respectively; p=0.984) and prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity STH (2.0% and 3.1%, respectively; p=1.000). The findings may be explained by factors that include possible reversion to open defecation, non-utilization of sanitary facilities, and mass drug administration (MDA) coverage, although further studies that can accurately assess the impact of CLTS are recommended. While this study was descriptive, the data indicate no clear pattern among the parasitological and nutritional parameters, as well as the presence of CLTS in the village, suggesting the need to monitor the ODF status of villages on a regular basis even after the end of CLTS activities to ensure the sustainability of the CLTS approach. In order to achieve effective control of STH, deeper collaboration between the WASH and STH sectors are recommended where partners can work together in the area of monitoring and evaluation that may include improved parasitological and nutritional status in high-risk groups, as well as sustainable behavior change as outcome indicators. PMID:25255966

Belizario, Vicente Y; Liwanag, Harvy Joy C; Naig, June Rose A; Chua, Paul Lester C; Madamba, Manuel I; Dahildahil, Roy O

2015-01-01

61

Parasitology http://journals.cambridge.org/PAR  

E-print Network

in successful chemotherapy. In animal models, treatment of African trypanosomiasis with difluoromethylornithine lowered the dose of antimony required to cure the infection. Key words: trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis immunochemotherapy remains in its infancy. This review article covers those areas in trypanosomiasis

Schnaufer, Achim

62

In Vivo Parasitological Measures of Artemisinin Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Parasite clearance data from 18,699 patients with falciparum malaria treated with an artemisinin derivative in areas of low (n = 14,539), moderate (n = 2077), and high (n = 2083) levels of malaria transmission across the world were analyzed to determine the factors that affect clearance rates and identify a simple in vivo screening measure for artemisinin resistance. The main factor affecting parasite clearance time was parasite density on admission. Clearance rates were faster in high-transmission settings and with more effective partner drugs in artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs). The result of the malaria blood smear on day 3 (72 h) was a good predictor of subsequent treatment failure and provides a simple screening measure for artemisinin resistance. Artemisinin resistance is highly unlikely if the proportion of patients with parasite densities of <100,000 parasites/?L given the currently recommended 3-day ACT who have a positive smear result on day 3 is <3%; that is, for n patients the observed number with a positive smear result on day 3 does not exceed (n + 60)/24. PMID:20085495

Stepniewska, Kasia; Ashley, Elizabeth; Lee, Sue J.; Anstey, Nicholas; Barnes, Karen I.; Binh, Tran Quang; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Day, Nicholas P. J.; de Vries, Peter J.; Dorsey, Grant; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Mayxay, Mayfong; Newton, Paul N.; Olliaro, Piero; Osorio, Lyda; Price, Ric N.; Rowland, Mark; Smithuis, Frank; Taylor, Walter R. J.; Nosten, François; White, Nicholas J.

2015-01-01

63

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use these references in the laboratory for appropriate...calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month...

2013-10-01

64

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount...identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using concentration preparations and...program must include samples that contain parasites that are commonly encountered in...

2013-10-01

65

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount...identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using concentration preparations and...program must include samples that contain parasites that are commonly encountered in...

2014-10-01

66

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use these references in the laboratory for appropriate...calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month...

2014-10-01

67

Parasitology Research Founded as Zeitschrift fr  

E-print Network

sampled two rodent hosts, white- footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), and their tick, flea, and mite ecto- parasites. A bacterial killing assay was used to measure compared to Microtus. There was no significant difference in total flea burden between rodent species

Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C.

68

ELSEVIER Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 70 (1995) 95-106 PARASITOLOGY  

E-print Network

b, Horst Zahner `, Gerd Hobom a$* a lnstituifiir Mikrobiologie und Molekularbiologie, Justus-Liebig-Universitiit Giessen, Frankfurter Sfraj?e 107, 35392 Giessen, Germany b Institutfir Biochemie, Justus-Liebig-Universitiit Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany ' Institutfir Parasitologie, Justus-Liebig-Universitiit Giessen, 35392

Schnaufer, Achim

69

Veterinary Parasitology 101 (2001) 405414 Molecular approaches to studying benzimidazole  

E-print Network

resistance in trichostrongylid nematode parasites of small ruminants J.F. Humberta,, J. Cabaretb, L. Elardc, the trichostrongylid ne- matode parasites of domestic small ruminants (sheep and goats) have acquired resistance in Cabaret, 2000), mostly in lactating ruminants, because of Corresponding author. Tel.: +33

Jacquet, Stéphan

70

Parasitologic and pathologic observations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).  

PubMed

This study describes the parasites and related pathologic observations in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). In total, 48 birds were examined and 41 sparrows were found to be infected with one or more endoparasites (85.4%). The most common parasites were liver trematodes identified as Brachydistomum microscelis and Brachydistomum gracupicae. In addition, coccidia and a cestode (Infula spp.) were observed. In one bird, one female Tetrameres sp. and one female Microtetrameres sp. were found in the proventriculus. No blood parasite was found after examination of the blood smears. No gross pathologic lesion was seen in the organs except for the proventriculus, gut, and liver. At histologic examination small necrotic areas and inflammatory reactions were seen in the liver and the gastrointestinal system related to the parasites. Incidentally, anthracosis was diagnosed in 23 and mild pneumonia in 12 of the lungs. PMID:24063083

Ozmen, Ozlem; Adanir, Ramazan; Haligur, Mehmet; Albayrak, Tamer; Kose, Onur; Ipek, Volkan

2013-09-01

71

ISRAEL SOCIETY FOR PARASITOLOGY PROTOZOOLOGY AND TROPICAL DISEASES  

E-print Network

antigenic ligand of P. falciparum infected red blood cells is protein encoded by the multi-copy var gene family. The observed down regulation was var specific and did not affect parasite growth such as differential control of gene expression. Classical methyl-CpG binding proteins (MBDs) mediate histone

Cohen, Joel E.

72

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 110 (2000) 405407 Short communication  

E-print Network

and vaccine development. While DNA transfection of this organism has been accom- plished, the methods of methotrexate, as described [7]. Transfectant pools obtained in this manner contain multi-copy episo- mal DNA by an inverted PCR ap- proach, and the DNA sequence determined. Many of the fragments had episomal sequences

Beverley, Stephen M.

73

Serologic and parasitologic survey of the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken.  

PubMed

Because conservation biologists have postulated that infectious diseases may have potentiated the endangerment of the Attwater's prairie chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri), free-living prairie chickens were surveyed from all remaining populations for helminthic endoparasites and antibody against the etiological agents of nine infectious diseases. Samples from 4 of 27 adult males were positive for anti-Pasteurella multocida antibody. All other serologic tests were negative (n = 19). We identified Dispharynx nasuta, a parasite previously associated with disease in other grouse from North America, in one of three adult Attwater's prairie chickens examined. Evidence of Trichostrongylus cramae was found for eight of nine suitable samples, which represents the first report of this parasite in prairie grouse. The mean intensity of T. cramae in Attwater's prairie chicken was 1,019.3 (Range = 3-1,906; n = 3). Further work is needed to determine whether P. multocida, T. cramae, or D. nasuta are detrimental to Attwater's prairie chicken populations. If so, conservation biologists could reduce the prevalence and incidence of these parasites and potentially gain more time to address the habitat conditions thought to be the ultimate cause of population declines. PMID:9476235

Peterson, M J; Purvis, J R; Lichtenfels, J R; Craig, T M; Dronen, N O; Silvy, N J

1998-01-01

74

Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.  

PubMed

Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

2015-02-01

75

Parasitological characteristics of fleece?weight?selected and control sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male sheep (aged 15 months) from a Massey University flock selected for increased fleece weight for 37 years (FW, n = 13) and unselected controls (C, n = 13), were infected with larvae of Haemonchus contortus (n = 4000), Ostertagia circumcincta (n = 22750), and Trichostrongylus colubriformis (n ? 25000). Some FW sheep (n = 7) and C sheep (n

J. F. Williamson; H. T. Blair; D. J. Garrick; W. E. Pomroy; P. G. C. Douch; R. S. Green

1995-01-01

76

Hotel Intestine: laboratory for parasitology: Gregarine Information Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thorough NSF funded research site dedicated to insect parasite fauna, especially the gregarines. This page is a work in progress as research develops. Some gregarine keys are included online, as well as survey results, and some systematics.

0002-11-30

77

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 131 (2003) 6575 Functional expression and characterization  

E-print Network

-ESI-ToF, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time of flight; NaOAc, sodium acetate; PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PMSF, phenylmethylsulfonyl flouride; Nle

Bogyo, Matthew

78

Blowfly Strike and Maggot Therapy: From Parasitology to Medical Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Patients, especially elderly and diabetic ones, may develop chronic wounds on the leg and foot, so called ulcers, which are\\u000a open sores that go through the skin. These often tend not to heal due to insufficient circulation, will eventually get infected,\\u000a and might result in serious consequences such as amputation. Physicians all over the world are involved in the daily

Heike Heuer; Lutz Heuer

79

Molecular diagnosis in clinical parasitology: when and why?  

PubMed

Microscopic detection and morphological identification of parasites from clinical specimens are the gold standards for the laboratory diagnosis of parasitic infections. The limitations of such diagnostic assays include insufficient sensitivity and operator dependence. Immunoassays for parasitic antigens are not available for most parasitic infections and have not significantly improved the sensitivity of laboratory detection. Advances in molecular detection by nucleic acid amplification may improve the detection in asymptomatic infections with low parasitic burden. Rapidly accumulating genomic data on parasites allow the design of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers directed towards multi-copy gene targets, such as the ribosomal and mitochondrial genes, which further improve the sensitivity. Parasitic cell or its free circulating parasitic DNA can be shed from parasites into blood and excreta which may allow its detection without the whole parasite being present within the portion of clinical sample used for DNA extraction. Multiplex nucleic acid amplification technology allows the simultaneous detection of many parasitic species within a single clinical specimen. In addition to improved sensitivity, nucleic acid amplification with sequencing can help to differentiate different parasitic species at different stages with similar morphology, detect and speciate parasites from fixed histopathological sections and identify anti-parasitic drug resistance. The use of consensus primer and PCR sequencing may even help to identify novel parasitic species. The key limitation of molecular detection is the technological expertise and expense which are usually lacking in the field setting at highly endemic areas. However, such tests can be useful for screening important parasitic infections in asymptomatic patients, donors or recipients coming from endemic areas in the settings of transfusion service or tertiary institutions with transplantation service. Such tests can also be used for monitoring these recipients or highly immunosuppressed patients, so that early preemptive treatment can be given for reactivated parasitic infections while the parasitic burden is still low. PMID:24668556

Wong, Samson S Y; Fung, Kitty S C; Chau, Sandy; Poon, Rosana W S; Wong, Sally C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

2014-11-01

80

Towards a nucleic acid-based diagnosis in clinical parasitology and mycology  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMultiple in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the diagnosis of parasitic and fungal diseases have been reported. Encouraging results have been published to anticipate or improve the diagnosis. However, the absence of standardized methods has led to discrepant results. As a consequence, these tests are not recognized as consensual diagnostic criteria.

Stéphane Bretagne; Jean-Marc Costa

2006-01-01

81

Seroepidemiological and parasitological evaluation of the heterogeneity of malaria infection in the Gambia  

PubMed Central

Background As countries make progress in malaria control, transmission may be reduced to such an extent that few cases occur, and identification of the remaining foci of transmission may require a combination of surveillance tools. The study explored the usefulness of parasite prevalence, seroprevalence and model-estimated seroconversion rates for detecting local differences in malaria transmission in a West African country. Methods Age-stratified cross-sectional surveys were conducted during the wet season in 2008 and the following dry season in 2009 in The Gambia. In each season, 20 village communities were sampled from six diverse areas throughout the country. A total of 7,586 participants were surveyed, 51% (3,870) during the wet season. Parasites were detected by thick film slide microscopy, and anti-MSP1-19 antibodies were detected by ELISA using eluted dried blood from filter papers. Results Overall parasite prevalence was 12.4% in the wet season and 2.2% in the dry season, with village-specific parasite prevalence ranging from 1.4 to 45.9% in the wet season and from 0.0 to 13.2% in the dry season. Prevalence was highest in the eastern part of the country. Serological indices also varied between villages, indicating local heterogeneity in transmission, and there was a high correlation between wet and dry season estimates across the villages. The overall prevalence of anti-MSP119 antibodies was similar in the wet (19.5%) and in the dry (19.6%) seasons. Conclusion The study illustrates the utility of measuring both parasite prevalence and serological indices for monitoring local variation in malaria transmission, which are more informative than single measures as control intensifies and malaria declines. Measurements of seropositivity have the logistical advantage of being relative stable seasonally so that sampling at any time of year may be conducted. PMID:23815826

2013-01-01

82

Serum biochemistry, serology, and parasitology of boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the Northwest Territories, Canada.  

PubMed

Boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are an ecologically and culturally important wildlife species and now range almost exclusively in the boreal forests of Canada, including the Northwest Territories, northern Alberta, and British Columbia. Boreal caribou are threatened throughout their Canadian range because of direct and indirect natural and anthropogenic factors. In the Northwest Territories, however, they have a continuous range that overall has not yet been subjected to the same degree of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation and degradation that has occurred elsewhere in Canada. To monitor the health of boreal caribou populations and individuals, we collected blood from 104 adult, female boreal caribou captured between March 2003 and February 2006 and measured serum biochemical parameters. Serum creatinine was higher in pregnant than in nonpregnant caribou. Several biochemical parameters differed among years, but they tended to be similar to those reported for reindeer. Serum antibodies were found to an alphaherpesvirus, Toxoplasma gondii, and to the Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in 37.5, 2.9, and 1.3% of boreal caribou, respectively. Fecal samples were collected from 149 boreal caribou, and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts, Giardia sp. cysts, trichostrongyle ova, dorsal-spined nematode larvae, cestode ova, and Eimeria sp. were found. Trypanosoma sp. was detected in the blood of 72.1% of boreal caribou. Eimeria sp., Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia sp. have not been previously reported in boreal caribou. PMID:20966261

Johnson, Deborah; Harms, N Jane; Larter, Nicholas C; Elkin, Brett T; Tabel, Henry; Wei, Guojian

2010-10-01

83

Systematic Parasitology 53: 227233, 2002. 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

in the Netherlands. 227 Thaumamermis zealandica n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nematoda) parasitising the intertidal marine zealandica n. sp. (Mermithidae; Nematoda), is described parasitising the in- tertidal marine amphipod

Poulin, Robert

84

Veterinary Parasitology 115 (2003) 125145 Control of tsetse flies and trypanosomes  

E-print Network

Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: African trypanosomiasis; Tsetse flies; Symbiosis; Commensal, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis has re-emerged as an important priority for biomedical and public health Tel trypanosomiasis. Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the sole vectors of several species of pathogenic

Aksoy, Serap

85

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 169 (2010) 1219 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

t As part of a drug discovery programme to discover new treatments for human African trypanosomiasis- panosomatidae (order Kinetoplastida, suborder Trypanosomatina) responsible for human African trypanosomiasis trypanosomiasis. Note: Crystallographic data have been deposited on PDB with the accession code 2wba

Schnaufer, Achim

86

A parasitological survey of wild red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes) from the province of Guadalajara, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epizootiological survey of leishmaniosis, coccidiosis and parasitic helminths in 67 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was conducted in Guadalajara (central Spain). Examination for parasitic protozoa revealed prevalences of 74% Leishmania (determined by molecular methods) and 2.9% coccidia oocysts (fecal flotation). Survey of parasitic helminths (fecal flotation\\/necropsy) demonstrated the presence of nine species, including six nematodes, two cestodes and one trematode. Nematodes

A Criado-Fornelio; L Gutierrez-Garcia; F Rodriguez-Caabeiro; E Reus-Garcia; M. A Roldan-Soriano; M. A Diaz-Sanchez

2000-01-01

87

Physiological and parasitological responses to nematode infections of fattening cattle in the Western Pampas of Argentina.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of nematode infection was studied in fattening grazing cattle from weaning (April 1994) to market at the end of their second autumn (July 1995). Sixty Aberdeen Angus calves of seven months of age were randomly allocated by weight to two groups: GT, treated every three weeks with doramectin (200 mcg/kg); and GI, an infected group, only treated with fenbendazole (7.5 mg/kg) at weaning and on the 1st of October. The two groups were grazed together on contaminated lucerne pastures until July, on 'clean' oat pastures until October and again on contaminated lucerne until the end of the trial. Fecal egg counts (epg), herbage larvae (L3), serum pepsinogen (Pep) and blood eosinophils (Eo) were evaluated monthly. Eight steers were slaughtered for worm recovery, three in July 1994, three in December 1994 and two in July 1995. Grazing feed intake was estimated by fecal output (chromic oxide method)/l-diet digestibility and to measure non-specific response, Brucella antibodies were detected at 11 and 40 days post-vaccination in early winter. Fecal egg counts, Pep and Eo of GI increased (P<0.01) from April to July when there was a moderate-to-high level of infection. Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus and Cooperia were the predominant genera. By late winter, all parameters decreased on oat 'clean' pastures and increased again when cattle returned to moderately infected lucerne. During summer, the parameters measured reflected the negligible numbers of L3 on pastures until early autumn. At this time, increased numbers of L3 were followed by a moderate rise (P<0.01) of epg, Pep and Eo values. During winter, GT showed higher (P<0.04) Brucella antibody IgG titers while feed intake of GI was 24.9% depressed (P<0.02). There were total cumulative weight-gain (WG) differences (P<0.001) between groups (GT=263.1 kg; GI=214.3 kg). During the second autumn, the mean WG of GT steers was 16.6 kg greater (P<0.04) than that of GI. Vaccination titres against Brucella suggested non-specific depression of immunity, while higher Pep and Eo levels in second-year steers may have reflected hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:10030756

Suarez, V H; Lorenzo, R M; Busetti, M R; Santucho, G M

1999-02-25

88

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 103 (1999) 6169 Entamoeba histolytica lacks trypanothione metabolism  

E-print Network

can be taken up and conjugated to spermidine to form trypanothione, a metabolite found so far only] who claim to have detected trypanothione [N1 ,N8 bis(glutathionyl)spermidine] * Corresponding author

Schnaufer, Achim

89

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 139 (2005) 107116 Trypanothione biosynthesis in Leishmania major  

E-print Network

TrypanosomacruziandTrypanosomabruceiuse a broad-specificity trypanothione synthetase to make trypanothione from glutathione (GSH) and spermidine and found to catalyse formation of trypanothione with GSH and either spermidine or glutathionylspermidine with the other substrates with apparent Km values for spermidine, glutathionylspermidine and MgATP of 940, 40

Schnaufer, Achim

90

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 115 (2001) 189198 Ovothiol and trypanothione as antioxidants in trypanosomatids  

E-print Network

Abstract The relative amounts of ovothiol A (N1 -methyl-4-mercaptohistidine) and trypanothione [N1 ,N8 -bis(glutathionyl)spermidine trypan- othione [N1 ,N8 -bis(glutathionyl)spermidine] [1] and trypanothione reductase (TryR) [2

Schnaufer, Achim

91

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 131 (2003) 2533 Properties of trypanothione synthetase from Trypanosoma brucei  

E-print Network

; accepted 3 July 2003 Abstract Trypanothione [N1,N8-bis(glutathionyl)spermidine] plays a central role molecules of glutathione (GSH) to spermidine by two enzymes: glutathionylspermidine synthetase (GspS; EC 6 protein catalyses formation of trypanothione from either spermidine and GSH, or glutathionylspermidine

Schnaufer, Achim

92

Parasitology in California—A Changing Picture Owing to Changes in Population and Environment  

PubMed Central

The changing population in California produced by increased migration from other parts of the country and immigration from foreign countries, and by increased foreign travel, has altered the incidence of parasitic infections. Variations in the environment due to increased areas of land under irrigation, urbanization, industrialization, variations in the numbers of animals and insects and changing dietary habits have also effected changes. With the great influx of persons into our state, physicians should be continually aware of the influx of parasites along with them. These parasites may produce disease in the individuals, may cause small outbreaks or epidemics where environmental conditions foster the propagation of these parasites. PMID:14199087

Thompson, James H.

1964-01-01

93

Networks and the ecology of parasite transmission: A framework for wildlife parasitology?  

PubMed Central

Social network analysis has recently emerged as a popular tool for understanding disease transmission in host populations. Although social networks have most extensively been applied to modelling the transmission of diseases through human populations, more recently the method has been applied to wildlife populations. The majority of examples from wildlife involve modelling the transmission of contagious microbes (mainly viruses and bacteria), normally in context of understanding wildlife disease epidemics. However, a growing number of studies have used networks to explore the ecology of parasite transmission in wildlife populations for a range of endemic parasites representing a diversity of life cycles and transmission methods. This review addresses the application of network models in representing the transmission of parasites with more complex life cycles, and illustrates the way in which this approach can be used to answer ecological questions about the transmission of parasites in wildlife populations. PMID:24533342

Godfrey, Stephanie S.

2013-01-01

94

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 118 (2001) 6173 Active site mapping, biochemical properties and subcellular  

E-print Network

and subcellular localization of rhodesain, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Conor R Received 8 June 2001; received in revised form 31 July 2001; accepted 21 August 2001 Abstract Cysteine for crystallization. An invariable ER(A/V)FNAA motif in the pro-peptide sequence of rhodesain was identified as being

Bogyo, Matthew

95

Are cryptic species a problem for parasitological biological tagging for stock identification of aquatic organisms?  

PubMed

SUMMARY The effective use of biological tags in stock assessment relies on the reliable identification of the parasites concerned. This may be compromised if cryptic species are not recognized. Here we review what is known about cryptic species in aquatic hosts and its potential importance in this respect. Although strictly cryptic species may be considered as species which can be distinguished only by molecular data, we accept the far looser but more practical definition of species that cannot be readily distinguished morphologically. Cryptic species appear to have been identified most frequently as occurring in separate host species; this is heartening in that this has no significant impact on tagging studies. But cryptic species have occasionally been identified in single hosts sympatrically and are relatively common in geographically distinct populations of the same host species. Ignorance of both kinds of occurrences has the capacity to undermine the reliability of tagging analysis. We review in detail what is known of intra- and interspecific genetic variation over geographical ranges in the trematodes, based on recent molecular studies. Although the existence of cryptic species and evidence of intraspecific variability may appear daunting, we suspect that these complexities will add, and indeed have already added, to the sophistication of the information that can be derived from tagging studies. PMID:24565166

Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H

2015-01-01

96

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 157 (2008) 3243  

E-print Network

. Van Voorhisb,c, Frederick S. Bucknerb, Michael H. Gelba,d a Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA b Departments of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA c Departments of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA d Departments

Gelb, Michael

97

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 94 (1998) 8797 The effects of protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors on  

E-print Network

Trobridge b , Frederick S. Buckner c , Jeffrey Scholten d , Kenneth D. Stuart b , Wesley C. Van Voorhis c , Michael H. Gelb a, * a Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Box 351700, Uni6ersity of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1700, USA b Department of Pathobiology, Box 357238, Uni6ersity of Washington, Seattle

Gelb, Michael

98

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 148 (2006) 144160 Heterologous expression of proteins from  

E-print Network

Plasmodium falciparum: Results from 1000 genes Christopher Mehlina,, Erica Bonia, Frederick S. Bucknera), Box 357350, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA b Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA c Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195

Gelb, Michael

99

Molecular parasitology: progress towards the development of vaccines for malaria, filariasis, and schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Advances in molecular biology have allowed for the identification of potential vaccine candidates against several parasitic diseases. Antigens from various life stages of Plasmodium and Schistosoma species and filarial worms have been cloned, sequenced and tested as vaccines. Results to date in animal models have been promising. Modest levels of protection against experimental human malaria have been obtained using both sporozoite and blood-stage antigens. However, a greater understanding of the mechanisms which lead to immunity against parasites is required before effective vaccines can be developed. PMID:2001716

Cryz, S J

1991-02-15

100

Poster Presentations 1. EMAN MOSTAFA, DEPT. OF PARASITOLOGY, ZAGAZIG UNIVERSITY, EGYPT  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF NICOTINIC DRUGS ON MOTILITY OF B. MALAYI MICROFILARIAE 2. SARAH BAUER, EPIC, CLEMSON UNIVERSITY. THOMAS, CTEGD AND DEPT. OF CELLULAR BIOLOGY, UGA CURAXINS: NOVEL LEAD DRUGS AGAINST TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI 17

Arnold, Jonathan

101

336 Parasitology Today, vol. IO,no.9, I994 Applications of Molecular Marker  

E-print Network

(Plasmodium), lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria and Brugia) and many arboviruses (most notably yellow fever been de- veloped for the yellow fever mosquito, A and dengue fever). The most successful efforts towards controlling these diseases have been ac- complished

Severson, David

102

Parasitology as a Teaching Tool: Isolation of Apicomplexan Cysts from Store-Bought Meat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are obstacles to teaching science; however, these obstacles are not insurmountable. One obstacle is the students themselves. Students often labor under the misconception or anxiety that the course material will be too difficult to understand, or boring (mind-numbing), or that the information learned will not be applicable in their day-to-day…

Eggleston, Tracy L.; Fitzpatrick, Eileen; Hager, Kristin M.

2008-01-01

103

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

2009-07-01

104

Hematology, parasitology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

PubMed

Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P<0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P<0.05). Twenty-one adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology. PMID:19617502

Miller, Debra Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H Scott; Miller, Karl V; Baldwin, Charles A

2009-07-01

105

Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted. PMID:25098300

Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

2014-10-01

106

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected;\\u000afrom 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven;\\u000ajuvenile (three males, one female, three not;\\u000areported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans);\\u000aon the US Department of Energys Savannah;\\u000aRiver Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant;\\u000a(P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were;\\u000anoted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin,;\\u000aand hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex;\\u000aoccurred

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; Anita Merrill; John Kilgo; H. Ray; Karl Karl V. Miller; A. Charles

2009-01-01

107

The use of fish metabolic, pathological and parasitological indices in pollution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex interactions between parasites, hosts and the environment are influenced by the stability of the ecosystem. Heteroxenous\\u000a parasites, with complex, multiple-host life cycles, can persist only in habitats where the full range of their required hosts\\u000a are present. Conversely, in impoverished environments such as those impacted by environmental stress, monoxenous species that\\u000a have simple, single-host life cycles are likely

A. Diamant; A. Banet; I. Paperna; H. v. Westernhagen; K. Broeg; G. Kruener; W. Koerting; S. Zander

1999-01-01

108

Veterinary Parasitology 97 (2001) 123129 Efficacy of chlorfenapyr (AC 303630) experimental  

E-print Network

of naturally acquired Bovicola bovis (L.) on cattle up to 35 days after application. Treatment with 6 mg chlorfenapyr per kg BW in a 0.12 ml per kg BW formulation was as effective as treatment with Cy;MascarenhasandBoethel, 1997) as well as the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Sheppard and Joyce, 1998

Kaufman, Phillip E.

109

A phylogeny for the pomatiopsidae (Gastropoda: Rissooidea): a resource for taxonomic, parasitological and biodiversity studies  

PubMed Central

Background The Pomatiopsidae are reported from northern India into southern China and Southeast Asia, with two sub-families, the Pomatiopsinae (which include freshwater, amphibious, terrestrial and marine species) and the freshwater Triculinae. Both include species acting as intermediate host for species of the blood-fluke Schistosoma which cause a public health problem in East Asia. Also, with around 120 species, triculine biodiversity exceeds that of any other endemic freshwater molluscan fauna. Nevertheless, the origins of the Pomatiopsidae, the factors driving such a diverse radiation and aspects of their co-evolution with Schistosoma are not fully understood. Many taxonomic questions remain; there are problems identifying medically relevant species. The predicted range is mostly unsurveyed and the true biodiversity of the family is underestimated. Consequently, the aim of the study was to collect DNA-sequence data for as many pomatiopsid taxa as possible, as a first step in providing a resource for identification of epidemiologically significant species (by non-malacologists), for use in resolving taxonomic confusion and for testing phylogeographical hypotheses. Results The evolutionary radiation of the Triculinae was shown to have been rapid and mostly post late Miocene. Molecular dating indicated that the radiation of these snails was driven first by the uplift of the Himalaya and onset of a monsoon system, and then by late-Pliocene global warming. The status of Erhaia as Anmicolidae is supported. The genera Tricula and Neotricula are shown to be non-monophyletic and the tribe Jullieniini may be polyphyletic (based on convergent characters). Triculinae from northern Vietnam could be derived from Gammatricula of Fujian/Yunnan, China. Conclusions The molecular dates and phylogenetic estimates in this study are consistent with an Australasian origin for the Pomatiopsidae and an East to West radiation via Oligocene Borneo-Philippines island hopping to Japan and then China (Triculinae arising mid-Miocene in Southeast China), and less so with a triculine origin in Tibet. The lack of monophyly in the medically important genera and indications of taxonomic inaccuracies, call for further work to identify epidemiologically significant taxa (e.g., Halewisia may be potential hosts for Schistosoma mekongi) and highlight the need for surveys to determine the true biodiversity of the Triculinae. PMID:24548800

2014-01-01

110

Serological and parasitological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from Colorado.  

PubMed

Ground-feeding birds are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as indicators of soil contamination by oocysts, and birds of prey are indicators of T. gondii prevalence in rodents and other small mammals. Cats excrete environmentally resistant oocysts after consuming tissues of T. gondii -infected birds. In the present study, sera and tissues from 382 wild birds from Colorado were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 38 birds with the use of the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1?25 titer). Tissues (brains, hearts) of 84 birds were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 1 barn owl (Tyto alba), 1 of 5 American kestrels (Falco sparverius), 1 of 7 ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis), 1 of 4 rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus), 2 of 13 Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni), and 1 of 25 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). This is the first time T. gondii has been isolated from the barn owl, ferruginous hawk, rough-legged hawk, and Swainson's hawk. PMID:20950101

Dubey, J P; Felix, T A; Kwok, O C H

2010-10-01

111

Parasitological and immunological aspects of early Ascaris spp. infection in mice.  

PubMed

Studies related to the immunobiological aspects of an Ascaris spp. infection are still scarce, especially those that aim to elucidate the early events of the immune response. In this study, we demonstrated a novel standardized method for early experimental Ascaris infection, providing additional information about the infectivity of eggs embryonated in vitro as well as the influence of host age on development of the infection. Finally, we characterised the immunopathology of early infection, focusing on the tissue and systemic cytokine profiles and the histopathology of infection in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that the highest egg infectivity occurred on the 100th and 200th days of in vitro embryonation and that 8 week-old BALB/c mice were more susceptible to infection than 16 week-old mice. Ascaris-infected mice showed an early, significant level of IL-5 production in the lungs 4 days p.i., followed by an increase in the level of neutrophils in the inflammatory infiltrate at 8 days p.i, which was correlated with the peak of larval migration in the tissue and a significant level of IL-6 production. The inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs was gradually replaced by mononuclear cells and eosinophils on the 10th and 12th days p.i., respectively, and an increase in TNF levels was observed. The downmodulation of systemic TCD4(+) cell numbers might suggest that T cell hyporesponsiveness was induced by the Ascaris spp. larvae, contributing to safeguarding parasite survival during larval migration. Taken together, the novel aspects of Ascaris infection presented here enabled a better understanding of the immunopathological events during larval migration, providing insight for further studies focused on immunisation and immunoprophylatic assays. PMID:23665127

Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Silva, Flaviane Nunes; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Dhom-Lemos, Lucas de Carvalho; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Passos, Lívia Silva Araújo; Gaze, Soraya; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

2013-08-01

112

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 42 (1990) 175-188 175 MOLBIO 01383  

E-print Network

: Trypanosoma cruzi; Polymerase chain reaction; Schizodeme; Minicircle DNA Introduction The kinetoplastid 90024-1606, U.S.A. Abbreviations: kDNA, kinetoplast DNA; PCR, polymerase chain reaction. have been present in the infected host [5,6]. We have shown previ- ously that the polymerase chain reaction (PCR

Simpson, Larry

113

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 133 (2004) 4551 Arachidonic acid synthetic pathways of the oyster protozoan parasite,  

E-print Network

of the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus: evidence for usage of a delta-8 pathway Fu-Lin E. Chua Received 24 June 2003; accepted 28 August 2003 Abstract The meront stage of the oyster protozoan parasite, the parasite first desaturated 18:1(n - 9)-d6 to 18:2(n - 6)-d6 by -12 desaturase, then to 20:2(n - 6)-d6

Hartley, Troy W.

114

[Parasitological monitoring as part of epidemiological surveillance of helminthiasis in the Russian Federation].  

PubMed

The paper presents data on the prevalence of helminthiasis in Russia on the basis of the State Reports on the sanitary and epidemiological situation in the Russian Federation. It comparatively characterizes morbidity rates in 2010-2012. Morbidity analysis has revealed the main reasons for the prevalence of parasitic diseases and the possible ways of their elimination. PMID:24738220

Aslanova, M M; Chernikova, E A; Syskova, T G

2014-01-01

115

Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in naturally-infected dogs and cats using serological, parasitological and molecular methods  

PubMed Central

Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and a risk factor for parasite transmission. In this study we assessed the relative performance of a polymerase chain reaction assay targeted to minicircle DNA (kDNA-PCR) in reference to conventional serological tests, a rapid dipstick test and xenodiagnosis to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs and cats from an endemic rural area in northeastern Argentina. A total of 43 dogs and 13 cats seropositive for T. cruzi by an immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), which had been examined by xenodiagnosis, were also tested by kDNA-PCR. kDNA-PCR was nearly as sensitive as xenodiagnosis for detecting T. cruzi- infectious dogs and cats. kDNA-PCR was slightly more sensitive than xenodiagnosis in seropositive dogs (91% versus 86%, respectively) and cats (77% against 54%, respectively), but failed to detect all of the seropositive individuals. ELISA and IHA detected all xenodiagnosis-positive dogs and both outcomes largely agreed (kappa coefficient, ? = 0.92), whereas both assays failed to detect all of the xenodiagnosis-positive cats and their agreement was moderate (? = 0.68). In dogs, the sensitivity of the dipstick test was 95% and agreed closely with the outcome of conventional serological tests (? = 0.82). The high sensitivity of kDNA-PCR to detect T. cruzi infections in naturally-infected dogs and cats supports its application as a diagnostic tool complementary to serology and may replace the use of xenodiagnosis or hemoculture. PMID:23499860

Enriquez, G.F.; Cardinal, M.V.; Orozco, M.M.; Schijman, A.G.; Gürtler, R.E.

2013-01-01

116

Serological and parasitological follow-up in dogs experimentally infected with Leishmania infantum and treated with meglumine antimoniate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six healthy beagle dogs were infected with Leishmania infantum (MCAN\\/ES\\/92\\/BCN-83\\/MON-1) by intravenous inoculation of 5×107 promastigotes and two others were used as controls. When animals showed clinical signs of disease at 29, 37, 41 and 45 weeks post-infection (p.i.), they were treated with meglumine antimoniate (20.4mg Sb\\/kg\\/12h) subcutaneously for two periods of 10 days each. Sera were tested periodically for

Cristina Riera; Josep Enric Valladares; Montserrat Gállego; Maria Jesus Aisa; Soledad Castillejo; Roser Fisa; Nuria Ribas; Jaume Carrió; Jordi Alberola; Margarita Arboix

1999-01-01

117

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 126 (2003) 155163 Protein farnesyl and N-myristoyl transferases: piggy-back medicinal  

E-print Network

therapeutics Michael H. Gelba,b,, Wesley C. Van Voorhisc, Frederick S. Bucknerc, Kohei Yokoyamaa, Richard a Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA b Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA c Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle

Gelb, Michael

118

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 153 (2007) 115124 C-terminal proteolysis of prenylated proteins in trypanosomatids and RNA  

E-print Network

, James G. Bollingerb,d, Wesley C. Van Voorhisa,c, Michael H. Gelbb,d, Frederick S. Bucknera, a Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 1959 N.E. Pacific St., Seattle, WA 98195, USA b Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA c Department of Pathobiology, University of Washington

Gelb, Michael

119

Dermatological and parasitological evaluation of infestations with chewing lice ( Werneckiella equi ) on horses and treatment using imidacloprid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lice infestations in horses caused by the chewing louse Werneckiella (Damalinia) equi are observed worldwide. In the present study, the efficacy of 10% imidacloprid was tested on horses naturally infested with lice. Two groups of animals received a double application of 4 ml and 8 ml Advantage 10% spot-on on day 0 and 28 either. Horses, presenting dermatological signs with negative lice

N. Mencke; K. S. Larsen; M. Eydal; H. Sigurðsson

2005-01-01

120

Anisakids (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from stomachs of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska: parasitological and pathological analysis.  

PubMed

Anisakid nematodes parasitize the alimentary tracts of aquatic vertebrates, including northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) (NFS). The main purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, intensity, and species composition of anisakids in NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska, and to analyze changes in NFS infection with these nematodes during the last decades. The study was carried out on St. Paul Island, Alaska, in July-August 2011-2013. Stomachs of 443 humanely harvested NFS males were collected from five separate haul-out areas. A total of 4,460 anisakid specimens were collected and identified by morphological criteria. Gross and histological examinations of stomachs were also performed. The overall prevalence of NFS infection was 91.2 %; overall mean intensity 10.9, and overall median intensity 6. Five species, Anisakis simplex s. l., Contracaecum osculatum s. l., Pseudoterranova decipiens s. l., P. azarazi and Phocascaris cystophorae, were found. The prevalence of Anisakis was 46.5 %, its intensity 7.5. The prevalence and intensity of Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova, and Phocascaris were 33.6 % and 3.5, 81.9 % and 6.5, and 5.2 % and 1.7, respectively. Significant differences in the prevalence of NFS infection were observed between separate haul-outs. Comparison of the present data with the results of studies performed in the North Pacific in the 1960s, showed a significant decrease in the intensity of NFS infection with anisakids during the last decades. The prevalence of mucosal lesions in NFS stomachs caused by anisakids also decreased from 92 to 20.9 %. Possible reasons for the changes in NFS infection with anisakids are discussed. PMID:25216781

Kuzmina, T A; Lyons, E T; Spraker, T R

2014-12-01

121

Clinical and Parasitological Protection in a Leishmania infantum-Macaque Model Vaccinated with Adenovirus and the Recombinant A2 Antigen  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe vector-born disease of humans and dogs caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites. Approximately 0.2 to 0.4 million new human VL cases occur annually worldwide. In the new world, these alarming numbers are primarily due to the impracticality of current control methods based on vector reduction and dog euthanasia. Thus, a prophylactic vaccine appears to be essential for VL control. The current efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine include the use of animal models that are as close to human VL. We have previously reported a L. infantum-macaque infection model that is reliable to determine which vaccine candidates are most worthy for further development. Among the few amastigote antigens tested so far, one of specific interest is the recombinant A2 (rA2) protein that protects against experimental L. infantum infections in mice and dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Primates were vaccinated using three rA2-based prime-boost immunization regimes: three doses of rA2 plus recombinant human interleukin-12 (rhIL-12) adsorbed in alum (rA2/rhIL-12/alum); two doses of non-replicative adenovirus recombinant vector encoding A2 (Ad5-A2) followed by two boosts with rA2/rhIL-12/alum (Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum); and plasmid DNA encoding A2 gene (DNA-A2) boosted with two doses of Ad5-A2 (DNA-A2+Ad5-A2). Primates received a subsequent infectious challenge with L. infantum. Vaccines, apart from being safe, were immunogenic as animals responded with increased pre-challenge production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies, though with some variability in the response, depending on the vaccine formulation/protocol. The relative parasite load in the liver was significantly lower in immunized macaques as compared to controls. Protection correlated with hepatic granuloma resolution, and reduction of clinical symptoms, particularly when primates were vaccinated with the Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum protocol. Conclusions/Significance The remarkable clinical protection induced by A2 in an animal model that is evolutionary close to humans qualifies this antigen as a suitable vaccine candidate against human VL. PMID:24945284

Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Porrozzi, Renato; Pinto, Marcelo A.; Marchevsky, Renato S.; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle L.; Dutra, Miriam S.; Bruña-Romero, Oscar; Fernandes, Ana-Paula; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

2014-01-01

122

InternationalJournalfor Parasitology Vol.21, No. 7, pp. 821-838, 1991 Printed in Great Britain  

E-print Network

IN THE MONOGENEA (PLATYHELMINTHES), BASED UPON A PARSIMONY ANALYSIS OF SPERMIOGENETIC AND SPERMATOZOAL.Cladisticstudyin the Monogenea(Platyhelminthes),based upon aparsimony analysis of spermiogenetic and spermatozoal: Monogenea, Platyhelminthes; Polyopisthocotylea; MonopisthocotyIea; phylogeny; cladistics; systematics

123

Epidemiology and control of intestinal schistosomiasis on the Sesse Islands, Uganda: integrating malacology and parasitology to tailor local treatment recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background Intestinal schistosomiasis is often widespread among the populations living around Lake Victoria and on its islands. The Sesse Island group (containing some 84 islands), however, is typically assumed to be a low prevalence zone, with limited transmission, but has never been surveyed in detail. Here, we present a rapid mapping assessment, bringing together snail and parasite information, at 23 sites for the presence of intermediate host snails and at 61 sites for the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in school-aged children (N = 905). Two different diagnostic tools were used and compared at 45 of these sites: Kato-Katz thick faecal smears and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine dipsticks. Results Biomphalaria snails were found at 11 sites but in low numbers; none was found shedding schistosome cercariae. At 22 out of the 45 sites, local prevalence by urine and/or stool diagnostics was in excess of 50%, although mean prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis overall was 34.6% (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 31.0-38.3%) by Kato-Katz and 46.5% (95% CI = 42.7-50.4%) by CCA if 'trace' reactions were considered infection-positive (if considered infection-negative, mean prevalence was 28.1% (95% CI = 24.7-31.7%)). Diagnostic congruence between CCA and Kato-Katz was poor and significant discordance in estimated prevalence by location was found, with each often inferring different mass drug administration regimes. Conclusions Accurate estimation of schistosome prevalence is important for determining present and future treatment needs with praziquantel; the wide range of schistosome prevalence across the Sesse Island group requires a treatment regime largely tailored to each island. In high prevalence locations, further malacological sampling is required to confirm the extent of local transmission, especially on the northern islands within the group. The observation that different diagnostic tests can provide varying results in terms of estimating prevalence by location, and hence change treatment recommendations, suggests that care must be taken in interpreting raw prevalence data. In particular, further research into the reasons for the differences in the poorer performance of the CCA test should be pursued. PMID:20663223

2010-01-01

124

1524 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 93, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2007 J. Parasitol., 93(?), 2007, pp. 15241527  

E-print Network

(Procyon lotor), Coyotes (Canis latrans), and Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Wisconsin Identified lotor) 59 54 32 30* 5 Coyote (Canis latrans) 40 35 18 15 6 Skunk (Mephitis mephitis) 7 7 5 1 1 * Tissues­2006, sera and tissues from raccoons (Pro- cyon lotor), coyotes (Canis latrans), and skunks (Mephitis

Mladenoff, David

125

Overcoming language and cultural barriers: a graphical communication tool to perform a parasitological screening in two vulnerable populations from Argentina.  

