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Sample records for parasitology

  1. 42 CFR 493.1204 - Condition: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Parasitology. 493.1204 Section 493...Testing § 493.1204 Condition: Parasitology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Parasitology, the laboratory must meet the...

  2. Teaching human parasitology in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    China has approximately one-fifth of the world’s population. Despite the recent success in controlling major parasitic diseases, parasitic diseases remain a significant human health problem in China. Hence, the discipline of human parasitology is considered as a core subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of the medical sciences. We consider the teaching of human parasitology to be fundamental to the training of medical students, to the continued research on parasitic diseases, and to the prevention and control of human parasitic diseases. Here, we have summarized the distribution of educational institutions in China, particularly those that teach parasitology. In addition, we have described some existing parasitology courses in detail as well as the teaching methods used for different types of medical students. Finally, we have discussed the current problems in and reforms to human parasitology education. Our study indicates that 304 regular higher education institutions in China offer medical or related education. More than 70 universities have an independent department of parasitology that offers approximately 10 different parasitology courses. In addition, six universities in China have established excellence-building courses in human parasitology. PMID:22520237

  3. History of Human Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    Cox, F. E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

  4. ForPeerReview Parasitology

    E-print Network

    Breitling, Rainer

    ;ForPeerReview 2 ABSTRACT 40 African trypanosomes have emerged as promising unicellular model organisms-scale mathematical model of trypanosome physiology. We expect that, in the long run, the quantitative modelling Faculty of Biomolecular and Life Sciences and Wellcome Centre of Molecular Parasitology, University

  5. Current bioethical issues in parasitology.

    PubMed

    Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E

    2008-09-01

    Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions. PMID:18814728

  6. 42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Parasitology. 493.829 Section 493.829 Public Health CENTERS...Any Combination of These Tests § 493.829 Standard; Parasitology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event...

  7. 42 CFR 493.829 - Standard; Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Parasitology. 493.829 Section 493.829... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for... These Tests § 493.829 Standard; Parasitology. (a) Failure to attain an overall testing event score of...

  8. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... purposes— (1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount... certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using... designee for on-site testing. An annual program must include samples that contain parasites that...

  9. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... purposes— (1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount... certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using... designee for on-site testing. An annual program must include samples that contain parasites that...

  10. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... purposes— (1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount... certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using... designee for on-site testing. An annual program must include samples that contain parasites that...

  11. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... purposes— (1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount... certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using... designee for on-site testing. An annual program must include samples that contain parasites that...

  12. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... purposes— (1) Those that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount... certified in the subspecialty of parasitology for identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using... designee for on-site testing. An annual program must include samples that contain parasites that...

  13. Veterinary Parasitology 97 (2001) 123129 Efficacy of chlorfenapyr (AC 303630) experimental

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, Phillip E.

    2001-01-01

    Veterinary Parasitology 97 (2001) 123­129 Efficacy of chlorfenapyr (AC 303630) experimental pour-4017(00)00439-8 #12;124 P.E. Kaufman et al. / Veterinary Parasitology 97 (2001) 123­129 Chlorfenapyr (AC 303630

  14. Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

  15. The course will provide a comparative overview of parasitology. It will equip

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    -diagnostics of Parasitic Infections · Bioinformatics · Epidemiology · Veterinary and Wildlife Parasitology · Vector borneObjectives The course will provide a comparative overview of parasitology. It will equip to a public audience. Concepts Parasitology ASPA DVANCEDCO URSE ANUKIOL OA COASTAL CAM PUS,NSW A UR OL M P

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Parasitological Analyses of the Male Chimpanzees (Pan

    E-print Network

    Muehlenbein, Michael

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Parasitological Analyses of the Male Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii male chimpanzees from the Ngogo group, Kibale National Park, Uganda, were assessed from 121 fecal common intestinal organism, was found in all of the serial samples of only 69.4% of the chimpanzees

  17. A Hypermedia Computer-Aided Parasitology Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodoropoulos, Georgios; Loumos, Vassili

    A hypermedia tutoring system for teaching parasitology to college students was developed using an object oriented software development tool, Knowledge Pro. The program was designed to meet four objectives: knowledge incorporation, tutoring, indexing of key words for Boolean search, and random generation of quiz questions with instant scoring. The…

  18. An integrated parasitology: Revealing the elephant through tradition and invention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The field of parasitology contributes to the elucidation of patterns and processes in evolution, ecology and biogeography, of fundamental importance across the biosphere, leading to a thorough understanding of biodiversity and varied responses to global change. Foundations from taxonomic and systema...

  19. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 25 Parasitology and Pathology

    E-print Network

    25 NOAA Technical Report NMFS 25 Parasitology and Pathology of Marine Organisms of the World Ocean Administration National Marine Fisheries Service #12;NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS NMFS The rna po ililies phases of the industry. The NOAA Technical Report NMFS series was established in 1983 to replace two

  20. ISRAEL SOCIETY FOR PARASITOLOGY PROTOZOOLOGY AND TROPICAL DISEASES

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    ISRAEL SOCIETY FOR PARASITOLOGY PROTOZOOLOGY AND TROPICAL DISEASES ANNUAL MEETING AND THE 2nd is involved in transcriptional activation of virulence genes in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum Ron antigenic ligand of P. falciparum infected red blood cells is protein encoded by the multi-copy var gene

  1. An integrated parasitology: revealing the elephant through tradition and invention.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, Eric P; Agosta, Salvatore J; Boeger, Walter A; Brooks, Daniel R

    2015-04-01

    The field of parasitology contributes to the elucidation of patterns and processes in evolution, ecology, and biogeography that are of fundamental importance across the biosphere, leading to a thorough understanding of biodiversity and varied responses to global change. Foundations from taxonomic and systematic information drive biodiversity discovery and foster considerable infrastructure and integration of research programs. Morphological, physiological, behavioral, life-history, and molecular data can be synthesized to discover and describe global parasite diversity, in a timely manner. In fully incorporating parasitology in policies for adaptation to global change, parasites and their hosts should be archived and studied within a newly emergent conceptual universe (the 'Stockholm Paradigm'), embracing the inherent complexity of host-parasite systems and improved explanatory power to understand biodiversity past, present, and future. PMID:25488772

  2. 10.1007/s00436-004-1227-0 Parasitology Research

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    10.1007/s00436-004-1227-0 Parasitology Research Founded as Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde was found on two horses treated with phoxim . http://parasitology of the clinical field trial, all suspected of being louse infested on veterinary inspection. Most of the stables

  3. Parasitological and clinical studies on human scabies in Cairo.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, M A; el Okbi, L M; el Sayed, M M; el Okbi, S M; el Deeb, H K

    1993-12-01

    This study is a parasitological and clinical study on human scabies. This study was carried out on 100 patients attending the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospitals, including 54 males and 46 females. All patients were subjected to detailed history taking, complete dermatological examination including Skin Scraping Test and Burrow Ink Test. Younger patients attended the dermatology clinic earlier than older patients, who usually delayed their visits until complications occurred. Scratching, erythematous papules and secondary infected lesions were the commonest lesions. The hands, wrist and external genitalia were the most frequently affected sites while the feet, ankles, knees and back were the least affected. Burrows could only be detected in 40% of patients. The most frequent sites were the web spaces, external genitalia, and finger sides. Burrow Ink Test was positive among 85% of patients with burrows while mites could be identified by Skin Scraping Test in 55% of patients. The most frequent clinical manifestations in the parasitologically positive patients were itching, burrows, and papules, and the most frequent sites were the web spaces, and the finger sides. Multiple sites affection was the characteristic feature among the preschool age children who represented 14% of cases. PMID:8308357

  4. Fifty Years of the Korean Society for Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 1959, the Korean Society for Parasitology was founded by clinical scientists, specialists of public health, and 5 core parasitologists with experience in American science and medicine. The Society this year celebrates its 50th anniversary. Due to public health importance at the time of foundation, medical parasitology was the main stream for next 3 decades. Domestic problems of niche parasitic diseases, unlisted in 6 tropical diseases of major importance, had been studied by own efforts. To cope with the demand of parasite control, evaluation system for control activity was built up. Control activity against soil-transmitted nematodes, conducted for almost 3 decades, was evaluated as a success. Evaluation of praziquantel efficacy for clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and neurocysticercosis, population dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a situation of continuous reinfections, diagnostic modalities of antibody tests combined with brain imaging developed for helminthiasis of the central nervous system and researches on intestinal trematodes were achievements in the first 30 years. During the recent 2 decades, science researches, such as cell and molecular biology of parasites and immunology of parasitic infections have been studied especially on parasitic allergens and proteolytic and anti-oxidant enzymes. Experiences of international cooperation for world health have been accumulated and would be expanded in the future. PMID:19885338

  5. Diverse Applications of Environmental DNA Methods in Parasitology.

    PubMed

    Bass, David; Stentiford, Grant D; Littlewood, D T J; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Nucleic acid extraction and sequencing of genes from organisms within environmental samples encompasses a variety of techniques collectively referred to as environmental DNA or 'eDNA'. The key advantages of eDNA analysis include the detection of cryptic or otherwise elusive organisms, large-scale sampling with fewer biases than specimen-based methods, and generation of data for molecular systematics. These are particularly relevant for parasitology because parasites can be difficult to locate and are morphologically intractable and genetically divergent. However, parasites have rarely been the focus of eDNA studies. Focusing on eukaryote parasites, we review the increasing diversity of the 'eDNA toolbox'. Combining eDNA methods with complementary tools offers much potential to understand parasite communities, disease risk, and parasite roles in broader ecosystem processes such as food web structuring and community assembly. PMID:26433253

  6. [Geographical Information Systems and remote sensing technologies in parasitological epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, L; Cascone, C; Sibilio, G; Musella, V; Taddei, R; Cringoli, G

    2004-06-01

    Parasites have natural habitats in the same way as a species: they are found in focal areas where the spatial distribution of the parasite, host, vector and required environmental conditions coincide. The spatial distribution of parasites is, therefore, a function of the interaction between abiotic and biotic environmental factors. The boundaries of distributions are not strictly fixed in space and time and may fluctuate with climate and other components of the environment or anthropical factors. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies are being used increasingly to study the spatial and temporal patterns of disease. GIS can be used to complement conventional ecological monitoring and modelling techniques, and provide means to portray complex relationships in the ecology of disease. In addition, the use of GIS and RS to identify environmental features allows determination of risk factors and delimitation of areas at risk, permitting more rational allocation of resources for cost-effective control. Since 1996, GIS have been used in our territorial cross-sectional and longitudinal parasitological surveys in order to experiment new applications to plan sampling protocols and to display quickly, clearly, and analytically the spatial and/or temporal distribution of parasitological data. The use of GIS allowed us to draw the following types of descriptive parasitological maps: distribution maps, distribution maps with proportioned peaks, choroplethic maps with proportioned peaks, point distribution maps and point distribution maps with proportioned peaks. In a recent study, GIS and RS technologies have been used also to identify environmental features that influence the distribution of paramphistomosis in sheep from the southern Italian Apennines and to develop a preliminary risk assessment model. A GIS was constructed using RS and landscape feature data together with paramphistome positive survey records from 197 georeferenced ovine farms with animals pasturing in an area of the southern Italian Apennines. The GIS for the study area was constructed utilizing the following environmental variables: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), land cover, elevation, slope, aspect, and total length of rivers. In addition, data regarding the presence of watercourses smaller than rivers, namely, streams, springs and brooks were recorded in the field. All these variables were then calculated for "buffer zones" consisting of the areas included in a circle of 3 Km diameter centred on 197 farms. The environmental data obtained were analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses using the paramphistome farm coprological status (positive/negative) as the dependent variable. A multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis model was developed that included moors and heathland, sclerophyllus and coniferous forest vegetation, autumn-winter NDVI and presence of streams, springs and brooks on pasture. The variables entered in the model are consistent with the environmental requirements of paramphistomes and their snail intermediate host. In particular, the land cover types entered in the model in this area are indicators of marginal uncultivable and sloping zones where typically there is the presence of water (permanently or temporarily). In addition, since NDVI can be used as an indicator of regional thermal-moisture regime, the distribution of farms positive for paramphistomosis corresponding to relatively high values of winter NDVI indicated the presence of adequate moisture and temperatures favourable to the rumen fluke and the snails. In conclusion, GIS and RS are useful to define the habitats of parasites, especially for those with strong environmental determinants, and to produce forecasting maps requested for the planning and the monitoring of control strategies on small and large scale. PMID:15305690

  7. Microbiological and parasitological investigation on chelonians reared in Italian facilities.

    PubMed

    Marenzoni, Maria L; Zicavo, Alessia; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Morganti, Giulia; Scuota, Stefania; Coletti, Mauro; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Santoni, Lorenzo; Natalilo, PaoMauro; Moretta, Iolanda

    2015-01-01

    The rapid rise in the number of pet chelonians and their illegal trade can modify the ecology, involving exotic pets, humans, and microbiological agents. Therefore, different epidemiological situations and the related risk to introduce and spread infectious diseases, especially zoonotic agents, have to be considered. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological and parasitological situation in 2 chelonian facilities (a private breeding of tortoises and a shelter for turtles) collecting oral/cloacal swabs and cloacal flushes to research viruses, bacteria, and parasites. No Chelonian Herperviruses, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia spp. infections were found. Salmonella spp. were detected in 8% of tortoises and in 37.5% of turtles and oxyurid eggs in 23.7% of tortoises and 15% of turtles; ascarid eggs were present only in tortoises. Moreover, 6 turtles showed cutaneous lesions, where Aeromonas sobria was isolated as main pathogen. Further studies should be performed to understand the zoonotic and infectious risk in each chelonian facility and to characterize the variables that could influence the microbiological patterns. PMID:26344661

  8. [A bite of parasite, experiences of application of documentaries into parasitology class teaching].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Zhou, Hong-chang; Yao, Yun-liang; Shao, Sheng-wen; Ru, Xiao-chen; Dong, Hai-yan; Zhang, Ting

    2015-06-01

    Medical parasitology education has been facing some difficulties, because it is a course of wide range, lacking clinical cases and concerned specimens of parasites currently. In addition, its relationship with life is not closely enough. All these reasons may impact the effect of class education negatively. Therefore, it is important to increase the vitality of parasitology education and diversify the instructional mode by using the resources from Internet. In recent years, the Discovery Channel has uploaded a documentary Monsters Inside Me online. This documentary is high professional and closely linked with parasitology. It maintains numbers of clinical cases about parasitic diseases. Each episode is about 3 minutes and shortly enough to be introduced into class teaching. However, this resource has not been fully used in domestic temporally. We found that direct introduction of the documentary into class teaching can enrich teaching forms to attract learning interest of students, and finally improve the teaching effect of class. Above that, another popular documentary A Bite of China involves many related knowledge points of parasitology. The appropriate usage of the knowledge can build up close linkage between book and life, which is extremely helpful to give students a deep impression of parasitology. In brief, it is our strong recommendation to introduce the documentary Monsters Inside Me into class. PMID:26510370

  9. A Preliminary Parasitological Survey of Hepatozoon Spp. Infection in Dogs in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amoli, AA Rahmani; Khoshnegah, J; Razmi, GhR

    2012-01-01

    Background We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology. Methods The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs). Results Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254). Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29%) were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs. Conclusion This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran. PMID:23323098

  10. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 160 (2008) 821 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    2008-01-01

    Direct Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology The secretome of the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi: Proteomic of Immunology and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, UK b Department of Biology, University of York Antigen identification a b s t r a c t The secretome of a parasite in its definitive host can

  11. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 169 (2010) 1219 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Direct Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology Comparative structural, kinetic and inhibitor studies of Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione reductase with T. cruzi Deuan C. Jonesa , Antonio Arizaa,1 , Wing-Huen A. Chowb, recombinant trypanothione reductase from Trypanosoma brucei has been expressed, purified and char- acterized

  12. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 114 (2001) 169181 Telomere shortening and cell cycle arrest in Trypanosoma brucei

    E-print Network

    Cross, George

    2001-01-01

    Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 114 (2001) 169­181 Telomere shortening and cell cycle arrest of time exhibited shortening and increased size heterogeneity of their telomeres and the cell cycle in Trypanosoma brucei expressing human telomeric repeat factor TRF1 Jorge L. Mun~oz-Jorda´n, George A.M. Cross

  13. Parasitological procedures, skills, and areas of knowledge used by small-animal practitioners in North America.

    PubMed

    Mauldin Pereira, Mary; Snowden, Karen; Little, Susan E; Krecek, Rosina C

    2014-01-01

    We designed a study to assess veterinarians' competency regarding parasitological procedures, skills, and areas of knowledge currently used in small-animal practice. The outcome will help us refine our curriculum on the basis of the parasitological working knowledge and skill sets that small-animal practitioners are using today. A questionnaire was developed and sent to small-animal practitioners. Their responses provided general information on practice characteristics, parasitological procedures used, and client education. Parasitological procedures included those to diagnose helminths, protozoa, and ectoparasites. We focused on three questions: "Do you perform or request this procedure?" "Where is this procedure performed?" and "What is your frequency?" The respondents were 478 small-animal practitioners. We performed descriptive analyses of practice characteristics along with bivariate and multivariate analyses. These analyses revealed the clinical competence of parasitological diagnoses performed or requested by small-animal practitioners. The results showed that more involved or time-consuming methods such as fecal flotation using centrifugation and the Baermann test are more often sent to a diagnostic laboratory and are requested more often by veterinarians in larger practices (i.e., those that employ more veterinarians). The outcomes also suggest that the main diagnostician may not fully understand the tests available at the diagnostic laboratory, which has an impact on decision making for management, treatment, and prevention of parasites and ultimately client education. In addition, small-animal practitioners who have been in practice longer and practices that employ five veterinarians or fewer (i.e., smaller practices) offer more client education. PMID:25172108

  14. Performance of Clinical Laboratories in South African Parasitology Proficiency Testing Surveys between 2004 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Leigh; Frean, John

    2012-01-01

    Performance in proficiency testing (PT) schemes is an objective measure of a laboratory's best performance. We examined the performance of participants in two parasitology PT schemes in South Africa from 2004 through 2010. The average rates of acceptable scores over the period were 58% and 66% for the stool and blood parasite schemes, respectively. In our setting, participation in PT alone is insufficient to improve performance; a policy that provides additional resources and training seems necessary. PMID:22814470

  15. 862 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 89, NO. 4, AUGUST 2003 DUBEY, J. P., AND G. DESMONTS. 1987. Serological responses of equids

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    862 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 89, NO. 4, AUGUST 2003 DUBEY, J. P., AND G. DESMONTS. 1987. Serological responses of equids fed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Equine Veterinary Journal 19: 337 Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona. Journal of Parasitology 87: 824­832. GULLAND, F. M. D., L. J

  16. Serological and parasitological survey of dourine in the Arsi-Bale highlands of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Ashenafi; Abebe, Getachew; Büscher, Philip; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Claes, Filip

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted from August 2005 to January 2007 to determine prevalence and distribution of dourine in horses and to investigate the occurrence of clinical and carrier cases in donkeys and mules in the Arsi-Bale highlands. Study methodology was based on questionnaire, serological, clinical and parasitological survey. The questionnaire indicated that dourine is a major health problem of equines in the Arsi-Bale highlands. Though dourine is commonly observed throughout the year, it has a seasonal character and occurs mostly during the breeding season from June to late September. Serological screening of 646 horses showed a seroprevalence of 184 (28%), 161 (25%) and 125 (19%) for card agglutination test for trypanosomosis, LATEX and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Risk factors were parity number, previous history of abortion and body condition score. No trypanosomes could be detected by Giemsa staining or by haematocrit centrifugation technique. Ten puppies inoculated with blood samples, genital washes and oedematous fluids remained parasitologically negative. Different characteristic signs of dourine were observed. During the genital stage, mares showed vaginal oedema, discharge and presence of depigmented scars over the external genitalia. In stallions, oedema of the scrotum and prepuce, prepucial and urethral discharge, and ulceration of the genital mucosae mainly of the penile were observed. In both sexes, lameness in one or both legs, partial dragging and stiffness of the hind legs and incoordination were the dominant signs observed as nervous form of the disease. PMID:19924557

  17. Parasitology Today, vol. 16, no. 3, 2000 127 A number of parasite genome projects are under way, and

    E-print Network

    Ramaswamy, Ram

    Parasitology Today, vol. 16, no. 3, 2000 127 A number of parasite genome projects are under way for the analysis of parasite genomes. The nucleotide sequences of the entire genomes of sev- eral organisms analysis, or via the so-called `functional gen- omics approach'1. In parasitic species, such analysis may

  18. "Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

    2013-01-01

    Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

  19. Data on the parasitological status of golden jackal (Canis aureus L., 1758) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Takács, András; Szabó, László; Juhász, Lajos; Takács, András Attila; Lanszki, József; Takács, Péter Tamás; Heltai, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    In Hungary, twenty Canis aureus individuals were submitted to parasitological examinations in 2010-2012. Two Coccidia: Cystoisospora canis (15%) and Toxoplasma-type oocysts (5%), one Trematoda: Alaria alata (10%), six Cestoda: Mesocestoides lineatus (20%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), Dipylidium caninums (5%), Taenia hydatigena (15%), Taenia pisiformis (20%), Taenia crassiceps (40%), and nine Nematoda: Angiostrongylus vasorum (10%), Crenosoma vulpis (30%), Capillaria aerophila (5%), Toxocara canis (20%), Toxascaris leonina (15%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Ancylostoma caninum (45%), Uncinaria stenocephala (40%), Capillaria plica (45%) have been identified. Angiostronglyus vasorum has been reported from carnivores in Europe, Africa, South America and North America. The helminth A. vasorum or French heartworm is a metastrongylid nematode, widely distributed in Western Europe, that infects the pulmonary arterial tree of dogs, various species of foxes, wolves, Eurasian badgers, coyotes and stoats. To our knowledge, this is the first report of natural A. vasorum infection in golden jackal. PMID:24334089

  20. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  1. In: Companion and Exotic Animal Parasitology, D.D. Bowman (Ed.) Publisher: International Veterinary Information Service (www.ivis.org), Ithaca, New York, USA.

    E-print Network

    Rothman, Jessica M.

    In: Companion and Exotic Animal Parasitology, D.D. Bowman (Ed.) Publisher: International Veterinary and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. 2Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Introduction Highly

  2. Malaria eradication in Mexico: Some historico-parasitological views oncold war, deadly fevers by Marcos Cueto, Ph.D

    PubMed Central

    Malagón, Filiberto

    2008-01-01

    This review of Professor Marcos Cueto's Cold War Deadly Fevers: Malaria Eradication in Mexico, 1955–1975 discusses some of the historical, sociological, political and parasitological topics included in Dr. Cueto's superbly well-informed volume. The reviewer, a parasitologist, follows the trail illuminated by Dr. Cueto through the foundations of the malaria eradication campaign; the release in Mexico of the first postage stamp in the world dedicated to malaria control; epidemiological facts on malarial morbidity and mortality in Mexico when the campaign began; the emergence of problem areas that impeded eradication; considerations on mosquitoes and malaria transmission in Mexico; the role of business and society in malaria eradication; the results of the campaign; the relationship between malaria and poverty; and the parasitological lessons to be learned from the history of malaria eradication campaigns. Dr. Cueto's excellent and well-informed exploration of malaria – not merely as a disease but as a social, economic and human problem – makes this book required reading.

  3. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 153 (2007) 95106 In vivo translation and stability of trans-spliced mRNAs

    E-print Network

    Davis, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 153 (2007) 95­106 In vivo translation and stability of trans Available online 21 February 2007 Abstract Spliced leader trans-splicing adds a short exon, the spliced monomethylguanosine (m7 GpppN)(m7 G) cap. Both trans-spliced (m3 2,2,7 GpppN-SL-RNA) and not trans-spliced (m7 Gppp

  4. Hotspots of Malaria Transmission in the Peruvian Amazon: Rapid Assessment through a Parasitological and Serological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Speybroeck, Niko; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Carrasco-Escobar, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Alava, Freddy; Soares, Irene S.; Remarque, Edmond; D´Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Background With low and markedly seasonal malaria transmission, increasingly sensitive tools for better stratifying the risk of infection and targeting control interventions are needed. A cross-sectional survey to characterize the current malaria transmission patterns, identify hotspots, and detect recent changes using parasitological and serological measures was conducted in three sites of the Peruvian Amazon. Material and Methods After full census of the study population, 651 participants were interviewed, clinically examined and had a blood sample taken for the detection of malaria parasites (microscopy and PCR) and antibodies against P. vivax (PvMSP119, PvAMA1) and P. falciparum (PfGLURP, PfAMA1) antigens by ELISA. Risk factors for malaria infection (positive PCR) and malaria exposure (seropositivity) were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. Age-specific seroprevalence was analyzed using a reversible catalytic conversion model based on maximum likelihood for generating seroconversion rates (SCR, ?). SaTScan was used to detect spatial clusters of serology-positive individuals within each site. Results The overall parasite prevalence by PCR was low, i.e. 3.9% for P. vivax and 6.7% for P. falciparum, while the seroprevalence was substantially higher, 33.6% for P. vivax and 22.0% for P. falciparum, with major differences between study sites. Age and location (site) were significantly associated with P. vivax exposure; while location, age and outdoor occupation were associated with P. falciparum exposure. P. falciparum seroprevalence curves showed a stable transmission throughout time, while for P. vivax transmission was better described by a model with two SCRs. The spatial analysis identified well-defined clusters of P. falciparum seropositive individuals in two sites, while it detected only a very small cluster of P. vivax exposure. Conclusion The use of a single parasitological and serological malaria survey has proven to be an efficient and accurate method to characterize the species specific heterogeneity in malaria transmission at micro-geographical level as well as to identify recent changes in transmission. PMID:26356311

  5. Trypanosoma evansi: A clinical, parasitological and immunological evaluation of trypanosomosis using a chronic rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Iglesias, J.R.; Eleizalde, M.C.; Gómez-Piñeres, E.; Mendoza, M.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical, parasitological and immunological effects of a Venezuelan strain of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) throughout in experimentally inoculated rabbits over the course of infection and compared them with the same aspect in healthy animals. Body temperature was recorded in degrees Celsius, animal weight in kilograms, serum proteins in g/dl using a refractometer, haematocrit percentage by capillary centrifugation and the anti-T. evansi IgG titer by indirect ELISA immunoassay, from both infected animals and controls for 95 days. Infected animals showed a higher body temperature, total serum protein and anti- T. evansi antibody titer, and a lower haematocrit and weight gain than controls. These differences were related to the presence of the parasites in the blood as detected micro-haematocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT) and direct microscopic examination (DME). This study confirms the usefulness of rabbits as a model for the study of trypanosomosis; the clinical features of the disease can be observed and the three characteristic stages, prepatent period, acute and chronic phase clearly defined over the course of the infection.

  6. Comparison of Clinical and Parasitological Data from Controlled Human Malaria Infection Trials

    PubMed Central

    Roestenberg, Meta; O'Hara, Geraldine A.; Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Epstein, Judith E.; Edwards, Nick J.; Scholzen, Anja; van der Ven, André J. A. M.; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Sauerwein, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposing healthy human volunteers to Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is an accepted tool to evaluate preliminary efficacy of malaria vaccines. To accommodate the demand of the malaria vaccine pipeline, controlled infections are carried out in an increasing number of centers worldwide. We assessed their safety and reproducibility. Methods We reviewed safety and parasitological data from 128 malaria-naïve subjects participating in controlled malaria infection trials conducted at the University of Oxford, UK, and the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, The Netherlands. Results were compared to a report from the US Military Malaria Vaccine Program. Results We show that controlled human malaria infection trials are safe and demonstrate a consistent safety profile with minor differences in the frequencies of arthralgia, fatigue, chills and fever between institutions. But prepatent periods show significant variation. Detailed analysis of Q-PCR data reveals highly synchronous blood stage parasite growth and multiplication rates. Conclusions Procedural differences can lead to some variation in safety profile and parasite kinetics between institutions. Further harmonization and standardization of protocols will be useful for wider adoption of these cost-effective small-scale efficacy trials. Nevertheless, parasite growth rates are highly reproducible, illustrating the robustness of controlled infections as a valid tool for malaria vaccine development. PMID:22701640

  7. Presenting parasitological data: the good, the bad and the error bar.

    PubMed

    Zaloumis, Sophie G; Fowkes, Freya J I; De Livera, Alysha; Simpson, Julie A

    2015-09-01

    Visual displays of data in the parasitology literature are often presented in a way which is not very informative regarding the distribution of the data. An example being simple barcharts with half an error bar on top to display the distribution of parasitaemia and biomarkers of host immunity. Such displays obfuscate the shape of the data distribution through displaying too few statistical measures to explain the spread of all the data and selecting statistical measures which are influenced by skewness and outliers. We describe more informative, yet simple, visual representations of the data distribution commonly used in statistics and provide guidance with regards to the display of estimates of population parameters (e.g. population mean) and measures of precision (e.g. 95% confidence interval) for statistical inference. In this article we focus on visual displays for numerical data and demonstrate such displays using an example dataset consisting of total IgG titres in response to three Plasmodium blood antigens measured in pregnant women and parasitaemia measurements from the same study. This tutorial aims to highlight the importance of displaying the data distribution appropriately and the role such displays have in selecting statistics to summarize its distribution and perform statistical inference. PMID:26118403

  8. Comparison of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Parasitological Methods for Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Fecal Samples.

    PubMed

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR. PMID:26350449

  9. A combined parasitological molecular approach for noninvasive characterization of parasitic nematode communities in wild hosts.

    PubMed

    Budischak, Sarah A; Hoberg, Eric P; Abrams, Art; Jolles, Anna E; Ezenwa, Vanessa O

    2015-09-01

    Most hosts are concurrently or sequentially infected with multiple parasites; thus, fully understanding interactions between individual parasite species and their hosts depends on accurate characterization of the parasite community. For parasitic nematodes, noninvasive methods for obtaining quantitative, species-specific infection data in wildlife are often unreliable. Consequently, characterization of gastrointestinal nematode communities of wild hosts has largely relied on lethal sampling to isolate and enumerate adult worms directly from the tissues of dead hosts. The necessity of lethal sampling severely restricts the host species that can be studied, the adequacy of sample sizes to assess diversity, the geographic scope of collections and the research questions that can be addressed. Focusing on gastrointestinal nematodes of wild African buffalo, we evaluated whether accurate characterization of nematode communities could be made using a noninvasive technique that combined conventional parasitological approaches with molecular barcoding. To establish the reliability of this new method, we compared estimates of gastrointestinal nematode abundance, prevalence, richness and community composition derived from lethal sampling with estimates derived from our noninvasive approach. Our noninvasive technique accurately estimated total and species-specific worm abundances, as well as worm prevalence and community composition when compared to the lethal sampling method. Importantly, the rate of parasite species discovery was similar for both methods, and only a modest number of barcoded larvae (n = 10) were needed to capture key aspects of parasite community composition. Overall, this new noninvasive strategy offers numerous advantages over lethal sampling methods for studying nematode-host interactions in wildlife and can readily be applied to a range of study systems. PMID:25644900

  10. [Approaches to developing a procedure for mapping water basin regions, by using the parasitological criteria].

    PubMed

    Beér, S A; Él'piner, L I; Voronin, M V

    2011-01-01

    The structure of a parasite system is formed and its functioning takes place in qualitatively different environments. The aquatic environment serves as a source of new elements and modules, energy, and information for parasite systems. And the parasite systems, for their part, affect the physical and biological parameters of the environment. Many intestinal infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms generally characterized by an acute disease course are related to a water factor. Such are typhus, typhoids, dysentery, cholera, salmonellosis, virus hepatitis, and others. Many parasitic diseases caused by pathogenic intestinal protistae (lambliasis, amebiasis, balantidiasis), blood parasite protistae (malaria), helminthes (opisthorchiasis, fascioliasis, diphyllobothriasis, cercariosis, pseudoamphistomosis) are also closely related to a water factor. Ascaridiasis, hymenolepiasis, trichocephalosis, and echinococcosis have a less close but still self-evident relationship to a water factor. The clbse relationships of many parasitic diseases to a water factor are also determined by the fact that the life cycles of many parasites necessarily include various intermediate hosts and parasite vectors, such as fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, and insects, which are aquatic organisms at some stages of their life. The results of continuous exposure of people to parasitic diseases are quite similar to the suppressive effects of the environment in the ecologically troublesome regions. The most prognostically useful information is formed while mapping by medical and ecological regions, by employing a combination of current mathematical and cartographical methods. The former include cluster analysis, quartering method, informational logical analysis, which are all described in this article and others. Regional mapping using the parasitological criteria should achieve at least two goals: 1) a scientific one that aids in finding causative connections and to prognosticate a situation; 2) a practical one that assists in developing regional programs for disease control and prevention. It is necessary to use the recommendations described in detail in the article in order to have the maximum results during medical and ecological mapping by the regions with a future goal of obtaining useful prognostic information. PMID:21932540

  11. Bovine trypanosomosis in the Upper West Region of Ghana: entomological, parasitological and serological cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Adam, Y; Marcotty, T; Cecchi, G; Mahama, C I; Solano, P; Bengaly, Z; Van den Bossche, P

    2012-06-01

    Baseline surveys were conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana to assess the distribution and densities of tsetse species, as well as the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. The entomological survey was designed to cover the suitable tsetse habitats along the three main rivers in the study area (i.e. Black Volta, Kulpawn and Sissili). Results indicated the presence of Glossina tachinoides in all three river basins, whilst Glossina palpalis gambiensis was only found close to the southern limit of the study area. A random sampling of 1800 cattle of the West African Short Horn, Sanga and Zebu breeds from 36 randomly selected grid cells covering the study area showed substantial differences between parasitological and serological prevalences. The average parasitological prevalence was estimated at 2.5% (95% CI: 1.06-5.77) with the majority of the infections due to Trypanosoma vivax. Most of the infected cattle were found close to the major river systems. The serological prevalence, measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), test was 19% (95% CI: 14.03-25.35). Cattle with anti-trypanosomal antibodies were also found throughout the study area. PMID:21550616

  12. Parasitological Confirmation and Analysis of Leishmania Diversity in Asymptomatic and Subclinical Infection following Resolution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Gongora, Rafael E.; Valderrama, Liliana; Jojoa, Jimena; Alexander, Neal; Rubiano, Luisa C.; Cossio, Alexandra; Adams, Emily R.; Saravia, Nancy G.; Gomez, María Adelaida

    2015-01-01

    Background The contribution of individuals with subclinical infection to the transmission and endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is unknown. Immunological evidence of exposure to Leishmania in residents of endemic areas has been the basis for defining the human population with asymptomatic infection. However, parasitological confirmation of subclinical infection is lacking. Methods We investigated the presence and viability of Leishmania in blood and non-invasive mucosal tissue samples from individuals with immunological evidence of subclinical infection in endemic areas for CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia) in Colombia. Detection of Leishmania kDNA was conducted by PCR-Southern Blot, and parasite viability was confirmed by amplification of parasite 7SLRNA gene transcripts. A molecular tool for genetic diversity analysis of parasite populations causing persistent subclinical infection based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of an 82bp region between kDNA conserved blocks 1 and 2 was developed. Principal Findings Persistent Leishmania infection was demonstrated in 40% (46 of 114) of leishmanin skin test (LST) positive individuals without active disease; parasite viability was established in 59% of these (27 of 46; 24% of total). Parasite burden quantified from circulating blood monocytes, nasal, conjunctival or tonsil mucosal swab samples was comparable, and ranged between 0.2 to 22 parasites per reaction. kDNA sequences were obtained from samples from 2 individuals with asymptomatic infection and from 26 with history of CL, allowing genetic distance analysis that revealed diversity among sequences and clustering within the L. (Viannia) subgenus. Conclusions Our results provide parasitological confirmation of persistent infection among residents of endemic areas of L. (Viannia) transmission who have experienced asymptomatic infection or recovered from CL, revealing a reservoir of infection that potentially contributes to the endemicity and transmission of disease. kDNA genotyping establishes proof-of-principle of the feasibility of genetic diversity analysis in previously inaccessible and unexplored parasite populations in subclinically infected individuals. PMID:26659114

  13. Parasitological, Hematological and Biochemical Characteristics of a Model of Hyper-microfilariaemic Loiasis (Loa loa) in the Baboon (Papio anubis)

    PubMed Central

    Wanji, Samuel; Eyong, Ebanga-Echi; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Ngwa, Che; Esuka, Elive; Kengne-Ouafo, Arnaud; Datchoua-Poutcheu, Fabrice; Enyong, Peter; Hopkins, Adrian; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Loiasis, a filarial infection caused by Loa loa usually thought to cause relatively minor morbidity, can cause serious and often fatal reactions in patients carrying very high levels of circulating Loa loa microfilariae (mf) following administration of microfilaricidal drugs. An experimental model of this condition would greatly aid the definition of the optimal management of this important clinical presentation. Methodology/Principle Findings Fifteen baboons (Papio anubis) were infected with 600 infective larvae (L3) isolated from Chrysops vector flies. Animals were observed for any clinical changes; blood samples were collected every 1–2 months for 22 months, and analysed for parasitological, hematological and biochemical profiles using standard techniques. All animals became patent but remained clinically normal throughout the study. The parasitological pre-patent period was between 4–8 months, with a majority (60%) of animals becoming patent by 5 months post infection (MPI); all animals were patent by 8 MPI. Microfilarial loads increased steadily in all animals and reached a peak at 18 MPI. By 10 MPI >70% of animals had mf >8,000 mf/mL, and at 18 MPI >70% of animals had mf >30,000mf/mL with 50% of these animals with mf >50,000mf/mL. Absolute eosinophil, creatinine, Ca2+ and K+ levels were generally above normal values (NV). Positive associations were seen between microfilariaemia and eosinophilia, Hb, Ca2+, and gamma-GT values, whilst significant negative associations were seen between microfilariaemia and potassium, glucose and mononuclear leukocyte levels. Conclusions Infection of splenectomised baboons with L. loa can induce levels of circulating microfilariae, and corresponding haematological profiles, which parallel those seen in those humans in danger of the severe post-microfilariacide clinical responses. Utilization of this experimental model could contribute to the improved management of the loiasis related adverse responses in humans. PMID:26555070

  14. Triage and protocol recommendations for the parasitology laboratory based on an epidemiological investigation of parasite diagnostics in Ontario laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Allison; Krolik, Julia; Majury, Anna

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A study was performed using a subset of Ontario laboratory parasitology data, with three objectives: to describe parasitic infections in Ontario; to identify risk factors for acquiring a parasitic infection using routinely collected information; and to use this information to assess current protocols for parasite testing in laboratories and, in turn, to propose alternatives to optimize the allocation of laboratory resources. METHODS: All parasitology records from January 4, 2010 to September 14, 2010 were reviewed descriptively and risk factor analyses were performed using information collected from requisitions. These results were used to develop preliminary alternative protocols, which considered high-throughput screening tests and inclusion/exclusion criteria for ova and parasite testing; these were then retrospectively analyzed with the dataset to determine appropriateness. RESULTS: Of the 29,260 records analyzed, 10% were multiple samples from single patients submitted on the same day, of which 98% had the same result. Three percent of all parasite tests were positive, with the most prevalent parasites being (in ascending order) Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar. Age and sex were found to be weak risk factors, while rural living was found to be a moderate risk factor for D fragilis, G lamblia and Cryptosporidium infections. The strongest risk factor was travel history, especially for nonendemic parasites. The retrospective analysis of six alternative protocols identified four that may be more efficient than current procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that current protocols may be redundant and can be optimized to target prevalent parasites and populations with high risk factors. PMID:25587292

  15. [Post-therapeutic evolution of patients presenting an immunological suspicion of trypanosomiasis without parasitological proof in support of it (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Frezil, J L; Coulm, J; Alary, J C

    1979-01-01

    The authors have recently preconised systematic treatment of every human being who is fluorescent positive. The evolution of antibodies of 26 subjects parasitologically negative and positive only in FAT test is described here after treatment with Arsobal. Statistically the antibodies decrease progressively like antibodies of Sleeping Sickness patients of first period usually did. Therefore it is possible to conclude that immunological suspects who were treated were realy sick and rightly cured. PMID:379493

  16. Performance of LBSap Vaccine after Intradermal Challenge with L. infantum and Saliva of Lu. longipalpis: Immunogenicity and Parasitological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Braga, Samuel Leôncio; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; de Lana, Marta; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Marques, Marcos José; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the search for new vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis has intensified. However, the pattern related to immune protection during long periods after experimental infection in vaccine trials is still not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the immunogenicity and parasitological levels after intradermal challenge with Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland extract in dogs immunized with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as an adjuvant (LBSap vaccine). The LBSap vaccine elicited higher levels of total anti-Leishmania IgG as well as both IgG1 and IgG2. Furthermore, dogs vaccinated had increased levels of lymphocytes, particularly circulating B cells (CD21+) and both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. LBSap also elicited an intense in vitro cell proliferation associated with higher levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes specific for vaccine soluble antigen and soluble lysate of L. infantum antigen even 885 days after experimental challenge. Furthermore, LBSap vaccinated dogs presented high IFN-? and low IL-10 and TGF-?1 expression in spleen with significant reduction of parasite load in this tissue. Overall, our results validate the potential of LBSap vaccine to protect against L. infantum experimental infection and strongly support further evaluation of efficiency of LBSap against CVL in natural infection conditions. PMID:23189161

  17. Comparison of parasitological, immunological and molecular methods for evaluation of fecal samples of immunosuppressed rats experimentally infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Leilane A; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia R; Paula, Fabiana M; Silva, Neide M; Silva, Cláudio V; Costa-Cruz, Julia M; Freitas, Michelle A R

    2015-12-01

    Definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in humans is typically achieved by detection of larvae in fecal samples. However, limitations on sensitivity of parasitological methods emphasize the need for more robust diagnostic methods. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of three methods: eggs per gram of feces (EPG), coproantigen detection by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and DNA detection by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The assays were performed at 0 and 5, 8, 13, 21 and 39 days post-infection (dpi) using fecal samples from experimentally infected immunocompetent and immunosuppressed rats. In immunocompetent rats, eggs were detected in feces on days 5, 8 and 13 dpi; coproantigen detection and PCR amplification were successful at all post-infection time points (5, 8, 13, 21 and 39 dpi). In immunosuppressed rats, eggs were detected at 5, 8, 13 and 21; coproantigen detection and PCR amplification were successful at all post-infection time points. In conclusion, these results suggest that coproantigen detection and PCR may be more sensitive alternatives to traditional methods such as EPG for diagnosis of Strongyloides venezuelensis infection. PMID:26442899

  18. Effect of Experimental Infection with Haemonchus contortus on Parasitological and Local Cellular Responses in Resistant and Susceptible Young Creole Goats

    PubMed Central

    Bambou, J. C.; Larcher, T.; Ceï, W.; Dumoulin, P. J.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the relationships of cellular changes in the abomasal mucosa and parasitological parameters, by comparing resistant and susceptible young Creole goats (kids) after experimental infection with Haemonchus contortus. The kids were infected over 2 periods (challenges 1 and 2) of 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Fecal egg count (FEC), blood eosinophilia, packed cell volume (PCV), and body weight were weekly monitored. At the end of both challenges a subgroup of kids was slaughtered for nematode burden measurements and analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in the abomasal mucosa. The average daily gain was higher in resistant kids after both challenges. Blood eosinophilia and FEC were higher in susceptible kids after both challenges. The number of immature worms and the means of female length were lower after challenge 2 whatever the genetic status. No differences were observed in the eosinophil and mononuclear cell infiltration between challenges 1 and 2 and resistant and susceptible kids. Globule leukocyte infiltration was found higher after the challenge 1 in resistant kids. This effect of the genetic status on globule leukocytes counts but not on the other inflammatory cell highlights the need for further study on the functional activity of these cell populations. PMID:23936855

  19. On the use of posterior predictive probabilities and prediction uncertainty to tailor informative sampling for parasitological surveillance in livestock.