PubMed

This is an exploratory study of the application of a support tool for the detection of asymptomatic subjects carrying enteric parasites in two vulnerable populations in Argentina: a shantytown in the city of Buenos Aires and a rural Wichí indigenous community in the province of Chaco. The ethnic and cultural diversity, high illiteracy rate, and language barriers called for the development of an auxiliary resource to explain stool sample collection procedures. In individual interviews with each family, the authors used two instructional guidance leaflets in comic strip format depicting the procedures. They evaluated the acceptance of the graphical communication tool on the basis of the number of retrieved samples. Percentages of respondent families were 72.2% and 66.7%, respectively. Definitive validation of these instruments would allow their use in community studies, community service learning experiences, and research on aboriginal communities that would otherwise be excluded from studies on health status. PMID:23066862

Buyayisqui, María Pía; Bordoni, Noemí; Garbossa, Graciela

2013-01-01

126

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 91 (1998) 7791 Regulation of 6sg expression site transcription and switching in  

E-print Network

The Rockefeller Uni6ersity, 1230 York A6enue, New York, NY 10021, USA Abstract Current understanding of expression. © 1998 Francqui Foundation. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Trypanosoma. * Corresponding author: Tel.: +1 212 3277571; fax: +1 212 3277845; e-mail: gamc@rockvax.rockefeller.edu 0166

Cross, George

127

RENAL COCCIDIOSIS AND OTHER PARASITOLOGIC CONDITIONS IN LESSER SNOW GOOSE GOSLINGS AT THA-ANNE RIVER, WEST COAST HUDSON BAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goshings, approxinuateh: 5 weeks of age, were collected muear the mouthu of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, durimig mnid-Auugust 1991. Mamuy dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goshings from near the coast, where imabitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater

S. Gomis; A. B. Didiuk; J. Neufeld; G. Wobeser

128

Renal coccidiosis and other parasitologic conditions in lesser snow goose goslings at Tha-anne River, west coast Hudson Bay.  

PubMed

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings, approximately 5 weeks of age, were collected near the mouth of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, during mid-August 1991. Many dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goslings from near the coast, where habitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater prevalence of renal coccidiosis (Eimeria truncata) and cecal nematode (Trichostrongylus spp.) infection than did goslings from inland areas, where habitat destruction was not evident. Prevalence of infection with intestinal cestodes was greater at inland than at coastal sites. Prevalences of gizzard nematodes (Epomidiostomum spp.) and Leucocytozoon spp. were not significantly different at the two sites. Histological examination of kidneys and examination of kidney homogenates for oocysts were more sensitive methods than gross examination of the kidneys for detecting renal coccidial infection. The number of oocysts present in droppings was not a good indicator of the severity of renal coccidial infection in individual birds; however, the average number of oocysts in droppings was indicative of the average severity of infection among groups of goslings. PMID:8827676

Gomis, S; Didiuk, A B; Neufeld, J; Wobeser, G

1996-07-01

129

Influence of toltrazuril treatment on parasitological parameters and health performance of piglets in the field--an Austrian experience.  

PubMed

Porcine coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis is one of the leading causes of neonatal diarrhea in suckling piglets. Currently the only registered drug for metaphylaxis is toltrazuril. To evaluate the effect of treatment on piglets from 7 Austrian farms without and 8 Austrian farms with toltrazuril application we examined oocyst excretion (including determination of oocysts per gram of feces; OPG), diarrhea (fecal score FS 1-4 with 3 and 4 being diarrhea), and general health (health score HS 1-4 with 3 and 4 describing poor health). Both groups included farms with different levels of hygiene. Samples from 265 litters without treatment, comprising 1588 individual samples, and 1548 samples from 258 treated litters were taken twice (around the 14th and the 21st day of life, respectively), examined by autofluorescence and, if positive, by McMaster counting. In both groups animals had less diarrhea and lower health scores during the second sampling but the treated piglets were always significantly healthier and had less diarrhea. The percentage of weaned piglets was higher in treated animals although this was not significant (p=0.052). In the first round of sampling 17.8% of the individual samples from untreated piglets were positive for oocysts (with a maximum prevalence on the 12-15th day of life) while in the treated piglets only 0.4% shed oocysts p<0.001). At the second sampling only 2.1% of the untreated animals and none of treated piglets excreted I. suis (p=0.083). Positive animals shed up to 8 × 10(3)OPG. There was an increased risk for infected piglets to develop diarrhea (odds ratio, OR 4.73) and poor health (OR 5.05) in untreated piglets, and poor hygiene without disinfection was identified as a risk factor for poor health (OR 1.90), diarrhea (OR 1.42) and oocyst excretion (OR 1.73). The risk of poor health (OR 2.89) and diarrhea (OR 1.44) was also increased for piglets under poor hygienic conditions receiving toltrazuril, so both metaphylaxis of coccidiosis and good hygiene are necessary to effectively control neonatal diarrhea. The costs of treatment are considerably lower than the estimated financial production losses. Therefore, treatment is recommended for farms where clinical coccidiosis is diagnosed. PMID:21820246

Kreiner, Tanja; Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Tichy, Alexander; Joachim, Anja

2011-12-29

130

Influence of toltrazuril treatment on parasitological parameters and health performance of piglets in the field – An Austrian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porcine coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis is one of the leading causes of neonatal diarrhea in suckling piglets. Currently the only registered drug for metaphylaxis is toltrazuril. To evaluate the effect of treatment on piglets from 7 Austrian farms without and 8 Austrian farms with toltrazuril application we examined oocyst excretion (including determination of oocysts per gram of feces; OPG),

Tanja Kreiner; Hanna Lucia Worliczek; Alexander Tichy; Anja Joachim

131

8/21/01 Chapter for Molecular & Medical Parasitology J. Marr, T. Nilsen and R. Komuniecki, eds.  

E-print Network

and resisting a tremendously hostile array of defenses, are key questions of interest to biologists their function by both gain and loss of function strategies, as well as localization using a variety of tags and enter macrophages. There the parasite differentiates into the amastigote stage, which is adapted

Beverley, Stephen M.

132

75 FR 48698 - Medicare, Medicaid and CLIA Programs; COLA (Formerly the Commission on Office Laboratory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General Immunology. Chemistry, including Routine...Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General Immunology. Chemistry, including...

2010-08-11

133

78 FR 12323 - Announcement of the Re-Approval of the Commission on Office Laboratory Accreditation (COLA) as an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General Immunology. Chemistry, including Routine...Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General Immunology. Chemistry, including...

2013-02-22

134

A novel alternative method for 3D visualisation in Parasitology: the construction of a 3D model of a parasite from 2D illustrations.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional (3D) models of the marginal hooks, dorsal and ventral anchors, bars and haptoral reservoirs of a parasite, Sundatrema langkawiense Lim & Gibson, 2009 (Monogenea) were developed using the polygonal modelling method in Autodesk 3ds Max (Version 9) based on two-dimensional (2D) illustrations. Maxscripts were written to rotate the modelled 3D structures. Appropriately orientated 3D haptoral hard-parts were then selected and positioned within the transparent 3D outline of the haptor and grouped together to form a complete 3D haptoral entity. This technique is an inexpensive tool for constructing 3D models from 2D illustrations for 3D visualisation of the spatial relationships between the different structural parts within organisms. PMID:20962723

Teo, B G; Sarinder, K K S; Lim, L H S

2010-08-01

135

Organismal effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems: developmental instability, clinical hematology, body condition, and blood parasitology.  

PubMed

This is the second of two articles reporting the results of a nonlethal biomonitoring study that quantified the effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems of the Ottawa/Gatineau region (ON and PQ, Canada, respectively). In the present article, we describe results of measurements regarding developmental instability (e.g., fluctuating asymmetry), congenital birth defects (e.g., skeletal terata), clinical hematology (e.g., differential counts), general body condition (e.g., body mass-length relationships), and blood parasite load (Trypanosoma sp. and Bartonella spp.). Voles were captured during the year 2001 to 2003 at six golf courses and two reference sites. Once voles were fully sedated using isoflurane, blood was collected, radiographs taken, and morphometric measurements recorded. Three animals from each course were euthanized to determine body burdens of historically used organochlorine (OC) and metal-based pesticides. Exposure to in-use pesticides was determined from detailed golf course pesticide-use records. None of the endpoints measured was significantly related to body burdens of OC pesticides and metals historically used, nor did any endpoint significantly vary among capture sites in relation to total pesticide application to the capture site or to the number of days since the last application of pesticide. Based on these findings, it appears that voles from golf courses were no less healthy than their conspecifics from reference sites. PMID:15376537

Knopper, Loren D; Mineau, Pierre

2004-06-01

136

Efficacy of praziquantel treatment of schistosomiasis in a non-endemic country: a follow-up of parasitological, clinical and immunological parameters.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis patients were immigrants to Czechoslovakia from Angola and Yemen. Most of them had light or moderate infections and felt subjectively healthy. They received treatment with praziquantel (two doses with a total of 40 mg/kg) and were followed up for several years. In nine of 13 patients, Schistosoma haematobium or S. mansoni eggs with undamaged miracidia were detected in biopsies from the bladder or the rectum one year or later after treatment. Granulomatous reactions in the rectum and bladder lesions of stage 1 including thickened bladder walls persisted in most of the patients. Antibody levels against adult S. mansoni worm antigen remained elevated for at least two years after therapy in some patients and declined in others. Among the nine patients, for whom pre- and post-treatment sera were available, the changes in relative levels of antibodies did not strictly correlate with the continued presence of schistosome eggs in, or their absence from, biopsies. We discuss the results obtained with sensitive diagnostic techniques in the absence of subjectively perceived disease. PMID:1300350

Giboda, M; Loudová, J; Shonová, O; Boucková, E; Horácek, J; Numrich, P; Ruppel, A; Vítovec, J; Lukes, S; Noll, P

1992-01-01

137

Growth of bloodstream and procyclic T. brucei colonies on agarose plates Vern B. Carruthers & Kevin Tan, Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Rockefeller University.  

E-print Network

be lifted onto filters and processed according to standard protocols for hybridization with DNA probes. Autoclave 15 min, mix thoroughly and place in a 50 °C water bath. Ingredient 5 plates 10 plates 15 plates 20

Cross, George

138

Hernandez, Bunnell & Sukhdeo (In Press), Parasitology XX: 00-00 Summary Table 1. Parasite infrapopulations from Muskingum Brook (MB); mean abundance ( SD), total number of worms, and  

E-print Network

Acanthocephala Acanthocephalus sp. 1(0),1 100% 3(4),125 62% 1(1),8 60% - 0.1(0.3),4 14% - - - 0.3(1),7 20= largemouth. ANA APO ARO ASA ECH EGL ENI ENO ERO LGI LMA MSA UPY Acanthocephala Acanthocephalus sp EOLM UPY Acanthocephala Acanthocephalus sp. 0.3(0.5),3 27% - - - - Fessisentis sp. 0.1(0.3),1 9

Sukhdeo, Michael V.K.

139

Change in milk production after treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes according to grazing history, parasitological and production-based indicators in adult dairy cows.  

PubMed

To investigate future tools for targeted selective treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in adult dairy cows, we evaluated herd and individual cow factors associated with the post-treatment milk production (MP) response over time. A field trial involving 20 pasturing dairy herds in Western France was conducted in autumn 2010 and autumn 2011. In each herd, lactating cows were randomly allocated to a treatment group (fenbendazole) (623 cows), or a control group (631 cows). Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 10 to 14 weeks after treatment. Individual serum anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), pepsinogen levels, faecal egg count (FEC), and bulk tank milk ODR were measured at the time of treatment. Moreover, in each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, expressed in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. TEC was expected to reflect the development of immunity against GIN, and TEC=8 months was a cautious threshold over which the resistance to re-infection was expected to be established. Daily MP averaged by week was analyzed using linear mixed models with three nested random effects (cow within herd and herd within year). The overall treatment effect was significant but slight (maximum=+0.85 kg/d on week 6 after treatment), and the evolution of treated cows' MP differed significantly according to several factors. At the herd level, cows from low-TEC herds responded better than cows from high-TEC (? 8 months) herds; cows from herds in which the percentage of positive FEC was >22.6% (median value) responded better than those from herds where it was lower. At the individual cow level, primiparous cows, cows with days in milk (DIM) < or = 100 at the time of treatment, and cows with low individual ODR (< or = 0.38) responded better than multiparous cows, cows with DIM>100, and cows with higher ODR, respectively. These results highlight the variability of the treatment response, suggesting that whole herd anthelmintic treatment are not always appropriate, and propose promising key criteria for targeted selective treatment for GIN in dairy cows. Particularly, the TEC is an original criterion which lends support for a simultaneous on-farm qualitative analysis of grazing management factors. PMID:24468428

Ravinet, N; Bareille, N; Lehebel, A; Ponnau, A; Chartier, C; Chauvin, A

2014-03-17

140

Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard (Lyon 1658–Paris 1742): the inventor of the word “orthopaedics” and the father of parasitology  

PubMed Central

This is an historical essay about Nicolas Andry, a French medical doctor (Lyon 1658–Paris 1742) who wrote in 1741 the famous book called “L’orthopedie”, which was soon after translated into English (1742) “Orthopaedia or the art of correcting and preventing deformities in children”. His life and works are detailed as the containment of the book composed of two volumes and many engravings (the crooked tree has become the symbol of numerous orthopaedic societies around the world). A discussion of semantics (ORTHO-PEDIE) and evolution of the meaning of this word is also discussed. PMID:21804898

2010-01-01

141

1232 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 91, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2005 vicinity of the intake pipe and gaining entry via the incoming unfiltered  

E-print Network

serial passages through brook trout (Sal- velinus fontinalis (Mitchill)) (Sanchez et al., 2001b and gaining entry via the incoming unfiltered seawater. Loma salmonae has caused significant economic problems), who reported that rainbow trout previously infected naturally with a low-virulence variant of Loma

Poulin, Robert

142

Immunological and parasitological parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with crude extract from the leaves of Mentha x piperita L.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by an intravascular trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the drug used for treatment of schistosomiasis; nevertheless failure of treatment has been reported. Consequently, the identification of new effective schistosomicidal compounds is essential to ensure the effective control of schistosomiasis in the future. In this work we investigated the immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of the crude leaves extract of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Female Balb/c mice were infected each with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and divided into three experimental groups: (I) untreated; (II) treated daily with M. x piperita L. (100mg/kg) and III) treated on 1/42/43 days post-infection with Praziquantel (500mg/kg). Another group with uninfected and untreated mice was used as a control. Subsequently, seven weeks post-infection, S. mansoni eggs were counted in the feces, liver and intestine. Worms were recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system and counted. Sera levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-?, IgG1, IgE and IgG2a were assayed by ELISA. Animals treated with a daily dose of M. x piperita L. showed increased sera levels of IL-10, IFN-?, IgG2a and IgE. Besides, M. x piperita L. treatment promoted reduction in parasite burden by 35.2% and significant decrease in egg counts in the feces and intestine. PMID:24767421

Dejani, Naiara N; Souza, Laís C; Oliveira, Sandra R P; Neris, Débora M; Rodolpho, Joice M A; Correia, Ricardo O; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Sacramento, Luis V S; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

2014-08-01

143

BAITING RED FOXES IN AN URBAN AREA: A CAMERA TRAP STUDY DANIEL HEGGLIN,1 Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland  

E-print Network

, anthelmintic baiting has been demonstrated to reduce the prevalence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes. The recent invasion of foxes into urban areas on continental Europe represents is unnecessary. JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 68(4):1010­1017 Key words: bait consumption, Echinococcus

Richner, Heinz

144

Invasion Biology Meets Parasitology: A Case Study of Parasite Spill-Back with Egyptian Fasciola gigantica in the Invasive Snail Pseudosuccinea columella  

PubMed Central

The liver fluke Fasciola gigantica is a trematode parasite of ruminants and humans that occurs naturally in Africa and Asia. Cases of human fascioliasis, attributable at least in part to F. gigantica, are significantly increasing in the last decades. The introduced snail species Galba truncatula was already identified to be an important intermediate host for this parasite and the efficient invader Pseudosuccinea columella is another suspect in this case. Therefore, we investigated snails collected in irrigation canals in Fayoum governorate in Egypt for prevalence of trematodes with focus on P. columella and its role for the transmission of F. gigantica. Species were identified morphologically and by partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI). Among all 689 snails found at the 21 sampling sites, P. columella was the most abundant snail with 296 individuals (42.96%) and it was also the most dominant species at 10 sites. It was not found at 8 sites. Molecular detection by PCR and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) revealed infections with F. gigantica (3.38%), Echinostoma caproni (2.36%) and another echinostome (7.09%) that could not be identified further according to its sequence. No dependency of snail size and trematode infection was found. Both high abundance of P. columella in the Fayoum irrigation system and common infection with F. gigantica might be a case of parasite spill-back (increased prevalence in local final hosts due to highly susceptible introduced intermediate host species) from the introduced P. columella to the human population, explaining at least partly the observed increase of reported fascioliasis-cases in Egypt. Eichhornia crassipes, the invasive water hyacinth, which covers huge areas of the irrigation canals, offers safe refuges for the amphibious P. columella during molluscicide application. As a consequence, this snail dominates snail communities and efficiently transmits F. gigantica. PMID:24523913

Grabner, Daniel S.; Mohamed, Faten A. M. M.; Nachev, Milen; Méabed, Eman M. H.; Sabry, Abdel Hameed A.; Sures, Bernd

2014-01-01

145

Experimental Parasitology 94, 201207 (2000) doi:10.1006/expr.2000.4489, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on  

E-print Network

Gene Expressed in Toxocara canis Adults and Infective Stage Larvae1 Franco H. Falcone, Kevin K. A protease gene expressed produced by the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (Harrop et al. 1995) in Toxocara Toxocara canis that has a high level of identity (59%) with human 1 The nucleotide sequence of Tc-cpz-1 has

Maizels, Rick

146

Supplement 9, Authors: A To Z  

E-print Network

]. (????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????- ?????. ????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????????????? ???????? ? ??????????). Alma-Ata. Probleme Parasitol. (Borchert).?Probleme der Parasitologic. Vortr?ge der II. Parasitologis- chen Arbeitstagung vom 24.-26. November 1954 in Berlin. Herausgegeben von Professor Dr. A. Borchert. Berlin. Probleme Terap.?Probleme de...

Doss, Mildred A.; Humphrey, Judith M.; Segal, Dorothy B.

1959-01-01

147

Automated reading and processing of quantitative IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE isotypic agglutination results in microplates Development and application in parasitology-mycology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microplate agglutination techniques represent a simple and commonly used approach for the quantitative or qualitative isotypic analysis of specific antibodies. However, they require optical reading by the investigator and are thus prone to an important degree of variability. In order to solve some of the problems associated with the variability of optical readings, we have used an automatic reader scanning

D. Aubert; F. Foudrinier; M. L. Kaltenbach; D. Guyot-Walser; C. Marx-Chemla; R. Geers; H. Lepan; J. M. Pinon

1995-01-01

148

TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.18 No.6 June 2002 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/02/$ see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(02)02269-9  

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and Nematomorpha) belongs to the same great clade as Athropoda and is separated from theAcanthocephala clade containing Platyhelmintha andAcanthocephala represent only 5% of described parasitic species. Thus

149

TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.17 No.1 January 2001 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/01/$ see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(00)01850-0  

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are hampered by the lack of drugs, their high cost and adverse side effects, and the emergence of drug and their development in mammalian hosts, viable vaccines have yet to materialize for the control of any of the diseases, threatening the availability of effective tools to combat these diseases. Unfortunately, this scenario

Aksoy, Serap

150

TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.17 No.6 June 2001 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/01/$ see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(01)01977-8  

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the prediction that `Sequencing bacterial and parasite pathogens...could buy the sequence of every virulence determinant, every protein antigen and every drug target...for all time'1. Now that this prophesy is rapidly goal of developing drugs, vaccines and diagnostics to control these devastating diseases be achieved

Schnaufer, Achim

151

528 Parasitology Today, vol. 16, no. 12, 20000169-4758/00/$ see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S0169-4758(00)01776-2 28 Beattie, P. et al. (1999) Strengthening Health Research in the  

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Plaisier, A.P. et al. (1995) Irreversible effects of ivermectin on adult parasites in onchocerciasis among African children. Parasitol. Today 15, 99­104 45 Smith, D.H. et al. (1998) Human African and parasite populations1. Population gene

Paterson, Steve

152

Notarbartolo di Sciara G., Bearzi G. 2005. Research on cetaceans in Italy. In B. Cozzi, ed. Marine mammals of the Mediterranean Sea: natural history, biology, anatomy, pathology, parasitology. Massimo Valdina Editore, Milano (in Italian).  

E-print Network

the accounts of Pliny the Elder in the I cent. AD (Cagnolaro 1982) to the colourful descriptions of whales. However, not unlike Pliny's descriptions 17 centuries before him, Rafinesque's cetaceans, such as Epiodon

153

Parasitological and ecological aspects of Schistosomiasis mansoni in the valley of the Paraíba do Sul River (São Paulo State, Brazil) I. Natural infection of small mammals with Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Small mammals naturally infected with Schistosoma mansoni were studied in the valley of the Paraíba do Sul river (São Paulo State, Brazil). 192 animals of 12 species were examined post mortem. Cavia aperea, Holochilus brasiliensis leucogaster, Nectomys squamipes squamipes, Oryzomys nigripes eliurus and Zygodontomys brachyurus were found infected. Most schistosome eggs found in the faeces were mature but no eggs were found in the faeces of C. aperea although adults were recovered. In the other infected animals the number of eggs per gram of faeces showed a marked daily variation. Perfusion of the portal system demonstrated that in H. b. leucogaster worms usually remained in the mesenteric veins. In C. aperea 75.7% of worms were found in the portal and intra-hepatic veins. H. b. leucogaster seems to be the rodent most likely to play a role in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis mansoni in the valley of the Paraíba do Sul river. PMID:725994

Dias, L C; Avila-Pires, F D; Pinto, A C

1978-01-01

154

42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of proficiency testing, the subspecialties of bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and...

2010-10-01

155

Veterinary Diagnostic Services Why choose us?  

E-print Network

, urinalysis, virology, bacteriology, mycology, parasitology, histopathology and post- mortem examinations Contents Feline Infectious Diseases 2-3 Canine Infectious Diseases 4 Bacteriology and Mycology 5

Maizels, Rick

156

42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of proficiency testing, the subspecialties of bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and...

2012-10-01

157

42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of proficiency testing, the subspecialties of bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and...

2014-10-01

158

42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of proficiency testing, the subspecialties of bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and...

2011-10-01

159

42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of proficiency testing, the subspecialties of bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and...

2013-10-01

160

Annual report 2007 + Polynesian sea slug.  

E-print Network

Mireille Cavaleyra, biologist, representing SNTRS-CGT ITA staff Alain Froment, doctor of medicine, parasitology Rodolphe Spichiger, faculty member, University of Geneva and Director of the Geneva Botanical

161

J. Parasitol., 90(5), 2004, pp. 11631165 American Society of Parasitologists 2004  

E-print Network

. Behrendt, W. Clauss, H. Zahner*, and C. Hermosilla*, Institute of Animal Physiology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Wartweg 95, 35392 Giessen, Germany; *Institute for Parasitology, Justus Liebig University

Siddall, Mark E.

162

doi:10.1128/mBio.00197-13. 4(4): .mBio.Associated with Virulence  

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of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdoma; Wellcome Centre for Molecular, United Kingdomb; Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool

Steve Kemp

163

BioMed Central Open Access  

E-print Network

, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland, 7Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand , 8Center for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Oxford, UK, 9National Center for Parasitology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 41, No.6, Jun 2012, pp.65-71 Original Article Inhibition of Leishmania major PTR1 Gene Expression by Anti-  

E-print Network

, A Haghighi 4, F Mahboudi 5, M Mohebali 6, *B Kazemi 2, 3 1. Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, School and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 5. Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran 6. Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, School

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

Follow-up of Card Agglutination Trypanosomiasis Test (CATT) positive but apparently aparasitaemic individuals in Cote d'Ivoire: evidence for a complex and heterogeneous population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aetiological diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is based on the detection of the para- site, but currently available parasitological tests have low sensitivity and are hampered by fluctuating para- sitaemia. The identification of seropositive individuals on whom to focus parasitological examination is based on antibody detection by means of the Card Agglutination Trypanosomiasis Test (CATT\\/T.b.gambi- ense). A

Andre Garcia; Vincent Jamonneau; Eddy Magnus; Claude Laveissiere; Veerle Lejon; Paul N'guessan; Louis N'dri; Nestor Van Meirvenne; Philippe Buscher

2000-01-01

166

Field evaluation of a fast anti- Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitology. In total, 103 suspected cases were recruited for the study. Based on parasitological examination, 49 patients were

A. Hailu; G. J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H. D. F. H. Schallig

2006-01-01

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PRESENCE OF INFECTIOUS AGENTS AND PARASITES IN WILD POPULATION OF COTTONTAIL (SYLVILAGUS FLORIDANUS) AND CONSIDERATION ON ITS ROLE IN THE DIFFUSION OF PATHOGENS INFECTING HARES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three study areas located in Alessandria province (Piedmont, Italy), 271 Sylvilagus floridanus were captured for parasitological and serological survey. The parasitological research has shown the presence of ecto (ticks, fleas) and endoparasites (nematodes, protozoa), and in particular the infestation with exotic species (Euhoplopsyllus glacialis, Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Passalurus nonannulatus). Sera were tested to detect antibodies against the following

168

Kristen C. Ruegg Stanford University -Hopkins Marine Station  

E-print Network

, K. 2007. Divergence between subspecies groups of Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus ustulatus across a migratory divide of the Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus). Journal of Parasitology, 93 correlates with ecology in a migratory songbird the Swainson's thrush, Catharus ustulatus. Molecular Ecology

Palumbi, Stephen

169

42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and virology. Specific criteria for these subspecialties are found at §§ 493.911 through...

2010-10-01

170

42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and virology. Specific criteria for these subspecialties are found at §§ 493.911 through...

2012-10-01

171

42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and virology. Specific criteria for these subspecialties are found at §§ 493.911 through...

2013-10-01

172

42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and virology. Specific criteria for these subspecialties are found at §§ 493.911 through...

2014-10-01

173

42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology and virology. Specific criteria for these subspecialties are found at §§ 493.911 through...

2011-10-01

174

DEPARTMENT CODE Department of Microbiology, Immunology  

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DEPARTMENT CODE Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology College of Veterinary Medicine of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology is to pursue excellence in undergraduate, graduate, and veterinary collectively should excel in basic and applied bacteriology, virology, pathology, immunology, parasitology

175

DEPARTMENT CODE Department of Microbiology, Immunology  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT CODE Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology College of Veterinary Medicine, Immunology, and Pathology is to pursue excellence in biomedical research, undergraduate education, graduate collectively should excel in basic and applied bacteriology, virology, pathology, immunology, parasitology

Stephens, Graeme L.

176

SHORT COMMUNICATION Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes)  

E-print Network

SHORT COMMUNICATION Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia the parasitological washing out method, we examined the intestines of 428 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for the presence

Boyer, Edmond

177

August 2012 Volume 9, Issue 2  

E-print Network

in the Department of Zoology, Professor Pratt taught and conducted research in invertebrate zoology and parasitology. Su Sponaugle, a Professor in OSU's Department of Zoology and Dr. Cowen's wife. Her position includes

178

EPIFLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY AND SOLID PHASE CYTOMETRY AS CONFIRMATORY METHODS FOR THE ENUMERATION OF PROTOZOA BY FLOW CYTOMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The detection of infective protozoan parasites contained in large volume environmental samples represents a unique challenge in environmental parasitology. Compounding this problem is the fact that infective stages of many protozoan parasites do not readily replicate in media or ...

179

Serum proteins, indirect fluorescent antibody titers and complement fixing antibody titers in dexamethasone exacerbated anaplasmosis carrier calves  

E-print Network

proteins were compared with other serological and parasitological parameters of infection. LITERATURE REVIEW Anaplasmosis is a highly infectious disease of cattle recognized principally by clinical signs of fever, anemia, and icterus. Other...

Johnson, Lloran Wesley

2012-06-07

180

"report" --2004/11/1 --17:08 --page 1 --#1 Modelling of  

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Barnisha September 2004 aLiverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology Group at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. 2 #12;i "report" -- 2004/11/1 -- 17:08 -- page 3 -- #4 i Abstract We

Atkinson, Katie

181

A simple data reduction method for high resolution1 LC/MS data in metabolomics2  

E-print Network

Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp B-2000, Belgium.15 - Prof. Dr. J. C. Dujardin; tel: +32 3247 6358 Parasitology,17 Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp B-2000, Belgium.18 - Dr. D. G. Watson; tel: +44 141

Breitling, Rainer

182

Eur. J. Biochem. 218, 29-37 (1993) Phenotype of recombinant Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi  

E-print Network

Department of Medical Parasitology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, England (Received June 2 of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, England, WCZE 7HT Abbreviations. GSH, glutathione

Schnaufer, Achim

183

CURRICULUM VITAE Scott D. Snyder  

E-print Network

. Sloan Foundation Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Molecular Evolution. University of New Mexico. 1996 the oblong turtle, Chelodina oblonga, (Pleurodira: Chelidae) in Western Australia. Comparative Parasitology, Camallanidae) from freshwater turtles (Pleurodira: Chelidae), in the Kimberley, Western Australia. Comparative

Snyder, Scott D.

184

Impact of Indoor Residual Spraying of Lambda-Cyhalothrin on Malaria Prevalence and Anemia in an Epidemic-Prone District of Muleba, North-Western Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The Government of Tanzania introduced indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Muleba district in north-western Tanzania after frequent malaria epidemics. Malaria parasitological baseline and two cross-sectional follow-up surveys were conducted in villages under the IRS program and those not under IRS to assess the impact of IRS intervention. After two rounds of IRS intervention there was a significant reduction of malaria parasitological indices in both two villages. In IRS villages overall, parasitemia prevalence was reduced by 67.2%, splenomegaly was reduced by 75.8%, whereas anemia was reduced by 50.5%. There was also a decline of malaria parasite density from 896.4 at baseline to 128.8 at second follow-up survey. Similarly, there was also a reduction of malaria parasitological indices in non-IRS villages; however, parasitological indices in IRS villages remained far below the levels in non-IRS villages. The reduction of malaria parasitological indices in non-IRS villages might have been contributed by interventions other than IRS. PMID:23458959

Mashauri, Fabian M.; Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Magesa, Stephen M.; Kishamawe, Coleman; Mwanga, Joseph R.; Nnko, Soori E.; Malima, Robert C.; Mero, Chacha N.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.

2013-01-01

185

[Experience in using ecdisten in the treatment of hymenolepiasis].  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of clinical and parasitological studies in 22 patients with hymenolepiasis after treatment with ecdisten. The drug was used in a dose of 5 ml thrice a day during two weeks. It normalized all clinical symptoms in 8 patients and improved most of them in other patients. The results of helminthoovoscopy were interpreted in terms of clinical data. The parasitological efficacy of ecdisten is 36.4%. Its good tolerance, no contraindications, and easiness-to-use permit the drug to be recommended as a supplementary health-improving medication. PMID:22536744

Makhmudova, L B

2012-01-01

186

Special Publication No. 3, Ticks And Tickborne Diseases, III. Checklist Of Families, Genera, Species, And Subspecies Of Ticks  

E-print Network

to Tropical Medicine, p. 1+80) 1911 : Boophilus annulatus (Gedoelst, L., Synopsis de Parasitologic, p. 152) armata Neumann, L. G., (1905A), 238 (Arch. Parasit., v. 9 ?2?? I905 : Haemaphysalis flava armatus Pocock, R. I., (19OOA), 50-51, pi. Ill, figs. 2...

Doss, Mildred A.; Anastos, George

187

Magnetic resonance imaging in entomology: a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables in vivo imaging of organisms. The recent development of the magnetic resonance microscope (MRM) has enabled organisms within the size range of many insects to be imaged. Here, we introduce the principles of MRI and MRM and review their use in entomology. We show that MRM has been successfully applied in studies of parasitology, development,

Ratnieks F. L. W

188

Central Asia Regional IPM CRSP Project Report: October 2007-March 2008 Submitted by: Dr. K. Maredia and Dr. D. Baributsa  

E-print Network

: Research plots established in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to test native plants for their attractiveness and the Institute of Zoology and Parasitology, 24 local nectar plants are being tested in Tajikistan. In Kyrgyzstan into existing vegetable farming systems, a workshop on "Landscape Ecology Concept" was conducted in Tajikistan

189

ACUTE CHAGAS' DISEASE IN WESTERN VENEZUELA: A CLINICAL, SEROPARASITOLOGIC, AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected

NESTOR ANEZ; HUGO CARRASCO; HENRY PARADA; GLADYS CRISANTE; AGUSTINA ROJAS; NESTOR GONZALEZ; JOSE LUIS RAMIREZ; PALMIRA GUEVARA; CHRISTIAN RIVERO; RAFAEL BORGES; JOSE VICENTE SCORZA

190

Evaluation of various diagnostic techniques for Trypanosoma evansi infections in naturally infected camels  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and eight camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Trypanosoma evansi endemic areas of the Thar Desert of Rajasthan State, India, were evaluated by various diagnostic tests including parasitological tests (wet blood film — WBF, stained thick blood film), chemical test (mercuric chloride), biological test (mouse subinoculation — MSI), and immunodiagnostic tests based on antibody detection (double immunodiffusion test — DID,

K. M. L. Pathak; Yadvendra Singh; N. V. Meirvenne; M. Kapoor

1997-01-01

191

Multiparasitism - a Neglected Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiparasitism: pervasive, yet seldom considered In the present context, multiparasitism (synonymous: polyparasitism) is defined as the concurrent presence of different parasite species in a single host. Parasites are members of the helminth, protozoa and arthropod families. Some studies also consider bacteria, fungi and viruses (1) but since the latter organisms fall outside traditional parasitology, they are not considered here. The

Peter Steinmann; Zun-Wei Du; Jürg Utzinger; Xiao-Nong Zhou

192

HUMAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS CAUSED BY TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI IN INDIA: THE FIRST CASE REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an Indian farmer who had fluctuating trypanosome parasitemia associated with febrile episodes for five months. Morphologic examination of the parasites indicated the presence of large numbers of trypanosomes belonging to the species Trypanosoma evansi, which is normally a causative agent of animal trypanosomiasis known as surra. Basic clinical and biologic examinations are described, using several assays, including parasitologic,

PRASHANT P. JOSHI; VIJAY R. SHEGOKAR; RAJARAM M. POWAR; STEPHANE HERDER; RAHUL KATTI; HARSHA R. SALKAR; VIBHAWARI S. DANI; ARADHANA BHARGAVA; JEAN JANNIN; PHILIPPE TRUC

193

Giardiasis in children living in post-earthquake camps from Armenia (Colombia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An earthquake in the coffee growing region of Colombia on January 25, 1999 destroyed 70% of the houses in Armenia city. Transitory housing camps still remained until two years after the disaster. Parasitological studies found that, in this population, giardiasis was the most frequent parasitic infection. This study was carried out in order to determine the epidemiological risk factors

Fabiana Lora-Suarez; Carolina Marin-Vasquez; Nelsy Loango; Martha Gallego; Elizabeth Torres; Mercedes Maria Gonzalez; Jhon Carlos Castaño-Osorio; Jorge Enrique Gómez-Marín

2002-01-01

194

Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using  

E-print Network

Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using, Blantyre 3, Malawi; d The National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, MD, and approved October 12, 2010 (received for review May 20, 2010) Malaria infections commonly

Read, Andrew

195

Prevalence of zoonotic important parasites in the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national necropsy survey of red foxes was carried out across Great Britain to record Echinococcus, Trichinella and Toxoplasma. The survey did not record directly, or indirectly using coproantigen\\/PCR tests, evidence for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in 588 animals, although E. granulosus was suspected in six animals. Parasitological evidence for Trichinella spp. could not be found in 587 fox

G. C Smith; B Gangadharan; Z Taylor; M. K Laurenson; H Bradshaw; G Hide; J. M Hughes; A Dinkel; T Romig; P. S Craig

2003-01-01

196

Echinococcus multilocularis in Svalbard, Norway: microsatellite genotyping to investigate the2 origin of a highly focal contamination.3  

E-print Network

regions. The genetic diversity of E. multilocularis in35 Svalbard was investigated here for the first time39 Arctic fox as the definitive host, were genetically separated from European temperate40, Norway18 f Institute of Genetics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland19 g Institute of Parasitology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

197

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OFPLASMODIUM FALCIPARUMMALARIA IN TWO CAMEROONIAN VILLAGES: SIMBOK AND ETOA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In support of ongoing immunologic studies on immunity to Plasmodium falciparum, demographic, entomologic, parasitologic, and clinical studies were conducted in two Cameroonian villages located 3 km apart. Simbok (population 907) has pools of water present year round that provide breeding sites for Anopheles gambiae, whereas Etoa (population 485) has swampy areas that dry up annually in which A. funestus breed.

ISABELLA A. QUAKYI; ROSE G. F. LEKE; ROSA BEFIDI-MENGUE; MARTIN TSAFACK; DENNIS BOMBA-NKOLO; LUCIEN MANGA; VIVIANE TCHINDA; EMMANUEL NJEUNGUE; SAMUEL KOUONTCHOU; JOSEPHINE FOGAKO; PHILOMENA NYONGLEMA; LUCY THUITA HARUN; ROSINE DJOKAM; GRACE SAMA; ANA ENO; ROSETTE MEGNEKOU; SIMON METENOU; LEOPOLD NDOUTSE; ALBERT SAME-EKOBO; GRACE ALAKE; JEAN MELI; JULIA NGU; FELIX TIETCHE; JEANNE LOHOUE; JOE LOUIS MVONDO; EMMANUEL WANSI; ROBERT LEKE; ALAIN FOLEFACK; JUDE BIGOGA; CECILE BOMBA-NKOLO; VINCENT TITANJI; ANNIE WALKER-ABBEY; MICHAEL A. HICKEY; ARMEAD H. JOHNSON; DIANE WALLACE TAYLOR

2000-01-01

198

Conventional PCR for molecular diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.  

PubMed

Strongyloidiasis is frequently asymptomatic and diagnosis of latent infection is difficult due to limitations of current parasitological and serological methods. This study aimed to verify the use of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for molecular diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Fresh stool samples were obtained from 103 individuals: 33 S. stercoralis positive, 30 positive for other parasites and 40 negative for parasitological methods. These samples were examined by the Lutz, Rugai and agar plate culture methods and conventional PCR assay. Two sets of primers (S. stercoralis species-specific and genus-specific sets), located in the 18S ribosomal RNA gene, were used for PCR. Of the 33 samples positive for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods, 28 (84.8%) were also detected by PCR assay using species-specific primers and 26 (78.8%) using genus-specific primers. Among the stool samples negative by parasitological methods, seven (17.5%) were positive by PCR using species-specific primers and two (5.0%) using genus-specific primers. In conclusion, the conventional PCR assay described in this study using a species-specific primer pair provided a molecular method for S. stercoralis diagnosis in human stool samples. PMID:24476900

Sitta, R B; Malta, F M; Pinho, J R; Chieffi, P P; Gryschek, R C B; Paula, F M

2014-04-01

199

Nematode lungworms of two species of anuran amphibians: Evidence for co-adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic studies have indicated that some parasite species formerly thought to be generalists are complexes of morphologically similar species, each appearing to specialize on different host species. Studies on such species are needed to obtain ecological and parasitological data to address whether there are fitness costs in parasitizing atypical host species. We examined whether lungworms from two anuran host species,

Oluwayemisi K. Dare; Steven A. Nadler; Mark R. Forbes

2008-01-01

200

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-print Network

's personal copy Parasite age-intensity relationships in red-spotted newts: Does immune memory influence immunity for 12 parasite taxa of red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), using data from a 2-year parasitological survey of six newt populations. We estimated ages from snout-vent length (SVL) based

Rohr, Jason

201

Identification of trypanosomes isolated by KIVI from wild mammals in Côte d'Ivoire: diagnostic, taxonomic and epidemiological considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Côte d'Ivoire, a comparative study was carried out on 122 wild mammals by parasitological and serological examination and by in vitro isolation of trypanosomes from fresh blood (KIVI). Thirteen isolated stocks were studied by isoenzymes and compared with Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei bouaflé group reference stocks. Of the 122 animals, only 22 were positive on blood smears while

Philippe Truc; Pierre Formenty; Gérard Duvallet; Clarisse Komoin-Oka; Papa Boubacar Diallo; Francis Lauginie

1997-01-01

202

Color Capable Sub-Pixel Resolving Optofluidic Microscope and Its Application to Blood Cell Imaging for  

E-print Network

, California, United States of America, 2 Department of Microbiology, Division of Medical Parasitology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America, 3 Department of Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States of America Abstract

Yang, Changhuei

203

Biocontroh The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management1  

E-print Network

negligible." This is a quotation from Nathan Cobb (12) in the 1927 USDA Yearbook of Agri- culture. In recent of insect pests" published by the former Imperial Bureau of Agricultural Parasitology (39). Thereafter was the work of Glaser and his colleagues, of the New Jersey Department of Agriculture (United States

204

Recrudescence of visceral leishmaniasis in Albania: retrospective analysis of cases during 1997 to 2001 and results of an entomological survey carried out during 2001 in some districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiological status of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is almost unknown to international health organizations and to the scientific community. Results from a retrospective analysis of recent VL cases, and from an entomological survey carried out in summer 2001 are reported here. From January 1997 to December 2001, 867 parasitologically confirmed VL cases were recorded in 35 of

E. Velo; S. Bino; G. Kuli-Lito; K. Pano; L. Gradoni; M. Maroli

2003-01-01

205

Approved: October 2012 Approved Biology Advanced Course Lists  

E-print Network

Introductory Parasitology 4 cr BIOL 354 Animal Behavior 3 cr BIOL 354L Laboratory in Animal Behavior 1 cr BIOL Animal Behavior 3 cr EEOB 514 Evolutionary Ecology 3 cr EEOB 531 Conservation Biology 3 cr EEOB 534 Physiology Laboratory 1 cr BIOL 335 Princ. of Human & Other Animal Phys. 4 cr BIOL 336 Ecological

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

206

Trypanosoma evansi infection in buffaloes in north-east Thailand. I. Field investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical, parasitological and serological findings ofTrypanosoma evansi infections in buffaloes (Bubalis bubalis) from north-eastern Thailand are reported. The overall infection rate was found to be around 20% with a distinct peak of acute infections during the rainy season. The disease is aggravated by normally well tolerated concomitant infections such as liver fluke infestations and by other stress factors.