    PubMed

    Musella, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Laura; Lagazio, Corrado; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Biggeri, Annibale; Catelan, Dolores

    2014-09-15

    Model-based geostatistics and Bayesian approaches are appropriate in the context of Veterinary Epidemiology when point data have been collected by valid study designs. The aim is to predict a continuous infection risk surface. Little work has been done on the use of predictive infection probabilities at farm unit level. In this paper we show how to use predictive infection probability and related uncertainty from a Bayesian kriging model to draw a informative samples from the 8794 geo-referenced sheep farms of the Campania region (southern Italy). Parasitological data come from a first cross-sectional survey carried out to study the spatial distribution of selected helminths in sheep farms. A grid sampling was performed to select the farms for coprological examinations. Faecal samples were collected for 121 sheep farms and the presence of 21 different helminths were investigated using the FLOTAC technique. The 21 responses are very different in terms of geographical distribution and prevalence of infection. The observed prevalence range is from 0.83% to 96.69%. The distributions of the posterior predictive probabilities for all the 21 parasites are very heterogeneous. We show how the results of the Bayesian kriging model can be used to plan a second wave survey. Several alternatives can be chosen depending on the purposes of the second survey: weight by posterior predictive probabilities, their uncertainty or combining both information. The proposed Bayesian kriging model is simple, and the proposed samping strategy represents a useful tool to address targeted infection control treatments and surbveillance campaigns. It is easily extendable to other fields of research. PMID:25131190

  20. Measurement of parasitological data by quantitative real-time PCR from controlled human malaria infection trials at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has allowed for precise quantification of parasites in the prepatent period and greatly improved the reproducibility and statistical power of controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) trials. Parasitological data presented here are from non-immunized, control-challenged subjects who participated in two CHMI trials conducted at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR). Methods Standardized sporozoite challenge was achieved through the bite of five Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the 3D7clone of the NF54 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Blood smears were scored positive when two unambiguous parasites were found. Analysis of parasitological PCR data was performed on log-transformed data using an independent sample t-test when comparing the two studies. The multiplication rate of blood-stage parasites was estimated using the linear model. Results On average, parasites were detected 4.91 days (95% CI?=?4.190 to 5.627) before smears. The earliest parasites were detected within 120 hours (5.01 days) after challenge. Parasite densities showed consistent cyclic patterns of blood-stage parasite growth in all volunteers. The parasite multiplication rates for both studies was 8.18 (95% CI?=?6.162 to 10.20). Data showed that at low parasite densities, a combination of sequestration and stochastic effects of low copy number DNA may impact qPCR detection and the parasite detection limit. Conclusion Smear positive is an endpoint which antimalarial rescue is imperative whereas early detection of parasitological data by qPCR can allow for better anticipation of the endpoint. This would allow for early treatment to reduce clinical illness and risk for study participants. To use qPCR as the primary endpoint in CHMI trials, an algorithm of two positives by qPCR where one of the positives must have parasite density of at least 2 parasites/?L is proposed. PMID:25066459

  1. Efficacy of Cyclooctadepsipeptides and Aminophenylamidines against Larval, Immature and Mature Adult Stages of a Parasitologically Characterized Trichurosis Model in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kulke, Daniel; Krücken, Jürgen; Harder, Achim; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Trichuris includes parasites of major relevance in veterinary and human medicine. Despite serious economic losses and enormous impact on public health, treatment options against whipworms are very limited. Additionally, there is an obvious lack of appropriately characterized experimental infection models. Therefore, a detailed parasitological characterization of a Trichuris muris isolate was performed in C57BL/10 mice. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacies of the aminophenylamidines amidantel, deacylated amidantel (dAMD) and tribendimidine as well as the cyclooctadepsipeptides emodepside and in particular PF1022A were analyzed. This was performed using various administration routes and treatment schemes targeting histotropic and further developed larval as well as immature and mature adult stages. Methodology/Principal Findings Duration of prepatent period, time-dependent localization of larvae during period of prepatency as well as the duration of patency of the infection were determined before drugs were tested in the characterized trichurosis model. Amidantel showed no effect against mature adult T. muris. Tribendimidine showed significantly higher potency than dAMD after oral treatments (ED50 values of 6.5 vs. 15.1 mg/kg). However, the opposite was found for intraperitoneal treatments (ED50 values of 15.3 vs. 8.3 mg/kg). When emodepside and PF1022A were compared, the latter was significantly less effective against mature adults following intraperitoneal (ED50 values of 6.1 vs. 55.7 mg/kg) or subcutaneous (ED50 values of 15.2 vs. 225.7 mg/kg) administration. Only minimal differences were observed following oral administration (ED50 values of 2.7 vs. 5.2 mg/kg). Triple and most single oral doses with moderate to high dosages of PF1022A showed complete efficacy against histotropic second stage larvae (3×100 mg/kg or 1×250 mg/kg), further developed larvae (3×10 mg/kg or 1×100 mg/kg) and immature adults (3×10 mg/kg or 1×100 mg/kg). Histotropic first stage larvae were only eliminated after three doses of PF1022A (3×100 mg/kg) but not after a single dose. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the cyclooctadepsipeptides are a drug class with promising candidates for further evaluation for the treatment of trichurosis of humans and livestock animals in single dose regimens. PMID:24587460

  2. Entomological and parasitological impacts of indoor residual spraying with DDT, alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin in the western foothill area of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Madagascar, indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticide was part of the national malaria control programme since the middle of the twentieth century. It was mainly employed in the highlands and the foothill areas, which are prone to malaria epidemics. Prior to a policy change foreseeing a shift from DDT to pyrethroids, a study was carried out to assess the entomological and parasitological impacts of IRS in areas with DDT or pyrethroids and in areas without IRS. Methods The study was carried out from October 2002 to February 2005 in three communes of the western foothill area of Madagascar. Two communes received IRS with DDT in February 2003, then IRS with pyrethroids (alphacypermethrin or deltamethrin) in February 2004. The third commune remained untreated. Mosquitoes were collected at night using human landing catches and early in the morning in resting places. Blood smears were obtained from schoolchildren and microscopically examined for Plasmodium presence. Results In total, 18,168 human landing mosquitoes and 12,932 resting anophelines were collected. The Anopheles species caught comprised 10 species. The main and most abundant malaria vector was Anopheles funestus (72.3% of human-seeking malaria vectors caught indoors). After IRS had taken place, this species exhibited a lower human biting rate and a lower sporozoite index. Overall, 5,174 blood smears were examined with a mean plasmodic index of 19.9%. A total of four Plasmodium species were detected. Amongst tested school children the highest plasmodial index was 54.6% in the untreated commune, compared to 19.9% in the commune sprayed with DDT and 11.9% in the commune sprayed with pyrethroid. The highest prevalence of clinical malaria attacks in children present at school the day of the survey was 33% in the untreated commune compared to 8% in the areas which received IRS. Conclusion In terms of public health, the present study shows (1) a high efficacy of IRS with insecticide, (2) a similar efficacy of DDT and pyrethroid and (3) a similar efficacy of alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin. The use of IRS with DDT and pyrethroid greatly decreased the vector-human contact, with an associated decrease of the plasmodial index. However malaria transmission did not reach zero, probably due to the exophilic host-seeking and resting behaviours of the malaria vectors, thus avoiding contact with insecticide-treated surfaces indoors. The study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the IRS implementation and the need for complementary tools for an optimal vector control in Madagascar. PMID:24423246

  3. Course of Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection after Treatment Based on Parasitological and Serological Tests: A Systematic Review of Follow-Up Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sguassero, Yanina; Cuesta, Cristina B.; Roberts, Karen N.; Hicks, Elizabeth; Comandé, Daniel; Ciapponi, Agustín; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is endemic in Latin American countries outside the Caribbean. The current criterion for cure in the chronic phase of the disease is the negativization of at least two serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The serological evolution of treated subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection is variable. Treatment failure is indicated by a positive parasitological and/or molecular test (persistence of parasitemia). Objectives To summarize the pattern of response to treatment of parasitological, molecular and serological tests performed during the follow-up of subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection. Methods Electronic searches in relevant databases and screening of citations of potentially eligible articles were accomplished. Organizations focusing on neglected infectious diseases were asked for help in identifying relevant studies. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and cohort studies involving adults and children with chronic infection who received trypanocidal treatment (benznidazole or nifurtimox) and were followed over time. The assessment of risk of bias was performed separately for each study design. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool and the guidelines developed by Hayden et al. were used. Two reviewers extracted all data independently. A third review author was consulted in case of discordant opinion. Additional analyses were defined in ad-hoc basis. Scatter plots for percentage of positive parasitological and molecular tests and for negative serological tests were developed by using the lowess curve technique. Heterogeneity was measured by I2. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic review protocols (Registration Number CRD42012002162). Results Out of 2,136 citations screened, 54 studies (six RCTs and 48 cohort studies) were included. The smoothed curves for positive xenodiagnosis and positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were characterized by a sharp decrease at twelve month posttreatment. Afterwards, they reached 10–20% and 40% for xenodiagnosis and PCR, respectively. The smoothed curves for negative conventional serological tests increased up to 10% after 48 months of treatment. In the long-term, the rate of negativization was between 20% and 45%. The main sources of bias identified across cohort studies were the lack of control for confounding and attrition bias. In general, RCTs were judged as low risk of bias in all domains. The level of heterogeneity across included studies was moderate to high. Additional analysis were incomplete because of the limited availability of data. In this regard, the country of origin of study participants might affect the results of parasitological and molecular tests, while the level of risk of bias might affect serological outcomes. Subgroup analysis suggested that seronegativization occurs earlier in children compared to adults. Conclusions We acknowledge that there is a dynamic pattern of response based on parasitological, molecular and serological tests in subjects chronically infected with T. cruzi after treatment. Our findings suggest a trypanocidal effect in the long-term follow-up. Further research is needed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity and to conduct reliable subgroup analysis. PMID:26436678

  4. Benefits from Network "Parasitology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tornudd, Elin

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of experience gained by the Finnish central library for technology in off-line use of computer-based services, both selective dissemination of information and retrospective searches offered by the Royal Institute of Technology Library and the Biomedical Documentation Centre in Stockholm, as well as the Technological Library of Denmark…

  5. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Guerrero, Celedonio; Vargas-Hernandez, Ines; Ramirez-Miranda, Maria Elena; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; Valadez, Alicia; Ximenez, Cecilia; Lopez-Escamilla, Eduardo; Hernandez-Campos, Maria Elena; Villalobos, Guiehdani; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando; Maravilla, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret’s and in Pavlova’s media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST). Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (?) as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively), whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima’s D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret’s than in Pavlova’s medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05). We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be selected, reducing their genetic variability. PMID:25923708

  6. Supplementation of moist and dehydrated citrus pulp in the diets of sheep artificially and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes on the parasitological parameters and performance.

    PubMed

    Nordi, E C P; Costa, R L D; David, C M G; Parren, G A E; Freitas, A C B; Lameirinha, L P; Katiki, L M; Bueno, M S; Quirino, C R; Gama, P E; Bizzo, H R; Chagas, A C S

    2014-10-15

    The inclusion of industrial byproducts such as citrus pulp in the composition of animal diets has been widely recommended due to sustainability aspects and their high level of carbohydrates. Limonene is found in citrus pulp and has been described elsewhere as a major compound of citrus essential oils with excellent anthelmintic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological parameters of lambs artificially infected (Experiment 1) with Haemonchus contortus and naturally infected (Experiment 2) by gastrointestinal nematodes, fed diets with dehydrated citrus pulp or silage of moist orange pulp. Both experiments had three treatments (C: control, DP: diet+dehydrated citrus pulp, and MP: diet+silage of moist orange pulp). The diets were isoproteic (11% crude protein) and the concentrate was corrected every 14 days according to animal weight. Parasitological parameters were evaluated for both experiments each 14 days (body weight, body condition; fecal egg counts-FEC, egg hatch assay-EHA, coproculture, and packed cell volume-PCV). Analysis of variance (GLM of the SAS software) was performed with repeated measures in time, and the means were compared by the Tukey test. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry was used to detect constituents of dry or moist citrus pulp. Dehydrated citrus pulp had 0.02% essential oil (major compounds were 85.9% limonene and 7.6% valencene). Moist orange pulp contained 1.5% essential oil (major compounds were 65.5% limonene and 31.2% alpha- and gamma-terpineol). In both experiments, the weight gain among the treatments was similar (p>0.05) demonstrating that both moist and dehydrated orange pulp can be used to replace corn kernels to feed infected lambs. The supplementation with orange pulp did not decrease natural or artificial infections of gastrointestinal nematodes according to the FEC results (p>0.05). However, PCV increased from animals fed dehydrated and moist pulp in natural infection (Experiment 2, p<0.05) in comparison with the control group. In addition, the consumption of the dehydrated citrus pulp from animals infected with H. contortus (Experiment 1) caused lower hatching rates after 42 days of consumption (p<0.05), suggesting a tendency to shed fewer eggs to the environment. PMID:25282048

  7. Disseminated Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis infection in a patient with AIDS: novel diagnostic approaches and autopsy-confirmed parasitological cure following treatment with albendazole.

    PubMed Central

    Sobottka, I; Albrecht, H; Schäfer, H; Schottelius, J; Visvesvara, G S; Laufs, R; Schwartz, D A

    1995-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is a recently described microsporidian which causes intestinal and disseminated infections in severely immunocompromised patients with AIDS. Preliminary data suggest that albendazole can be an effective therapy for patients with E. intestinalis infection. However, relapses have been reported following treatment in some cases. These results were based upon examination of cytologic, biopsy, or stool samples with an inherent sampling bias. This report documents the first postmortem evaluation of a patient with E. intestinalis infection treated with albendazole. Antemortem microsporidial diagnosis was performed on nasal mucosal smear and duodenal biopsy specimens by electron microscopy and a newly developed indirect fluorescent-antibody method based upon in vitro cultivation of the organism. This case represents the initial report of using nasal cytologic specimens for ultrastructural and antibody-based species-level diagnosis of microsporidiosis. Following successful treatment of this infection with albendazole, the patient died of other causes. A thorough autopsy examination failed to reveal the presence of E. intestinalis in any tissue, providing confirmatory evidence for a complete parasitological cure with albendazole. PMID:8576351

  8. Albendazolesulphoxide concentrations in plasma and hydatid cyst and prediction of parasitological and clinical outcomes in patients with liver hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Trkulja, Vladimir; Runje, Mislav; Vukeli?, Dalibor; Desnica, Boško

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate the relationship between plasma and cyst concentrations of albendazolesulphoxide (ASO) and their effects on parasitological findings and disease recurrence in patients with liver hydatidosis. Methods The study was conducted at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases “Dr. Fran Mihaljevi?,” Zagreb, Croatia, between August 2006 and January 2011. Consecutive patients (N?=?48, age 6-77 years) were treated with albendazole (3?×?5 mg/kg/d) over 28 days before surgical cyst removal (n?=?34) or percutaneous evacuation (PAIR) (n?=?14). Plasma ASO was determined on days 10 and 28 of treatment and cyst concentrations at surgery/PAIR. Results Disease recurred in 3 surgically treated patients. Variability of ASO concentrations was substantial. Plasma concentrations on day 10 were higher than on day 28 (geometric means ratio [GMR] 2.00; 95%CI 1.38-2.91, P?

  9. PARASITOLOGY Helminth infection, fecundity, and

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus be expected to affect fecundity by alter- ing the host's immune responses. Helminths, such as hookworm common being hookworm (56%) and A. lumbricoides (15 to 20%) (11, 17). In both animal and human studies

  10. Molecular diagnosis and equine parasitology.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, J E

    2006-03-15

    The future implementation of improved and sustainable control strategies for the major equine parasites will be dependent on a greater insight into their basic biology, pathogenicity and epidemiology together with an enhanced ability for accurate diagnosis. This paper will provide a review of the current molecular methods under development for the detection of equine parasites and their application to current scientific questions. In particular, the strongyles are recognised as important pathogens of horses and recent advances made in the study of this parasitic group at the single species level will be addressed. The ribosomal (r)DNA region of the parasite genome has been employed to distinguish between closely related species. Molecular probes designed to this target region were used in combination with PCR technology to allow the identification of individual species within mixed infections. They have been applied to all parasite stages to look at the role of individual species in natural infection, disease and drug resistance. Similar techniques have been developed to detect other equine parasites and these will also be discussed. Further opportunities for employing existing techniques and the need for new diagnostic tools will be highlighted. PMID:16427739

  11. Parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for monitoring the outcome of Community-Led Total Sanitation.

    PubMed

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Liwanag, Harvy Joy C; Naig, June Rose A; Chua, Paul Lester C; Madamba, Manuel I; Dahildahil, Roy O

    2015-01-01

    While preventive chemotherapy remains to be a major strategy for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) comprise the long-term strategy to achieve sustained control of STH. This study examined the parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines where two of the villages attained Open-Defecation-Free (ODF) status after introduction of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). A total of 341 children (89.0% of the total eligible population) submitted stool samples which were examined using the Kato-Katz technique. Results showed that 27.9% of the total stool samples examined had at least one type of STH (cumulative prevalence), while 7.9% had moderate-heavy intensity infections. Between the two villages where CLTS was introduced, Buenavista had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of STH at 67.4% (p<0.001) and prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity STH at 23.5% (p=0.000), while Caubang had a significantly lower cumulative prevalence at 4.9% and prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity at 1.8%. On the other hand, the non-CLTS villages of Bitoon and Saub had similar rates for cumulative prevalence (16.7% and 16.8%, respectively; p=0.984) and prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity STH (2.0% and 3.1%, respectively; p=1.000). The findings may be explained by factors that include possible reversion to open defecation, non-utilization of sanitary facilities, and mass drug administration (MDA) coverage, although further studies that can accurately assess the impact of CLTS are recommended. While this study was descriptive, the data indicate no clear pattern among the parasitological and nutritional parameters, as well as the presence of CLTS in the village, suggesting the need to monitor the ODF status of villages on a regular basis even after the end of CLTS activities to ensure the sustainability of the CLTS approach. In order to achieve effective control of STH, deeper collaboration between the WASH and STH sectors are recommended where partners can work together in the area of monitoring and evaluation that may include improved parasitological and nutritional status in high-risk groups, as well as sustainable behavior change as outcome indicators. PMID:25255966

  12. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...as blood smears, as appropriate for a particular parasite and stage of the parasite. The majority of samples must contain protozoa or helminths or a combination of parasites. Some samples must be devoid of parasites. (2) An approved program may...

  13. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...as blood smears, as appropriate for a particular parasite and stage of the parasite. The majority of samples must contain protozoa or helminths or a combination of parasites. Some samples must be devoid of parasites. (2) An approved program may...

  14. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...as blood smears, as appropriate for a particular parasite and stage of the parasite. The majority of samples must contain protozoa or helminths or a combination of parasites. Some samples must be devoid of parasites. (2) An approved program may...

  15. Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology

    E-print Network

    Reece, Sarah

    . We have some drugs to combat the parasites and we can purify water and make sure food is properly of Glasgow have the bugs isolated in the lab, but don't worry - they can't infect people! At the Wellcome

  16. Parasitology Review Wildlife Health, WFB 861

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    ;Collection of Parasites · Diagnostic stages of most parasites can be detected in ­ Feces, blood, sputum ­ samples can be invaded #12;Collection of Parasites · Feces can be stored ­ at 4C (many parasite stages worms, crustaceans, millipedes · Adaptation to parasitism has led to extreme deviation in body form

  17. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Giardia lamblia Endolimax nana Dientamoeba fragilis Iodamoeba butschli Chilomastix mesnili Hookworm Ascaris lumbricoides Strongyloides stercoralis Trichuris trichiura Diphyllobothrium latum Cryptosporidium sp....

  18. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Giardia lamblia Endolimax nana Dientamoeba fragilis Iodamoeba butschli Chilomastix mesnili Hookworm Ascaris lumbricoides Strongyloides stercoralis Trichuris trichiura Diphyllobothrium latum Cryptosporidium sp....

  19. Parasitology http://journals.cambridge.org/PAR

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    parasite-induced or acquired immunosuppression and effective chemotherapy has been poorly studied, chemotherapy, immunosuppression, immunochemotherapy. INTRODUCTION In his Nobel lecture, Paul Ehrlich, one and leishmaniasis where a relation- ship between the immune system and drug therapy has been established

  20. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...diagnostic specimens. (b) The laboratory must calibrate and use the calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check permanent stains...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...diagnostic specimens. (b) The laboratory must calibrate and use the calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check permanent stains...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...diagnostic specimens. (b) The laboratory must calibrate and use the calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check permanent stains...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...diagnostic specimens. (b) The laboratory must calibrate and use the calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check permanent stains...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...diagnostic specimens. (b) The laboratory must calibrate and use the calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check permanent stains...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of slides or photographs and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use... parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of slides or photographs and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use... parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of slides or photographs and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use... parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of slides or photographs and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use... parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of slides or photographs and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use... parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month of use, the laboratory must check...

  10. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Parasitology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents techniques for the collection and examination of specimens in the diagnosis of parasitic disease and in field surveys conducted to determine the extent of parasitic infections in human and animal populations. It discusses areas in which parasites are most likely to be found and the relationships of parasites, vectors, and…

  11. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 94 (1998) 123126 Short communication

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    1998-01-01

    -glucuronidase (GUS) activity or by selection of stable transformants on plates following bombardment with the plasmid 1998; accepted 22 April 1998 Keywords: Biolistic transformation; Kinetoplastida; i,11]. In trypanosomatids, the genetic organization of the mitochondrion shows several unusual features like a complex DNA

  12. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 132 (2003) 97100 Short communication

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    2003-01-01

    - mosome; MC, minichromosome; rDNA, ribosomal RNA genes; RNAi, RNA interference; TAC, trypanosome transcriptionally silent--minichromosomal VSG genes only become active upon duplicative transposition to active VSG

  13. [Molecular genetic approaches in parasitology (in case of opisthorchiasis)].

    PubMed

    Bychkov, V G; Sergiev, V P; Sabirov, A Kh; Krylov, G G; Khadieva, E D; Bychkova, T V

    2007-01-01

    Light, electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunohistochemistry were used to reveal the proliferative, alterative processes of hepatic parenchymal cells, P 53, K-ras, B-raf, c-Kit, p 16, APC, immunoreactive proteins Ki-67, cytokeratins 9, 14, 20, EMA, c-erb B-2, CD-117, mutated p 53 and bcl-2 genes. P53, K-ras, B-raf, c-Kit, and p 16 gene mutations were detected in the liver of animals with experimental superinvasive opisthorchiasis (SO) and cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC). Mutations of these genes were found in the plasma samples taken from SO patients. The CCC tissue from SO patients displayed expression of the following genes: p 53 (100.0%), p 53+B-raf (50.0%), K-ras+c-Kit (33.3%), K-ras+B-rafat more than 5 cm from the tumor in 2 cases. Following 2 years, target therapy (canglait, megamin, immunomodulators) leveled mutations in 91.25% of the patients with SO. PMID:17663039

  14. Elsevier Editorial System(tm) for Experimental Parasitology Manuscript Draft

    E-print Network

    and adaptive immune system of the host. Infected mice adopt an immunoregulated phenotype, with abated allergic immunity. The molecular basis of parasite interactions with the host immune system centres upon secreted immunomodulators and vaccine antigens for future research. #12;Immune Modulation and Modulators in Heligmosomoides

  15. Theobald Smith and animal parasitology: highlights on an anniversary.

    PubMed

    Katz, F F

    1994-12-01

    In marking the 100th anniversary of the landmark publication in 1893 by Theobald Smith and Frederick L. Kilborne on cattle babesiosis and arthropod transmission, this article takes note of other contributions of Theobald Smith to the knowledge of a variety of parasitic organisms. Notable are his studies on the protozoan agent of avian enterohepatitis. The results of Smith's work in comparative pathology, to which he devoted his professional life, have had broad applications with economic and health benefits for domestic animals and humans. PMID:11639530

  16. Parasitologic and pathologic observations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Ozlem; Adanir, Ramazan; Haligur, Mehmet; Albayrak, Tamer; Kose, Onur; Ipek, Volkan

    2013-09-01

    This study describes the parasites and related pathologic observations in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus). In total, 48 birds were examined and 41 sparrows were found to be infected with one or more endoparasites (85.4%). The most common parasites were liver trematodes identified as Brachydistomum microscelis and Brachydistomum gracupicae. In addition, coccidia and a cestode (Infula spp.) were observed. In one bird, one female Tetrameres sp. and one female Microtetrameres sp. were found in the proventriculus. No blood parasite was found after examination of the blood smears. No gross pathologic lesion was seen in the organs except for the proventriculus, gut, and liver. At histologic examination small necrotic areas and inflammatory reactions were seen in the liver and the gastrointestinal system related to the parasites. Incidentally, anthracosis was diagnosed in 23 and mild pneumonia in 12 of the lungs. PMID:24063083

  17. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 107 (2000) 123128 Short communication

    E-print Network

    Krobitsch, Sylvia

    2000-01-01

    ] and its usefulness for reverse genetics is well established [2­8]. In order to target genes replacements in the various aspects of parasite biology and parasite­host interactions it is often of advantage was trans- fected into L. dono6ani promastigotes by electroporation. Hygromycin resistant clones were

  18. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 151 (2007) 148161 Targeted identification of a unique glycan epitope of

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    -acetylhexosamines per chain which were substituted with maximum 12 fucose residues. Hydrazinolysis of SEA-4D12 resulted. Keywords: Affinity chromatography; Anti-carbohydrate monoclonal antibody; Egg antigens; Fucose, column volumes; DC, dendritic cells; DHB, 2,5- dihydroxybenzoic acid; Fuc/F, fucose; FT, flow

  19. A combined parasitological molecular approach for noninvasive characterization of parasitic nematode communities in wild hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most hosts are concurrently or sequentially infected with multiple parasites, thus fully understanding interactions between individual parasite species and their hosts depends on accurate characterization of the parasite community. For parasitic nematodes, non-invasive methods for obtaining quantita...

  20. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 148 (2006) 144160 Heterologous expression of proteins from

    E-print Network

    Gelb, Michael

    2006-01-01

    independent cloning; MBP, maltose binding protein; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; pI, isoelectric point; SDS; Ligase independent; Cloning; Insect cells Abbreviations: %AT, percent adenosine and thymidine; CDK-ethane-sulfonic acid; IPTG, isopropyl - d-1-thiogalactopyranoside; kDa, kilodalton; LIC, ligation

  1. Canova medication modifies parasitological parameters in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Pupulin, Aurea Regina Telles; Marques-Araujo, Silvana; Toledo, Max Jean Ornelas; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Takejima, Edilson; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2010-12-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effect of the Canova medication, a homeopathic immune-system modulator, on the evolution of infection induced by the Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain in mice. The animals were divided into five groups: (i) untreated infected controls (I), (ii) infected animals treated with benznidazole (Bz), (iii) infected animals treated with the Canova medication (CM), (iv) infected animals treated with benznidazole and the Canova medication (Bz+CM), and (v) uninfected controls that received only the vehicle (grain alcohol) (C). The parameters evaluated were: parasitemia, mortality, control of cure, and tissue parasitism analysis. Our results showed that the evolution of the experimental infection was modified by treatment with CM, and that daily and consecutive doses were harmful to the animals, causing death in 100% of the infected animals in a brief period. The analysis of parasitism performed on the organs on the 12th day postinfection showed that in infected animals treated with CM, the number of amastigote/nests in the spleen was significantly reduced, while in cardiac tissue, intestine, and liver the number was significantly increased compared with infected control animals. These results indicate that CM has a negative influence on the host-parasite relationship, modifying the tropism of the parasite for tissues, and increasing the parasitemia peak in this experimental model. PMID:20433834

  2. Serological and parasitological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Felix, T A; Kwok, O C H

    2010-10-01

    Ground-feeding birds are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as indicators of soil contamination by oocysts, and birds of prey are indicators of T. gondii prevalence in rodents and other small mammals. Cats excrete environmentally resistant oocysts after consuming tissues of T. gondii -infected birds. In the present study, sera and tissues from 382 wild birds from Colorado were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 38 birds with the use of the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1?25 titer). Tissues (brains, hearts) of 84 birds were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 1 barn owl (Tyto alba), 1 of 5 American kestrels (Falco sparverius), 1 of 7 ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis), 1 of 4 rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus), 2 of 13 Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni), and 1 of 25 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). This is the first time T. gondii has been isolated from the barn owl, ferruginous hawk, rough-legged hawk, and Swainson's hawk. PMID:20950101

  3. Networks and the ecology of parasite transmission: A framework for wildlife parasitology?

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Social network analysis has recently emerged as a popular tool for understanding disease transmission in host populations. Although social networks have most extensively been applied to modelling the transmission of diseases through human populations, more recently the method has been applied to wildlife populations. The majority of examples from wildlife involve modelling the transmission of contagious microbes (mainly viruses and bacteria), normally in context of understanding wildlife disease epidemics. However, a growing number of studies have used networks to explore the ecology of parasite transmission in wildlife populations for a range of endemic parasites representing a diversity of life cycles and transmission methods. This review addresses the application of network models in representing the transmission of parasites with more complex life cycles, and illustrates the way in which this approach can be used to answer ecological questions about the transmission of parasites in wildlife populations. PMID:24533342

  4. Parasitology as a Teaching Tool: Isolation of Apicomplexan Cysts from Store-Bought Meat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Tracy L.; Fitzpatrick, Eileen; Hager, Kristin M.

    2008-01-01

    There are obstacles to teaching science; however, these obstacles are not insurmountable. One obstacle is the students themselves. Students often labor under the misconception or anxiety that the course material will be too difficult to understand, or boring (mind-numbing), or that the information learned will not be applicable in their day-to-day…

  5. Systematic Parasitology 53: 227233, 2002. 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    in the Netherlands. 227 Thaumamermis zealandica n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nematoda) parasitising the intertidal marine zealandica n. sp. (Mermithidae; Nematoda), is described parasitising the in- tertidal marine amphipod

  6. Parasitology (1973), 67, 315-331 With 6 figures in the text

    E-print Network

    Cross, George

    1973-01-01

    and other compounds. The semi-defined medium contains an acid hydrolysate of casein:in the empirically devised defined medium the casein requirement hasbeencircumvented byinclusionof additionalvitamins E T H O D S A N D M A T E R I A L S Trypanosome strains The history, as far as it can be documented

  7. Pathological and parasitological characterization of infection by trematodes (Paramphistomatidae) in the large intestine of capybaras.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Isabela de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Patrícia Carvalho; Gardiner, Chris; Santos, Renato de Lima; Lima, Walter Dos Santos; Ecco, Roselene

    2015-09-01

    Gross and histological lesions caused by an intestinal parasite were described in three capybaras. The parasites presented a mean length of 14 mm and width of 7 mm, were round to oval or piriform, reddish and pedunculated, and adhered strongly to the mucosa of the large intestine. The intestinal mucosa at the parasite attachment site presented loss of surface epithelium and most glands, with replacement by fibrovascular proliferation that protruded from the mucosa and was involuted by the ventral sucker of the parasite. The lamina propria presented cellular debris, eosinophils, macrophages and plasma cells. The morphological characteristics, observed using serial histological sections, made it possible to classify the parasite as a trematode (Paramphistomatidae), compatible with Taxorchis schistocotyle. One capybara also harbored many ciliated protozoa in the large intestine (at the site of attachment of the parasite) and inside the caeca of the trematodes. In conclusion, this study described a multifocal necrotizing colitis associated with T. schistocotyle parasitism in capybaras. PMID:26444066

  8. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 119 (2002) 217223 A low-background inducible promoter system in Leishmania

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    2002-01-01

    is driven by the endogenous pol I promoter on chromosome 27 (rDNA locus) or the endogenous pol II promoter integrated into the rDNA locus. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Hygromycin identified in the rDNA locus of Leishma- nia chagasi [4], Leishmania amazonensis [5] and Leish- mania dono6

  9. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 157 (2008) 3243

    E-print Network

    Gelb, Michael

    2008-01-01

    ­43 Protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I of Trypanosoma cruzi Kohei Yokoyamaa,, John R. Gillespieb, Wesley C; Protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I; Protein farnesyltransferase; CaaX motif; Trypanosoma cruzi; Chagas farnesyltransferase; PGGT-II, protein geranylgeranyltransferase type-II; T. cruzi, Trypanosoma cruzi; GGPP

  10. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 103 (1999) 6169 Entamoeba histolytica lacks trypanothione metabolism

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    1999-01-01

    (106 cells)-1 or B1.7 mM]. In contrast, Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes (grown in a polyamine inoculum in 8 ml YI-S medium and passaged every 5­6 days [13]. Trypanosoma cruzi X10 clone 6 (MHOM/BR/78 eukaryotic organisms require defences against oxidant stress caused by reactive oxygen intermediates arising

  11. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 112 (2001) 183191 Cloning of a pyruvate phosphate dikinase from Trypanosoma

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    2001-01-01

    from Trypanosoma cruzi Rosa A. Maldonado 1 , Alan H. Fairlamb * Di6ision of Biological Chemistry a putative pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) from Trypanosoma cruzi, an enzyme that catalyses the reversible in a wide variety of other organisms, including plants and bacteria. In T. cruzi, two genes (PPDK1 and PPDK2

  12. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 131 (2003) 2533 Properties of trypanothione synthetase from Trypanosoma brucei

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    2003-01-01

    .3.1.8) and trypanothione synthetase (TryS; EC 6.3.1.9), whereas in Trypanosoma cruzi both steps are catalysed by an unusual including the parasitic trypanosomes Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei (causative agents of Chagas Trypanosoma brucei Sandra L. Oza, Mark R. Ariyanayagam, Niall Aitcheson1, Alan H. Fairlamb Division

  13. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 61 (1993) 127 136 127 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Larry

    1993-01-01

    seymouri [9], Trypanosoma brucei [10], Trypanosoma congolense [11] and Trypanosoma cruzi [12], the mini.V. MOLBIO 02031 Organization of mini-exon and 5S rRNA genes in the kinetoplastid Trypanoplasma borreli status of this organism as a ki/aetoplastid protozoan. Two families of repeats were found: 597 nt (T1

  14. Clinical pathology and parasitologic evaluation of free-living nestlings of the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus).

    PubMed

    Allgayer, M C; Guedes, N M R; Chiminazzo, C; Cziulik, M; Weimer, T A

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated the health status and established hematologic and serum biochemistry parameters for free-living nestlings of the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) from the Brazilian Pantanal (19 degrees 51'-19 degrees 58'S; 56 degrees 17'-56 degrees 24'W), for four consecutive years (from December 2003 through December 2006). Physical examinations indicated that all the birds were in good health. Endoparasites and blood parasites were not detected in any of the nestlings, and ectoparasites seemed to be limited to Philornis sp. (Diptera: Muscidae). Significantly higher levels of total white blood cells and heterophils, glucose, total protein, triglycerides, and phosphorus were observed in females. In females, higher cholesterol levels and packed cell volumes were observed in older birds, and total white blood cell and heterophil counts were higher in young animals. In males, uric acid levels were higher in older individuals. Wild Pantanal Hyacinth Macaws feed on only two species of palm nuts (Acrocomia totai and Scheelea phalerta). This limited food habit has a strong impact on population size and may alter the clinical pathology parameters of these birds. Therefore, knowledge of blood levels in normal individuals is essential to assess the physiologic and pathologic condition of wild macaws, to assess the effects of environmental changes on their health, and to contribute to conservation strategies of this endangered species. PMID:19901373

  15. A molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis in domestic dogs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Munir; Özübek, Sezayi; Altay, Kür?at; Balkaya, ?brahim; Utuk, Armagan Erdem; K?rbas, Ak?n; ?imsek, Sami; Dumanl?, Nazir

    2015-04-30

    In this study, asymptomatic dogs in nine provinces of Turkey were surveyed to investigate the prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon canis infection. DNA obtained from blood samples collected from 694 domestic dogs (243 stray, 288 shelter, and 163 pets) of both genders and varying ages were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, 285 thin blood smears prepared from these blood samples were also evaluated for microscopic examination. Direct microscopy revealed Hepatozoon gamonts in the peripheral blood of three of 285 (1.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-3.04) tested. Using PCR, 155 of the 694 (22.3%; 95% CI: 19.28-25.61) were found to be positive for the presence of H. canis DNA. The prevalence of infection was higher in adult dogs (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.1-30.7) than young animals (16.4%; 95% CI: 12.2-21.3). Although the prevalence determined by PCR was higher in male dogs (24.5%; 95% CI: 19.6-29.9) than in female dogs (20.8%; 95% CI: 16.9-25.1), gender differences were not significant. Pet dogs had a lower prevalence of infection (10.4%; 95% CI: 6.2-16.2) compared to stray (26.3%; 95% CI: 20.9-32.3) and shelter dogs (25.7%; 95% CI: 20.7-31.1), but no significant association between stray and shelter dogs was found for the presence of the parasite. Partial sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. This epidemiological survey revealed a high prevalence of H. canis in dogs from several provinces in Turkey, and it suggests that the age and origin are associated with the parasite. PMID:25771934

  16. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 90 (1997) 395397 Erratum to ``Surprising diversity and distribution of spliced

    E-print Network

    Davis, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    ,enolasetrans-splicing,andidentificationofflatwormSLRNAs/genes Hostandsourceb Organisma ClassificationEnolasetrans-splicingc SLRNAandGened PhylumPlatyhelminthes=metacercaria)(WoodsHole,MA) Allocreadioidea(Superfamily) PhylumPlatyhelminthes,ClassTurbellaria StylochuszebraFree-living(Carmel,CA)Acoela(Order)ND- Intestineofseaurchin(HalfSyndesmisfranciscanaRhabdocoela(Order)-ND MoonBay,CA) PhylumPlatyhelminthes

  17. A phylogeny for the pomatiopsidae (Gastropoda: Rissooidea): a resource for taxonomic, parasitological and biodiversity studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Pomatiopsidae are reported from northern India into southern China and Southeast Asia, with two sub-families, the Pomatiopsinae (which include freshwater, amphibious, terrestrial and marine species) and the freshwater Triculinae. Both include species acting as intermediate host for species of the blood-fluke Schistosoma which cause a public health problem in East Asia. Also, with around 120 species, triculine biodiversity exceeds that of any other endemic freshwater molluscan fauna. Nevertheless, the origins of the Pomatiopsidae, the factors driving such a diverse radiation and aspects of their co-evolution with Schistosoma are not fully understood. Many taxonomic questions remain; there are problems identifying medically relevant species. The predicted range is mostly unsurveyed and the true biodiversity of the family is underestimated. Consequently, the aim of the study was to collect DNA-sequence data for as many pomatiopsid taxa as possible, as a first step in providing a resource for identification of epidemiologically significant species (by non-malacologists), for use in resolving taxonomic confusion and for testing phylogeographical hypotheses. Results The evolutionary radiation of the Triculinae was shown to have been rapid and mostly post late Miocene. Molecular dating indicated that the radiation of these snails was driven first by the uplift of the Himalaya and onset of a monsoon system, and then by late-Pliocene global warming. The status of Erhaia as Anmicolidae is supported. The genera Tricula and Neotricula are shown to be non-monophyletic and the tribe Jullieniini may be polyphyletic (based on convergent characters). Triculinae from northern Vietnam could be derived from Gammatricula of Fujian/Yunnan, China. Conclusions The molecular dates and phylogenetic estimates in this study are consistent with an Australasian origin for the Pomatiopsidae and an East to West radiation via Oligocene Borneo-Philippines island hopping to Japan and then China (Triculinae arising mid-Miocene in Southeast China), and less so with a triculine origin in Tibet. The lack of monophyly in the medically important genera and indications of taxonomic inaccuracies, call for further work to identify epidemiologically significant taxa (e.g., Halewisia may be potential hosts for Schistosoma mekongi) and highlight the need for surveys to determine the true biodiversity of the Triculinae. PMID:24548800

  18. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 175 (2011) 1020 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    with a putative role in hemoglobin catabolism by the erythrocytic malaria parasite. Here, the biochemical. is the endocytosis and catabolism of up to 75% of erythro- cyte hemoglobin by P. falciparum [1,2]. Hemoglobin

  19. Parasitological study of a population of Tiber River eels (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Orecchia, P; Bianchini, M; Catalini, N; Cataudella, S; Paggi, L

    1987-04-01

    A study was conducted on the parasitofauna of Anguilla anguilla caught in the section of the Tiber river south of Rome (Italy). The sample examined consisted of 417 specimens that were classified by stage (elver, young yellow eel, yellow eel and silver eel) and season of sampling. The following species were identified: Trypanosoma granulosum, Eimeria anguillae, Myxidium giardi, Sphaerospora reichenowi, Myxobolus sp., Trichodina anguilli, Ichthyohodo sp., Gyrodactylus anguillae, Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, Raphidascaris acus, Acanthocephalus clavula. Each parasite species was considered in its prevalence according to stage and season. For some parasite the pathogenic effect was also examined in a histological study of serial sections. The results of the statistical analysis of the single parasitic infection as related to different seasons pointed to marked seasonal trends only in some species (Trypanosoma granulosum and Gyrodactylus anguillae). The intensity of infection assessed for acanthocephalan infection only was found to affect neither weight nor condition index (weight/length3). No difference in weight or condition index was found to be ascribable to the presence or absence of a species. An attempt to find a rule-of-thumb algorithm to gauge the overall effect to parasitic diseases failed to give sufficiently significant results. PMID:3508508

  20. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 199 (2015) 3450 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    . These studies identified a range of compounds with activity against bloodstage parasites and led disruption for malaria prophylaxis and vaccine development, with experiments in rodent malaria models- deficient forms that might be used as a genetically attenuated parasite vaccine, suggesting the pathway

  1. Immuno-parasitological parameters in schistosomiasis--a perspective view of a vaccine-oriented immunochemist.

    PubMed

    Arnon, R

    1991-06-01

    It has been almost 10 years since we became involved in research on schistosomiasis. With a background of many years of research on structure-function relationships in protein antigens and a wide experience in the development of peptide-based synthetic vaccines, I was intrigued by the complexity of the immunological aspects of host-parasite relation and the unique capacity of parasites to evade the immune response of their hosts. Being of very ancient lineage, schistosomes, which evolved from blood flukes during the Permian era, had two hundred million years of evolution to their advantage, to perfect their survival strategies. As a result, they are capable of circumventing the immunological machinery of the mammalian host and may consequently survive in it for decades. It seemed to us that an understanding, at least in part, of these processes, was a prerequisite for any attempt to enhance the capacity of the host to mount effective immunity, the long-range goal of such studies being the development of an efficient vaccine. In this review I have attempted to summarize the various approaches pursued in our laboratory towards this goal. This is definitely not a comprehensive review, and I had no intention of covering the vast literature in this field, except for that closely relevant to the discussed topics. This is rather a perspective review summarizing our own findings concerning different aspects of the biological, biochemical and immunological properties of Schistosoma mansoni, and their contribution toward the global effort of the research on schistosomiasis. PMID:1832255

  2. Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

    2014-10-01

    We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted. PMID:25098300

  3. PARASITOLOGY AND SEROLOGY OF FREE-RANGING COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) IN NORTH CAROLINA, USA.

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Swingen, Morgan B; Lashley, Marcus A; Flowers, James R; Palamar, Maria B; Apperson, Charles S; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Moorman, Christopher E; DePerno, Christopher S

    2015-07-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) have expanded recently into the eastern US and can serve as a source of pathogens to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), livestock, and humans. We examined free-ranging coyotes from central North Carolina, US, for selected parasites and prevalence of antibodies against viral and bacterial agents. We detected ticks on most (81%) coyotes, with Amblyomma americanum detected on 83% of those with ticks. Fifteen (47%) coyotes were positive for heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), with a greater detection rate in adults (75%) than juveniles (22%). Serology revealed antibodies against canine adenovirus (71%), canine coronavirus (32%), canine distemper virus (17%), canine parvovirus (96%), and Leptospira spp. (7%). We did not detect antibodies against Brucella abortus/suis or Brucella canis. Our results showed that coyotes harbor many common pathogens that present health risks to humans and domestic animals and suggest that continued monitoring of the coyote's role in pathogen transmission is warranted. PMID:25984773

  4. 336 Parasitology Today, vol. IO,no.9, I994 Applications of Molecular Marker

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    developed for human and plant genetics, including development of the technology to identih large numbers for controlling these diseases would be the genetic manipulation of mosquito popu- lations to reduce competence and developing genetic control strategies have been limited because of the small number

  5. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 130 (2003) 3142 An in vitro system for developmental and genetic studies of

    E-print Network

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    for genetic manipulation and analysis of the amastigote stage. This is especially challenging for L. donovani Abstract Glycoconjugates have been shown to play important roles in Leishmania development. However to develop effective chemotherapy and vaccination strategies. Methods for the laboratory study of the insect

  6. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  7. Evaluation of Biochemical, Hematological and Parasitological Parameters of Protein-Deficient Hamsters Infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum

    PubMed Central

    Pacanaro, Carina P.; Dias, Sílvia R.; Serafim, Luciana R.; Costa, Mariana P.; Aguilar, Edenil; Paes, Paulo R.; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I.; Rabelo, Élida M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hookworms infect millions of people worldwide and can cause severe clinical symptoms in their hosts. Prospective cohort studies in Brazil show high rates of hookworm reinfection in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children, despite previous treatment. Additionally, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can worsen the nutritional status of affected populations. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the effects of host malnutrition during Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection and how this infection affects host physiological parameters using a hamster model. Methodology/Principal Findings Hamsters were divided into four experimental groups: normal diet or low-protein diet (also referred to as “malnourished”) and A. ceylanicum infection or no infection. More severe pathogenesis was observed in the infected malnourished group, as demonstrated by significant decreases in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number and packed-cell volume compared to the non-infected malnourished group. Greater numbers of adult parasites and eggs were observed in the malnourished group compared to the control group; however, the oviposition rate was lower in the malnourished group. In general, greater values of total lipids were observed in malnourished animals compared to control animals, including lipids excreted in the stool. Conclusions In this work, we have demonstrated that animals fed an isocaloric low-protein diet presented more severe pathogenesis when infected with A. ceylanicum. The increased lipid concentration in the liver and blood is related to the conversion of the excess carbohydrate into fatty acids that increase the concentration of triglycerides in general. Triglycerides were excreted in the feces, indicating that infection associated with malnutrition caused a greater loss of these molecules for this group of animals and confirming the hypothesis that both nutrition and infection are responsible for the malabsorption syndrome. Taken together, the results found in this work confirm the hypothesis that the nutritional condition of the host greatly influences the course of the infection. PMID:25254370

  8. Experimental Parasitology 114 (2006) 126128 www.elsevier.com/locate/yexpr

    E-print Network

    Hartl, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    Position-speciWc polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum stuttering motif in a PHISTc PFI1780w Thanat Stuttering motif in PFI1780w which was recently grouped as a gene in the PHIST family. The repeat has. falciparum. The PFI1780w Stuttering motif can be a model to study gene diversiWcation and used as a tool

  9. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 182 (2012) 9396 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    in the parasite pellicle and at polar apices. These observations support current models for gliding motility rigid element upon which myosin bears to create the necessary rearward traction force for motility

  10. Vector identification and clinical, hematological, biochemical, and parasitological characteristics of camel (Camelus dromedarius) theileriosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Shereen Youssef; Yasien, Safaa; Mousa, Waheed Mohamed Ali; Nasr, Soad Mohamed; El-Kelesh, Eman Ahmed Mohamed; Mahran, Khalid Mohamed; Abd-El-Rahman, Azza Hassan

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify a possible tick vector and to determine the prevalence of camel theileriosis in Egypt using blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain and PCR assay. Hemogram and serum biochemical constituents were also investigated. A total of 243 camels, aged 3-5 years, were examined. The results revealed that 75 (30.86 %) camels were infected with Theileria spp. of Giemsa-stained blood smears. Hyalomma dromedarii was identified as the carrier tick of Theileria spp. Multinucleated sporoblast and free sporozoite were observed in the salivary gland smears from collecting ticks. PCR result revealed that Theileria annulata was the most abundant in camels (60 %) followed by Theileria spp. (10 %). Macrocytic hypochromic anemia was recorded in the infected camels with T. annulata. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, eosinophilia, and lymphopenia were also observed in the infected group. In the serum of infected camels, total proteins, albumin, ?-globulin, and A/G ratio were significantly decreased (P?