K. F. Löhr; S. Pohlpark; L. Srikitjakarn; P. Thaboran; G. Bettermann; C. Staak

1985-01-01

207

Research Focus An Australian network to support the understanding  

E-print Network

and Immunology, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, 300 Herston Road, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Research Network for Parasitology will focus and coordinate granting agencies ­ the Australian Research Council (ARC) and the National Health and Medical Research

McFadden, Geoff

208

Helminths parasitising endemic geckoes from Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitological studies on geckoes in Europe are scarce but there are even fewer in the Canary Islands. A complete survey of the helminth communities of Tarentola boettgeri boettgeri, T. b. hierrensis, T. gornerensis, T. delalandii\\u000aand T. angustirnentalis (Sauria, Lacertidae) in the Canary Islands, Spain, was recently carried out. Larval cestodes constitute a significant part of the helminth community parasitising

V. Roca; J. E. Martin; E. Carbonell

1999-01-01

209

Epidemiology and biology of nematodofauna affecting Testudo hermanni , Testudo graeca and Testudo marginata in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tortoises of the genus Testudo living in Italy are Testudo hermanni, Testudo graeca and Testudo marginata. Although a great deal of information has been acquired on the internal medicine and surgery on these animals, little is known of their parasitological fauna. A survey on the presence of gastro-intestinal parasitic nematodes in tortoises bred in Italy was carried out to acquire

Donato Traversa; Gioia Capelli; Raffaella Iorio; Salah Bouamer; Angelo Cameli; Annunziata Giangaspero

2005-01-01

210

Hymenochirine anurans (Pipidae) as transport hosts in camallanid nematode life-cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parasitological survey of aquatic hymenochirine toads (Pipidae) from tropical Africa indicated the occurrence of camallanid larvae in these hosts is a regular ecological phenomenon. Pseudhymenochirus merlini at one site in western Sierra Leone was infected by third-stage larvae of a Camallanus species occurring in the intestine. Third- and fourth-stage larvae of a distinct Camallanus species occurred in the stomach

J. A. Jackson; R. C. Tinsley

1998-01-01

211

The genome of the protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica  

E-print Network

of Specific Prophylaxis and Tropical Medicine, Center for Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical University, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK 9 Department of Molecular Parasitology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht Str. 74, 20359

Arnold, Jonathan

212

Blood parasites of five species of lizards trapped in Abha Province, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Five species of lizards, Agama yemenensis, A. adramitana, Chamaeleo chamaeleon, C. calyptratus and Acanthodactylus baskinaus were trapped alive from Abha Province. Serological and parasitological examinations of blood revealed antibodies against toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis. Blood films showed Hepatozoon spp. The results were discussed with reference to their role as reservoir hosts. PMID:9914710

al Sadoon, M K; el Bahrawy, A F

1998-12-01

213

Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril\\u000a may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the

Serdar Pasa; Huseyin Voyvoda; Tulin Karagenc; Abidin Atasoy; Serkal Gazyagci

214

Effects of the Trematode Uvulifer ambloplitis on Juvenile Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus: Ecological Implications  

E-print Network

Effects of the Trematode Uvulifer ambloplitis on Juvenile Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus the following article: Effects of the Trematode Uvulifer ambloplitis on Juvenile Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus: Ecological Implications A. Dennis Lemly; Gerald W. Esch The Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 70, No

Wisenden, Brian D.

215

Cover photo: Group activities help young people build nurturing relationships. Sangath is a non-governmental non-profit organisation based in Goa, which focuses on child  

E-print Network

and Population Health 71 Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases 76 Faculty of Public Health and Policy 81's Degrees 21 Studying Master's Degrees in London 23 Control of Infectious Diseases 26 Demography and Health of Infectious Diseases 31 Medical Entomology for Disease Control 32 Medical Microbiology 33 Medical Parasitology

Maizels, Rick

216

ARCTIC BIODIVERSITY: FROM DISCOVERY TO FAUNAL BASELINES-REVEALING THE HISTORY OF A DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of parasite biodiversity contributes to new and exciting approaches to understand the structure, history and future of the Arctic fauna. As a discovery- based process the Beringian Coevolution Project and activities under the umbrella of the Research Group for Arctic Parasitology serve as...

217

Investigations on the aetiology of pinching off syndrome in four white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the aetiology of the pinching off syndrome (POS), a generalized feather abnormality affecting free-living nestling of the white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Europe. For the first time, extensive clinical, haematological, biochemical, virological, bacteriological, nutritional, histopathological, parasitological and electron microscopical examinations were performed on three females and one male suffering from POS.

Kerstin Müller; Elvira Schettler; Helga Gerlach; Leo Brunnberg; Hafez Mohamed Hafez; Kim Hattermann; Reimar Johne; Rainer Kollmann; Oliver Krone; Michael Lierz; Sonja Linke; Dörte Lueschow; Annette Mankertz; Hermann Müller; Christina Prusas; Rüdiger Raue; Dirk Soike; Stephanie Speck; Petra Wolf; Kai Frölich

2007-01-01

218

Amphibian deformities and Ribeiroia infection: an emerging helminthiasis  

E-print Network

originated near Henderson, MN, USA, in 1995, when a group of middle-school children stumbled upon a pond from numerous hotspots implicates infec- tion by a trematode parasite ­ Ribeiroia ondatrae (pieter@jsd.claremont.edu). Update TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.19 No.8 August 2003332 http://parasites

Johnson, Pieter

219

Socio-environmental conditions, intestinal parasitic infections and nutritional status in children from a suburban neighborhood of La Plata, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections in children aged 1–12 years from a poor neighborhood in La Plata, Argentina, and determined the correlations with their nutritional status and socio-environmental conditions. We performed parasitological analyses with anal brushed technique (for Enterobius vermicularis eggs) and fecal samples, employing the techniques of Ritchie, Carles Barthelemy and Willis. The worm burdens of nematodes were estimated

María I. Gamboa; Graciela T. Navone; Alicia B. Orden; María F. Torres; Luis E. Castro; Evelia E. Oyhenart

2011-01-01

220

The wonder of it all: Larry Simpson on becoming a scientist and a teacher  

E-print Network

capturing ani- mals in the Amazon forest and looking for parasites. As soon as I got back to New York, I or intellectual satisfaction, nor was dealing with the huge animals that the flower children always brought was working on (molecular parasitology) and selected important disease-causing parasites that had been

Simpson, Larry

221

Mapping the probability of schistosomiasis and associated uncertainty, West Africa.  

PubMed

We aimed to map the probability of Schistosoma haematobium infection being >50%, a threshold for annual mass praziquantel distribution. Parasitologic surveys were conducted in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger, 2004-2006, and predictions were made by using Bayesian geostatistical models. Clusters with >50% probability of having >50% prevalence were delineated in each country. PMID:18826832

Clements, Archie C A; Garba, Amadou; Sacko, Moussa; Touré, Seydou; Dembelé, Robert; Landouré, Aly; Bosque-Oliva, Elisa; Gabrielli, Albis F; Fenwick, Alan

2008-10-01

222

Malaria: even more chronic in nature than previously thought; evidence for subpatent parasitaemia detectable by the polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high endemicity areas, malaria is a chronic disease: examination of blood films reveals that up to half of the population, particularly children, harbour parasites at any one given time. The parasitological status of the remainder was addressed using the polymerase chain reaction, a technique 100 to 1000 times more sensitive than microscopy, on a series of samples from Dielmo,

Emmanuel Bottius; Antonella Guanzirolli; Jean-François Trape; Christophe Rogier; L. Konate; Pierre Druilhe

1996-01-01

223

Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections on a national scale among primary schoolchildren in Laos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the epidemiological situation of intestinal parasite infections in Laos, parasitological surveys were carried out on a national scale including 17 provinces and the Vientiane Municipality. A total of 29,846 stool specimens were collected from primary schoolchildren from May 2000 to June 2002 and examined once with the cellophane thick smear technique. The cumulative egg positive rate

Han-Jong Rim; Jong-Yil Chai; Duk-Young Min; Seung-Yull Cho; Keeseon S. Eom; Sung-Jong Hong; Woon-Mok Sohn; Tai-Soon Yong; Giovanni Deodato; Hanne Standgaard; Bounlay Phommasack; Cheong-Ha Yun; Eui-Hyug Hoang

2003-01-01

224

NCORRECTEDPROOF MOLBIO 9584 17  

E-print Network

cystatins) are2 well-established as key players in the breakdown of pathogen3 proteins for host immune & Biochemical Parasitology xxx (2004) xxx­xxx epithelium, express cathespin S (CatS) and chemical inhibi-21 tion or genetic knockout of CatS function has the most

Maizels, Rick

225

Entamoeba gingivalis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kansas State University offers a few pictures and interesting tidbits on tooth amoebas, the toothbrush-fleeing microscopic parasites found where the teeth meet the gums. These photos and facts are part of a tutorial for Steve J. Upton's Animal Parasitology course at Kansas State University. Interestingly, 1% of all females with IUD's harbor uterine E. gingivalis.

Upton, Steve J.

226

Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.  

PubMed

Abstract :? Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture. PMID:25260074

Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

2014-12-01

227

Bayesian geostatistics in health cartography: the perspective of malaria  

PubMed Central

Maps of parasite prevalences and other aspects of infectious diseases that vary in space are widely used in parasitology. However, spatial parasitological datasets rarely, if ever, have sufficient coverage to allow exact determination of such maps. Bayesian geostatistics (BG) is a method for finding a large sample of maps that can explain a dataset, in which maps that do a better job of explaining the data are more likely to be represented. This sample represents the knowledge that the analyst has gained from the data about the unknown true map. BG provides a conceptually simple way to convert these samples to predictions of features of the unknown map, for example regional averages. These predictions account for each map in the sample, yielding an appropriate level of predictive precision. PMID:21420361

Patil, Anand P.; Gething, Peter W.; Piel, Frédéric B.; Hay, Simon I.

2011-01-01

228

Cyclosporins: Lack of Correlation between Antischistosomal Properties and Inhibition of Cyclophilin Isomerase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khattab, A., Pica-Mattoccia, L., Klinkert, M. Q., Wenger, R., and Cioli, D. 1998. Cyclosporins: Lack of correlation between antischistosomal properties and inhibition of cyclophilin isomerase activity.Experimental Parasitology90, 103–109. The immunosuppressive fungal products cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506 bind with high affinity to intracellular receptor proteins: cyclophilin (CYP) is one of the receptors for CsA and FK506-binding protein (FKBP) is one

A Khattab; L Pica-Mattoccia; M. Q Klinkert; R Wenger; D Cioli

1998-01-01

229

Detection of Giardia lamblia Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens by a SolidPhase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay (Medical Chemical Corporation) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects Giardia lamblia in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens. Testing 106 Giardia-positive and 104 Giardia-negative stool specimens yielded a sensitivity of 97.2% and a specificity of 100% for the SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay. Revised ordering options related to diagnostic parasitology testing include ova and

Lynne S. Garcia; John Paul Garcia

2006-01-01

230

Liver fluke (Opisthorchiidae) findings in red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) in the eastern part of the Federal State Brandenburg, Germany – a contribution to the epidemiology of opisthorchiidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitological examination of 677 livers from red foxes shot in connection with a rabies control programme were carried\\u000a out in the eastern districts of the Federal State Brandenburg\\/Germany in 1996. Of the foxes, 32.5% were positive for opisthorchiid\\u000a flukes. Metorchis bilis, the most frequently occurring fluke was found in 28.1% of foxes with numbers between 1 and 185. Opisthorchis felineus

Rolf Schuster; Jörg Bonin; Christoph Staubach; Rolf Heidrich

1999-01-01

231

Health assessment of the christmas island flying fox (Pteropus melanotus natalis).  

PubMed

During July-August 2010, 28 Christmas Island flying foxes (Pteropus melanotus natalis) were captured and anesthetized for examination, sample collection, and release to determine the potential role of disease in recent population declines. Measurements and samples were taken for morphologic, hematologic, biochemical, and parasitologic analysis. These are the first blood reference ranges reported for this species. These data are being used to inform investigations into conservation status and population management strategies for the Christmas Island flying fox. PMID:24807172

Hall, Jane; Rose, Karrie; Smith, Craig; De Jong, Carol; Phalen, David; Austen, Jill; Field, Hume

2014-07-01

232

High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum Infection in Carabao from Samar Province, the Philippines: Implications for Transmission and Control  

PubMed Central

Schistosoma japonicum is endemic in the Philippines, China and Indonesia, and infects more than 40 mammalian host species, all of which can act as reservoirs of infection. In China, water buffaloes have been shown to be major reservoirs of human infection. However, in the Philippines, carabao have not been considered important reservoir hosts for S. japonicum due to the low prevalence and infection intensities reported, the only exception being a qPCR-based study indicating 51% of carabao were S. japonicum-positive. However, the low prevalence found for the same animals when using conventional copro-parasitological techniques means that there is still confusion about the role of carabao in the transmission of schistosomiasis japonicum. To address this inconsistency, and to shed light on the potential role of carabao in the transmission of S. japonicum in the Philippines, we undertook a pilot survey, collecting fecal samples from animals in Western Samar Province and we used a combination of molecular and copro-parasitological techniques to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum. We found a high prevalence of S. japonicum in the carabao using a validated real-time PCR (qPCR) and a copro-parasitological tool, the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation (FEA-SD) technique. A much lower prevalence of S. japonicum was recorded for the same fecal samples using conventional PCR, the Kato-Katz technique and miracidial hatching. These results suggest that, due to their low diagnostic sensitivity, traditional copro-parasitological techniques underestimate infection in carabao. The use of FEA-SD and qPCR provides a more accurate diagnosis. Based on these findings, the role of bovines in the transmission of S. japonicum appears to be more important in the Philippines than previously recognized, and this may have significant implications for the future control of schistosomiasis there, particularly as, in contrast with previous surveys, we found an unprecedented high prevalence of S. japonicum in humans. PMID:23029571

Gordon, Catherine A.; Acosta, Luz P.; Gray, Darren J.; Olveda, Remigo M.; Jarilla, Blanca; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Ross, Allen G.; McManus, Donald P.

2012-01-01

233

The Intraperitoneal Plasmodium berghei-Pasteur Infection of Swiss Mice Is Not a System That Is Able to Detect the Antiplasmodial Activity in the Pothomorphe Plant Extracts That Are Used as Antimalarials in Brazilian Endemic Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferreira-da-Cruz, M. F., Adami, Y. L., Espinola-Mendes, É. C., Figueiredo, M. R., and Daniel-Ribeiro, C. T. 2000. The intraperitoneal Plasmodium berghei-Pasteur infection of Swiss mice is not a system that is able to detect the antiplasmodial activity in the Pothomorphe plant extracts that are used as antimalarials in Brazilian endemic areas. Experimental Parasitology94, 243–247. The antimalarial activity of the hexane

Maria de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz; Yara L. Adami; Érika da Cruz Espinola-Mendes; Maria Raquel Figueiredo; Cláudio T. Daniel-Ribeiro

2000-01-01

234

Plasmodium vivax:A Monoclonal Antibody Recognizes a Circumsporozoite Protein Precursor on the Sporozoite Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gonzalez-Ceron, L., Rodriguez, M. H., Wirtz, R. A., Sina, B. J., Palomeque, O. L., Nettel, J. A., and Tsutsumi, V. 1998.Plasmodium vivax:A monoclonal antibody recognizes a circumsporozoite protein precursor on the sporozoite surface.Experimental Parasitology90, 203–211. The major surface circumsporozoite (CS) proteins are known to play a role in malaria sporozoite development and invasion of invertebrate and vertebrate host cells.Plasmodium vivaxCS

Lilia Gonzalez-Ceron; Mario H Rodriguez; Robert A Wirtz; Barbara J Sina; Olga L Palomeque; Jose A Nettel; Victor Tsutsumi

1998-01-01

235

Mosquito PlasmodiumInteractions in Response to Immune Activation of the Vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowenberger, C. A., Kamal, S., Chiles, J., Paskewitz, S., Bulet, P., Hoffmann, J. A., and Christensen, B. M. 1999. Mosquito-Plasmodiuminteractions in response to immune activation of the vector.Experimental Parasitology91,59–69. During the development ofPlasmodiumsp. within the mosquito midgut, the parasite undergoes a series of developmental changes. The elongated ookinete migrates through the layers of the midgut where it forms the oocyst

Carl A. Lowenberger; Sofie Kamal; Jody Chiles; Susan Paskewitz; Philippe Bulet; Jules A. Hoffmann; Bruce M. Christensen

1999-01-01

236

European Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda), intermediate hosts of trematodiases, based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae are of a great parasitological importance because of the very numerous helminth species they transmit, mainly trematodiases of large medical and veterinary impact. The present knowledge on the genetics of lymnaeids and on their parasite–host inter-relationships is far from being sufficient. The family is immersed in a systematic–taxonomic confusion. The necessity for a tool

M. D Bargues; M Vigo; P Horak; J Dvorak; R. A Patzner; J. P Pointier; M Jackiewicz; C Meier-Brook; S Mas-Coma

2001-01-01

237

Organochlorine poisoning of ring-billed gulls in southern Ontario.  

PubMed

Clinical, necropsy, bacteriologic, parasitologic, histopathologic, toxicologic and animal inoculation studies suggest that organochlorine (PBC, dieldrin and DDE) poisoning was an important factor in causing deaths of free-flying ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) in southern Ontario in 1969 and 1973. The brains of gulls dying with clinical signs of neurologic involvement, and dead gulls with no other apparent cause of death, contained organochlorine residues of significantly greater levels than those found in healthy gulls shot for comparison. PMID:410957

Sileo, L; Karstad, L; Frank, R; Holdrinet, M V; Addison, E; Braun, H E

1977-07-01

238

Plasmodium gallinaceum:Differential Killing of Some Mosquito Stages of the Parasite by Insect Defensin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shahabuddin, M., Fields, I., Bulet, P., Hoffmann, J. A., and Miller, L. H. 1998.Plasmodium gallinaceum:Differential killing of some mosquito stages of the parasite by insect defensin.Experimental Parasitology89, 103–112. We examined several insect antimicrobial peptides to study their effect onPlasmodium gallinaceumzygotes, ookinetes, oocysts, and sporozoites. Only two insect defensins—Aeschna cyanea(dragon fly) andPhormia terranovae(flesh fly)—had a profound toxic effect on the oocysts

Mohammed Shahabuddin; Iesha Fields; Philippe Bulet; Jules A. Hoffmann; Louis H. Miller

1998-01-01

239

Bionomics of malaria vectors in two physiographically different areas of the epidemic-prone Thar Desert, north-western Rajasthan (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entomological and parasitological investigations were carried out on malaria vectors and disease prevalence in two sets of villages, the highly irrigated Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana (IGNP) command-area villages (Madassar and Awai), and the truly desertic non-command (unirrigated) area villages (Kanasar and Khetusar), located in different ecological conditions in the Thar Desert, north-western Rajasthan (India). Malaria prevalence, as determined through sustained

B. K Tyagi; S. P Yadav

2001-01-01

240

A longitudinal study of comparison of the Kato–Katz technique and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) for the detection of schistosomiasis japonica in China, 2001–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2001 to 2006, about one-third of the residents aged 5–65 years were selected as the subjects in a schistosome-endemic village located in Jiangxi Province, China. Every 1 year, all participants were analyzed by the Kato–Katz parasitologic examination and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Statistical analysis of the results showed the k indices ranged from 0.250 to 0.347 between the two

Yi-Biao Zhou; Mei-Xia Yang; Po Tao; Qiu-Lin Jiang; Gen-Ming Zhao; Jian-Guo Wei; Qing-Wu Jiang

2008-01-01

241

International Study to Evaluate PCR Methods for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation.Methodology\\/FindingsAn international collaborative study

Alejandro G. Schijman; Margarita Bisio; Liliana Orellana; Mariela Sued; Tomás Duffy; Ana M. Mejia Jaramillo; Carolina Cura; Frederic Auter; Vincent Veron; Yvonne Qvarnstrom; Stijn Deborggraeve; Gisely Hijar; Inés Zulantay; Raúl Horacio Lucero; Elsa Velazquez; Tatiana Tellez; Zunilda Sanchez Leon; Lucia Galvão; Debbie Nolder; María Monje Rumi; José E. Levi; Juan D. Ramirez; Pilar Zorrilla; María Flores; Maria I. Jercic; Gladys Crisante; Néstor Añez; Ana M. De Castro; Clara I. Gonzalez; Karla Acosta Viana; Pedro Yachelini; Faustino Torrico; Carlos Robello; Patricio Diosque; Omar Triana Chavez; Christine Aznar; Graciela Russomando; Philippe Büscher; Azzedine Assal; Felipe Guhl; Sergio Sosa Estani; Alexandre DaSilva; Constança Britto; Alejandro Luquetti; Janis Ladzins

2011-01-01

242

Multi-annual changes in the parasite communities of rabbitfish Siganus rivulatus (Siganidae) in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasite communities of the rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus, were used to track multi-annual changes in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, in an environment subjected to ongoing anthropogenic\\u000a impact. Parasitological data from these fish were collected from 1998 to 2000, with spring and fall samplings at three locations:\\u000a at a coral reef (OBS), at a sandy beach area (NB)

R. Dzikowski; I. Paperna; A. Diamant

2003-01-01

243

Worker productivity and the nutritional status of Kenyan road construction laborers1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of energy supplementation (group I received 200 kcal\\/day and group II received l000\\/kcal day) were examined on road workers in Kenya. Anthropometric, dietary, worker productivity, clinical hematology, and parasitology data were collected from 224 workers of both sexes or, subsamples of these workers, at base-line, midpoint, and final measurement periods. Sixty-seven percent of the work force was less

June C. Wolgemuth; Michael C. Latham; Andrew Chesher; B. Soc; D. W. T Crompton

244

The Ceratopogonid Web Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Daniel Hagan of the Institute of Anthropology & Parasitology (Georgia Southern University) maintains this Webpage on the Dipteran family Ceratopogonidae. Known to the layperson as "nuisance pests," the Ceratopogonidae include such favorites as biting midges, bloodsucking midges, and sand flies. The homepage offers a wealth of information organized into several extensive bibliographies, checklists, and catalogs; the biannual Ceratopogonidae Information Exchange (CIE) Newsletter; a Directory of Ceratopogonid Researchers; and a collection of WWW links.

245

[First record of species Dicranotaenia synsacculata Macko, 1988 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) of the goldeneye Bucephala clangula (Linneus, 1758) in Poland].  

PubMed

During parasitological studies of 32 specimens of the goldeneye Bucephala clangula L., twenty seven cestode specimens were found. Four of them, isolated from the jejunum of two young female hosts, were determinated as Dicranotaenia synsacculata Macko, 1988. We based on the shape of cirrus fused with sacculus accessorius internus, shape and size of scolex and other organs. This is the first record of this species in Poland. PMID:21179669

Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushyn, Vadym V

2010-01-01

246

Drug combination therapy in control of cryptosporidiosis in Ludhiana district of Punjab.  

PubMed

The present report describes outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in neonatal cross bred cattle calves ageing 1-2 months in an organized dairy farm. The protozoan infection was confirmed by identifying bright red oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in the faecal samples after staining with modified acid Fast Zeihl-Neelsen stain. Metronidazole and furazolidone combination was able to induce clinically and parasitological recovery. This is believed to be the first report on the successful use of this drug combination against cryptosporidiosis. PMID:24082541

Randhawa, S S; Randhawa, Swaran S; Zahid, U N; Singla, L D; Juyal, P D

2012-10-01

247

Two novel mutations of pfdhps K540T and I588F, affecting sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant response in uncomplicated falciparum malaria at Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in pfdhfr and pfdhps genes have been shown to associate with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. However, pfdhfr, pfdhps genotypes and the correlations to SP treatment outcome in Indonesia has not yet been well analysed. Methods After obtaining informed consent, 61 uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients were recruited in Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, from October 2009 to August 2010. They were treated by a single oral dose of SP and its effects on clinical and parasitological status were followed until day 28 after treatment. Occasionally, a thick smear blood film for microscopy observation and blood spot on a filter paper for pfdhfr and pfdhps genotype analysis were collected. Results Pfdhfr and pfdhps genotypes from 24 P. falciparum-infected patients consisting of adequate clinical parasitological response (ACPR) (n?=?6; 25.0%) and early treatment failure (ETF) (n?=?10; 41.7%) or late parasitological failure (LPF) (n?=?8; 33.3%) were obtained by sequencing. Two novel mutations of pfdhps gene, K540T and I588F, were determined in ten and five isolates, respectively. These mutations were present in the pfdhfr/pfdhps combined haplotypes of ANRNI/SGTGA (n?=?6), ANRNL/SGTGA (n?=?4), and ANRNI/SGEAA(588F) (n?=?5), (mutation codons are bold typed); these haplotypes were mostly belonging to parasitological failure (ETF or LPF). The parasites acquiring five mutations in pfdhfr/pfdhps haplotypes and four mutations with additional I588F did not respond adequately to SP treatment. Conclusion Many of Plasmodium falciparum infected patients in Banjar district, South Kalimantan, Indonesia did not respond adequately to SP treatment and these low ineffectiveness of SP in this area was associated with two novel mutations of pfdhps, K540T and I588F. PMID:25187019

2014-01-01

248

[Parasite fauna of the burbot Lota lota L. in body of water of the Kol'ski? peninsula].  

PubMed

The results of a parasitological study of the burbot Lota Iota L. inhabiting the Kola region are presented. 51 species of parasite were found on burbot in 16 waterbodies belonging to the White Sea and Barents Sea basins (Muxosporea - 7, Suctoria - 1, Peritricha - 6, Monogenea - 1, Cestoda - 6, Trematoda - 13, Nematoda - 6, Acanthocephala - 5, Hirudinea - 3, Bivalvia - 1 and Crustacea - 2 species). Data on the infestation of burbot by different parasite species and their prevalence in investigated waterbodies were obtained. PMID:16913298

Mitenev, V K; Shul'man, B S

2006-01-01

249

Plasmodium falciparum:Mutation Pattern in the Dihydrofolate Reductase–Thymidylate Synthase Genes of Vietnamese Isolates, a Novel Mutation, and Coexistence of Two Clones in a Thai Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZINDROU, S., DUNG, N. P., SY, N. D., SKÖLD, O., and SWEDBERG, G. 1996.Plasmodium falciparum:Mutation pattern in the dihydrofolate reductase–thymidylate synthase genes of Vietnamese isolates, a novel mutation, and coexistence of two clones in a Thai patient.Experimental Parasitology84,56–64. Pyrimethamine and cycloguanil resistance ofPlasmodium falciparumhas been linked to mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) portion of thedhfr-tsgene. In this paper, the

Sherwan Zindrou; Nguyen Phuong Dung; Nguyen Duy Sy; Ola Sköld; Göte Swedberg

1996-01-01

250

Long-term monitoring of endoparasites in birds-of-paradise at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, Doha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We evaluated,results,of over 4400 documented,faecal,parasitological,examinations,between,2000 and 2007 in more than 90 individuals of six species of Birds of Paradise (BoP). Between 2000 and 2007, 83.2% of investigated samples were negative for parasites, and the number of negative samples increased consistently over the years; in positive samples, the proportion of Capillaria sp decreased (from 100% to 4.8%) and that,of Coccidia

2009-01-01

251

OCORRÊNCIA DE ENTEROPARASITOS EM CRIANÇAS ATENDIDAS NO PROGRAMA DE SAÚDE DA FAMÍLIA DE UMA AREA DE ABRANGÊNCIA DO MUNICÍPIO DE VESPASIANO, MINAS GERAIS, BRASIL OCCURRENCE OF PARASITIC DISEASES IN CHILDREN ASSISTED AT THE FAMILY HEALTH PROGRAM OF A VESPASIANO CITY DISTRICT, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL OCURRENCIA DE ENFERMEDADES PARÁSITAS EN NIÑOS ATENDIDOS EN EL PROGRAMA DE LA SALUD DE LA FAMILIA, EN AREA DE ABRANGENCIA DEL MUNICIPIO DE VESPASIANO, MINAS GERAIS, BRASIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greatest copro-parasitological researches were developed until the 70´s in Brazil. In despite of the intestinal parasites are very important, because constitutes a severe problem to public health, contributing to the aggravation of the social, economical and medical problems. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of the most frequent enteroparasites among children (0-10 years old),

Moisés E. S. Santos; Thaia Ogando; Bruna P. V. Fonseca; Carmelino E. G. Júnior

252

Prevalence of Microsporidium and Other Intestinal Parasites in Children from Malatya, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasite infections are common during the critical developmental period in children. The occurrences of intestinal parasites\\u000a are also common in orphanage, nurseries and schools in Turkey. The study was carried out to determine the percentage of microsporidium\\u000a and intestinal parasites in children from Malatya, Turkey. This study was carried out at the Department of Parasitology of\\u000a Inonu University, Turgut Ozal

Sinan CalikUlku KaramanCemil Colak; Ulku Karaman; Cemil Colak

253

Acanthamoeba castellanii: Characterization of an Adhesin Molecule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kennett, M. J., Hook, R. R., Jr., Franklin, C. L., and Riley, L. K. 1999. Acanthamoeba castellanii: Characterization of an adhesin molecule. Experimental Parasitology92, 161–169. Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living protozoan that causes keratitis in humans and has been associated with pneumonia and granulomatous amebic encephalitis in dogs, sheep, and other species. Adherence of the Acanthamoeba to epithelial cells is

Mary J. Kennett; Reuel R. Hook; Craig L. Franklin; Lela K. Riley

1999-01-01

254

[Would not the Taenia be folium?].  

PubMed

The name of Taenia solium is a problem for the latinists because solium cannot mean solitary. In some incunabula, appears the word folium. Because they studied latin and parasitology and because they know the possibility to confuse the s and the f in the gothic types, the authors are convinced, that the segment of the tapeworm, in the Breviarium attributed to Arnau de Vilanova, from which is originated the name of this worm was compared to a leaf (folium). PMID:11625397

Cordero del Campillo, M; Rousset, J J

1997-01-01

255

Chloroquine Blood Levels After Administration of the Liposome-Encapsulated Drug in Relation to Therapy of Murine Malaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous report (P. A. M. Peeters, C. W. E. M. Huiskamp, W. M. C. Eling, and D. J. A. Crommelin. Parasitology, 1989, in press) an increase in therapeutic and prophylactic potential was found when chloroquine (CQ) was encapsulated in fluid-state liposomes (lipCQ) and tested in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice in comparison to intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of the free drug.

Pierre A. M. Peeters; Karen de Leest; Wijnand M. C. Eling; Daan J. A. Crommelin

1989-01-01

256

Application and evaluation of a molecular approach for detection of the schistosomicidal effect of Mirazid® (myrrh) in the murine model  

PubMed Central

The conventional PCR technique was used for studying the schistosomicidal effect of Mirazid® in the murine model. Results of the molecular study were compared with the parasitological results (ova and worm count). The used PCR technique was more sensitive than the Kato-Katz thick smears. Mirazid® showed some schistosomicidal effects against murine Schistosoma mansoni. However, it was not efficient enough to cure any of the studied mice.

Lotfy, Wael M.; Nageh, Aly M.; Hussein, Neveen A.; Hassan, Ashraf A.

2012-01-01

257

The Unfortunate Nurse A Case Study of Dengue Fever and Social Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on an actual incident in which dengue virus was transmitted by an accidental needlestick, this case study introduces students to “emerging pathogens” and other concepts in parasitology, immunology, epidemiology, and public policy. Students also read a primary paper and learn about two modern techniques widely used in medical and research settings (i.e., EIA and Taqman RT-PCR). The case is suitable for general education biology, cell biology, microbiology, immunology, and science and public policy courses.

Karen M. Aguirre

2007-01-01

258

[Dynamics of intestinal schistosomiasis in Cameroon: evolution of transmission in the mixed zone of Nkolmébanga, Lékié].  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to evaluate the current status of shistosomiasis in the Nkolmébanga region (Lékié) of Cameroon, previously determined to be a mixed zone harboring both Schistosoma mansoni and S. intercalatum. Study involved both malacology with collection and identification of freshwater snails in four waterpools and parasitology with collection and analysis of stools from schoolchildren. Five species of freshwater snails were identified including two that were intermediate host of Schistosomes, i.e., Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus forskalii. Only B. pfeifferi species collected from the Momboh and Mbonsoh Rivers shed Schistosoma cercaria. A total of 347 schoolchildren were enrolled but only 200 provided stools for parasitological testing. There were 93 boys and 107 girls. Parisitology demonstrated S. intercalatum eggs in the stools of no children. S. mansoni eggs were identified in the stools of 10 children for a prevalence of 5%. Parasitic load ranged from 24 to 1104 eggs per gram of stool. In this study both malacologic and parasitological findings suggested that S. mansoni persists in Nkolmébanga region but that S. intercalatum has disappeared probably as a result of deforestation and urbanization. PMID:15615385

Njiokou, F; Yimta Tsemo, L C; Kuete, T; Same Ekobo, A

2004-01-01

259

Cost-effectiveness of competing diagnostic-therapeutic strategies for visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed Central

Reported are the results of a formal decision analysis which facilitated the choice of the most appropriate test-treatment strategy for visceral leishmaniasis in areas where the disease is endemic. The following strategies were compared: treatment of all suspects (strategy A); testing by means of parasitological investigation followed by treatment of positives (strategy B); two-step testing by means of the direct agglutination test (DAT) followed by treatment of patients with high titres as well as those with parasitologically confirmed borderline titres (strategy C); and DAT followed by treatment of positives (strategy D). The results for each strategy were expressed as costs in US$ per death averted. The effectiveness of strategies C and D was close to that of strategy A and far better than that of strategy B. The cost-effectiveness ratio for strategies C and D (US$ 465 per death averted) was not substantially higher than that of testing by means of parasitological investigation followed by treatment of positives (strategy B), which was the most cost-effective strategy at US$448 per death averted. At current prices of antimonial drugs, the cost of test-treatment strategies depends more on the cost of treatment than on that of testing. The use of a sensitive serological test such as the DAT is recommended as the basis of test-treatment strategies for visceral leishmaniasis in areas where the disease is endemic. PMID:10516788

Boelaert, M.; Lynen, L.; Desjeux, P.; Van der Stuyft, P.

1999-01-01

260

Application of real-time PCR for the detection of Strongyloides spp. in clinical samples in a reference center in Spain.  

PubMed

Strongyloidiasis is one of the major intestinal helminthic infections in humans with a worldwide distribution, affecting especially tropical and subtropical regions. This disease can occur without any symptoms or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. Definitive diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection relies mainly on demonstration of larvae in stool, but at present there is no gold standard for this diagnosis. Our main objective was to evaluate a real-time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene of Strongyloides spp. and to compare it with routine parasitological methods. DNA from Strongyloides venezuelensis was used to optimize PCR protocols obtaining an analytical sensitivity of 0.1pg of parasite DNA per sample. Sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR on fecal samples from 231 patients screened for suspected strongyloidiasis attending two hospitals in Madrid were 93.8% and 86.5%, respectively. No significant differences were found when comparing Ct-values of positive PCR between parasitological positive and negative samples. This study showed that real-time PCR is an effective tool for diagnosing strongyloidiasis and could be applied in association with parasitological methods in epidemiological studies in endemic areas. It would be also important to assess its performance in immunocompromised populations who are at risk of fatal disease. PMID:25447829

Saugar, José M; Merino, Francisco J; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Ortega, Sheila; Gárate, Teresa; Rodríguez, Esperanza

2015-02-01

261

A conventional polymerase chain reaction-based method for the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis in stool samples from individuals in a low-endemicity area  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil. Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. Groups I-IV were scored negative for S. mansoni eggs by parasitological examination. Groups I and II were ELISA reactive, whereas Groups III and IV were ELISA nonreactive. Groups II and III were positive for other intestinal parasites. PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. Group V represented the S. mansoni -positive group and it included ELISA-reactive samples that were scored positive for S. mansoni by one or more parasitological examinations (6/19 were positive by Kato-Katz method, 9/17 by saline gradient and 10/13 by Helmintex®). PCR scored 13 of these 19 samples as positive for S. mansoni . We conclude that while none of these methods yielded 100% sensitivity, a combination of techniques should be effective for improving the detection of S. mansoni infection in low-endemicity areas. PMID:24402156

Carneiro, Teiliane Rodrigues; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; de Oliveira, Sara Menezes; Peralta, José Mauro; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer Moraes

2013-01-01

262

An explicit immunogenetic model of gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheep-Teladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of host-parasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649

Prada Jiménez de Cisneros, Joaquín; Stear, Michael J; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise

2014-10-01

263

An explicit immunogenetic model of gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheep–Teladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of host–parasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649

Prada Jiménez de Cisneros, Joaquín; Stear, Michael J.; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise

2014-01-01

264

[Professor Czes?aw Gerwel (MD)--100th anniversary of birthday].  

PubMed

Professor Czes?aw Gerwel (1909-1974) physician and outstanding parasitologist set the base of clinical parasitology in Poland and organized first in Poland hospital ward for parasitic diseases in Poznan (1962) first affiliated with Chair of Biology and Parasitology at Medical School and later functioning as an independent clinical ward, which he headed until 1970. He initiated organization of District Parasitological Clinics by setting first such a clinic in Pozna?. He scientific work he focused on diagnostic problems as well as clinical pathology and treatment of parasitic diseases of gastrointestinal system. He participated in comprehensive studies of trichinosis. In 1941-1944 he was working in the National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, now National Institute of Public Health--PZH, which at that time operated under name "Das General gouvernerus Stattlichen Institut fur Hygiene in Warschau" in the section of typhus. He was involved in underground conspiracy of AK (Home Army) with pseudonym "Orlos" belonging to the group of people smuggling typhus vaccine produced in the PZH to Warsaw Ghetto and to underground troops. In 1942-1944 he studied medicine in Polish Underground University of Western Territories functioning in PZH under supervision of Feliks Przesmycki. PMID:20976963

Kociecka, Wanda

2010-01-01

265

 

PubMed Central

The object of this study was to (a) reduce the prevalence of sleeping sickness by serological testing, parasitological examination, and treatment of every infected person; (b) determine the maximum acceptable interval between serological surveys; and (c) define the impact of vector control, using monopyramidal non-impregnated traps, on the transmission. For this sero-parasitological survey, the focus in Luba was divided into three zones as follows: Epicentre A (with high prevalence, 27.5%), Epicentre B (with average prevalence, 8.3%), and Peripheral C (with moderate prevalence, 3.0%). Differences in the prevalence rates in the Epicentres and Peripheral zone permitted the use of three different approaches for control and epidemiological follow-up of the disease: (1) Serological examination of the entire population was carried out by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), with six-month intervals in Epicentres A and B and once a year in the Peripheral zone C. (2) Diagnosis and treatment: all IFAT seropositives were examined in Luba hospital for parasites, and every parasitologically confirmed patient was treated according to the WHO protocol of 1983. Another serological test (CATT) was applied to cases in which trypanosomes were not present and if this was positive, the CSF was examined. Cases with parasites and abnormal CSF were treated with melarsoprol, and those with a normal CSF received pentamidine. CATT-negative and parasite-negative cases were considered to be false-positives by IFAT and free of the disease. (3) Vector control: 74 monopyramidal traps (18 traps per km2) were set up in Epicentre A. The flies captured were collected once a month and sent to the programme's laboratory where they were identified and counted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1934239

Simarro, P. P.; Sima, F. O.; Mir, M.; Mateo, M. J.; Roche, J.

1991-01-01

266

Evaluation of a gp63–PCR Based Assay as a Molecular Diagnosis Tool in Canine Leishmaniasis in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

A gp63PCR method was evaluated for the detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) (L.) parasites in canine lymph node aspirates. This tool was tested and compared to other PCRs based on the amplification of 18S ribosomal genes, a L. infantum specific repetitive sequence and kinetoplastic DNA minicircles, and to classical parasitological (smear examination and/or culture) or serological (IFAT) techniques on a sample of 40 dogs, originating from different L. infantum endemic regions in Tunisia. Sensitivity and specificity of all the PCR assays were evaluated on parasitologically confirmed dogs within this sample (N?=?18) and control dogs (N?=?45) originating from non–endemic countries in northern Europe and Australia. The gp63 PCR had 83.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity, a performance comparable to the kinetoplast PCR assay and better than the other assays. These assays had comparable results when the gels were southern transferred and hybridized with a radioactive probe. As different infection rates were found according to the technique, concordance of the results was estimated by (?) test. Best concordance values were between the gp63PCR and parasitological methods (74.6%, 95% confidence intervals CI: 58.8–95.4%) or serology IFAT technique (47.4%, 95% CI: 23.5–71.3%). However, taken together Gp63 and Rib assays covered most of the samples found positive making of them a good alternative for determination of infection rates. Potential of the gp63PCR-RFLP assay for analysis of parasite genetic diversity within samples was also evaluated using 5 restriction enzymes. RFLP analysis confirmed assignment of the parasites infecting the dogs to L. infantum species and illustrated occurrence of multiple variants in the different endemic foci. Gp63 PCR assay thus constitutes a useful tool in molecular diagnosis of L. infantum infections in dogs in Tunisia. PMID:25153833

Guerbouj, Souheila; Djilani, Fattouma; Bettaieb, Jihene; Lambson, Bronwen; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Salah, Afif; Ben Ismail, Riadh; Guizani, Ikram

2014-01-01

267

Comparison of PCR-based diagnoses for visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is performed using multiple methods encompassing parasitological, serological and nucleic acid-based diagnostic tools, each method with its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Conventional parasitological methods are risky for the patient and require skilled personnel to collect specimens from spleen or bone marrow, and hence they are not generally available in impoverished areas. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been validated as an excellent alternative to microscopy in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Here, we evaluate four different PCR assays targeting ITS1, ITS2, mini-exon and small subunit-rRNA (SSUrRNA) using DNA extracted from peripheral blood buffy coat in order to avoid more invasive processes. A total of 61 VL patients and 75 non-VL infected control individuals were enrolled. The VL patients were confirmed to be positive for Leishmania amastigotes in splenic smears by microscopy. Sensitivities of the PCR targeting ITS1, ITS2, SSUrRNA and mini-exon were 96.7%, 91.8%, 88.5% and 34.4%, respectively, while the specificity was 98.7% for all methods. Nested PCR for ITS1 resulted in 100% sensitivity. The efficacy of each PCR was evaluated with various Leishmania amastigote parasite loads in each spleen smear, graded from 1+ to 5+. The PCR targeting ITS1 showed 100% sensitivity for the detection of Leishmania donovani in all samples from grades ?3, ?4, and ?5, respectively. The restriction fragment length polymorphism observed in ITS1 amplicons digested by HaeIII classified the parasite into L. donovani complex. The ITS1 PCR was found to be equal to conventional, but very invasive and risky parasitological diagnoses and superior to other PCR based methods in sensitivity and examination of genetic heterogeneity. We recommend the PCR targeting ITS1 using peripheral blood buffy coat DNA as an alternate, less invasive diagnostic choice for the confirmation of L. donovani infection. PMID:24333754

Khan, Md Gulam Musawwir; Bhaskar, Khondaker Rifat Hasan; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Salam, Md Abdus; Akther, Tania; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Hamano, Shinjiro

2014-04-01

268

Evaluation of the sensitivity of IgG and IgM ELISA in detecting Schistosoma mansoni infections in a low endemicity setting.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a major public health concern, with 200 million people infected worldwide. In Brazil, this disease has been reported in 19 states, and its prevalence in the city of Barra Mansa in Rio de Janeiro State is 1 %. The parasitological diagnostic methods currently available in these areas lack sensitivity; however, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been employed successfully for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis by using antibodies against antigens of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms and eggs, and for the detection of circulating antigens. The objective of this study was to determine systematically the prevalence of S. mansoni infection in the peripheral areas of Barra Mansa. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to December 2011 by using probabilistic sampling that collected 610 fecal samples and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgG with total extracts and ELISA-IgM with trichloroacetic acid-soluble fractions were employed to detect antibodies against S. mansoni and were compared with the Kato-Katz and Hoffman parasitological techniques. Among the individuals studied, anti-S. mansoni antibodies were detected in 11.16 % (n = 71) by ELISA-IgG and in 20.75 % (n = 132) by ELISA-IgM, while the parasitological techniques showed 0.82 % (n = 5) positivity. The agreement between the two ELISA tests was 85.38 % (n = 543), and 8.65 % (n = 55) of the serum samples showed positive results in both tests. The higher positivity of the ELISA-IgM test corroborates the results of previous reports and indicates that the test may be a useful tool in epidemiological studies, particularly in areas of low endemicity for S. mansoni. PMID:25030291

Espirito-Santo, M C C; Sanchez, M C A; Sanchez, A R; Alvarado-Mora, M V; Castilho, V L P; Gonçalves, E M N; Luna, E J A; Gryschek, R C B

2014-12-01

269

Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs.  

PubMed

Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the parasite in blood smears, and serologic assay. The animals were allocated randomly to one of two groups (n?=?6 in each group). Dogs in Imi group were given imidocarb dipropionate at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously in two injections 14 days apart. Imi plus Toltra group was given imidocarb dipropionate as dose mentioned above and toltrazuril at 10 mg/kg/day orally for the first five treatment days. Clinical findings, blood counts and parasitaemia levels in blood before and 14, 28 and 56 days after the initial treatment were performed to evaluate treatment response. The overall clinical efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate with and without toltrazuril was 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 21.0 and 25.6 days, respectively. A substantial main effect of time on mean PCV, Hb, WBC, neutrophil and PLT and gradual reduction of parasitaemia were significantly observed in both groups (P?parasitologic cure rate at the end of eight weekly observation period was 16.6% and 33.3% in Imi and Imi plus Toltra groups, respectively. Similar clinicopathologic and parasitologic responses were observed in both treated groups; thus, it was concluded that toltrazuril does not reveal additional benefit to imidocarb therapy in dogs with HCI. PMID:21472405

Pasa, Serdar; Voyvoda, Huseyin; Karagenc, Tulin; Atasoy, Abidin; Gazyagci, Serkal

2011-09-01

270

A randomized trial on effectiveness of artemether-lumefantrine versus artesunate plus amodiaquine for unsupervised treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ghanaian children  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous trials have demonstrated high efficacy and safety of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) under supervised treatment. In contrast, effectiveness studies comparing different types of ACT applied unsupervised are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness, tolerability and acceptance of artesunate plus amodiaquine (ASAQ) against that of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in Ghanaian children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods A randomized open-label trial was conducted at two district hospitals in the Ashanti region, Ghana, an area of intense malaria transmission. A total of 246 children under five years of age were randomly assigned to either ASAQ (Arsucam®) or AL (Coartem®). Study participants received their first weight-adjusted dose under supervision. After the parent/guardian was advised of times and mode of administration the respective three-day treatment course was completed unobserved at home. Follow-up visits were performed on days 3, 7, 14 and 28 to evaluate clinical and parasitological outcomes, adverse events, and haematological recovery. Length polymorphisms of variable regions of msp1 and msp2 were determined to differentiate recrudescences from reinfections. Acceptance levels of both treatment regimens were assessed by means of standardized interviews. Results Adequate clinical and parasitological responses after AL and ASAQ treatment were similar (88.3% and 91.7%, respectively). Interestingly, more late clinical failures until day 28 occurred in AL-treated children than in those who received ASAQ (17.5% and 7.3%, respectively; Hazard Ratio 2.41, 95% CI 1.00–5.79, p < 0.05). Haematological recovery and drug tolerability were not found to be significantly different in both study arms. The acceptance of treatment with ASAQ was higher than that with AL (rank-scores 10.6 and 10.3, respectively; p < 0.05). Conclusion Unobserved AL and ASAQ treatment showed high adequate clinical and parasitological responses, though AL was inferior in preventing late clinical failures. PMID:19099594

Kobbe, Robin; Klein, Philipp; Adjei, Samuel; Amemasor, Solomon; Thompson, William Nana; Heidemann, Hanna; Nielsen, Maja V; Vohwinkel, Julia; Hogan, Benedikt; Kreuels, Benno; Bührlen, Martina; Loag, Wibke; Ansong, Daniel; May, Jürgen

2008-01-01

271

Antiproliferative Effects and Mechanism of Action of SCH 56592 against Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the antiproliferative effects of SCH 56592, a new experimental triazole, against Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease in Latin America. SCH 56592 blocked the proliferation of the epimastigote form of the parasite in vitro at 30 nM, a concentration 30- to 100-fold lower than that required with the reference compounds ketoconazole and itraconazole. At that concentration all the parasite’s endogenous sterols (ergosterol, 24-ethyl-cholesta-5,7,22-trien-3?-ol, and its 22-dihydro analogs), were replaced by methylated sterols (lanosterol and 24-methylene-dihydrolanosterol), as revealed by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. This indicated that the primary mechanism of action of the drug was inhibition of the parasite’s sterol C-14? demethylase. Against the clinically relevant intracellular amastigote form, grown in cultured Vero cells at 37°C, the MIC of SCH 56592 was 0.3 nM, again 33- to 100-fold lower than that of ketoconazole or itraconazole. In a murine model of acute Chagas’ disease, SCH 56592 given at ? 10 mg/kg of body weight/day for a total of 43 doses allowed 85 to 100% survival and 90 to 100% cure of the surviving animals, as verified by parasitological, serological, and PCR-based tests, while ketoconazole given at 30 mg/kg day allowed 60% survival but only 20% cure. In a murine model of chronic Chagas’ disease, SCH 56592 was again more effective than ketoconazole, providing 75 to 85% protection from death, with 60 to 75% parasitological cures of the surviving animals, while no parasitological cures were observed with ketoconazole. The results indicate that SCH 56592 is the most powerful sterol biosynthesis inhibitor ever tested against T. cruzi and may be useful in the treatment of human Chagas’ disease. PMID:9661019

Urbina, Julio A.; Payares, Gilberto; Contreras, Lellys M.; Liendo, Andreína; Sanoja, Cristina; Molina, Judith; Piras, Marta; Piras, Romano; Perez, Norma; Wincker, Patrick; Loebenberg, David

1998-01-01

272

Development and application of an antibody-ELISA to follow up a Trypanosoma evansi outbreak in a dromedary camel herd in France.  

PubMed

An outbreak of trypanosomosis was observed for the first time in metropolitan France in October 2006, when five camels were proved to be infected by Trypanosoma evansi using parasitological methods. The parasite was isolated and used to produce a soluble antigen for antibody-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a protocol derived from a method previously developed for sheep and humans but using protein A conjugate. The animals were treated on three instances, alternatively with melarsomine hydrochloride and quinapyramine and followed up on a monthly basis for 2 years with various diagnostic techniques including parasitological, serological and DNA-based methods. Initially, five animals were detected as being positive using ELISA with 83.3% concordance to parasitological tests. Immediately after the first treatment, parasites and DNA disappeared in all animals; antibody levels decreased regularly until ELISA became negative 3-4 months later. Ten months after the first treatment, parasites and antibodies were detected again in one of the camels previously found to be infected. A retrospective study indicated that the weight of this animal had been underestimated; consequently, it had received underdosages of both trypanocides. However, since hypotheses of re-infection or relapse could not be fully substantiated, it is not known whether the ELISA results for this animal were true- or false-negative over a 7-month period. The study confirmed the value of this ELISA using protein A conjugate to detect antibodies directed against T. evansi in camels and the need to use several diagnostic techniques to optimize detection of infected animals. A warning is raised on surra, a potentially emerging disease in Europe. PMID:19372008

Desquesnes, Marc; Bossard, Géraldine; Thévenon, Sophie; Patrel, Delphine; Ravel, Sophie; Pavlovic, Djamila; Herder, Stéphane; Patout, Olivier; Lepetitcolin, Elisabeth; Hollzmuller, Philippe; Berthier, David; Jacquiet, Philippe; Cuny, Gérard

2009-06-10

273

The infectivity of Bunostomum phlebotomum to sheep, rabbits and guinea pigs  

E-print Network

. , and Jung, R. C. : Animal Agents and Vectors of Human Disease. 2nd ed. Lea and Pebiger, Philadelphia, Pa, 1962. Lapage, Geoffrey: Monnig's Veterinary Helminthology and Entomology. 5th ed. Williams 6 Wilkins Coeu Baltimore, Md, 1962. Mayhew, R. L... with the hookworm ~no to ~hl hut u, 1 the 4 lf. Jour. P . , 33. 53 . 1947): 18 (abstract). 20 12. Noble, E. R. , and Noble, G. A. : Parasitology, The Biology of Animal Parasites. 1st ed. Lea & Febiger, 1961, Philadelphia, Pa. 13. 9 tfltt, ). W. : H* t 9 if 1...

Boring, Gary David

2012-06-07

274

A Giant Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst Treated without Lobectomy  

PubMed Central

A 20 year-old woman was admitted to our clinic complaining of dyspnea, cough, chest pain and pleural effusion. The diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid cyst was made on the basis of parasitology laboratory findings, computed tomographic results and chest radiographic findings. A giant pulmonary hydatid cyst (33×14×12 cm) was located in the left lower lobe, which involved more than 90% of the lobe. The patient was treated surgically using cystotomy and capitonnage. This is a case of a giant pulmonary hydatid cyst published in the literature, which was surgically treated without a lobectomy, by preserving the lung parenchyma. PMID:20046431

Sinmaz, Emrah

2009-01-01

275

Spirocerca lupi granulomatous pneumonia in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil.  

PubMed

The current report describes granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in 2 free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, soft, encapsulated granulomas in the caudal lung lobes, which contained centrally placed parasites on cut sections. Microscopically, there was granulomatous inflammation with numerous intralesional sections of spirurid nematodes. Representative complete adult specimens of nematodes derived from these lesions were submitted for parasitological exam and identified as the spirurid S. lupi. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no published reports of S. lupi in maned wolves. PMID:25319031

Blume, Guilherme R; Reis Junior, Janildo L; Gardiner, Chris H; Hoberg, Eric P; Pilitt, Patricia A; Monteiro, Rafael Veríssimo; de Sant'Ana, Fabiano J F

2014-11-01

276

V-shaped pits in regions of ancient Baekje kingdom paleoparasitologically confirmed as likely human-waste reservoirs.  

PubMed

In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies. PMID:25352710

Shin, Dong Hoon; Shim, Sang-Yuck; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Suk Bae; Lee, Geon Il; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

2014-10-01

277

Clonorchis sinensis: Molecular Cloning and Characterization of 28-kDa Glutathione S-Transferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kang, S-Y., Ahn, I.-Y., Park, C-Y., Chung, Y-B., Hong, S.-T., Kong, Y., Cho, S-Y., and Hong, S-J. 2001. Clonorchis sinensis: Molecular cloning and characterization of 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase. Experimental Parasitology97, 186–195. A 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase (Cs28GST) was purified from a Clonorchis sinensis cytosolic fraction through anion-exchange and glutathione-affinity column chromatographies. A monoclonal antibody raised against Cs28GST reacted specifically to the

Shin-Yong Kang; Il-Young Ahn; Chi-Young Park; Young-Bae Chung; Sung-Tae Hong; Yoon Kong; Seung-Yull Cho; Sung-Jong Hong

2001-01-01

278

Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma evansi in dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) from the Canary Islands (Spain) using an antibody Ab-ELISA.  

PubMed

After the description in Grand Canary Island of a case of dromedary trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in 1998, an indirect enzyme immunoassay for the detection of specific anti-T. evansi IgG (Ab-ELISA) was used to assess the seroprevalence of this disease on the Canary Islands. Seroprevalence was 9.0% in the four studied islands (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura), varying from 10.0 to 7.5% by island (not significantly different). Prevalence using Ab-ELISA was higher than that observed when a parasitological method (microscopic observation of blood smears) was used (1.3%). PMID:11018734

Molina, J M; Ruiz, A; Juste, M C; Corbera, J A; Amador, R; Gutiérrez, C

1999-10-19

279

Parasitic infections in a New York City hospital: trends from 1971 to 1984.  

PubMed Central

We report the frequency of parasitic infections 1971-84 in a major New York City Medical Center whose catchment area includes many immigrants from Dominican Republic. Infection with 7,803 parasites was documented in 41,958 laboratory specimens. Trends were toward fewer total specimens being sent and fewer still being positive, although a rise in G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and Cryptosporidium is apparent in recent years. Parasitology laboratories should provide similar data to alert clinicians to the parasites prevalent locally. PMID:3728762

Vermund, S H; LaFleur, F; MacLeod, S

1986-01-01

280

A parasite survey of farmed Southern bluefin tuna, Thunnus maccoyii (Castelnau).  

PubMed

Farmed Southern bluefin tuna (SBT) were examined for parasites. Samples of harvest fish, mortalities and some fish showing clinical signs of disease were investigated. Targeted screening was conducted for a scuticociliate, Uronema nigricans, the myxosporean Kudoa sp. and a sanguinicolid digenean, Cardicola forsteri. General parasitological investigation revealed a diverse parasite community of didymozoid digeneans, two species of copepods, a polyopisthocotylean monogenean and larval cestodes. Targeted screening for U. nigricans exposed a low prevalence, most probably due to a lack of sensitivity in the test method. Few of the parasites examined pose a risk to the health of farmed SBT. PMID:15892753

Deveney, M R; Bayly, T J; Johnston, C J; Nowak, B F

2005-05-01

281

V-shaped Pits in Regions of Ancient Baekje Kingdom Paleoparasitologically Confirmed as Likely Human-Waste Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies. PMID:25352710

Shin, Dong Hoon; Shim, Sang-Yuck; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Suk Bae; Lee, Geon Il; Chai, Jong-Yil

2014-01-01

282

[Parasites in sea and fresh water fishes].  

PubMed

A total of 429 individuals of three fish families: Clupeidae, Cyprinidae and Percidae were subjected to parasitological investigation. All fishes were from retail shops were they had been kept frozen. The parasites found belong to the groups Monogenea, Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Acanthocephala, Hirudinae and Crustacea. Almost all endoparasites were localized in the intestines, the ectoparasites on the gills or on the skin. The fishes investigated were slightly infected, but suitable for consumption. The majority of different species of parasites was found in fishes that shoal, which is quite concordant with "Janiszewska's rule". PMID:7294452

Borowiec, D; Georghiou, Z; Z?otorzycka, J

1981-05-01

283

Canine generalized demodicosis treated with varying doses of a 2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid spot-on and oral ivermectin: parasiticidal effects and long-term treatment outcomes.  

PubMed

Advocate(®) (2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid) (Bayer HealthCare, Leverkusen, Germany) is a multiparasiticidal spot-on authorized for treating canine demodicosis in many countries. This blinded, randomized three-phase clinical trial compared its efficacy employing different dosing regimens with that of ivermectin. In the blinded first phase, 58 dogs suffering from generalized demodicosis were randomly assigned to one of four groups and treated with monthly, biweekly or weekly applications of Advocate(®), or with oral ivermectin (IVR) at 500 ?g/kg daily. Dogs were evaluated clinically and multiple skin scrapings undertaken every 4 weeks until parasitological cure was achieved (defined as two consecutive series of deep skin scrapings at monthly intervals negative for all life forms). Forty dogs completed the 16-week initial blinded phase, with 5 cases achieving parasitological cure. Five dogs were deemed treatment failures and subsequently treated with ivermectin. The treatment protocol was then changed for the remaining 35 dogs and this cross-over phase (Phase 2) was maintained for a further 8 weeks with an additional 9 dogs achieving parasitological cure. Thereafter, all remaining animals were treated with IVR until cured (Phase 3). Overall, 26 dogs achieved parasitological cure during the clinical investigation. Of these, 23 remained disease-free for at least 12 months while two were lost to follow up and one died of unrelated causes. A total of 32 (55.2%) dogs were withdrawn at various stages of the investigation including the 5 dogs that were judged treatment failures. Other reasons for withdrawal included: non-compliance, lost to follow-up, ivermectin toxicity or reasons unrelated to the investigation. No adverse effects were attributable to the use of Advocate(®). Parasiticidal efficacy was assessed by changes in mite counts (live adult, juvenile and egg) and skin lesion extent & severity scores. Statistical significance was assessed using ANCOVA with initial mite counts or skin scores used as the covariate to account for variations in disease severity. Planned pairwise comparisons were used to identify differences between treatment groups. The efficacy of Advocate(®) increased with its rate of application across all measures of efficacy. Although ivermectin was shown to be more effective than Advocate(®) applied once weekly, both treatment protocols produced clinically satisfactory results. It was concluded that weekly application of Advocate(®) can be recommended as effective for the treatment of canine generalized demodicosis without the potential for toxicity associated with ivermectin. PMID:25262617

Paterson, Tara E; Halliwell, Richard E; Fields, Paul J; Louw, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoff; Louw, Jakobus; Pinckney, Rhonda

2014-10-15

284

Malaria epidemics in Europe after the First World War: the early stages of an international approach to the control of the disease.  

PubMed

The severity and endemicity of malaria declined gradually in Europe until WWI. During and after the war, the number of malaria cases increased substantially and peaked in 1922-1924. This prompted the Hygiene Commission of the League of Nations to establish a Malaria Commission in 1923 to define the most efficient anti-malaria procedures. Additionally, between 1924 and 1930 there were several international meetings and collaborations concerning malaria, which involved the main institutes of parasitology and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Commission reports, the guidelines for anti-malaria campaigns and the scientific programs which came out of these meetings and collaborations are analyzed in the present paper. PMID:21779694

Gachelin, Gabriel; Opinel, Annick

2011-06-01

285

[Aythya fuligula--new host for Retinometra pittalugai Lopez-Neyra, 1932 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) recorded in Poland for the first time].  

PubMed

During standard parasitological studies of the tufted duck Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus, 1758), obtained from fishermen from West Pomerania, three cestode specimens were found in the jejunum of hosts. They were determined as Retinometra pittalugai (Lopez-Neyra, 1932) on the basis of the cirrus's size, shape of stylet and rostellar hooks. This is the first record of this species in Poland, since this parasite was earlier recorded only in Anas platyrhynchos f. dom., Aythya marila, A. ferina and Bucephala clangula in Spain, in Kamchatka and in Novosibirsk. PMID:19338226

Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushin, Vadim V

2008-01-01

286

Investigation of parasites in sludges and disinfection techniques. Final report, August 1979-May 1982  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the research grant were to: assess the presence and densities of resistant stages of parasites in municipal wastewater sludges (sewage) in northern United States; compare the results of the study with the results of a previous study of sludges in southern United States; to evaluate several decontamination techniques for their effectiveness in inactivating parasites in waste sludges; and develop a standard method for the parasitologic examination of waste sludges. Sludge samples from all phases of treatment (i.e., primary, etc.) were collected during the fall, winter and summer from 48 municipal wastewater treatment plants located in New York, Ohio, Minnesota, and Washington.

Reimers, R.S.; Little, M.D.; Englande, A.J.; McDonell, D.B.; Bowman, D.D.

1985-11-01

287

Research Article Etiologic Agents and Diseases Found Associated with Clinical Aspergillosis in Falcons  

E-print Network

Copyright © 2011 Walter Tarello. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The aim of this study was to describe parasitological, microbiological, and pathological findings associated with the isolation of Aspergillus species in 94 clinically diseased captive falcons from Dubai. Concomitant agents and/or diseases were identified in 64 cases, causing either single (n = 36) or multiple coinfections (n = 28). Diagnoses found more often in association with aspergillosis were chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) (n = 29), Caryospora sp. (n = 16), Serratospiculum

Walter Tarello

2011-01-01

288

A large-scale field trial with dichlorvos as a residual fumigant insecticide in Northern Nigeria*  

PubMed Central

An extended field trial with dichlorvos was carried out in the Kankiya District of Northern Nigeria during 1963. Two types of dispenser were used—the dichlorvos-impregnated-montan-wax type and the liquid-dichlorvos type. The objective of the trial was to see if dichlorvos would interrupt the transmission of malaria under local conditions when used at a dosage of one dispenser per 15 m3 of living space. On the basis of epidemiological findings—both parasitological and entomological—it was found that, owing to excessive ventilation in the huts treated, an adequate concentration of dichlorvos was not maintained, and transmission continued uninterrupted. PMID:14315721

Foll, C. V.; Pant, C. P.; Lietaert, P. E.

1965-01-01

289

A case report of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a Malaysian child.  

PubMed

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old Malaysian child. This case was initially reported as 'normal' after the examination of proglottids shed from the anus of the child at a private laboratory on two occasions. The putative proglottids shed was then referred to the Parasite Southeast Asia Diagnostic (Para:SEAD) Laboratory, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya for further examination. Microscopic examination confirmed that the child was infected with H. diminuta based on the characteristic eggs found in the proglottids. She was treated with a single dose praziquantel (20 mg/kg of body weight) and recovered well. PMID:22735844

Rohela, M; Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Kalaichelvan, B; Wan Hafiz, W I; Mohd Redzuan, A N

2012-06-01

290

Artemisinin-based combination therapies: a vital tool in efforts to eliminate malaria  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine has led to the recent adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as the first line of treatment against malaria. ACTs comprise semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives paired with distinct chemical classes of longer acting drugs. These artemisinins are exceptionally potent against the pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium parasites and also act on the transmissible sexual stages. These combinations increase the rates of clinical and parasitological cures and decrease the selection pressure for the emergence of antimalarial resistance. This Review article discusses our current knowledge about the mode of action of ACTs, their pharmacological properties and the proposed mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:19881520

Eastman, Richard T.; Fidock, David A.

2010-01-01

291

[Strigiphilus strigis (Mallophaga: Philopteridae) in a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo interpositus) in Turkey].  

PubMed

In this study, a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo b. interpositus) was brought to the laboratory of Parasitology Department and was inspected for ectoparasites. Five Mallophaga specimens were collected from the eagle owl and they were mounted on slides in Faure forte medium after being cleared in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the lice were inspected and measured under the light microscope. All of the specimens were identified as Strigiphilus strigis (Pontoppidan 1763). This paper presents the first detection of S. strigis in Turkey. PMID:17471417

Dik, Bilal; Uslu, U?ur

2007-01-01

292

Hematologic and Clinical Aspects of Experimental Ovine Anaplasmosis Caused by Anaplasma ovis in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma ovis infections can cause clinical symptoms in acute phase and lead to huge economic losses in flocks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hematological and parasitological changes in experimental anaplasmosis in sheep with Iranian strain of A. ovis. Method Five male sheep without any blood parasite infection were selected. One hundred ml heparinized blood was collected from splenectomised sheep that showed 6% A. ovis parasitemia. Inoculums of 20 ml blood were administered intravenously to each test animal. Hematological, parasitological and clinical changes of experimental anaplasmosis were studied in 0-38 days post infection. Result Parasitemia was detected 3 days post infection and reached its maximum level on the day 12 of experiment in test animals. Then the parasitemia was declined, but the organism could be found persistently until the last day of study. The red cell counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration were decreased and mean corpuscular volume was increased significantly during the infection period. Reticulocytosis and basophilic stippling were also detected. No significant changes were observed in total and differential leukocyte count and animal body temperature. Conclusion Experimental A. ovis infection in sheep resulted in marked normocytic normochromic anemia at the beginning of the infection which became macrocytic normochromic by the development of the disease. There were negative correlations between parasitemia and RBC, PCV and Hb values, therefore hematological assessment can be considered as a practical diagnostic tool in ovine anaplasmosis. PMID:23323097

Yasini, SP; Khaki, Z; Rahbari, S; Kazemi, B; Amoli, J Salar; Gharabaghi, A; Jalali, SM

2012-01-01

293

Identification and Characterization of Hundreds of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Growth from a Kinase-Targeted Library Screening Campaign  

PubMed Central

In the interest of identification of new kinase-targeting chemotypes for target and pathway analysis and drug discovery in Trypanosomal brucei, a high-throughput screen of 42,444 focused inhibitors from the GlaxoSmithKline screening collection was performed against parasite cell cultures and counter-screened against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. In this way, we have identified 797 sub-micromolar inhibitors of T. brucei growth that are at least 100-fold selective over HepG2 cells. Importantly, 242 of these hit compounds acted rapidly in inhibiting cellular growth, 137 showed rapid cidality. A variety of in silico and in vitro physicochemical and drug metabolism properties were assessed, and human kinase selectivity data were obtained, and, based on these data, we prioritized three compounds for pharmacokinetic assessment and demonstrated parasitological cure of a murine bloodstream infection of T. brucei rhodesiense with one of these compounds (NEU-1053). This work represents a successful implementation of a unique industrial-academic collaboration model aimed at identification of high quality inhibitors that will provide the parasitology community with chemical matter that can be utilized to develop kinase-targeting tool compounds. Furthermore these results are expected to provide rich starting points for discovery of kinase-targeting tool compounds for T. brucei, and new HAT therapeutics discovery programs. PMID:25340575

Diaz, Rosario; Luengo-Arratta, Sandra A.; Seixas, João D.; Amata, Emanuele; Devine, William; Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Rojas-Barros, Domingo I.; Jimenez, Elena; Ortega, Fatima; Crouch, Sabrinia; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Fiandor, Jose Maria; Martin, Jose Julio; Berlanga, Manuela; Gonzalez, Silvia; Manzano, Pilar; Navarro, Miguel; Pollastri, Michael P.

2014-01-01

294

A coprological survey of parasites in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Sector Santa Rosa, ACG, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Neotropical primate parasitology has been dominated by studies of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.), whereas the literature on the parasites of other platyrrhines is relatively sparse. We analysed the faeces of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in a Costa Rican tropical dry forest and recovered 8 parasite taxa (Filariopsis barretoi,Giardia duodenalis, Strongyloides sp., Prosthenorchis sp., a spirurid nematode, a subulurid nematode, a strongylid nematode and a cestode). F. barretoi and Strongyloides sp. were the most prevalent parasites and were recovered from 84 and 76% of the sampled individuals, respectively. Individual capuchins were infected with an average of 1.89 parasite species. Capuchins host a diverse suite of parasites belonging to several taxonomic groups (Nematoda, Cestoda, Acanthocephala, Protozoa) and including species with direct and indirect life cycles. Many capuchin parasites are transmitted through the consumption of invertebrate intermediate hosts making diet a critical component of capuchin-parasite ecology. This study represents the most intensive parasitological survey of wild capuchin monkeys to date. PMID:23571310

Parr, Nigel A; Fedigan, Linda M; Kutz, Susan J

2013-01-01

295

Where are the parasites in food webs?  

PubMed Central

This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies) focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles. PMID:23092160

2012-01-01

296

Quantification of helminth eggs in waste water.  

PubMed

Agricultural use of waste water has been regulated mostly by its bacteriological quality. Recently the importance of parasitological criteria for waste water standards was recognized by establishing that waste water containing less than 1 intestinal Nematode egg per liter is released for unrestricted use of effluents. At present, most of the techniques borrowed from parasitological coprology are only qualitative. In this report different protocols for helminth egg quantitation were compared. Three flotation techniques (Janeckso-Urbanyi, Faust, Arther) and two sedimentation techniques (Bailenger, Ritchie) and their performances were evaluated. Although all the techniques were based on the same number of on the whole positive samples, significant differences were observed in both the number of species identified and in the type of egg preferentially concentrated. Among the flotation methods tested, the Janeckso-Urbanyi modality offers undeniable advantages in efficiency and in the variety of species concentrated, but it is relatively costly. Among the sedimentation techniques, the one described by Bailenger is relatively inexpensive and concentrates all the types of eggs normally found in waste water samples, except for the relatively rare Enterobius with globally satisfactory yields. PMID:2757747

Bouhoum, K; Schwartzbrod, J

1989-06-01

297

[Human demodicidosis in Sfax area (Tunisia)].  

PubMed

Demodicidosis is an ectoparasitosis, common to humans and many mammals. It is caused by the proliferation of a mite Demodex sp in the pilosebaceous follicles. Its pathogenic role remains controversial. The aim of our study was to report epidemiological and clinical particularities of cases of demodicidosis diagnosed in our region. Over a period of nine years (January 2000 to December 2008), 427 cases of demodicidosis were diagnosed. 73.2% of cases were blepharitis and 26.8% of cases were facial dermatosis. The mean age was 44 years. Women were slightly more affected (56%) than men. Among 787 chronic blepharitis, 243 cases were due to Demodex sp (30.9%). They were treated with yellow oxide of mercury (Ophtergine® 1%). In the face, this mite has been isolated from erythematous and pruritic papulopustular lesions, and their distribution was as follows: cheeks (22.1%), forehead (13.4%), and nose (11.5%). The diagnosis was confirmed by parasitological examination of scales showing more than 5 Demodex sp/cm(2) and response to treatment with metronidazole (Flagyl®) for three months. Currently, there were a large number of arguments for the incrimination of Demodex sp in pathogenesis of dermatosis and blepharitis. Dermatologists and ophthalmologists must therefore think to this mite. The density of Demodex sp found by parasitological exam is a determining factor in establishing an anti-Demodex treatment whose effectiveness is a further argument for the diagnosis. PMID:20596809

Cheikhrouhou, F; Makni, F; Neji, S; Sellami, H; Masmoudi, A; Turki, H; Ben Zina, Z; Fki, J; Ayadi, A

2010-10-01

298

Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

2014-04-01

299

[Urban schistosomiasis in Cameroon: a longitudinal study of its transmission in a new site of an extension of the intestinal schistosomiasis focus in Mélen, Yaoundé].  

PubMed

In order to to set up the present situation on schistosomiasis in the neighbourhoods around the University of Yaounde I campus, a malacological survey (collection of freshwater snails, their identification and tests on cercarial emergence) was carried out monthly over 12 months in 2 water sources, followed by a parasitological diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis in subjects who acknowledge having come into contact with the infested water course. The malacological survey revealed 4 freshwater gastropod species, two (Bulinus globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi) of which are intermediate hosts of schistosomes. Biomphalaria pfeifferi specimens from the former quarry pond of Ngoa-Ekellé neighbourhood showed an average infestation rate of 9.7%, and emitted schistosome cercariae throughout the whole period of study The parasitological diagnosis included 112 (81.2%) out of the 138 individuals identified, including 55 males and 57 females; 27 out of the 112 subjects had S. mansoni eggs in stools, making a prevalence rate of 24.1%. These patients were composed of 21 males and 6 females. The prevalence of S. mansoni is therefore significantly higher in males. The average parasitic load for our sample was 248 eggs/g of stools. It was much higher (384 eggs/g stools) for males (280 eggs/g stools) than for females (136 eggs/g stools). The differences of prevalences and parasitic loads between sex can be explained in part by the varying activities of interest according to the different groups in the infested watering places. PMID:15104156

Njiokou, E; Onguene Onguene, A R; Tchuem Tchuente, L A; Kenmogne, A

2004-02-01

300

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Suspected Patients Referred To the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Tehran, Iran from 2008 To 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major health problem in many parts of Iran, although diagnosis of CL especially in the endemic area is easy, but treatment and management of the disease is a global dilemma. Diagnosis of CL in non-endemic area is not as simple as in endemic foci. In this study, the status and the proportions of CL induced by Leishmania major and L. tropica among CL suspected patients referred to the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, (CRTSDL) during 2008 to 2011 are described. Methods CL patients with suspected lesions were clinically examined. History of trip to zoonotic CL and/or anthroponotic CL endemic areas and the characteristics of their lesion(s) were recorded. Diagnosis of the lesion was done using direct smear microscopy, culture and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results A total of 404 (M = 256, F = 148) patients with 776 lesions were recruited and parasitologically examined. The results showed that 255 of the patients with 613 lesions; patients with lesion(s) induced by L. major=147 (M = 63, 43%, F = 84, 57%) and lesion(s) induced by L. tropica=108 (M = 35, 32%, F = 73, 68%). History of travel to endemic area was not always correlated with isolated Leishmania species. Conclusion Although travel history to endemic area is an important factor to be considered for diagnosis, but parasitological confirmation is necessary initiation of treatment. PMID:24454437

MOHAMMADI, Akram MIR AMIN; KHAMESIPOUR, Ali; KHATAMI, Alireza; JAVADI, Amir; NASSIRI-KASHANI, Mansour; FIROOZ, Alireza; DOWLATI, Yahya; BEHNIA, Massoud; ESKANDARI, Seyyed Ebrahim

2013-01-01

301

[Intestinal parasitoses in children of an Indian community of Bolivian altiplano].  

PubMed

A survey about motion parasitosis has been carried out on one hundred Indians (Quechua ethnic group) living in a hamlet called Amarete located in the Bolivian Altiplano. This community is living in a place difficult to reach (11,100 feet) where many pre-Colombian traditions are still alive. All children were parasitized, 75% of them were carrier of 3 to 5 parasites. Infestation with ascaris (91%) is the most frequent and the risks of getting amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica 41%) and balantidial (Balantidium coli 8%) are high. Many other parasites (8 kinds of protozoa , 5 kinds of helminths) can be observed; more especially, we noticed that 20% of the pupils used to be carrier operculated eggs. Tenia embryophores (more probably Taenia solium found in 2 children) made us aware of possibilities of cysticercosis. An other problem lays on general hygiene and hygiene of the water since feces danger is responsible of important parasitologic loads. Results are compared with a fecal study carried out on a population from the Altiplano region but living now in the plain. Amazonian Indian population in previous or recent contact with occidental civilization show the same variations of parasitologic repartition between Amarete hamlet and the transplanted population of Altiplano region. The role played by the acculturation could be discussed. PMID:3731367

Basset, D; Gaumerais, H; Basset-Pougnet, A

1986-01-01

302

The protective immune response produced in dogs after primary vaccination with the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish®) remains effective against an experimental challenge one year later  

PubMed Central

Control of canine leishmaniasis is an important objective for the benefit of dogs living in or visiting endemic areas and for public health because of the zoonotic nature of this disease. Resistance or susceptibility to developing canine leishmaniasis after exposure to Leishmania infantum is primarily determined by the ability of the immune system to develop an appropriate Th1-dominated specific response to the parasite. For this reason there is a need for effective canine vaccines that can decrease the number of dogs developing progressive infections. In this study, we followed the impact of the LiESP/QA-21 canine vaccine (composed of excreted-secreted proteins of L. infantum and the QA-21 saponin adjuvant), recently launched commercially in Europe, on selected humoral and cellular immune parameters following an infectious intravenous challenge with L. infantum promastigotes administered one year after the primary vaccine course. We also followed parasitological parameters to determine the parasitological status of the challenged dogs. In contrast to controls, vaccinated dogs retained significantly stronger cell-mediated immune responses against the parasite despite a virulent challenge and had significantly lower mean parasite burdens at the end of the study, associated with a lower probability of developing active infections. These results confirm that the immune responses generated by vaccination with LiESP/QA-21 are still effective against an intravenous challenge one year after the primary vaccine course. PMID:24964736

2014-01-01

303

Parasitic infection among HIV/AIDS patients at Bela-Bela clinic, Limpopo province, South Africa with special reference to Cryptosporidium.  

PubMed

Intestinal parasitic organisms are common pathogens among HIV patients worldwide and have been known to cause severe and life-threatening diarrhea in such subjects. In the present study, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in stool samples from 151 HIV/AIDS patients attending a HIV treatment center in South Africa was determined using' standard parasitological methods, as well as molecular methods including PCR and quantitative PCR for confirmation of Cryptosporidium spp. In addition, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was evaluated for detection of Cryptosporidium spp in 24 stool samples. Standard parasitological methods indicated that Cryptospo- ridium spp (26.5%), Entamoeba spp (26.5%) and Giardia lamblia (13%) were the most common protozoan parasites, while Ascaris lumbricoides (8%), Schistosoma mansoni (6%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.6%) were the most commonly found helminths. PCR, quantitative PCR and LAMP methods identified Cryptosporidium spp in 28% (30/106), 35% (53/151) and 58% (14/24) of the stool samples, respectively. Multiple infections (34%) were commonly found in the study population. Females above 45 years had the highest Cryptosporidium prevalence (58%). Prevention measures must be implemented in order to curb the negative impact of Cryptosporidium-causing diarrhea among HIV/AIDS patients in this region as well as other parasitic infections identified in this study. PMID:25507595

Samie, Amidou; Makuwa, Stanley; Mtshali, Sibusiso; Potgieter, Natasha; Thekisoe, Oriel; Mbati, Peter; Bessong, Pascal O

2014-07-01

304

Parasitic infection among HIV/AIDS patients at Bela-Bela clinic, Limpopo province, South Africa with special reference to Cryptosporidium.  