  11. Geographic trends in research output and citations in veterinary medicine: insight into global research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships

    E-print Network

    Christopher, Mary M; Marusic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    UK) Journal of Veterinary Parasitology (India) Journal ofNetherlands) Veterinary Parasitology (Netherlands)Parasitology, and Microbiology in all regions except North America Christopher and Marusic BMC Veterinary

  12. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 150 (2006) 1024 Duplication, gene conversion, and genetic diversity in the species-specific

    E-print Network

    Hartl, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    in subtelomeres, it is unusual to find a small family of housekeeping genes in these regions. We found Genome Database; RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction; SNP, single nucleotide

  13. The effects of urea supplementation on production and parasitological responses of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    PubMed

    Knox, M R; Steel, J W

    1999-06-15

    Merino wether lambs were individually confined and fed a basal diet of oaten chaff containing essential minerals which was untreated or contained 3% urea. Within each dietary group animals were orally infected with either 200 H. contortus (H), 1000 T. colubriformis (T) or both species (H + T) thrice weekly or remained uninfected (C). Weight gain, wool production, and parasite burden were measured over a 19-week period. Sheep on the diet containing urea gained more weight, consumed more feed and grew more wool of higher fibre diameter than their counterparts given no urea. On both diets uninfected sheep consumed more feed than infected sheep and the sheep given no urea and infected with both H and T worm species consumed the least feed. Parasitised sheep gained less weight than uninfected control sheep. Sheep with urea in their diet had lower faecal egg counts when infected with H alone or with H and T but there was no effect of urea on egg count of sheep infected with T alone. In contrast, T numbers after slaughter were reduced in sheep fed diets containing urea whereas H numbers were not affected by diet. It was concluded that supplementation with urea can increase resilience to parasitism thereby improving production and also enhance resistance mechanisms against worms in young sheep on low quality roughage diets. These responses can be partly attributed to stimulation of feed intake, presumably due to enhanced ruminal digestion, but also to elevated rumen NH3-N levels which would be expected to have increased rumen microbial protein synthesis and availability to the intestines. PMID:10392968

  14. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 27 (1988) 63-70 63 Peculiar sequence organization of kinetoplast DNA minicircles from

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Larry

    1988-01-01

    organization of kinetoplast DNA minicircles from Trypanosoma cruzi Wim Degrave 1, Stenio P. Fragoso of two minicircles from the kinetoplast DNA of the CL strain and one of the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi diagnostic methods for Chagas' disease based on DNA probe technology. Key words: Trypanosoma cruzi

  15. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 144 (2005) 206217 In vitro and in vivo analysis of the major type I protein arginine

    E-print Network

    Hing, Huey

    2005-01-01

    type I protein arginine methyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei Michel Pelletier, Deborah A September 2005 Abstract In mammals and yeasts, arginine methylation, catalyzed by protein arginine. Thus, arginine methylation may be especially important in controlling gene expression

  16. MicroRNA Transcriptome Profiling in Heart of Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Mice: Parasitological and Cardiological Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Isabela Cunha; Ferreira, Frederico Moraes; Nakaya, Helder I; Baron, Monique Andrade; Vilar-Pereira, Gláucia; Pereira, Isabela Resende; Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Real, Juliana Monte; De Brito, Thales; Chevillard, Christophe; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Ferreira, Ludmila Rodrigues Pinto

    2015-06-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and it begins with a short acute phase characterized by high parasitemia followed by a life-long chronic phase with scarce parasitism. Cardiac involvement is the most prominent manifestation, as 30% of infected subjects will develop abnormal ventricular repolarization with myocarditis, fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by undefined mechanisms. Nevertheless, follow-up studies in chagasic patients, as well as studies with murine models, suggest that the intensity of clinical symptoms and pathophysiological events that occur during the acute phase of disease are associated with the severity of cardiac disease observed during the chronic phase. In the present study we investigated the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the disease progression in response to T. cruzi infection, as alterations in miRNA levels are known to be associated with many cardiovascular disorders. We screened 641 rodent miRNAs in heart samples of mice during an acute infection with the Colombiana T.cruzi strain and identified multiple miRNAs significantly altered upon infection. Seventeen miRNAs were found significantly deregulated in all three analyzed time points post infection. Among these, six miRNAs had their expression correlated with clinical parameters relevant to the disease, such as parasitemia and maximal heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval. Computational analyses identified that the gene targets for these six miRNAs were involved in networks and signaling pathways related to increased ventricular depolarization and repolarization times, important factors for QTc interval prolongation. The data presented here will guide further studies about the contribution of microRNAs to Chagas heart disease pathogenesis. PMID:26086673

  17. 212 COMPARATIVE PARASITOLOGY, 69(2), JULY 2002 In summary, this is the first report of E. lan-

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    that it will be found in high prevalence in other populations of eastern grey squirrels and fox squirrels. This project is part of an ongoing study of the parasites of the fox squirrel in southeastern Ne- braska of Eimeria ontarioensis Lee and Dorney, 1971, in the fox squirrel, Sciurus niger rufiventer, in Indiana

  18. [Parasitologic, clinical, hematologic and serologic findings in puppies after lactogenic infection with Ancylostoma caninum ERCOLANI 1859 (Ancylostomidae)].

    PubMed

    Gottstein, B; Ising, S; Stoye, M

    1991-03-01

    The correlation between intensity of Ancylostoma caninum infections in bitches and the intensity of lactogenic infections and clinical signs of their puppies was investigated. On average, 825, 1,867 or 2,125 specimens were observed in litters of two bitches inoculated with 5,000, 10,000 or 20,000 third stage larvae (LIII) respectively, at the day of conception. Adverse effects of the infection on the growth and behaviour of the puppies were observed after onset of their second week of life: 11/27 puppies died during the fourth week. The body weight of puppies surviving 28 days was up to 750 g less than that of uninfected controls. Eosinophilia, erythroblastosis and microcytic, hypochromic anemia developed in all puppies during their first four weeks. The IFA test (LIII antigen) was positive for only 5/18 heavily infected puppies after uptake of colostrum. PMID:1853668

  19. InternationalJournalfor Parasitology Vol.21, No. 7, pp. 821-838, 1991 Printed in Great Britain

    E-print Network

    IN THE MONOGENEA (PLATYHELMINTHES), BASED UPON A PARSIMONY ANALYSIS OF SPERMIOGENETIC AND SPERMATOZOAL.Cladisticstudyin the Monogenea(Platyhelminthes),based upon aparsimony analysis of spermiogenetic and spermatozoal: Monogenea, Platyhelminthes; Polyopisthocotylea; MonopisthocotyIea; phylogeny; cladistics; systematics

  20. Superiority of the ELISA technique over parasitological methods for detection of trichinellosis in slaughtered pigs in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Faubert, G M; Viens, P; Magluilo, P

    1985-01-01

    Trichinoscopic examination, pepsin-hydrogen chloride digestion and the ELISA assay were used in an epidemiological survey for the presence of Trichinella spiralis in slaughterhouse pigs over a period of 12 months. The first two methods failed to detect any cases of trichinellosis in sows aged between two to three years. The ELISA assay, however, detected a 2.5% prevalence amongst the 2046 blood specimens tested. Foci of T. spiralis are localized in certain regions only. The discrepancy between the results obtained is likely to be due to the low infection density, undetectable by conventional methods. It is postulated that pigs which are not confined indoors came in contact with the sylvatic strain of Trichinella which is known for low muscle invasiveness. PMID:3886108

  1. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 19 (1986) 149-161 Impaired drug uptake in methotrexate resistant Crithidia fasciculata

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Larry

    1986-01-01

    uptake in methotrexate resistant Crithidia fasciculata without changes in dihydrofolate reductase to methotrexate (MTX), an inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). When cells are challenged with 2-S M.M MTX; Leishmania major; Methotrexate; Drug resistance; Methotrexate transport; Dihydrofolate re- ductase

  2. MicroRNA Transcriptome Profiling in Heart of Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Mice: Parasitological and Cardiological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Isabela Cunha; Ferreira, Frederico Moraes; Nakaya, Helder I.; Baron, Monique Andrade; Vilar-Pereira, Gláucia; Pereira, Isabela Resende; Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Real, Juliana Monte; De Brito, Thales; Chevillard, Christophe; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Ferreira, Ludmila Rodrigues Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and it begins with a short acute phase characterized by high parasitemia followed by a life-long chronic phase with scarce parasitism. Cardiac involvement is the most prominent manifestation, as 30% of infected subjects will develop abnormal ventricular repolarization with myocarditis, fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by undefined mechanisms. Nevertheless, follow-up studies in chagasic patients, as well as studies with murine models, suggest that the intensity of clinical symptoms and pathophysiological events that occur during the acute phase of disease are associated with the severity of cardiac disease observed during the chronic phase. In the present study we investigated the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the disease progression in response to T. cruzi infection, as alterations in miRNA levels are known to be associated with many cardiovascular disorders. We screened 641 rodent miRNAs in heart samples of mice during an acute infection with the Colombiana T.cruzi strain and identified multiple miRNAs significantly altered upon infection. Seventeen miRNAs were found significantly deregulated in all three analyzed time points post infection. Among these, six miRNAs had their expression correlated with clinical parameters relevant to the disease, such as parasitemia and maximal heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval. Computational analyses identified that the gene targets for these six miRNAs were involved in networks and signaling pathways related to increased ventricular depolarization and repolarization times, important factors for QTc interval prolongation. The data presented here will guide further studies about the contribution of microRNAs to Chagas heart disease pathogenesis. PMID:26086673

  3. 1524 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 93, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2007 J. Parasitol., 93(?), 2007, pp. 15241527

    E-print Network

    . 1524­1527 American Society of Parasitologists 2007 Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Raccoons­2006. Species Total no. Serum tested No. seropositive Animals bioassayed T. gondii isolated Raccoon (Procyon of 7 raccoons were bioassayed in cats, and the rest were bioassayed in mice. ABSTRACT: During 2005

  4. Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2008-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis. PMID:18188597

  5. Histopathological and parasitological investigations of ear healthy skin of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Costa, Miriam Maria; Ribeiro, Vitor Marcio; Michalick, Marilene Suzan; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2010-07-01

    Although 90% of clinical cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) occur in the northeastern region of Brazil, the incidence of cases in recent years has increased in southeastern states such as Minas Gerais (MG), where the disease has been reported in several cities, including Belo Horizonte, the state capital. Some studies have shown a strong correlation between the incidence of AVL and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Belo Horizonte. A study of 108 dogs with parasite Leishmania chagasi detected by immuno-histochemistry in healthy ear skin was obtained from two distinct geographical areas: 55 from a metropolitan area of the municipality (Santa Luzia, MG) and 53 dogs from a central area of Belo Horizonte. In parallel, a group of 10 beagles were experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Considering the clinical aspects of all naturally infected dogs, symptomatic dogs were more frequent than asymptomatic ones, especially animals from the metropolitan area compared with the central area (79.6% and 20.3%, respectively). A chronic exudate was observed in the ear of 51 out of 55 dogs naturally infected from the metropolitan area (92.7%) and 45 out of 53 dogs naturally infected from the central area (84.9%). Importantly, asymptomatic dogs from the central area harbor more parasites in the skin than the asymptomatic ones from the metropolitan area. In addition, a profound difference was noted in the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and parasite load in the skin of experimental infected dogs. PMID:20503176

  6. Humoral immunological profile and parasitological statuses of Leishmune vaccinated and visceral leishmaniasis infected dogs from an endemic area.

    PubMed

    de Amorim, I F G; Freitas, E; Alves, C F; Tafuri, W L; Melo, M N; Michalick, M S M; da Costa-Val, A P

    2010-10-11

    Dogs represent the major reservoir of Leishmaniao chagasi and vaccination against the canine disease is a potential control strategy. However, seroconversion occurs post-vaccine and hence, there is need to discriminate between the former group and naturally infected dogs. The present study represents a comparison of the humoral immunological profiles of both groups using Leishmania soluble antigen (LSA) and fucose-mannose ligand (FML). For both categories, ear skin samples were evaluated immunohistochemically and through PCR, that was also performed in blood specimens, as well as their ability to infect Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. All these tests showed negative results for the vaccinated dogs. Differences between groups were observed regarding IgG, IgG2 and IgE absorbances as determined by FML-ELISA, and for IgG1 and IgE absorbances as measured by LSA-ELISA, showing that Leishmune-immunised animals and VL naturally infected dogs present different immunological profiles, even though these differences cannot be used to distinguish between these two groups of dogs. PMID:20638182

  7. Clinical and Parasitological Protection in a Leishmania infantum-Macaque Model Vaccinated with Adenovirus and the Recombinant A2 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Porrozzi, Renato; Pinto, Marcelo A.; Marchevsky, Renato S.; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle L.; Dutra, Miriam S.; Bruña-Romero, Oscar; Fernandes, Ana-Paula; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe vector-born disease of humans and dogs caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites. Approximately 0.2 to 0.4 million new human VL cases occur annually worldwide. In the new world, these alarming numbers are primarily due to the impracticality of current control methods based on vector reduction and dog euthanasia. Thus, a prophylactic vaccine appears to be essential for VL control. The current efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine include the use of animal models that are as close to human VL. We have previously reported a L. infantum-macaque infection model that is reliable to determine which vaccine candidates are most worthy for further development. Among the few amastigote antigens tested so far, one of specific interest is the recombinant A2 (rA2) protein that protects against experimental L. infantum infections in mice and dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Primates were vaccinated using three rA2-based prime-boost immunization regimes: three doses of rA2 plus recombinant human interleukin-12 (rhIL-12) adsorbed in alum (rA2/rhIL-12/alum); two doses of non-replicative adenovirus recombinant vector encoding A2 (Ad5-A2) followed by two boosts with rA2/rhIL-12/alum (Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum); and plasmid DNA encoding A2 gene (DNA-A2) boosted with two doses of Ad5-A2 (DNA-A2+Ad5-A2). Primates received a subsequent infectious challenge with L. infantum. Vaccines, apart from being safe, were immunogenic as animals responded with increased pre-challenge production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies, though with some variability in the response, depending on the vaccine formulation/protocol. The relative parasite load in the liver was significantly lower in immunized macaques as compared to controls. Protection correlated with hepatic granuloma resolution, and reduction of clinical symptoms, particularly when primates were vaccinated with the Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum protocol. Conclusions/Significance The remarkable clinical protection induced by A2 in an animal model that is evolutionary close to humans qualifies this antigen as a suitable vaccine candidate against human VL. PMID:24945284

  8. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris: Heritabilities and associations with parasitological findings.

    PubMed

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Göring, Harald Heinz Herbert; Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-07-30

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post infection (p.i.). Parasite specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly (P<0.001) elevated after 7 and 14 weeks of infection, whereas parasite specific IgG2 levels only changed slightly at 14 weeks p.i.. However, the observed association between specific antibody isotype levels and faecal egg counts and macroscopic worm load was weak. The relative heritabilities of the different parasite specific isotypes were assessed and resulted in significant heritability estimates for parasite specific IgG1 and IgA. The highest heritabilities were found for A. suum specific IgG1 (h(2)=0.41 and 0.46 at 7 and 14 weeks p.i., respectively). Thus, the present study demonstrates that host genetic factors influence the IgG1 and IgA antibody isotype responses specific to two of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes of swine whereas specific antibody levels were poorly associated with egg excretion and the presence of macroscopic worms. PMID:26095952

  9. [Parasitological factors impeding the transmission of the agent of babesiosis (Babesia microti) to man from the tick Ixodes persulcatus].

    PubMed

    Korenberg, E I; Nefedova, V V; Kovalevsky, Yu V; Sorokina, Yu V; Gorelova, N B

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of own and literature data, it is concluded that the following ma- in permanent system of ecologicalarasitological factors prevents the effective vector functions of the tick I. persulcatus in transmission of B. microti: lack of distinct nymphs' anthropophily; small spontaneous invasion of hungry adults; a duration of the parasitic phase in humans is insufficient to complete the sporogonic development, because victims interrupt the phase. Therefore, not excluding the possibility of sporadic babesiosis disea- ses, it can be stated that within the boundaries of a vast territory, where the taiga tick is the only potential source of infection for humans, the B. microti infection has not, and will not reach significant values in infectious pathology. PMID:26016332

  10. Gene Action and Cellular Function in Parasitic Protozoa Genomics and post-genomics in parasitology: genome babble or

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    of 300 million cases with 2400 million people at risk. Each of the parasitic protozoan diseases, African, with those for other protozoan parasites and worms being developed rapidly [1]. In the following I will restrict myself to discussion of the protozoan parasites in the main. The genomes of these parasites

  11. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 153 (2007) 115124 C-terminal proteolysis of prenylated proteins in trypanosomatids and RNA

    E-print Network

    Gelb, Michael

    2007-01-01

    major; Protein prenylation; Protein farnesyltransferase; Ras converting enzyme; A-factor converting in eukaryotic cells such as Ras superfamily GTPases [1,2]. For proteins with the C-terminal CaaX motif (where C proteins in trypanosomatids and RNA interference of enzymes required for the post-translational processing

  12. 8/21/01 Chapter for Molecular & Medical Parasitology J. Marr, T. Nilsen and R. Komuniecki, eds.

    E-print Network

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Complementing our ability to carry out reverse genetic manipulations has been the development of methods for `forward' genetics and functional genetic rescue. Lastly. Genetic and genomic approaches to the analysis of Leishmania virulence Stephen M. Beverley Department

  13. International Journal for Parasitology 28 (199%)2948 The global diversity of protozoa and other small species

    E-print Network

    ; ciliate; micro-organisms; speciesrichness; cosmopolitan; morphospecies; ubiquity; aggregate[I]; and with respectto the micro-organ- isms, the task is generally considered to he rather difficult [2-l. The fundamental problem with micro-organisms is that in many casesthere is only *E-mail: b

  14. 75 FR 39948 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; “Antiparasitic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...share their results with the veterinary parasitology community. FDA plans to survey scientists...veterinarians with expertise in veterinary parasitology using a web-based tool. The questions...disagreement within the veterinary parasitology community. The survey will query...

  15. Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard (Lyon 1658–Paris 1742): the inventor of the word “orthopaedics” and the father of parasitology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This is an historical essay about Nicolas Andry, a French medical doctor (Lyon 1658–Paris 1742) who wrote in 1741 the famous book called “L’orthopedie”, which was soon after translated into English (1742) “Orthopaedia or the art of correcting and preventing deformities in children”. His life and works are detailed as the containment of the book composed of two volumes and many engravings (the crooked tree has become the symbol of numerous orthopaedic societies around the world). A discussion of semantics (ORTHO-PEDIE) and evolution of the meaning of this word is also discussed. PMID:21804898

  16. Future challenges for parasitology: vector control and 'One health' in Europe: the veterinary medicinal view on CVBDs such as tick borreliosis, rickettsiosis and canine leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Mencke, Norbert

    2013-08-01

    The medical as well as the veterinary importance of parasitic arthropods or ectoparasites in general terms, is characterized by the primary or secondary impact on the health of humans and companion animals alike. The parasitic arthropods addressed here are those ectoparasites belong to the class of insects, such as fleas and sand flies, or the subclass of acarids, such as ticks. These parasitic arthropods interact intensively with their hosts by blood feeding. Fleas, sand flies and ticks hold the vector capacity to transmit pathogens such as virus, bacteria or protozoa to cats, dogs and humans. The diseases caused by these pathogens are summarized under the terms canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD), feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) or metazoonoses. In small animal practice, it is important to understand that the transmitted pathogen may either lead to a disease with clinical signs, or more often to asymptomatic, clinically healthy, or silent infections. Blocking of the vector-host interactions, the blood feeding and subsequently the transmission of pathogens during blood feeding is a key element of CVBD control. The focus of this review is on the current knowledge of the epidemiology of parasitic vectors and three important CVBDs they transmit; rickettsiosis, tick borreliosis and canine leishmaniosis from a European perspective, and how veterinary medicine may contribute to the challenges of CVBDs and their control. Prevention of CVBDs is fundamentally based on ectoparasite control. Ectoparasite management in cats and dogs is important not only for the health and well-being of the individual companion animal but for public health in general and is therefore a perfect example of the 'One health' approach. PMID:23680539

  17. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 48 (1991) 211 222 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved. / 0166-6851/91/$03.50

    E-print Network

    Simpson, Larry

    1991-01-01

    reaction amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast minicircle DNA isolated from whole blood lysates. Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast DNA in GEB lysate can be cleaved using the chemical nuclease, 1. Key words: Trypanosoma cruzi; Chagas' disease; Polymerase chain reaction; Xenodiagnosis; Kinetoplast

  18. [Investigation of anti-Toxocara canis IgG antibodies in patients presenting at The Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Department of Parasitology.].

    PubMed

    Yazar, Süleyman; Yaman, Ozan; Cetinkaya, Ulfet; Hamamci, Berna; Sahin, Izzet

    2010-01-01

    Human Toxocara canis infections are seen all over the world, especially in temperate and tropical climate regions. Dogs are known to be reservoir hosts in transmission of the disease. Because puppies are infected both transplacentally and by breast milk, they add huge amounts of eggs daily to the environment with their stools for months. It is known that the human is not a natural host of T. canis and larvae do not mature in the human body. However, after getting into the human they migrate through visceral tissues and act like a foreign body in the places where they come to rest. In this study, anti-T. canis IgG antibodies were investigated by ELISA in 61 (54.6%) males and 51 (45.5%) females making a total of 112 patients aged between 1 and 68 years (average:18.54+/-24.5) presenting at our laboratory from different services of our hospital. Anti T. canis IgG antibodies were found to be positive in 24 (21.4%) patients. PMID:20340083

  19. Molecular diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in tropical areas: a comparison of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction with parasitological methods.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana Martins de; Malta, Fernanda de Mello; Marques, Priscilla Duarte; Sitta, Renata Barnabé; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gryschek, Ronaldo César Borges; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis from stool samples in tropical areas. Stool samples were collected from individuals and were determined to be positive for Strongyloides stercoralis (group I), negative for S. stercoralis (group II) and positive for other enteroparasite species (group III). DNA specific to S. stercoralis was found in 76.7% of group I samples by cPCR and in 90% of group I samples by qPCR. The results show that molecular methods can be used as alternative tools for detecting S. stercoralis in human stool samples in tropical areas. PMID:25946255

  20. Molecular diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in tropical areas: a comparison of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction with parasitological methods

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Fabiana Martins; Malta, Fernanda de Mello; Marques, Priscilla Duarte; Sitta, Renata Barnabé; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gryschek, Ronaldo César Borges; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis from stool samples in tropical areas. Stool samples were collected from individuals and were determined to be positive for Strongyloides stercoralis (group I), negative for S. stercoralis (group II) and positive for other enteroparasite species (group III). DNA specific to S. stercoralis was found in 76.7% of group I samples by cPCR and in 90% of group I samples by qPCR. The results show that molecular methods can be used as alternative tools for detecting S. stercoralis in human stool samples in tropical areas. PMID:25946255

  1. Growth of bloodstream and procyclic T. brucei colonies on agarose plates Vern B. Carruthers & Kevin Tan, Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Rockefeller University.

    E-print Network

    Cross, George

    a suspension of low melting temperature agarose (Type VII, Sigma Cat. # A4018) in a tissue culture media bottle and growth of bloodstream forms in liquid culture (see separate protocol). I have successfully grown three or possibly antibodies (not tested). Vern's original protocol (A) Preparation of 2X HMI-9--Dissolve powdered

  2. Molecular and parasitological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bushehr province, southwest of the Islamic Republic of Iran: a cross-sectional study during 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, Mehdi; Darabi, Hossein; Hajjaran, Homa; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Fouladvand, Moradali; Charehdar, Soroor; Satvat, Mohammad Taghi; Pakbaz, Foroogh; Vahdat, Katayoun

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most important parasitic disease in Iran. CL is distributed among more than half of 31 provinces of Iran. Studies on epidemiological aspects of the disease and Leishmania species identification among infected humans are necessary for providing a comprehensive prevention and control program thus; this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all CL suspected patients who referred to Health Centers of Bushehr province from 2009 to 2012. Physical examinations were carried out in suspected individuals and CL cases were confirmed by microscopical examinations. Prepared slides from suspicious cases of CL were fixed with absolute methanol and stained by Giemsa 10 %. All the Giemsa-stained slides examined under a light microscope with high magnification (1,000×) and classified them based on grading of Leishmania parasites. DNA from each slide was extracted, separately. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 was amplified with specific primers and PCR products were digested by restrict enzymes (HaeIII), run them in 3 % gel agarose for electrophoresis and visualized on a UV transilluminator after staining with ethidium bromide. SPSS version 21 was used for data analyses. A total of 726 suspected CL cases were referred to Health Centers of Bushehr province from 2009 to 2012 and samples were only prepared from 188 of the patients whereas 43 (5.9 %) of them were microscopy positive. The most frequent of CL was observed in November (14 %) and December (12 %). The most distribution of CL lesions were observed on hands (32 %), feet (26 %), and face (21 %), respectively. The highest frequency of CL was observed in 1-9 years old (30 %). Altogether, 50 % of the patients showed one skin lesion and 2-10 skin lesions were occurred in the remained CL patients. Totally, 27 out of 43 (63 %) of the Giemsa stained slides were positive by PCR-RFLP assay because all the PCR-RFLP negative slides were prepared 3-4 years ago and kept without cover slip, and also observed scarce amastigotes during microscopy observations. Leishmania species were identified in 21 desirable slides which 14 of them were L. major and 7 of the remained isolates were identified L. tropica using PCR-RFLP. PMID:26345037

  3. Morphological diversity of Trichuris spp. eggs observed during an anthelminthic drug trial in Yunnan, China, and relative performance of parasitologic diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Du, Zun-Wei; Marti, Hanspeter; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    The presence of large Trichuris spp. eggs in human faecal samples is occasionally reported. Such eggs have been described as variant Trichuris trichiura or Trichuris vulpis eggs. Within the frame of a randomised controlled trial, faecal samples collected from 115 Bulang individuals from Yunnan, People's Republic of China were subjected to the Kato-Katz technique (fresh stool samples) and the FLOTAC and ether-concentration techniques (sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-fixed stool samples). Large Trichuris spp. eggs were noted in faecal samples with a prevalence of 6.1% before and 21.7% after anthelminthic drug administration. The observed prevalence of standard-sized T. trichiura eggs was reduced from 93.0% to 87.0% after treatment. Considerably more cases of large Trichuris spp. eggs and slightly more cases with normal-sized T. trichiura eggs were identified by FLOTAC compared to the ether-concentration technique. No large Trichuris spp. eggs were observed on the Kato-Katz thick smears. PMID:25174679

  4. Molecular and Parasitological Survey of Bovine Piroplasms in the Black Sea Region, Including the First Report of Babesiosis Associated with Babesia divergens in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktas, M; Ozubek, S

    2015-11-01

    Clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites was determined in cattle. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. In addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. Egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. DNA isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for Babesia and Theileria by reverse line blot assay. Piroplasms compatible with Babesia spp. were observed microscopically for symptomatic cattle as circular, oval, elongated, or pear-shaped bodies. Parasitemia ranged from 0.08 to 0.9% for Babesia bovis, 2.5 to 15.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 7.4% for Babesia divergens. Reverse line blot showed positivity in 13 (13%) of the sampled clinically normal cattle and revealed the presence of three Babesia species. Babesia bovis was the most prevalent (9/100, 9%), followed by Babesia occultans (3/100, 3%) and B. bigemina (1/100, 1%). One animal infected with B. bigemina was also infected with B. bovis. The single animal infected with B. divergens showed symptoms of babesiosis. Ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, and Ixodes ricinus. One female R. annulatus and its egg mass were infected with B. bigemina. Neither Theileria annulata nor Theileria buffeli/orientalis infections were observed in cattle or ticks. This is the first report of clinical babesiosis caused by B. divergens in cattle from Turkey. PMID:26336265

  5. Immunological and parasitological parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with crude extract from the leaves of Mentha x piperita L.

    PubMed

    Dejani, Naiara N; Souza, Laís C; Oliveira, Sandra R P; Neris, Débora M; Rodolpho, Joice M A; Correia, Ricardo O; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Sacramento, Luis V S; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

    2014-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by an intravascular trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the drug used for treatment of schistosomiasis; nevertheless failure of treatment has been reported. Consequently, the identification of new effective schistosomicidal compounds is essential to ensure the effective control of schistosomiasis in the future. In this work we investigated the immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of the crude leaves extract of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Female Balb/c mice were infected each with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and divided into three experimental groups: (I) untreated; (II) treated daily with M. x piperita L. (100mg/kg) and III) treated on 1/42/43 days post-infection with Praziquantel (500mg/kg). Another group with uninfected and untreated mice was used as a control. Subsequently, seven weeks post-infection, S. mansoni eggs were counted in the feces, liver and intestine. Worms were recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system and counted. Sera levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-?, IgG1, IgE and IgG2a were assayed by ELISA. Animals treated with a daily dose of M. x piperita L. showed increased sera levels of IL-10, IFN-?, IgG2a and IgE. Besides, M. x piperita L. treatment promoted reduction in parasite burden by 35.2% and significant decrease in egg counts in the feces and intestine. PMID:24767421

  6. Experimental Parasitology 94, 201207 (2000) doi:10.1006/expr.2000.4489, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-print Network

    2000-01-01

    We report here the cloning of Tc-cpz-1, a cysteine protease gene1997, Engel et al. 1998; Ward et al Toxocara canis that has a high level of identity (59%) with human 1 The nucleotide sequence of Tc-cpz-1 has-4894/00 $35.00 201Copyright 2000 by Academic Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. #12

  7. Parasitological examination for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at Año Nuevo State Reserve, California (2012).

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Kuzmina, T A; Spraker, T R; Jaggi, N; Costa, D P; Crocker, D E; Tolliver, S C; Tift, M S

    2012-10-01

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris Gill, 1866), inhabiting rookeries on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve in central California, were investigated in 2012 for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.). Material collected and examined for hookworms included: blubber (n = 15), stomach and intestines (n = 21) from dead pups; feces from the rectum of weaned pups (n = 23); sand containing apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 28) and sand without apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 54); milk from females (n =23) at 5 days and about 23 to 26 days postpartum; and placenta from one female. Evidence of hookworm presence was not detected in any of the samples examined. Possible reasons why hookworms were not found in northern elephant seals on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve are discussed. PMID:22543700

  8. Fish Health Assessment of Glass Eels from Canadian Maritime Rivers

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    . Wadowska, T. Maynard and L. Blimke Aquatic Diagnostic Services, Atlantic Veterinary College Ontario Power Generation Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Atlantic Veterinary College Kleinschimidt Associates Project) with 170 for parasitology & 170 for pooled tests Parasitology - Gross and histologic examination for swim

  9. Molecular Diversity of Entodiniomorphid Ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti and Its Coevolution With

    E-print Network

    3 Department of Pathological Morphology and Parasitology, University of Veterinary of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA 17 Biology Center, Institute of Parasitology 15 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, 753

  10. EMBARGOED 4 SEPTEMBER 2012 AT 00.01 CST Scientists uncover a hotbed of marine life in

    E-print Network

    from the Australian Society for Parasitology. All these collections are available to the scientificDepartment of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne, Australia 3Department of Zoology, Natural History of Parasitology, Biology Centre, A

  11. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ricardo Esteban Grtler

    E-print Network

    .D. 1988 Population Ecology, Epidemiology, Parasitology RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: Employment, Argentina. 1983-90. Teaching and research assistant, General Parasitology. Department of Biological Sciences-). Adjunct Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2006

  12. Phylogenetic analyses suggest lateral gene transfer from the mitochondrion to the apicoplast

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    for Biotechnology, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium d Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary Meyere , Julius Lukesa,b a Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branisovska´ 31, 370 05

  13. Tetratrichomonads from the oral cavity and respiratory tract of humans

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary and Farmaceutical University, Palacke´ho 1-3, Brno. CEPICKA1 , J. FLEGR1 , B. KOUDELA2 , J. TERAS3 and J. TACHEZY1 * 1 Department of Parasitology, Faculty

  14. Cryptic species within the Tetratrichomonas gallinarum species complex revealed by molecular polymorphism$

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    and liver of domestic fowl and www.elsevier.com/locate/vetpar Veterinary Parasitology 128 (2005) 11 of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7, Prague 2 128 44, Czech Republic Received 31

  15. 78 FR 12323 - Announcement of the Re-Approval of the Commission on Office Laboratory Accreditation (COLA) as an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Act. We issued a final rule implementing the accreditation provisions of CLIA on July 31, 1992 (57 FR..., Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General..., Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology,...

  16. Original Paper Vet. Med. Czech, 49, 2004 (3): 7074 Synanthropic rodents, particularly those living

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    , Z. M2 , A. M1 1 Department of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Croatia 2 Croatian Veterinary Institute, Zagreb, Croatia ABSTRACT: A parasitological infec- tions with sex and age of rats. Parasitological survey of rats in rural regions of Croatia D. S1

  17. 76 FR 29762 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... veterinary parasitology community. FDA plans to survey scientists and veterinarians with expertise in veterinary parasitology using a Web-based tool. The questions in the survey are designed to elicit expert opinions and clarify areas of agreement and disagreement within the veterinary parasitology community....

  18. 75 FR 39948 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; “Antiparasitic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    .... FDA will also share their results with the veterinary parasitology community. FDA plans to survey scientists and veterinarians with expertise in veterinary parasitology using a web-based tool. The questions... within the veterinary parasitology community. The survey will query subjects on topics such as:...

  19. Heidi Wyrosdick M.S. Candidate

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    in different management systems in Tennessee. Veterinary Parasitology 57 (1995): 289-297. http results Descriptive/Comparative analysis of genotypes Acknowledgments Aly Chapman: Parasitology Lab Life cycle courtsey of Greg Schweiger Photos of parasite stages courtsy of UTCVM: Parasitology Lab

  20. THE West African Dwarf (WAD) goat is the indigenous breed in the humid and sub-humid zones of West Africa. It is of

    E-print Network

    Nottingham, University of

    contortus B.B. FAKAE, S. N. CHIEJINA, Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, U.K., R.C. EZEOKONKWO, Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology of Nigeria, Nsukka, W.I.ONYENWE, Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, University of Nigeria

  1. Class Schedule: Year II Exams Labs Information Sessions WCVM: 2014-2015 AMD143 09-Mar-15 3:39 PM 1 / 37

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    :00 am 9:30 am Rm 2302 VTMC 336 Veterinary Parasitology #1 Introduction Rm 2302 VLAC 310 Animal Management and Production II #1 Poultry 1 Rm 2302 VTMC 336 Veterinary Parasitology #2 Helminth Biology Rm-based Medicine #2 Evidence-based Medicine 2 Rm 2302 VTMC 336 Veterinary Parasitology #3 Arthropod Biology 12

  2. TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.18 No.6 June 2002 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/02/$ see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(02)02268-7

    E-print Network

    Hartl, Daniel L.

    include women during pregnancy and non-immune travelers, refugees, displaced persons and migrant laborers-SaharanAfrica, amounting to 1.5­2.7 million deaths each year, primarily of children under the age of five years [1 in African children is cerebral malaria caused by the parasitic protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. Endemic

  3. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. Experimental Parasitology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of MontanideTM ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, ...

  4. C. DELAYE,* L. BhATI,? A. AESCHLIMANNJ F. RENAWIt* and T. DE MEEth*$ *Laboratoire de Parasitologic CornpaGe, UMR 5.555 CNRS Universiti Montpellier II, CC 105,

    E-print Network

    Beati, Lorenza

    -borne encephalitis virus, rick.ettsiae,piroplasmosis and &w- reliu burgdorferi (Lymbediseaseagent), the latter being- chlimann, 1981).For example, the natural foci of tick- borne encephalitis in Switzerland are restricted- tified as a tick-borne encephalitis focus (de Marval

  5. 528 Parasitology Today, vol. 16, no. 12, 20000169-4758/00/$ see front matter 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S0169-4758(00)01776-2 28 Beattie, P. et al. (1999) Strengthening Health Research in the

    E-print Network

    Paterson, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S0169-4758(00)01776-2 28 Beattie, P. et al. (1999) Global Tuberculosis Control. WHO Report 2000 (WHO/CDS/TB/2000.275), WHO 41 Rigau-Pérez, J.G. et al. (1998 among African children. Parasitol. Today 15, 99­104 45 Smith, D.H. et al. (1998) Human African

  6. A parasitological survey, in rural Zanzibar, of pre-school children and their mothers for urinary schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases and malaria, with observations on the prevalence of anaemia.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Figueiredo, J C; Basáñez, M-G; Mgeni, A F; Khamis, I S; Rollinson, D; Stothard, J R

    2008-12-01

    'Kick-out-Kichocho' is an integrated helminth-control initiative that is aimed at reducing the burden of urinary schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) on Zanzibar Island (Unguja), in Tanzania. Like other initiatives based on preventive chemotherapy, the programme is mainly school-based and, consequently, pre-school children (aged < or =6 years) are not targeted specifically. To assess the importance of urinary schistosomiasis, STH and malaria, as well as the occurrence of anaemia and growth retardation among these younger children, an epidemiological survey has been undertaken, in a rural area of Unguja, among 152 pre-school children and their 113 mothers. In the pre-school children investigated, urinary schistosomiasis was rare because of the children's lack of contact with environmental water. Malaria was also rare in the children, probably as a consequence of the study season, the widespread use of insecticide-treated bednets and the good access to first-line antimalarial drugs. In contrast, the prevalences of infection with at least one soil-transmitted helminth and of anaemia were alarmingly high among the pre-school children, at 50.0% [95% confidence interval (CI)=40.4%-59.6%) and 73.4% (CI=?65.2%-80.5%), respectively; the corresponding values in the children's mothers were 35.2% (CI=25.4%-45.9%) and 25.9% (CI=18.0%-35.3%). In the rural study area, Kandwi was identified as a hamlet with particularly high levels of transmission of soil-transmitted helminths, and household aggregations of STH were common. To reduce the present health inequities, the future integration of pre-school children within ongoing anthelmintic-control programmes in schools is strongly recommended. PMID:19000385

  7. Menachery, A., Kremer, C., Wong, P.E., Carlsson, A., Neale, S.L., Barrett, M.P., and Cooper, J.M. (2012) Counterflow dielectrophoresis for

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    .K., 2 Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences Sir Graeme Davies Building, 120 University Place

  8. http://cls.sfsu.edu/ Clinical Laboratory

    E-print Network

    (forensics, fertility, veterinary) Biotechnology (product research/development, data analysis, quality, hemostasis, bacteriology parasitology, mycology, chemistry, blood banking, urinalysis, and laboratory

  9. Researcharticle The Impact of Mutation and Gene Conversion on the Local

    E-print Network

    Cobbold, Christina

    , College of Medical, Veterinary, and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom 4 Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation

  10. Boise State University Evaluation for Graduation

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    biology majors. Those interested in medical, dental, pharmacy, veterinary school and students pursuing Bacteriology BIOL 344 Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory BIOL 412 General Parasitology BIOL 415 Applied

  11. Molecular & Cell Biology Geosciences

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Geography Anthropology Computer Imaging Agriculture Parasitology Dentistry Dermatology Rheumatology Applied Neuroscience Orthopedics Veterinary Environmental Health iit.edu/csl In this Issue: CONNECTIONS Winter 2012 #12

  12. Harp CV p.1 of 5 Elizabeth (Liz) Mari Harp

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Charles W.

    research integrates parasitology, evolutionary biology, and ecological genetics to investigate parasite Dissertation Improvement Grant $14,476 2008 American Society of Veterinary Parasitologists Travel Grant $500

  13. DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS Dis Aquat Org

    E-print Network

    Raymundo, Laurie

    , New York 14853, USA 3 Department of Microbiology, Pathology and Parasitology, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA ABSTRACT: The results

  14. Revisiting the diffusion approximation to estimate evolutionary rates of gene family diversification

    E-print Network

    Cobbold, Christina

    and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom e Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Infection, Immunity

  15. DEGREES OFFERED M.S.inMicrobiology

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    & Professor, Veterinary Molecular Biology, Ph.D., Washington State University, 1986.Inflamma- tory disease, parasitology, hematology. DepartmentofMicrobiologycontinued AlgirdasJesaitis,Professor, Ph.D., Cali

  16. Montana State University 1 Microbiology and

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    . These include the Microbiology Track, the Pre-Medical Track, the Pre-Veterinary Track, the Environmental Track fields including immunology, medical bacteriology, virology parasitology, hematology, mycology

  17. MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR HELMINTH PARASITES V

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    Strongyloides 11:30 John Gilleard, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Developing Haemonchus contortus as a model:40 Christoph Grevelding, Institute for Parasitology. Signaling molecules involved in gonad differentiation

  18. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2008.1718 , 1657-1663 first published online 20 January 20092762009Proc. R. Soc. B

    E-print Network

    Hutchens, John

    for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, 680 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA 3 School of Veterinary ecological and parasitological research on the diversity­ disease relationship. Keywords: schistosomiasis

  19. Improving health worldwide Our Mission 7

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    Entomology for Disease Control 32 Medical Microbiology 33 Medical Parasitology 34 Medical Statistics 35 Research 48 Tropical Medicine & International Health 49 Veterinary Epidemiology 50 Master's Degrees

  20. Edinburgh Research Explorer Discovery of mating in the major African livestock pathogen

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre Biomedical Research Centre, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 3 Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool

  1. Transmission consequences of coinfection: cytokines writ large?

    E-print Network

    , Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK 2 Division of Animal Production and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of coinfection have recently been reviewed [14,15] and debated [16­18] in Trends in Parasitology, and detailed innate and adaptive responses to infection [24]. Cytokines Review TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.23

  2. Immunisation of mice against neosporosis Anna Lundena,*, Stephen Wrightb

    E-print Network

    Allen, Judith

    , David Buxtonb a Department of Parasitology (SWEPAR), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and National Veterinary Institute, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden b Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Neospora caninum

  3. Inrernational Journa/.for Parasilology, Vol. 27, No. II, pp. 1383-1387, 1997 (0 1997 Ausfraban Society for Parasmlogy. Pubbshed by Elsevm Science Ltd

    E-print Network

    Blouin, Michael S.

    , College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0880, U.S.A. (Received 6 Mav Journalfor Parasitology 27: 1383-1387. Debates continue over the extent to which the parasitic. 0 1997 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Efsevier Science Ltd. Key words: Haemonchus

  4. More News from Research Week Congratulations to Manushree Bharadwaj, BVSc, on

    E-print Network

    the Bayer Resident in Veterinary Parasitology at the National Center for Veterinary Parasitology Nancy Trompler, Veterinary Medical Hospital basement You can also email your order to Kate Gault ('17) at kgault@okstate.edu. Veterinary Voices Seminar Lindsay Starkey, DVM, will present "Fleas and Ticks

  5. Leishmania major: Promastigotes Induce Expression of a Subset of Chemokine Genes in Murine Macrophages

    E-print Network

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    macrophages. Experimental Parasitology 85, 283­295. Recent studies suggest that Leishmania major promastigotes of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca NY 14853-6401. Fax: (607) 253-3384. E-mail: elr3@cornell.edu. EXPERIMENTAL PARASITOLOGY 85, 283­295 (1997) ARTICLE NO. PR964139 283 0014-4894/97 $25.00 Copyright © 1997

  6. Spatial scaling laws do not structure strongyloid nematode communities in macropodid hosts

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    , Dunedin 9054, New Zealand b Veterinary Clinical Centre, University of Melbourne, Princes Highway, Werribee biological traits. Ó 2008 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights. 0020-7519/$34.00 Ó 2008 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Edinburgh Research Explorer Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, vol 4, no. 2, pp. 244- 51., 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2015.04.006 Digital Object Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife Publisher Rights Statement: This is an open access Veterinary Services Department, Kenya Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 40241-00100, Nairobi, Kenya d The Roslin

  8. VETPAR-3893; No of Pages 12 Spatial distribution of acaricide profiles (Boophilus microplus

    E-print Network

    Chowell, Gerardo

    , the agent, and the environment. In parasitology, this paradigm translates as the ability of the agent to be susceptible or resistant to acaricides, outcome that may www.elsevier.com/locate/vetpar Veterinary Parasitology xxx (2007) xxx­xxx * Corresponding author at: Universidad Auto´noma de Yucata´n, Facultad de

  9. Phi Zeta Research Day The Nu Chapter of The Society of Phi Zeta recently

    E-print Network

    Resident in Veterinary Parasitology at the National Center for Veterinary Parasitology, which is housed and Ashlea Wulf. Thanks to this year's sponsors Royal Canin, Zoetis and OSU's Center for Veterinary Health Sciences (read more here: http://cvhs.okstate.edu/NODE/870). Veterinary Biomedical Sciences PhD Defense

  10. Mixed Giardia duodenalis assemblage A and E infections in calves T. Geurden a,*, P. Geldhof a

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium b, B-9052 Ghent, Belgium c Department of Veterinary Epidemiology, Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical as a potential zoonotic reservoir for human infections. Ó 2007 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published

  11. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-print Network

    Rohr, Jason

    , USA c Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State parasitological survey of six newt populations. We estimated ages from snout-vent length (SVL) based of at least some parasites. Ó 2008 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Detection of mosquito-only flaviviruses in Europe Mattia Calzolari,1

    E-print Network

    Figuerola, Jordi

    and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA), Woodham Lane, Surrey, KT15 3NB, UK 6 Institute of Parasitology de Moura, Portugal 3 Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of Diputacio´n Provincial de Huelva, Andaluci´a, Spain 8 Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency

  13. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41(3), 2005, pp. 615617 Wildlife Disease Association 2005

    E-print Network

    Gompper, Matthew E.

    , USA; 2 New York State Animal Health Diagnostic Center, Parasitology Section, College of Veterinary A Serological and Fecal Parasitologic Survey of the Critically Endangered Pygmy Raccoon (Procyon pygmaeus, Virology Section, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA; 4 Depart- ment

  14. Research Focus An Australian network to support the understanding

    E-print Network

    McFadden, Geoff

    University, Victoria 3086, Australia 3 School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Division of Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Research Network for Parasitology will focus and coordinate the fundamental, strategic and applied parasitology research in Australia. It will raise the standing of Australia

  15. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 23(4), 1987, pp. 693-697 Wildlife Disease Association 1987

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    ,' Robert P. Kwapien, and John R. Porch,2 1 Department of Pathology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary egrets (Bubulcus ibis ibis) collected for a parasitologic survey in Ceneva County, A!- abama, numerous- tioned in veterinary medical literature, it should be of practical value to practic- ing zoo and wildlife

  16. Original Article Folia Primatol 2013;84:102114

    E-print Network

    Fedigan, Linda M.