PubMed

Intestinal parasitic organisms are common pathogens among HIV patients worldwide and have been known to cause severe and life-threatening diarrhea in such subjects. In the present study, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in stool samples from 151 HIV/AIDS patients attending a HIV treatment center in South Africa was determined using' standard parasitological methods, as well as molecular methods including PCR and quantitative PCR for confirmation of Cryptosporidium spp. In addition, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was evaluated for detection of Cryptosporidium spp in 24 stool samples. Standard parasitological methods indicated that Cryptospo- ridium spp (26.5%), Entamoeba spp (26.5%) and Giardia lamblia (13%) were the most common protozoan parasites, while Ascaris lumbricoides (8%), Schistosoma mansoni (6%) and Trichuris trichiura (4.6%) were the most commonly found helminths. PCR, quantitative PCR and LAMP methods identified Cryptosporidium spp in 28% (30/106), 35% (53/151) and 58% (14/24) of the stool samples, respectively. Multiple infections (34%) were commonly found in the study population. Females above 45 years had the highest Cryptosporidium prevalence (58%). Prevention measures must be implemented in order to curb the negative impact of Cryptosporidium-causing diarrhea among HIV/AIDS patients in this region as well as other parasitic infections identified in this study. PMID:25427345

Samie, Amidou; Makuwa, Stanley; Mtshali, Sibusiso; Potgieter, Natasha; Thekisoe, Oriel; Mbati, Peter; Bessong, Pascal O

2014-07-01

305

[Epidemiology of urinary schistosomiasis among school children in Péhunco area, Northern Benin. Malacological survey].  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Benin but prevalence estimates vary widely. Parasitological (from May to September 2010) and malacological surveys (from September 2010 to June 2012) were conducted to determine the current status of urinary schistosomiasis among 1 585 schoolchildren from 18 primary schools of Péhunco area, North-West Benin, using two parasitological tests. Pupils were enrolled with a mean age of 11 years (from 7 to 16 years-old age) and 51.48% of them were girls. Urines samples were examined using both urine reagent strips and filtration method. Structured questionnaires were used to identify environmental and socio-economic factors. Malacological surveys were conducted to ascertain general freshwater snail diversity and specific diversity of the schistosome host snails. The results showed a general prevalence of 29.40% with boys (36.67%) significantly more affected than girls (22.55%). Among the 844 collected snails, 5 species freshwater snails were identified: two species known as potential schistosome intermediate host snails, Bulinus forskalii and B. globosus, and three species known as non-schistosome transmitting snails Lymnaea natalensis, Physa marmorata and Melanoides tuberculata. B. forskalii was a most largely distributed snail and none of snails were found naturally infected by schistosome. No freshwater snails were found naturally infected by schistosome. PMID:24615433

Ibikounlé, M; Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; de Tové, Y Sissinto Savi; Dansou, A; Courtin, D; Kindé-Gazard, D; Mouahid, G; Moné, H; Massougbodji, A

2014-08-01

306

Human fascioliasis among immigrant workers in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Animal fascioliasis has been reported in Saudi Arabia among imported and local sheep. The paper demonstrated the parasitological and clinical features of human fascioliasis in nine out of ten male immigrant manual workers with manifestations suggesting fascioliasis. The sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques proved effect in diagnosing Fasciola species eggs in human stool. The common clinical features were abdominal distension, flatulence, tender right-upper quadrant and easy fatigability and the least was the tinge of jaundice. Others as right upper quadrant pains, colicky abdominal pains & vomiting, epi-gastric pain and mild fever, and tympanitic abdomen were encountered. Anaemia and eosinophlia were also encountered in the ten patients. Fascioliasis patients (nine) were successfully treated with Mirazid as two capsules (600 mg) on an empty stomach an hour before breakfast for six consecutive days. Follow-up clinically and parasitologically was available in only seven fascioliasis patients who were completely cured. Follow-up for the other two fascioliasis patients was out in hand. Other parasites recovered in the stained (eosin, iodine and Zeihl-Nelson stains) smear stool samples was Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Besides, three were free from intestinal protozoan. The results were discussed on the light of the other work carried out regionally. PMID:16363294

El-Mathal, Ebtesam M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H

2005-12-01

307

Helminths found in marmosets (Callithrix penicillata and Callithrixjacchus) introduced to the region of occurrence of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecusrosalia) in Brazil.  

PubMed

The introduction of exotic species can increase the risk of extinction of native species through the introduction of new diseases, predation or resource competition. The marmosets Callithrix penicillata and Callithrix jacchus and hybrids of these two species have been introduced to privately owned forests in the lowland Atlantic forest of the Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, the region of occurrence of the endangered golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia. Because the ecology and biology of the marmosets and tamarins is similar, there is a reasonable risk that the marmosets would transmit pathogens such as endo parasites. The objective of this study was to identify the helminth fauna present in the introduced marmosets through an analysis of fecal samples of wild caught animals, and to evaluate the parasitological profile according to age, sex and geographical location. Eggs belonging to the Acanthocephala and Nematoda were found in the feces. One nematode egg type was identified as being Primasubulura jacchi. The ocurrence of nematodes was higher in males, acanthocephala were found in all age groups and sexes and P. jacchi was found with higher frequency in adult females. The geographic distribution analysis revealed that some of the forests had a higher predominance of parasites. Little is known about the pathology of parasites in free living Neotropical mammals, and this knowledge would be necessary to infer about the risk (form a parasitological standpoint) that the marmoset presence represents for the survival of the endangered golden lion tamarin. PMID:20378249

dos Santos Sales, Indiara; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos Ramon; de Paula Santos, Clóvis

2010-07-15

308

Synanthropic birds and parasites.  

PubMed

This paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the Campania region of southern Italy. Birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (Columba livia), 15 common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (Corvus corone). Each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. Ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. In particular, chewing lice were recovered with a prevalence of 100%, whereas Pseudolynchia canariensis (Hippoboscidae) were found only in pigeons with a prevalence of 80%. Regarding endoparasites, a total of seven helminth species were identified: three nematodes (Ascaridia columbae, Capillaria columbae, Physaloptera alata), one cestoda (Raillietina tetragona), one trematoda (Cardiocephalus longicollis), and two acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus globocaudatus and Centrorhynchus buteonis). The findings of the present study add data to the parasitologic scenario of synanthropic birds. This is important because parasitic infection can lead to serious health problems when combined with other factors and may affect flying performance and predatory effectiveness. PMID:24597118

Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pepe, Paola; Fioretti, Alessandro; Caputo, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

2013-12-01

309

Adult female of Strongyloides stercoralis in respiratory secretions  

PubMed Central

Objective To communicate the presence of adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) in the respiratory secretions obtained by tracheal aspirate from a HIV-negative patient who was suffering from polymyositis, and treated with corticoids and amethopterin and assisted by pneumonia. Methods The respiratory secretions submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Muñiz Hospital were made more concentrated by centrifugation (1?500 r/min for 15 seconds). Wet mount microscopy was performed with the pellet. Results It revealed adult females, rabditoid larvae and eggs of S. stercoralis. Further parasitological studies performed after the start of the treatment with ivermectin on fresh fecal samples, gastric lavages and tracheal aspirates showed scanty mobile filariform and rabditoid larvae of the same parasite. Conclusions The presence of adult female S. stercoralis which has never been observed before in the clinical samples submitted to our Laboratory for investigation can be considered as an indirect marker of the severe immunosupression of the patient. PMID:23620857

Bava, Bava Amadeo Javier; Cecilia, Domínguez; Alcides, Troncoso

2013-01-01

310

[Evolution of the prevalence the enteroparasitoses in Talca-Chile].  

PubMed

The prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool and school children in the city of Talca and rural areas belonging to the Maule Region, was assessed annually by means of the serial parasitological studies in stool which were performed in the Parasitology Laboratory of the "Universidad de Talca". For consecutive periods since 1980 until 2008, an estimated prevalence of parasitism of 76.2% in the population studied was found. These results show a marked decrease from 9.8% to 2.5% in pathogenic enteroparasites like: Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichocephalos trichiuris, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia sp. Commensal parasites as Entamoeba coli, lodamoeba butschlii, Endolimax nana and Chilomastix mesnili experimented a diminished recovery too. However commensal parasites globally showed an increase in time, given the significant increase of Blastocystis hominis (from 7.6 to 72.9%). A change was also observed in the carriage ofpolyparasitosis (from 64.5% to 9.6%) and monoparasitosis (from 10.0 to 35.5%). PMID:21046719

Vidal, Sylvia; Toloza, Lorena; Cancino, Beatriz

2010-08-01

311

Efficacy of 5-Nitroimidazoles for the Treatment of Giardiasis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of giardiasis. We evaluated the efficacy of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) in the treatment of giardiasis in a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for RCTs evaluating the efficacy of 5-NI vs. control (placebo or active treatment) on parasitological cure in patients with parasitologically-demonstrated giardiasis. The search was performed in May 2013 with no language restriction by two authors independently. The efficacy outcome was parasitological cure, and harmful outcomes were abdominal pain, bitter or metallic taste, and headache. We included 30 RCTs (n?=?3,930). There was a significant and slightly higher response rate with 5-NI in giardiasis treatment (RR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.11, p?=?0.005). There was high heterogeneity among studies (I2?=?72%). The response rates for metronidazole, tinidazole and secnidazole were similar (RR 1.05, 95%CI 1.01–1.09, p?=?0.01; RR 1.32 95%CI 1.10–1.59, p?=?0.003; and RR 1.18 95%CI 0.93–1.449, p?=?0.18, respectively). On subgroup analyses, the response rates did not vary substantially and high heterogeneity persisted (I2?=?57%–80%). Harmful outcomes were uncommon, and 5-NIs were associated with lower risk of abdominal pain, and higher risk of both bitter or metallic taste and headache. Conclusions Studies investigating the efficacy of 5-NI in giardiasis treatment are highly heterogeneous. 5-NIs have a slightly better efficacy and worse profile for mild harmful outcomes in the treatment of giardiasis in comparison to controls. Larger high quality RCTs are needed to further assess efficacy and safety profiles of 5-NI. PMID:24625554

Deshpande, Abhishek; Thota, Priyaleela; Roman, Yuani; Hernandez, Adrian V.

2014-01-01

312

Quality of uncomplicated malaria case management in Ghana among insured and uninsured patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction The National Health Insurance Act, 2003 (Act 650) established the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana with the aim of increasing access to health care and improving the quality of basic health care services for all citizens. The main objective is to assess the effect of health insurance on the quality of case management for patients with uncomplicated malaria, ascertaining any significant differences in treatment between insured and non-insured patients. Method A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 523 respondents diagnosed with malaria and prescribed malaria drugs from public and private health facilities in 3 districts across Ghana’s three ecological zones. Collected information included initial examinations performed on patients (temperature, weight, age, blood pressure and pulse); observations of malaria symptoms by trained staff, laboratory tests conducted and type of drugs prescribed. Insurance status of patients, age, gender, education level and occupation were asked in the interviews. Results Of the 523 patients interviewed, only 40 (8%) were uninsured. Routine recording of the patients’ age, weight, and temperature was high in all the facilities. In general, assessments needed to identify suspected malaria were low in all the facilities with hot body/fever and headache ranking the highest and convulsion ranking the lowest. Parasitological assessments in all the facilities were also very low. All patients interviewed were prescribed ACTs which is in adherence to the drug of choice for malaria treatment in Ghana. However, there were no significant differences in the quality of malaria treatment given to the uninsured and insured patients. Conclusion Adherence to the standard protocol of malaria treatment is low. This is especially the case for parasitological confirmation of all suspected malaria patients before treatment with an antimalarial as currently recommended for the effective management of malaria in the country. The results show that about 16 percent of total sample were parasitologically tested. Effective management of the disease demands proper diagnosis and treatment and therefore facilities need to be adequately supplied with RDTs or be equipped with well functioning laboratories to provide adequate testing. PMID:25056139

2014-01-01

313

An analysis of forensic entomological specimens by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.  

PubMed

This study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the Department of Parasitology & Medical Entomology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the year 2004. A total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. Various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. Identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina and unknown sarcophagid larvae, with Ch. megacephala being the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats. The post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation ranged from one to five days, based on the entomological specimens collected. PMID:21939166

Syamsa, R A; Ahmad, F M S; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Omar, B

2010-09-01

314

Study on the antioxidant status of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.  

PubMed

The antioxidant status of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi isolated from a camel was studied using established parasitological, haematological and biochemical methods. The results indicated that infections in all rats resulted in a fulminating parasitaemia. Changes in blood parameters in T. evansi-infected rats indicated leukocytosis and a macrocytic hypochromic anaemia. A degree of anisocytosis was also observed. The activities of plasma glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase in whole blood of infected rats were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) compared with control. No statistically significant difference was observed in the activity of superoxide dismutase in infected and control rats. Results obtained indicated that trypanosomosis caused oxidative stress and induced antioxidant enzymes. PMID:17169491

Omer, O H; Mousa, H M; Al-Wabel, N

2007-04-10

315

Selection and quantification of infection endpoints for trials of vaccines against intestinal helminths.  

PubMed

Vaccines against human helminths are being developed but the choice of optimal parasitological endpoints and effect measures to assess their efficacy has received little attention. Assuming negative binomial distributions for the parasite counts, we rank the statistical power of three measures of efficacy: ratio of mean parasite intensity at the end of the trial, the odds ratio of infection at the end of the trial, and the rate ratio of incidence of infection during the trial. We also use a modelling approach to estimate the likely impact of trial interventions on the force of infection, and hence statistical power. We conclude that (1) final mean parasite intensity is a suitable endpoint for later phase vaccine trials, and (2) mass effects of trial interventions are unlikely to appreciably reduce the force of infection in the community - and hence statistical power - unless there is a combination of high vaccine efficacy and a large proportion of the population enrolled. PMID:21435404

Alexander, Neal; Cundill, Bonnie; Sabatelli, Lorenzo; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Diemert, David; Hotez, Peter; Smith, Peter G; Rodrigues, Laura C; Brooker, Simon

2011-05-01

316

Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).  

PubMed

Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

2014-03-01

317

Moxidectin Efficacy in a Goat Herd with Chronic and Generalized Sarcoptic Mange  

PubMed Central

A case of sarcoptic mange affecting almost all the animals of a dairy goat herd is described. This pruritic skin disease led progressively to high mortality and dramatic drop of milk yield. The lesions of the affected goats were typical of a chronic and generalized-diffuse sarcoptic mange. Diagnosis was confirmed by skin scrapings and histopathology in which many mites were demonstrated. All surviving goats were treated with injectable moxidectin solution 1% (CYDECTIN-Fort Dodge) at the dose of 0.2?mg/kg, applied every 15 days for four times, subcutaneously. Although pruritus had decreased soon after the first treatment, a satisfactory healing of cutaneous lesions was witnessed 6 weeks after the beginning of moxidectin trial. Parasitological cure was achieved in all affected animals by the end of the trial. In the four monthly followups, no evidence of sarcoptic mange could be found. PMID:21776348

Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Farmaki, Rania; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Elias; Karatzias, Harilaos; Koutinas, Alexander F.

2011-01-01

318

Parasites or Cohabitants: Cruel Omnipresent Usurpers or Creative “Éminences Grises”?  

PubMed Central

This paper presents many types of interplays between parasites and the host, showing the history of parasites, the effects of parasites on the outcome of wars, invasions, migrations, and on the development of numerous regions of the globe, and the impact of parasitic diseases on the society and on the course of human evolution. It also emphasizes the pressing need to change the look at the parasitism phenomenon, proposing that the term “cohabitant” is more accurate than parasite, because every living being, from bacteria to mammals, is a consortium of living beings in the pangenome. Even the term parasitology should be replaced by cohabitology because there is no parasite alone and host alone: both together compose a new adaptive system: the parasitized-host or the cohabitant-cohabited being. It also suggests switching the old paradigm based on attrition and destruction, to a new one founded on adaptation and living together. PMID:21785696

Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Lenzi, Henrique L.

2011-01-01

319

Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

1990-01-01

320

Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial–temporal models?  

PubMed Central

As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

Alegana, Victor A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wright, Jim A.; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

2013-01-01

321

Immunological diagnosis of human angiostrongyliasis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae).  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis-associated eosinophilic meningitis in humans has been commonly reported worldwide. However parasitologically confirmed cases are not common, as the parasite has been recovered only infrequently from the cerebrospinal fluid of patients. The potential value of immunodiagnosis is therefore self-evident. Immunological tests can also help in the differential diagnosis of parasitic (particularly helminths) infections that cause eosinophilic meningitis. This paper summarizes the state of and advances in the immunological diagnosis of human angiostrongyliasis due to Angiostrongylus (= Parastrongylus) cantonensis. A specific antigen is available for the definitive diagnosis and unequivocal differentiation of eosinophilic meningitis due to helminth infections. Rapid diagnostic kits based on dot-blot ELISA have been developed and have proved to be simple, effective, and economical for field use. PMID:19117782

Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

2009-07-01

322

[Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas "Dr. Américo Negrette": 55 years of excellent research versus global economic recession].  

PubMed

The Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette" belongs to the Faculty of Medicine at University of Zulia in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. It was created on December 4, 1959 by Dr. Américo Negrette. Today, with 55 years of existence, the Institute seeks to fulfill the mission that characterizes it, based on the values instilled by its founder and maintained by subsequent generations, whose research projects are implemented through seven research sections: Biochemistry, Hematologic Research, Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience, Immunology and Cell Biology, Clinical Neurochemistry, Parasitology and Virology. The research originated in these laboratories have become national and international points of reference, despite the current economic situation with budget deficits that put at risk the quality and originality of their projects with negative consequences on the productivity and applications for health population, reasons of biomedical research. PMID:25558749

Valero Cedeño, Nereida Josefina

2014-12-01

323

A decade of advances in metabonomics.  

PubMed

The metabonomic approach to biological analysis has demonstrated considerable success in obtaining and decoding metabolic signatures of health, disease and biological challenge. The rise of metabonomics to join the principal 'omics' streams in medical research has been enhanced in particular over the last 10 years by developments in modelling methods, rather than simply via advances in the supporting analytical platforms and biosampling modalities. Metabonomic analysis has been applied in a diverse range of areas from toxicology and dietary effects through to parasitology and molecular epidemiology, and promises yet further advances and wider future application. Some of the basis and methodology of this success is discussed, and some analytical sampling options, future modelling techniques and new targets, and 'blue skies' possibilities are presented in the context of personalised health and the delivery of optimised medical care to individuals. Metabonomics will continue to contribute significantly to improving our knowledge of a wide range of biological systems. PMID:21219245

Barton, Richard H

2011-02-01

324

Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.  

PubMed

Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies.  PMID:25082165

Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

2014-01-01

325

Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area. PMID:24598117

Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

2014-03-01

326

A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases  

PubMed Central

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS) was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language). The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology) and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries. PMID:25526544

Charbonnier, Amandine; Knapp, Jenny; Demonmerot, Florent; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Raoul, Francis; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Damy, Sylvie

2014-01-01

327

[Role of mildew and mildewed honey in summer-fall mortality in bee hives].  

PubMed

The high summer and autumn lethality of unknown etiology observed in bee families from the Vidin district in 1978 was studied. It was established that amid suffering bee families lethality ranges from 50 to 100%. Results of the microbiological investigations carried out proved negative--no pathogen bee microorganisms were isolated. Negative results were obtained from the parasitological investigations also. Analysis of honey produced by suffering families indicated that the samples are highly positive for mildew affected honey and negative for other poisons. Histological investigations of the mid intestine of live bees from the affected families showed changes characteristic for mildew toxicosis. Laboratory biotests carried out by feeding healthy bees with honey taken from suffering or dead bee families confirm the diagnosis. The experimental bees revealed the typical clinical picture and characteristic symptoms of mildew toxicosis and high lethality. PMID:549268

Shabanov, M; Georgiev, D

1979-01-01

328

Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial-temporal models.  

PubMed

As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

Alegana, Victor A; Atkinson, Peter M; Wright, Jim A; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M

2013-12-01

329

Advances in epidemiology survey methodology and techniques in schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Quantitative techniques are now recognized to contribute to the validity and comparability of data from epidemiological studies in schistosomiasis. These methods have been developed and tested in field investigations in areas where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic and, to a lesser extent, S. haematobium endemic areas. Carefully planned epidemiological investigations using standardized and quantitative methods have contributed to our understanding of the relationships between intensity of infection and morbidity, as well as to the development of improved control strategies relevant to these areas. This article reviews the newer parasitological techniques, methods of morbidity assessment, and data analysis procedures employed in current epidemiological studies in schistosomiasis, as well as the analytical questions involved in research on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis. PMID:6969136

Mott, K. E.; Cline, B. L.

1980-01-01

330

[Interpreting cellular inclusions: a contribution to the history of virology].  

PubMed

In the middle of the 19th century cell inclusions were observed with increasing frequency in more and more diseases and were closely scrutinized by researchers working in different fields. Because of their distinct viewpoints, however, the various authors came inevitably to different conclusions. The morphologists interpreted the inclusions as artefacts or degenerative changes, the etiologists, on the other hand, took them for pathogenic protozoa, for cellular lesions inflicted by invisible agents or, conversely - for aggregated products of the cellular defense. Various morphological, parasitological and bacteriological methods have been used to clear up the pros and cons of these hypotheses. It was the rapid progress realized in virology at the middle of the 20th century that finally brought to light their real significance. PMID:11608860

Diosi, P

1998-01-01

331

[Solving the mystery of cellular inclusions. A contribution to the history of virology].  

PubMed

In the middle of the 19th century cell inclusions were observed with increasing frequency in more and more diseases and were closely scrutinized by researchers working in different fields. Because of their distinct viewpoints, however, the various authors came inevitably to different conclusions. The morphologists interpreted the inclusions as artefacts or degenerative changes, the etiologists, on the other hand, took them for pathogenic protozoa, for cellular lesions inflicted by invisible agents or, conversely--for aggregated products of the cellular defense. Various morphological, parasitological and bacteriological methods have been used to clear up the pros and cons of these hypotheses. It was the rapid progress realized in virology at the middle of the 20th century that finally brought to light their real significance. PMID:10024769

Diosi, P

1998-01-01

332

Characithecium (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on the Neotropical fish Oligosarcus jenynsii (Teleostei: Characidae) from the Pampasic region, Argentina, with the emendation of the genus.  

PubMed

Presently, only 2 species of dactylogyrid monogeneans have been reported Characidae inhabiting lakes and streams from the Pampasic region (central Argentina). During a parasitological survey on the characid Oligosarcus jenynsii, from Nahuel Rucá Lake (Buenos Aires province, Argentina), dactylogyrids were found on the gills. Specimens were identified as members of Characithecium: C. chascomusensis n. comb, C. longianchoratum n. sp., C. robustum n. sp., C. quadratum n. sp. and C. chelatum n. sp. These species can be distinguished from each other mainly by differences in the shape of the accessory piece of the male copulatory organ, morphology of anchors and ventral bars as well as position of vaginal aperture. The observation of some additional features present in all species studied, such as the vaginal aperture position (as midventral, lateroventral or lateromarginal) and the variability in the morphology of ventral bar (posteromedial projection present or absent) justified an emended diagnosis of Characithecium.  PMID:25544528

Rossin, María Alejandra; Timi, Juan Tomás

2014-01-01

333

Spiculopteragia asymmetrica infection in Cervus elaphus from Iran  

PubMed Central

Spiculopteragia asymmetrica is a gastrointestinal nematode frequently found in the abomasum of cervids. During December and February 2010, two red deer were died in Semeskandeh sanctuary in Mazandaran province. Moreover, five live deer from mentioned area were treated by Ivermectin and collected feces of these animals were used for assessment helminthes infection by parasitological methods. Several nematodes were recovered in abomasums and in fecal samples of treated animals. Number of worms recovered from abomasums of two dead animals were 275 (90 male and 185 female) from the first one and 327 (102 male and 225 female) from the second. Based on morphological characteristics nematodes were diagnosed as S. asymmetrica. This is the first report of existence of S. asymmetrica from cervids in Iran. PMID:25568698

Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Hoseini, Seyed Hossein; Mobedi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Ekrami, Behrang

2014-01-01

334

Spatio-temporal patterns of schistosomiasis japonica in lake and marshland areas in China: the effect of snail habitats.  

PubMed

The progress of the integrated control policy for schistosomiasis implemented since 2005 in China, which is aiming at reducing the roles of bovines and humans as infection sources, may be challenged by persistent presence of infected snails in lake and marshland areas. Based on annual parasitologic data for schistosomiasis during 2004-2011 in Xingzi County, a spatio-temporal kriging model was used to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Results showed that environmental factors related to snail habitats can explain the spatio-temporal variation of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps of schistosomiasis risk illustrated that clusters of the disease fluctuated during 2004-2008; there was an extensive outbreak in 2008 and attenuated disease occurrences afterwards. An area with an annually constant cluster of schistosomiasis was identified. Our study suggests that targeting snail habitats located within high-risk areas for schistosomiasis would be an economic and sustainable way of schistosomiasis control in the future. PMID:24980498

Hu, Yi; Gao, Jie; Chi, Meina; Luo, Can; Lynn, Henry; Sun, Liqian; Tao, Bo; Wang, Decheng; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

2014-09-01

335

A report on the genital myiasis by Wohlfahrtia magnifica in camel herds in southwest of Iran  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a disease of vertebrate animals caused by different fly larvae. Wohlfahrtia magnifica is responsible for serious losses in animal husbandry in Eurasia. Larvae of W. magnifica parasitize several warm-blooded vertebrates and are responsible for a severe traumatic myiasis of mucosal membranes or wounds. This myiasis has been reported in many European areas, but for the first time was reported from Iran. Larvae infestation was observed in five camels out of 35 (14.28%) around the perinea and vaginal region of camels in a herd in southwest of Iran. The larvae samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory of parasitology for identification. This is the first report of infestation of a camel herd (camelus dromedarius) in Iran. The treatment was performed and prevented the loss from camels and improved their physical condition. Although the myiasis is not a lethal disorder, however knowledge of the disease is necessary from preventive, diagnostic and curative standpoint. PMID:25610587

Pirali Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Dehghani Samani, Amir; Rajabi Vardanjani, Hossein

2014-01-01

336

Principles and applications of polymerase chain reaction in medical diagnostic fields: a review  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized the detection and characterization of microorganisms in a broad range of medical diagnostic fields, including virology, mycology, parasitology, microbiology and dentistry. Among these methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has generated great benefits and allowed scientific advancements. PCR is an excellent technique for the rapid detection of pathogens, including those difficult to culture. Along with conventional PCR techniques, Real-Time PCR has emerged as a technological innovation and is playing an ever-increasing role in clinical diagnostics and research laboratories. Due to its capacity to generate both qualitative and quantitative results, Real-Time PCR is considered a fast and accurate platform. The aim of the present literature review is to explore the clinical usefulness and potential of both conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR assays in diverse medical fields, addressing its main uses and advances. PMID:24031310

Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Crovela, Sergio

2009-01-01

337

Endoparasites of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais. PMID:25517536

Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Buzzulini, Carolina; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Costa, Alvimar José da

2014-01-01

338

Risk Factors for Asthma in a Helminth Endemic Area in Bahia, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Protective factors associated with atopy or asthma in rural areas include socioeconomic level, overcrowding, and helminth infection. However, little epidemiological information was originated from schistosomiasis areas. This study aimed to investigate factors associated with asthma in a schistosomiasis endemic area. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, socioeconomic, and environmental features. The ISAAC questionnaire was used to identify individuals with asthma. Parasitological exam was done in all participants and skin prick test to aeroallergens in all asthmatics. Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 57.4% and Ascaris lumbricoides, 30.8%. Asthma was found in 13.1% of the population, and 35.1% of them had a positive SPT. Active and passive smoking was positively associated with asthma, whereas A. lumbricoides was negatively associated. In a schistosomiasis hyperendemic region, current infection with A. lumbricoides is protective against asthma. However, we cannot rule out the involvement of S. mansoni infection in this process. PMID:22970348

Cardoso, Luciana S.; Costa, Daniela M.; Almeida, Maria Cecília F.; Souza, Robson P.; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Oliveira, Ricardo R.

2012-01-01

339

[Ulcerative colitis].  

PubMed

Ulcerative colitis in children has been seldom described in Chile. The cases of a 14 year old girl and a 10 year old boy with this disease are presented. Both had diarrhea for more than two months--which was continuous in the first case and intermittent in the other one--, bloody stools, weight loss, anemia and abdominal pain. Bacteriological and parasitological examination of stools were negative. Diagnosis of ulcerative colitis was based on barium enema, which showed mucosal ulceration and loss of the normal claustral pattern, rectosigmoidoscopy, that revealed hyperemia, friability and erosions of the corresponding segments of intestinal mucosa, and on histological examination of multiple mucosal biopsies, which disclosed crypt abscess, distorted crypt pattern, inflammation of the lamina propria and decreased number of goblet cells. Both cases were treated with salazosulfapyridine with satisfactory response. PMID:1688231

Chávez, E; Ceresa, S; Rossel, M; Las Heras, J

1991-01-01

340

[Model for sanitary-helminthological supervision and search for the measures for disinfestation of soil and water in the beef tapeworm infection foci in conditions of Kabardino-Balkaria].  

PubMed

The soil and water runoff from the livestock facilities are potentially dangerous for the infection of animal with eggs Taeniarhynchus saginatus. The complex antihelminthic measures and the basis of sanitary and parasitological model of prevention of parasitic diseases of humans and animals in Kabardino-Balkaria allowed within 3-4 years to diminish the contamination of soil with cestode eggs in 4-4.8 times. EGAT drug concentration of 50% and exposure in the range 1-20 days in a clean slurry causes the death to 47% of the eggs T. saginatus, in soil--up to 52% sewage sludge--45% in sewage--49%, that indicates its lack of ovicidal efficacy against cestode eggs. PMID:25306696

Sarbasheva, M M; Bittirova, A A; Atabieva, Zh A; Bittirov, A M

2014-01-01

341

Illthrift in suckling lambs secondary to umbilical infections and possible implication of cryptosporidiosis as a risk factor.  

PubMed

Illthrift was observed in 20/60 lambs aged 40-45 days in a dairy sheep flock in Greece. Cryptosporidiosis had been diagnosed and successfully treated with halofuginone lactate a month earlier. Parasitological examinations were negative for endoparasites while hematology and biochemistry were unremarkable. Necropsy of 5 lambs revealed lung and liver abscessation, presumably secondary to umbilical infections due to poor farm hygiene, though umbilical lesions were not observed. No new cases were observed following treatment of the umbilicus of newborn lambs with chlorexidine. Although umbilical infections are common, this is the first reported case of illthrift in lambs attributed to umbilical infection; illthrift may be the only clinical manifestation of such infections. The prior presence of cryptosporidiosis may have contributed to the severity of the infection through the reduction of local immunity. Recognition of this possibly underdiagnosed or underappreciated condition may improve medical, production, and welfare standards in the sheep industry. PMID:21647394

Giadinis, Nektarios D; Papadopoulos, Elias; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Panousis, Nikolaos; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Koutsoumpas, Asimakis; Karatzias, Harilaos

2011-01-01

342

An identification key for the five most common species of Metastrongylus.  

PubMed

Species of the Metastrongylus genus, the lung nematodes of pigs that require an intermediate host (earthworm) to complete their cycle, pose a potential risk to both livestock and humans. This parasite which can result in lung pathology and mixed infections with other pathogens (e.g. viruses) can be fatal to pigs. Although this genus is distributed worldwide, there are no classification keys for identifying this common parasite species. In this work, we take advantage of parasitological surveys of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in northern and central Spain and southern Poland to develop a morphological identification key for the five most common Metastrongylus species (Metastrongylus apri, Metastrongylus pudendotectus, Metastrongylus salmi, Metastrongylus confusus and Metastrongylus asymetricus). In addition, we provide the first record of M. confusus in Spain, probably unidentified until now due to the lack of appropriate identification keys. We hope that this user-friendly identification key will enable parasitologists and veterinary practitioners to avoid further misclassifications of Metastrongylus species. PMID:25060317

Gassó, Diana; Rossi, Luca; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Nosal, Pawel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Segales, Joaquim; Fernandez-Llario, Pedro; Feliu, Carles

2014-09-01

343

Spiculopteragia asymmetrica infection in Cervus elaphus from Iran.  

PubMed

Spiculopteragia asymmetrica is a gastrointestinal nematode frequently found in the abomasum of cervids. During December and February 2010, two red deer were died in Semeskandeh sanctuary in Mazandaran province. Moreover, five live deer from mentioned area were treated by Ivermectin and collected feces of these animals were used for assessment helminthes infection by parasitological methods. Several nematodes were recovered in abomasums and in fecal samples of treated animals. Number of worms recovered from abomasums of two dead animals were 275 (90 male and 185 female) from the first one and 327 (102 male and 225 female) from the second. Based on morphological characteristics nematodes were diagnosed as S . asymmetrica. This is the first report of existence of S . asymmetrica from cervids in Iran. PMID:25568698

Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Hoseini, Seyed Hossein; Mobedi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Ekrami, Behrang

2014-01-01

344

 

PubMed Central

Intestinal bilharziasis (or schistosomiasis) is becoming more and more frequent among Canadian travellers who come in contact with natural soft waters in tropical countries. The clinical signs accompanying contamination, the prodrome and the chronic phase are inconstant, but eosinophilia is often the warning sign, and specific seroparasitologic findings suggest the diagnostic investigation, Five tourists from Quebec became infected while travelling in Martinique. The clinical, parasitologic and serologic features that led to the diagnosis are described. The prodome (a flu-like syndrome with eosinophilia) is underlined. Treatment with niridazole was effective, as confirmed by the absence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs (or the presence of dead eggs) in specimens from rectal biopsies performed subsequently. Images FIG. 2 PMID:7059888

Viens, P.; Morisset, R.; Clermont, R.

1982-01-01

345

Massive infestation by Amyloodinium ocellatum (Dinoflagellida) of fish in a highly saline lake, Salton Sea, California, USA.  

PubMed

Persistent fish infestation by the parasitic dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum was found at a highly saline lake, Salton Sea, California, USA. The seasonal dynamics of the infestation of young tilapia was traced in 1997-1998. First appearing in May, it became maximal in June-August, decreased in October and was not detectable in November. Outbreak of the infestation and subsequent mortality of young fish was registered at the Sea at a water temperature and salinity of 40 degrees C and 46 ppt, respectively. Some aspects of the ultrastructure of parasitic trophonts of A. ocellatum and their location on the fish from different size groups are considered. The interactions of parasitological and environmental factors and their combined effect upon fish from the Salton Sea are discussed. PMID:11407406

Kuperman, B I; Matey, V E

1999-12-22

346

Treatment of Theileria annulata infection in calves with parvaquone.  

PubMed

Fifteen calves were infected by the injection of stabilate of a suspension of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks infected with the Ankara strain of Theileria annulata. Three were kept untreated, as controls, and they all died of theileriosis. Three groups of four calves were treated intramuscularly with parvaquone (Clexon; Wellcome) when early signs of theileriosis were clinically apparent. One group received 20 mg (kg bodyweight)-1 of parvaquone 10 days after infection. Two of these calves were clinically cured and two died of theileriosis. The remaining two groups of four calves received two doses of parvaquone, each of 10 mg (kg bodyweight)-1, either on days 10 and 11 or days 10 and 12. Three calves in each group were clinically cured while one in each group died of theileriosis. Total parasitological cure was not achieved in any of the calves. No symptoms of toxicity due to parvaquone treatment were observed. PMID:3929345

McHardy, N; Morgan, D W

1985-07-01

347

Giardia duodenalis infection: risk factors for children living in sub-standard settlements in Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to characterize Giardia duodenalis infection among children living in sub-standard settlement areas in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The cross-sectional epidemiological study included 590 children from 1 to 5 years of age. Data were collected from one child per selected family through home interviews with the parent or guardian and parasitological examination of stool samples. Thirty-one putative risk factors concerning family structure, socioeconomic status, and environmental factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 18% (106 children). Four potential risk factors were heavily associated with G. duodenalis infection: number of under-five children in the same household, index child's birth order, existence of a bathroom in the home, and drinking water source. PMID:17546340

Teixeira, Júlio César; Heller, Léo; Barreto, Mauricio L

2007-06-01

348

The first report of Angiostrongylus vasorum (Nematoda; Metastrongyloidea) in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus vasorum belongs to the superfamily of Metastrongyloidea. This nematode occurs in foxes, dogs and other predators. The Nematode A. vasorum place themselves in the pulmonary artery and its branches, and in the right ventricle and atrium of the heart. Numerous species of land snails are the intermediate hosts of the parasite. In 2013, lungs and hearts of 76 foxes shot in the Forest District G??boki Bród in Augustowska Primeval Forest were parasitologically necropsied. Four of the examined foxes were infected with the nematode A. vasorum, a prevalence of 5.2%. In one fox pericardium there were 6 male and 6 female nematodes. In the remaining three foxes nematodes were localized in the pulmonary artery. In two foxes 2 specimens of nematodes were detected (male and female, and two females) while 1 female was detected in the other fox. This is the first report of the presence of the nematode A. vasorum in fox in Poland. PMID:25236289

Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Kuligowska, Izabela; Lachowicz, Jacek

2014-10-01

349

[Trials for optimization of the culture conditions of human pathogenic trypanosomas and leishmania].  

PubMed

Due to the extended political, cultural and economic relations with tropical countries a good knowledge of tropical diseases is required. Since the direct parasitological diagnosis is superior to the serological one it seems logical to improve the culture conditions for laboratory diagnosis and for immunological and chemotherapeutical tests. Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas) and Leishmania donovani (kala-azar) were tested in vitro. Enlargement of the culture surface at the same volume of the medium at 22 degrees C yielded an increase in the number of protozoa by 100%. When blood of different animal species was added to the medium, rabbit blood and that of other rodents such as rat and mouse showed the highest rate of growth. By using the newly developed semi-defined medium 4 as overlay and as monophasic medium high rates of growth were obtained similar to those obtained with known complex media. Therefore, no further import of relevant substances is necessary. PMID:3937462

Perlewitz, J; Koch, A

1985-11-01

350

Intestinal parasites and commensals among individuals from a landless camping in the rural area of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

We evaluated the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children and adults from a landless camping in the rural area of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from October to November 2001. Stool samples from 78 individuals were examined by both the Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. Fifty-one (65.4%; CI 54.8 - 76.0) individuals were found to be infected, 23 (45.1%) children and 28 (54.9%) adults, of whom 34 (66.7%) were mono-infected, 9 (17.6%) bi-infected, and 8 (15.7%) poly-infected. In conclusion, the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals suggests that parasitological exams should be periodically carried out in addition to the sanitation education and health special care in this population. PMID:12870069

Oliveira, Maria Cec lia; Silva, Claudio Vieira da; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

2003-01-01

351

A report on the genital myiasis by Wohlfahrtia magnifica in camel herds in southwest of Iran.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a disease of vertebrate animals caused by different fly larvae. Wohlfahrtia magnifica is responsible for serious losses in animal husbandry in Eurasia. Larvae of W. magnifica parasitize several warm-blooded vertebrates and are responsible for a severe traumatic myiasis of mucosal membranes or wounds. This myiasis has been reported in many European areas, but for the first time was reported from Iran. Larvae infestation was observed in five camels out of 35 (14.28%) around the perinea and vaginal region of camels in a herd in southwest of Iran. The larvae samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory of parasitology for identification. This is the first report of infestation of a camel herd (camelus dromedarius) in Iran. The treatment was performed and prevented the loss from camels and improved their physical condition. Although the myiasis is not a lethal disorder, however knowledge of the disease is necessary from preventive, diagnostic and curative standpoint. PMID:25610587

Pirali Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Dehghani Samani, Amir; Rajabi Vardanjani, Hossein

2014-01-01

352

[The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in The Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty Hospital between 2005 and 2008.].  

PubMed

A retrospective evaluation of the data from 14,246 patients with gastrointestinal complaints who presented at the parasitology laboratory of the Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty Hospital between January 2005 and December 2008 was carried out. Fecal samples of all patients were examined using native-Lugol and the trichrome and Kinyoun acid-fast staining method after sedimentation in fecal concentration tubes. One or more parasites were detected in 1320 (9.3%) of the patients. The distribution of the intestinal parasites was as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 689 (4.83%); nonpathogenic amoebas, 108 (21.82%); Giardia intestinalis, 320 (2.24%); Enterobius vermicularis, 23 (0.16%); Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 34 (0.24%); and other rare parasites, 78 (0.54%). The results of this study emphasize the fact that intestinal parasitic infections are still an important public health problem. PMID:20340084

Usluca, Selma; Inceboz, Tonay; Over, Leyla; Tuncay, Sema; Yalçin, Gülter; Arcak, Serap Sah?n; Ozkoç, Soykan; Aksoy, Umit; Akisü, Ciler

2010-01-01

353

First palaeoparasitological record of a dioctophymatid egg in an archaeological sample from Patagonia.  

PubMed

The collection of parasitological information from ancient material requires an exhaustive study of samples. In 2005, cestode and nematode eggs were found in a coprolite sample tentatively assigned to a canid. The sample was obtained from the layer of the archaeological site located in Cerro Casa de Piedra, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, and dated from 6540±110 years before present. The aim of the present work was to reexamine this fixed sample in order to confirm the presence of these parasites. The palaeoparasitological results support our previous findings. Interestingly, another parasite was also confirmed: a dioctophymatid nematode. Dioctophyma renale has been reported in several modern carnivores in the Southern Hemisphere but in ancient materials, it has only been reported in human coprolites from Switzerland. This report constitutes the first evidence of the presence of a dioctophymatid nematode parasite dioctophymatid nematode in American pre-Columbian times. The results obtained in this work show the importance of revising earlier palaeoparasitological results. PMID:23774319

Fugassa, Martín H; Gonzalez Olivera, Elvira A; Petrigh, Romina S

2013-10-01

354

The conditions of malaria transmission in Katsina Province, Northern Nigeria, and a discussion of the effects of dichlorvos application*  

PubMed Central

A study has been made of the conditions of malaria transmission in the northern part of the Guinea savannah belt of West Central Africa. It was found that, in this holoendemic area, transmission occurs principally from August to December but continues on a much reduced scale throughout the rest of the year, even when anopheline densities are as low as 0.02 per hut. Longitudinal parasitological studies on infants, carried out on an area rather than an individual village basis, provide the most useful epidemiological technique during the minor transmission period. Examination of the spleens of children from areas that had been treated with dichlorvos suggested that the reduced hut anopheline densities resulting from the treatment were subsequently reflected in the reduced number of children showing markedly enlarged spleens. PMID:20604208

Foll, C. V.; Pant, C. P.

1966-01-01

355

Towards a Paradigm Shift in the Treatment of Chronic Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Treatment for Chagas disease with currently available medications is recommended universally only for acute cases (all ages) and for children up to 14 years old. The World Health Organization, however, also recommends specific antiparasite treatment for all chronic-phase Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals, even though in current medical practice this remains controversial, and most physicians only prescribe palliative treatment for adult Chagas patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The present opinion, prepared by members of the NHEPACHA network (Nuevas Herramientas para el Diagnóstico y la Evaluación del Paciente con Enfermedad de Chagas/New Tools for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Chagas Disease Patients), reviews the paradigm shift based on clinical and immunological evidence and argues in favor of antiparasitic treatment for all chronic patients. We review the tools needed to monitor therapeutic efficacy and the potential criteria for evaluation of treatment efficacy beyond parasitological cure. Etiological treatment should now be mandatory for all adult chronic Chagas disease patients. PMID:24247135

Alarcón de Noya, B.; Araujo-Jorge, T.; Grijalva, M. J.; Guhl, F.; López, M. C.; Ramsey, J. M.; Ribeiro, I.; Schijman, A. G.; Sosa-Estani, S.; Torrico, F.; Gascon, J.

2014-01-01

356

Long-term effect of toltrazuril on growth performances of dairy heifers and beef calves exposed to natural Eimeria zuernii and Eimeria bovis infections.  

PubMed

The long-term effects of a toltrazuril treatment against natural Eimeria bovis and/or Eimeria zuernii infections were investigated in comparison with diclazuril and untreated controls on two dairy (Italian Friesian breed) and two beef (Chianina breed) farms. At each trial site, 30 calves were allocated into three groups of 10 calves each: T (treated with toltrazuril), D (treated with diclazuril) and C (left untreated). For 40 weeks post-treatment, the calves were weighed and examined clinically and parasitologically. The oocyst counts as well as the number of scour days were significantly lower in the T group than in the D and C groups. Final bodyweights and body condition scores of the T group exceeded those of groups C and D. The results confirmed that toltrazuril was highly efficacious, safe and provided productive benefits in dairy and beef calves. PMID:21144780

Veronesi, Fabrizia; Diaferia, Manuela; Viola, Orfeo; Fioretti, Daniela Piergili

2011-11-01

357

Modulation of specific biochemical blood parameters by helminth infection in laboratory Beagle dogs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the independent effect of helminths infection on biochemical blood parameters in Beagles intended for laboratory use which may contribute to a change of experimental results. As a result of research, the authors confirmed the negative effect of helminth invasion on the metabolism of the liver and kidney in laboratory dogs. Stool samples from thirty Beagle puppies were examined for parasites before the puppies were moved to the animal facility, and all were dewormed with Vetminth paste on the day they were moved. Stool examination was performed three more times and animals were given Drontal Plus flavor (Bayer) and Baycox 5% (Bayer). A fourth parasitological examination revealed no intestinal parasites in the feces. Three blood biochemical tests were performed. Experimental results clearly indicate the significant impact of intestinal parasites in dogs used in experiments. PMID:22844719

Szweda, M; Szarek, J; Babi?ska, I; Sokó?, R; Ra?-Nory?ska, M; Ko?odziejska-Sawerska, A; Mecik-Kronenberg, T

2012-01-01

358

A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases  

PubMed Central

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS) was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language). The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology) and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries.

Charbonnier, Amandine; Knapp, Jenny; Demonmerot, Florent; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Raoul, Francis; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Damy, Sylvie

2014-01-01

359

[The infectious etiology of acute diarrheal diseases in the Republic of Cuba, 1991].  

PubMed

This study was carried out in 1991 to learn the behavior of enteropathogenic agents causing acute diarrheal diseases in Cuba. 30 children, admitted in hospitals or seen in outpatient services for acute diarrheal diseases, were selected in each province taking into account that they had not received antibiotic or chemotherapy treatments in the previous 72 hours. Feces samples were taken from all patients for virological, bacteriological, and parasitological studies, and results were sent to the Pedro Kourí Institute of Tropical Medicine. Data were processed in DBASE III. Higher positivity indices were attained in the winter months. The causative agents most frequently found were: rotavirus (8.2%); Entamoeba histolytica (6.1%); and Salmonella (4.2%). Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Shigella and rotavirus showed higher indices in winter. Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei predominated. Salmonella serogroups D, B, and C, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli 0119 and 026 subsets were the most frequently found. PMID:7984819

Estévez Touzard, M; Díaz González, M; Monté Boada, R J; Toledo Rodríguez, I; Ramón Bravo, J

1993-01-01

360

Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Myanmar: results of 7 years of deworming.  

PubMed

After a baseline survey in 2003 which showed an overall parasitological prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths of 69.7% in school children (prevalence of ascariasis 48.5%, prevalence of trichuriasis 57.5% and prevalence of hookworm infection 6.5), a national deworming programme was established. After 7 years of implementation, it had resulted in a significant reduction of STH prevalence (prevalence of any STH 21%, prevalence of ascariasis 5.8%, prevalence of trichuriasis 18.6% and prevalence of hookworm infection 0.3%) as well as a reduction of the infections of moderate-heavy intensity from 18.5% at baseline to less than 7%. The results are encouraging and a reduction of the frequency of deworming can be envisaged in two of four ecological areas of Myanmar. PMID:23701018

Tun, Aung; Myat, Su Mon; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Montresor, Antonio

2013-08-01

361

Helminth parasitic infections of the central nervous system: a diagnostic approach.  

PubMed

Helminth parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) occur worldwide with high prevalence in tropical and subtropical countries. Clinical evaluation of patients is mandatory, and it is convenient to group the clinical manifestations into syndromes: for example space-occupying lesions, meningitis, and encephalitis. The history should focus on residence or travel to endemic areas, diet, activities, intercurrent medical conditions, and associated clinical clues. Direct parasitological diagnosis can be reached by cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral tissue examination either by microscopy, culture, or immunological techniques. Immunodiagnosis by detection of parasite antibodies or antigens in serum could provide indirect evidence of parasitic infections. In addition, various imaging and radiological techniques e.g., computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) complement the diagnostic work-up of CNS diseases. Finally, the helminthic CNS infections of global impact, such as schistosomiasis, neurotoxocariasis, Strongyloides infection, neurotrichinosis, neurocysticercosis, and echinococcosis will be briefly discussed as regards the principal clinical and diagnostic features. PMID:24961012

Othman, Ahmad A; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Ganna, Ahmed A

2014-04-01

362

[Potential hazard of zoonotic parasites present in canine feces in Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca].  

PubMed

Objective. To estimate the zoonotic parasites prevalence in feral dog feces in Puerto Escondido. Material and methods. The fecalism frecuency was estimated in ten zones. To identify the parasites parasitological flotation and direct smear methods were used. The parasitic prevalence was estimated in the canine feces. Results. All the zones presented canine fecalism. The parasitic prevalence in the feces was 73.33%. The parasites with the highest prevalence were Toxocara canis (47.78%), Ancylostoma caninum (17.88%), and Dipylidium caninum (13.89%). Conclusion. Canine fecalism comes from strayed and owned dogs. 66.66% of the parasites found in the dog feces are zoonotics. The factors associated to this problem are the suburban habitat, waste mishandling and nil tenure of stray dogs. PMID:25604414

Vélez-Hernández, León; Reyes-Barrera, Karen Lizbeth; Rojas-Almaráz, Daniela; Calderón-Oropeza, Mónica Alicia; Cruz-Vázquez, Julieta Karina; Arcos-García, José Luis

2014-12-01

363

DNA barcoding of schistosome cercariae reveals a novel sub-lineage within Schistosoma rodhaini from Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Lake Victoria.  

PubMed

While Schistosoma rodhaini is typically considered a parasite of small mammals and is very scantly distributed in the Lake Victoria basin, it is known to hybridize with the more widespread Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of intestinal schistosomiasis. As part of broader parasitological and malacological surveys for S. mansoni across Lake Victoria, schistosome cercariae were harvested from a field-caught Biomphalaria choanomphala taken on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Uganda. Upon DNA barcoding, these cercariae were found to be a mixture of both S. rodhaini and S. mansoni, with further phylogenetic analysis revealing a hitherto unknown sub-lineage within S. rodhaini. Despite repeated sampling for eggs and miracidia from both chimpanzees and staff on Ngamba Island Sanctuary, detection of S. rodhaini within local definitive hosts awaits additional efforts, which should be mindful of a potential host role of spotted-necked otters. PMID:22448675

Standley, C J; Stothard, J R

2012-10-01

364

Effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy used in the context of home management of malaria: A report from three study sites in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) at the community level has been advocated as a means to increase access to effective antimalarial medicines by high risk groups living in underserved areas, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. This strategy has been shown to be feasible and acceptable to the community. However, the parasitological effectiveness of ACT when dispensed by community medicine distributors (CMDs) within the context of home management of malaria (HMM) and used unsupervised by caregivers at home has not been evaluated. Methods In a sub-set of villages participating in a large-scale study on feasibility and acceptability of ACT use in areas of high malaria transmission in Ghana, Nigeria and Uganda, thick blood smears and blood spotted filter paper were prepared from finger prick blood samples collected from febrile children between six and 59 months of age reporting to trained CMDs for microscopy and PCR analysis. Presumptive antimalarial treatment with ACT (artesunate-amodiaquine in Ghana, artemether-lumefantrine in Nigeria and Uganda) was then initiated. Repeat finger prick blood samples were obtained 28 days later for children who were parasitaemic at baseline. For children who were parasitaemic at follow-up, PCR analyses were undertaken to distinguish recrudescence from re-infection. The extent to which ACTs had been correctly administered was assessed through separate household interviews with caregivers having had a child with fever in the previous two weeks. Results Over a period of 12 months, a total of 1,740 children presenting with fever were enrolled across the study sites. Patent parasitaemia at baseline was present in 1,189 children (68.3%) and varied from 60.1% in Uganda to 71.1% in Ghana. A total of 606 children (51% of infected children) reported for a repeat test 28 days after treatment. The crude parasitological failure rate varied from 3.7% in Uganda (C.I. 1.2%–6.2%) to 41.8% in Nigeria (C.I. 35%–49%). The PCR adjusted parasitological cure rate was greater than 90% in all sites, varying from 90.9% in Nigeria (C.I. 86%–95%) to 97.2% in Uganda (C.I. 95%–99%). Reported adherence to correct treatment in terms of dose and duration varied from 81% in Uganda (C.I. 67%–95%) to 97% in Ghana (C.I. 95%–99%) with an average of 94% (C.I. 91%–97%). Conclusion While follow-up rates were low, this study provides encouraging data on parasitological outcomes of children treated with ACT in the context of HMM and adds to the evidence base for HMM as a public health strategy as well as for scaling-up implementation of HMM with ACTs. PMID:18822170

Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Browne, Edmund N; Bateganya, Fred; Yar, Denis; Happi, Christian; Falade, Catherine O; Gbotosho, Grace O; Yusuf, Bidemi; Boateng, Samuel; Mugittu, Kefas; Cousens, Simon; Nanyunja, Miriam; Pagnoni, Franco

2008-01-01

365

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: an unresolved mystery  

PubMed Central

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a cutaneous sequela of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), develops in some patients alongside but more commonly after apparent cure from VL. In view of the pivotal role of PKDL patients in the transmission of VL, here we review clinical, epidemiological, parasitological, and immunological perspectives of this disease, focusing on five hypotheses to explain the development of PKDL: (i) the role of antimonial drugs; (ii) UV-induced skin damage; (iii) reinfection; (iv) organ specific failure of memory T cell responses; and (v) genetic susceptibility of the host. This review will enable researchers and clinicians to explore the unresolved mystery of PKDL and provide a framework for future application of ‘omic’ approaches for the control and eventual elimination of VL. PMID:24388776

Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Dalton, Jane E.; Kaye, Paul M.; Chatterjee, Mitali

2014-01-01

366

FLOTAC: a promising technique for detecting helminth eggs in human faeces.  

PubMed

There is a tendency to neglect diagnostic issues in the era of 'preventive chemotherapy' in human helminthiases. However, accurate diagnosis cannot be overemphasized for adequate patient management and monitoring of community-based control programmes. Implicit is a diagnostic dilemma: the more effective interventions are in reducing helminth egg excretion, the less sensitive direct parasitological tests become. Here, experiences gained thus far with the FLOTAC technique for diagnosing common soil-transmitted helminth infections are summarized. A single FLOTAC has higher sensitivity than multiple Kato-Katz thick smears in detecting low-intensity infections. Further validation of the FLOTAC technique in different epidemiological settings is warranted, including diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis and food-borne trematodiases. PMID:19573886

Knopp, Stefanie; Glinz, Dominik; Rinaldi, Laura; Mohammed, Khalfan A; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Stothard, J Russell; Marti, Hanspeter; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rollinson, David; Utzinger, Jürg

2009-12-01

367

Epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Jericho, Palestine.  

PubMed

This study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jericho city and the adjacent Aqbat-Jaber refugee camp investigated the seroprevalance of Leishmania major and the risk factors associated with acquiring the disease. Clinical and parasitology identification of cases showed children and young men were more affected, with the head most affected in children. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to test sera from 190 individuals. The overall seroprevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis was 26.3%. A case-control study of 247 individual in 37 households showed that a higher level of education of the head of the household and having children sleep under bed nets were significantly related to a lower incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:15748077

Al-Jawabreh, A; Barghuthy, F; Schnur, L F; Jacobson, R L; Schönian, G; Abdeen, Z

2003-07-01

368

Spontaneous cure after natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda) in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).  

PubMed

Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:24506422

Torres-Montoya, Hilario; Galaviz-Renteria, Xochilth; Castillo-Ureta, Hipólito; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Nawa, Yukifumi; Bojorquez-Contreras, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia; Rocha-Tirado, Rodrigo; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

2014-04-01

369

A Human Case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a Child from Eastern Sicily  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old child living in a suburban area of Catania, Italy. This case was initially referred to us as Dipylidium caninum infection, which was not cured after being treated twice with mebendazole. However, by analyzing the clinical presentation and stool samples we arrived to the diagnosis of H. diminuta infection. The case presented with atypical allergic manifestations which had never been reported as clinical features of symptomatic H. diminuta infection; remittent fever with abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous itching, transient thoracic rash, and arthromyalgias. The patient was treated with a 7-day cycle of oral niclosamide, which proved to be safe and effective. This case report emphasizes that a correct parasitological diagnosis requires adequate district laboratories and trained personnel. In addition, we recommend the importance of reporting all H. diminuta infection cases, in order to improve knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment protocols. PMID:20585535

Patamia, Ildebrando; Cappello, Elisa; Castellano-Chiodo, Donato; Greco, Filippo; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-01-01

370

A human case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a child from eastern Sicily.  

PubMed

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old child living in a suburban area of Catania, Italy. This case was initially referred to us as Dipylidium caninum infection, which was not cured after being treated twice with mebendazole. However, by analyzing the clinical presentation and stool samples we arrived to the diagnosis of H. diminuta infection. The case presented with atypical allergic manifestations which had never been reported as clinical features of symptomatic H. diminuta infection; remittent fever with abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous itching, transient thoracic rash, and arthromyalgias. The patient was treated with a 7-day cycle of oral niclosamide, which proved to be safe and effective. This case report emphasizes that a correct parasitological diagnosis requires adequate district laboratories and trained personnel. In addition, we recommend the importance of reporting all H. diminuta infection cases, in order to improve knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment protocols. PMID:20585535

Patamia, Ildebrando; Cappello, Elisa; Castellano-Chiodo, Donato; Greco, Filippo; Nigro, Luciano; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-06-01

371

Interlaboratory Optimization and Evaluation of a Serological Assay for Diagnosis of Human Baylisascariasis  

PubMed Central

A Western blot assay using a recombinant protein, recombinant Baylisascaris procyonis RAG1 protein (rBpRAG1), was developed for the diagnosis of human baylisascariasis concurrently by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, and the National Reference Centre for Parasitology (NRCP) in Montreal, Canada. Assay performance was assessed by testing 275 specimens at the CDC and 405 specimens at the NRCP. Twenty specimens from 16 cases of baylisascariasis were evaluated. Eighteen were positive, with the assay correctly identifying 14 of 16 patients. The rBpRAG1 Western blot assay showed no cross-reactivity with Toxocara-positive serum and had an overall sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 98%. PMID:24049107

Rascoe, Lisa N.; Santamaria, Cynthia; Handali, Sukwan; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Kazacos, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

372

Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in area of high malaria endemicity in India and its correlation with blood concentration of lumefantrine.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to correlate blood concentrations of lumefantrine with treatment outcome for patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria when the drug was given without specific instructions for administration with food. Patients with P. falciparum malaria in the highly endemic state of Orissa, India, were enrolled during 2008 and followed-up for 28 days after admistration of artemether-lumefantrine for three days according to a World Health Organization protocol. Drug concentration in whole blood was determined by using blood spots placed on filter paper on day 7. The technology is suitable for field studies. One hundred percent of the patients had an adequate clinical and parasitological response. These results confirm the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in persons from poor tribal communities when given without specific instructions regarding co-administration with food, despite high inter-individual variability in blood concentrations of lumefantrine. PMID:22403306

Valecha, Neena; Mohanty, Suman; Srivastava, Prakriti; Sharma, Surya; Tyagi, Prajesh; Bergqvist, Yngve; Ringwald, Pascal

2012-03-01

373

Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine in Area of High Malaria Endemicity in India and Its Correlation with Blood Concentration of Lumefantrine  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to correlate blood concentrations of lumefantrine with treatment outcome for patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria when the drug was given without specific instructions for administration with food. Patients with P. falciparum malaria in the highly endemic state of Orissa, India, were enrolled during 2008 and followed-up for 28 days after admistration of artemether-lumefantrine for three days according to a World Health Organization protocol. Drug concentration in whole blood was determined by using blood spots placed on filter paper on day 7. The technology is suitable for field studies. One hundred percent of the patients had an adequate clinical and parasitological response. These results confirm the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in persons from poor tribal communities when given without specific instructions regarding co-administration with food, despite high inter-individual variability in blood concentrations of lumefantrine. PMID:22403306

Valecha, Neena; Mohanty, Suman; Srivastava, Prakriti; Sharma, Surya; Tyagi, Prajesh; Bergqvist, Yngve; Ringwald, Pascal

2012-01-01

374

Head-to-Head Comparison of Three Vaccination Strategies Based on DNA and Raw Insect-Derived Recombinant Proteins against Leishmania  

PubMed Central

Parasitic diseases plague billions of people among the poorest, killing millions annually, and causing additional millions of disability-adjusted life years lost. Leishmaniases affect more than 12 million people, with over 350 million people at risk. There is an urgent need for efficacious and cheap vaccines and treatments against visceral leishmaniasis (VL), its most severe form. Several vaccination strategies have been proposed but to date no head-to-head comparison was undertaken to assess which is the best in a clinical model of the disease. We simultaneously assayed three vaccination strategies against VL in the hamster model, using KMPII, TRYP, LACK, and PAPLE22 vaccine candidate antigens. Four groups of hamsters were immunized using the following approaches: 1) raw extracts of baculovirus-infected Trichoplusia ni larvae expressing individually one of the four recombinant proteins (PROT); 2) naked pVAX1 plasmids carrying the four genes individually (DNA); 3) a heterologous prime-boost (HPB) strategy involving DNA followed by PROT (DNA-PROT); and 4) a Control including empty pVAX1 plasmid followed by raw extract of wild-type baculovirus-infected T. ni larvae. Hamsters were challenged with L. infantum promastigotes and maintained for 20 weeks. While PROT vaccine was not protective, DNA vaccination achieved protection in spleen. Only DNA-PROT vaccination induced significant NO production by macrophages, accompanied by a significant parasitological protection in spleen and blood. Thus, the DNA-PROT strategy elicits strong immune responses and high parasitological protection in the clinical model of VL, better than its corresponding naked DNA or protein versions. Furthermore, we show that naked DNA coupled with raw recombinant proteins produced in insect larvae biofactories –the cheapest way of producing DNA-PROT vaccines– is a practical and cost-effective way for potential “off the shelf” supplying vaccines at very low prices for the protection against leishmaniases, and possibly against other parasitic diseases affecting the poorest of the poor. PMID:23236448

Núñez, María del Carmen; Laurenti, Márcia D.; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Rodríguez, Fernando; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Escribano, José M.

2012-01-01

375

[The landscape-biocenological concept of a combination of natural foci of diseases. Environmental conditions predetermining the formation of abiotic and biotic bases for a combination of natural foci of diseases].  

PubMed

Current approaches to studying the problem of a combination of natural foci of diseases are analyzed. It is noted that the essence of a combination of natural foci of infection is understood as the simultaneous existence of two foci or more on the given territory or as infection of individuals of hosts (vectors) with two species (or more) of causative agents. It is pointed out that the combination of foci of diseases from the biocenological standpoints is considered in none of the papers. The author states that all investigators analyze the problem in the context of parasitology that is a section of autecology rather than in the context of biocenology considering the interaction of populations. No conception of the combination of natural foci of diseases and an appropriate approach to studying the problem is a main neglect in the consideration of their combination till recently. Fundamental provisions of biocenology, population ecology, ecological parasitology, the teaching of parasitocenoses and the concept of the landscape morphological structure must serve as a basis for the methodology of studying the combination of the foci. The author considers the combination to be an interaction of the foci of diseases on the bases that presuppose the presence of environmental conditions predetermining the formation of abiotic and biotic bases of the combination of the foci. These include the morphological structure and hydrological conditions of a landscape, species-specific composition of biocenotic ecosystems, the populations of hosts (vectors) of causative agents, and their biocenotic ties. The continuity of the biotic and abiotic bases of the combination of the natural foci ofdiseases is stated. PMID:20120366

Ushakov, A V

2009-01-01

376

From discovery to development: current industry perspectives for the development of novel methods of helminth control in livestock.  

PubMed

Despite the extraordinary success in the development of anthelmintics in the latter part of the last century, helminth parasites of domestic ruminants continue to pose the greatest infectious disease problem in grazing livestock systems worldwide. Newly emerged threats to continuing successful livestock production, particularly with small ruminants, are the failure of this chemotherapeutic arsenal due to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance at a time when the likelihood of new products becoming commercially available seems more remote. Changing public attitudes with regards to animal welfare, food preferences and safety will also significantly impact on the ways in which livestock are managed and their parasites are controlled. Superimposed on this are changes in livestock demographics internationally, in response to evolving trade policies and demands for livestock products. In addition, is the apparently ever-diminishing numbers of veterinary parasitology researchers in both the public and private sectors. Industries, whether being the livestock industries, the public research industries, or the pharmaceutical industries that provide animal health products, must adapt to these changes. In the context of helminth control in ruminant livestock, the mind-set of 'suppression' needs to be replaced by 'management' of parasites to maintain long-term profitable livestock production. Existing effective chemical groups need to be carefully husbanded and non-chemotherapeutic methods of parasite control need to be further researched and adopted, if and when, they become commercially available. This will require veterinary parasitology researchers from both the public and private sectors to work in close co-operation to ensure 'sustainability' - not only of the livestock industries that they service - but also for their very own activities and enterprises. PMID:16675128

Waller, P J

2006-06-30

377

An evaluation of urine-CCA strip test and fingerprick blood SEA-ELISA for detection of urinary schistosomiasis in schoolchildren in Zanzibar.  

PubMed

To develop better monitoring protocols for detection of urinary schistosomiasis during ongoing control interventions, two commercially available diagnostic tests - the urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) strip and the soluble egg antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SEA-ELISA) - were evaluated for detection of Schistosoma haematobium infections in 150 schoolchildren from Zanzibar. The children originated from five primary schools representative of different levels of disease endemicity across the island; using standard urine filtration assessment with microscopy, mean prevalence of S. haematobium was 30.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=23.4-38.7%) and a total of 35.3% (95% CI=27.7-43.5%) and 8.0% (95% CI=4.2-13.6%) children presented with micro- and macro-haematuria, respectively. Diagnostic scores of the urine-CCA strip were not satisfactory, a very poor sensitivity of 9% (95% CI=2-21%) was observed, precluding any further consideration. By contrast, the performance of the SEA-ELISA using sera from fingerprick blood was good; a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI=76-96%), a specificity of 70% (95% CI=60-79%), a positive predictive value of 57% (95% CI=45-69%) and a negative predictive value of 90% (95% CI=86-98%) were found. At the unit of the school, a positive linear association between prevalence inferred from parasitological examination and SEA-ELISA methods was found. The SEA-ELISA holds promise as a complementary field-based method for monitoring infection dynamics in schoolchildren over and above standard parasitological methods. PMID:19426665

Stothard, J Russell; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C; Standley, Claire; Van Dam, Govert J; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Ameri, Haji; Khamis, Alieppo N; Khamis, I Simba; Deelder, André M; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Rollinson, David

2009-07-01

378

Efficacy of Direct Detection of Pathogens in Naturally Infected Mice by Using a High-Density PCR Array  

PubMed Central

We used a high-density array of real-time PCR assays for commonly reported rodent infectious agents (PRIA) to test naturally infected index mice and sentinel mice exposed by contact and soiled-bedding transfer. PRIA detected 14 pathogens—including viruses, bacteria, fur mites, pinworms, and enteric protozoa—in 97.2% of 28 pooled fecal samples, fur–perianal swabs, and oral swabs from 4 cages containing a total of 10 index mice. Among these pathogens, PRIA (like conventional health monitoring methods) failed to detect Mycoplasma pulmonis, Pasteurella pneumotropica, and Giardia spp. in all of the 9 contact and 9 soiled-bedding sentinels. PRIA demonstrated murine adenovirus and Cryptosporidium and Spironucleus spp. in contact but not soiled-bedding sentinels and detected Helicobacter and pinworms in fewer than half of the soiled-bedding sentinels. Of the 4 species of Helicobacter that species-specific PCR assays identified in index mice, only H. ganmani was found in soiled-bedding and contact sentinels. PRIA detected all of the pathogens in sentinels that were identified by conventional methods. Myobia musculi was detected by PCR in index and sentinel mice but missed by conventional parasitologic examinations. In summary, PRIA reproducibly detected diverse pathogens in heavily pooled specimens collected noninvasively from infected index mice antemortem. The inability of PRIA and conventional health monitoring methods (that is, parasitology, microbiology, and serology) to demonstrate transmission of some pathogens to contact sentinels and the inefficient transmission of others to soiled-bedding sentinels underscores the importance of direct PCR testing to determine the pathogen status of rodents in quarantine and during routine colony surveillance. PMID:24351765

Henderson, Kenneth S; Perkins, Cheryl L; Havens, Richard B; Kelly, Mee-Jin E; Francis, Brian C; Dole, Vandana S; Shek, William R

2013-01-01

379

Efficacy of direct detection of pathogens in naturally infected mice by using a high-density PCR array.  

PubMed

We used a high-density array of real-time PCR assays for commonly reported rodent infectious agents (PRIA) to test naturally infected index mice and sentinel mice exposed by contact and soiled-bedding transfer. PRIA detected 14 pathogens--including viruses, bacteria, fur mites, pinworms, and enteric protozoa--in 97.2% of 28 pooled fecal samples, fur-perianal swabs, and oral swabs from 4 cages containing a total of 10 index mice. Among these pathogens, PRIA (like conventional health monitoring methods) failed to detect Mycoplasma pulmonis, Pasteurella pneumotropica, and Giardia spp. in all of the 9 contact and 9 soiled-bedding sentinels. PRIA demonstrated murine adenovirus and Cryptosporidium and Spironucleus spp. in contact but not soiled-bedding sentinels and detected Helicobacter and pinworms in fewer than half of the soiled-bedding sentinels. Of the 4 species of Helicobacter that species-specific PCR assays identified in index mice, only H. ganmani was found in soiled-bedding and contact sentinels. PRIA detected all of the pathogens in sentinels that were identified by conventional methods. Myobia musculi was detected by PCR in index and sentinel mice but missed by conventional parasitologic examinations. In summary, PRIA reproducibly detected diverse pathogens in heavily pooled specimens collected noninvasively from infected index mice antemortem. The inability of PRIA and conventional health monitoring methods (that is, parasitology, micro-biology, and serology) to demonstrate transmission of some pathogens to contact sentinels and the inefficient transmission of others to soiled-bedding sentinels underscores the importance of direct PCR testing to determine the pathogen status of rodents in quarantine and during routine colony surveillance. PMID:24351765

Henderson, Kenneth S; Perkins, Cheryl L; Havens, Richard B; Kelly, Mee-Jin E; Francis, Brian C; Dole, Vandana S; Shek, William R

2013-11-01

380

Discriminating Malaria from Dengue Fever in Endemic Areas: Clinical and Biological Criteria, Prognostic Score and Utility of the C-Reactive Protein: A Retrospective Matched-Pair Study in French Guiana  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue and malaria are two major public health concerns in tropical settings. Although the pathogeneses of these two arthropod-borne diseases differ, their clinical and biological presentations are unspecific. During dengue epidemics, several hundred patients with fever and diffuse pain are weekly admitted at the emergency room. It is difficult to discriminate them from patients presenting malaria attacks. Furthermore, it may be impossible to provide a parasitological microscopic examination for all patients. This study aimed to establish a diagnostic algorithm for communities where dengue fever and malaria occur at some frequency in adults. Methodology/Principal Findings A sub-study using the control groups of a case-control study in French Guiana – originally designed to compare dengue and malaria co-infected cases to single infected cases – was performed between 2004 and 2010. In brief, 208 patients with malaria matched to 208 patients with dengue fever were compared in the present study. A predictive score of malaria versus dengue was established using .632 bootstrap procedures. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender, age, tachycardia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and CRP>5 mg/l were independently associated with malaria. The predictive score using those variables had an AUC of 0.86 (95%CI: 0.82–0.89), and the CRP was the preponderant predictive factor. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP>5 mg/L to discriminate malaria from dengue were of 0.995 (95%CI: 0.991–1) and 0.35 (95%CI 0.32–0.39), respectively. Conclusions/Significance The clinical and biological score performed relatively well for discriminating cases of dengue versus malaria. Moreover, using only the CRP level turned to be a useful biomarker to discriminate feverish patients at low risk of malaria in an area where both infections exist. It would avoid more than 33% of unnecessary parasitological examinations with a very low risk of missing a malaria attack. PMID:24069477

Epelboin, Loïc; Boullé, Charlotte; Ouar-Epelboin, Sihem; Hanf, Matthieu; Dussart, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Nacher, Mathieu; Carme, Bernard

2013-01-01

381

Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children in zaire and uíge provinces, angola.  

PubMed

The development of resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge for global malaria control. Artemisinin-based combination therapies, the newest class of antimalarials, are used worldwide but there have been reports of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. In February through May 2013, we conducted open-label, nonrandomized therapeutic efficacy studies of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in Zaire and Uíge Provinces in northern Angola. The parasitological and clinical responses to treatment in children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum monoinfection were measured over 28 days, and the main outcome was a PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) proportion on day 28. Parasites from treatment failures were analyzed for the presence of putative molecular markers of resistance to lumefantrine and artemisinins, including the recently identified mutations in the K13 propeller gene. In the 320 children finishing the study, 25 treatment failures were observed: 24 in the AL arms and 1 in the DP arm. The PCR-corrected ACPR proportions on day 28 for AL were 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78 to 95%) in Zaire and 97% (91 to 100%) in Uíge. For DP, the proportions were 100% (95 to 100%) in Zaire, and 100% (96 to 100%) in Uíge. None of the treatment failures had molecular evidence of artemisinin resistance. In contrast, 91% of AL late-treatment failures had markers associated with lumefantrine resistance on the day of failure. The absence of molecular markers for artemisinin resistance and the observed efficacies of both drug combinations suggest no evidence of artemisinin resistance in northern Angola. There is evidence of increased lumefantrine resistance in Zaire, which should continue to be monitored. PMID:25367912

Plucinski, Mateusz M; Talundzic, Eldin; Morton, Lindsay; Dimbu, Pedro Rafael; Macaia, Aleixo Panzo; Fortes, Filomeno; Goldman, Ira; Lucchi, Naomi; Stennies, Gail; MacArthur, John R; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

2015-01-01

382

Differences in the detection of Cryptosporidium and Isospora (Cystoisospora) oocysts according to the fecal concentration or staining method used in a clinical laboratory.  

PubMed

Despite the availability of many parasitological methods for detection of Cryptosporidium and Isospora (Cystoisospora) belli in fecal samples, there are uncertainties about the accuracy of these techniques in laboratory practice. In this study, 27 formalin-fixed positive stool samples for Cryptosporidium and 15 for I. belli were analyzed by 2 concentration methods, sedimentation by centrifugation (SC) and formalin-ethyl acetate (FE), and by 3 tintorial techniques, modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN), safranin (SF), and auramine (AR). No significant differences were observed on Cryptosporidium identification between concentration methods, while a significantly higher number of I. belli oocysts (P < 0.0001) was detected in fecal smears concentrated by the SC than by the FE method. Fecal samples processed by FE produced a median oocyst loss to the fatty ring of 34.8% for Cryptosporidium and 45.4% for I. belli. However, FE concentration provided 63% of Cryptosporidium and 100% of I. belli slides classified as superior for microscopic examination. Regarding the efficiency of staining methods, a more significant detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts was observed in fecal smears stained by ZN (P < 0.01) or AR (P < 0.05) than by the SF method. Regular to high-quality slides for microscopic examination were mostly observed in fecal smears stained with AR or ZN for Cryptosporidium and with SF or ZN for I. belli. This study suggests a great variability in oocyst power detection by routine parasitological methods, and that the most frequent intestinal coccidians in humans have specific requirements for concentration and staining. PMID:23829170

Pacheco, Flávia T F; Silva, Renata K N R; Martins, Adson S; Oliveira, Ricardo R; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza M; Silva, Moacir P; Soares, Neci M; Teixeira, Márcia C A

2013-12-01

383

Accuracy of Individual Rapid Tests for Serodiagnosis of Gambiense Sleeping Sickness in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT) of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa. Methodology/Principal findings SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p?0.0003) to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7–99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%. Conclusions/Significance The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance. PMID:25642701

Jamonneau, Vincent; Camara, Oumou; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Peylhard, Moana; Koffi, Mathurin; Sakande, Hassane; N’Dri, Louis; Sanou, Djénéba; Dama, Emilie; Camara, Mamadou; Lejon, Veerle

2015-01-01

384

[The first finding of a spontaneous gastric cryptosporidiosis infection in hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii Satunin, 1903)].  

PubMed

The desert hamster (Phodopus roborovskii Satunin, 1903) represents a new host of Cryptosporidium muris Tyzzer (1907), 1910. This very first finding was made in the laboratories of the National Veterinary Institute, Prague, Czech Republic. In September 1994 three 11-month and one 3-month desert hamsters were sent for laboratory examination. Parasitological examination post mortem of a 3-month desert hamster revealed "large" Cryptosporidium oocysts in excrements as well as in the contents of intestines. In all animals in which autopsy was carried out congestion of lungs, spleen and liver, acute catarrhal inflammation and flatulences in portions of gut were observed. Presence of morphologically identical oocysts of cryptosporidia was confirmed in the same group of desert hamsters also during parasitological reexamination carried out in October 1994. Applying the methods according to Breza (1957) and Pavlásek (1991) oocysts of the protozoon under study were detected in pooled samples of excrements of 3, 4, 5, 10 and 11-month animals. Two out of four live 2-3-month desert hamsters were infected naturally, both parents (10-11 months old), sent by the owner to our laboratory to be used for further observation. Both adult animals showed slight tremor, somnolence, rough hair and recumbent position, the male showed paresis of pelvic limbs. For four days in the laboratory conditions excrements of all six live desert hamsters, the interval being 2-12 hours, were examined and in four of them the finding of oocysts of the protozoon was repeatedly positive. Adult animals were euthanasied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8585141

Pavlásek, I; Lávicka, M

1995-08-01

385

Rapid assessment of Schistosoma mansoni: the validity, applicability and cost-effectiveness of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method in Uganda.  

PubMed

Rapid and accurate identification of communities at highest risk of morbidity from schistosomiasis is key for sustainable control. Although school questionnaires can effectively and inexpensively identify communities with a high prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, parasitological screening remains the preferred option for S. mansoni. To help reduce screening costs, we investigated the validity of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) in classifying schools according to categories of S. mansoni prevalence in Uganda, and explored its applicability and cost-effectiveness. First, we evaluated several sampling plans using computer simulation and then field tested one sampling plan in 34 schools in Uganda. Finally, cost-effectiveness of different screening and control strategies (including mass treatment without prior screening) was determined, and sensitivity analysis undertaken to assess the effect of infection levels and treatment costs. In identifying schools with prevalences > or =50%, computer simulations showed that LQAS had high levels of sensitivity and specificity (>90%) at sample sizes <20. The method also provides an ability to classify communities into three prevalence categories. Field testing showed that LQAS where 15 children were sampled had excellent diagnostic performance (sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 96.4%, positive predictive value: 85.7% and negative predictive value: 92.3%). Screening using LQAS was more cost-effective than mass treating all schools (US$218 vs. US$482/high prevalence school treated). Threshold analysis indicated that parasitological screening and mass treatment would become equivalent for settings where prevalence > or =50% in 75% of schools and for treatment costs of US$0.19 per schoolchild. We conclude that, in Uganda, LQAS provides a rapid, valid and cost-effective method for guiding decision makers in allocating finite resources for the control of schistosomiasis. PMID:15960703

Brooker, Simon; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Myatt, Mark; Russell Stothard, J; Fenwick, Alan

2005-07-01

386

Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100?µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100?µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100?µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100?µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. PMID:25278142

Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

2014-12-01

387

Spatial and temporal variations relevant to tsetse control in the Bipindi focus of southern Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) remains a public health problem in many poor countries. Due to lack of financial resources in these countries, cost-effective strategies are needed for efficient control of this scourge, especially the tsetse vector. It was shown that perennial water sources maintain a favourable biotope for tsetse flies and thus the transmission dynamics of sleeping sickness. The present paper aimed at assessing the transmission dynamics of HAT in a forest environment where the hydrographic network is important. Methods Two entomological surveys were carried out in July 2009 and March 2010 in the Bipindi sleeping sickness focus of the South Region of Cameroon. Entomological and parasitological data were collected during both trapping periods (including the climate variations throughout a year) and compared to each other. The level of risk for transmission of the disease during each trapping period was also evaluated at the trap level and materialised on the map of the Bipindi focus. Results Glossina palpalis palpalis was the most prevalent tsetse fly species captured in this focus. The overall densities of tsetse flies as well as the risk for transmission of HAT in the Bipindi focus were significantly higher in July than in March. At the trap level, we observed that these parameters were almost constant, whatever the trapping period, when the biotope included perennial water sources. Conclusions This study shows that the spatial distribution of traps, as well as the temporal climatic variations might influence entomological and parasitological parameters of HAT and that the presence of perennial water sources in biotopes would favour the development of tsetse flies and thus the transmission of sleeping sickness. These factors should, therefore, be taken into account in order to provide more efficient vector control. PMID:23815985

2013-01-01

388

Sensitivity of double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation for detecting intestinal helminths in coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Fecal analysis is commonly used to estimate prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores, but few studies have assessed the reliability of fecal flotation compared to analysis of intestinal tracts. We investigated sensitivity of the double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation and kappa agreement between fecal flotation and postmortem examination of intestines for helminths of coyotes (Canis latrans). We analyzed 57 coyote carcasses that were collected between October 2010 and March 2011 in the metropolitan area of Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Before analyses, intestines and feces were frozen at -80 C for 72 hr to inactivate Echinococcus eggs, protecting operators from potential exposure. Five species of helminths were found by postmortem examination, including Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Sensitivity of fecal flotation was high (0.84) for detection of T. leonina but low for Taenia sp. (0.27), E. multilocularis (0.46), and U. stenocephala (0.00). Good kappa agreement between techniques was observed only for T. leonina (0.64), for which we detected also a significant correlation between adult female parasite intensity and fecal egg counts (R(s)=0.53, P=0.01). Differences in sensitivity may be related to parasite characteristics that affect recovery of eggs on flotation. Fecal parasitologic analyses are highly applicable to study the disease ecology of urban carnivores, and they often provide important information on environmental contamination and potential of zoonotic risks. However, fecal-based parasitologic surveys should first assess the sensitivity of the techniques to understand their biases and limitations. PMID:22740537

Liccioli, Stefano; Catalano, Stefano; Kutz, Susan J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Padraig J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

2012-07-01

389

[Spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in the City of La Plata, Argentina].  