    Linda M. Fedigana Susan J. Kutzb a Department of Anthropology, and b Faculty of Veterinary Medicine · Filariopsis · Strongyloides Abstract Neotropical primate parasitology has been dominated by studies of howler the most intensive parasitological survey of wild capuchin monkeys to date. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG

  17. Congratulations, Dr. Confer! Anthony Confer, DVM, MS, PhD, DACVP, ('72)

    E-print Network

    in Veterinary Parasitology at the National Center for Veterinary Parasitology housed here at OSU. Publication in cattle (full story). Veterinary Parasitologists in the News Congratulations to Anne Barrett, PhD, and Alice Lee, DVM, on being recognized at the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists meeting

  18. Molecular phylogeny of Trichomonadidae family inferred from ITS-1, 5.8S rRNA and ITS-2 sequences

    E-print Network

    Eizirik, Eduardo

    at lower taxonomic levels, and at least up to the family level. q 2004 Australian Society for Parasitology symbiotic--parasitic or commensal flagellates--and include species of medical and veterinary importance belonging to 0020-7519/$30.00 q 2004 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Edinburgh Research Explorer The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    ' International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, vol 4, no. 3, 127, pp. 333-342., 10.1016/j pdf) Published In: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife Publisher Rights, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG

  20. Nematology—Status and Prospects: Let's Take Off Our Blinders and Broaden Our Horizons

    PubMed Central

    Van Gundy, Seymour D.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of current fundamental nematological research and teaching in agriculture, soil zoology, biology and medicine, and parasitology are explored as they relate to the Society of Nematologists and the science of nematology in its broadest sense. PMID:19300689

  1. Research Programmes www.glasgow.ac.uk/researchinstitutes/iii

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    and translational medicine Our priority research areas are Immunology and Inflammation, Virology, Parasitology translational immunology to clinical research. Our research strengths include cellular immunology with a focus therapeutic agents from AZ, facilitate the translation of basic research insights from i

  2. More than meets the eye: detecting cryptic microgeographic population structure in a parasite

    E-print Network

    Blouin, Michael S.

    ´tica, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Galicia, Spain, Laboratorio de Parasitologi´a, Universidad be iso- lated geographically and isolated among definitive hosts (where there is parasite sexual

  3. Useful UCLA Faculty Research Websites UCLA ACCESS Graduate Program Faculty Website

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    & Computational Biology; Molecular Parasitology; Neurobiology; Plant Molecular Biology; Stem Cell BiologyUseful UCLA Faculty Research Websites · UCLA ACCESS Graduate Program Faculty Website: http and Medical Pharmacology; Microbiology Immunology and Molecular Genetics; Molecular, Cell, and Developmental

  4. CURRICULUM VITAE Scott D. Snyder

    E-print Network

    Snyder, Scott D.

    . Sloan Foundation Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Molecular Evolution. University of New Mexico. 1996 the oblong turtle, Chelodina oblonga, (Pleurodira: Chelidae) in Western Australia. Comparative Parasitology, Camallanidae) from freshwater turtles (Pleurodira: Chelidae), in the Kimberley, Western Australia. Comparative

  5. CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS, Oct. 2002, p. 595612 Vol. 15, No. 4 0893-8512/02/$04.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/CMR.15.4.595612.2002

    E-print Network

    Davis, Richard E.

    ....................................................................................................604 South American Trypanosomiasis: Chagas' Disease.1128/CMR.15.4.595­612.2002 Copyright © 2002, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. History of Human Parasitology F. E. G. Cox* Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School

  6. Montana State University 1 Livestock Management &

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    12 credits AGSC 341 Field Crop Prod 3 AGSC 342 Forages 3 ANSC 410 Veterinary Entomology and Parasitology 3 ANSC 418 Topics in Beef Nutrition 2 ANSC 421 Assisted Reproduction Technologies w/ Lab 4 BIOM

  7. Upstream-downstream gradient in infection levels by fish parasites: a common river pattern?

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    , University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand 2 Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Academy of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (Received 16 June 2012

  8. Montana State University 1 Equine Science Option

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    NRSM 235 Range and Pasture Monitoring 1 Equine Science Electives Take 2 courses ANSC 410 Veterinary Entomology and Parasitology 3 EQUS 327 Equine Lameness 3 EQUS 346 Equine Reproductive Management 4 EQUS 424

  9. 1. Awarding institution University of London 2. Teaching institution The Royal Veterinary College (University of

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    1. Awarding institution University of London 2. Teaching institution The Royal Veterinary College, training in microbiology, parasitology and pathology. Other requirements: Applicants whose first language populations and veterinary interventions in wildlife (including social, welfare, ethical and legal aspects

  10. MFR PAPER 1299 Ornamental Fish: Diseases and Problems

    E-print Network

    for presence of parasites, bacteria, and viruses; 77 bags of fish were examined. METHODS Parasitological Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Marine Fisheries Review

  11. MICROBIOLOGY/IMMUNOLOGY OPTION College of Science, Bachelor of Science in Biological Sciences, Microbiology/Immunology Option

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, William A.

    provide a strong background for those who plan to enter the public health, medical, or veterinary fields-Immunology (F and S) and BIOL 4714-Immunology Lab (S) BIOL 3454 Introductory Parasitology (Lab included

  12. BioMed Central Page 1 of 9

    E-print Network

    Keeling, Patrick

    , Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, USDA/ARS, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA and 3Department of Pathology, Division of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461

  13. Cyclic AMP effectors in African trypanosomes revealed by genome-scale RNAi1 library screening for resistance to the phosphodiesterase inhibitor Cpd A2

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    of Medical, Veterinary & Life13 Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, United Kingdom14 2 for Molecular Parasitology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow,21 UK22 Copyright © 2013, American Society

  14. Worms take to the slo lane: a perspective on the mode of action of emodepside

    E-print Network

    GmbH, GDD-AH-PARA-AR, 6700 Monheim, Germany G. von Samson-Himmelstjerna Institute for Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universita¨t Berlin, Ko¨nigsweg 67, 14163 Berlin, Germany 123 Invert

  15. Year 1, Fall Semester Course Number Course Title Credits

    E-print Network

    Year 1, Fall Semester Course Number Course Title Credits VMED 7114 Veterinary Physiology I......................................4 VMED 7113 Veterinary Physiology II.....................................3 VMED 7123 Histology VMED 7221 Evidence Based Medicine & Epidemiology.......1 VMED 7223 Parasitology I

  16. Tetracycline treatment and sex-ratio distortion: a role for Wolbachia in the moulting of filarial nematodes?

    E-print Network

    Werren, John H.

    of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA c Dipartimento di Produzione Animale for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Nematode moult; Filariasis

  17. DETECTION OF SPIRORCHIID TREMATODES IN GASTROPOD TISSUES BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION: PRELIMINARY IDENTIFICATION OF AN INTERMEDIATE HOST OF

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    . Jacobson College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100136, Gainesville, Florida 32610 unsuccessful (Greiner et al., 1980; Dailey et al., 1992). Classical parasitological methods for intermediate

  18. Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    , Buenos Aires, Argentina 2 Instituto Nacional de Parasitologi´a ``Dr. Mario Fatala Chaben'', Paseo Colo of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL

  19. Short communication A new vesicular compartment in Encephalitozoon cuniculi

    E-print Network

    Keeling, Patrick

    , Division of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park The microsporidia are emerging human and veterinary pathogens known to infect every tissue type and organ system

  20. , 201221292802013Proc. R. Soc. B Erida Gjini, Daniel T. Haydon, J. D. Barry and Christina A. Cobbold

    E-print Network

    Cobbold, Christina

    , Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, 3 The Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health, and 4 Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology

  1. www.glasgow.ac.uk/vet/scottishcentreforproductionanimalhealthfoodsafety Scottish Centre for

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    Parasitology Veterinary Public Policy Professor David Logue BVM&S PhD DipECBHM FRCVS David Postgraduate Training Programmes ·Residencytrainingprogrammesfordiplomasfrom ECBHMandECVPH ·ModularCPDprogramme:ReproductionVeterinary,on-farmhealthconsultancyandconsultancytogovernment, pharmaceuticalandlivestockindustries,aswellasundertakingbasicandappliedresearchin farmanimalandpublichealth.WearebasedwithintheSchoolofVeterinary

  2. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 0019-9567/00/$04.00 0

    E-print Network

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    HERRERA,1 JOSEPH ALROY,2 JEFFREY B. MOORE,3 STEPHEN M. BEVERLEY,4 AND MIERCIO A. PEREIRA1 * Parasitology, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, and New England Medical Center,2 Boston, Massachusetts

  3. Feature Review The heart of darkness: growth and

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK 4 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti of parasitology, was originally drawn to incorporate observations made using electron microscopy, the next stage

  4. Predictors of Parasitism in Wild White-Faced Capuchins (Cebus capucinus)

    E-print Network

    Fedigan, Linda M.

    for primate parasitology, suggesting that host­parasite interactions, and subsequently infection risk, may Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada #12;Introduction

  5. Dr. Ramaswamy Returns from Sabbatical in India Where He Aims to Eradicate Lymphatic Filariasis Dr. Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram recently returned from a five-month sabbatical in his homeland of India where he

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    of Veterinary Parasitology, The American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, the Federation of American Association of the University of Illinois and the Distinguished Alumni Award from the College of Veterinary

  6. Collaborative Report Accelerated Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine, Year 1, 2013/14

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    Collaborative Report Accelerated Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine, Year 1, 2013/14 Professor Tony.2% (Parasitology). We are comfortable with some parts of our assessment being innately (by virtue of their format

  7. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-print Network

    Ruan, Shigui

    and Public Health, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33177, USA c LUCINDA Group, Veterinary Clinical Science Tropicales, Departamento de Parasitologi´a, Facultad de Microbiologi´a, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose

  8. Uptake of Diamidine Drugs by the P2 Nucleoside Transporter in Melarsen-sensitive and -resistant Trypanosoma brucei brucei*

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    ) Nicola S. Carter, Bradley J. Berger§, and Alan H. Fairlamb¶ From the Department of Medical Parasitology of these drugs was markedly reduced. African trypanosomiasis continues to be a major public health and veterinary

  9. Boise State University Evaluation for Graduation

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    , pharmacy, veterinary school and students pursuing the Molecular and Cell Biology emphasis should take CHEM 412 General Parasitology BIOL 415 Applied and Environmental Microbiology BIOL 420 Immunology BOT 330

  10. Anna Murrell Susan J. Dobson Xiaoye Yang Ernest Lacey Stephen C. Barker

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    of medical and veterinary importance. This sort of work has been particularly common for ticks (see Sparagano.C. Barker Department of Microbiology and Parasitology and Institute for Molecular Bioscience, ARC Special

  11. EPIFLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY AND SOLID PHASE CYTOMETRY AS CONFIRMATORY METHODS FOR THE ENUMERATION OF PROTOZOA BY FLOW CYTOMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of infective protozoan parasites contained in large volume environmental samples represents a unique challenge in environmental parasitology. Compounding this problem is the fact that infective stages of many protozoan parasites do not readily replicate in media or ...

  12. August 2012 Volume 9, Issue 2

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    in the Department of Zoology, Professor Pratt taught and conducted research in invertebrate zoology and parasitology. Su Sponaugle, a Professor in OSU's Department of Zoology and Dr. Cowen's wife. Her position includes

  13. Do bot flies, Cuterebra (Diptera: Cuterebridae), emasculate their hosts?

    E-print Network

    Timm, Robert M.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    1981-07-31

    Asa Fitch, in his description of a new species of Cuterebra that he named, "emasculator," was the first to suggest that bot flies castrated their mammalian hosts. In recent years, several major review papers and parasitology texts have continued...

  14. Inhibition of Toxoplasma gondii Replication by Dinitroaniline Herbicides THOMAS J. W. STOKKERMANS,* JOSEPH D. SCHWARTZMAN,* KAREN KEENAN,

    E-print Network

    Morrissette, Naomi

    Inhibition of Toxoplasma gondii Replication by Dinitroaniline Herbicides THOMAS J. W. STOKKERMANS of Toxoplasma gondii replication by dinitroaniline herbicides. Experimental Parasitology 84, 355­370. Submicromolar concentrations of several dinitroaniline herbicides have been found to specifically inhibit

  15. Introduction to symposium: Arthropods and wildlife conservation: synergy in complex biological systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symposium will discuss the effects of arthropods and other stressors on wildlife conservation programs. Speakers with affiliations in wildlife biology, parasitology and entomology will be included in the program. Research of national and international interest will be presented....

  16. COCCIDIAN PARASITES (APICOMPLEXA: EUCOCCIDORIDA) IN HARDY HEAD FISH, ATHERINOMORUS CAPRICORNENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Authors describe coccidian merozoites (asexual stages) in theexocrine pancreas and oocysts in the gut epithelium of hardy heads,(Woodland) (family Atherinidae) collected at Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, during the pre-ICOPA (International Congress of Parasitology) workshop...

  17. Prevalence and abundance of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia spp. in wild rural rodents from the Mazury Lake

    E-print Network

    Nottingham, University of

    . GILBERT# and E. SINSKI" " Department of Parasitology, Institute of Zoology, University of Warszawa, ul. Miecznikowa 1, Warszawa 02­096, Poland # School of Life and Enviromental Sciences, University Park, University

  18. Variation in the helminth community structure in spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus) from four montane wadis in the

    E-print Network

    Nottingham, University of

    , Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK 2 Department of Parasitology, Institute of Zoology, University of Warszawa, ul. Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warszawa, Poland 3 Department of Zoology, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

  19. 25 years of African trypanosome research: From description to molecular dissection and new drug discovery???

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    The Molecular Parasitology conference was first held at the Marine Biological laboratory, Woods Hole, USA 25 years ago. Since that first meeting, the conference has evolved and expanded but has remained the showcase for the latest research developments in molecular parasitology. In this perspective, I reflect on the scientific discoveries focussed on African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei spp.) that have occurred since the inaugural MPM meeting and discuss the current and future status of research on these parasites. PMID:25736427

  20. The potential of latent class analysis in diagnostic test validation for canine Leishmania infantum infection.

    PubMed Central

    Boelaert, M.; Aoun, K.; Liinev, J.; Goetghebeur, E.; Van der Stuyft, P.

    1999-01-01

    Accuracy assessment of diagnostic tests may be seriously biased if an imperfect reference test is used such as parasitology in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. We compared classical validity analysis of serological tests for Leishmania infantum with Latent Class Analysis (LCA), to assess whether it circumvented the gold standard problem. Clinical status, three serological tests (IFAT, ELISA and DAT) and parasitological data were recorded for 151 dogs captured in an endemic area. Sensitivity and specificity estimates from the 2x2 contingency tables were broadly corroborated by LCA, but the latter method provided more precise estimates that were robust for the different fitted models. It furthermore yielded a higher prevalence of infection and indicated that parasitology was only 55% sensitive. LCA seems a promising technique for test validation, but caution is required when applying it to sparse data sets. The feasibility and applicability of LCA in infectious disease epidemiology is discussed. PMID:10694163

  1. Special Publication No. 3, Ticks And Tickborne Diseases, III. Checklist Of Families, Genera, Species, And Subspecies Of Ticks 

    E-print Network

    Doss, Mildred A.; Anastos, George

    1977-01-01

    +-5 (Parasitology, v. 6 (2)) I913 : Haemaphysalis aciculifer rugosa Santos Dias, J. ?. ?., (1956L), 5?8, fig. U (Mem. Estud. Mus. Zool. Univ. Coimbra (2l+2)) 1956 : Haemaphysalis acinus Whittick, R. J., (1938A), 333-338, figs. 1-7 (Parasitology, v. 30 (3...)) 1938 : Ornithodoros delanoei 1953 : Alveonasus (A.) (Pospelova-Shtrom, M. V., Or- nithodorinae Ticks..., table l) 1966 : Ornithodoros (Sonenshine, D. ?. , Clifford, C. ?., & Kohls, G. J., Ann. Entom. Soc. Am., v. 59 (l), p. 95) aculeata Lavarra, L...

  2. Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis: current and future

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    , these drugs arose as a result of research and development for veterinary or anticancer indications, and only in Parasitology N O N Na+- O3S Na+- O3S SO3 - Na+ CH3 N N NH N SO3 - Na+ SO3 - Na+Na+- O3SCH3 O O O O H HH H H O O.h.fairlamb@dundee.ac.uk). Review TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.19 No.11 November 2003488 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/$ - see

  3. Intracellular levels of the viral symbiont CPV in Cryptosporidium parvum correlate with fecundity of the parasite in dairy calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports have cited differences in clinical signs and oocyst output among strains of Cryptosporidium parvum. The purpose of this study was to determine if levels of the C. parvum intracellular viral symbiont CPV correlated with observed clinical and parasitological differences. Calves infe...

  4. Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using

    E-print Network

    Read, Andrew

    Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using, Blantyre 3, Malawi; d The National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, MD, and approved October 12, 2010 (received for review May 20, 2010) Malaria infections commonly

  5. G Year/D101 CURRICLUM MANAGERS LIST Course Director Dr Stephen Frean

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    . Endocrine Systems Prof Mark Fox Infections and Responses Unit 4:Parasitology Term1,2&3 Dr Raymond Macharia & Function Unit 3. Urinary System Dr Robert Abayasekara Principles of Animal Form & Function Unit 4 Principles of Animal Form & Function Unit 5. Principles of the Nervous System Dr Liam Good Infections

  6. [Studying at École de pharmacie de Lille with Alfred Giard in the XIXth century].

    PubMed

    Guerriaud, Mathieu

    2015-06-01

    This article describes a pharmacy student's notebook in Lille in the 1870s. The Medical Natural History course is taught by Alfred Mathieu Giard. Following a brief biography of the latter, excerpts of the manuscript are presented, they reveal the extent of scientific knowledge of the late nineteenth century, especially in the field of Parasitology. PMID:26189315

  7. Katherine A. Taylor, M.Sc., Ph.D. University of Notre Dame

    E-print Network

    Tank, Jennifer L.

    DHHS) working groups and committees · Fundamental knowledge of the critical path to licensure for drugs and vaccines, including regulatory compliance with Good Laboratory Practice, Good Manufacturing Practice.Sc., and B.Sc. in Biology with emphasis on immunology, parasitology, and microbiology, respectively Work

  8. Anti-cattle tick vaccines: Many candidate antigens, but will a commercially viable product emerge?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an invited paper from the editor-in-chief of International Journal for Parasitology who requested a Current Opinion manuscript to discuss the status of anti-cattle tick vaccine research. Arguably the world's most significant arthropod pest of cattle, control of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus...

  9. Regulatory T cells in human geohelminth infection suppress immune responses to BCG and Plasmodium

    E-print Network

    and by high burdens of parasitic infections such as geohelminths and malaria. One of the hallmarks of chronicRegulatory T cells in human geohelminth infection suppress immune responses to BCG and Plasmodium and Infection Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK 5 Department of Medical Parasitology, Radboud

  10. Prospects & Overviews Red algal parasites: Models for a life

    E-print Network

    Lane, Chris

    ; red algae Introduction Parasitology is one of the oldest fields of medical research and continues of the stramenopile lineage. This entire group (which includes diatoms and brown algae) is hypothesized to be derivedProspects & Overviews Red algal parasites: Models for a life history evolution that leaves

  11. Artesunate/Amodiaquine Malaria Treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, José; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6–59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5–87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008. PMID:23530078

  12. Information on Vinchucas and Chagas disease.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenone, H.

    1981-12-01

    Following a significant increase in the number of vinchucas observed at La Silla during the last summer, the Director-General of ESO asked Prof. Hugo Schenone, Director of the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology of the University of Chile to pay a visit to La Silla to investigate the situation. The following gives a summary of the resulting report.

  13. Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease J.S. Leon, D.M. Engman* Northwestern University the genesis of autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: (i) What mechanism(s) are potentially responsible for Parasitology Inc. Keywords: Myocarditis; Chagas heart disease Myosin; Autoimmunity 1. Introduction After

  14. Request to Import Rodents from Non-Commercial Sources SUNY at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    Request to Import Rodents from Non-Commercial Sources LAF SUNY at Buffalo INSTRUCTIONS: Please serology/parasitology results for the room and/or colony from which the rodents will be exported. Results): What is the current caging system for the rodents? Ventilated microisolators Filter-top cages Open

  15. ARCTIC BIODIVERSITY: FROM DISCOVERY TO FAUNAL BASELINES-REVEALING THE HISTORY OF A DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of parasite biodiversity contributes to new and exciting approaches to understand the structure, history and future of the Arctic fauna. As a discovery- based process the Beringian Coevolution Project and activities under the umbrella of the Research Group for Arctic Parasitology serve as...

  16. 77 FR 66625 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...of Committee: Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Infections and Cancer Parasitology. Date: November 28, 2012. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

  17. Case Studies in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  18. *Advanced Biochemistry Electives Credits Semester BCH 486; Biochemistry Laboratory** 3 S

    E-print Network

    Chu, Xi

    of Physiology 3 F BIOH 360/PHAR 347; Introduction to Neuroscience 3 F BIOH 365; Anatomy and Physiology I 4 F BIOH 405: Hematology (pre-req: BIOM 360) 3 F BIOH 370; Anatomy and Physiology II 4 S BIOH 462; Medical Physiology 3 S BIOM 400; Medical Microbiology 3 F BIOM 427; General Parasitology 2 F BIOM 428; General

  19. NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY http://www.vm.ntu.edu.tw/DVM_Eng/index.html

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    ANIMAL HISTOLOGY AND LAB. 4 ONE VETERINARY BACTERIOLOGY AND LAB. 3 ONE VETERINARY PARASITOLOGY AND LAB. 31 School of VETERINARY MEDICINIE NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY http://www.vm.ntu.edu.tw/DVM_Eng/index.html School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617

  20. Look Who's Celebrating 50 Years The CVHS is proud to be a member of the Association of

    E-print Network

    Nagamori, National Center for Veterinary Parasitology Dr. Lara Sypniewski, Henthorne Clinical Professor Veterinary Colleges. The AAVMC is celebrating its 50th anniversary of providing support to academic veterinary medicine, which plays such a critical role in the health of animals, people and the environment

  1. Publication Mani, RJ, Metcalf, JA, Clinkenbeard,

    E-print Network

    . Starkey is the Bayer Resident in Veterinary Parasitology in the National Center for Veterinary and the veterinary student who worked on this project. Congratulations, Dr. Starkey! Lindsay Starkey, DVM ('11), Ph NIH National Veterinary Scholars Symposium. Starkey's abstract was selected from 47 submissions

  2. Publications J. Brando, R. Blair, A. Kelly, N. Fowlkes, K.

    E-print Network

    center and spent some time in parasitology and in the equine section of OSU's Veterinary Medical Hospital lidocaine in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) anesthetized with isoflurane." Veterinary acupuncture. (read more) 4-H Students Visit the Veterinary Center Thirty-four high school students from across

  3. JUNE 1997 NEW BIOLOGICAL BOOKS 213 use of both induced and spontaneous mutant

    E-print Network

    Hedges, Blair

    manual, its coverage is so extensive that it could serve as a textbook in veterinary parasitology. IMrica. The book con- tains 7 chapters: the first on diagnostic methods for parasites of veterinary importance practice in Mrica, as well as on the shelf of veterinary parasitologists worldwide. THOMAS] NOLAN

  4. Student Activities ZEW will meet on Tuesday, Nov. 10. Mackenzie

    E-print Network

    on Thursday, Nov. 12, at 5:30 p.m. Dr. Chris Adolph will talk about the importance of parasitology from.m. in Room 104 at the Veterinary Medical Hospital. Stein is an equine internal medicine resident mentored by Dr. Lyndi Gilliam. Veterinary Biomedical Sciences Seminar Courtney Griffin, PhD, will present "What

  5. Prevalence estimation under heterogeneity in the example of bovine trypanosomosis in Uganda

    E-print Network

    Boehning, Dankmar

    for Epidemiology, Freie UniversitaÈt Berlin, Fabeckstrae 60-62, 14195 Berlin, Germany b Institute for Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Department of Tropical Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology, Freie Universita observations. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 36 (1998) 11±23 * Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 30 8108 2317

  6. PUBLICATIONS ON FISH PARASITES AND DISEASES

    E-print Network

    that the student use the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology (U. S. Department of Agri- culture to 1951. See Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Part 2: t>.230, Suppl. 1, 1953: p.145. Dogiel, V. A., G.K. Petrushevski, and Yu 1. Polyanski (editors). 1958. Parasitology of Fishes (Transl

  7. Edinburgh Research Explorer Trypanosoma brucei cathepsin-L increases

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    ChristopherM.Loughrey1* 1 College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical,Japan; 3 Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology,Institute of Infection, ImmunityandMedical,VeterinaryandLifeSciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Garscube Campus, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK; and 5 Roslin

  8. DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS Dis Aquat Org

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    of Veterinary Medicine, Large Animal Clinical Sciences, PO Box 100136, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA 2 Florida Laboratory, 370 Zoo Parkway, Jacksonville, Florida 32221, USA 3 University of Florida, College of Veterinary, includ- ing the southeastern United States. We examined necropsy findings and parasitological data from

  9. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Entomology Option: Pre-Veterinary and Pre-Medical Sciences Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Entomology Option: Pre-Veterinary Spring Semester 2018 ENTO 4854 Medical and Veterinary Entomology MICR 2123 Introduction to Microbiology 3033 Cell and Molecular Biology PHYS 1214 General Physics II ZOOL 4104 General Parasitology Or ANSI

  10. Minor in Infectious Disease Biology College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    health impacts. It is more important than ever for students pursuing careers in biomedical, veterinary-3 Spring PlPa 4380 Fungal Genetics and Genomics 3 Spring PlPa 3290/BioMS 3290 Medical and Veterinary Mycology 3 Spring BioMi/BioMS 3310 General Parasitology (no credit if previously enrolled in BioMs 4310) 2

  11. Assessment of clinical pathology, pathogen exposure, and impact of

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    in American martens (Martes americana) of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, U.S.A. Comparative Parasitology 78 carnivores in Southwestern Quebec. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 26: 203-204. Bremle, G., P. Larsson, and J Germany. Veterinary Microbiology 74: 283-292. Frolich, K., W.J. Streich, J. Fickel, S. Jung, U. Truyen, J

  12. Screening trematodes for novel intervention targets: a proteomic and immunological comparison of

    E-print Network

    Mutapi, Francisca

    , Immunity and Inflammation College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK 4 Parasitology Laboratory, Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología targets which could be used as broad-spectrum candidates for future use in human and veterinary vaccines

  13. Continued on page 2 Vol. XV Issue 2 Spring 2011 A Newsletter for Alumni and Friends of the UT College of Engineering

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    to 2010. He is a trained veterinarian, with an emphasis in veterinary parasitology. He earned his bachelor's, master's and doctor of veterinary medicine degrees at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Prior to coming to UT, DiPietro served as dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida

  14. Edinburgh Research Explorer The within-host dynamics of African trypanosome infections

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Sir Graeme Davies Building, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK 3 Roslin Institute, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University

  15. Programme Specification MSc (Wild Animal Biology) 2013-14 1. Awarding institution University of London

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    of London 2. Teaching institution The Royal Veterinary College (RVC, University of London) and Institute in microbiology, parasitology and pathology. Entry to the PG Diploma: Entry to PG Diploma will be open disease, the ecology of infectious agents in wild animal populations and veterinary interventions

  16. Directory of Services and Prices Issue 2 2011/12 For all you need to knowFor all you need to know

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    Parasitology / Other 15 Serology 16 Cytology 17 Histopathology 18 Muscle biopsies (and related assays) 19 the best diagnosis. At the Royal Veterinary College our vision is to provide leadership and excellence in veterinary science through innovative scholarship and pioneering clinical activity. The outstanding

  17. Submitted/ In Press Whiting, S.D, Guinea, M.L., Fomiatti, K., Flint, M, and Limpus, C.J. (Accepted). Plasma biochemical

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    of marine turtle mortality in Queensland. XII International Congress of Parasitology. Editor: VG Verdi. pp and haematological reference intervals to identify unhealthy green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). The Veterinary populations: a review of common pathological findings and protocols. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic

  18. An asessment of the educational preparation of the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine graduates 

    E-print Network

    Carbajal, Virginia Isabel

    2006-08-16

    preparation on their education is 90% or more. The top-ranked basic science courses have not changed among the veterinary medicine graduates during the selected period and these are: Â?Pharmacology,Â? Â?Gross Anatomy,Â? Â?Endocrine,Â? Â?Parasitology,Â? Â...

  19. APPLIES TO COHORT COMMENCING 2010 1. Awarding institution University of London

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    institution The Royal Veterinary College (University of London) and Institute of Zoology (Zoological Society/or in conservation and have received, inter alia, training in microbiology, parasitology and pathology. Other populations and veterinary interventions in wildlife (including social, welfare, ethical and legal aspects

  20. Programme Specification MSc (Wild Animal Biology) 2011-12 1. Awarding institution University of London

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    of London 2. Teaching institution The Royal Veterinary College (RVC, University of London) and Institute alia, training in microbiology, parasitology and pathology. Entry to the PG Diploma: Entry to PG disease, the ecology of infectious agents in wild animal populations and veterinary interventions

  1. DVM Curriculum Overview Vacation, elective introductory clinical

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    . The Animal Body (12 cr.) Veterinary Practice: Physical ExamVIIa. Physical Exam (1.5 cr.) II. Cell Biology.) IIIb. Function and Dysfunction (7 cr.) IV. Host, Agent and Defense (12 cr.)/ Vet. Parasitology (2.5 cr PBL Course VII: Veterinary Practice Clinics Group 1 Clinics Group 2 * Other Pre-clinical Foundation

  2. Specimen Catalog of J.R. Dixon, JRD Specimen numbers 2755-3999 

    E-print Network

    Dixon, James R. Supplement 24, Part 6, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Subject Headings: J To Z  Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.; Shaw, Judith H.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Kirby, Margie D.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Zidar, Judith A.

    1982-01-01

    pattern of host during a six-week period Leukocytes Stagg DA et al 1981 Parasitology 83 (1) Aug 191-197 Wa Theileria parva, method for separation and concentration of large numbers of sporozoites from Rhipicephalus append icu1atu s, course...

  3. IN THIS ISSUE: APR. 20-24, 2015 1. CCE Employer News -Interested in the world of advertising? Learn more about TBWA/Chiat/Day.

    E-print Network

    Bergman, Keren

    , Fellowships, and Internships - RSVP for the NYC Versatile PhD Meeting on Apr. 24. 6. Columbia Career Resources over the next few months, as they will be offering a number of internship and full-time opportunities medicine and parasitology, developmental biology, metabolism and nutrition, as well as chemical engineering

  4. J. Med. Entomol. Vol. 18,no.4: 333-336 3l July 1981 @ f98l by the Bishop Museum

    E-print Network

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    flies castrated their mammalian hosts. In recent years several major review papers and parasitology and their hosts and of the life cycles of both bots and hosts provides no evidence to substantiate castration no destruction of testicular tis- sue. The concept of castration may have been perpetuated by observations

  5. Contents Page Papers for the General Council Meeting on 14 February 2015

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Education 19/2014 Foundation of a Personal Chair of Neuropsychology 20/2014 Foundation of a Personal Chair of Evolutionary Parasitology 37/2014 Foundation of a Personal Chair of Higher Education Learning Contexts 38 Chair of Digital Education 50/2014 Foundation of a Personal Chair of Political and Historical Sociology

  6. Infection in the Classroom: Parasites as Models to Teach Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seville, R. Scott; Couch, Lee; Seed, Richard; Chappell, Cynthia; Patton, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The American Society of Parasitologists established a five-year plan to educate various groups about parasites and parasitology, which were targeted at K-12 students and teachers, college students and teachers and biologists in other disciplines. This program also developed the idea to host a symposium and workshop for these targeted groups.

  7. Use of Case Studies for Stimulating Thinking and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    Noting that a case-study approach can stimulate student thinking and learning, this paper describes how students in a writing-intensive course on parasitology wrote brief medical case studies of parasites already studied for other students to read, evaluate, and identify the parasite. The paper presents a brief description of the course, an…

  8. FOLIA PARASITOLOGICA 57[3]: 223231, 2010 ISSN 0015-5683 (print), ISSN 1803-6465 (online)

    E-print Network

    Poulin, Robert

    ) © Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre ASCR http://www.paru.cas.cz/folia/ Address for correspondence: C , Robert Poulin3 and Clément Lagrue4 1 Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do, Retropinna retropinna (Richardson) and Aldrichetta forsteri (Va- lenciennes), from Lake Waihola, New Zealand

  9. Veterinary Medical Library Library of Congress Call Number Guide

    E-print Network

    Peterson, M. Nils

    581-607 Immunology RC666.72.A-735.R48 Cardiovascular system RC 735.5 - 779 Respiratory System RC 799810 Veterinary parasitology SF811 Veterinary cardiology SF831 Respiratory system, nutritional system-869 Digestive System RC 870-923 Urology RD Surgery RE Ophthalmology RF Otorhinolaryngology RG Gynecology

  10. Phylogeographic Pattern and Extensive Mitochondrial DNA Divergence Disclose a Species Complex within the

    E-print Network

    Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

    Guadalajara, Ciudad Guzma´n, Me´xico, 7 Center for Health Studies, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala, 8 Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology, Facultad de Ciencias Qui´micas y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala, 9 Laboratorio de

  11. Tropical Biomedicine 31(4): 760768 (2014) Ontogenensis and developmental rate of the blow fly,

    E-print Network

    Tomberlin, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand 2Department of Entomology of the genus Hypopygiopsis are considered forensically important. In Thailand, four Hypopygiopsis species (Greenberg & Kunich, 2002; Williams, 2008). Thus, their larvae can be used in forensic investigations

  12. Subjects: Trematoda And Trematode Diseases, Part 2: Supergenera And Genera C 

    E-print Network

    Roach, Katharine F.; Breen, Virginia L.

    1964-01-01

    pattern of host during a six-week period Leukocytes Stagg DA et al 1981 Parasitology 83 (1) Aug 191-197 Wa Theileria parva, method for separation and concentration of large numbers of sporozoites from Rhipicephalus append icu1atu s, course...

  13. Summer 2014 Research Strengths

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    ; Translation Digital Creative Economy Plant Science: Nitric oxide; Plants; Nitric oxide synthase +25.1% Animal; Agriculture; SecurityPlant Science, Agronomy and Crop Science: +9.3% Agri-Science and Food Mechanics and Environment +27.8%Parasitology: Parasites; Animals; Helminth Proteins Animal Science and Zoology: Rumen

  14. Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture. PMID:25260074

  15. Current clinical efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infections in urban Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Z.; Makwaya, C.; Minjas, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    Reported is the use of a 14-day WHO protocol, which takes into account the clinical, parasitological and haematological responses to antimalarial drugs, to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in young children (n = 200) in urban Dar es Salaam. Chloroquine failure was found in 43% of the children. Of these, 12.5% were considered to be early treatment failures and were given a single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Fever subsided in all children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and there were no parasitological failures. In addition, children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of early treatment failure with chloroquine had better haematological recovery than the chloroquine-sensitive group. It is concluded that chloroquine can no longer be considered an effective therapy for P. falciparum malaria in young children in Dar es Salaam. PMID:10534897

  16. Recombinant K28 antigen in ELISA in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Venturin, G L; Bragato, J P; Silva, K L O; de Lima, V M F

    2015-12-01

    Crude total antigen (CTA) from Leishmania infantum and recombinant antigen K39 (rK39) and recombinant antigen K28 (rK28) were compared using an ELISA for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL). Forty-two blood samples from healthy dogs from a nonendemic area and 80 blood samples from an endemic area for dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), confirmed with positive parasitological tests for Leishmania spp., were used in an ELISA. The parasitological diagnosis was chosen as a gold standard. The ELISA with rK28 antigen showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%, high agreement with CTA and rK39, indicating that the rK28 antigen is useful for ELISA serological diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26408410

  17. A review of parasite studies of commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Reed, Cecile C

    2015-01-01

    Scattered records of parasitic species infecting commercially important marine fishes in sub-Saharan Africa are known from just a few countries where concerted efforts have been made by local parasitologists (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, South Africa). Most of these consist of taxonomic records or general surveys of parasite faunas associated with marine hosts, which may or may not have been of commercial value. Little to no multi-disciplinary research is conducted in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa and hence parasitological data are not commonly used to advise fisheries management procedures. This review summarizes current knowledge on all parasitological research associated with commercially important marine fish species in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24785716

  18. Quantitative constraints on the transport properties of hot partonic matter from semi-inclusive single high transverse momentum pion suppression in Au plus Au collisions at root S(NN)=200 GeV 

    E-print Network

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Al-Jamel, A.; Aoki, K.; Aphecetche, L.; Armendariz, R.; Aronson, S. H.; Asai, J.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldisseri, A.; Barish, K. N.; Barnes, P. D.; Bassalleck, B.; Bathe, S.; Batsouli, S.; Baublis, V.; Bauer, F.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bickley, A. A.; Bjorndal, M. T.; Boissevain, J. G.; Borel, H.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Brown, D. S.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Burward-Hoy, J. M.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Chai, J. -S; Chang, B. S.; Charvet, J. -L; Chernichenko, S.; Chiba, J.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Churyn, A.; Cianciolo, V.; Cleven, C. R.; Cobigo, Y.; Cole, B. A.; Comets, M. P.; Constantin, P.; Csanad, M.; Csoergo, T.; Dahms, T.; Das, K.; David, G.; Deaton, M. B.; Dehmelt, K.; Delagrange, H.; Denisov, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Dubey, A. K.; Durum, A.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Egdemir, J.; Ellinghaus, F.; Emam, W. S.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Forestier, B.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fung, S. -Y; Fusayasu, T.; Gadrat, S.; Garishvili, I.; Gastineau, F.; Germain, M.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Gosset, J.; Goto, Y.; de Cassagnac, R. Greiner; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Perdekamp, M. Groose; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H. -A; Hachiya, T.; Henni, A. Hadj; Haegemann, C.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hagiwara, M. N.; Hamagaki, H.; Han, R.; Harada, H.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haruna, K.; Harvey, M.; Haslum, E.; Hasuko, K.; Hayano, R.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Heuser, J. M.; He, X.; Hiejima, H.; Hill, J. C.; Hobbs, R.; Hohlmann, M.; Holmes, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Hur, M. G.; Ichihara, T.; Imai, K.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Inoue, Y.; Isenhower, D.; Isenhower, L.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jin, J.; Jinnouchi, O.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kaneta, M.; Kang, J. H.; Kanou, H.; Kawagishi, T.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kelly, S.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, Y. -S; Kinney, E.; Kiss, A.; Kistenev, E.; Kiyomichi, A.; Klay, J.; Klein-Boesing, C.; Kochenda, L.; Kochetkov, V.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Kral, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kroon, P. J.; Kubart, J.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurihara, N.; Kurita, K.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. -S; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Le Bornec, Y.; Leckey, S.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, M. K.; Lee, T.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Lenzi, B.; Lim, H.; Liska, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, M. X.; Li, X.; Li, X. H.; Love, B.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mao, Y.; Masek, L.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCain, M. C.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Miake, Y.; Mikes, P.; Miki, K.; Miller, T. E.; Milov, A.; Mioduszewski, Saskia; Mishra, G. C.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitrovski, M.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moss, J. M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Mukhopadhyay, D.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagata, Y.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Norman, B. E.; Nyanin, A. S.; Nystrand, J.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Ohnishi, H.; Ojha, I. D.; Okada, H.; Okada, K.; Oka, M.; Omiwade, O. O.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pal, D.; Palounek, A. P. T.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, J.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J. -C; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Rembeczki, S.; Reuter, M.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Roche, G.; Romana, A.; Rosati, M.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Rykov, V. L.; Ryu, S. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sato, H. D.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, V.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shea, T. K.; Shein, I.; Shevel, A.; Shibata, T. -A; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shohjoh, T.; Shoji, K.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skutnik, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smith, W. C.; Soldatov, A.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Staley, F.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.

    2008-01-01

    HUMPHREY SHAW, Zoologist MARGIE D. KIRBY, Technical Information Specialist SHIRLEY J. EDWARDS, Technical Information Specialist ANIMAL PARASITOLOGY INSTITUTE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE Issued March 1974 U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE... AND VETERINARY ZOOLOGY Supplement 19, ftirt 6 PARASITE-SUBJECT CATALOGUE SUBJECT HEADINGS AND TREATMENT By MARTHA L. WALKER, JANE D. RAYBURN, JUDITH H. SHAW, MARGIE D. KIRBY, and SHIRLET J. EDWARDS Abnormalities. See Anomalies. Abortion Archer, J. F...

  19. Endoparasitic helminths of fishes of the genus Cobitis from Poland.

    PubMed

    Popio?ek, Marcin; Kotusz, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A total of 107 individuals of Cobitis taenia and C. elongatoides, as well as polyploid biotypes C. elongatoides x Cobitis sp. and C. taenia x Cobitis sp. from five localities in Poland were subject to parasitological examination. Four trematode species (Diplostomum sp., Tylodelphys clavata, Posthodiplostomum cuticola - all metacercariae, and Allocreadium transversale) and one nematode species (Rhabdochona ergensi) were identified, described and illustrated. No clear relationship between the intensity of infection and species/ploidy level of the host was found. PMID:15303359

  20. Supplement 20, Part 5, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Parasites: Arthropoda and Miscellaneous Phyla 

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Judith H.; Hood, Martha W.

    1975-01-01

    DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INDEX-CATALOGUE OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ZOOLOGY SUPPLEMENT 20, PART 5 PARASITE-SUBJECT CATALOGUE : PARASITES: ARTHROPODA AND MISCELLANEOUS PHYLA UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INDEX-CATALOGUE OF MEDICAL... AND VETERINARY ZOOLOGY SUPPLEMENT 20, PART 5 PARASITE-SUBJECT CATALOGUE: PARASITES: ARTHROPODA AND MISCELLANEOUS PHYLA By JUDITH H. SHAW, Zoologist MARTHA W. HOOD, Zoologist ANIMAL PARASITOLOGY INSTITUTE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE Issued December 1975...

  1. Supplement 21, Part 2, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Protozoa 

    E-print Network

    Zidar, Judith A; Shaw, Judith H.; Haneman, Deborah T.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.

    1978-01-01

    . Persons using this Catalogue are requested to preserve it, because it is not designed for general distribution and the edition is limited. Reprints of papers on parasitology are requested. Ill EXPLANATORY NOTE Coverage of human malaria... other products not men- tioned. - t;( . '??? ; - .,,. ; - ? * PROTOZOA 1 Acanthamoeba Griffin, J.L., 1976 a differentiation of Acanthamoeba from Naegleria as cause of human meningoencephalitis: Britain Acanthamoeba Marino, J.T. (jr.), 1975 a...

  2. Supplement 15, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Parasites: Arthropoda, Mesozoa, Coelenterata, Mollusca, And Annelida 

    E-print Network

    Humphrey, Judith M.; Segal, Dorothy B.; Beard, Mary I.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.

    1966-01-01

    # UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE DEX-CATALOGUE OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ZOOLOGY (? LA b\\>ecrf1 ? ? /? SUPPLEMENT 15 PARASITE-SUBJECT CATALOGUE PARASITES: ARTHROPODA MESOZOA, COELENTERATA, MOLLUSCA, AND ANNELIDA mivEHsm OF ILLINOIS..., MOLLUSCA, AND ANNELIDA By JUDITH M. HUMPHREY, Zoologist and DOROTHY B. SEGAL, Zoologist with the assistance of Mary I. Beard, Shirley J. Edwards, and Margie D. Kirby BELTSVILLE PARASITOLOGICAL LABORATORY ANIMAL DISEASE AND PARASITE RESEARCH DIVISION...

  3. A tribute to Dr. Paul A. J. Janssen: entrepreneur extraordinaire, innovative scientist, and significant contributor to anesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Theodore H; Egan, Talmage D; Van Aken, Hugo

    2008-02-01

    Dr. Paul Janssen was the founder of Janssen Pharmaceutica and the developer of over 80 pharmaceutical compounds that proved useful in human, botanical, and veterinary medicine. He and his coworkers synthesized the fentanyl family of drugs, many other potent analgesics, droperidol, etomidate, and numerous other important medicines that were extremely useful in psychiatry, parasitology, gastroenterology, cardiology, virology, and immunology. Anesthesiology and medicine as a whole have benefited a great deal from his resourcefulness, creativity, and entrepreneurial spirit. PMID:18227300

  4. Versatile multispectral microscope based on light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydegaard, Mikkel; Merdasa, Aboma; Jayaweera, Hiran; Ålebring, Jens; Svanberg, Sune

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of a novel multispectral microscope, based on light-emitting diodes, capable of acquiring megapixel images in thirteen spectral bands from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The system captures images and spectra in transmittance, reflectance, and scattering modes. We present as examples of applications ground truth measurements for remote sensing and parasitology diagnostics. The system is a general purpose scientific instrument that could be used to develop dedicated simplified instruments with optimal bands and mode selection.

  5. First record of trypanosomes from the blood of sculpins (Cottus ricei and C. cognatus) from Lake Superior, WI, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pronina, Svetlana V.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Selgeby, Jim H.

    1999-01-01

    During parasitological research of fishes in Lake Superior (USA) in August-September 1994, infection with trypanosomes of the blood of sculpins (Cottus ricei and C. cognatus) was recorded for the first time. The descriptions of three morphological groups of the genus Trypanosoma: T. sp. I, found in blood of C. ricei, T. sp. II and T. sp. III from blood of C. cognatus, have been provided.

  6. Carcinogenic liver fluke secretes extracellular vesicles that promote cholangiocytes to adopt a tumorigenic phenotype

    E-print Network

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Sotillo, Javier; Smout, Michael; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Jones, Malcolm K.; Johnson, Michael S.; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Potriquet, Jeremy; Laohaviroj, Marut; Mulvenna, Jason; Brindley, Paul J.; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex

    2015-05-17

    and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK 4QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia 5School of Veterinary Sciences, The University... Medicine, and Research Center for Neglected Diseases of Poverty, George Washington University, Washington DC, USA 9Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand #Corresponding Author: Alex Loukas. Email...

  7. Microspatial Distributional Patterns of Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    E-print Network

    Donalisio, Maria Rita; Peterson, A. Townsend; Costa, Pietra Lemos; da Silva, Fernadno José Valenç a, Helio Franç a; Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Filho, P. Brandao

    2012-01-01

    vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Southern Brazil: ecological niche models, pre- dicted geographic distributions, and climate change effects,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 919– 931, 2003. [21] L. F. Chaves, J. M. Cohen.... Ready, and C. R. Davies, “Experimental com- parison of anthropophily between geographically dispersed populations of Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae),” Medical and Veterinary Entomology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 299–309, 1999. [36] J. Sobero´n and A...