PubMed

Parasitosis analysis at regional levels is simplified by the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS), which enables the identification of areas with different degrees of vulnerability. We analyzed the spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in La Plata district and their relationship with socio-environmental conditions in order to identify areas with different degrees of epidemiological risk. An epidemiological survey was completed; stool samples were collected and analyzed by Ritchie's method. Levels of precariousness and vulnerability (Iv rate) were calculated and compared to the parasitological results. Parasitological and environmental analysis were carried out on a total of 653 individuals, of whom 585 (89.6%) were children and 68 (10.4%) adults. The analysis indicated that the most vulnerable (Iv = 3-4) were those located in areas with less access to urban infrastructure services. The Iv was strongly associated with the overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and the 4 pathogenic species related to the fecal contamination of the environment: Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana and Giardia lamblia (p < 0.01). On the other hand, Enterobius vermicularis, a parasite not related to the sanitary condition of its host, was not associated with the Iv. Statistical association between poverty and parasitosis was noted; the greater the Iv, higher the incidence of parasites (p < 0.01). GIS allowed zoning socio-environmental variables in an increasing gradient of unfavorable conditions and their relationship to the presence of pathogenic species. The continuity of these studies in different regions of Argentina contributes to the determination of health risk areas. PMID:25347897

Gamboa, María I; Giambelluca, Luis A; Navone, Graciela T

2014-01-01

390

Thiamin supplementation does not reduce the frequency of adverse events after anti-malarial therapy among patients with falciparum malaria in southern Laos  

PubMed Central

Background In a recent study one third of Lao patients presenting with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria had biochemical evidence of thiamin deficiency, which was associated with a higher incidence of adverse events. Thiamin supplementation might, therefore, reduce adverse events in this population. Methods An exploratory, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, superiority trial of thiamin supplementation in patients of all ages with uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria was conducted in Xepon District, Savannakhet Province, southern Laos. Patients were randomly assigned to either oral thiamin 10 mg/day for 7 days immediately after standard anti-malarial treatment then 5 mg daily until day 42, or identical oral placebo. Results After interim analyses when 630 patients (314 in thiamin and 316 in placebo groups) had been recruited, the trial was discontinued on the grounds of futility. On admission biochemical thiamin deficiency (alpha???25%) was present in 27% of patients and 9% had severe deficiency (alpha?>?31%). After 42 days of treatment, the frequency of thiamin deficiency was lower in the thiamin (2%, 1% severe) compared to the placebo (11%, 3% severe) groups (p??0.05). Clinical, haematological, and parasitological responses to treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion Thiamin supplementation reduced biochemical thiamin deficiency among Lao malaria patients following anti-malarial drug treatment, but it did not reduce the frequency of adverse events after anti-malarial therapy or have any detected clinical or parasitological impact. Trial registration ISRCTN 85411059 PMID:25027701

2014-01-01

391

Artemether-lumefantrine versus artesunate plus amodiaquine for treating uncomplicated childhood malaria in Nigeria: randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The therapeutic efficacy of artesunate plus amodiaquine and artemether/lumefantrine were assessed in an area of Nigeria with high levels of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Participants Children aged 6 to 59 months with uncomplicated P. falciparum infection and parasite density 1,000 to 200,000 parasites/?L enrolled following informed consent by parents. Methods Eligible children were randomly assigned to receive either a 3-day course of artesunate (4 mg/kg) plus amodiaquine (10 mg/kg) or 6-dose course of artemether/lumefantrine (20/120 mg tablets) over three days. Patients were followed up with clinical and laboratory assessments until day 14 using standard WHO in-vivo antimalarial drug test protocol. Results A total 119 eligible children were enrolled but 111 completed the study. Adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) was 47 (87.0%) and 47 (82.5%) for artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate+amodiaquine (AAMQ) respectively (OR 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 2.22). Early treatment failure (ETF) occurred in one participant (1.8%) treated with AAQ but in none of those with AL. Two (3.7%) patients in the AL group and none in the AAQ group had late clinical failure. Late parasitological failure was observed in 9 (15.8) and 5 (9.3%) of patients treated with AAQ and AL respectively. None of participants had a serious adverse event. Conclusion Artemether-lumenfantrine and artesunate plus amodiaquine have high and comparable cure rates and tolerability among under-five children in Calabar, Nigeria. PMID:16704735

Meremikwu, Martin; Alaribe, Ambrose; Ejemot, Regina; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Ekenjoku, John; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka; Ordu, Donald; Ezedinachi, Emmanuel

2006-01-01

392

Therapeutic efficacy test in malaria falciparum in Antioquia, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate the frequency of failure of eight treatments for non-complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from Turbo (Urabá region), El Bagre and Zaragoza (Bajo Cauca region), applying the 1998 protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO). Monotherapies using chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), mefloquine (MQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and combinations using chloroquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP), amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP), mefloquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (MQ-SP) and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP), were examined. Methodology A balanced experimental design with eight groups. Samples were selected based on statistical and epidemiological criteria. Patients were followed for 21 to 28 days, including seven or eight parasitological and clinical evaluations, with an active search for defaulting patients. A non-blinded evaluation of the antimalarial treatment response (early failure, late failure, adequate response) was performed. Results Initially, the loss of patients to follow-up was higher than 40%, but the immediate active search for the cases and the monetary help for transportation expenses of patients, reduced the loss to 6%. The treatment failure was: CQ 82%, AQ 30%, MQ 4%, SP 24%, CQ-SP 17%, AQ-SP 2%, MQ-S-P 0%, AS-SP 3%. Conclusion The characteristics of an optimal epidemiological monitoring system of antimalarial treatment response in Colombia are discussed. It is proposed to focus this on early failure detection, by applying a screening test every two to three years, based on a seven to 14-day follow-up. Clinical and parasitological assessment would be carried out by a general physician and a field microscopist from the local hospital, with active measures to search for defaulter patients at follow-up. PMID:16504002

Blair, Silvia; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Piñeros, Juan G; Ríos, Alexandra; Álvarez, Tania; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto

2006-01-01

393

Blastocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica exhibit similar symptomatic and epidemiological patterns in healthcare-seeking patients in Karachi.  

PubMed

In this study, we collected data on the incidence of enteric parasites in healthcare-seeking individuals along with their symptoms to quantify the potential roles of factors such as age, sex, and seasonality in infection. We performed analysis to identify factors which could help differentiate parasitic infection from other causes of gastrointestinal illness in a community. The size of the patient population (n = 339), patient selection methodology, collection methods, and statistical analysis followed approaches from similar studies in core clinical journals. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Karachi's Ethical Review Board. Fecal specimens (n = 339) submitted by symptomatic patients were collected from two clinical laboratories, along with information about the patients' age, sex, and symptoms. We found that symptoms of fever, vomiting, and constipation were 100 % predictive of finding a parasitic infection, while diarrhea was 88 % predictive of a parasitic infection. Gastrointestinal parasite-positive patients reported diarrhea (~60 %), vomiting (~30 %), fever (~25 %) and constipation (~25 %), while parasite-negative patients exhibited a symptomatic profile without fever, vomiting, and constipation. The distribution of symptoms in parasite-positive patients remained relatively invariant regardless of the parasite identified. Blastocystis spp.-mono-infected patients reported a similar profile to patients positive for Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Cryptosporidium spp. Most parasitic infections exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with a peak incidence in summer months. Infection by Blastocystis spp. was the most prevalent, and it was the only infection mathematically correlated to rainfall by Pearson's method. We observed no increase in healthcare-seeking behavior following a stressful community event, namely, the attempted assassination of Benazir Bhutto in Karachi. The data suggest that parasitological testing would produce a high yield of positive results when performed on healthcare-seeking patients in Karachi in 2007 with symptoms of fever, vomiting, or constipation and a low yield when performed on patients noting only abdominal pain. Parasitological testing also produces a higher yield on patients seen in summer months. PMID:22763702

Haider, Syeda Sadaf; Baqai, Rakhshanda; Qureshi, Fouad M; Boorom, Kenneth

2012-09-01

394

The Laboratory Diagnosis and Follow Up of Strongyloidiasis: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Strongyloidiasis is frequently under diagnosed since many infections remain asymptomatic and conventional diagnostic tests based on parasitological examination are not sufficiently sensitive. Serology is useful but is still only available in reference laboratories. The need for improved diagnostic tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity is clear, particularly in immunocompromised patients or candidates to immunosuppressive treatments. This review aims to evaluate both conventional and novel techniques for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis as well as available cure markers for this parasitic infection. Methodology/Principal Findings The search strategy was based on the data-base sources MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Register for systematic review, EmBase, Global Health and LILACS and was limited in the search string to articles published from 1960 to August 2012 and to English, Spanish, French, Portuguese and German languages. Case reports, case series and animal studies were excluded. 2003 potentially relevant citations were selected for retrieval, of which 1649 were selected for review of the abstract. 143 were eligible for final inclusion. Conclusions Sensitivity of microscopic-based techniques is not good enough, particularly in chronic infections. Furthermore, techniques such as Baermann or agar plate culture are cumbersome and time-consuming and several specimens should be collected on different days to improve the detection rate. Serology is a useful tool but it might overestimate the prevalence of disease due to cross-reactivity with other nematode infections and its difficulty distinguishing recent from past (and cured) infections. To evaluate treatment efficacy is still a major concern because direct parasitological methods might overestimate it and the serology has not yet been well evaluated; even if there is a decline in antibody titres after treatment, it is slow and it needs to be done at 6 to 12 months after treatment which can cause a substantial loss to follow-up in a clinical trial. PMID:23350004

Requena-Méndez, Ana; Chiodini, Peter; Bisoffi, Zeno; Buonfrate, Dora; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Muñoz, José

2013-01-01

395

Prevalence of hookworm infection: a retrospective study in Kumasi  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish the prevalence of hookworm infection among patients who reported at the parasitology laboratory of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital for intestinal parasitic investigation. Method This retrospective study covered available data from January 2001 to December 2011. Records of patients referred to the parasitology laboratory of the hospital were manually reviewed for hookworm infection. Data on age, sex and status of hookworm infection (either present or absent) were retrieved and analyzed by using Microsoft Excel 2007 statistical package. Results A total of 47?147 patients was reported at the laboratory for intestinal parasitic investigation. Among these patients, 158 patient were positive, representing an overall prevalence of 0.3% (158/47?147). Among the positive cases, the study revealed that the proportion of individuals in age groups <1, 1 to 9, 10 to 19, 20 to 29 and 30 to 39 years were 1.3% (2), 10.8% (17), 16.5% (26), 27.2% (43) and 23.4% (37) respectively. Furthermore, people in age group 40 to 49, 50 to 59 and ?60 years were infected in the proportion of 8.7% (14), 5.7% (9) and 7.0% (11) respectively. Among the infected patients, the number of females was 62.7% (99) while that of males was 37.3% (59). The yearly prevalence rate dropped consistently from 0.84% in 2001 to 0.11% in 2005. However it increased marginally in 2006 (0.27%) and dropped to 0.00% in 2011. Conclusion Hookworm infestation was found to be generally high between April and August. However the overall prevalence was relatively low among the study population. PMID:25183072

Walana, Williams; Aidoo, Eric Nana Kofi; Tay, Samuel Crowther Kofi

2014-01-01

396

Willingness-to-pay for a rapid malaria diagnostic test and artemisinin-based combination therapy from private drug shops in Mukono District, Uganda.  

PubMed

In Uganda, as in many parts of Africa, the majority of the population seek treatment for malaria in drug shops as their first point of care; however, parasitological diagnosis is not usually offered in these outlets. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria have attracted interest in recent years as a tool to improve malaria diagnosis, since they have proved accurate and easy to perform with minimal training. Although RDTs could feasibly be performed by drug shop vendors, it is not known how much customers would be willing to pay for an RDT if offered in these settings. We conducted a contingent valuation survey among drug shop customers in Mukono District, Uganda. Exit interviews were undertaken with customers aged 15 years and above after leaving a drug shop having purchased an antimalarial and/or paracetamol. The bidding game technique was used to elicit the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for an RDT and a course of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) with and without RDT confirmation. Factors associated with WTP were investigated using linear regression. The geometric mean WTP for an RDT was US$0.53, US$1.82 for a course of ACT and US$2.05 for a course of ACT after a positive RDT. Factors strongly associated with a higher WTP for these commodities included having a higher socio-economic status, no fever/malaria in the household in the past 2 weeks and if a malaria diagnosis had been obtained from a qualified health worker prior to visiting the drug shop. The findings further suggest that the WTP for an RDT and a course of ACT among drug shop customers is considerably lower than prevailing and estimated end-user prices for these commodities. Increasing the uptake of ACTs in drug shops and restricting the sale of ACTs to parasitologically confirmed malaria will therefore require additional measures. PMID:22589226

Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pedrazzoli, Debora; Mbonye, Anthony; Clarke, Sian; Cundill, Bonnie; Magnussen, Pascal; Yeung, Shunmay

2013-03-01

397

Chronic Malaria Revealed by a New Fluorescence Pattern on the Antinuclear Autoantibodies Test  

PubMed Central

Background Several clinical forms of malaria such as chronic carriage, gestational malaria or hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly may follow a cryptic evolution with afebrile chronic fatigue sometimes accompanied by anemia and/or splenomegaly. Conventional parasitological tests are often negative or not performed, and severe complications may occur. Extensive explorations of these conditions often include the search for antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). Methods We analysed fluorescence patterns in the ANA test in patients with either chronic cryptic or acute symptomatic malaria, then conducted a one-year prospective study at a single hospital on all available sera drawn for ANA detections. We then identified autoantibodies differentially expressed in malaria patients and in controls using human protein microarray. Results We uncovered and defined a new, malaria-related, nucleo-cytoplasmic ANA pattern displaying the specific association of a nuclear speckled pattern with diffuse cytoplasmic perinuclearly-enhanced fluorescence. In the one-year prospective analysis, 79% of sera displaying this new nucleo-cytoplasmic fluorescence were from patients with malaria. This specific pattern, not seen in other parasitic diseases, allowed a timely reorientation of the diagnosis toward malaria. To assess if the autoantibody immune response was due to autoreactivity or molecular mimicry we isolated 42 autoantigens, targets of malarial autoantibodies. BLAST analysis indicated that 23 of recognized autoantigens were homologous to plasmodial proteins suggesting autoimmune responses directly driven by the plasmodial infection. Conclusion In patients with malaria in whom parasitological tests have not been performed recognition of this new, malaria-related fluorescence pattern on the ANA test is highly suggestive of the diagnosis and triggers immediate, easy confirmation and adapted therapy. PMID:24551116

Hommel, Benjamin; Charuel, Jean-Luc; Jaureguiberry, Stéphane; Arnaud, Laurent; Courtin, Regis; Kassab, Petra; Prendki, Virginie; Paris, Luc; Ghillani-Dalbin, Pascale; Thellier, Marc; Caumes, Eric; Amoura, Zahir; Mazier, Dominique; Musset, Lucile; Buffet, Pierre; Miyara, Makoto

2014-01-01

398

Distantiae Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: A New Epidemiological Feature of Acute Chagas Disease in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The new epidemiological scenario of orally transmitted Chagas disease that has emerged in Brazil, and mainly in the Amazon region, needs to be addressed with a new and systematic focus. Belém, the capital of Pará state, reports the highest number of acute Chagas disease (ACD) cases associated with the consumption of açaí juice. Methodology/Principal Findings The wild and domestic enzootic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated in the two locations (Jurunas and Val-de Cães) that report the majority of the autochthonous cases of ACD in Belém city. Moreover, we evaluated the enzootic cycle on the three islands that provide most of the açaí fruit that is consumed in these localities. We employed parasitological and serological tests throughout to evaluate infectivity competence and exposure to T. cruzi. In Val-de-Cães, no wild mammal presented positive parasitological tests, and 56% seroprevalence was observed, with low serological titers. Three of 14 triatomines were found to be infected (TcI). This unexpected epidemiological picture does not explain the high number of autochthonous ACD cases. In Jurunas, the cases of ACD could not be autochthonous because of the absence of any enzootic cycle of T. cruzi. In contrast, in the 3 island areas from which the açaí fruit originates, 66.7% of wild mammals and two dogs displayed positive hemocultures, and 15.6% of triatomines were found to be infected by T. cruzi. Genotyping by mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I) targeting revealed that the mammals and triatomines from the islands harbored TcI and Trypanosoma rangeli in single and mixed infections. Conclusion/Significance These findings show that cases of Chagas disease in the urban area of Belém may be derived from infected triatomines coming together with the açaí fruits from distant islands. We term this new epidemiological feature of Chagas disease as “Distantiae transmission”. PMID:24854494

Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Bilac, Daniele; de Araújo, Vitor Antônio Louzada; Neto, Sócrates Fraga da Costa; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; da Silva, Luiz Felipe Coutinho Ferreira; Jansen, Ana Maria

2014-01-01

399

Combined Treatment of Heterocyclic Analogues and Benznidazole upon Trypanosoma cruzi In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America but no vaccines or safe chemotherapeutic agents are available. Combined therapy is envisioned as an ideal approach since it may enhance efficacy by acting upon different cellular targets, may reduce toxicity and minimize the risk of drug resistance. Therefore, we investigated the activity of benznidazole (Bz) in combination with the diamidine prodrug DB289 and in combination with the arylimidamide DB766 upon T. cruzi infection in vivo. The oral treatment of T.cruzi-infected mice with DB289 and Benznidazole (Bz) alone reduced the number of circulating parasites compared with untreated mice by about 70% and 90%, respectively. However, the combination of these two compounds decreased the parasitemia by 99% and protected against animal mortality by 100%, but without providing a parasitological cure. When Bz (p.o) was combined with DB766 (via ip route), at least a 99.5% decrease in parasitemia levels was observed. DB766+Bz also provided 100% protection against mice mortality while Bz alone provided about 87% protection. This combined therapy also reduced the tissular lesions induced by T. cruzi infection: Bz alone reduced GPT and CK plasma levels by about 12% and 78% compared to untreated mice group, the combination of Bz with DB766 resulted in a reduction of GPT and CK plasma levels of 56% and 91%. Cure assessment through hemocultive and PCR approaches showed that Bz did not provide a parasitological cure, however, DB766 alone or associated with Bz cured ?13% of surviving animals. PMID:21814568

Batista, Denise da Gama Jaén; Batista, Marcos Meuser; de Oliveira, Gabriel Melo; Britto, Constança Carvalho; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Mondaine; Stephens, Chad E.; Boykin, David W.; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré Correia

2011-01-01

400

[Helminthofauna of the goosander Mergus merganser L., 1758 from the north-western Poland].  

PubMed

The goosander, Mergus merganser, is a rare in Poland water bird (Anseriformes: Mergini). It eats fish and small invertebrates. The purpose of this study was a preliminary parasitological examination of the digestive tract of the goosander wintering on the Szczecin Lagoon. The research material were the parasites recovered from digestive tracts of 6 birds (two males and four females), which died during feeding in fishing nets in winter 2001. The birds were subject to standard parasitological examinations using commonly adopted methods. The trematodes and the cestodes found were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and subsequently stained using iron carmine (Cestoda) and borax alcohol carmine (Digenea) and then they were closed in Canada balsam. Nematodes were kept in 70% alcohol and cleared with 80% lactic acid or lactophenol. The parasite assemblages were analysed through calculating prevalence, intensity of infection, relative density and domination index. Also, the topic structure of the parasite assemblages or their habitat preferences in a host animal digestive tract were determined. The presently reported study detected a total of 1596 parasitic worms: digeneans (1086), tapeworms (410) and nematodes (100). Acanthocephalans were not found. Even though only a few goosanders were examined, the results show a high species richness of parasite assemblages consisting of 22 species, representing 21 genera. The following were deemed as definite dominants (superdominants): Diplostomum mergi Dubois, 1932; D. pusillum (Dubois, 1928); Microsomacanthus abortiva (von Linstow, 1904) and Schistocephalus solidus (Müller, 1776). Helminths were found in all birds with their great relative density and intensity of occurrence (266 parasites on average). As expected, the parasite assemblages were characterized by considerable topical specificity, probably resulting from the feeding preferences of the worms. The majority of helminths, including predominant part of flatworms, were found in duodenum and jejunum of ducks. Nematodes, on the other hand, colonized mainly the gizzard and proventriculus. PMID:19338224

Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Korol, Eleonora N

2008-01-01

401

Soil-transmitted helminth and other intestinal parasitic infections among school children in indigenous people communities in Davao del Norte, Philippines.  

PubMed

A significant portion of the population in the Philippines consists of indigenous people (IP) groups, approximately 9% or 8.1 million. Data on the health status of these groups are very limited including the status of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Provision of such data will be of great importance in the formulation of policy on control and prevention of these diseases in this group. This study was conducted in selected villages/barangays in the municipalities of Carmen, Kapalong, San Isidro and Sto. Tomas in the Province of Davao del Norte in Southern Mindanao, Philippines. Parasitologic assessment was performed using Kato-Katz to qualify and quantify STH infections, while nutritional status assessment was based on hemoglobin determination and on nutritional status indicators, i.e., weight-for-age (WFA), height-for-age (HFA), and body mass index (BMI) for age derived from anthropometric measurements. A total of 572 school children participated in the survey, 264 (46.2%) of whom belonged to a specific IP group. Results showed that 34.1% of the school children had at least one STH infection while 5.9% had heavy intensity infections. Cumulative prevalence in IP school children was significantly higher than in non-IP children with rates at 39.0% and 29.9%, respectively (P = 0.021). Overall prevalence of school children with below normal WFA was 29.9%, while prevalence of those with below normal HFA and BMI for age was 42.8% and 14.9%, respectively. Of those examined, 8.3% had below normal hemoglobin levels. There was no significant difference observed between the nutritional status parameters of IP and non-IP school children. The parasitologic parameters reported in this study signify the need to pay more attention to IP children who are at higher risk of morbidity due to helminth infections. Access of IP communities to quality health services, which include mass drug administration (MDA) and health education on a regular basis, must be ensured. Further studies to determine factors that contribute to the higher prevalence of STH among IP groups are recommended. PMID:21396344

Belizario, Vicente Y; Totañes, Francis Isidore G; de Leon, Winifreda U; Lumampao, Yvonne F; Ciro, Raezelle Nadine T

2011-09-01

402

A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic control measures for naturally-occurring canine leishmaniosis, part I: vaccinations.  

PubMed

Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonotic disease; however, the efficacy of available vaccines for the prevention of naturally-occurring Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs remains unclear. The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy of currently available vaccines to prevent naturally-occurring L. infantum infection in dogs. Four bibliographic databases (CAB Direct 2011, Web of Science 2011, U.S. National Library of Medicine 2011 and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) were searched along with eight sets of conference proceedings and the International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS) database, from 1980 to November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised clinical trials (NRCTs), cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated vaccine efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified. The search was conducted for all mitigations for CanL and yielded the title and abstract of 937 articles, from which 84 articles were screened based on full text. Twelve studies on vaccinations (five RCTs, seven NRCTs) were identified. Ten studies were at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, whilst two were at an unclear risk. The use of 200 ?g ALM protein, Leishmune(®), CaniLeish(®), LiESAp with MDP, and ALM with BCG tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. The use of lyophilized protein vaccine significantly increased the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. There is peer-reviewed evidence that control measures are effective in preventing CanL with the results suggesting that between 6 and 54% of infections could be prevented with vaccination. However, this evidence is based on a small number of RCTs, all of which are either at high or unclear risk of methodological shortcomings. Well-designed, adequately powered and properly reported randomised clinical trials are needed to clearly establish efficacy of vaccines as CanL control measures. PMID:25074635

Wylie, C E; Carbonell-Antoñanzas, M; Aiassa, E; Dhollander, S; Zagmutt, F J; Brodbelt, D C; Solano-Gallego, L

2014-11-01

403

Telmisartan, an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPAR gamma activator, alleviates liver fibrosis induced experimentally by Schistosoma mansoni infection  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatic schistosomiasis is considered to be one of the most prevalent forms of chronic liver disease in the world due to its complication of liver fibrosis. The demonstration of the pro-fibrogenic role of angiotensin (Ang) II in chronic liver disease brought up the idea that anti-Ang II agents may be effective in improving hepatic fibrosis by either blocking Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors or inhibiting the angiotensin converting enzyme. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR?) activation has been also shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation and progression of fibrosis. The present study has aimed at testing the anti-fibrogenic effects of telmisartan; an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPAR? partial agonist, alone or combined with praziquantel (PZQ) on Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Methods To achieve the aim of the study, two sets of experiments were performed in which telmisartan was initiated at the 5th (set 1) and the 10th (set 2) weeks post infection to assess drug efficacy in both acute and chronic stages of liver fibrosis, respectively. Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were randomly divided into the following four groups: infected-control (I), telmisartan-treated (II), PZQ-treated (III), and telmisartan+PZQ-treated (IV). In addition, a normal non-infected group was used for comparison. Parasitological (hepatomesenteric worm load and oogram pattern), histopathological, morphometric, immunohistochemical (hepatic expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2; MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2; TIMP-2), and biochemical (serum transforming growth factor beta 1; TGF-?1 and liver function tests) studies were performed. Results Telmisartan failed to improve the parasitological parameters, while it significantly (P<0.05) decreased the mean granuloma diameter, area of fibrosis, and serum TGF-?1. Additionally, telmisartan increased MMP-2 and decreased TIMP-2 hepatic expression. Combined treatment failed to show any additive properties, yet it did not affect the anti-schistosomal activity of PZQ. Conclusions These results suggest potential anti-fibrotic effects of telmisartan, an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPAR? partial agonist, in acute and chronic stages of Schistosoma mansoni–induced liver fibrosis in mice. PMID:23829789

2013-01-01

404

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Iranian general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites with widespread distribution globally. It is the causative agent of Toxoplasma infection, which is prevalent in human and other warm-blooded vertebrates. While T. gondii infection in healthy people is usually asymptomatic, it can lead to serious pathological effects in congenital cases and immunodeficient patients. We sought to identify the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in the Iranian general population to develop a comprehensive description of the disease condition in Iran for future use. Electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus) and Persian language databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], Iran Medex, and Iran Doc) were searched. Furthermore, graduate student dissertations and proceedings of national parasitology congresses were searched manually. Our search resulted in a total of 35 reports published from 1978 to 2012.These include 22 published articles, 1 unpublished study, 8 proceedings from the Iranian conference of parasitology, and 4 graduate student dissertations, resulting in 52,294 individuals and 23,385 IgG seropositive cases. The random errors method was used for this meta-analysis. The result shows that the overall seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmos is among the general population in Iran was 39.3% (95% CI=33.0%-45.7%). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence rate between male and female patients. A significant linear trend of increasing overall prevalence by age was noted (P<0.0001). In addition, the data indicates that there are high seroprevalence in groups who have direct contact with cats, consume uncooked meat and raw fruits or vegetables, in farmers and Housewife, individuals who have a low level of education, and live in rural areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of T. gondii infection seroprevalence in Iran, which shows a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection (more than one third). We highly recommend further study for the purposes of aiding patient management and developing more efficient diagnostic tests and effective prevention approaches. PMID:24887263

Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Aarabi, Mohsen; Mizani, Azadeh; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Shokri, Azar; Rahimi, Mohammad-Taghi; Sharif, Mehdi

2014-09-01

405

Management of imported malaria in Europe  

PubMed Central

In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms. Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily) until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the absorption of anti-malarials are important considerations in the choice of treatment. Complicated malaria is treated with intravenous artesunate resulting in a much more rapid decrease in parasite density compared to quinine. Patients treated with intravenous artesunate should be closely monitored for haemolysis for four weeks after treatment. There is a concern in some countries about the lack of artesunate produced according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). PMID:22985344

2012-01-01

406

Performance and Safety of Praziquantel for Treatment of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Infants and Preschool Children  

PubMed Central

Background In 2012 the WHO formally recognised that infants and preschool children are at significant risk of schistosomiasis and qualify for treatment with praziquantel (PZQ). Targeted surveys determining both the performance and safety of this drug are now needed in endemic areas. We have formally assessed parasitological cure and putative side-effects in a prospective cohort of Schistosoma mansoni-infected children (aged 5 months–7 years old) in lakeshore settings of Uganda. Methodology/Principal Findings From a total of 369 children found to be egg-patent for intestinal schistosomiasis, 305 were followed-up three to four weeks after PZQ treatment and infection status re-assessed. Separately, a previously tested side-effect questionnaire was employed before and 24 hours after PZQ treatment to assess incidence and amelioration of symptoms in young children and their mothers. While the overall observed parasitological cure was 56.4%, a significant difference was found between a sub-set of children who had a history of multiple PZQ treatments (between one and four in an 18 month period), where cure rate was 41.7%, and those who had never received treatment (cure rate was 77·6%). PZQ proved to be safe, with only mild reported side effects which cleared within a month after treatment. Prevalence of reported symptoms was significantly lower in children than in mothers, and fewer side-effects were reported upon subsequent rounds of PZQ treatment. Conclusion/Significance Our findings show that PZQ treatment of young children resulted in satisfactory cure rates, and marked reduction in egg-output, with only mild and transient reported side-effects. However, the cure rate is clearly lower in younger children and those with history of previous treatment. Cure rate, but not egg reduction rate, was also lower in children with heavier pre-intervention infection intensity. With chemotherapy now recommended as a long-term strategy for disease control in young children, research into optimising the periodicity of targeted treatment strategies is now crucial. PMID:23094120

Sousa-Figueiredo, José C.; Betson, Martha; Atuhaire, Aaron; Arinaitwe, Moses; Navaratnam, Annalan M. D.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Bickle, Quentin; Stothard, J. Russell

2012-01-01

407

[Control of congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Argentina].  

PubMed

The vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi has been augmenting its relative importance as vector and transfusion-mediated transmission routes have been, and continue to be, increasingly controlled. The vertical transmission of T. cruzi cannot be prevented; but early detection and treatment of congenital infection achieve cure rates close to 100%. In Argentina, the Subprogram of Control of Pregnant Women examined 58,196 women from 13 provinces in 1997 and found a 9% seropositivity to T. cruzi. In spite of such high maternal prevalence rates of T. cruzi, only a small proportion of live newborns to infected mothers acquires the infection. The probability of vertical transmission was 1.9% (range: 0.1% to 3.5%) in surveys carried out in the '70s, and 2.5% (range: 0.7% to 10.4%) in others conducted in the '70-'80s. Other more recent studies in Argentina estimated the probability of transmission in 2.6%-6.7%, but studies from Paraguay estimated 10.5% by PCR or serodiagnosis. The microhematocrit technique is the recommended parasitologic method to detect congenital infection. Routine serodiagnosis that detects IgG against T. cruzi is only helpful after the newborn reaches 6 months of age. Detection of specific IgM using recombinant antigens and PCR constitute excellent alternatives, but their feasibility from operational and cost-effective viewpoints in affected endemic areas remains to be considered. In a longitudinal project carried out in Maternidad Nuestra Señora de la Merced in the city of Tucumán between 1992-1994, the majority of congenital cases were asymptomatic. They were diagnosed through the microhematocrit technique, but a number of cases could only be detected later as a result of the parasitological and/or serological follow-up. Of a total of 32 newborns infected with T. cruzi who were treated with nifurtimox or benznidazole, 30 had a negative microhematocrit and serodiagnosis between 6 months and 2 years post-treatment. The magnitude of congenital transmission, and its associated morbidity and mortalidad, largely justify the efforts needed to detect T. cruzi infection in the mothers and newborns. This project demonstrated that the transmission of T. cruzi can be successfully controlled at a provincial scale through a specific program inserted in the primary health care system or at the first level of attention. The congenital transmission of T. cruzi clearly represents a public health problem in areas that in the past were of active transmission, even years after being under entomologic surveillance. PMID:10668256

Blanco, S B; Segura, E L; Gürtler, R E

1999-01-01

408

Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distributed in some parts of the new world and old world. The disease is endemic in different parts of Iran. This review article has been focused on major topics of epidemiological aspects and clinical features of VL in Iran for the period of 2002 through 2012. For the detection of VL in humans as well as animal reservoir hosts, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using direct agglutination test (DAT) as a validated serological test. Parasitological examinations were performed on suspected VL patients as well as canines and rodents. Different molecular methods were used for identification of species and genotype/ or strain of Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans, animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Altogether, 1698 out of 36081 (4.7%) human serum samples collected from 5 distinct geographical zones showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ? 1:3200 using DAT. The majority of VL cases in the endemic areas were found among children up to 12 years old. Almost 75% of DAT-positive cases (?1:3200) in endemic areas showed clinical signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 217 hospitalized patients with DAT positive (?1:3200) results included paleness (99.5%), fever (96.9%), splenomegaly (91.5%), hepatomegaly (53.6%) and lymphadenopathy (21.1%). Integrated VL surveillance system in primary care using DAT, could decrease mortality and morbidity of the disease in the VL endemic areas of the northwestern Iran. Out of 7204 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in various geographical locations of Iran, 879 (12.2%) were DAT sero-positive at titers ? 1:320. L. infantum as the principal causative agent of the disease was isolated from infected humans, domestic and wild canines and rodents. The principal animal reservoir hosts of the infection are domestic and wild canines. Ph. kandelakii, Ph. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, Ph. tobbi in northwestern Iran; Ph. major s.l. (=Ph. neglectus), Ph. keshishiani, and Ph. alexandri in southern parts of Iran were molecularly and/or parasitologically positive for L. infantum infections. The zoonotic form of VL (ZVL) caused by L. infantum occurs sporadically in all geographical zones of Iran but in northwestern and southern parts of the country the disease is endemic. DAT as an appropriate and potential tool has been used for sero-diagnosis and sero-epidemiological of VL among humans as well as domestic and wild canines. PMID:24454426

Mohebali, Mehdi

2013-01-01

409

Development of a new version of the Liverpool Malaria Model. I. Refining the parameter settings and mathematical formulation of basic processes based on a literature review  

PubMed Central

Background A warm and humid climate triggers several water-associated diseases such as malaria. Climate- or weather-driven malaria models, therefore, allow for a better understanding of malaria transmission dynamics. The Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM) is a mathematical-biological model of malaria parasite dynamics using daily temperature and precipitation data. In this study, the parameter settings of the LMM are refined and a new mathematical formulation of key processes related to the growth and size of the vector population are developed. Methods One of the most comprehensive studies to date in terms of gathering entomological and parasitological information from the literature was undertaken for the development of a new version of an existing malaria model. The knowledge was needed to allow the justification of new settings of various model parameters and motivated changes of the mathematical formulation of the LMM. Results The first part of the present study developed an improved set of parameter settings and mathematical formulation of the LMM. Important modules of the original LMM version were enhanced in order to achieve a higher biological and physical accuracy. The oviposition as well as the survival of immature mosquitoes were adjusted to field conditions via the application of a fuzzy distribution model. Key model parameters, including the mature age of mosquitoes, the survival probability of adult mosquitoes, the human blood index, the mosquito-to-human (human-to-mosquito) transmission efficiency, the human infectious age, the recovery rate, as well as the gametocyte prevalence, were reassessed by means of entomological and parasitological observations. This paper also revealed that various malaria variables lack information from field studies to be set properly in a malaria modelling approach. Conclusions Due to the multitude of model parameters and the uncertainty involved in the setting of parameters, an extensive literature survey was carried out, in order to produce a refined set of settings of various model parameters. This approach limits the degrees of freedom of the parameter space of the model, simplifying the final calibration of undetermined parameters (see the second part of this study). In addition, new mathematical formulations of important processes have improved the model in terms of the growth of the vector population. PMID:21314922

2011-01-01

410

Serological and infection statuses of dogs from a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE This study investigated the serological status of dogs living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area and its correlation with the parasitological condition of the animals. METHODS Canine humoral response was evaluated using the sera of 134 dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry to detect parasites in the skin, lymph node, and spleen of the animals. The specific antibodies investigated were IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE. RESULTS According to the parasitological, laboratory, and clinical findings, the dogs were placed into one of four groups: asymptomatic with (AP+, n = 21) or without (AP-, n = 36) Leishmania tissue parasitism and symptomatic with (SP+, n = 52) or without (SP-, n = 25) parasitism. Higher IgG and IgE levels were positively correlated with the infection condition and parasite load, but not with the clinical status. In all groups, total IgG was the predominant antibody, which occurred at the expense of IgG2 instead of IgG1. Most of the infected dogs tested positive for IgG (SP+, 98.1%; AP+, 95.2%), whereas this was not observed with IgE (SP+, 80.8%; AP+, 71.2%). The most relevant finding was the high positivity of the uninfected dogs for Leishmania-specific IgG (SP-, 60.0%; AP-, 44.4%), IgE (SP-, 44.0%; AP-, 27.8%), IgG1 (SP-, 28.0%; AP-, 22.2%), and IgG2 antibodies (SP-, 56.0%; AP-, 41.7%). CONCLUSIONS The serological status of dogs, as determined by any class or subclass of antibodies, did not accurately distinguish dogs infected with L. (L.) infantum chagasi from uninfected animals. The inaccuracy of the serological result may impair not only the diagnosis, but also epidemiological investigations and strategies for visceral leishmaniasis control. This complex serological scenario occurring in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area highlights the challenges associated with canine diagnosis and points out the difficulties experienced by veterinary clinicians and coordinators of control programs. PMID:25210815

Laranjeira, Daniela Farias; da Matta, Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro; Tomokane, Thaíse Yumie; Marcondes, Mary; Corbet, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

2014-01-01

411

In vivo efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children: a multisite, open-label, two-cohort, clinical trial in Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Background Mozambique adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the year 2006, and since 2009 artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) have been proposed as alternative first-line treatments. A multicentre study was conducted in five sites across the country to assess the in vivo efficacy and tolerability of these two drugs. Methods Children aged six to 59 months with uncomplicated malaria were recruited between June 2011 and January 2012 in five sites across Mozambique (Montepuez, Dondo, Tete, Chokwe, and Manhiça), and treated with AL or ASAQ in a non-randomized study. Follow-up was organized following standard WHO recommendations for in vivo studies, and included daily visits during the three-day-long supervised treatment course, followed by weekly visits up to day 28. The study primary outcome was the day 28 PCR-corrected early treatment failure (ETF), late clinical failure (LCF), late parasitological failure (LPF), and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR). PCR was performed centrally for all cases of recurrent parasitaemia from day 7 onwards to distinguish recrudescence from re-infection. Results Four-hundred and thirty-nine (AL cohort; five sites) and 261 (ASAQ cohort, three sites) children were recruited to the study. Day 28 PCR-corrected efficacy for AL was 96.0% (335/339; 95% CI: 93.4-97.8), while for ASAQ it was 99.6% (232/233; 95% CI: 97.6-99.9). The majority of recurring parasitaemia cases throughout follow-up were shown to be re-infections by PCR. Both drugs were well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse event being vomiting (AL 4.5% [20/439]; ASAQ 9.6% [25/261]) and no significant events deemed related to the study drugs. Conclusion This study confirms that both AL and ASAQ remain highly efficacious and well tolerated for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Mozambican children. Studies such as these should be replicated regularly in the selected surveillance sentinel sites to continuously monitor the efficacy of these drugs and to rapidly detect any potential signs of declining efficacy to ACT, the mainstay of malaria treatment. PMID:25108397

2014-01-01

412

Artemisinin-Naphthoquine versus Artemether-Lumefantrine for Uncomplicated Malaria in Papua New Guinean Children: An Open-Label Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) with broad efficacy are needed where multiple Plasmodium species are transmitted, especially in children, who bear the brunt of infection in endemic areas. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), artemether-lumefantrine is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but it has limited efficacy against P. vivax. Artemisinin-naphthoquine should have greater activity in vivax malaria because the elimination of naphthoquine is slower than that of lumefantrine. In this study, the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of these ACTs were assessed in PNG children aged 0.5–5 y. Methods and Findings An open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial of artemether-lumefantrine (six doses over 3 d) and artemisinin-naphthoquine (three daily doses) was conducted between 28 March 2011 and 22 April 2013. Parasitologic outcomes were assessed without knowledge of treatment allocation. Primary endpoints were the 42-d P. falciparum PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitologic response (ACPR) and the P. vivax PCR-uncorrected 42-d ACPR. Non-inferiority and superiority designs were used for falciparum and vivax malaria, respectively. Because the artemisinin-naphthoquine regimen involved three doses rather than the manufacturer-specified single dose, the first 188 children underwent detailed safety monitoring. Of 2,542 febrile children screened, 267 were randomized, and 186 with falciparum and 47 with vivax malaria completed the 42-d follow-up. Both ACTs were safe and well tolerated. P. falciparum ACPRs were 97.8% and 100.0% in artemether-lumefantrine and artemisinin-naphthoquine-treated patients, respectively (difference 2.2% [95% CI ?3.0% to 8.4%] versus ?5.0% non-inferiority margin, p?=?0.24), and P. vivax ACPRs were 30.0% and 100.0%, respectively (difference 70.0% [95% CI 40.9%–87.2%], p<0.001). Limitations included the exclusion of 11% of randomized patients with sub-threshold parasitemias on confirmatory microscopy and direct observation of only morning artemether-lumefantrine dosing. Conclusions Artemisinin-naphthoquine is non-inferior to artemether-lumefantrine in PNG children with falciparum malaria but has greater efficacy against vivax malaria, findings with implications in similar geo-epidemiologic settings within and beyond Oceania. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000913077 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25549086

Laman, Moses; Moore, Brioni R.; Benjamin, John M.; Yadi, Gumul; Bona, Cathy; Warrel, Jonathan; Kattenberg, Johanna H.; Koleala, Tamarah; Manning, Laurens; Kasian, Bernadine; Robinson, Leanne J.; Sambale, Naomi; Lorry, Lina; Karl, Stephan; Davis, Wendy A.; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M.; Betuela, Inoni; Davis, Timothy M. E.