  8. Two novel mutations of pfdhps K540T and I588F, affecting sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant response in uncomplicated falciparum malaria at Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations in pfdhfr and pfdhps genes have been shown to associate with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. However, pfdhfr, pfdhps genotypes and the correlations to SP treatment outcome in Indonesia has not yet been well analysed. Methods After obtaining informed consent, 61 uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients were recruited in Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, from October 2009 to August 2010. They were treated by a single oral dose of SP and its effects on clinical and parasitological status were followed until day 28 after treatment. Occasionally, a thick smear blood film for microscopy observation and blood spot on a filter paper for pfdhfr and pfdhps genotype analysis were collected. Results Pfdhfr and pfdhps genotypes from 24 P. falciparum-infected patients consisting of adequate clinical parasitological response (ACPR) (n?=?6; 25.0%) and early treatment failure (ETF) (n?=?10; 41.7%) or late parasitological failure (LPF) (n?=?8; 33.3%) were obtained by sequencing. Two novel mutations of pfdhps gene, K540T and I588F, were determined in ten and five isolates, respectively. These mutations were present in the pfdhfr/pfdhps combined haplotypes of ANRNI/SGTGA (n?=?6), ANRNL/SGTGA (n?=?4), and ANRNI/SGEAA(588F) (n?=?5), (mutation codons are bold typed); these haplotypes were mostly belonging to parasitological failure (ETF or LPF). The parasites acquiring five mutations in pfdhfr/pfdhps haplotypes and four mutations with additional I588F did not respond adequately to SP treatment. Conclusion Many of Plasmodium falciparum infected patients in Banjar district, South Kalimantan, Indonesia did not respond adequately to SP treatment and these low ineffectiveness of SP in this area was associated with two novel mutations of pfdhps, K540T and I588F. PMID:25187019

  9. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine against Plasmodium falciparum infection in Somalia.

    PubMed Central

    Warsame, M.; Abdillahi, A.; Duale, O. Nur; Ismail, A. Nur; Hassan, A. M.; Mohamed, A.; Warsame, A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections in Somalia. METHODS: Patients with clinical malaria in Merca, an area of high transmission of the disease, were treated with the standard regimens of chloroquine (25 mg/kg) or sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (25 mg sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg pyrimethamine per kg). Similar patients in Gabiley, an area of low transmission, received the standard regimen of chloroquine. The clinical and parasitological responses were monitored for 14 days. FINDINGS: Chloroquine treatment resulted in clinical failure in 33% (n = 60) and 51% (n = 49) of the patients in Merca and Gabiley respectively. There were corresponding parasitological failures of 77% RII/RIII and 35% RII/RIII. Patients who experienced clinical failure had significantly higher initial parasitaemia than those in whom there was an adequate clinical response, both in Merca (t = 2.2; P t = 2.8; P n = 50) of the patients achieved an adequate clinical response despite a parasitological failure rate of 76% RII/RIII. CONCLUSION: Chloroquine should no longer be considered adequate for treating clinical falciparum malaria in vulnerable groups in the areas studied. Doubts about the therapeutic life of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in relation to malaria are raised by the high levels of resistance in the Merca area and underline the need to identify suitable alternatives. PMID:12378287

  10. [Professor Czes?aw Gerwel (MD)--100th anniversary of birthday].

    PubMed

    Kociecka, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    Professor Czes?aw Gerwel (1909-1974) physician and outstanding parasitologist set the base of clinical parasitology in Poland and organized first in Poland hospital ward for parasitic diseases in Poznan (1962) first affiliated with Chair of Biology and Parasitology at Medical School and later functioning as an independent clinical ward, which he headed until 1970. He initiated organization of District Parasitological Clinics by setting first such a clinic in Pozna?. He scientific work he focused on diagnostic problems as well as clinical pathology and treatment of parasitic diseases of gastrointestinal system. He participated in comprehensive studies of trichinosis. In 1941-1944 he was working in the National Institute of Hygiene in Warsaw, now National Institute of Public Health--PZH, which at that time operated under name "Das General gouvernerus Stattlichen Institut fur Hygiene in Warschau" in the section of typhus. He was involved in underground conspiracy of AK (Home Army) with pseudonym "Orlos" belonging to the group of people smuggling typhus vaccine produced in the PZH to Warsaw Ghetto and to underground troops. In 1942-1944 he studied medicine in Polish Underground University of Western Territories functioning in PZH under supervision of Feliks Przesmycki. PMID:20976963

  11. Application of real-time PCR for the detection of Strongyloides spp. in clinical samples in a reference center in Spain.

    PubMed

    Saugar, José M; Merino, Francisco J; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Ortega, Sheila; Gárate, Teresa; Rodríguez, Esperanza

    2015-02-01

    Strongyloidiasis is one of the major intestinal helminthic infections in humans with a worldwide distribution, affecting especially tropical and subtropical regions. This disease can occur without any symptoms or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. Definitive diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection relies mainly on demonstration of larvae in stool, but at present there is no gold standard for this diagnosis. Our main objective was to evaluate a real-time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene of Strongyloides spp. and to compare it with routine parasitological methods. DNA from Strongyloides venezuelensis was used to optimize PCR protocols obtaining an analytical sensitivity of 0.1 pg of parasite DNA per sample. Sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR on fecal samples from 231 patients screened for suspected strongyloidiasis attending two hospitals in Madrid were 93.8% and 86.5%, respectively. No significant differences were found when comparing Ct-values of positive PCR between parasitological positive and negative samples. This study showed that real-time PCR is an effective tool for diagnosing strongyloidiasis and could be applied in association with parasitological methods in epidemiological studies in endemic areas. It would be also important to assess its performance in immunocompromised populations who are at risk of fatal disease. PMID:25447829

  12. [Chorioptic mange in dairy cattle: a new assessment for its control].

    PubMed

    Kollbrunner, Markus; Pfister, Kurt; Luginbühl, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    In the western region of Switzerland, the canton of Freiburg, the clinical and subclinical distribution of Chorioptes spp. was studied in 14 stables with tethered housing and 10 stables with loose housing, for a total of 667 dairy cows. Chorioptes infestations were diagnosed in 22 out of the 24 herds. In the 14 stables with tethered housing 33.8% of the dairy cows were clinically suspicious and 31% were found parasitologically positive. These values were higher than in the 10 stables with loose housing that had 26.5% clinically suspicious cases and 17.8% parasitologically positive cows. The collected clinical findings and parasitological diagnoses, as well as the analysed data of Chorioptes infestations allowed to determine a reference value for these herds which could be used by the practicing veterinarian as an aid in deciding whether to treat the whole herd or the single animal. In a cow population an amount of more than 12% of cows with clinically manifest Chorioptes spp. infestation reflects a problem concerning the whole herd and therefore the whole herd needs to be treated. If less than 12% of the cows are visibly infested and no subclinical Chorioptes cases are proven, then it only constitutes a problem of single animals and therefore can be dealt with individually. The treatment of the herds of two farms with tethered housing with Eprinomectin was very effective and showed a long lasting 100% antiparasitic effect which lasted more than 92 days after treatment. PMID:19863007

  13. Currency as a potential environmental vehicle for transmitting parasites among food-related workers in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Azza; Farouk, Hanan; Hassanein, Faika; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2011-09-01

    Transmission of parasites may occur indirectly via inanimate objects in the surrounding environment. One of the objects most handled and exchanged by people are currency coins and banknotes, which could be one of the most potential vehicles to transmit parasites, even between countries. However, study of the potential contamination of currency in circulation with intestinal parasites has not been given the interest it deserves and the present study is the first pilot study in Alexandria, Egypt. It was revealed that 60.2% of 103 banknotes and 56.6% of 99 coins obtained from food-related workers had been contaminated with one or more parasitic species. Protozoa were the predominant parasites, with microsporidia and Cryptosporidium spp. being the most prevalent. There was no statistically significant difference between currency types regarding parasitological contamination, but there was a significant (P<0.001) association between the physical condition of currency and its contamination. Moreover, the source of the currency was not statistically associated with parasitological contamination. The denomination of coins was not statistically associated with parasitological contamination, whilst that of banknotes was with the lower denominations being more contaminated. PMID:21820691

  14. Epidemiological aspects of strongyloidiasis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paula, F M; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this review was to outline an epidemiological profile of Strongyloides stercoralis by parasitological and serological diagnosis in inhabitants, and to associate this profile with different immunosupression situations, in Brazil, over 20 years (1990-2009). The occurrence of S. stercoralis using parasitological methods was 5·5%, being 4·8% in rural and 5·0% in urban areas, characterizing the country as hyperendemic. There was a diversity of techniques used as a diagnostic tool and only 39·1% of the studies presented results based on at least 1 specific method. The occurrence increased with age, being 12·1%, for those over 60 that suggests an epidemiological condition of concern for the elderly population. Of the seroepidemiological studies in the general population the mean positivity in serum samples was 21·7% and 29·2%, using an immunofluorescence antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The occurrence of strongyloidiasis in immunosuppressed individuals was 11·8% by parasitological methods and 19·5% using immunological methods. Considering that Brazil is a tropical country and that the character of chronicity and autoinfection of the parasite that can result in severe forms of hyperinfection or dissemination makes strongyloidiasis an important medically and socially neglected problem. PMID:21810305

  15. An explicit immunogenetic model of gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Prada Jiménez de Cisneros, Joaquín; Stear, Michael J; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise

    2014-10-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheep-Teladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of host-parasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649

  16. An explicit immunogenetic model of gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Prada Jiménez de Cisneros, Joaquín; Stear, Michael J.; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheep–Teladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of host–parasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649

  17. Environmental Factors and Ecosystems Associated with Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; de Carvalho Araújo, Andreina; da Silva Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli; Tonhosolo, Renata; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-12-01

    Environment influences the composition, distribution, and behavior of the vectors and mammalian hosts involved in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), affecting the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, the urbanization process and canine cases of VL are indicators for local health authorities. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of the canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Maranhão State, Brazil. Blood samples collected from 960 dogs from six municipalities and six different ecosystems (Baixada Maranhense, Mangue, Mata dos Cocais, Amazônia, Cerrado, and Restinga) to serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect fluorescence antibody test [IFAT], and chromatographic immunoassay methods [Dual Path Platform technology, DPP(®)]) and parasitological diagnosis. From serological tests, 11.14% (107) of the dogs were positive for CVL, with 59.16% (568), 14.5% (148), and 131% (126) positives to ELISA, DPP, and IFAT tests, respectively. Only seven animals (0.73%) were positive in a parasitological test. We also performed parasite isolation and phylogenetic characterization. All isolates of dogs obtained from Maranhão were grouped in a single branch with Leishmania infantum chagasi from Brazil. The ecosystem Amazonia presented the highest positivity rates to CVL in serological and parasitological tests. Brazilian biomes/ecosystems suffer large degradation and may favor, depending on climatic conditions, the installation of new diseases. In the case of VL, dogs are reservoirs of parasites and sentinels for human infection. PMID:26684524

  18. Funding options for research: facing the market as well as government.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, G; Nossal, G

    1999-06-01

    Parasitology is a challenge. At one level, the structural and genetic complexities of parasites provide ample technical challenges in regard to an understanding of parasite variability and adaptability, epidemiological diversity, drug resistance, etc. The intricacies of host parasite relationships including the immunology of parasitism will continually surprise yet frustrate the vaccine developer and keep the bravest immunoparasitologist busy and creative for decades. As if the technical considerations were not challenging enough, we see difficulties arising in sustaining a research endeavour and preserving a critical mass of researchers through the generation of high-level, long-term funding support. Contributing to this situation is the fact that most parasitic diseases of major impact in humans are largely centred around the rural poor in tropical, less industrially-developed countries and therefore of little or of fickle interest to the strictly commercially oriented. Moreover, the focus in the rural industries has moved away from aspects of on-farm production with lower priority given to studies on even the 'economically-important' parasites of livestock. It is contended that this may change again with pressures and clear marketing advantages to preserving a 'clean and green' image for Australia's primary industries. Overall, the extraordinary technical and conceptual advances in recent times have been tempered by uncertainties in research funding and severe cuts from some traditional sources for both fundamental and strategic/applied research in Parasitology. Several have highlighted the fact that deliverables in terms of new methods of disease control have been sparse and some claims made in the past have certainly been exaggerated. Yet the prospects and achievements at the front end of the long R&D pathway have never been brighter. In this article we examine the merits of a 'portfolio approach' to generating research funds in Parasitology and Science and Technology in Australia more generally, with an emphasis on strategies that, through welding good science with clear, medium-term product objectives, increase research funding opportunities. PMID:10480719

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon.

    PubMed Central

    Basco, Leonardo K.; Same-Ekobo, Albert; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Ndounga, Mathieu; Metoh, Theresia; Ringwald, Pascal; Soula, Georges

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine, and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon. METHODS: In a randomized study we evaluated the effectiveness and tolerance of (i) sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) (25 mg/kg body weight of sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg/kg of pyrimethamine in a single oral dose), (ii) amodiaquine (AQ) (30 mg/kg body weight in three divided daily doses), and (iii) the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination (SP+AQ) (same doses as in the other two treatment groups, given simultaneously on day 0) in young children in southern Cameroon. The parasitological and clinical responses were studied until day 28 in accordance with the modified 1996 WHO protocol for the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs. FINDINGS: Of 191 enrolled patients, 6 and 8 were excluded or lost to follow-up before day 14 and between day 14 and day 28, respectively. For the AQ-treated patients, parasitological and clinical evaluation on day 14 showed late treatment failure in 2 of 61 (3.3%) and adequate clinical response with parasitological failure in one (1.6%). There was an adequate clinical response in all patients treated with SP or SP+AQ. Therapeutic failure rates on day 28 were 13.6%, 10.2% and 0% in the SP, AQ, and SP+AQ groups, respectively. Anaemia improved in all three regimens. AQ produced faster fever clearance but was associated with more transient minor side-effects than SP. SP+AQ reduced the risk of recrudescence between day 14 and day 28 but increased the incidence of minor side-effects. CONCLUSION: SP+AQ can be recommended as a temporary means of slowing the spread of multidrug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Africa while the introduction of other combinations, including artemisinin derivatives, is awaited. PMID:12163917

  20. Evaluation of newly isolated probiotics in the protection against experimental intestinal trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Temsahy, Mona M El; Ibrahim, Iman R; Mossallam, Shereen F; Mahrous, Hoda; Bary, Amany Abdel; Salam, Sara A Abdel

    2015-12-15

    The potential use of probiotics in controlling enteric infections has generated tremendous interest in the last decade. The protective efficacy of seven oral doses of two newly isolated Egyptian probiotic strains; Lactobacillus acidophilus P110 (L. acidophilus) and Lactobacillus plantarum P164 (L. plantarum) versus Lactobacillus casei ATCC 7469 (L. casei) - against experimental intestinal trichinellosis - was assessed via parasitological, immunological and histopathological parameters, after verifying their in vivo safety and intestinal colonization. Parasitologically, the highest adult count reduction was observed in L. plantarum-fed infected sub-subgroup (56.98, 65.42 and 69.02%) - on the 5th, 12th and 17th days post infection (P.I.), respectively. Lesser percentage reductions were recorded in both the L. casei-fed infected sub-subgroup (36.19, 23.68 and 31.58%) and L. acidophilus-fed infected sub-subgroup (36.50, 11.8 and 7.61%) at the same intervals. On the 28th day post challenge, the highest larval count reduction was in L. plantarum-fed infected sub-subgroup (87.92%). While lower percentage yet still significant were observed in the L. casei-fed infected (74.88%) and L. acidophilus-fed infected sub-subgroups (60.98%). Immunologically, serum IFN-? levels in the probiotic-fed non infected sub-subgroups were higher than those in the probiotic-fed infected sub-subgroups. Both showed higher levels of IFN-? than the non probiotic-fed sub-subgroups. Histopathologically, intestinal sections of the probiotic-fed infected sub-subgroups showed amelioration of the inflammation and damage resulting from Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection. Results indicate that, through mechanical and immunological mechanisms, L. plantarum showed parasitological and histopathological protective superiority with respect to both L. casei and L. acidophilus against murineT. spiralis infection. PMID:26386829

  1. Failure of combination therapy with imidocarb dipropionate and toltrazuril to clear Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pasa, Serdar; Voyvoda, Huseyin; Karagenc, Tulin; Atasoy, Abidin; Gazyagci, Serkal

    2011-09-01

    Current treatments with imidocarb dipropionate for infected dogs with Hepatozoon canis do not always provide parasitological cure. The objective of this study is to determine whether concomitant use of toltrazuril may potentiate the effect of imidocarb dipropionate in the management of H. canis infection (HCI). Twelve dogs were determined to have naturally HCI based on clinical signs, identification of the parasite in blood smears, and serologic assay. The animals were allocated randomly to one of two groups (n?=?6 in each group). Dogs in Imi group were given imidocarb dipropionate at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight subcutaneously in two injections 14 days apart. Imi plus Toltra group was given imidocarb dipropionate as dose mentioned above and toltrazuril at 10 mg/kg/day orally for the first five treatment days. Clinical findings, blood counts and parasitaemia levels in blood before and 14, 28 and 56 days after the initial treatment were performed to evaluate treatment response. The overall clinical efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate with and without toltrazuril was 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 21.0 and 25.6 days, respectively. A substantial main effect of time on mean PCV, Hb, WBC, neutrophil and PLT and gradual reduction of parasitaemia were significantly observed in both groups (P?parasitologic cure rate at the end of eight weekly observation period was 16.6% and 33.3% in Imi and Imi plus Toltra groups, respectively. Similar clinicopathologic and parasitologic responses were observed in both treated groups; thus, it was concluded that toltrazuril does not reveal additional benefit to imidocarb therapy in dogs with HCI. PMID:21472405

  2. Randomized Single-Blinded Non-inferiority Trial Of 7 mg/kg Pentamidine Isethionate Versus 4 mg/kg Pentamidine Isethionate for Cutaneous Leishmaniaisis in Suriname

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ricardo V. P. F.; Straetemans, Masja; Kent, Alida D.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Lai A Fat, Rudy F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Standard treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname entails three injections of pentamidine isethionate (PI) 4 mg/kg per injection in 7 days (7 day regimen). Compliance to treatment is low and may contribute to increasing therapy failure. A 3 day regimen, including 2 injections of 7 mg/kg in 3 days may increase compliance. Methods In a randomized, single-blinded non-inferiority trial conducted in Suriname, 84 CL patients received the 7 day regimen and 79 CL patients received the 3 day regimen. Primary objective was the proportion of patients clinically cured at 6 weeks follow-up. Secondary objectives were clinical cure at 12 weeks follow-up; parasitological cure at 6 and 12 weeks; adverse and drug related toxicity events recorded one week after the end of treatment and health related quality of life. The non-inferiority margin was set at 15%, 1 sided test, ? = 0.1. Results At 6 weeks follow-up 31 (39%) patients in the 3 day regimen and 41 (49%) patients in the 7 day regimen were clinically cured. Intention to treat (ITT) analyses showed that the difference in proportion clinically cured was -9.6% (90% Confidence Interval (CI): -22.3% to 3.2%). Per protocol (PP) analysis showed that the difference in proportion clinically cured was 0.2% (90% CI: -14.6% to 15.2%). ITT analysis showed that the difference in proportion parasitological cured at 6 weeks was -15.2% (90% CI:-28.0% to -2.5%). PP analyses showed similar results. Non-inferiority could not be concluded for all adverse and toxicological events. Conclusion We cannot conclude that the 3 day regimen is non-inferior to the 7 day regimen regarding proportion clinically and parasitological cured. Therefore there is no evidence to change the current standard practice of the 7 day regimen for the treatment of CL in Suriname. PMID:25793773

  3. Predictive role of polymerase chain reaction in the early diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Elsa B; Rivero, Rocío; De Rissio, Ana María; Malagrino, Nora; Esteva, Mónica I; Riarte, Adelina Rosa; Ruiz, Andrés Mariano

    2014-09-01

    The efficacy of specific chemotherapy in congenital Chagas disease before the first year of life ranges between 90 and 100%. Between this age and 15 years of age, the efficacy decreases to around 60%. Therefore, early infection detection is a priority in vertical transmission. The aim of this work was to assess whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays a predictive role in the diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease as compared to conventional parasitological and serological methods. To this end, we studied a total of 468 children born to Trypanosoma cruzi seroreactive mothers came from Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay, who lived in the city of Buenos Aires and suburban areas (Argentina), a non-endemic area of this country. These children were assessed by PCR from 2004 to 2009 with the specific primers Tcz1 and Tcz2, and 121 and 122. PCR allowed detecting 49 T. cruzi-positive children. Eight of these 49 children were excluded from the analysis: six because they did not complete follow-up and two because the first control was performed after 12 months of age. Parasitological methods allowed detecting 25 positive children, 7 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.53±2.00 vs. 6.71±1.46 months; p=0.0002). Serological methods allowed detecting 16 positive children, 12 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.46±1.48 vs. 11.77±4.40 months; p<0.0001). None of the children negative by PCR was positive by serological or parasitological methods. This study shows that PCR allows early diagnosis in congenital Chagas disease. At present, an early positive PCR is not indicative for treatment. However, a positive PCR would alert the health system to search only those infected infants diagnosed by early PCR and thus generate greater efficiency in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital T. cruzi infection. PMID:24892867

  4. Evaluation of a gp63–PCR Based Assay as a Molecular Diagnosis Tool in Canine Leishmaniasis in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Guerbouj, Souheila; Djilani, Fattouma; Bettaieb, Jihene; Lambson, Bronwen; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Salah, Afif; Ben Ismail, Riadh; Guizani, Ikram

    2014-01-01

    A gp63PCR method was evaluated for the detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) (L.) parasites in canine lymph node aspirates. This tool was tested and compared to other PCRs based on the amplification of 18S ribosomal genes, a L. infantum specific repetitive sequence and kinetoplastic DNA minicircles, and to classical parasitological (smear examination and/or culture) or serological (IFAT) techniques on a sample of 40 dogs, originating from different L. infantum endemic regions in Tunisia. Sensitivity and specificity of all the PCR assays were evaluated on parasitologically confirmed dogs within this sample (N?=?18) and control dogs (N?=?45) originating from non–endemic countries in northern Europe and Australia. The gp63 PCR had 83.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity, a performance comparable to the kinetoplast PCR assay and better than the other assays. These assays had comparable results when the gels were southern transferred and hybridized with a radioactive probe. As different infection rates were found according to the technique, concordance of the results was estimated by (?) test. Best concordance values were between the gp63PCR and parasitological methods (74.6%, 95% confidence intervals CI: 58.8–95.4%) or serology IFAT technique (47.4%, 95% CI: 23.5–71.3%). However, taken together Gp63 and Rib assays covered most of the samples found positive making of them a good alternative for determination of infection rates. Potential of the gp63PCR-RFLP assay for analysis of parasite genetic diversity within samples was also evaluated using 5 restriction enzymes. RFLP analysis confirmed assignment of the parasites infecting the dogs to L. infantum species and illustrated occurrence of multiple variants in the different endemic foci. Gp63 PCR assay thus constitutes a useful tool in molecular diagnosis of L. infantum infections in dogs in Tunisia. PMID:25153833

  5. Plasmodium knowlesi as a Threat to Global Public Health.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Roland; Wozniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szewczyk-Golec, Karolina

    2015-10-01

    Malaria is a tropical disease caused by protozoans of the Plasmodium genus. Delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis are strongly associated with higher mortality. In recent years, a greater importance is attributed to Plasmodium knowlesi, a species found mainly in Southeast Asia. Routine parasitological diagnostics are associated with certain limitations and difficulties in unambiguous determination of the parasite species based only on microscopic image. Recently, molecular techniques have been increasingly used for predictive diagnosis. The aim of the study is to draw attention to the risk of travelling to knowlesi malaria endemic areas and to raise awareness among personnel involved in the therapeutic process. PMID:26537037

  6. Highly diluted medication reduces parasitemia and improves experimental infection evolution by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is no published information about the use of different protocols to administer a highly diluted medication. Evaluate the effect of different protocols for treatment with biotherapic T. cruzi 17 dH (BIOTTc17dH) on clinical/parasitological evolution of mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain. Methods A blind, randomized controlled trial was performed twice, using 60 28-day-old male Swiss mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain, in five treatment groups: CI - treated with a 7% ethanol-water solution, diluted in water (10 ?L/mL) ad libitum; BIOTPI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 ?L/mL) ad libitum during a period that started on the day of infection; BIOT4DI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 ?L/mL) ad libitum beginning on the 4th day of infection; BIOT4-5–6 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2?mL/ animal/day) on the 4th, 5th and 6th days after infection; BIOT7-8–9 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2?mL/ animal/day) on the 7th, 8th and 9th days after infection. We evaluated: parasitemia; total parasitemia (Ptotal); maximum peak of parasites; prepatent period (PPP) - time from infection to detection of the parasite in blood; patent period (PP) - period when the parasitemia can be detected in blood; clinical aspects; and mortality. Results Parasitological parameters in the BIOTPI and mainly in the BIOT4PI group showed better evolution of the infection compared to the control group (CI), with lower Ptotal, lower maximum peak of parasites, higher PPP, lower PP and longer survival times. These animals showed stable body temperature and higher weight gain and water consumption, with more animals having normal-appearing fur for longer periods. In contrast, groups BIOT4-5–6 and BIOT7-8–9 showed worse evolution of the infection compared to the control group, considering both parasitological and clinical parameters. The correlation analysis combined with the other data from this study indicated that the prepatent period is the best parameter to evaluate the effect of a medication in this model. Conclusions The BIOT4DI group showed the best clinical and parasitological evolution, with lower parasitemia and a trend toward lower mortality and a longer survival period. The prepatent period was the best parameter to evaluate the effect of a medication in this model. PMID:22784664

  7. [ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL RISK FOR CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE WATER RESERVOIRS BY PATHOGENS OF HUMAN PARASITIC DISEASES].

    PubMed

    Khromenkova, E P; Dimidova, L L; Dumbadze, O S; Aidinov, G T; Shendo, G L; Agirov, A Kh; Batchaev, Kh Kh

    2015-01-01

    Sanitary and parasitological studies of the waste effluents and surface reservoir waters were conducted in the south of Russia. The efficiency of purification of waste effluents from the pathogens of parasitic diseases was investigated in the region's sewage-purification facilities. The water of the surface water reservoirs was found to contain helminthic eggs and larvae and intestinal protozoan cysts because of the poor purification and disinfection of service fecal sewage waters. The poor purification and disinvasion of waste effluents in the region determine the potential risk of contamination of the surface water reservoirs and infection of the population with the pathogens of human parasitic diseases. PMID:26152029

  8. A large-scale field trial with dichlorvos as a residual fumigant insecticide in Northern Nigeria*

    PubMed Central

    Foll, C. V.; Pant, C. P.; Lietaert, P. E.

    1965-01-01

    An extended field trial with dichlorvos was carried out in the Kankiya District of Northern Nigeria during 1963. Two types of dispenser were used—the dichlorvos-impregnated-montan-wax type and the liquid-dichlorvos type. The objective of the trial was to see if dichlorvos would interrupt the transmission of malaria under local conditions when used at a dosage of one dispenser per 15 m3 of living space. On the basis of epidemiological findings—both parasitological and entomological—it was found that, owing to excessive ventilation in the huts treated, an adequate concentration of dichlorvos was not maintained, and transmission continued uninterrupted. PMID:14315721

  9. Pharmacological insights into the role of P2X4 receptors in behavioural regulation: lessons from ivermectin

    E-print Network

    Bortolato, Marco; Yardley, Megan M.; Khoja, Sheraz; Godar, Sean C.; Asatryan, Liana; Finn, Deborah A.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Louie, Stan G.; Davies, Daryl

    2013-06-01

    , Bernardi MM (2002). Possible anxiolytic effects of ivermectin in rats. Veterinary Research Communications 26, 309–321. Geary TG (2005). Ivermectin 20 years on : maturation of a wonder drug. Trends in Parasitology 21, 530–532. Gobbi G, Bambico FR, Mangieri R... of ivermectin. Veterinary Quarterly 11, 29–32. 1068 M. Bortolato et al. Baxter AW, Choi SJ, Sim JA, North RA (2011). Role of P2X4 receptors in synaptic strengthening in mouse CA1 hippocampal neurons. European Journal of Neuroscience 34, 213–220. Belzung C, Le...

  10. Spread and transmission of bacterial pathogens in experimental nematode populations of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    E-print Network

    Diaz, S. Anaid; Restif, Olivier

    2014-06-22

    of Caenorhabditis elegans. 2 3 Authors: S. Anaid Diaz*, Olivier Restif 4 5 Affiliations: Disease Dynamics Unit, Department of Veterinary Medicine, 6 Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ES, UK 7 8 Correspondence: *ad634@cam.ac.uk 9 10 11 12 13 2... are hypersusceptible to bacterial pathogens. International Journal for 630 Parasitology. 42: 747–753. 631 632 35. Conlan AJ, Line JE, Hiett K, Coward C, Van Diemen PM, Stevens MP, 633 Jones MA, Gog JR, Maskell DJ. 2011. Transmission and dose-response 634...

  11. [Strigiphilus strigis (Mallophaga: Philopteridae) in a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo interpositus) in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, U?ur

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo b. interpositus) was brought to the laboratory of Parasitology Department and was inspected for ectoparasites. Five Mallophaga specimens were collected from the eagle owl and they were mounted on slides in Faure forte medium after being cleared in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the lice were inspected and measured under the light microscope. All of the specimens were identified as Strigiphilus strigis (Pontoppidan 1763). This paper presents the first detection of S. strigis in Turkey. PMID:17471417

  12. V-shaped pits in regions of ancient Baekje kingdom paleoparasitologically confirmed as likely human-waste reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Shim, Sang-Yuck; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Suk Bae; Lee, Geon Il; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

    2014-10-01

    In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies. PMID:25352710

  13. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma evansi in dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) from the Canary Islands (Spain) using an antibody Ab-ELISA.

    PubMed

    Molina, J M; Ruiz, A; Juste, M C; Corbera, J A; Amador, R; Gutiérrez, C

    1999-10-19

    After the description in Grand Canary Island of a case of dromedary trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in 1998, an indirect enzyme immunoassay for the detection of specific anti-T. evansi IgG (Ab-ELISA) was used to assess the seroprevalence of this disease on the Canary Islands. Seroprevalence was 9.0% in the four studied islands (Gran Canaria, Tenerife, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura), varying from 10.0 to 7.5% by island (not significantly different). Prevalence using Ab-ELISA was higher than that observed when a parasitological method (microscopic observation of blood smears) was used (1.3%). PMID:11018734

  14. V-shaped Pits in Regions of Ancient Baekje Kingdom Paleoparasitologically Confirmed as Likely Human-Waste Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Shim, Sang-Yuck; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Suk Bae; Lee, Geon Il; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-01-01

    In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies. PMID:25352710

  15. Supplement 24, Part 6, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Treatment 

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.; Shaw, Judith H.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Kirby, Margie D.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Zidar, Judith A.

    1982-01-01

    Parasitology Institute, Agri- culture Research Service, U.S Department of Agriculture, but is published in hard copy by The Oryx Press. Shirley J. Edwards, Editor iii &bo? ? bras ???:?1 bru? o? ? jt^x'? torr bjj te ??; ? ?vj ( gn?nmgsR ? A :M1I... 51185 See BRL 51185 BRL 51312 See BRL 51312 BRL 51449 See BRL 51449 R[o] 5-4023 See Clonazepam Ro 5-9963 See 1-(2-Nitro-l-imidazolyl)1,2-pro- panediol WR 61112 See WR 61112 Ro 6-9224 See Ro 6-9224 LY69273 See Isopropyl 4-nitro-2,6-bis...

  16. Spirocerca lupi granulomatous pneumonia in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Blume, Guilherme R; Reis Junior, Janildo L; Gardiner, Chris H; Hoberg, Eric P; Pilitt, Patricia A; Monteiro, Rafael Veríssimo; de Sant'Ana, Fabiano J F

    2014-11-01

    The current report describes granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in 2 free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, soft, encapsulated granulomas in the caudal lung lobes, which contained centrally placed parasites on cut sections. Microscopically, there was granulomatous inflammation with numerous intralesional sections of spirurid nematodes. Representative complete adult specimens of nematodes derived from these lesions were submitted for parasitological exam and identified as the spirurid S. lupi. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no published reports of S. lupi in maned wolves. PMID:25319031

  17. Plasmodium knowlesi as a Threat to Global Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Roland; Wozniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szewczyk-Golec, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a tropical disease caused by protozoans of the Plasmodium genus. Delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis are strongly associated with higher mortality. In recent years, a greater importance is attributed to Plasmodium knowlesi, a species found mainly in Southeast Asia. Routine parasitological diagnostics are associated with certain limitations and difficulties in unambiguous determination of the parasite species based only on microscopic image. Recently, molecular techniques have been increasingly used for predictive diagnosis. The aim of the study is to draw attention to the risk of travelling to knowlesi malaria endemic areas and to raise awareness among personnel involved in the therapeutic process. PMID:26537037

  18. Infection with Crenosoma striatum lungworm in Long-eared Hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus) in Kerman province southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Hedgehogs are distributed in different areas of Iran. Unfortunately, clinical and parasitological studies on parasites of hedgehogs are very few. Crenosoma striatum is a common lungworm in hedgehogs. C. striatum infection can cause weight loss, dry cough, bronchitis with ulcerous reactions based on secondary bacterial infections, pulmonary damage, thickening of the tracheal wall, and pulmonary emphysema up to cardiovascular failure. In this survey, six dead hedgehogs (Hemiechinus auritus) were investigated for lungworm infection. All the six hedgehogs had C. striatum infection in their lungs. PMID:25732884

  19. The protective immune response produced in dogs after primary vaccination with the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish®) remains effective against an experimental challenge one year later

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Control of canine leishmaniasis is an important objective for the benefit of dogs living in or visiting endemic areas and for public health because of the zoonotic nature of this disease. Resistance or susceptibility to developing canine leishmaniasis after exposure to Leishmania infantum is primarily determined by the ability of the immune system to develop an appropriate Th1-dominated specific response to the parasite. For this reason there is a need for effective canine vaccines that can decrease the number of dogs developing progressive infections. In this study, we followed the impact of the LiESP/QA-21 canine vaccine (composed of excreted-secreted proteins of L. infantum and the QA-21 saponin adjuvant), recently launched commercially in Europe, on selected humoral and cellular immune parameters following an infectious intravenous challenge with L. infantum promastigotes administered one year after the primary vaccine course. We also followed parasitological parameters to determine the parasitological status of the challenged dogs. In contrast to controls, vaccinated dogs retained significantly stronger cell-mediated immune responses against the parasite despite a virulent challenge and had significantly lower mean parasite burdens at the end of the study, associated with a lower probability of developing active infections. These results confirm that the immune responses generated by vaccination with LiESP/QA-21 are still effective against an intravenous challenge one year after the primary vaccine course. PMID:24964736

  20. Revisiting the Posttherapeutic Cure Criterion in Chagas Disease: Time for New Methods, More Questions, Doubts, and Polemics or Time to Change Old Concepts?

    PubMed Central

    de Lana, Marta; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2015-01-01

    One of the most relevant issues beyond the effectiveness of etiological treatment of Chagas disease is the lack of consensual/feasible tools to identify and certify the definitive parasitological cure. Several methods of distinct natures (parasitological, serological, and molecular) have been continuously proposed and novel perspectives are currently under investigation. Although the simultaneous use of distinct tests may offer better contributions and advances, it also leads to controversies of interpretation, with lack of mutual consent of cure criterion amongst researchers and physicians. In fact, when distinct host compartments (blood/tissues) are evaluated and explored, novel questions may arise due to the nature and sensitivity limit of each test. This short analytical review intends to present a chronological and critical overview and discuss the state-of-the-art distinct devices available for posttherapeutic cure assessment in Chagas disease, their contributions, meanings, and interpretation, aiming to point out the major gaps and propose novel insight for future perspectives of posttherapeutic management of Chagas disease patients. PMID:26583124

  1. Audit of endoscopic surveillance biopsy specimens in HIV positive patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, S G; Lipman, M C; Squire, S; Pillay, D; Gillespie, S; Sankey, E A; Dhillon, A P; Johnson, M A; Lee, C A; Pounder, R E

    1993-01-01

    An audit of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in HIV infected patients with gastrointestinal symptoms assessed the frequency of disease detected by endoscopy and routine laboratory analysis of surveillance biopsy specimens. Sixty nine consecutive endoscopies were performed in 59 HIV infected patients. Endoscopic biopsy specimens were taken from the lower oesophagus, gastric antrum, and third part of the duodenum for virology, histopathology, parasitology, bacteriology, and mycobacterial culture. Endoscopic appearances detected disease in 25/59 (42.4%) patients (oesophageal candida, 14; oesophageal ulcer, 3; Kaposi's sarcoma, 4; others, 4), but only 4/43 (9.3%) specimens showed evidence of disease in the absence of endoscopic abnormality. Virology for cytomegalovirus (detection of early antigenic fluorescent foci and culture) was positive in 6/59 (10.2%) patients, but parasitology and mycobacterial culture were negative in all cases. Histopathology was abnormal in 11/52 (21%) oesophageal biopsy specimens, 13/47 (28%) gastric biopsy specimens, and 4/65 (6%) duodenal biopsy specimens. Abnormal findings were found predominantly in those with advanced HIV disease (CDC Stage IV) (21/33 patients (64%)) compared with those with early HIV disease (CDC Stage II) (5/26 (19%)). In conclusion, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy detects macroscopic disease in AIDS patients and those with low CD4 counts, but routine surveillance biopsy specimens of apparently normal bowel in early HIV disease (or where CD4 counts are greater than 0.2 x 10(9)/1) are of little value. PMID:8244115

  2. Hidden biodiversity in an ancient lake: phylogenetic congruence between Lake Tanganyika tropheine cichlids and their monogenean flatworm parasites

    PubMed Central

    Vanhove, Maarten P. M.; Pariselle, Antoine; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A. M.; Hablützel, Pascal I.; Gillardin, Céline; Hellemans, Bart; Breman, Floris C.; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A. M.; Huyse, Tine

    2015-01-01

    The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebrate radiation, we study monogenean parasites infecting tropheine cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Monogeneans are flatworms usually infecting the body surface and gills of fishes. In contrast to many other parasites, they depend only on a single host species to complete their lifecycle. Our spatially comprehensive combined nuclear-mitochondrial DNA dataset of the parasites covering almost all tropheine host species (N?=?18), reveals species-rich parasite assemblages and shows consistent host-specificity. Statistical comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies based on distance and topology-based tests demonstrate significant congruence and suggest that host-switching is rare. Molecular rate evaluation indicates that species of Cichlidogyrus probably diverged synchronically with the initial radiation of the tropheines. They further diversified through within-host speciation into an overlooked species radiation. The unique life history and specialisation of certain parasite groups has profound evolutionary consequences. Hence, evolutionary parasitology adds a new dimension to the study of biodiversity hotspots like Lake Tanganyika. PMID:26335652

  3. Response of falciparum malaria to different antimalarials in Myanmar.

    PubMed Central

    Ejov, M. N.; Tun, T.; Aung, S.; Sein, K.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to ascertain the therapeutic efficacy of different treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the hospitals in Sagaing, northern and eastern Shan, to facilitate updating the existing national antimalarial drug policy. The proposed 14-day trial for monitoring the efficacy of treatments of uncomplicated falciparum malaria is an efficient method for identifying treatment failure patterns at the intermediate level (township hospital) in the Union of Myanmar. Minimal clinical and parasitological data for days 0-14 were required to classify treatment failure and success. Clinical and parasitiological responses on day 3 and days 4-14 were used as clear examples of early and late treatment failure, respectively. Mefloquine is five times more likely to be effective than chloroquine and sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (S-P), whereas chloroquine and S-P treatments have nearly identical failure patterns. The alarming frequency of clinical and parasitological failure (failure rate > 50%) following chloroquine treatment was reported in Sagaing and following S-P treatment in Sagaing and eastern Shan. PMID:10212515

  4. Sicarius uncinipenis and Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi in captive greater rheas of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Isabela de Oliveira; Almeida, Lara Ribeiro de; Santos, Hudson Andrade Dos; Lima, Walter Dos Santos; Lara, Leonardo Bôscoli; Ecco, Roselene

    2014-01-01

    The present study details the pathological and parasitological findings of parasitic ventriculitis and nematode infections in the large intestines of two female Rhea americana americana birds. The birds were housed in captivity, and both exhibited poor body condition and lethargy. The rheas were sent to the Veterinary Hospital of the Veterinary School, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) and, despite medical care, the clinical condition of the birds did not improve. The birds died two days after admission, and were submitted to necropsy. Gross, histopathology and parasitological analysis resulted in the identification of Sicarius uncinipenis, which is associated with parasitic ventriculitis, while Deletrocephalus cesarpintoi was identified in the large intestine of both rheas. The apparent clinical indications, including loss of appetite and death, combined with the discovery of numerous parasites and other pathology changes, supported the conclusion that the death of the birds was caused by the parasitic infection. Further investigations of these infections in free-living and captive rheas are required, such that accurate data on the incidence and pathogenicity of these parasites can be obtained. PMID:25271456

  5. [Nondermatophytic and noncandidal fungi isolated in Le Dantec University hospital of Dakar in 2014: Epidemiological, clinical and mycological study].

    PubMed

    Diongue, K; Diallo, M A; Badiane, A S; Seck, M C; Ndiaye, M; Ndoye, N W; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Déme, A; Ndiaye, I M; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the incidence of superficial fungal infections involving nondermatophytic and noncandidal fungi increased considerably. The objective of this work was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and mycological fungal infections due to nondermatophytic and noncandidal fungi diagnosed in the laboratory of parasitology-mycology of Le Dantec hospital in Dakar. With a retrospective study of the various cases of nondermatophytic and noncandidal fungi isolated in the laboratory of parasitology-mycology during the period of November 2013 to December 2014, we collected 22 cases of infections in 11 men and 11 women; age ranging from 17 to 75 years with a mean of 45.3 years (sex ratio=1): eight cases of intertrigo, seven cases of onychomycosis, four cases of palmoplantar keratoderma (KPP), a case of onychomycosis associated with interdigital intertrigo, a case of infectious myositis and one case of African histoplasmosis. We have isolated and identified a total of 22 nondermatophytic and noncandidal fungi: ten Fusarium, five Trichosporon, two Chrysosporium, two Geotrichum, one Rhodotorula, one Neoscytalidium dimidiatum and one Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii. So we are seeing the emergence of nondermatophytic and noncandidal increasingly isolated from superficial and local lesions. These fungi, generally contaminants or commensal, cause a problem regarding their direct involvement in pathological processes in which they are isolated. So we should respect the recommendations proposed for their involvement in pathological processes and, by a collaboration between clinician and biologist, demonstrate their real involvement through effective, targeted treatment. PMID:26138533

  6. Changing patterns of malaria during 1996-2010 in an area of moderate transmission in Southern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria is reportedly receding in different epidemiological settings, but local long-term surveys are limited. At Mlomp dispensary in south-western Senegal, an area of moderate malaria transmission, year-round, clinically-suspected malaria was treated with monotherapy as per WHO and national policy in the 1990s. Since 2000, there has been a staggered deployment of artesunate-amodiaquine after parasitological confirmation; this was adopted nationally in 2006. Methods Data were extracted from clinic registers for the period between January 1996 and December 2010, analysed and modelled. Results Over the 15-year study period, the risk of malaria decreased about 32-times (from 0.4 to 0.012 episodes person-year), while anti-malarial treatments decreased 13-times (from 0.9 to 0.07 treatments person-year) and consultations for fever decreased 3-times (from 1.8 to 0.6 visits person-year). This was paralleled by changes in the age profile of malaria patients so that the risk of malaria is now almost uniformly distributed throughout life, while in the past malaria used to concern more children below 16 years of age. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence of malaria risk receding between 1996-2010 and becoming equal throughout life where transmission used to be moderate. Infection rates are no longer enough to sustain immunity. Temporally, this coincides with deploying artemisinin combinations on parasitological confirmation, but other contributing causes are unclear. PMID:21787420

  7. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Carrilho, Flair José; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs). This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK); Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA-) IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM); and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT) as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4%) showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%). All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82–95.5%), differed significantly from COPT in positivity (P < 0.05), and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377) and IFA (Kappa = 0.347). Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs. PMID:26504777

  8. Nitazoxanide in the treatment of Ascaris lumbricoides in a rural zone of Colima, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galvan-Ramirez, M L; Rivera, N; Loeza, M E; Avila, X; Acero, J; Troyo, R; Bernal, R

    2007-09-01

    Intestinal parasites in Mexico are an endemic problem. A study was conducted in children, teenagers and adults in a rural community in Colima, Mexico to examine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infection and to evaluate the parasitological and clinical efficacy of nitazoxanide (NTZ). Two hundred and eighty children, teenagers and adults participated in this study. Parasitological diagnosis from faeces was confirmed by three consecutive stool samples using the floatation concentration Faust method. Egg counts were performed as described by the Kato-Katz technique before and after treatment. A questionnaire was systematically applied to obtain information about socio-economic status and hygienic habits. One hundred and six participants (38%) were diagnosed as harbouring intestinal parasites, and 86 of them (81%) were infected with A. lumbricoides. All patients with ascariasis infections underwent a complete physical examination before and after NTZ treatment. NTZ resolved 88% of the ascariasis cases, with a 89% clinical efficacy, and there was a 97.5% reduction in the levels of morbidity. The most intense infections for A. lumbricoides were found in housewives, and statistically significant associations were found between ascariasis and the absence of drainage and living in houses with dirt floors. PMID:17594741

  9. Where are the parasites in food webs?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies) focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles. PMID:23092160

  10. Effect of bait decomposition on the attractiveness to species of Diptera of veterinary and forensic importance in a rainforest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego L; Soares, Thiago F; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2016-01-01

    Insects associated with carrion can have parasitological importance as vectors of several pathogens and causal agents of myiasis to men and to domestic and wild animals. We tested the attractiveness of animal baits (chicken liver) at different stages of decomposition to necrophagous species of Diptera (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Sarcophagidae) in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Five types of bait were used: fresh and decomposed at room temperature (26 °C) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A positive correlation was detected between the time of decomposition and the abundance of Calliphoridae and Muscidae, whilst the abundance of adults of Phoridae decreased with the time of decomposition. Ten species of calliphorids were registered, of which Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Chloroprocta idioidea showed a positive significant correlation between abundance and decomposition. Specimens of Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae did not discriminate between fresh and highly decomposed baits. A strong female bias was registered for all species of Calliphoridae irrespective of the type of bait. The results reinforce the feasibility of using animal tissues as attractants to a wide diversity of dipterans of medical, parasitological and forensic importance in short-term surveys, especially using baits at intermediate stages of decomposition. PMID:26547564

  11. Monthly application of 10 per cent moxidectin and 2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on to prevent relapses in generalised demodicosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Colombo, S; Leone, F; Vercelli, A; Cornegliani, L

    2012-09-15

    Canine generalised demodicosis (GD) can be difficult to cure, with some dogs requiring life-long treatment. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of monthly 10 per cent moxidectin/2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on in maintaining long-term (12 months) clinical and parasitological remission in dogs with relapsing GD. Fourteen dogs were included: 10 with juvenile-onset GD (JOGD) and four with adult-onset GD (AOGD). All dogs had been treated previously and relapsed (1-4 times). Each dog was treated again with either milbemycin oxime 2 mg/kg or ivermectin 400 ?g/kg orally once daily, until two consecutive negative skin scrapings at one-month intervals (total 4-7 months of treatment). After treatment discontinuation, 10 per cent moxidectin/2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on was applied monthly for 12 months. Dogs were rechecked after 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months, and multiple skin scrapings were taken. Twelve dogs completed the study and were clinically normal and parasitologically negative at each recheck (four dogs with AOGD and eight with JOGD). One dog died suddenly for unrelated reasons, and one dog relapsed. Results of this pilot study suggest that monthly application of 10 per cent moxidectin/2.5 per cent imidacloprid spot-on may be effective as maintenance therapy in relapsing cases of GD. PMID:22791522

  12. Parasite histories and novel phylogenetic tools: alternative approaches to inferring parasite evolution from molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Hypsa, Václav

    2006-02-01

    Parasitological research is often contingent on the knowledge of the phylogeny/genealogy of the studied group. Although molecular phylogenetics has proved to be a powerful tool in such investigations, its application in the traditional fashion, based on a tree inference from the primary nucleotide sequences may, in many cases, be insufficient or even improper. These limitations are due to a number of factors, such as a scarcity/ambiguity of phylogenetic information in the sequences, an intricacy of gene relationships at low phylogenetic levels, or a lack of criteria when deciding among several competing coevolutionary scenarios. With respect to the importance of a precise and reliable phylogenetic background in many biological studies, attempts are being made to extend molecular phylogenetics with a variety of new data sources and methodologies. In this review, selected approaches potentially applicable to parasitological research are presented and their advantages as well as drawbacks are discussed. These issues include the usage of idiosyncratic markers (unique features with presumably low probability of homoplasy), such as insertion of mobile elements, gene rearrangements and secondary structure features; the problem of ancestral polymorphism and reticulate relationships at low phylogenetic levels; and the utility of a molecular clock to facilitate discrimination among alternative scenarios in host-parasite coevolution. PMID:16387305

  13. DETECTION OF GIARDIA INTESTINALIS COPROANTIGENS IN DIARRHEIC SAMPLES BY IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC AND ELISATECHNIQUES.