2014-01-01

413

Health-Related Quality of Life among School Children with Parasitic Infections: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Survey in Côte d'Ivoire  

PubMed Central

Background Parasitic infections are still of considerable public health relevance, notably among children in low- and middle-income countries. Measures to assess the magnitude of ill-health in infected individuals, however, are debated and patient-based proxies through generic health-related quality of life (HrQoL) instruments are among the proposed strategies. Disability estimates based on HrQoL are still scarce and conflicting, and hence, there is a need to strengthen the current evidence-base. Methodology Between November 2011 and February 2012, a national school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire. Children underwent parasitological and clinical examination to assess infection status with Plasmodium and helminth species and clinical parameters, and responded to a questionnaire interview incorporating sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported morbidity, and HrQoL. Validity analysis of the HrQoL instrument was performed, assessing floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, and correlation with morbidity scores. Multivariate regression models were applied to identify significant associations between HrQoL and children's parasitic infection and clinical status. Principal Findings Parasitological examination of 4,848 children aged 5–16 years revealed Plasmodium spp., hookworm, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura prevalences of 75.0%, 17.2%, 5.7%, 3.7%, 1.8%, and 1.3%, respectively. Anemic children showed a significant 1-point reduction in self-rated HrQoL on a scale from 0 to 100, whereas no significant negative association between HrQoL and parasite infection was observed. The 12-item HrQoL questionnaire proofed useful, as floor and ceiling effects were negligible, internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha?=?0.71), and valid, as revealed by significant negative correlations and associations with children's self-reported and clinically assessed morbidity. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that HrQoL tools are not sufficiently sensitive to assess subtle morbidities due to parasitic infection in Ivorian school-aged children. However, more advanced morbid sequelae (e.g., anemia), were measurable by the instrument's health construct. Further investigations on health impacts of parasitic infection among school-aged children and refinement of generic HrQoL questionnaires are warranted. PMID:25474579

Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Yapi, Richard B.; Ndri, Prisca B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; Fürst, Thomas; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Raso, Giovanna

2014-01-01

414

Mapping B-Cell Epitopes for the Peroxidoxin of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Its Potential for the Clinical Diagnosis of Tegumentary and Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The search toward the establishment of novel serological tests for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and proper differential diagnosis may represent one alternative to the invasive parasitological methods currently used to identify infected individuals. In the present work, we investigated the potential use of recombinant peroxidoxin (rPeroxidoxin) of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis as a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of human tegumentary (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Linear B-cell epitope mapping was performed to identify polymorphic epitopes when comparing orthologous sequences present in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent for Chagas disease (CD), and the Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris hosts. The serological assay (ELISA) demonstrated that TL, VL and CVL individuals showed high levels of antibodies against rPeroxidoxin, allowing identification of infected ones with considerable sensitivity and great ability to discriminate (specificity) between non-infected and CD individuals (98.46% and 100%; 98.18% and 95.71%; 95.79% and 100%, respectively). An rPeroxidoxin ELISA also showed a greater ability to discriminate between vaccinated and infected animals, which is an important requirement for the public campaign control of CVL. A depletion ELISA assay using soluble peptides of this B-cell epitope confirmed the recognition of these sites only by Leishmania-infected individuals. Moreover, this work identifies two antigenic polymorphic linear B-cell epitopes of L. braziliensis. Specific recognition of TL and VL patients was confirmed by significantly decreased IgG reactivity against rPeroxidoxin after depletion of peptide-1- and peptide-2-specific antibodies (peptide 1: reduced by 32%, 42% and 5% for CL, ML and VL, respectively; peptide-2: reduced by 24%, 22% and 13% for CL, ML and VL, respectively) and only peptide-2 for CVL (reduced 9%). Overall, rPeroxidoxin may be a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of TL, VL or CVL, as it has a higher agreement with parasitological assays and is better than other reference tests that use soluble Leishmania antigens for diagnosing CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC, Bio-manguinhos, FIOCRUZ). PMID:24921246

Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Santos, Thaís Teodoro de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Luíza Teixeira; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; de Carvalho, Silvio Fernando Guimarães; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

2014-01-01

415

Artesunate Dose Escalation for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria in a Region of Reported Artemisinin Resistance: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of artemisinin resistance has raised concerns that the most potent antimalarial drug may be under threat. The currently recommended daily dose of artesunate (AS) is 4 mg/kg, and is administered for 3 days together with a partner antimalarial drug. This study investigated the impact of different AS doses on clinical and parasitological responses in malaria patients from an area of known artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Methods Adult patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were randomized into one of three 7-day AS monotherapy regimens: 2, 4 or 6 mg/kg/day (total dose 14, 28 and 42 mg/kg). Clinical, parasitological, pharmacokinetic and in vitro drug sensitivity data was collected over a 7-day inpatient period and during weekly follow-up to 42 days. Results 143 patients were enrolled (n?=?75, 40 and 28 to receive AS 2, 4 and 6 mg/kg/day respectively). Cure rates were high in all treatment groups at 42 days despite almost half the patients remaining parasitemic on Day 3. There was no impact of increasing AS dose on median parasite clearance times, median parasite clearance rates or on the proportion of patients remaining parasitemic on Day 3. However at the lowest dose used (2 mg/kg/d) patients with parasitemia >10,000/µL had longer median (IQR) parasite clearance times than those with parasitemia <10,000/µL (63 (48–75) vs. 84 (66–96) hours, p<0.0001). 19% of patients in the high-dose arm developed neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1.0×109/L) by Day 14 and resulted in the arm being halted early. Conclusion There is no pharmacodynamic benefit of increasing the daily dose of AS (4mg/kg) currently recommended for short-course combination treatment of uncomplicated malaria, even in regions with emerging artemisinin resistance, as long as the partner drug retains high efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00722150. PMID:21603629

Bethell, Delia; Se, Youry; Lon, Chanthap; Tyner, Stuart; Saunders, David; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Darapiseth, Sea; Teja-Isavadharm, Paktiya; Khemawoot, Phisit; Schaecher, Kurt; Ruttvisutinunt, Wiriya; Lin, Jessica; Kuntawungin, Worachet; Gosi, Panita; Timmermans, Ans; Smith, Bryan; Socheat, Duong; Fukuda, Mark M.

2011-01-01

416

Trichobilharzia mergi sp. nov. (Trematoda: Digenea: Schistosomatidae), a visceral schistosome of Mergus serrator (L.) (Aves: Anatidae).  

PubMed

Parasitological investigations on red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator L.) in Iceland revealed digenean flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. Adult worms were detected in blood vessels of the large intestine and eggs were deposited in the mucosa and surrounded by granulomatous reactions. Traditional morphological methods showed that the flukes have very slender filiform bodies, males are equipped with a short gynaecophoric canal and both suckers and spatulate ends are present on each sex. Among characteristics of the flukes which render them morphologically distinct from other Trichobilharzia species are: i) males-well developed vesicula seminalis (v.s.) consisting of a short v.s. externa and a significantly longer (approx. 3 times) v.s. interna, unusually well developed genital papilla and localization of the first testis a relatively long distance posterior to the gynaecophoric canal; ii) eggs-small and elongated with slightly rounded poles and a short terminal spine. DNA taxonomic techniques confirmed that a new species had been identified, Trichobilharzia mergi sp. n. The sequence data were deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers JX456151 to JX456172. Comparison of the results with our previously published data on characterization of DNA of cercariae isolated from freshwater lymnaeid snails showed that larval development of T. mergi is associated with Radix balthica L. (=Radix peregra Müller, 1774;=Radix ovata Draparnaud, 1805). PMID:23501058

Kolá?ová, Libuše; Skírnisson, Karl; Ferté, Hubert; Jouet, Damien

2013-06-01

417

Gastrointestinal Helminths of Magpies (Pica pica), Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone) in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine birds including crows, rooks, magpies, jays, chough, and ravens. These birds are migratory species, especially in the shortage of foods, so they can act like vectors for a wide range of microorganisms. They live generally in temperate climates and in a very close contact with human residential areas as well as poultry farms. There is no available information in the literature concerning the parasitic infections of these three species of corvidae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, so this study was conducted to clarify this. Methods As there are three species of corvid birds in Mazandaran Province, 106 birds including 79 magpies, 11 rooks, and 16 carrion crows were examined between winter 2007 and spring 2008 at post mortem for gastrointestinal helminths. The helminths were drawn and identified morphologically in the Laboratory of Parasitology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran and also partly in the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, based on the reference books and identification keys like Soulsby, Khalil et al. and Anderson et al. Results Four species of nematodes, 2 species of cestodes, 1 species of trematodes and 1 species of acanthocephalans were identified in these three corvid species. Conclusion Five species of the helminths are identified for the first time in Iran, and the acanthocephalan species is new host record for rooks. It is clear that these corvid birds have diverse range of helminths and can act as carriers for infecting the domestic fowls. PMID:22347286

Halajian, A; Eslami, A; Mobedi, I; Amin, O; Mariaux, J; Mansoori, J; Tavakol, S

2011-01-01

418

Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:20728995

Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

2010-11-24

419

New Method to Disaggregate and Analyze Single Isolated Helminthes Cells Using Flow Cytometry: Proof of Concept  

PubMed Central

In parasitology, particularly in helminthes studies, several methods have been used to look for the expression of specific molecules, such as RT-PCR, western blot, 2D-electrophoresis, and microscopy, among others. However, these methods require homogenization of the whole helminth parasite, preventing evaluation of individual cells or specific cell types in a given parasite tissue or organ. Also, the extremely high interaction between helminthes and host cells (particularly immune cells) is an important point to be considered. It is really hard to obtain fresh parasites without host cell contamination. Then, it becomes crucial to determine that the analyzed proteins are exclusively from parasitic origin, and not a consequence of host cell contamination. Flow cytometry is a fluorescence-based technique used to evaluate the expression of extra-and intracellular proteins in different type cells, including protozoan parasites. It also allows the isolation and recovery of single-cell populations. Here, we describe a method to isolate and obtain purified helminthes cells. PMID:22187522

Nava-Castro, Karen; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Escobedo, Galileo; Morales-Montor, Jorge

2011-01-01

420

Plasmodium falciparum: immunogenicity of alum-adsorbed clinical-grade TBV25-28, a yeast-secreted malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate.  

PubMed

Gozar, M. M. G., Muratova, O., Keister, D. B., Kensil, C. R., Price, V. L., and Kaslow, D. C. 2001. Plasmodium falciparum: Immunogenicity of alum-adsorbed clinical-grade TBV25-28, a yeast-secreted malaria transmission-blocking vaccine candidate. Experimental Parasitology 97, 61-69. The fusion of Pfs25 and Pfs28, two major surface antigens on zygotes and ookinetes of Plasmodium falciparum, as a single recombinant protein (TBV25-28) was previously shown to elicit potent transmission-blocking antibodies in mice. Clinical-grade TBV25-28 was subsequently manufactured and its potency was evaluated in rabbits. Rabbits received three doses of either clinical-grade TBV25H or clinical-grade TBV25-28 adsorbed to alum with or without QS-21. As measured in a standard membrane-feeding assay, addition of QS-21 to the formulations appeared to enhance transmission-blocking potency of rabbit sera after two vaccinations but not after three vaccinations. Surprisingly, TBV25H elicited more potent transmission-blocking antibodies than did TBV25-28, a result strikingly different from those of previous mouse experiments using research-grade TBV25-28. The apparent decrease in potency of clinical-grade TBV25-28 in rabbits appears to reflect an enhancement in potency of clinical-grade TBV25H in a new formulation rather than simply a species difference in immunogenicity of TBV25-28. PMID:11281702

Gozar, M M; Muratova, O; Keister, D B; Kensil, C R; Price, V L; Kaslow, D C

2001-02-01

421

The vulnerability of animal and human health to parasites under global change.  

PubMed

The term 'global change' is used to encompass all of the significant drivers of environmental change as experienced by hosts, parasites and parasite managers. The term includes changes in climate and climate variability, atmospheric composition, land use and land cover including deforestation and urbanisation, bio-geochemistry, globalisation of trade and transport, the spread of alien species, human health and technology. A subset of land use issues relates to the management of protective technologies in relation to residues in food and the environment and the emergence of resistance. Another is the question of changing biodiversity of both parasites and their associated natural enemies, and the effects on the host--parasite relationship and on parasite management. A framework for studying impacts of global change is proposed and illustrated with field data, and CLIMEX and simulation modelling of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in Australia. Parasitology suffers from the perception that the key impacts of global change will be driven by changes at lower trophic levels, with parasitic interactions being treated as secondary effects. This is incorrect because the environment mediates host-parasite interactions as much as it affects parasites directly. Parasitologists need to strive for holistic solutions to the management of animal and human health, within a wider context of overall management of those systems, if they are to make a meaningful contribution to global efforts aimed at coping with global change. PMID:11406142

Sutherst, R W

2001-07-01

422

Fifteen Years of Annual Mass Treatment of Onchocerciasis with Ivermectin Have Not Interrupted Transmission in the West Region of Cameroon  

PubMed Central

We followed up the 1996 baseline parasitological and entomological studies on onchocerciasis transmission in eleven health districts in West Region, Cameroon. Annual mass ivermectin treatment had been provided for 15 years. Follow-up assessments which took place in 2005, 2006, and 2011 consisted of skin snips for microfilariae (mf) and palpation examinations for nodules. Follow-up Simulium vector dissections for larval infection rates were done from 2011 to 2012. mf prevalence in adults dropped from 68.7% to 11.4%, and nodule prevalence dropped from 65.9% to 12.1%. The decrease of mf prevalence in children from 29.2% to 8.9% was evidence that transmission was still continuing. mf rates in the follow-up assessments among adults and in children levelled out after a sharp reduction from baseline levels. Only three health districts out of 11 were close to interruption of transmission. Evidence of continuing transmission was also observed in two out of three fly collection sites that had infective rates of 0.19% and 0.18% and ATP of 70 (Foumbot) and 300 (Massangam), respectively. Therefore, halting of annual mass treatment with ivermectin cannot be done after 15 years as it might escalate the risk of transmission recrudescence. PMID:23691275

Katabarwa, Moses N.; Eyamba, Albert; Nwane, Philippe; Enyong, Peter; Kamgno, Joseph; Kueté, Thomas; Yaya, Souleymanou; Aboutou, Rosalie; Mukenge, Léonard; Kafando, Claude; Siaka, Coulibaly; Mkpouwoueiko, Salifou; Ngangue, Demanga; Biholong, Benjamin Didier; Andze, Gervais Ondobo

2013-01-01

423

Efficacy of miltefosine treatment in Leishmania amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is one of the most serious worldwide diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus, affecting millions of people around the world. All currently available treatments present severe toxic side effects, require long-term compliance, cause serious side effects and are uncomfortable for patients. Leishmania amazonensis, a species endemic to Brazil, causes severe localised or diffuse skin lesions in humans. Owing to the unsatisfactory nature of the currently available chemotherapies, new approaches have been assessed for improved therapeutic intervention strategies against leishmaniasis. Miltefosine is an alkylphospholipid analogue that exhibits potent activity against the different clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the long-term efficacy of miltefosine in BALB/c mice infected with L. amazonensis owing to the lack of a profound study demonstrating its dose-dependent and long-term effects. It was observed that animals treated with 20-50 mg/kg/day of miltefosine exhibited a significant dose-dependent reduction in lesion size; furthermore, in mice receiving higher doses, lesions disappeared after the end of treatment. To confirm a possible parasitological cure, mice up to 250 days after the end of treatment were analysed. No lesions or presence of parasite DNA were found in mice treated with 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg/day of miltefosine. In summary, these results show that miltefosine may be used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. amazonensis, alone or as combination therapy. PMID:22226653

Godinho, Joseane Lima Prado; Simas-Rodrigues, Cíntia; Silva, Rosane; Ürmenyi, Turán Peter; de Souza, Wanderley; Rodrigues, Juliany Cola Fernandes

2012-04-01

424

Coexistence of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum in Sefrou province, Morocco.  

PubMed

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been recently emerged in new foci, posing a public health problem. Increasing cases of CL have been reported during recent years in Sefrou province, a previously non-endemic area. The present study was designed for epidemiological and parasitological characterization of the disease for the first time in this area. The results of a retrospective analysis of CL cases reports, between 2000 and 2011 showed that the incidence was estimated to 463/100,000 inhabitants/year, with a total of 1242 cases were notified from 1997 to 2011. Most patients were infected in the sector El Menzel (22.81%) and Sefrou (20.51%). Other cases have been reported in the 15 other sectors, reflecting the geographical spread of the disease. The highest rate lesions were found in the age group of 9 years or less with significant differences (p-value<2.2e-16) comparing to the older age groups. The most affected lesion was localized in the face (64%). The average number of lesions per patient was 2.35 with a maximum of 5 lesions. The clinical aspects of lesions were mostly crusted. The causative agents of CL in this province were identified as the coexistence of L. tropica and L. infantum by species-specific ITS1-PCR-RFLP assay. CL remains an emergent disease in Sefrou with an incidence and a continuously geographical spread. Recent environmental changes, auspicious to vectors had probably contributed to that situation. PMID:24161534

Asmae, Hmamouch; Fatima, Amarir; Hajiba, Fellah; Mbarek, Karzaz; Khadija, Bekhti; Mohamed, Rhajaoui; Faiza, Sebti

2013-10-23

425

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Local Heat Therapy Versus Intravenous Sodium Stibogluconate for the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmania major Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous Leishmania major has affected many travelers including military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan. Optimal treatment for this localized infection has not been defined, but interestingly the parasite is thermosensitive. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants with parasitologically confirmed L. major infection were randomized to receive intravenous sodium stibogluconate (SSG) 20mg/kg/day for ten doses or localized ThermoMed (TM) device heat treatment (applied at 50°C for 30 seconds) in one session. Those with facial lesions, infection with other species of Leishmania, or more than 20 lesions were excluded. Primary outcome was complete re-epithelialization or visual healing at two months without relapse over 12 months. Fifty-four/56 enrolled participants received intervention, 27 SSG and 27 TM. In an intent to treat analysis the per subject efficacy at two months with 12 months follow-up was 54% SSG and 48% TM (p?=?0.78), and the per lesion efficacy was 59% SSG and 73% TM (p?=?0.053). Reversible abdominal pain/pancreatitis, arthralgias, myalgias, headache, fatigue, mild cytopenias, and elevated transaminases were more commonly present in the SSG treated participants, whereas blistering, oozing, and erythema were more common in the TM arm. Conclusions/Significance Skin lesions due to L. major treated with heat delivered by the ThermoMed device healed at a similar rate and with less associated systemic toxicity than lesions treated with intravenous SSG. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00884377 PMID:20231896

Aronson, Naomi E.; Wortmann, Glenn W.; Byrne, William R.; Howard, Robin S.; Bernstein, Wendy B.; Marovich, Mary A.; Polhemus, Mark E.; Yoon, In-Kyu; Hummer, Kelly A.; Gasser, Robert A.; Oster, Charles N.; Benson, Paul M.

2010-01-01

426

Occurrence of zoonotic nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens, Contracaecum osculatum and Anisakis simplex in cod (Gadus morhua) from the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

Baltic cod Gadus morhua (a total of total 224 specimens) captured east of the island of Bornholm in the southern Baltic Sea were subjected to a parasitological investigation between March 2013 and April 2014. Full artificial digestion of fillets from 188 cod and additional investigation of livers from 36 cod were performed. Cod or seal worm Pseudoterranova decipiens was recorded in musculature (prevalences up to 55% and intensities up to 56 worms per fish) associated with a negative correlation between worm intensity and condition factor. Liver worm Contracaecum osculatum (100% prevalence with intensities up to 320 worms per fish) in liver tissue were recorded but only a slight negative correlation between intensity and condition factor was noted. Seals act as final host for both worm species and the increased occurrence during recent years is associated with the increasing grey seal population in the area. Infection with Anisakis simplex (the herring or whale worm) in Baltic cod was found at a low level corresponding to previous studies. PMID:25224792

Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z M; Skov, Jakob; Marana, Moonika H; Sindberg, Diana; Mundeling, Mai; Overgaard, Bettina C; Korbut, Rozalia; Strøm, Sverri B; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

2014-10-15

427

[Toxoplasmosis in Sfax, Tunisia].  

PubMed

Abstract The frequency of toxoplasmosis depends on life-style and environment. Our objective was to study different epidemiological, clinical and biological aspects of toxoplasmosis in the Sfax area (Tunisia). This retrospective study has been performed on seria of 40,566 pregnant women in the Parasitology-Mycology Laboratory of Habib-Bourguiba Sfax hospital-Tunisia for 13 years from 1994 to 2006; 1,691 patients presenting with lymphadenopathy; 191 immunocompromised patients (78 HIV infected patients and 113 transplanted patients) and 21 patients presenting clinical signs of ocular toxoplasmosis. In pregnant women, the seroprevalence was 39.3% (15,952/40,567). Among 24,089 seronegative women, only 6,890 (28.6%) had been followed up during their pregnancy. An active toxoplasmosis possibly acquired during pregnancy was detected in 1.3% of cases. Sixteen congenital toxoplasmosis were detected. Toxoplasmosis was confirmed in 13.7% of the 169 patients with lymphadenitis. For HIV positive patients, 11.7% had cerebral toxoplasmosis. It revealed the HIV infection in four cases. Among transplant recipients, one case of active toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a renal transplant recipient who received transplant from a seronegative donor. Twenty-one patients presenting toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were treated by subconjonctival injections of clindamycin and systemic corticotherapy at a dose of 1 mg/kg per day. This clinical toxoplasmosis diversity explains the need for bioclinical confrontation to establish diagnosis. PMID:20084482

Sellami, H; Amri, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Sellami, A; Makni, F; Trabelsi, H; Trabelsi, K; Guermazi, M; Ayadi, A

2010-02-01

428

Ultrasound as a monitoring tool for cystic echinococcosis in sheep.  

PubMed

An ultrasound-based survey for cystic echinococcosis (CE) in sheep was carried out in Sardinia in 2012. The study was done on three farms (A, B, C) which had been pre-selected for different CE prevalence levels (A: >80%, B: 50-80%, C: <50%). In total, 129 sheep were examined on the farms using portable ultrasound equipment (A: n=51, B: n=30, C: n=48). Within a period of 20 days after ultrasound examination, all sheep were slaughtered and underwent a parasitological post-mortem examination for cysts in the liver and lungs. With post-mortem as gold standard, ultrasonography gave a test sensitivity of 88.7% and a specificity of 75.9%, while the positive and negative predictive values were 81.8% and 84.6%, respectively. When only sheep with fertile cysts were considered, the sensitivity of the test increased to 100%. We conclude that the ultrasound examination of the liver in sheep - using state-of-the-art technology - is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool, which is cost-effective, highly appropriate for field use and requires only moderate time (no shaving required). The method can also be applied to other livestock species and will be useful tool in epidemiological studies, monitoring schemes and vaccination/control trials. PMID:24704343

Dore, F; Varcasia, A; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Pinna Parpaglia, M L; Corda, A; Romig, T; Scala, A

2014-06-16

429

A survey of ectoparasite infestation in dogs in Tehran, Iran.  

PubMed

This survey was conducted to identify and estimate the frequencies of ectoparasites of dogs in Tehran, Iran. A total of 143 dogs attended at the Small Animal Hospital of the Veterinary School, the University of Tehran, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and dermatological lesions. Ectoparasite specimens and blood samples were sent to parasitology and hematology laboratories, respectively. Ticks were the most frequent ectoparasite (36.4%, 52/143), followed by fleas (29.4%, 42/143), mites (25.9%, 37/143), and lice (8.4%, 12/143). Mixed infestations with two or more ectoparasites were detected in eight dogs. Rhipicephalus bursa was the most frequent ectoparasite in spring and summer. Ectoparasitic infestations were recorded mainly in large breeds and juvenile animals. Eosinophilia was more observed in dogs infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. The most common clinical sign, skin pruritus, was associated with mite and lice infestations. These results indicate that the tick R. bursa was the most prominent species of ectoparasite found in the evaluated group, followed by Ctenocephalides canis and S. scabiei var canis. PMID:23070452

Jamshidi, Shahram; Maazi, Nadi; Ranjbar-Bahadori, Shahrokh; Rezaei, Mahdiyeh; Morakabsaz, Pedram; Hosseininejad, Morteza

2012-01-01

430

A new genus of Cystidicolid nematode from the stomach of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonia (Argentina).  

PubMed

During a parasitological survey of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) from Patagonian Andean Lakes, specimens of a new species of nematode were collected from the stomach of fish and studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is described as the only member of a newly proposed genus of Cystidicolidae by having oral opening dorsoventrally elongated, 2 lateral pseudolabia, 4 cephalic papillae, stoma (vestibule) elongated, esophagus divided into anterior muscular and posterior glandular sections, and caudal alae in males. Placonema n. gen. (Habronematoidea, Cystidicolidae) is characterized by the combination of the following features: oral opening dorsoventrally elongated demarcated by 4 sclerotized plates and 2 well-developed pseudolabia projected to the buccal cavity, each pseudolabium with conspicuous, conical, anterior protuberances. Four cephalic papillae and deirids simple. Male with caudal alae, area rugosa absent, 4 pairs of preanal papillae, unpaired papilla present on anterior cloacal lip, and 6 pairs of postanal papillae. Larvigerous eggs without filaments. Placonema pataguense n. gen. n. sp. infects the stomach of G. maculatus from Lake Patagua (Patagonia, Argentina) and is the first species of Cystidicolidae described from G. maculatus. PMID:18652524

Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Fernández, María V; Vega, Rocío M

2009-02-01

431

Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) of Dwarf Sperm Whale Kogia sima (Owen, 1866) stranded off the Pacific coast of southern Philippine archipelago.  

PubMed

Anisakid nematodes in the Pacific region of the Philippine archipelago still remain unexplored. This study was carried out to identify anisakid species from one of their final hosts, the Kogiid whale (Dwarf Sperm Whale, Kogia sima) stranded off the southern part (Davao Gulf) of the Philippine archipelago. Anisakid worms were initially identified morphologically using light and scanning electron microscopy, whereas identification to species level was carried out molecularly using PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS (ITS1-5.8s rRNA-ITS2) and mtDNA cox2 regions. Parasitological study revealed new geographical records for the presence of two Anisakis species (A. brevispiculata and A. typica) and two unknown Anisakis species that are genetically close, at mtDNA cox2 region, to A. paggiae and A. ziphidarum. Based on the molecular data on both genes, the current findings suggest possible occurrence of local variations or sibling species of A. paggiae and A. ziphidarum in the region. Given that Anisakis species have not been reported in the Philippine archipelago, their presence in the Dwarf Sperm Whale inhabiting this region indicates high possibility of Anisakis infections in the marine fishes, cephalopods and other intermediate hosts within the Philippine waters. PMID:23786786

Quiazon, Karl Marx A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

2013-10-18

432

Co-infection restrains Litomosoides sigmodontis filarial load and plasmodial P. yoelii but not P. chabaudi parasitaemia in mice.  

PubMed

Infection with multiple parasite species is clearly the norm rather than the exception, in animals as well as in humans. Filarial nematodes and Plasmodium spp. are important parasites in human public health and they are often co-endemic. Interactions between these parasites are complex. The mechanisms underlying the modulation of both the course of malaria and the outcome of filarial infection are poorly understood. Despite increasing activity in recent years, studies comparing co- and mono-infections are very much in their infancy and results are contradictory at first sight. In this study we performed controlled and simultaneous co-infections of BALB/c mice with Litomosoides sigmodontis filaria and with Plasmodium spp. (Plasmodium yoelii 17 XNL or Plasmodium chabaudi 864VD). An analysis of pathological lesions in the kidneys and lungs and a parasitological study were conducted at different times of infection. Whatever the plasmodial species, the filarial recovery rate was strongly decreased. The peak of parasitaemia in the plasmodial infection was decreased in the course of P. yoelii infection but not in that of P. chabaudi. Regarding pathological lesions, L. sigmodontis can reverse lesions in the kidneys due to the presence of both Plasmodium species but does not modify the course of pulmonary lesions. The filarial infection induces granulomas in the lungs. PMID:24717449

Karadjian, Gregory; Berrebi, Dominique; Dogna, Nathalie; Vallarino-Lhermitte, Nathaly; Bain, Odile; Landau, Irène; Martin, Coralie

2014-01-01

433

Co-infection restrains Litomosoides sigmodontis filarial load and plasmodial P. yoelii but not P. chabaudi parasitaemia in mice  

PubMed Central

Infection with multiple parasite species is clearly the norm rather than the exception, in animals as well as in humans. Filarial nematodes and Plasmodium spp. are important parasites in human public health and they are often co-endemic. Interactions between these parasites are complex. The mechanisms underlying the modulation of both the course of malaria and the outcome of filarial infection are poorly understood. Despite increasing activity in recent years, studies comparing co- and mono-infections are very much in their infancy and results are contradictory at first sight. In this study we performed controlled and simultaneous co-infections of BALB/c mice with Litomosoides sigmodontis filaria and with Plasmodium spp. (Plasmodium yoelii 17 XNL or Plasmodium chabaudi 864VD). An analysis of pathological lesions in the kidneys and lungs and a parasitological study were conducted at different times of infection. Whatever the plasmodial species, the filarial recovery rate was strongly decreased. The peak of parasitaemia in the plasmodial infection was decreased in the course of P. yoelii infection but not in that of P. chabaudi. Regarding pathological lesions, L. sigmodontis can reverse lesions in the kidneys due to the presence of both Plasmodium species but does not modify the course of pulmonary lesions. The filarial infection induces granulomas in the lungs. PMID:24717449

Karadjian, Gregory; Berrebi, Dominique; Dogna, Nathalie; Vallarino-Lhermitte, Nathaly; Bain, Odile; Landau, Irène; Martin, Coralie

2014-01-01

434

A random forest approach for predicting the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis intermediate host Ochotona spp. presence in relation to landscape characteristics in western China.  

PubMed

Understanding distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of zoonotic disease remains a key goal of parasitology. Here, random forests are employed to model spatial patterns of the presence of the plateau pika (Ochotona spp.) small mammal intermediate host for the parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis which is responsible for a significant burden of human zoonoses in western China. Landsat ETM+ satellite imagery and digital elevation model data were utilized to generate quantified measures of environmental characteristics across a study area in Sichuan Province, China. Land cover maps were generated identifying the distribution of specific land cover types, with landscape metrics employed to describe the spatial organisation of land cover patches. Random forests were used to model spatial patterns of Ochotona spp. presence, enabling the relative importance of the environmental characteristics in relation to Ochotona spp. presence to be ranked. An index of habitat aggregation was identified as the most important variable in influencing Ochotona spp. presence, with area of degraded grassland the most important land cover class variable. 71% of the variance in Ochotona spp. presence was explained, with a 90.98% accuracy rate as determined by 'out-of-bag' error assessment. Identification of the environmental characteristics influencing Ochotona spp. presence enables us to better understand distribution patterns of hosts implicated in the transmission of Em. The predictive mapping of this Em host enables the identification of human populations at increased risk of infection, enabling preventative strategies to be adopted. PMID:25386042

Marston, Christopher G; Danson, F Mark; Armitage, Richard P; Giraudoux, Patrick; Pleydell, David R J; Wang, Qian; Qui, Jiamin; Craig, Philip S

2014-12-01

435

Prevalence of endoparasitic infections in wild cervids of Army Golf Course, Mathura.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate, through cross-sectional survey, the distribution, types and prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites affecting wild cervids of Army Golf Course, Mathura. The copro samples were collected from animals of either sex and of different age groups and examined for copro examination by flotation and sedimentation techniques followed by copro culture and Bearmans technique for the identification of helminth species using standard keys. A total of 46 samples were screened. Single parasite infections (30 %) were more common than two or more infections (12 %). The data on the distribution of the various worm species in the positive animals indicate that Haemonchus spp. eggs (32 %) was more predominant followed by Hookworms (21 %); Strongyloides spp. (13 %) and Oesophagostomum spp. (5 %). Coccidian infections with eimerian species was found in (28 %) while Isospora spp. was found in (8 %) cases. The present study has generated an important data regarding parasitism of these wild animals which is of immense significance from epidemiological point of view. Further, more detailed parasitological studies are needed and future research on wild animal population dynamics should not neglect parasitic infections, which are of great importance for species conservation. PMID:25320482

Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Ashish; Sudan, Vikrant; Singh, Ranbir; Shanker, Daya; Parashar, Rahul

2014-12-01

436

Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India  

PubMed Central

Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50?yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%), Cyclospora sp. (22.2%), Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%), Giardia intestinalis (14.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%), Trichuris trichiura (1.1%), and Hymenolepis nana (2.7%) were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas. PMID:24587897

Dhanabal, Jeevitha; Selvadoss, Pradeep Pushparaj; Muthuswamy, Kanchana

2014-01-01

437

A monoclonal antibody-based dipstick assay for diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

A Schistosoma haematobium species-specific mouse immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 monoclonal antibody (mab) Sh2/15.F that bound a 29 kDa peptide was utilized to develop a membrane-based dipstick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis. Strips of polyvinylidene difluoride membrane were wetted with methanol and stored in distilled water. The strips were used to capture urinary antigens which were then revealed by incubation in a mixture of specific mab and peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. The assay correctly identified 26/30 (87%) of egg-negative control individuals and 53/54 (98%) of parasitologically confirmed cases including all of 6 individuals treated with praziquantel (40 mg/kg) but not cured. Also, the assay detected S. haematobium antigens in the urine of 3 individuals from whom 2 specimens had to be examined microscopically to confirm infection, thus suggesting that the mab detection method may have greater sensitivity than microscopy. PMID:9463666

Bosompem, K M; Ayi, I; Anyan, W K; Arishima, T; Nkrumah, F K; Kojima, S

1997-01-01

438

Use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dipstick assay for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in humans.  

PubMed

A homemade enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Academic Medical Center ELISA [AMC-ELISA]) and a dipstick assay for the detection of anti-Strongyloides stercoralis antibodies in serum were developed and evaluated together with two commercially available ELISAs (IVD-ELISA [IVD Research, Inc.] and Bordier-ELISA [Bordier Affinity Products SA]) for their use in the serodiagnosis of imported strongyloidiasis. Both commercially available ELISAs have not been evaluated previously. The sensitivities of the assays were evaluated using sera from 90 patients with parasitologically proven intestinal strongyloidiasis and from 9 patients with clinical larva currens. The sensitivities of the AMC-ELISA, dipstick assay, IVD-ELISA, and Bordier-ELISA were 93, 91, 89, and 83%, respectively, for intestinal strongyloidiasis. In all tests, eight of nine sera from patients with larva currens were positive. The specificity was assessed using a large serum bank of 220 sera from patients with various parasitic, bacterial, viral, and fungal infectious diseases; sera containing autoimmune antibodies; and sera from healthy blood donors. The specificities of AMC-ELISA, dipstick assay, IVD-ELISA, and Bordier-ELISA were 95.0, 97.7, 97.2, and 97.2%, respectively. Our data suggest that all four assays are sensitive and specific tests for the diagnosis of both intestinal and cutaneous strongyloidiasis. PMID:17151215

van Doorn, H Rogier; Koelewijn, Rob; Hofwegen, Henk; Gilis, Henk; Wetsteyn, Jose C F M; Wismans, Pieter J; Sarfati, Claudine; Vervoort, Tony; van Gool, Tom

2007-02-01

439

Use of a PCR assay for diagnosing African trypanosomiasis of the CNS: a case report.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis is parasitologic and often can be difficult, especially in patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, the cause of West African sleeping sickness. In the United States imported cases of sleeping sickness are rare, and most occur in tourists returning from East African game parks rather than among immigrants. I report here the use of a T. brucei specific PCR assay in a West African immigrant who presented with neurological symptoms more than 12 years after he had last been in Africa. The patient's historical and physical findings, as well as abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters, suggested a diagnosis of sleeping sickness. The diagnosis was confirmed when the PCR assay demonstrated the presence of parasite DNA in CSF and blood. Several months after curative therapy the CSF continued to be positive by PCR. These findings suggest that the PCR assay may be useful for sensitive and specific diagnosis of sleeping sickness, but that it may not be helpful for assessing the effect of drug treatment. PMID:9810412

Kirchhoff, L V

1998-05-01

440

Recent Clinical Trials for the Etiological Treatment of Chronic Chagas Disease: Advances, Challenges and Perspectives.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, a chronic systemic parasitosis caused by the Kinetoplastid protozoon Trypanosoma cruzi, is the first cause of cardiac morbidity and mortality in poor rural and suburban areas of Latin America and the largest parasitic disease burden in the continent, now spreading worldwide due to international migrations. A recent change in the scientific paradigm on the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas disease has led to a consensus that all T. cruzi-seropositive patients should receive etiological treatment. This important scientific advance has spurred the rigorous evaluation of the safety and efficacy of currently available drugs (benznidazole and nifurtimox) as well as novel anti-T. cruzi drug candidates in chronic patients, who were previously excluded from such treatment. The first results indicate that benznidazole is effective in inducing a marked and sustained reduction in the circulating parasites' level in the majority of these patients, but adverse effects can lead to treatment discontinuation in 10-20% of cases. Ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors, such as posaconazole and ravuconazole, are better tolerated but their efficacy at the doses and treatment duration used in the initial studies was significantly lower; such results are probably related to suboptimal exposure and/or treatment duration. Combination therapies are a promising perspective but the lack of validated biomarkers of response to etiological treatment and eventual parasitological cures in chronic patients remains a serious challenge. PMID:25284065

Urbina, Julio A

2015-01-01

441

Microbiological quality assessment of laboratory mice in Korea and recommendations for quality improvement.  

PubMed

Regular monitoring of commercial laboratory rodents and institutional research animal residents is essential for microbiological quality control programs. The objective of our study was to investigate the recent prevalence of infectious pathogens in laboratory mice from eight experimental animal vendors and 56 institutional animal facilities in Korea. Our investigation was conducted in 2006-2007. Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) mice from four commercial breeders were clean according to serological, bacteriological, parasitological, and histopathological examination results. However, mice from one intermediate vendor that distributed SPF animals from main commercial vendors to local districts had Syphacia obvelata and Mycoptes musculinus infections. Additionally, mice from conventional animal breeders were highly contaminated. Among the 56 institutional animal facilities, mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus and Mycoplasma pulmonis positive results were obtained in 23.2, 8.9, and 1.8% of animals tested, respectively. These results indicate that quarantine and eradication efforts of infectious pathogens in these facilities are sub-optimal and need to be improved. The use of commercial conventional mice for research should be eliminated and appropriate vendor selection as well as thorough quarantine before releasing animals into a facility are needed. Finally we suggest qualified veterinary experts are needed at each animal facility to ensure an adequate health surveillance program. PMID:20224167

Na, Yi-Rang; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Lee, Hui-Young; Baek, Min-Won; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Park, Jae-Hak

2010-01-01

442

Control and eventual eradication of Trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels after an episodic outbreak in mainland Spain: an example in a non-endemic area.  

PubMed

In 2008, Trypanosoma evansi was detected on a camel farm in mainland Spain. The animals were isolated, confined in a closed stable, and treated twice with melarsamine (Cymelarsan(®), Merial, Lyon, France) with an interval of 1 month. Clinical and laboratory examinations by means of parasitological, serological, and molecular procedures (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) were carried out regularly for 6 years. After the treatment, all parasitemic camels were cleared of parasites, and in the seropositive camels a progressive decrease in antibody levels was observed, with complete disappearance of antibodies between 15 and 21 months, except in one animal which showed doubtful Ag-Ab reaction at 21 months post treatment. In the next assessment, 6 months later, the diagnostic tests conducted on all animals had a negative result. The diagnostic and therapeutic tools recently developed against T. evansi will evidence new and alternative approaches after the parasite is detected, particularly if outbreak occurs in geographically localized areas in territories free of the disease. PMID:24933467

Gutiérrez, C; Tamarit, A; González-Martín, M; Tejedor-Junco, M T

2014-08-29

443

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: accuracy and molecular validation of noninvasive procedures in a L. (V.) braziliensis-endemic area.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) from nasal swabs (NSs), saliva, and oral filter paper imprints (OFPI) in diagnosing mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Seventeen patients with ML, 19 patients with CL, and 33 controls were evaluated. In patients with ML, PCR from NS showed an 86% diagnostic accuracy (95% confidence interval [CI] = 73.81-93.05), followed by saliva 74% (95% CI = 60.45-84.13) and OFPI 68% (95% CI = 54.19-79.24). The highest sensitivity was reached by using the NS 58.82% (95% CI = 36.01-78.39), followed by saliva 23.53% (95% CI = 9.56-47.26) and OFPI 5.88% (95% CI = 1.05-26.98). The specificities of the tests were complete. The NS and OFPI were positive in 2 cases of CL. Mucous membrane samples exhibited a higher specificity compared to the Montenegro skin test and indirect immunofluorescence. NS sensitivity was higher than that of parasitological examinations. PMID:24923211

Gomes, Ciro M; de Paula, Natália A; Cesetti, Mariana V; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda N R

2014-08-01

444

Unravelling human trypanotolerance: IL8 is associated with infection control whereas IL10 and TNF? are associated with subsequent disease development.  

PubMed

In West Africa, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, causing human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), is associated with a great diversity of infection outcomes. In addition to patients who can be diagnosed in the early hemolymphatic phase (stage 1) or meningoencephalitic phase (stage 2), a number of individuals can mount long-lasting specific serological responses while the results of microscopic investigations are negative (SERO TL+). Evidence is now increasing to indicate that these are asymptomatic subjects with low-grade parasitemia. The goal of our study was to investigate the type of immune response occurring in these "trypanotolerant" subjects. Cytokines levels were measured in healthy endemic controls (n?=?40), stage 1 (n?=?10), early stage 2 (n?=?19), and late stage 2 patients (n?=?23) and in a cohort of SERO TL+ individuals (n?=?60) who were followed up for two years to assess the evolution of their parasitological and serological status. In contrast to HAT patients which T-cell responses appeared to be activated with increased levels of IL2, IL4, and IL10, SERO TL+ exhibited high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL8 and TNF?) and an almost absence of IL12p70. In SERO TL+, high levels of IL10 and low levels of TNF? were associated with an increased risk of developing HAT whereas high levels of IL8 predicted that serology would become negative. Further studies using high throughput technologies, hopefully will provide a more detailed view of the critical molecules or pathways underlying the trypanotolerant phenotype. PMID:25375156

Ilboudo, Hamidou; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel; Camara, Mamadou; Flori, Laurence; Camara, Oumou; Sakande, Hassane; Leno, Mamadou; Petitdidier, Elodie; Jamonneau, Vincent; Bucheton, Bruno

2014-11-01

445

Unravelling Human Trypanotolerance: IL8 is Associated with Infection Control whereas IL10 and TNF? Are Associated with Subsequent Disease Development  

PubMed Central

In West Africa, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, causing human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), is associated with a great diversity of infection outcomes. In addition to patients who can be diagnosed in the early hemolymphatic phase (stage 1) or meningoencephalitic phase (stage 2), a number of individuals can mount long-lasting specific serological responses while the results of microscopic investigations are negative (SERO TL+). Evidence is now increasing to indicate that these are asymptomatic subjects with low-grade parasitemia. The goal of our study was to investigate the type of immune response occurring in these “trypanotolerant” s