    PubMed

    Selim, Monira Abd El-Wahab; Taha, Afaf Abd El-Raouf; El-Aal, Naglaa Fathy Abd; Farag, Tahani Ismail; Yousef, Asmaa Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Giardia intestinalis is one of the most common diarrhea-causing protozoa. The present study aimed to search for specific and sensitive diagnostic tests to avoid loss of infected cases with Giardia intestinalis by detection of G. intestinalis coproantigens in diarrheic samples through comparison between direct parasitological method, an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic test (ICT). A comparative cross-sectional study including 75 cases suffering from diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of intestinal giardiasis as abdominal distention, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and weight loss, and 25 cases were without any clinical manifestations enrolled in this study. For every case, complete history taking and full clinical examination were done. Stool samples were collected from all cases and investigated by direct parasitological method, ELISA, and immunochromatographic techniques. The results showed that the sensitivity of immunochromatographic technique was 96% and specificity was 96% while sensitivity of ELISA was 98% and specificity was 96% on comparing their results to the microscopic examination of stool samples for Giardia intestinalis. PMID:26485845

  14. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Xia, Congcong; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes) into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space. PMID:26054518

  15. Hidden biodiversity in an ancient lake: phylogenetic congruence between Lake Tanganyika tropheine cichlids and their monogenean flatworm parasites.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Pariselle, Antoine; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Hablützel, Pascal I; Gillardin, Céline; Hellemans, Bart; Breman, Floris C; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

    2015-01-01

    The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebrate radiation, we study monogenean parasites infecting tropheine cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Monogeneans are flatworms usually infecting the body surface and gills of fishes. In contrast to many other parasites, they depend only on a single host species to complete their lifecycle. Our spatially comprehensive combined nuclear-mitochondrial DNA dataset of the parasites covering almost all tropheine host species (N?=?18), reveals species-rich parasite assemblages and shows consistent host-specificity. Statistical comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies based on distance and topology-based tests demonstrate significant congruence and suggest that host-switching is rare. Molecular rate evaluation indicates that species of Cichlidogyrus probably diverged synchronically with the initial radiation of the tropheines. They further diversified through within-host speciation into an overlooked species radiation. The unique life history and specialisation of certain parasite groups has profound evolutionary consequences. Hence, evolutionary parasitology adds a new dimension to the study of biodiversity hotspots like Lake Tanganyika. PMID:26335652

  16. Evaluation of an immunochemotherapeutic protocol constituted of N-methyl meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) and the recombinant Leish-110f + MPL-SE vaccine to treat canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Miret, Jorge; Nascimento, Evaldo; Sampaio, Weverton; França, João Carlos; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Vale, André; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Vieira, Edvá; da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Mayrink, Wilson; Campos Neto, Antonio; Reed, Steven

    2008-03-17

    The evaluation of the efficacy of an immunochemotherapy protocol to treat symptomatic dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi was studied. This clinical trial had the purpose to test the combination of N-methyl meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime and the second generation recombinant vaccine Leish-110f plus the adjuvant MPL-SE to treat the canine leishmaniasis (CanL). Thirty symptomatic naturally infected mongrel dogs were divided into five groups. Animals received standard treatment with Glucantime or treatment with Glucantime Leish-110f + MPL-SEas immunochemotherapy protocol. Additional groups received Leish-110f + MPL-SE only, MPL-SE only, or placebo. Evaluation of haematological, biochemical (renal and hepatic function) and plasmatic proteins, immunological (humoral and cellular immune response) and the parasitological test revealed improvement of the clinical parameters and parasitological cure in dogs in both chemotherapy alone and immunochemotherapy cohorts. However, the immunotherapy and immunochemotherapy cohorts had reduced number of deaths, higher survival probability, and specific cellular reactivity to leishmanial antigens, in comparison with chemotherapy cohort only and control groups (adjuvant alone and placebo). These results support the notion of using well-characterized recombinant vaccine as an adjunct to improve the current chemotherapy of CanL. PMID:18328956

  17. Quality of uncomplicated malaria case management in Ghana among insured and uninsured patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The National Health Insurance Act, 2003 (Act 650) established the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana with the aim of increasing access to health care and improving the quality of basic health care services for all citizens. The main objective is to assess the effect of health insurance on the quality of case management for patients with uncomplicated malaria, ascertaining any significant differences in treatment between insured and non-insured patients. Method A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 523 respondents diagnosed with malaria and prescribed malaria drugs from public and private health facilities in 3 districts across Ghana’s three ecological zones. Collected information included initial examinations performed on patients (temperature, weight, age, blood pressure and pulse); observations of malaria symptoms by trained staff, laboratory tests conducted and type of drugs prescribed. Insurance status of patients, age, gender, education level and occupation were asked in the interviews. Results Of the 523 patients interviewed, only 40 (8%) were uninsured. Routine recording of the patients’ age, weight, and temperature was high in all the facilities. In general, assessments needed to identify suspected malaria were low in all the facilities with hot body/fever and headache ranking the highest and convulsion ranking the lowest. Parasitological assessments in all the facilities were also very low. All patients interviewed were prescribed ACTs which is in adherence to the drug of choice for malaria treatment in Ghana. However, there were no significant differences in the quality of malaria treatment given to the uninsured and insured patients. Conclusion Adherence to the standard protocol of malaria treatment is low. This is especially the case for parasitological confirmation of all suspected malaria patients before treatment with an antimalarial as currently recommended for the effective management of malaria in the country. The results show that about 16 percent of total sample were parasitologically tested. Effective management of the disease demands proper diagnosis and treatment and therefore facilities need to be adequately supplied with RDTs or be equipped with well functioning laboratories to provide adequate testing. PMID:25056139

  18. Efficacy of 5-Nitroimidazoles for the Treatment of Giardiasis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Abhishek; Thota, Priyaleela; Roman, Yuani; Hernandez, Adrian V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of giardiasis. We evaluated the efficacy of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) in the treatment of giardiasis in a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for RCTs evaluating the efficacy of 5-NI vs. control (placebo or active treatment) on parasitological cure in patients with parasitologically-demonstrated giardiasis. The search was performed in May 2013 with no language restriction by two authors independently. The efficacy outcome was parasitological cure, and harmful outcomes were abdominal pain, bitter or metallic taste, and headache. We included 30 RCTs (n?=?3,930). There was a significant and slightly higher response rate with 5-NI in giardiasis treatment (RR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.11, p?=?0.005). There was high heterogeneity among studies (I2?=?72%). The response rates for metronidazole, tinidazole and secnidazole were similar (RR 1.05, 95%CI 1.01–1.09, p?=?0.01; RR 1.32 95%CI 1.10–1.59, p?=?0.003; and RR 1.18 95%CI 0.93–1.449, p?=?0.18, respectively). On subgroup analyses, the response rates did not vary substantially and high heterogeneity persisted (I2?=?57%–80%). Harmful outcomes were uncommon, and 5-NIs were associated with lower risk of abdominal pain, and higher risk of both bitter or metallic taste and headache. Conclusions Studies investigating the efficacy of 5-NI in giardiasis treatment are highly heterogeneous. 5-NIs have a slightly better efficacy and worse profile for mild harmful outcomes in the treatment of giardiasis in comparison to controls. Larger high quality RCTs are needed to further assess efficacy and safety profiles of 5-NI. PMID:24625554

  19. Efficacy of a Novel Sublingual Spray Formulation of Artemether in African Children with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rulisa, Stephen; Ansah, Patrick; Sirima, Sodiomon

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in two studies. In study 1, 31 children were randomized to sublingual artemether (n = 16) or intravenous (i.v.) quinine (n = 15). In study 2, 151 children were randomized to sublingual artemether (n = 77) or i.v. quinine (n = 74). For both studies, patients weighed between 5 and 15 kg and had either severe or complicated malaria based on WHO criteria, or they had uncomplicated malaria but were unable to tolerate oral medication as a result of nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Patients received either 3 mg/kg of body weight of sublingual artemether or a loading dose of 20 mg/kg of i.v. quinine followed by 10 mg/kg every 8 h i.v. thereafter. The primary endpoint was parasitological success, defined as a reduction in parasite count of ?90% of that at baseline at 24 h after the first dose. Other endpoints based on parasite clearance and clinical response were evaluated. In study 1, there were parasitological success rates of 93.3% (14/15) and 66.7% (10/15) for the sublingual artemether and quinine treatments, respectively. In study 2, 94.3% (66/70) of the ArTiMist-treated patients and 39.4% (28/71) of the quinine-treated patients had parasitological success (P < 0.0001). Indicators of parasite clearance (parasite clearance time [PCT], time for parasite count to fall by 50% [PCT50], time for parasite count to fall by 90% [PCT90], and percent reduction in parasitemia from baseline at 24 h [PRR24]) were significantly superior for children treated with sublingual artemether compared to those treated with i.v. quinine. There were no differences between treatments for the clinical endpoints, such as fever clearance time. The local tolerability of sublingual artemether was good. Sublingual artemether leads to rapid parasite clearance and clinical recovery. (Studies 1 and 2 are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration numbers NCT01047436 and NCT01258049, respectively.) PMID:26303805

  20. Efficacy of a Novel Sublingual Spray Formulation of Artemether in African Children with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Bendel, Daryl; Rulisa, Stephen; Ansah, Patrick; Sirima, Sodiomon

    2015-11-01

    The efficacy of sublingual artemether (ArTiMist) was investigated in two studies. In study 1, 31 children were randomized to sublingual artemether (n = 16) or intravenous (i.v.) quinine (n = 15). In study 2, 151 children were randomized to sublingual artemether (n = 77) or i.v. quinine (n = 74). For both studies, patients weighed between 5 and 15 kg and had either severe or complicated malaria based on WHO criteria, or they had uncomplicated malaria but were unable to tolerate oral medication as a result of nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Patients received either 3 mg/kg of body weight of sublingual artemether or a loading dose of 20 mg/kg of i.v. quinine followed by 10 mg/kg every 8 h i.v. thereafter. The primary endpoint was parasitological success, defined as a reduction in parasite count of ?90% of that at baseline at 24 h after the first dose. Other endpoints based on parasite clearance and clinical response were evaluated. In study 1, there were parasitological success rates of 93.3% (14/15) and 66.7% (10/15) for the sublingual artemether and quinine treatments, respectively. In study 2, 94.3% (66/70) of the ArTiMist-treated patients and 39.4% (28/71) of the quinine-treated patients had parasitological success (P < 0.0001). Indicators of parasite clearance (parasite clearance time [PCT], time for parasite count to fall by 50% [PCT50], time for parasite count to fall by 90% [PCT90], and percent reduction in parasitemia from baseline at 24 h [PRR24]) were significantly superior for children treated with sublingual artemether compared to those treated with i.v. quinine. There were no differences between treatments for the clinical endpoints, such as fever clearance time. The local tolerability of sublingual artemether was good. Sublingual artemether leads to rapid parasite clearance and clinical recovery. (Studies 1 and 2 are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration numbers NCT01047436 and NCT01258049, respectively.). PMID:26303805

  1. Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial-temporal models.

    PubMed

    Alegana, Victor A; Atkinson, Peter M; Wright, Jim A; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2013-12-01

    As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

  2. Posthodiplostomum sp. Metacercariae in the trunk muscle of northern snakeheads (Channa argus) from the Fushinogawa River, Yamaguchi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thinh Cong; Li, Ying-Chun; Makouloutou, Patrice; Jimenez, Lea AngSinco; Sato, Hiroshi

    2012-10-01

    The northern snakehead Channa argus, native to China, Russia and Korea, is currently found widespread throughout Japan following its original introduction during the 1920s. A parasitological study of 10 snakeheads fished from the Fushinogawa River running through Yamaguchi City, Japan, detected 2-101 (average, 23.7) metacercariae per 100 g of trunk muscle from each fish. The trematode was identified as metacercariae of Posthodiplostomum sp. (Strigeidida: Diplostomidae) morphologically and characterized genetically based on the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA). Phylogenetic trees were constructed on the basis of either the 18S, ITS or 28S region of rDNA to assess the relationship among members of the family Diplostomidae. The addition of genetic data from more diplostomid taxa, particularly Posthodiplostomum cuticola recorded from a variety of freshwater fish in Eurasia, would facilitate the precise identification of the present species. PMID:22673085

  3. The impact of multiple infections on wild animal hosts: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Field parasitological studies consistently demonstrate the reality of polyparasitism in natural systems. However, only recently, studies from ecological and evolutionary fields have emphasised a broad spectrum of potential multiple infections-related impacts. The main goal of our review is to reunify the different approaches on the impacts of polyparasitism, not only from laboratory or human medical studies but also from field or theoretical studies. We put forward that ecological and epidemiological determinants to explain the level of polyparasitism, which regularly affects not only host body condition, survival or reproduction but also host metabolism, genetics or immune investment. Despite inherent limitations of all these studies, multiple infections should be considered more systematically in wildlife to better appreciate the importance of parasite diversity in wildlife, cumulative effects of parasitism on the ecology and evolution of their hosts. PMID:22957114

  4. Evaluation of a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a nonendemic setting

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Luis; Marques, Alexandre Ferreira; Gállego, Montserrat; Sanz, Sílvia; Tebar, Sílvia; Riera, Cristina; Quintó, Llorenç; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Almeida, Igor C; Gascon, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    The disappearance of lytic, protective antibodies (Abs) from the serum of patients with Chagas disease is accepted as a reliable indicator of parasitological cure. The efficiency of a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a purified, trypomastigote-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucin antigen for the serologic detection of lytic Abs against Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in a nonendemic setting using a panel of 92 positive and 58 negative human sera. The technique proved to be highly sensitive {100%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 96-100} and specific (98.3%; 95% CI = 90.7-99.7), with a kappa score of 0.99. Therefore, this assay can be used to detect active T. cruzi infection and to monitor trypanosomicidal treatment. PMID:24271047

  5. Sanitary study of surface water and of the beach of a water sports and leisure complex.

    PubMed Central

    Chabasse, D.; Laine, P.; Simitzis-Le-Flohic, A. M.; Martineau, B.; el Hourch, M.; Becaud, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the parasitological, bacteriological, mycological and physicochemical data obtained from both surface water and beach sand of a lake used for water sports. These show that the lake is contaminated in both winter and spring by water which overflows from the River Maine, and is self-purified by a mechanism of 'lagunage'. In summer signs of pollution are at their lowest level although use of the complex is at its peak. Conversely, the amoebic flora, which is independent of the usual criteria of pollution, predominates in summer, and serves as a marker for the need for increased surveillance. The sand of the beaches does not appear to show any infectious hazard. Environmental pressure will doubtless change these data over a period of time, and it is planned to monitor this. PMID:3734425

  6. Use of RNAlater® as a preservation method for parasitic coprology studies in wild-living chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Drakulovski, P.; Locatelli, S.; Butel, C.; Pion, S.; Krasteva, D.; Mougdi-Pole, E.; Delaporte, E.; Peeters, M.; Mallié, M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the use of an RNA stabilisation buffer, RNAlater® (Ambion, Austin, Texas), as a preservation medium for parasitic coprology analysis of faecal samples collected from chimpanzees living in the wild (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). Thirty faecal samples collected in the forests of south-east Cameroon (Mambele area) from 2003 to 2011 were preserved in RNAlater® at ?80 °C and analysed for their parasite content. We identified and counted parasitic elements and assessed their shape, size and morphology in relation to the storage time of the samples. We found that parasite elements were identifiable in RNAlater® preserved samples after as many as 7 years, showing that RNAlater® could be an effective and reliable preservation medium for coprology. Thus, its use could be an interesting way to optimise sample collection for several types of studies (parasitology and bacteriology/virology) at once, especially considering the logistically challenging and time-consuming field campaigns needed to obtain these faecal samples. PMID:23850999

  7. First case of amebic liver abscess 22 years after the first occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Nespola, Benoît; Betz, Valérie; Brunet, Julie; Gagnard, Jean-Charles; Krummel, Yves; Hansmann, Yves; Hannedouche, Thierry; Christmann, Daniel; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Filisetti, Denis; Pesson, Bernard; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old man consulted in November 2012 for abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. The patient had a history of suspected hepatic amebiasis treated in Senegal in 1985 and has not traveled to endemic areas since 1990. Abdominal CT scan revealed a liver abscess. At first, no parasitological tests were performed and the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Only after failure of this therapy, serology and PCR performed after liver abscess puncture established the diagnosis of hepatic amebiasis. The patient was treated with metronidazole and tiliquinol-tilbroquinol. Amebic liver abscess is the most frequent extra-intestinal manifestation. Hepatic amebiasis 22 years after the last visit to an endemic area is exceptional and raises questions on the mechanisms of latency and recurrence of these intestinal protozoan parasites. PMID:26088504

  8. First case of amebic liver abscess 22 years after the first occurrence.

    PubMed

    Nespola, Benoît; Betz, Valérie; Brunet, Julie; Gagnard, Jean-Charles; Krummel, Yves; Hansmann, Yves; Hannedouche, Thierry; Christmann, Daniel; Pfaff, Alexander W; Filisetti, Denis; Pesson, Bernard; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old man consulted in November 2012 for abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. The patient had a history of suspected hepatic amebiasis treated in Senegal in 1985 and has not traveled to endemic areas since 1990. Abdominal CT scan revealed a liver abscess. At first, no parasitological tests were performed and the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Only after failure of this therapy, serology and PCR performed after liver abscess puncture established the diagnosis of hepatic amebiasis. The patient was treated with metronidazole and tiliquinol-tilbroquinol. Amebic liver abscess is the most frequent extra-intestinal manifestation. Hepatic amebiasis 22 years after the last visit to an endemic area is exceptional and raises questions on the mechanisms of latency and recurrence of these intestinal protozoan parasites. PMID:26088504

  9. History and development of research on wildlife parasites in southern Africa, with emphasis on terrestrial mammals, especially ungulates

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Kerstin; Horak, Ivan G.; Penzhorn, Banie

    2014-01-01

    The history of wildlife parasitology in South Africa, and to some extent southern Africa, is reviewed, giving a brief overview of the early years and following its development from the founding of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in 1908 until the turn of the century. An emphasis is placed on game species. The main findings on protozoan parasites, including those of carnivores, are presented, starting in the 1890s and leading up to the first decade of the 21st century. Important developments with regard to the studies of arthropod and helminth parasites took place during a period of three decades, starting from the 1970s. Because of the sheer volume of work done by parasitologists during this time, this particular part of the overview concentrates on South African authors or authors working in South Africa at the time, and is limited to hosts that are members of the order Perissodactyla and the superorder Cetartiodactyla. PMID:25830101

  10. A novel myxozoan parasite of terrestrial mammals: description of Soricimyxum minuti sp. n. (Myxosporea) in pygmy shrew Sorex minutus from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Cech, Gabor; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras

    2015-01-01

    As part of a biodiversity study in northwestern Hungary, we conducted a parasitological survey of small mammals. In both common shrews (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) and pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus Linnaeus), we found myxospores of a species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 (Myxosporea) and plasmodia in the bile ducts within the liver. Spores from both species of shrewswere morphologically and morphometrically indistinguishable, but differed in their SSU rRNA gene sequences by 3.3%. We identified spores and developmental stages from the common shrew as Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007, based on morphometric data and DNA sequence similarity. Spores from the pygmy shrew were only 96.7% similar to S. fegati, hence we identified them as a novel myxosporean Soricimyxum minuti sp. n. This is only the second myxosporean parasite species described from mammals. PMID:26370293

  11. Use of Proficiency Testing as a Tool to Improve Quality in Microbiology Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Stang, Heather L.; Anderson, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Proficiency testing (PT) is a valuable tool for assessing laboratory performance and verifying the accuracy and reliability of test results. Participation is required by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 for each of the microbiology subspecialties (bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology, and virology), and the regulations include specific PT requirements for each subspecialty. To determine the use and perceived value of PT beyond meeting CLIA requirements, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded a cooperative agreement with the Association of Public Health Laboratories to convene a series of focus groups to query laboratory professionals responsible for PT. The seven focus groups were comprised of 60 laboratory professionals representing large and small clinical laboratories, microbiology subspecialties, and public health. While participants acknowledged the need to perform PT to meet regulatory requirements, many also cited benefits and challenges beyond regulatory compliance.

  12. Sugarcane and mulberry silage supplementation of sheep during the peripartum period.

    PubMed

    David, Caroline Marçal Gomes; Costa, Ricardo Lopes Dias da; Parren, Guadalupe Aparecida Espicaski; Rua, Miguel Alejandro Silva; Nordi, Ellen Carolina Pereira; Okamoto, Fumiko; Paz, Cláudia Cristina Paro

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with silage made from sugarcane alone or mulberry and sugarcane on the gastrointestinal nematodes and hematological parameters in peripartum Santa Inês ewes. Three groups, each of 15 ewes, were supplemented with either 100 % sugarcane silage or sugarcane silage and mulberry at ratios of either 75:25 or 50:50. The variables analyzed were weight, body condition, packed cell volume, total plasma protein, hemoglobin, total leukocytes, eosinophils, and number of parasite eggs per gram of feces. All variables were measured individually every 14 days, making ten samples per ewe. Diets with sugarcane added to different proportions of mulberry branches did not influence the blood and parasitological parameters of Santa Inês sheep naturally infected in the peripartum period. PMID:25761641

  13. Tannin containing legumes as a model for nutraceuticals against digestive parasites in livestock.

    PubMed

    Hoste, H; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Sotiraki, S; Louvandini, H; Thamsborg, S M; Terrill, T H

    2015-08-15

    Parasitic infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) still represent a worldwide major pathological threat associated with the outdoor production of various livestock species. Because of the widespread resistance to synthetic chemical anthelmintics, there is a strong impetus to explore novel approaches for a more integrated management of these infections. The use of nutraceuticals in the control of GINs is one of the alternatives which has been widely studied for 20 years. The objectives of this review are: (i) to define and illustrate the concept of 'nutraceutical' in the context of veterinary parasitology based on data obtained on the most studied models to control GINs in small ruminants, the tannin-containing legumes (Fabaceae); (ii) to illustrate how the 'nutraceutical concept' could be expanded to other plants, other livestock production systems and other GI parasitic diseases, and (iii) to explain how this concept is opening up new research fields for better understanding the interactions between the host, the digestive parasites and the environment. PMID:26190131

  14. A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Amandine; Knapp, Jenny; Demonmerot, Florent; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Raoul, Francis; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Damy, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS) was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language). The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology) and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries. PMID:25526544

  15. FIRST REPORT OF ACUTE CHAGAS DISEASE BY VECTOR TRANSMISSION IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    SANGENIS, Luiz Henrique Conde; DE SOUSA, Andréa Silvestre; SPERANDIO DA SILVA, Gilberto Marcelo; XAVIER, Sérgio Salles; MACHADO, Carolina Romero Cardoso; BRASIL, Patrícia; DE CASTRO, Liane; DA SILVA, Sidnei; GEORG, Ingebourg; SARAIVA, Roberto Magalhães; do BRASIL, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano; HASSLOCHER-MORENO, Alejandro Marcel

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease (CD) is an endemic anthropozoonosis from Latin America of which the main means of transmission is the contact of skin lesions or mucosa with the feces of triatomine bugs infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. In this article, we describe the first acute CD case acquired by vector transmission in the Rio de Janeiro State and confirmed by parasitological, serological and PCR tests. The patient presented acute cardiomyopathy and pericardial effusion without cardiac tamponade. Together with fever and malaise, a 3 cm wide erythematous, non-pruritic, papule compatible with a "chagoma" was found on his left wrist. This case report draws attention to the possible transmission of CD by non-domiciled native vectors in non-endemic areas. Therefore, acute CD should be included in the diagnostic workout of febrile diseases and acute myopericarditis in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26422165

  16. Cardio-Pulmonary Parasitic Nematodes Affecting Cats in Europe: Unraveling the Past, Depicting the Present, and Predicting the Future

    PubMed Central

    Traversa, Donato; Di Cesare, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Various cardio-pulmonary parasitic nematodes infecting cats have recently been fascinating and stimulating the attention of the Academia, pharmaceutical companies, and veterinary practitioners. This is the case of the metastrongyloids: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior, the trichuroid: Capillaria aerophila (syn. Eucoleus aerophilus), and the filarioid: Dirofilaria immitis. Apparently, these parasites have been emerging in several European countries, thus, gaining an important role in feline parasitology and clinical practice. Under a practical standpoint, a sound knowledge of the biological, epidemiological, and clinical impact of cardio-respiratory parasitoses affecting cats, in addition to a potential risk of introduction, establishment, and spreading of “new” parasites in Europe is mandatory in order to understand the present and future impact for feline medicine and to address new strategies of control and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to review the current knowledge of heartworm and lungworm infections in cats, discussing and comparing past and present issues, and predicting possible future scenarios. PMID:26664917

  17. [Investigation of vectors and reservoirs in an acute Chagas outbreak due to possible oral transmission in Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Soto, Hugo; Tibaduiza, Tania; Montilla, Marleny; Triana, Omar; Suárez, Diana Carolina; Torres Torres, Mariela; Arias, María Teresa; Lugo, Ligia

    2014-04-01

    Colombia recorded 11 cases of acute Chagas disease and 80 cases of oral contamination with Trypanosoma cruzi. The current study analyzes the entomological and parasitological characteristics of the outbreak in Aguachica, Cesar Department, in 2010. An interdisciplinary group of health professionals and regional university personnel conducted the laboratory tests in the patients and the investigation of the transmission focus. Eleven cases of acute Chagas diseases were detected in a single family in a dwelling with domiciliated triatomines and Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus, and two Didelphis marsupialis opossums infected with T. cruzi in Attalea butyracea and Elaeis oleifera palm trees in the urban area of Aguachica. The study analyzes the role of R. pallescens and palm trees in the wild cycle of T. cruzi and in oral transmission of Chagas disease. Sporadic incursions by wild R. pallescens, P. geniculatus, and E. cuspidatus from the nearby palm trees into human dwellings may cause increasingly frequent outbreaks of oral Chagas disease. PMID:24896050

  18. Spontaneous cure after natural infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda) in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed

    Torres-Montoya, Hilario; Galaviz-Renteria, Xochilth; Castillo-Ureta, Hipólito; Lopez-Moreno, Hector; Nawa, Yukifumi; Bojorquez-Contreras, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia; Rocha-Tirado, Rodrigo; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:24506422

  19. [Ecdysten in the treatment of giardiasis].

    PubMed

    Osipova, S O; Islamova, Zh I; Syrov, V N; Badalova, N S; Khushbaktova, Z A

    2002-01-01

    The drug ecdisten as tablets is the natural compound ecdisteron was extracted from Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Jljin. Ecdisten was tested in the treatment of 32 and 3 patients with persistent and acute giardiasis, respectively. A ten-day course of ecdisten, 5 mg 3 or 4 times a day, resulted in a clinical and parasitological recovery in 22 (68.7%) and 3 patients, respectively. After the reuse of a ecdisten course in 4 patients with persistent giardiasis wherein its initial dose was increased, recovery was achieved in 3 cases, the efficacy of the agent was 78.1%. Ecdisten should be used to treat giardiasis, in its chronic pattern or resistance to conventional giardicial agents. PMID:12224262

  20. Multicentre trials of praziquantel in human schistosomiasis: design and techniques

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A.; Wegner, D. H. G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper outlines the experimental design and techniques used in the initial multicentre clinical experiences with praziquantel in the treatment of human infections due to Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni, and S. japonicum. Trials were conducted in Brazil, Japan, the Philippines, and Zambia. Close professional cooperation between informed representatives of the manufacturers of the drug and WHO led to the use of a standard clinical trial design and agreed technical protocols, although parasitological methods of therapeutic assessment varied with the species of infecting parasite. Double-blind studies of tolerance were conducted at three different dose levels and subsequently, in Brazil and Zambia, single-blind trials of parasiticidal efficacy were carried out. The results of the various trials are reported separately. This type of close professional cooperation is a useful model for initial clinicopharmacological studies of parasiticidal drugs—an area beset with difficulties for both industry and international agencies. PMID:317254

  1. [Prevalence of Anaplasma marginale and specific antibodies in new born calves].

    PubMed

    Rey Valeirón, Catalina; Aso, Pedro María; Coronado, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is an intraerythrocytic rickettsia that affects the cattle and constitute a constraint for its production. The transplacental transmission of A. marginale could be of importance under field conditions, but until now no data is available to interpret its relevance in Venezuela. The goal of this work was to evaluate both the presence of A. marginale and the antibody response against the rickettsia in new born calves. Fourteen calves, one week old, were simultaneously bled for parasitological tests, packed cell volume measurement and to obtain sera for immunoenzymatic assays. All the animals showed parasitemia between seventeen and thirty days old. The antibody IgM and IgG response at this time was low. Probably, these calves acquired A. marginale infection through transplacental route and a very low level of immunity by the colostrum. PMID:14976783

  2. [Model for sanitary-helminthological supervision and search for the measures for disinfestation of soil and water in the beef tapeworm infection foci in conditions of Kabardino-Balkaria].

    PubMed

    Sarbasheva, M M; Bittirova, A A; Atabieva, Zh A; Bittirov, A M

    2014-01-01

    The soil and water runoff from the livestock facilities are potentially dangerous for the infection of animal with eggs Taeniarhynchus saginatus. The complex antihelminthic measures and the basis of sanitary and parasitological model of prevention of parasitic diseases of humans and animals in Kabardino-Balkaria allowed within 3-4 years to diminish the contamination of soil with cestode eggs in 4-4.8 times. EGAT drug concentration of 50% and exposure in the range 1-20 days in a clean slurry causes the death to 47% of the eggs T. saginatus, in soil--up to 52% sewage sludge--45% in sewage--49%, that indicates its lack of ovicidal efficacy against cestode eggs. PMID:25306696

  3. [Cestode of the family Hymenolepididae from ducks of Chukotka: Microsomacanthus parasobolevi sp. n.--a widely distributed parasite of eider ducks].

    PubMed

    Regel', K V

    2005-01-01

    A new species of the genus Microsomacanthus Lopez-Neyra, 1942 is described. The material was collected from eider ducks (Somateria mollissima, S. fischeri, and S. spectabilis) in the Chaunskaya lowland (North-Western Chukotka). Microsomacanthus parasobolevi sp. n. differs from the closest species of this genus (M. polystictae Regel, 1988, M. sobolevi Spassky et Jurpalova, 1964; M. strictophalius Tolkatchieva, 1966) by the structure and size of the copulatory organ. Wide distribution of the new species was detected based on the cestodes collections from eider ducks of the Eastern Chukotka, Lena River mouth (in the museum of the Institute of the Parasitology RAS) and Iceland (Karl Skirnisson's cestode collection of the common eider). Furthermore, this species was reported once of the common eider in Newfoundland and Labrador, but erroneously identified as Hymenglejns (Microsomacanthnis) formosoides Spasskaja et Spassky, 1961 by Bishop and Threlfall (1974). PMID:15907028

  4. [Age-related dynamics of roach infection rate with Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Ligulidae) plerocercoids and probability of its usage for the calculation of host death rate].

    PubMed

    Pronin, N M; Pronina, S V

    2014-01-01

    Results of special parasitological dissections of roach samples from catches with the same fishing gear and at the same station (Monakhovo Cove, Chivyrkui Bay of the Lake Baikal) and at the same time in different years (1998-2002) are given. Stability of age-related dynamics of roach infection rate with Ligula intestinalisis in different years with the maximum of prevalence and mean abundance in fish of 3+ age, and the following sharp decrease in these rates in elder age groups, was revealed. Basing on prevalence decreasing of a single roach generation, the rate of fish mortality during its growth from age group 3+ to 4+ was estimated as 15.9-20.7%. PMID:25693329

  5. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Lake and Marshland Areas in China: The Effect of Snail Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Gao, Jie; Chi, Meina; Luo, Can; Lynn, Henry; Sun, Liqian; Tao, Bo; Wang, Decheng; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    The progress of the integrated control policy for schistosomiasis implemented since 2005 in China, which is aiming at reducing the roles of bovines and humans as infection sources, may be challenged by persistent presence of infected snails in lake and marshland areas. Based on annual parasitologic data for schistosomiasis during 2004–2011 in Xingzi County, a spatio-temporal kriging model was used to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Results showed that environmental factors related to snail habitats can explain the spatio-temporal variation of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps of schistosomiasis risk illustrated that clusters of the disease fluctuated during 2004–2008; there was an extensive outbreak in 2008 and attenuated disease occurrences afterwards. An area with an annually constant cluster of schistosomiasis was identified. Our study suggests that targeting snail habitats located within high-risk areas for schistosomiasis would be an economic and sustainable way of schistosomiasis control in the future. PMID:24980498

  6. Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Snow, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to quantify Africa’s malaria burden but none has addressed how urbanization will affect disease transmission and outcome, and therefore mortality and morbidity estimates. In 2003, 39% of Africa’s 850 million people lived in urban settings; by 2030, 54% of Africans are expected to do so. We present the results of a series of entomological, parasitological and behavioural meta-analyses of studies that have investigated the effect of urbanization on malaria in Africa. We describe the effect of urbanization on both the impact of malaria transmission and the concomitant improvements in access to preventative and curative measures. Using these data, we have recalculated estimates of populations at risk of malaria and the resulting mortality. We find there were 1,068,505 malaria deaths in Africa in 2000 — a modest 6.7% reduction over previous iterations. The public-health implications of these findings and revised estimates are discussed. PMID:15608702

  7. Principles and applications of polymerase chain reaction in medical diagnostic fields: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Crovela, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized the detection and characterization of microorganisms in a broad range of medical diagnostic fields, including virology, mycology, parasitology, microbiology and dentistry. Among these methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has generated great benefits and allowed scientific advancements. PCR is an excellent technique for the rapid detection of pathogens, including those difficult to culture. Along with conventional PCR techniques, Real-Time PCR has emerged as a technological innovation and is playing an ever-increasing role in clinical diagnostics and research laboratories. Due to its capacity to generate both qualitative and quantitative results, Real-Time PCR is considered a fast and accurate platform. The aim of the present literature review is to explore the clinical usefulness and potential of both conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR assays in diverse medical fields, addressing its main uses and advances. PMID:24031310

  8. Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.

    PubMed

    Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

    2015-01-01

    Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area. PMID:24598117

  9. Field efficacy of eprinomectin against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys.

    PubMed

    Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galietti, Alfredo; Mariani, Ugo; Di Loria, Antonio; Piantedosi, Diego; Neola, Benedetto; Guccione, Jacopo; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2013-08-01

    A trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of eprinomectin (EPR) against the sucking louse Haematopinus asini on naturally infested donkeys. Parasitological investigations were performed on fifteen animals. On day 0, donkeys received EPR pour-on at the manufacturer's recommended cattle dose. Louse counts were performed on days -1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 at seven predilection sites on the skin of each donkey. EPR was completely effective (100%) from day 7, until the end of the study. Clinically no adverse reactions were observed in any of donkeys treated. EPR was considered to be 100% effective against H. asini. This is the first trial to evaluate the efficacy of EPR against a natural louse infestation in donkeys. PMID:23566937

  10. Salivary Biomarkers in the Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Drame, Papa Makhtar

    2015-01-01

    Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. However, the classical entomo-parasitological methods used to evaluate the human exposure to mosquito bites and the effectiveness of control strategies are indirect, labor intensive, and lack sensitivity in low exposure/transmission areas. Therefore, they are limited in their accuracy and widespread use. Studying the human antibody response against the mosquito salivary proteins has provided new biomarkers for a direct and accurate evaluation of the human exposure to mosquito bites, at community and individual levels. In this review, we discuss the development, applications and limits of these biomarkers applied to Aedes- and Anopheles-borne diseases. PMID:26593952

  11. PubMed Central

    Viens, P.; Morisset, R.; Clermont, R.

    1982-01-01

    Intestinal bilharziasis (or schistosomiasis) is becoming more and more frequent among Canadian travellers who come in contact with natural soft waters in tropical countries. The clinical signs accompanying contamination, the prodrome and the chronic phase are inconstant, but eosinophilia is often the warning sign, and specific seroparasitologic findings suggest the diagnostic investigation, Five tourists from Quebec became infected while travelling in Martinique. The clinical, parasitologic and serologic features that led to the diagnosis are described. The prodome (a flu-like syndrome with eosinophilia) is underlined. Treatment with niridazole was effective, as confirmed by the absence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs (or the presence of dead eggs) in specimens from rectal biopsies performed subsequently. Images FIG. 2 PMID:7059888

  12. Wintergreen oil: a novel method in Wheatley's trichrome staining technique.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Fatmah Md; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Yasin, Azlin Mohd; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-10-01

    Permanent staining of faecal smears by Wheatley's trichrome technique has been used by many scientists for the detection of parasites in the past and it was found to be highly sensitive. This study was conducted to evaluate the use of Wintergreen oil in comparison with xylene in Wheatley's trichrome staining technique, as the reference technique. In a blind comparison study, 500 collected faecal samples from aboriginal communities were examined. Wintergreen oil was found to be more superior than xylene as a clearing agent in the Wheatley's trichrome staining of polyvinyl alcohol-fixed faecal smears for the identification of intestinal protozoa. Elimination of toxic, carcinogenic, and fire hazards makes Wintergreen oil the preferred choice in routine parasitology examinations. PMID:22986100

  13. Comparison of formalin-ethyl ether sedimentation, formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation, and zinc sulfate flotation techniques for detection of intestinal parasites.

    PubMed Central

    Truant, A L; Elliott, S H; Kelly, M T; Smith, J H

    1981-01-01

    Formalin-ethyl ether sedimentation, Formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation, and zinc sulfate flotation techniques were compared using over 250 clinical parasitology specimens. Fifty positive specimens were identified, and a variety of parasites, including amoebae, flagellates, cestodes, nematodes, and trematodes, were encountered. The Formalin-ether and Formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation procedures gave identical results for the detection of cysts, ova, and larvae, and these methods offered an advantage over the flotation procedure for the detection of selected ova. However, the zinc sulfate procedure was more effective for the detection of protozoan cysts, Hymenolepis nana, and hookworm eggs. The results indicate that the Formalin-ethyl acetate procedure provides a suitable alternative to the Formalin-ether method, and they demonstrate the value of using both flotation and sedimentation procedures in the analysis of fecal specimens for parasites. PMID:7240400

  14. Spiculopteragia asymmetrica infection in Cervus elaphus from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Hoseini, Seyed Hossein; Mobedi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Ekrami, Behrang

    2014-01-01

    Spiculopteragia asymmetrica is a gastrointestinal nematode frequently found in the abomasum of cervids. During December and February 2010, two red deer were died in Semeskandeh sanctuary in Mazandaran province. Moreover, five live deer from mentioned area were treated by Ivermectin and collected feces of these animals were used for assessment helminthes infection by parasitological methods. Several nematodes were recovered in abomasums and in fecal samples of treated animals. Number of worms recovered from abomasums of two dead animals were 275 (90 male and 185 female) from the first one and 327 (102 male and 225 female) from the second. Based on morphological characteristics nematodes were diagnosed as S. asymmetrica. This is the first report of existence of S. asymmetrica from cervids in Iran. PMID:25568698

  15. The dynamics of microfilaraemia and its relation with development of disease in periodic Brugia malayi infection in south India.

    PubMed Central

    Sabesan, S.; Krishnamoorthy, K.; Panicker, K. N.; Vanamail, P.

    1991-01-01

    Rates of acquisition and loss of Brugia malayi microfilaraemia were estimated using the parasitological data of a cohort of population in Shertallai, South India. The rate of acquisition of microfilaraemia was found to be dependent on age but not gender. The decline in the rate of acquisition of microfilaraemia in adults above 35 years could be due to the development of acquired immunity. The mean reproductive lifespan for the periodic Brugia malayi adult female worm was estimated to be 3.4 years and it was independent of host age and gender. The age-specific estimated proportion of population at risk (microfilaria carriers who lost their microfilaria in course of time) of developing lymphoedema approximately mirrored the observed age specific prevalence of lymphoedema in the study population. On an average, 99% of population at risk developed disease in different endemic areas is compared and its epidemiological significance is discussed. PMID:1936164

  16. Stocks and seasonal migrations of the flounder Xystreurys rasile as indicated by its parasites.

    PubMed

    Alarcos, A J; Timi, J T

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to compare the structure and composition of parasite assemblages of the flounder Xystreurys rasile in two regions of the Argentine Sea in order to evaluate the hypothesis for the existence of different stocks, and (2) to test the hypothesis for X. rasile migration from the Argentine-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone (AUCFZ) towards more southern waters during spring. Parasitological evidence shows that at least two stocks of X. rasile inhabit the coastal and shelf waters of the northern Argentine Sea, one in El Rincón and the other in the AUCFZ. These stocks should be considered as discrete entities in management plans to ensure a sustainable use of these resources. The results also confirm the existence of migratory patterns in the northern stock. PMID:23991872

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF Leishmania infantum IN PUERTO IGUAZÚ, MISIONES, ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    ACOSTA, Lucrecia; DÍAZ, Ricardo; TORRES, Pedro; SILVA, Gustavo; RAMOS, Marina; FATTORE, Gladys; DESCHUTTER, Enrique J.; BORNAY-LLINARES, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

     The emergence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in Latin America is a growing public health problem. The urbanization of ZVL has been observed in different countries around the world, and there are a growing number of reports drawing attention to the emergence of this infection in new locations, as well as its increase in previously established areas of endemicity. In the city of Posadas, Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina, the transmission of ZVL associated with canines and Lutzomyia longipalpis was first reported in 2006. In the city of Puerto Iguazú, also in Misiones province, the first human case of ZVL was reported in February 2014. From 209 surveyed dogs, 15 (7.17%) were identified as positive by serological and/or parasitological methods. Amplification was observed in 14 samples and in all cases the species implicated was Leishmania infantum. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of L. infantum from dogs in this area. PMID:25923899

  18. Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas A.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin; Turner, Malcolm; Lemm, Stephanie; Pears, Rachel; Bowater, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Data and specimens collected from dugong carcasses and live stranded individuals provide vital information for research and management agencies. The ability to assign a cause of death (natural and/or human induced) to a carcass assists managers to identify major threats to a population in certain areas and to evaluate and adapt management measures. Data collectedfrom dugong carcasses have contributed to research in areas such as life history, feeding biology, investigating the stock structure/genetics of dugongs, contaminants studies, heavy metal analyses, parasitology, and the effects of habitat change. Adapted from the 'Manual of Procedures for the Salvage and Necropsy of Carcasses of the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus),' this manual provides a detailed guide for dugong (Dugong dugon) carcass handling and necropsy procedures. It is intended to be used as a resource and training guide for anyone involved in dugong incidents who may lack dugong expertise.

  19. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  20. Monitoring and treatment of Fascioloides magna in semi-farm red deer husbandry in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Z; Konjevi?, D; Severin, K

    2005-08-01

    The presence of American liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) in Croatian wild ruminant species was detected for the first time in January 2000. At the same time, the problem of adequate parasitological monitoring and treatment appeared in the captive deer population. Quarantine and health screening protocols, as well as migration and transportation influence had to be evaluated in red deer husbandry. Non-invasive methods were introduced to estimate the prevalence of F. magna in the semi-farm rearing system. Coprological analysis has been performed on 264 faecal samples. The most effective antiparasitic treatment was implemented on herd and individual treatment. Treatment was extended to the free-ranging population of deer in the same region. PMID:16244930

  1. Urogenital myiasis caused by Psychoda albipennis in a child

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Ay?egül Do?an; Iraz, Meryem; ?pek, Duygu Neval Say?n

    2015-01-01

    Urogenital myiasis results when flies lay their eggs near the exit of the urethra and the larvae proceed upward along the urogenital tract. In this case report, a 10 year-old female patient diagnosed with urogenital myiasis was reported. The patient presented with complaints including painful and frequent urination, genital pruritus and moving larvae in urine. The patient had received Enterobius vermicularis treatment previously for two times. A 24-hour urine sample was collected and two black larvae were found in the urine. It was found that these larvae were fourth-stage larvae of Psychoda albipennis. Although there was no risk factor, the patient was affected with this rare parasitological disease. This case was presented to draw attention to myiasis in children. Myiasis may be observed in individuals with a favourable hygiene status and a high socioeconomical level. If a detailed history is not taken and appropriate laboratory tests are not performed, the diagnosis may be missed. PMID:26078699

  2. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    PubMed

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-01-01

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies.  PMID:25082165

  3. Hematological parameters associated with parasitism in pike, Esox lucius caught from Anzali wetland.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Farzin Jamalzad; Khara, Hossein; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Sayadborani, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    This study involved 120 pike, Esox lucius, captured from Anzali wetland. Parasite fauna were identified in captured fish. Also, changes of haematological parameters were compared both infected and uninfected fish. Parasitological inspections revealed the following infestations: Skin: Lernea cyprinacea, Argulus foliaceus (Crustacean) and Tricodina sp. (Ciliatea). Gill: Dactylogyrus sp. (Digenea) and Tetraonchus monenteron (Monogenea). Eye: Diplostomum spathaceum (Digenea). Gut: Eustrongylides exises, Rhipdocotyle illense, Raphidascaris acus (Nematode), Corynosoma Strumosum (Acanthocephala). Most prevalence and intensity were related to Eustrongylides exises and Rhipdocotyle illense. Following haematological parameters were evaluated: haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. Significant difference was found for MCV between infected and uninfected fish. PMID:26064009

  4. Effect of artemether on cytokine profile and egg induced pathology in murine schistosomiasis mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Madbouly, Neveen A.; Shalash, Ibraheem R.; El Deeb, Somaya O.; El Amir, Azza M.

    2014-01-01

    Artemether (ART), the methylated derivative of artemisinin, is an efficacious antimalarial drug that also displays antischistosomal properties. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory action of a single intramuscular dose (50 mg/kg body weight) of ART in comparison with PZQ treatment (42 days PI). ART administration was 7, 14, 21 and 45 days PI. ART effect was studied parasitologically, histopathologically and immunologically. It was found that maximum effect was reached when ART treatment interfered with 14 or 21 days old schistosomula. ART treatment 14 or 21 days PI was associated with shift from Th2 to Th1 predominancy (decrease in IL-4 and upgrading of serum IFN-? levels). In conclusion, ART is a promising drug in control of schistosomiasis mansoni due to its reductive effect on worm burden and its role in improvement of hepatic granulomatous lesions.

  5. [Peculiarities of the biology and parasite fauna of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the Pista River (White Sea Basin), according to the Gyrodactylus salaris infestation].

    PubMed

    Ieshko, E P; Shchurov, I L; Shul'man, B S; Barskaia, Iu Iu; Lebedeva, D I; Shirokov, V A

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile salmon Salmo salar m. sebago Girard from the Pista River system (the White Sea Basin) was investigated. The data on species composition and occurrence peculiarities of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 are given. This monogenean is the alien species for the river system and it is recorded for the first time. It is shown that the distribution of the parasite abundance is can be described as the negative binomial distribution; variations of its parameters (k and p) were also characterized. Parasitological data obtained, as well as the data describing the characteristics of growth and age structure of juvenile salmon population, suggest the potential influence of G. salaris infection on the degree of survival of fishes in the lake-river system examined. PMID:23285741

  6. Decisions for the future

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Music and science have always been my passion. Ultimately, though, the scale was tipped in favor of science. And I lived out my science dreams in trying to grasp as many facets of it as possible. As a biologist, I didn’t stay in one stream and thus, I have embraced not only molecular biology but parasitology as well. This was way back 1980s, when such a research career was viewed highly unusual in a Japanese context. My commitment to malaria and vaccine development follows the same path. I believe one has to integrate knowledge on a wide variety of academic fields— gene expressions, protein structure, epidemiology, immunology—to achieve significant success. Similar to life itself, one has to be prepared well to be able to accept and interpret as widely as possible what one may term as “accidental results” or “accidental elements.” PMID:24832717

  7. A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Amandine; Knapp, Jenny; Demonmerot, Florent; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Raoul, Francis; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Damy, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS) was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language). The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology) and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries. PMID:25526544

  8. First report of blood parasites in fishes from Kashmir and their effect on the haematological profile

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, N.; Yousuf, A.R.; Rather, M.I.; Ahmad, F.; Yaseen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinus carpio communis Linnaeus, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel and Triplophysa marmorata species of fishes were captured from Anchar Lake and river Jhelum of Kashmir Himalaya for hematological and parasitological analysis. During the investigation haemoflagellates from the genus Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma were recorded in the blood smears. Trypanosomes were present in all the species except C. carpio, whereas Babesiosoma were only found in T. marmorata. Haematological analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01) reduction in red blood cell count in the fishes infected with Babesiosoma and Trypanosoma. A significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in haemoglobin value and packed cell volume in the infected fishes in comparison to the non-infected fishes.

  9. Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics.

    PubMed

    Tollenaere, C; Bryja, J; Galan, M; Cadet, P; Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Berthier, K; Ribas Salvador, A; Voutilainen, L; Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system. PMID:18624885

  10. Camel trypanosomosis in the Canary Islands: assessment of seroprevalence and infection rates using the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) and parasite detection tests.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, C; Juste, M C; Corbera, J A; Magnus, E; Verloo, D; Montoya, J A

    2000-06-10

    Trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma evansi (surra) is a major enzootic disease of the dromedary camel. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to assess seroprevalence and infection rates in the Canary Islands using antibody(-card agglutination test-CATT/T. evansi) and parasite detection tests (micro-Haematocrit Centrifugation technique, Giemsa stained blood smears, microscopic examination of lymph node aspirates and mouse inoculation). PCV was also determined. 745 dromedary camels (483 females and 262 males) were examined. Trypanosomes were detected in seven animals. 36 animals yielded CATT positive results while 709 animals were negative. All parasitologically positive animals were also CATT positive. Results showed a good correlation between CATT positive and low PCV and a higher seroprevalence in older animals. Trypanocidal drugs have not been registered in Spain and, consequently, if vigilance is not exercised the prevalence could be increased in the future. PMID:10828522

  11. Parasites of Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus from the coast of Namibia.

    PubMed

    Reimer, L W

    1993-05-01

    84 specimens of the sea hake Merluccius capensis and 60 of M. paradoxus were investigated parasitologically along the coast of Namibia in 1988. Between both fish species there was a high coincidence. 18 species of parasites could be stated. Distinction is remarkable between the north and south parts of the investigation area with a boundary at about 25 degrees 30' south. Southern to this border line of probably different fish stocks Brachiella merluccii is absent and the prevalence of Scolex pleuronectis and Leptotheca spec. is significantly higher. In M. capensis parasitation by Leptotheca spec., Anthocotyle merluccii and Anisakis spec. 1. is increasing with higher age groups. In M. paradoxus parasitation by Leptotheca spec. and Anthocotyle merluccii is decreasing with higher age groups and that of Clestobothrium crassiceps remains the same level. PMID:8334458

  12. Protozoan and myxozoan infections in wild gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) from North Lake of Tunis, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bahri, Sihem

    2012-06-01

    A total of 150 gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L., from North Lake of Tunis, Tunisia, were studied for protozoan and myxozoan parasites. The parasitological survey revealed the presence of ectoparasites (Amyloodinium ocellatum Brown, 1931, Trichodina lepsii Lom, 1962 on the gills) and endoparasites (Ceratomyxa sparusaurati Sitjà-Bobadilla, Palenzuela et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1995 infecting the gallbladder, and Eimeria sparis Sitjà-Bobadilla, Palenzuela et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1996 parasitizing the intestine). This is the first record of Amyloodinium ocellatum, Trichodina lepsii, Ceratomyxa sparusaurati, and Eimeria sparis in S. aurata from Tunisian waters. Data on prevalence and intensity of infection are provided. A comparison of the present species with previously described species in cultured gilthead seabream from other Mediterranean countries is also presented. In this study Trichodina lepsii is identified for the first time in Sparus aurata. A taxonomic description of this species based on silver nitrate method is provided. PMID:22807047

  13. Parasites or Cohabitants: Cruel Omnipresent Usurpers or Creative “Éminences Grises”?

    PubMed Central

    Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Lenzi, Henrique L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents many types of interplays between parasites and the host, showing the history of parasites, the effects of parasites on the outcome of wars, invasions, migrations, and on the development of numerous regions of the globe, and the impact of parasitic diseases on the society and on the course of human evolution. It also emphasizes the pressing need to change the look at the parasitism phenomenon, proposing that the term “cohabitant” is more accurate than parasite, because every living being, from bacteria to mammals, is a consortium of living beings in the pangenome. Even the term parasitology should be replaced by cohabitology because there is no parasite alone and host alone: both together compose a new adaptive system: the parasitized-host or the cohabitant-cohabited being. It also suggests switching the old paradigm based on attrition and destruction, to a new one founded on adaptation and living together. PMID:21785696

  14. Detection and quantification of viable Ascaris sp. and other helminth eggs in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Veridiana Karmann; Cutolo, Silvana Audra; Doria, Maria do Carmo Oliveira; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe

    2013-01-01

    Some epidemiologic studies conducted in developing countries demonstrated a high incidence of enteroparasites, Ascaris sp. being the most prevalent. Therefore, the use of sewage sludge in agriculture may pose risks to human health. In order to protect public health, a Brazilian regulation has established standards regarding its use in rural areas. The objective of this study was to quantify Ascaris sp. and other helminth eggs in sewage sludge from five wastewater treatment plants from a dense metropolitan region, and also to check compliance with the law. The analysis was carried according to USEPA 2003 . A rich parasitological fauna was found, with a prevalence of the eggs of Ascaris sp. (9.55%). The samples analyzed presented a large variety of helminth eggs, and Ascaris sp. proved to be the most prevalent which put in evidence that its application poses public health concerns. PMID:23072414

  15. New cystidicolid species (Nematoda) from Galaxias platei (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonian freshwater environments.

    PubMed

    Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P

    2008-08-01

    During a parasitological survey of Galaxias platei Steindachner, 1898, from Patagonian Andean Lakes, a new species of Cystidicolidae was found in the stomach of fish. The new species was described using light and scanning electron microscopy; the species has characteristics of Ascarophis and is distinguishable from other species by a combination of the following features: well-developed pseudolabia with T-shaped inner extensions, bifurcate deirids, small ratio GE:ME, small left spicule, small ratio LS:RS, and larvigerous eggs with thick and fine filaments in both poles. Intraspecific variation in the morphology of larvigerous eggs was studied. This is the first species of Ascarophis described from freshwater fishes. PMID:18576739

  16. A new species of Neoascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitic in Macrourus carinatus (Macrouridae) from Argentinean waters.

    PubMed

    Rossin, María A; Incorvaia, Inés S; Timi, Juan T

    2012-06-01

    Nematodes of the cystidicolid Neoascarophis Machida, 1976 , are all parasites of macrourid fishes, making up at present 5 species. Several other unidentified species have also been reported in several fish species from the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean, including 1 from Macrourus carinatus (Günther) (Macrouridae) in the southwest Atlantic Ocean. During a parasitological survey carried out on samples of M. carinatus from Patagonian waters, nematodes referable to Neascarophis were found in ulcers in the gastric mucosa. These nematodes Neascarophis sphaerocaudata n. sp. closely resemble N. macrouri by the posterior position of the vulva and the dilated posterior extremity in females. However, the new species differs from N. macrouri mainly by its larger size, a larger muscular esophagus, and a widely globose posterior extremity in females. SEM study of cephalic structures also showed morphological differences between both species, especially in the morphology of the submedian labia and lateral pseudolabia. In view of these differences a new species is proposed. PMID:22746395

  17. Endoparasites of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Buzzulini, Carolina; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Costa, Alvimar José da

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais. PMID:25517536

  18. Helminth Parasites of Juvenile Green Turtles Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Werneck, M R; Silva, R J

    2015-12-01

    The present study offers a parasitological analysis of juvenile individuals of the green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) found on the Brazilian coast between 2004 and 2011. Helminths were found in 90 out of 136 individuals (66.2%, CI = 57.7-74.0). In total, 29,411 helminths were collected, belonging to the families Brachycoeliidae, Cladorchiidae, Microscaphidiidae, Pronocephalidae, Rhytidodidae, and Spirorchiidae. Mean species richness was 4.74 (CI = 4.03-5.46), the mean intensity was 327 (CI = 223-489), and the mean abundance was 216 (CI = 146-339). This study also reports new geographical records for: Angiodictyum longum, Angiodictyum parallelum, Rameshwarotrema uterocrescens, Pyelosomum cochlear, Schizamphistomum scleroporum, Cymatocarpus solearis, and Neospirorchis sp. This is the first analysis of helminth composition in juveniles of green turtles. PMID:26312398

  19. Salivary Biomarkers in the Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases.

    PubMed

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Drame, Papa Makhtar

    2015-01-01

    Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. However, the classical entomo-parasitological methods used to evaluate the human exposure to mosquito bites and the effectiveness of control strategies are indirect, labor intensive, and lack sensitivity in low exposure/transmission areas. Therefore, they are limited in their accuracy and widespread use. Studying the human antibody response against the mosquito salivary proteins has provided new biomarkers for a direct and accurate evaluation of the human exposure to mosquito bites, at community and individual levels. In this review, we discuss the development, applications and limits of these biomarkers applied to Aedes- and Anopheles-borne diseases. PMID:26593952

  20. Massive infestation by Amyloodinium ocellatum (Dinoflagellida) of fish in a highly saline lake, Salton Sea, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, B I; Matey, V E

    1999-12-22

    Persistent fish infestation by the parasitic dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum was found at a highly saline lake, Salton Sea, California, USA. The seasonal dynamics of the infestation of young tilapia was traced in 1997-1998. First appearing in May, it became maximal in June-August, decreased in October and was not detectable in November. Outbreak of the infestation and subsequent mortality of young fish was registered at the Sea at a water temperature and salinity of 40 degrees C and 46 ppt, respectively. Some aspects of the ultrastructure of parasitic trophonts of A. ocellatum and their location on the fish from different size groups are considered. The interactions of parasitological and environmental factors and their combined effect upon fish from the Salton Sea are discussed. PMID:11407406

  1. Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Antibodies in a Low-Endemicity Area Using Indirect Immunofluorescence and Circumoval Precipitin Test

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho do Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Pedro Luiz; Gargioni, Cybele; Viviana Alvarado-Mora, Monica; Pagliusi Castilho, Vera Lúcia; Pinho, João Ranato Rebello; de Albuquerque Luna, Expedito José; Borges Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Parasitological diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis lack sensitivity, especially in regions of low endemicity. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections by antibody detection using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA-IgM) and circumoval precipitin test (COPT). Serum samples of 572 individuals were randomly selected. The IFA-IgM and COPT were used to detect anti-S. mansoni antibodies. Of the patients studied, 15.9% (N = 91) were IFA-IgM positive and 5.1% (N = 29) had COPT reactions (P < 0.001 by McNemar's test). Immunodiagnostic techniques showed higher infection prevalence than had been previously estimated. This study suggests that combined use of these diagnostic tools could be useful for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in epidemiological studies in areas of low endemicity. PMID:24639303

  2. [Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas "Dr. Américo Negrette": 55 years of excellent research versus global economic recession].

    PubMed

    Valero Cedeño, Nereida Josefina

    2014-12-01

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette" belongs to the Faculty of Medicine at University of Zulia in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. It was created on December 4, 1959 by Dr. Américo Negrette. Today, with 55 years of existence, the Institute seeks to fulfill the mission that characterizes it, based on the values instilled by its founder and maintained by subsequent generations, whose research projects are implemented through seven research sections: Biochemistry, Hematologic Research, Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience, Immunology and Cell Biology, Clinical Neurochemistry, Parasitology and Virology. The research originated in these laboratories have become national and international points of reference, despite the current economic situation with budget deficits that put at risk the quality and originality of their projects with negative consequences on the productivity and applications for health population, reasons of biomedical research. PMID:25558749

  3. Seroepidemiological study of visceral leishmaniasis among humans and animal reservoirs in Bushehr province, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, M; Hamzavi, Y; Edrissian, G H; Forouzani, A

    2001-11-01

    Using direct agglutination tests, a survey of visceral leishmaniasis was carried out among children and adults from 13 villages and from nomadic tribes in Bushehr province during 1998-99. Of the 1496 plasma samples, the overall seropositive rate (titres > or = 1:3200) was 3.4%. Almost all cases (94.1%) were in children under 10 years old. Eighteen patients were diagnosed with kala azar; fever and splenomegaly were the predominant signs and symptoms. Parasitology and serology examinations of local animals identified dogs and jackals infected with Leishmania infantum. Suggestions for control of visceral leishmaniasis in this area are to eliminate stray dogs, identify cases among humans and suspected leashed dogs, and treat infected individuals. PMID:15332732

  4. Trichobilharzia anseri n. sp. (Schistosomatidae: Digenea), a new visceral species of avian schistosomes isolated from greylag goose (Anser anser L.) in Iceland and France.

    PubMed

    Jouet, D; Kolá?ová, L; Patrelle, C; Ferté, H; Skírnisson, K

    2015-08-01

    Parasitological investigations carried out on birds in Iceland and France highlight the presence of four species of avian schistosomes from greylag geese (Anser anser L.): the european nasal species Trichobilharzia regenti and three visceral species, among which an unknown species isolated from blood vessels of the large intestine and liver. Morphological and molecular analyzes of different parasite stages (eggs, adults) revealed new species of Trichobilharzia genus – Trichobilharzia anseri sp. nov. Studies on host-parasite relationship under natural conditions, showed that the life-cycle includes the snail Radix balthica (syn. R. peregra) as intermediate host. The cercariae, already isolated in Iceland from two ponds of the Reykjavik capital area – the Family park and Tjörnin Lake – are the same as those isolated in 1999 by Kolá?ová et al. during the first study on Icelandic parasitic agents of cercarial dermatitis. PMID:26070888

  5. Initial experiences with praziquantel in the treatment of human infections due to Schistosoma haematobium

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A.; Biles, J. E.; Ulrich, A.-M.

    1979-01-01

    Initial studies of the tolerance and efficacy of praziquantel in the treatment of human infections due to Schistosoma haematobium were conducted at the WHO Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Ndola, Zambia. The first stage of the trial was a double-blind assessment against placebo of the tolerance and efficacy of oral doses of 1×20, 2×20, or 3×20 mg/kg in patients with a minimum schistosome egg excretion of 50 per random 10-ml sample of urine. Later a single-blind trial was carried out of the efficacy of three oral doses, each of 20 mg/kg, given at 4-hour intervals, or of a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg. In 79 young Zambians with S. haematobium infections (and often other parasitic infections), patient tolerance to the drug was very good, only minor post-treatment symptoms of intermittent epigastric pain, anorexia, and headache being noted, all of short duration. No changes of clinical relevance were detected in the results of a battery of haematological and biochemical tests. Post-treatment eosinophilia occurred in 42% of drug-treated patients but also in 30% of those given placebo. Serial electrocardiograms revealed no changes of significance. At six months after treatment, of 73 patients followed up, only 1 case of parasitological failure was detected. At one year, 66 (83.5%) of 79 patients with S. haematobium infection were followed up and 2 (2.5%) parasitological failures were detected. Two years after treatment, 45 (57%) of 79 patients with S. haematobium showed negative urines, 7 (9%) had positive hatching tests, and 27 (34%) were absent. PMID:396053

  6. Immunodiagnosis of opisthorchiasis using parasite cathepsin F.

    PubMed

    Teimoori, Salma; Arimatsu, Yuji; Laha, Thewarach; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sereerak, Piya; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode parasite endemic in the lower Mekong countries, is conventionally diagnosed by stool examination. However, parasitological stool-based diagnosis can be unreliable in light infections. The goal of this study was to develop the immunodiagnosis of opisthorchiasis using cathepsin F cysteine protease of O. viverrini in both indirect and sandwich ELISA assays. A recombinant O. viverrini cathepsin F (rOv-CF) of 40 kDa was expressed in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3), affinity purified, and deployed in ELISA assays. Human sera from 272 cases were investigated by indirect rOv-CF-based ELISA. Positive antibody response to rOv-CF was found in 137 out of 272 cases (50.37 %) using a cutoff OD (0.400) determined by ROC analysis. In comparison to parasitological stool examined for fluke eggs, the gold standard, the rOv-CF indirect ELISA showed a sensitivity and specificity of 62.1 and 84.05 %, respectively. Serum antibody levels correlated well with egg counts per gram feces (EPG) (P?

  7. Intestinal coccidiosis of anadromous and landlocked alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, caused by Goussia ameliae n. sp. and G. alosii n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lovy, Jan; Friend, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Anadromous alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, have experienced significant population level declines caused by factors including habitat destruction. Alewives occur in two different life histories, anadromous and landlocked forms. The landlocked alewife evolved from ancestral anadromous populations, resulting in an exclusively freshwater and phenotypically unique form. The occurrence of parasites in a host is linked to the environment, making alewives an ideal model to compare parasitology within a single species with contrasting life histories. Currently, little information exists on the presence and impacts of parasites in these fish populations; the present study sets out to better understand coccidiosis in the threatened anadromous populations and to understand how coccidian parasites compare in both life history forms. The intestinal coccidian, Goussia ameliae n. sp., was described infecting the pyloric cecum of 76% and 86% of young-of-the-year and adult anadromous alewives, respectively, from the Maurice River, New Jersey, USA. The coccidian was found in landlocked alewife populations with a prevalence of 92% and 34% in YOY and adult fish, respectively. An analysis of the small subunit 18S ribosomal RNA gene of G. ameliae from both life history forms demonstrated that the coccidian had 100% sequence identity, confirming the same parasite species in both forms. Though genetic analysis demonstrated G. ameliae to be identical, some differences were observed in sporulation and morphology of the parasite within the two populations. The sporocysts in anadromous populations were shorter and wider, and sporulation timing differed from that of landlocked fish. These differences may either be attributed to differences in the host type or to the sporulation environment. Lastly, alewives from landlocked populations were frequently co-infected with a second coccidian species in the posterior intestine, which occurred at a lower prevalence. This species, G. alosii n. sp., was described based on morphological characters of the sporulated oocysts in fresh parasitological preparations. PMID:25853050

  8. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus

    PubMed Central

    Lynsdale, Carly L.; Santos, Diogo J. Franco dos; Hayward, Adam D.; Mar, Khyne U.; Htut, Win; Aung, Htoo Htoo; Soe, Aung Thura; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC). To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am–2.55 pm) will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores. PMID:26236632

  9. Sensitivity of double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation for detecting intestinal helminths in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Liccioli, Stefano; Catalano, Stefano; Kutz, Susan J; Lejeune, Manigandan; Verocai, Guilherme G; Duignan, Padraig J; Fuentealba, Carmen; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    Fecal analysis is commonly used to estimate prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores, but few studies have assessed the reliability of fecal flotation compared to analysis of intestinal tracts. We investigated sensitivity of the double centrifugation sugar fecal flotation and kappa agreement between fecal flotation and postmortem examination of intestines for helminths of coyotes (Canis latrans). We analyzed 57 coyote carcasses that were collected between October 2010 and March 2011 in the metropolitan area of Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Before analyses, intestines and feces were frozen at -80 C for 72 hr to inactivate Echinococcus eggs, protecting operators from potential exposure. Five species of helminths were found by postmortem examination, including Toxascaris leonina, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma caninum, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Sensitivity of fecal flotation was high (0.84) for detection of T. leonina but low for Taenia sp. (0.27), E. multilocularis (0.46), and U. stenocephala (0.00). Good kappa agreement between techniques was observed only for T. leonina (0.64), for which we detected also a significant correlation between adult female parasite intensity and fecal egg counts (R(s)=0.53, P=0.01). Differences in sensitivity may be related to parasite characteristics that affect recovery of eggs on flotation. Fecal parasitologic analyses are highly applicable to study the disease ecology of urban carnivores, and they often provide important information on environmental contamination and potential of zoonotic risks. However, fecal-based parasitologic surveys should first assess the sensitivity of the techniques to understand their biases and limitations. PMID:22740537

  10. Willingness-to-pay for a rapid malaria diagnostic test and artemisinin-based combination therapy from private drug shops in Mukono district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pedrazzoli, Debora; Mbonye, Anthony; Clarke, Sian; Cundill, Bonnie; Magnussen, Pascal; Yeung, Shunmay

    2013-01-01

    In Uganda, as in many parts of Africa, the majority of the population seek treatment for malaria in drug shops as their first point of care; however, parasitological diagnosis is not usually offered in these outlets. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria have attracted interest in recent years as a tool to improve malaria diagnosis, since they have proved accurate and easy to perform with minimal training. Although RDTs could feasibly be performed by drug shop vendors, it is not known how much customers would be willing to pay for an RDT if offered in these settings. We conducted a contingent valuation survey among drug shop customers in Mukono District, Uganda. Exit interviews were undertaken with customers aged 15 years and above after leaving a drug shop having purchased an antimalarial and/or paracetamol. The bidding game technique was used to elicit the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for an RDT and a course of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) with and without RDT confirmation. Factors associated with WTP were investigated using linear regression. The geometric mean WTP for an RDT was US$0.53, US$1.82 for a course of ACT and US$2.05 for a course of ACT after a positive RDT. Factors strongly associated with a higher WTP for these commodities included having a higher socio-economic status, no fever/malaria in the household in the past 2 weeks and if a malaria diagnosis had been obtained from a qualified health worker prior to visiting the drug shop. The findings further suggest that the WTP for an RDT and a course of ACT among drug shop customers is considerably lower than prevailing and estimated end-user prices for these commodities. Increasing the uptake of ACTs in drug shops and restricting the sale of ACTs to parasitologically confirmed malaria will therefore require additional measures. PMID:22589226

  11. Profiling Nonrecipients of Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis and Hookworm Infections: A Comprehensive Analysis of Praziquantel and Albendazole Coverage in Community-Directed Treatment in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chami, Goylette F.; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background.?Repeated mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapies is the mainstay of morbidity control for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths, yet the World Health Organization recently reported that less than one-third of individuals who required preventive chemotherapies received treatment. Methods.?Coverage of community-directed treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) and albendazole (ALB) was analyzed in 17 villages of Mayuge District, Uganda. National drug registers, household questionnaires, and parasitological surveys were collected to track 935 individuals before and after MDA. Multilevel logistic regressions, including household and village effects, were specified with a comprehensive set of socioeconomic and parasitological variables. The factors predicting who did not receive PZQ and ALB from community medicine distributors were identified. Results.?Drug receipt was correlated among members within a household, and nonrecipients of PZQ or ALB were profiled by household-level socioeconomic factors. Individuals were less likely to receive either PZQ or ALB if they had a Muslim household head or low home quality, belonged to the minority tribe, or had settled for more years in their village. Untreated individuals were also more likely to belong to households that did not purify drinking water, had no home latrine, and had no members who were part of the village government. Conclusions.?The findings demonstrate how to locate and target individuals who are not treated in MDA. Infection risk factors were not informative. In particular, age, gender, and occupation were unable to identify non-recipients, although World Health Organization guidelines rely on these factors. Individuals of low socioeconomic status, minority religions, and minority tribes can be targeted to expand MDA coverage. PMID:26409064

  12. Parasites of fish larvae: do they follow metabolic energetic laws?

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gabriela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2015-11-01

    Eumetazoan parasites in fish larvae normally exhibit large body sizes relative to their hosts. This observation raises a question about the potential effects that parasites might have on small fish. We indirectly evaluated this question using energetic metabolic laws based on body volume and the parasite densities. We compared the biovolume as well as the numeric and volumetric densities of parasites over the host body volume of larval and juvenile-adult fish and the average of these parasitological descriptors for castrator parasites and the parasites found in the fish studied here. We collected 5266 fish larvae using nearshore zooplankton sampling and 1556 juveniles and adult fish from intertidal rocky pools in central Chile. We considered only the parasitized hosts: 482 fish larvae and 629 juvenile-adult fish. We obtained 31 fish species; 14 species were in both plankton and intertidal zones. Fish larvae exhibited a significantly smaller biovolume but larger numeric and volumetric densities of parasites than juvenile-adult fish. Therefore, fish larvae showed a large proportion of parasite biovolume per unit of body host (cm(3)). However, the general scaling of parasitological descriptors and host body volume were similar between larvae and juvenile-adult fish. The ratio between the biovolume of parasites and the host body volume in fish larvae was similar to the proportion observed in castrator parasites. Furthermore, the ratios were different from those of juvenile-adult fish, which suggests that the presence of parasites implies a high energetic cost for fish larvae that would diminish the fitness of these small hosts. PMID:26193824

  13. Therapeutic efficacy test in malaria falciparum in Antioquia, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Silvia; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Piñeros, Juan G; Ríos, Alexandra; Álvarez, Tania; Álvarez, Gonzalo; Tobón, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the frequency of failure of eight treatments for non-complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in patients from Turbo (Urabá region), El Bagre and Zaragoza (Bajo Cauca region), applying the 1998 protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO). Monotherapies using chloroquine (CQ), amodiaquine (AQ), mefloquine (MQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and combinations using chloroquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (CQ-SP), amodiaquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP), mefloquine-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (MQ-SP) and artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS-SP), were examined. Methodology A balanced experimental design with eight groups. Samples were selected based on statistical and epidemiological criteria. Patients were followed for 21 to 28 days, including seven or eight parasitological and clinical evaluations, with an active search for defaulting patients. A non-blinded evaluation of the antimalarial treatment response (early failure, late failure, adequate response) was performed. Results Initially, the loss of patients to follow-up was higher than 40%, but the immediate active search for the cases and the monetary help for transportation expenses of patients, reduced the loss to 6%. The treatment failure was: CQ 82%, AQ 30%, MQ 4%, SP 24%, CQ-SP 17%, AQ-SP 2%, MQ-S-P 0%, AS-SP 3%. Conclusion The characteristics of an optimal epidemiological monitoring system of antimalarial treatment response in Colombia are discussed. It is proposed to focus this on early failure detection, by applying a screening test every two to three years, based on a seven to 14-day follow-up. Clinical and parasitological assessment would be carried out by a general physician and a field microscopist from the local hospital, with active measures to search for defaulter patients at follow-up. PMID:16504002

  14. How to Improve the Early Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: Relationship between Validated Conventional Diagnosis and Quantitative DNA Amplification in Congenitally Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Bua, Jacqueline; Volta, Bibiana J.; Perrone, Alina E.; Scollo, Karenina; Velázquez, Elsa B.; Ruiz, Andres M.; De Rissio, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Chagas congenital transmission guides, the diagnosis of infants, born to Trypanosoma cruzi infected mothers, relies on the detection of parasites by INP micromethod, and/or the persistence of T. cruzi specific antibody titers at 10–12 months of age. Methodology and Principal Findings Parasitemia levels were quantified by PCR in T. cruzi-infected children, grouped according to the results of one-year follow-up diagnosis: A) Neonates that were diagnosed in the first month after delivery by microscopic blood examination (INP micromethod) (n?=?19) had a median parasitemia of 1,700 Pe/mL (equivalent amounts of parasite DNA per mL); B) Infants that required a second parasitological diagnosis at six months of age (n?=?10) showed a median parasitemia of around 20 Pe/mL and 500 Pe/mL at 1 and 6 months old, respectively, and C) babies with undetectable parasitemia by three blood microscopic observations but diagnosed by specific anti - T. cruzi serology at around 1 year old, (n?=?22), exhibited a parasitemia of around 5 Pe/mL, 800 Pe/mL and 20 Pe/mL 1, 6 and 12 month after delivery, respectively. T. cruzi parasites were isolated by hemoculture from 19 congenitally infected children, 18 of which were genotypified as DTU TcV, (former lineage TcIId) and only one as TcI. Significance This report is the first to quantify parasitemia levels in more than 50 children congenitally infected with T. cruzi, at three different diagnostic controls during one-year follow-up after delivery. Our results show that the parasite burden in some children (22 out of 51) is below the detection limit of the INP micromethod. As the current trypanocidal treatment proved to be very effective to cure T. cruzi - infected children, more sensitive parasitological methods should be developed to assure an early T. cruzi congenital diagnosis. PMID:24147166

  15. [Chronic diarrhea: value of microbiology in diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Kist, M

    2000-09-28

    Chronic diarrhoea of the adult is defined as diarrhea during 30 days or longer. Frequent causes of chronic diarrhea in the immunocompetent adult without recent travel to developing countries are noninfectious processes, including laxatives misuse, diseases causing chronic maldigestion, osmotically active artificial sweeteners (i.e. sorbitol), hormonal disorders or drugs with intestinal side effects. Infectious agents as the cause of chronic diarrhea are important in two populations, namely in travelers returning from tropical countries bearing a significant risk of intestinal parasitic infections and in immunocompromised patients, especially AIDS patients with CD4 cell counts below 50 per microliter. Intestinal parasites and C. difficile, Y. enterocolitica, Shigellae and Cytomegalovirus are the most important causative agents of chronic diarrhea. Intestinal pathogens were identified in 46% of chronic, but only in 16.5% of acute diarrhea episodes of HIV-infected patients. An extensive medical history including recent travel as well as the detailed characteristics of onset of symptoms and of their time course is essential for the diagnosis. All patients should have a complete differential blood count, ESR, determination of electrolytes, liver enzymes, creatinine, blood glucose, and serum albumin. Tests to exclude hyperthyriodism, or pancreatic insufficiency as well as a d-xylose absorption test can be included, if appropriate. Microbiological-parasitological investigations are obligatory in patients with chronic diarrhea returning from countries with increased risk of traveler diarrhea, in cases of suspected immunodeficiency, if sudden onset of symptoms with fever is reported, after antibiotic treatment, and in children below six years of age. As a rule, stool specimens are appropriate, for the detection of cytomegalovirus colonic biopsies are necessary. In the latter case colonosigmoidoscopy has no diagnostic advantage. One single stool specimen is sufficient for the detection of bacteria or toxins, in contrast to parasitological investigations, where only three consecutive specimens provide sufficient diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:11068510

  16. Expression of Regulatory T Cells in Jejunum, Colon, and Cervical and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes of Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Maria M.; Deoti, Beatriz; Amorim, Izabela F.; Pinto, Aldair J. W.; Moraes, Andrea; Carvalho, Carolina S.; Magno da Silva, Sydnei; de Assis, Ana C. B.; de Faria, Ana M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Using flow cytometry, we evaluated the frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mononuclear cells in the jejunum, colon, and cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and in uninfected controls. All infected dogs showed chronic lymphadenitis and enteritis. Despite persistent parasite loads, no erosion or ulcers were evident in the epithelial mucosa. The colon harbored more parasites than the jejunum. Frequencies of total CD4+, total Foxp3, and CD4+ Foxp3+ cells were higher in the jejunum than in the colon. Despite negative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serum results for cytokines, levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), gamma interferon (IFN-?), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were higher in the jejunum than in the colon for infected dogs. However, IL-4 levels were higher in the colon than in the jejunum for infected dogs. There was no observed correlation between clinical signs and histopathological changes or immunological and parasitological findings in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of canines with visceral leishmaniasis. However, distinct segments of the GIT presented different immunological and parasitological responses. The jejunum showed a lower parasite load, with increased frequencies and expression of CD4, Foxp3, and CD8 receptors and IL-10, TGF-?, IFN-?, and TNF-? cytokines. The colon showed a higher parasite load, with increasing expression of IL-4. Leishmania infantum infection increased expression of CD4, Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-?, IFN-?, and TNF-? and reduced CD8 and IL-4 expression in both the jejunum and the colon. PMID:24935975

  17. Distantiae Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: A New Epidemiological Feature of Acute Chagas Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Bilac, Daniele; de Araújo, Vitor Antônio Louzada; Neto, Sócrates Fraga da Costa; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; da Silva, Luiz Felipe Coutinho Ferreira; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background The new epidemiological scenario of orally transmitted Chagas disease that has emerged in Brazil, and mainly in the Amazon region, needs to be addressed with a new and systematic focus. Belém, the capital of Pará state, reports the highest number of acute Chagas disease (ACD) cases associated with the consumption of açaí juice. Methodology/Principal Findings The wild and domestic enzootic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated in the two locations (Jurunas and Val-de Cães) that report the majority of the autochthonous cases of ACD in Belém city. Moreover, we evaluated the enzootic cycle on the three islands that provide most of the açaí fruit that is consumed in these localities. We employed parasitological and serological tests throughout to evaluate infectivity competence and exposure to T. cruzi. In Val-de-Cães, no wild mammal presented positive parasitological tests, and 56% seroprevalence was observed, with low serological titers. Three of 14 triatomines were found to be infected (TcI). This unexpected epidemiological picture does not explain the high number of autochthonous ACD cases. In Jurunas, the cases of ACD could not be autochthonous because of the absence of any enzootic cycle of T. cruzi. In contrast, in the 3 island areas from which the açaí fruit originates, 66.7% of wild mammals and two dogs displayed positive hemocultures, and 15.6% of triatomines were found to be infected by T. cruzi. Genotyping by mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I) targeting revealed that the mammals and triatomines from the islands harbored TcI and Trypanosoma rangeli in single and mixed infections. Conclusion/Significance These findings show that cases of Chagas disease in the urban area of Belém may be derived from infected triatomines coming together with the açaí fruits from distant islands. We term this new epidemiological feature of Chagas disease as “Distantiae transmission”. PMID:24854494

  18. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of parasitological examinations of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic, carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) within the period of 50 years (1958-2008). Even though this survey is limited to the Czech Republic, it provides extensive data probably incomparable with any other study anywhere regarding the number of eels examined and parasites found. A total of 723 eels was examined from 42 localities that belong to all of the three main river drainage systems in the country, i.e. the Elbe, Danube and Oder river basins. Of the 31 species of adult and larval macroparasites including Monogenea (4 species), Trematoda (3), Cestoda (3), Nematoda (11), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), Bivalvia (1), Copepoda (1), Branchiura (1) and Acariformes (1), most of them (30) were recorded from the Elbe River basin. These parasites can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for eels (26%), non-specific adult parasites occurring also in other fishes (61%) and non-specific larvae (13%). The highest number (19) of parasite species was recorded in the Mácha Lake fishpond system in northern Bohemia. The parasite communities in eels from the individual localities exhibited large differences in their species composition and diversity depending on local ecological conditions. The parasite fauna of A. anguilla in the Czech Republic is compared with that in other European countries. The nematode Cucullanus egyptae Abdel-Ghaffar, Bashtar, Abdel-Gaber, Morsy, Mehlhorn, Al Quraishy et Mohammed, 2014 is designated as a species inquirenda. PMID:26130652

  19. Intestinal coccidiosis of anadromous and landlocked alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, caused by Goussia ameliae n. sp. and G. alosii n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    PubMed

    Lovy, Jan; Friend, Sarah E

    2015-08-01

    Anadromous alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, have experienced significant population level declines caused by factors including habitat destruction. Alewives occur in two different life histories, anadromous and landlocked forms. The landlocked alewife evolved from ancestral anadromous populations, resulting in an exclusively freshwater and phenotypically unique form. The occurrence of parasites in a host is linked to the environment, making alewives an ideal model to compare parasitology within a single species with contrasting life histories. Currently, little information exists on the presence and impacts of parasites in these fish populations; the present study sets out to better understand coccidiosis in the threatened anadromous populations and to understand how coccidian parasites compare in both life history forms. The intestinal coccidian, Goussia ameliae n. sp., was described infecting the pyloric cecum of 76% and 86% of young-of-the-year and adult anadromous alewives, respectively, from the Maurice River, New Jersey, USA. The coccidian was found in landlocked alewife populations with a prevalence of 92% and 34% in YOY and adult fish, respectively. An analysis of the small subunit 18S ribosomal RNA gene of G. ameliae from both life history forms demonstrated that the coccidian had 100% sequence identity, confirming the same parasite species in both forms. Though genetic analysis demonstrated G. ameliae to be identical, some differences were observed in sporulation and morphology of the parasite within the two populations. The sporocysts in anadromous populations were shorter and wider, and sporulation timing differed from that of landlocked fish. These differences may either be attributed to differences in the host type or to the sporulation environment. Lastly, alewives from landlocked populations were frequently co-infected with a second coccidian species in the posterior intestine, which occurred at a lower prevalence. This species, G. alosii n. sp., was described based on morphological characters of the sporulated oocysts in fresh parasitological preparations. PMID:25853050

  20. Spatial and temporal variations relevant to tsetse control in the Bipindi focus of southern Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) remains a public health problem in many poor countries. Due to lack of financial resources in these countries, cost-effective strategies are needed for efficient control of this scourge, especially the tsetse vector. It was shown that perennial water sources maintain a favourable biotope for tsetse flies and thus the transmission dynamics of sleeping sickness. The present paper aimed at assessing the transmission dynamics of HAT in a forest environment where the hydrographic network is important. Methods Two entomological surveys were carried out in July 2009 and March 2010 in the Bipindi sleeping sickness focus of the South Region of Cameroon. Entomological and parasitological data were collected during both trapping periods (including the climate variations throughout a year) and compared to each other. The level of risk for transmission of the disease during each trapping period was also evaluated at the trap level and materialised on the map of the Bipindi focus. Results Glossina palpalis palpalis was the most prevalent tsetse fly species captured in this focus. The overall densities of tsetse flies as well as the risk for transmission of HAT in the Bipindi focus were significantly higher in July than in March. At the trap level, we observed that these parameters were almost constant, whatever the trapping period, when the biotope included perennial water sources. Conclusions This study shows that the spatial distribution of traps, as well as the temporal climatic variations might influence entomological and parasitological parameters of HAT and that the presence of perennial water sources in biotopes would favour the development of tsetse flies and thus the transmission of sleeping sickness. These factors should, therefore, be taken into account in order to provide more efficient vector control. PMID:23815985

  1. A longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in the White Volta river basin of Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mahama, C I; Desquesnes, M; Dia, M L; Losson, B; De Deken, R; Speybroeck, N; Geerts, S

    2005-03-31

    A longitudinal epidemiological survey of bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors was carried out in the Volta river basin of Northern Ghana to determine the relationship between cattle management and the incidence of bovine trypanosomosis. Two groups of sentinel cattle under different systems of management, classified as "fully-sedentary" and "partially-sedentary" (depending on the type of management) were followed over a 1-year period starting from March 2003 onwards. Cattle were screened at intervals of 3 months using the buffy coat technique (BCT). Buffy coat specimen from animals that were positive for the BCT and those that were negative, but with a packed cell volume (PCV) of less than 21% were further tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Plasma from all animals were tested for antibody using the indirect antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Trypanosomosis challenge was determined in tandem with the epidemiological survey with watering sites of sentinel cattle being the foci of interest. The parasitological prevalence at the start of the survey was higher in the fully-sedentary group (9%) than in the partially-sedentary group (3%). In subsequent visits, however, the parasitological incidence was consistently higher in the partially-sedentary group than in the fully-sedentary group. The mean seroprevalence (ELISA) of both groups increased from 3% in March to 54% in December. Statistical analysis of the serological results using a random effect logistic regression, showed a significant difference in incidence of bovine trypanosomosis between the two groups. There was also a significant effect of time. The influence of cattle herding on host-vector-parasite interface and its consequence on the incidence of trypanosomosis are discussed. PMID:15740857

  2. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in southern Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leça Júnior, Nilo Fernandes; Guedes, Paula Elisa Brandão; Santana, Lailla Nascimento; Almeida, Valter dos Anjos; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; Albuquerque, George Rego; Wenceslau, Amauri Arias; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias; Silva, Fabiana Lessa

    2015-08-01

    Leishmaniosis is a zoonosis caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. American cutaneous leishmaniosis (ACL) is mainly caused by the species L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, and American visceral leishmaniosis (AVL) is caused by L. infantum chagasi. In addition to their proven roles as reservoirs of AVL, dogs are also suspected by researchers to be reservoirs of ACL due to reports of this infection in domestic environments and of infected dogs in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to detect Leishmania sp. infection in dogs from Vila Operária, Buerarema, Bahia, using parasitological tests, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, this study also aimed to identify risk factors associated with illness in dogs in this locality by conducting an epidemiological survey. For this purpose, 292 dogs were clinically evaluated for the presence of skin lesions, and the dogs that showed these changes were submitted to scarification injury to enable preparation of slides for microscopic study of amastigotes. Subsequently, the dogs underwent blood sampling for serological (IFA) and molecular (PCR) tests. Additionally, the owners of the dogs answered an epidemiological questionnaire to facilitate the identification of risk factors for exposure of dogs to pathogens of ACL. Of the 292 dogs studied, 13 (4.5%) had lesions suggestive of ACL, but with a negative parasitological examination and 147 (50.3%) were seropositive according to the IFA. Of the 273 dogs studied using PCR test, 10 (3.66%) were positive for L. braziliensis, and all samples were negative for L. infantum chagasi. Wastelands in the peridomicile and the presence of light in the household were risk factors associated with ACL. The results show that Vila Operária has asymptomatic dogs with ACL and that the detection sensitivity of the IFA was higher than that of PCR for the infected dogs. PMID:25917715

  3. WATER FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES USED FOR THE IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLES TO BE MARKETED: RESEARCH ON Cryptosporidiumspp., Giardiaspp., AND COLIFORMS IN PARANA, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Tiyo, Rogerio; Souza, Carla Zangari de; Nishi, Letícia; Brustolin, Camila Fernanda; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Falavigna Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2015-08-01

    SUMMARYThe aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analysis, and five liters for physicochemical analysis. Water samples were filtered under vacuum with a kit containing a cellulose acetate membrane filter, 1.2 µm (Millipore(r), Barueri, SP, Brazil). The material retained on the membrane was mechanically extracted and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor(r)kit). From 20 rural properties investigated, 10 had artesian wells (40 samples), 10 had common wells (40 samples), and one had a mine (four samples), the latter contaminated by Cryptosporidiumspp. In samples from artesian wells, 90 to 130 meters depth, 42.5% were positive for total coliforms and 5.0% were identified to have abnormal coloration. From the samples of common wells, 14 to 37 meters depth, 87.5% were contaminated with total coliforms, 82.5% were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and 12.5% had color abnormalities. We did not detect the presence of Giardiaspp. or Cryptosporidiumspp. in artesian and common wells. The use of artesian or common wells is an important step in the control of the spreading of zoonoses, particularly Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardiaspp., as well as artesian wells for coliform control in local production of vegetables to be marketed. PMID:26422158

  4. WATER FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES USED FOR THE IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLES TO BE MARKETED: RESEARCH ON Cryptosporidiumspp., Giardiaspp., AND COLIFORMS IN PARANA, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TIYO, Rogerio; de SOUZA, Carla Zangari; NISHI, Letícia; BRUSTOLIN, Camila Fernanda; RATTI, Bianca Altrão; FALAVIGNA GUILHERME, Ana Lucia

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analysis, and five liters for physicochemical analysis. Water samples were filtered under vacuum with a kit containing a cellulose acetate membrane filter, 1.2 µm (Millipore(r), Barueri, SP, Brazil). The material retained on the membrane was mechanically extracted and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor(r)kit). From 20 rural properties investigated, 10 had artesian wells (40 samples), 10 had common wells (40 samples), and one had a mine (four samples), the latter contaminated by Cryptosporidiumspp. In samples from artesian wells, 90 to 130 meters depth, 42.5% were positive for total coliforms and 5.0% were identified to have abnormal coloration. From the samples of common wells, 14 to 37 meters depth, 87.5% were contaminated with total coliforms, 82.5% were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and 12.5% had color abnormalities. We did not detect the presence of Giardiaspp. or Cryptosporidiumspp. in artesian and common wells. The use of artesian or common wells is an important step in the control of the spreading of zoonoses, particularly Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardiaspp., as well as artesian wells for coliform control in local production of vegetables to be marketed. PMID:26422158

  5. A Comparison of Multiple Methods for Estimating Parasitemia of Hemogregarine Hemoparasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) and Its Application for Studying Infection in Natural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Maia, João P.; Harris, D. James; Carranza, Salvador; Gómez-Díaz, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon) and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella), based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina) and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina). From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite distributions in sympatric natural populations. PMID:24743340

  6. Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To complement ongoing schistosomiasis control within national control programmes (NCPs) that administer praziquantel to school-age children, assessing the risk and extent of schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children (PSAC) is important. Methods In June 2012, schistosomiasis in Chikhwawa district, Malawi was assessed across 12 villages examining pre-school-age children (PSAC) and their mothers by serological and parasitological diagnosis, as supplemented with urine-antigen and questionnaire-interview methods. Urinary tract morbidity was inferred by haematuria and albuminuria assays. Results In total, 49.5% (CI95 42.6-56.4) of 208 PSAC and 94.5% (CI95 90.9-98.1) of 165 mothers were seropositive for schistosomiasis, in 2 villages seroprevalence exceeded 75% in PSAC. Egg-patent urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis was observed; 17.7% (CI95 12.4-23.2) of PSAC and 45.1% (CI95 37.4-52.8) of mothers having active schistosomiasis by parasitological and urine-antigen testing combined. PSAC often had extensive daily water contact and many (~25%) had haematuria and albuminuria. As eggs with an atypical morphology of Schistosoma haematobium were observed, a general selection of schistosome eggs was characterized by DNA barcoding, finding Group I S. haematobium and Group IV and V S. mansoni. Malacological surveys encountered several populations of Bulinus globosus but failed to find Biomphalaria. Conclusions Both PSAC and their mothers appear to be at significant risk of schistosomiasis and should be considered for treatment within the NCP of Malawi. PMID:24690282

  7. Epidemiological aspects of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, Mehdi; Hajjaran, Homa; Hamzavi, Yazdan; Mobedi, Iraj; Arshi, Shahnam; Zarei, Zabih; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Naeini, Koroush Manouchehri; Avizeh, Reza; Fakhar, Mehdi

    2005-05-15

    An epidemiological study to examine the sero-prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) among domestic and wild canines in endemic foci of Iran was carried out during 1999-2003 to assess the distribution of the disease and the possible association between infection in dogs, wild canines and people. Anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT). Parasitological study was performed for all captured wild canines and were detected in some of the seropositive dogs with specific clinical signs (n=107). Serum samples (n=1568) were collected from domestic dogs in villages that are known endemic foci of human visceral leishmaniosis (HVL). Wild canine sera were collected from jackals (Canis aureus, n=10), foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=10) and wolves (Canis lupus, n=10). Of the 1568 serum sampled collected from domestic dogs, 222 (14.2%) were positive by DAT (1:320 and above). No statistically significant difference was found between male (15.2%) and female (11.8%) sero-prevalence (P=0.083). Dogs of 8 years and above showed the highest sero-prevalence (40.6%). Only 23.9% of the seropositive domestic dogs had clinical signs. Parasitology and serology tests that were performed in 30 wild canines showed 10% these animals were infected by Leishmania infantum. Ten out of 11 Leishmania spp. isolated from the dogs and wild canines were identified as L. infantum and one other as L. tropica by molecular and biochemical techniques. For the first time in Iran, L. infantum and L. tropica were isolated from viscera of both a wolf and a domestic dog. PMID:15845279

  8. A standardised faecal collection protocol for intestinal helminth egg counts in Asian elephants, Elephas maximus.

    PubMed

    Lynsdale, Carly L; Santos, Diogo J Franco Dos; Hayward, Adam D; Mar, Khyne U; Htut, Win; Aung, Htoo Htoo; Soe, Aung Thura; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative assessment of parasite infection is necessary to measure, manage and reduce infection risk in both wild and captive animal populations. Traditional faecal flotation methods which aim to quantify parasite burden, such as the McMaster egg counting technique, are widely used in veterinary medicine, agricultural management and wildlife parasitology. Although many modifications to the McMaster method exist, few account for systematic variation in parasite egg output which may lead to inaccurate estimations of infection intensity through faecal egg counts (FEC). To adapt the McMaster method for use in sampling Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), we tested a number of possible sources of error regarding faecal sampling, focussing on helminth eggs and using a population of over 120 semi-captive elephants distributed across northern Myanmar. These included time of day of defecation, effects of storage in 10% formalin and 10% formol saline and variation in egg distribution between and within faecal boluses. We found no significant difference in the distribution of helminth eggs within faecal matter or for different defecation times, however, storage in formol saline and formalin significantly decreased egg recovery. This is the first study to analyse several collection and storage aspects of a widely-used traditional parasitology method for helminth parasites of E. maximus using known host individuals. We suggest that for the modified McMaster technique, a minimum of one fresh sample per elephant collected from any freshly produced bolus in the total faecal matter and at any point within a 7.5 h time period (7.30am-2.55 pm) will consistently represent parasite load. This study defines a protocol which may be used to test pre-analytic factors and effectively determine infection load in species which produce large quantities of vegetative faeces, such as non-ruminant megaherbivores. PMID:26236632

  9. Acute respiratory infection and bacteraemia as causes of non-malarial febrile illness in African children: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Florida; Reyburn, Rita; Reyburn, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    The replacement of “presumptive treatment for malaria” by “test before treat” strategies for the management of febrile illness is raising awareness of the importance of knowing more about the causes of illness in children who are suspected to have malaria but return a negative parasitological test. The most common cause of non-malarial febrile illness (NMFI) in African children is respiratory tract infection. Whilst the bacterial causes of NMFI are well known, the increasing use of sensitive techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests is revealing large numbers of viruses that are potential respiratory pathogens. However, many of these organisms are commonly present in the respiratory tract of healthy children so causality and risk factors for pneumonia remain poorly understood. Infection with a combination of viral and bacterial pathogens is increasingly recognised as important in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. Similarly, blood stream infections with organisms typically grown by aerobic culture are well known but a growing number of organisms that can be identified only by PCR, viral culture, or serology are now recognised to be common pathogens in African children. The high mortality of hospitalised children on the first or second day of admission suggests that, unless results are rapidly available, diagnostic tests to identify specific causes of illness will still be of limited use in guiding the potentially life saving decisions relating to initial treatment of children admitted to district hospitals in Africa with severe febrile illness and a negative test for malaria. Malaria control and the introduction of vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal disease are contributing to improved child survival in Africa. However, increased parasitological testing for malaria is associated with increased use of antibiotics to which resistance is already high.

  10. Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features

    PubMed Central

    Mohebali, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distributed in some parts of the new world and old world. The disease is endemic in different parts of Iran. This review article has been focused on major topics of epidemiological aspects and clinical features of VL in Iran for the period of 2002 through 2012. For the detection of VL in humans as well as animal reservoir hosts, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using direct agglutination test (DAT) as a validated serological test. Parasitological examinations were performed on suspected VL patients as well as canines and rodents. Different molecular methods were used for identification of species and genotype/ or strain of Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans, animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Altogether, 1698 out of 36081 (4.7%) human serum samples collected from 5 distinct geographical zones showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ? 1:3200 using DAT. The majority of VL cases in the endemic areas were found among children up to 12 years old. Almost 75% of DAT-positive cases (?1:3200) in endemic areas showed clinical signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 217 hospitalized patients with DAT positive (?1:3200) results included paleness (99.5%), fever (96.9%), splenomegaly (91.5%), hepatomegaly (53.6%) and lymphadenopathy (21.1%). Integrated VL surveillance system in primary care using DAT, could decrease mortality and morbidity of the disease in the VL endemic areas of the northwestern Iran. Out of 7204 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in various geographical locations of Iran, 879 (12.2%) were DAT sero-positive at titers ? 1:320. L. infantum as the principal causative agent of the disease was isolated from infected humans, domestic and wild canines and rodents. The principal animal reservoir hosts of the infection are domestic and wild canines. Ph. kandelakii, Ph. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, Ph. tobbi in northwestern Iran; Ph. major s.l. (=Ph. neglectus), Ph. keshishiani, and Ph. alexandri in southern parts of Iran were molecularly and/or parasitologically positive for L. infantum infections. The zoonotic form of VL (ZVL) caused by L. infantum occurs sporadically in all geographical zones of Iran but in northwestern and southern parts of the country the disease is endemic. DAT as an appropriate and potential tool has been used for sero-diagnosis and sero-epidemiological of VL among humans as well as domestic and wild canines. PMID:24454426

  11. Global food security: the impact of veterinary parasites and parasitologists.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L

    2013-08-01

    Global food security will require the production of more food using resources including land more efficiently, and with less waste. This goal must be achieved within the context of climate change and while ensuring minimal adverse environmental impact from both crop and livestock production. Disease, especially infectious disease, is a main constraint of biologically efficient livestock production and both endemic and exotic disease results in mortality and morbidity and hence less food than should ideally be available in current farming systems. A significant proportion of diseases affect the safety of food supplies, in addition to or instead of, their effect on volume and quality of food products. Parasitological diseases including those caused by nematodes, trematodes, protozoa and ectoparasites, have widely differing effects on meat, milk and fibre production and many new technologies have been developed in order to prevent or treat them. Approaches to developing better control of parasites have included livestock breeding strategies, improved nutrition and management, and the development of new drugs, diagnostic tests and vaccines. Some of the most important examples include both the development of new anthelmintic products, and better means of using existing drugs in order to maximise their effectiveness in the face of rapidly increasing parasite resistance; diagnostic tests which are able to detect low levels of nucleic acids or proteins from infectious agents rapidly; and vaccines derived from either native or recombinant proteins and designed to stimulate the most appropriate protective response from livestock species. Some of the parasitic diseases affect restricted regions around the world, however most affect very large global populations. The development of technologies of suitable and affordable livestock products for use in developing countries where most pressure on increased production for food will occur, provides a particular challenge. Most if not all new technologies form part of integrated management schemes on farms and these vary hugely in differing systems and geographical regions of the world. If the benefit of improved technologies for optimal health, welfare and biological efficiency of livestock is to be realised, then the veterinary, farming, commercial animal health and public service communities need to learn lessons from past successes and failures in the delivery of newly developed technologies to the farmer. The combination of technology and rural development in the veterinary parasitological field has played a key role in current food production and is well placed to continue this trend to help in ensuring future food requirements for the world. PMID:23622818

  12. In vivo efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Central Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In vivo efficacy assessments of the first-line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum malaria are essential for ensuring effective case management. In Ethiopia, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) has been the first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria since 2004. Methods Between October and November 2009, we conducted a 42-day, single arm, open label study of AL for P. falciparum in individuals >6 months of age at two sites in Oromia State, Ethiopia. Eligible patients who had documented P. falciparum mono-infection were enrolled and followed according to the standard 2009 World Health Organization in vivo drug efficacy monitoring protocol. The primary and secondary endpoints were PCR uncorrected and corrected cure rates, as measured by adequate clinical and parasitological response on days 28 and 42, respectively. Results Of 4426 patients tested, 120 with confirmed falciparum malaria were enrolled and treated with AL. Follow-up was completed for 112 patients at day 28 and 104 patients at day 42. There was one late parasitological failure, which was classified as undetermined after genotyping. Uncorrected cure rates at both day 28 and 42 for the per protocol analysis were 99.1% (95% CI 95.1-100.0); corrected cure rates at both day 28 and 42 were 100.0%. Uncorrected cure rates at day 28 and 42 for the intention to treat analysis were 93.3% (95% CI 87.2-97.1) and 86.6% (95% CI 79.1-92.1), respectively, while the corrected cure rates at day 28 and 42 were 94.1% (95% CI 88.2-97.6) and 87.3% (95% CI 79.9-92.7), respectively. Using survival analysis, the unadjusted cure rate was 99.1% and 100.0% adjusted by genotyping for day 28 and 42, respectively. Eight P. falciparum patients (6.7%) presented with Plasmodium vivax infection during follow-up and were excluded from the per protocol analysis. Only one patient had persistent parasitaemia at day 3. No serious adverse events were reported, with cough and nausea/vomiting being the most common adverse events. Conclusions AL remains a highly effective and well-tolerated treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the study setting after several years of universal access to AL. A high rate of parasitaemia with P. vivax possibly from relapse or new infection was observed. Trial Registration NCT01052584 PMID:21798054

  13. Management of imported malaria in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms. Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily) until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the absorption of anti-malarials are important considerations in the choice of treatment. Complicated malaria is treated with intravenous artesunate resulting in a much more rapid decrease in parasite density compared to quinine. Patients treated with intravenous artesunate should be closely monitored for haemolysis for four weeks after treatment. There is a concern in some countries about the lack of artesunate produced according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). PMID:22985344

  14. A Combination of the Kato-Katz Methods and ELISA to Improve the Diagnosis of Clonorchiasis in an Endemic Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jingshan; Li, Yihong; Shu, Jing; Ling, Hong; Zhang, Fengmin

    2012-01-01

    Background Examination of feces by light microscopy is widely used for specific parasitological diagnosis of clonorchiasis. However, the true incidence of infection is underestimated owing to the high missing diagnosis rate of this method. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used for the detection and control of clonorchiasis but the practicality of this method is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ELISA as a supplementary method for the diagnosis of clonorchiasis. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study recruited 2,359 clinically suspected patients from Heilongjiang Province, China. In all, 954 cases were identified as antibody-positive by immunoglobulin (IgG)-ELISA and 495 individuals were diagnosed as egg-positive by the Kato-Katz (KK) method. The seropositive and egg-negative individuals were re-examined by repeated egg counts and/or the number of KK slides and 18 (18.18%) cases were confirmed as clonorchiasis. The 40.44%, antibody-positive rate determined by IgG-ELISA was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the 21.75% egg-positive rate found by examination of feces. A Bayesian approach indicated that the prevalence of clonorchiasis in this region was 22.27% and that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IgG-ELISA were 98.7%, 76.53%, 54.66% and 99.52%, respectively. The agreement between the two methods was moderate (kappa value?=?0.564). The clonorchiasis patients lived mainly along the Songhua River. The risk factors, except for ethnic factors, were estimated effectively by both methods. Conclusions/Significance The present study suggested that clonorchiasis was widely distributed in Heilongjiang Province, China. The missing diagnosis rate was high using the KK technique alone. The combination of immunological methods and parasitological techniques could improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the missing diagnosis rate. ELISA used as an auxiliary diagnostic method was realistic and practical for a large-scale screening test, monitoring the prevalence and assessing the risk factors of clonorchiasis. PMID:23056547

  15. A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic control measures for naturally-occurring canine leishmaniosis, part I: vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Wylie, C E; Carbonell-Antoñanzas, M; Aiassa, E; Dhollander, S; Zagmutt, F J; Brodbelt, D C; Solano-Gallego, L

    2014-11-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonotic disease; however, the efficacy of available vaccines for the prevention of naturally-occurring Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs remains unclear. The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy of currently available vaccines to prevent naturally-occurring L. infantum infection in dogs. Four bibliographic databases (CAB Direct 2011, Web of Science 2011, U.S. National Library of Medicine 2011 and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) were searched along with eight sets of conference proceedings and the International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS) database, from 1980 to November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised clinical trials (NRCTs), cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated vaccine efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified. The search was conducted for all mitigations for CanL and yielded the title and abstract of 937 articles, from which 84 articles were screened based on full text. Twelve studies on vaccinations (five RCTs, seven NRCTs) were identified. Ten studies were at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, whilst two were at an unclear risk. The use of 200 ?g ALM protein, Leishmune(®), CaniLeish(®), LiESAp with MDP, and ALM with BCG tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. The use of lyophilized protein vaccine significantly increased the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. There is peer-reviewed evidence that control measures are effective in preventing CanL with the results suggesting that between 6 and 54% of infections could be prevented with vaccination. However, this evidence is based on a small number of RCTs, all of which are either at high or unclear risk of methodological shortcomings. Well-designed, adequately powered and properly reported randomised clinical trials are needed to clearly establish efficacy of vaccines as CanL control measures. PMID:25074635

  16. [Zoonotic worms from carnivorous pets: risk assessment and prevention].

    PubMed

    Guillot, Jacques; Bouree, Patrice

    2007-01-01

    A wide range of parasites can infect carnivorous pets. Some are more significant than others, owing to their prevalence, their pathogenicity for animal hosts, or their capacity to cause human disease. This article focuses on roundworms (Toxocara spp.) and tapeworms (Echinococcus spp.), which are emerging public health hazards in France. When humans ingest infective Toxocara eggs, the eggs hatch and release larvae that can migrate anywhere in the body, causing a disease called visceral larva migrans. Common target organs are the eyes, brain, liver, and lungs, with a risk of permanent visual, neurological and other tissue damage. Epidemiological studies have identified geophagy and pet dogs (particularly puppies) as the principal risk factors for human toxocarosis. Childrens' play habits and their attraction to pets put them at a higher risk for infection than adults. Eggs of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus hatch and release embryos that migrate to various organs and form voluminous cysts, causing a disease called cystic echinococcosis. Human alveolar echinococcosis is caused by the larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, which usually develops in the liver. Larval growth is slow, resulting in an asymptomatic phase of several years before diagnosis. Left untreated, the condition may be lethal. In central and eastern European areas where Echinococcus multilocularis is endemic, dogs that have access to rodents should be considered as potential hazards for humans. Rational measures for preventing animal and human infection include pet owner education and regular deworming of dogs and cats. Education of pet owners should focus on prevention, and will include personal hygiene, clearing up pet feces regularly to reduce environmental contamination, and minimizing exposure of children to potentially contaminated environments. Because puppies, kittens, pregnant and nursing animals and hunting dogs are at the highest risk of roundworm or tapeworm infection--and are therefore responsible for most environmental contamination and human disease--antihelminthic treatments are most effective when they are initiated early and target these animal populations. Various guidelines for the treatment and control of parasitic infections in carnivorous pets have been proposed in the United States (by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Companion Animal Parasitology Council) and in Europe (by the European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasitology). In France a non profit organization (CEPHA, Comité d'Experts en Parasitologie Humaine et Animale) was recently created to participate in the prevention of parasitic zoonoses associated with companion animals. PMID:17645108

  17. Self-reported fever, treatment actions and malaria infection prevalence in the northern states of Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of fevers and their management in areas of low malaria transmission in Africa is not well understood. The characteristics of fever, its treatment and association with infection prevalence from a national household sample survey in the northern states of Sudan, an area that represents historically low parasite prevalence, are examined in this study. Methods In October-November 2009, a cluster sample cross-sectional household malaria indicator survey was undertaken in the 15 northern states of the Sudan. Data on household assets and individual level information on age, sex, whether the individual had a fever in the last 14 days and on the day of survey, actions taken to treat the fever including diagnostic services and drugs used and their sources were collected. Consenting household members were asked to provide a finger-prick blood sample and examined for malaria parasitaemia using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). All proportions and odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for clustering. Results Of 26,471 respondents 19% (n = 5,299) reported a history of fever within the last two weeks prior to the survey and 8% had fever on the day of the survey. Only 39% (n = 2,035) of individuals with fever in last two weeks took any action, of which 43% (n = 875) were treated with anti-malarials. About 44% (n = 382) of malaria treatments were done using the nationally recommended first-line therapy artesunate+sulphadoxine-pryrimethamine (AS+SP) and 13% (n = 122) with non-recommended chloroquine or SP. Importantly 33.9% (n = 296) of all malaria treatments included artemether monotherapy, which is internationally banned for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. About 53% of fevers had some form of parasitological diagnosis before treatment. On the day of survey, 21,988 individuals provided a finger-prick blood sample and only 1.8% were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Infection prevalence was higher among individuals who had fever in the last two weeks (OR = 3.4; 95%CI = 2.6 - 4.4, p < 0.001) or reported fever on the day of survey (OR = 6.2; 95%CI = 4.4 - 8.7, p < 0.001) compared to those without a history of fever. Conclusion Across the northern states of the Sudan, the period prevalence of fever is low. The proportion of fevers that are likely to be malaria is very low. Consequently, parasitological diagnosis of all fevers before treatment is an appropriate strategy for malaria case-management. Improved regulation and supervision of health workers is required to increase the use of diagnostics and remove the practice of prescribing artemisinin monotherapy. PMID:21575152

  18. Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression?

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to control (untreated) worms. This comparative pharmacological evaluation of three of the most used macrocyclic lactones compounds provides new insights into the action of these drugs. PMID:24533290

  19. [Human African trypanosomiasis in the mangrove forest in Guinea: epidemiological and clinical features in two adjacent outbreak areas].

    PubMed

    Camara, M; Kaba, D; KagbaDouno, M; Sanon, J R; Ouendeno, F F; Solano, P

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study carried out in two adjacent areas of the coastal mangrove forest of Guinea (Dubreka and Boffa) was to screen the population for disease, provide information on human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, a.k.a. sleeping sickness) and compare the epidemiologic and clinical features with those of outbreak areas in the Ivory Coast where more data is currently available. Cases of HAT were confirmed by parasitological testing after active medical work-up (91 of 9637 patients examined). Five cases were confirmed in patients in treatment centers. Of the first 57 cases admitted for treatment in the Dubreka and Boffa centers, 29 were responded to a clinical and epidemiological questionnaire and underwent thorough clinical examination. Disease stage was determined by cytochemical testing of cerebrospinal fluid. As in outbreak areas of the Ivory Coast, sleeping sickness in Dubreka and Boffa is a rural disease mainly affecting the working population. Most cases identified in Guinea involved men and women working in farming, fishing, or salt extraction. However unlike Ivory Coast outbreak areas where ethnic diversity related to share cropping is considered to play a major role in maintaining endemicity, almost all patients in our study (98%) were from the native Soussou population that is self employed and lives in villages with no immigrant population. While clinical symptoms observed in these patients were not different from those reported elsewhere, there was a high frequency of cervical adenopathy (93%). This finding could provide a useful diagnostic sign for screening populations living in these mangrove forest regions and as a source for parasitological diagnosis as shown by the fact that 88.5% of patients were screened on the basis of lymph node fluid specimens. Most patients including among those identified by active work-up (5%) were in the meningo-encephalitis phase of the disease (98%). The findings of this study underline the need not only to continue surveillance in these regions but also to extend surveillance throughout the country as a means of avoiding recrudescence and extension of the disease. PMID:16038356

  20. A transdisciplinary perspective on the links between malaria and agroecosystems in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutero, C M; Kabutha, C; Kimani, V; Kabuage, L; Gitau, G; Ssennyonga, J; Githure, J; Muthami, L; Kaida, A; Musyoka, L; Kiarie, E; Oganda, M

    2004-01-01

    An ecosystem approach was applied to study the links between malaria and agriculture in Mwea Division, Kenya. The study was organized into five phases. Phase I had two components including a stakeholder workshop conducted with community representatives and other key stakeholders, and the collation of data on common diseases from outpatient service records at the local hospital. Phase I aimed at an a priori needs-assessment in order to focus the research agenda. Workshop participants directly contributed to the selection of two villages with rice irrigation and two non-irrigated villages for detailed health studies. In Phase II, various Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools were used to gather more detailed qualitative information from the study villages. The qualitative results indicated that Mwea residents considered malaria and lack of clean drinking water to be their most important health problems, and this was corroborated by local hospital records. Phase III consisted of a comprehensive household survey developed with inputs from Phases I and II. Phase IV involved a comparative evaluation of entomological and parasitological aspects of malaria in the villages with and without rice irrigation. The malaria parasitological survey found an average Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate of 23.5% among children up to 9 years of age. Results of the entomological evaluation showed a 30-300-fold increase in the number of the local malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, in villages with rice irrigation compared to those without irrigation yet malaria prevalence was significantly lower in these villages (0-9% versus 17-54%). The most likely explanation of this 'paddies paradox' in Mwea appeared to be the tendency for A. arabiensis in irrigated villages to feed overwhelmingly on cattle. The results suggested that zooprophylaxis was potentially a practical option for long-term malaria control in the rice irrigated areas, in spite of the large number of A. arabiensis. Phase V consisted of end-of-project workshops for the dissemination of research results and participatory decision-making regarding follow-up actions. Owing to the utilization of a transdisciplinary and participatory approach to research, it was possible to identify opportunities for maintaining zooprophylaxis for malaria in Mwea, through the integration of agroecosystem practices aimed at sustaining livestock systems within a broader strategy for rural development. PMID:14732239

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites of free-living Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the Northern Red Sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kleinertz, S; Hermosilla, C; Ziltener, A; Kreicker, S; Hirzmann, J; Abdel-Ghaffar, F; Taubert, A

    2014-04-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna infecting the free-living and alive Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) inhabiting waters of the Red Sea at Hurghada, Egypt. A total of 94 individual faecal samples of the examined bottlenose dolphins were collected during several diving expeditions within their natural habitats. Using classical parasitological techniques, such as sodium acetate acetic acid formalin method, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears, coproantigen ELISA, PCR and macroscopical analyses, the study revealed infections with 21 different parasite species belonging to protozoans and metazoans with some of them bearing zoonotic and/or pathogenic potential. Four identified parasite species are potential zoonotic species (Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Ascaridida indet.); three of them are known to have high pathogenic potential for the examined dolphin species (Nasitrema attenuata, Zalophotrema spp. and Pholeter gastrophilus) and some appear to be directly associated with stranding events. In detail, the study indicates stages of ten protozoan species (Giardia spp., Sarcocystis spp., Isospora (like) spp., Cystoisospora (like) spp., Ciliata indet. I and II, Holotricha indet., Dinoflagellata indet., Hexamita (like) spp., Cryptosporidium spp.), seven trematode species (N. attenuata, Nasitrema spp. I and II, Zalophotrema curilensis, Zalophotrema spp., Pholeter gastrophilus, Trematoda indet.), one cestode species (Diphyllobothrium spp.), two nematode species (Ascaridida indet, Capillaria spp.) and one crustacean parasite (Cymothoidae indet.). Additionally, we molecularly identified adult worms of Anisakis typica in individual dolphin vomitus samples by molecular analyses. A. typica is a common parasite of various dolphin species of warmer temperate and tropical waters and has not been attributed as food-borne parasitic zoonoses so far. Overall, these parasitological findings include ten new host records for T. aduncus (i.e. in case of Giardia spp., Sarcocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Nasitrema spp., Zalophotrema spp., Pholeter gastrophilus, A. typica, Capillaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp. and Cymothoidae indet.). The present results may be used as a baseline for future monitoring studies targeting the impact of climate or other environmental changes on dolphin's health conditions and therefore contribute to the protection of these fascinating marine mammals. PMID:24477747

  2. [Cutanous myiasis caused by Sarcophaga spp. larvae in a diabetic patient].

    PubMed

    Demirel Kaya, Filiz; Orkun, Omer; Cakmak, Ay?e; Inkaya, Ahmet Ca?kan; Erguven, Sibel

    2014-04-01

    Myiasis is defined as a parasitic infestation of tissues and organs in living vertebrates with dipterous larvae. Infestation with dipterous larvae can occur when flies deposit their eggs or first stage larvae on the host's tissues. Myiasis is seen more frequently in tropical and subtropical countries, especially in rural regions where people are in close contact with animals. Diagnosis of myiasis depends on the demonstration of larvae on the host's tissues or organs. Correct identification of the larvae is important for the initiation of appropriate treatment and establishment of preventive measures. In this report, a case of diabetic wound ulcer complicated with myiasis was presented. A 68 years old male patient with a diabetic wound was admitted to the Hacettepe University Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Ankara in July 2013. The patient had a history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus over 10 years and hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic renal failure for several years. His left leg under the knee and his right toe were amputated because of diabetic foot. The infection on his right heel had started as a single, painless ulcer 5 months ago. He had medical advice from a health care provider and used ampicilin-sulbactam for 3 months. However, the wound progressed in spite of the treatment and upon admission to our hospital, he was hospitalized with the diagnosis of diabetic foot ulcer. The C-reactive protein, sedimentation rate, white blood cell count and HbA1c values were found to be high. Piperacillin-tazobactam therapy was started and debridement of necrotic tissue was planned. During the debridement prosedure larvae were observed under the necrotic tissue. Two larvae were collected and delivered to the parasitology laboratory. After morphological examination the larvae washed in distilled water and killed in 70% alcohol and they were taken to the Ankara University Veterinary Faculty, Department of Parasitology for identification. The morphological characteristics of cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior spiracles and slits of the posterior spiracles were examined and the larvae were identified as third stage of Sarcophaga spp. Diabetes, coronary artery disease and low socio-economic level as well as the presence of an open, neglected wound were attributed as the most important predisposing factors that led to the development of myiasis in this patient. It should be kept in mind that the diabetic patients with open wounds may develop myiasis especially in the summer months and larvae can cause progressive wound infection. PMID:24819275

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life among School Children with Parasitic Infections: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Survey in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Yapi, Richard B.; Ndri, Prisca B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; Fürst, Thomas; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Raso, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections are still of considerable public health relevance, notably among children in low- and middle-income countries. Measures to assess the magnitude of ill-health in infected individuals, however, are debated and patient-based proxies through generic health-related quality of life (HrQoL) instruments are among the proposed strategies. Disability estimates based on HrQoL are still scarce and conflicting, and hence, there is a need to strengthen the current evidence-base. Methodology Between November 2011 and February 2012, a national school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire. Children underwent parasitological and clinical examination to assess infection status with Plasmodium and helminth species and clinical parameters, and responded to a questionnaire interview incorporating sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported morbidity, and HrQoL. Validity analysis of the HrQoL instrument was performed, assessing floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, and correlation with morbidity scores. Multivariate regression models were applied to identify significant associations between HrQoL and children's parasitic infection and clinical status. Principal Findings Parasitological examination of 4,848 children aged 5–16 years revealed Plasmodium spp., hookworm, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura prevalences of 75.0%, 17.2%, 5.7%, 3.7%, 1.8%, and 1.3%, respectively. Anemic children showed a significant 1-point reduction in self-rated HrQoL on a scale from 0 to 100, whereas no significant negative association between HrQoL and parasite infection was observed. The 12-item HrQoL questionnaire proofed useful, as floor and ceiling effects were negligible, internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha?=?0.71), and valid, as revealed by significant negative correlations and associations with children's self-reported and clinically assessed morbidity. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that HrQoL tools are not sufficiently sensitive to assess subtle morbidities due to parasitic infection in Ivorian school-aged children. However, more advanced morbid sequelae (e.g., anemia), were measurable by the instrument's health construct. Further investigations on health impacts of parasitic infection among school-aged children and refinement of generic HrQoL questionnaires are warranted. PMID:25474579

  4. Serological and infection statuses of dogs from a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Laranjeira, Daniela Farias; da Matta, Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro; Tomokane, Thaíse Yumie; Marcondes, Mary; Corbet, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study investigated the serological status of dogs living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area and its correlation with the parasitological condition of the animals. METHODS Canine humoral response was evaluated using the sera of 134 dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry to detect parasites in the skin, lymph node, and spleen of the animals. The specific antibodies investigated were IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE. RESULTS According to the parasitological, laboratory, and clinical findings, the dogs were placed into one of four groups: asymptomatic with (AP+, n = 21) or without (AP-, n = 36) Leishmania tissue parasitism and symptomatic with (SP+, n = 52) or without (SP-, n = 25) parasitism. Higher IgG and IgE levels were positively correlated with the infection condition and parasite load, but not with the clinical status. In all groups, total IgG was the predominant antibody, which occurred at the expense of IgG2 instead of IgG1. Most of the infected dogs tested positive for IgG (SP+, 98.1%; AP+, 95.2%), whereas this was not observed with IgE (SP+, 80.8%; AP+, 71.2%). The most relevant finding was the high positivity of the uninfected dogs for Leishmania-specific IgG (SP-, 60.0%; AP-, 44.4%), IgE (SP-, 44.0%; AP-, 27.8%), IgG1 (SP-, 28.0%; AP-, 22.2%), and IgG2 antibodies (SP-, 56.0%; AP-, 41.7%). CONCLUSIONS The serological status of dogs, as determined by any class or subclass of antibodies, did not accurately distinguish dogs infected with L. (L.) infantum chagasi from uninfected animals. The inaccuracy of the serological result may impair not only the diagnosis, but also epidemiological investigations and strategies for visceral leishmaniasis control. This complex serological scenario occurring in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area highlights the challenges associated with canine diagnosis and points out the difficulties experienced by veterinary clinicians and coordinators of control programs. PMID:25210815

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Leishmania DNA in buffy coat from visceral leishmaniasis patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains as one of the most neglected tropical diseases with over 60% of the world’s total VL cases occurring in the Indian subcontinent. Due to the invasive risky procedure and technical expertise required in the classical parasitological diagnosis, the goal of the VL experts has been to develop noninvasive procedure(s) applicable in the field settings. Several serological and molecular biological approaches have been developed over the last decades, but only a few are applicable in field settings that can be performed with relative ease. Recently, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has emerged as a novel nucleic acid amplification method for diagnosis of VL. In this study, we have evaluated the LAMP assay using buffy coat DNA samples from VL patients in Bangladesh and compared its performance with leishmania nested PCR (Ln-PCR), an established molecular method with very high diagnostic indices. Methods Seventy five (75) parasitologically confirmed VL patients by spleen smear microcopy and 101 controls (endemic healthy controls ?25, non-endemic healthy control-26, Tuberculosis-25 and other diseases-25) were enrolled in this study. LAMP assay was carried out using a set of four primers targeting L. donovani kinetoplast minicircle DNA under isothermal (62 °C) conditions in a heat block. For Ln-PCR, we used primers targeting the parasite’s small-subunit rRNA region. Results LAMP assay was found to be positive in 68 of 75 confirmed VL cases, and revealed its diagnostic sensitivity of 90.7% (95.84-81.14, 95% CI), whereas all controls were negative by LAMP assay, indicating a specificity of 100% (100–95.43, 95% CI). The Ln-PCR yielded a sensitivity of 96% (98.96-87.97, 95% CI) and a specificity of 100% (100–95.43, 95% CI). Conclusion High diagnostic sensitivity and excellent specificity were observed in this first report of LAMP diagnostic evaluation from Bangladesh. Considering its many fold advantages over conventional PCR and potential to be used as a simple and rapid test in the VL endemic areas of the Indian subcontinent, our findings are encouraging, but further evaluation of LAMP is needed. PMID:23206441

  6. Outcome of artemether-lumefantrine treatment for uncomplicated malaria in HIV-infected adult patients on anti-retroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria and HIV infections are both highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, with HIV-infected patients being at higher risks of acquiring malaria. The majority of antiretroviral (ART) and anti-malarial drugs are metabolized by the CYP450 system, creating a chance of drug-drug interaction upon co-administration. Limited data are available on the effectiveness of the artemether-lumefantrine combination (AL) when co-administered with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). The aim of this study was to compare anti-malarial treatment responses between HIV-1 infected patients on either nevirapine- or efavirenz-based treatment and those not yet on ART (control-arm) with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, treated with AL. Method This was a prospective, non-randomized, open-label study conducted in Bagamoyo district, with three arms of HIV-infected adults: efavirenz-based treatment arm (EFV-arm) n?=?66, nevirapine-based treatment arm (NVP-arm) n?=?128, and control-arm n?=?75, with uncomplicated malaria. All patients were treated with AL and followed up for 28 days. The primary outcome measure was an adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) after treatment with AL by day 28. Results Day 28 ACPR was 97.6%, 82.5% and 94.5% for the NVP-arm, EFV-arm and control-arm, respectively. No early treatment or late parasitological failure was reported. The cumulative risk of recurrent parasitaemia was >19-fold higher in the EFV-arm than in the control-arm (Hazard ratio [HR], 19.11 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 10.5–34.5]; P?

  7. Artemisinin-Naphthoquine versus Artemether-Lumefantrine for Uncomplicated Malaria in Papua New Guinean Children: An Open-Label Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Laman, Moses; Moore, Brioni R.; Benjamin, John M.; Yadi, Gumul; Bona, Cathy; Warrel, Jonathan; Kattenberg, Johanna H.; Koleala, Tamarah; Manning, Laurens; Kasian, Bernadine; Robinson, Leanne J.; Sambale, Naomi; Lorry, Lina; Karl, Stephan; Davis, Wendy A.; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M.; Betuela, Inoni; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) with broad efficacy are needed where multiple Plasmodium species are transmitted, especially in children, who bear the brunt of infection in endemic areas. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), artemether-lumefantrine is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but it has limited efficacy against P. vivax. Artemisinin-naphthoquine should have greater activity in vivax malaria because the elimination of naphthoquine is slower than that of lumefantrine. In this study, the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of these ACTs were assessed in PNG children aged 0.5–5 y. Methods and Findings An open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial of artemether-lumefantrine (six doses over 3 d) and artemisinin-naphthoquine (three daily doses) was conducted between 28 March 2011 and 22 April 2013. Parasitologic outcomes were assessed without knowledge of treatment allocation. Primary endpoints were the 42-d P. falciparum PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitologic response (ACPR) and the P. vivax PCR-uncorrected 42-d ACPR. Non-inferiority and superiority designs were used for falciparum and vivax malaria, respectively. Because the artemisinin-naphthoquine regimen involved three doses rather than the manufacturer-specified single dose, the first 188 children underwent detailed safety monitoring. Of 2,542 febrile children screened, 267 were randomized, and 186 with falciparum and 47 with vivax malaria completed the 42-d follow-up. Both ACTs were safe and well tolerated. P. falciparum ACPRs were 97.8% and 100.0% in artemether-lumefantrine and artemisinin-naphthoquine-treated patients, respectively (difference 2.2% [95% CI ?3.0% to 8.4%] versus ?5.0% non-inferiority margin, p?=?0.24), and P. vivax ACPRs were 30.0% and 100.0%, respectively (difference 70.0% [95% CI 40.9%–87.2%], p<0.001). Limitations included the exclusion of 11% of randomized patients with sub-threshold parasitemias on confirmatory microscopy and direct observation of only morning artemether-lumefantrine dosing. Conclusions Artemisinin-naphthoquine is non-inferior to artemether-lumefantrine in PNG children with falciparum malaria but has greater efficacy against vivax malaria, findings with implications in similar geo-epidemiologic settings within and beyond Oceania. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000913077 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25549086

  8. Missing links: testing the completeness of host-parasite checklists.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Robert; Besson, Anne A; Morin, Mathieu B; Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2016-01-01

    Host-parasite checklists are essential resources in ecological parasitology, and are regularly used as sources of data in comparative studies of parasite species richness across host species, or of host specificity among parasite species. However, checklists are only useful datasets if they are relatively complete, that is, close to capturing all host-parasite associations occurring in a particular region. Here, we use three approaches to assess the completeness of 25 checklists of metazoan parasites in vertebrate hosts from various geographic regions. First, treating checklists as interaction networks between a set of parasite species and a set of host species, we identify networks with a greater connectance (proportion of realized host-parasite associations) than expected for their size. Second, assuming that the cumulative rise over time in the number of known host-parasite associations in a region tends toward an asymptote as their discovery progresses, we attempt to extrapolate the estimated total number of existing associations. Third, we test for a positive correlation between the number of published reports mentioning an association and the time since its first record, which is expected because observing and reporting host-parasite associations are frequency-dependent processes. Overall, no checklist fared well in all three tests, and only three of 25 passed two of the tests. These results suggest that most checklists, despite being useful syntheses of regional host-parasite associations, cannot be used as reliable sources of data for comparative analyses. PMID:26549369

  9. One Hundred Years After Its Discovery in Guatemala by Rodolfo Robles, Onchocerca volvulus Transmission Has Been Eliminated from the Central Endemic Zone.

    PubMed

    Richards, Frank; Rizzo, Nidia; Diaz Espinoza, Carlos Enrique; Monroy, Zoraida Morales; Crovella Valdez, Carol Guillermina; de Cabrera, Renata Mendizabal; de Leon, Oscar; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Morales, Alba Lucia; Rios, Dalila; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Klein, Robert; Eberhard, Mark; Cupp, Ed; Domínguez, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    We report the elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission from the Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) of onchocerciasis in Guatemala, the largest focus of this disease in the Americas and the first to be discovered in this hemisphere by Rodolfo Robles Valverde in 1915. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin was launched in 1988, with semiannual MDA coverage reaching at least 85% of the eligible population in > 95% of treatment rounds during the 12-year period, 2000-2011. Serial parasitological testing to monitor MDA impact in sentinel villages showed a decrease in microfilaria skin prevalence from 70% to 0%, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based entomological assessments of the principal vector Simulium ochraceum s.l. showed transmission interruption by 2007. These assessments, together with a 2010 serological survey in children 9-69 months of age that showed Ov16 IgG4 antibody prevalence to be < 0.1%, meeting World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for stopping MDA, and treatment was halted after 2011. After 3 years an entomological assessment showed no evidence of vector infection or recrudescence of transmission. In 2015, 100 years after the discovery of its presence, the Ministry of Health of Guatemala declared onchocerciasis transmission as having been eliminated from the CEZ. PMID:26503275

  10. Risk factors for intestinal parasitosis, anaemia, and malnutrition among school children in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Mulugeta Bezabih, Afework; López Pavon, Ignacio; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco Velasco, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Research on associated risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition in various geographic regions is needed for the development of appropriate control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia, and malnutrition in school children, living in urban and rural areas of northern Ethiopia. Six hundred school children, aged 6–15 years, were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey from 12 primary schools. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected. Faecal samples were examined using direct, concentration, and the Kato–Katz methods. Urine specimens were analysed for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Haemoglobin was measured using a HemoCue spectrometer. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was 72% (95% confidence interval (CI): 66–76%). The prevalence of anaemia, stunting, and thinness were 11% (95% CI: 8–13%), 35% (95% CI: 31–38%), and 34% (95% CI: 30–38%), respectively. Poor personal hygiene habits were generally associated with anaemia and nutritional deficiency (low body mass index). Multivariate logistic regression models related Schistosoma mansoni infection with boys. Boys were also more likely to be malnourished. Hookworm infection was associated with anaemia and unhygienic finger nails. Access to clean water and latrines, with some hygiene and sanitation communication activities, could improve health of children in Ethiopia. The use of smartphone technology in demographic data collection proved to be successful. The potential advantage offered by this technology for parasitological field surveys merits further investigation. PMID:23683331

  11. Parasites in harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) from the German Wadden Sea between two Phocine Distemper Virus epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Raga, J. A.; Siebert, U.

    2007-12-01

    Parasites were collected from 107 harbour seals ( Phoca vitulina) found on the coasts of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, between 1997 and 2000. The prevalence of the parasites and their associated pathology were investigated. Eight species of parasites, primarily nematodes, were identified from the examined organs: two anisakid nematodes ( Pseudoterranova decipiens (sensu lato) , Contracaecum osculatum (sensu lato)) from the stomach, Otostrongylus circumlitus (Crenosomatidae) and Parafilaroides gymnurus (Filaroididae) from the respiratory tract, one filarioid nematode ( Acanthocheilonema spirocauda) from the heart, two acanthocephalans, Corynosoma strumosum and C. semerme (Polymorphidae), from the intestine and an ectoparasite, Echinophthirius horridus (Anoplura, Insecta). Lungworm infection was the most prominent parasitological finding and secondary bacterial bronchopneumonia the most pathogenic lesion correlated with the parasites. Heavy nematode burdens in the respiratory tract were highly age-related and more frequent in young seals. A positive correlation was observed between high levels of pulmonary infection and severity of bronchopneumonia. The prevalence of lungworms in this study was higher than in seals that died during the 1988/1989 Phocine Distemper Virus epidemic, and the prevalence of acanthocephalans and heartworms had decreased compared to findings from the first die-off.

  12. Effects of malaria (Plasmodium relicturm) on activity budgets of experimentally-infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanquinea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorinks, N.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    We used behavioral, physiological, and parasitological measures to document effects of acute malarial infections on activity budgets of experimentally infected juvenile Apapane (Himatione sanguinea). Five of eight birds died within 20 to 32 days after exposure to a single infective mosquito bite. Infected Apapane devoted less time to locomotory activities involving flight, walking or hopping, and stationary activities such as singing, preening, feeding, and probing. The amount of time spent sitting was positively correlated with parasitemia and increased dramatically after infection and between treatment and control groups. Birds that succumbed to infection experienced a significant loss of body mass and subcutaneous fat, whereas surviving Apapane were better able to maintain body condition and fat levels. When rechallenged with the parasite five months after initial infection, surviving birds experienced no increase in parasitemia, indicating that they had become immune to reinfection. Regardless of the outcome, infected birds experienced acute illness that would have left them unable to forage or to escape from predators in the wild.

  13. [Hepatic pseudotumor in acute fascioliasis].

    PubMed

    Castillo Contreras, Ofelia Brisaida; Frisancho Velarde, Oscar

    2013-03-01

    We report a 61-year-old woman who was hospitalized because of abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant related to a liver tumor (ultrasound and tomographic findings). A collection of blood was obtained by a biopsy and there were no tumor cells. With the suspicion of acute fascioliasis (liver stage), due to severe eosinophilia and recent travel to endemic area of Fasciola hepatica, arc II and ELISA Fas 2 we carried out and were positive. Parasitological stool examinations were negative. During hospitalization a hepatic subcapsular hematoma presented as a complication and the patient developed fever because of cholangiolitic microabscesses in the left hepatic lobe. Percutaneous drainage was performed and positive cultures of secretions were obtained She received antibiotic coverage with vancomycin and imipenem. Treatment for Fasciola hepatica was initiated with nitaxozanida but it was discontinued due to oral intolerance. Later, she received a single dose of 250 mg triclabendazole with clinical and laboratory improvement. We presented this case because it is an unusual pseudotumoral presentation in acute hepatic fascioliasis. This parasitic disease is an emerging zoonosis in Perú. PMID:23650836

  14. [Palaeoparasitological study of atypical elements of the low and High Nile Valley].

    PubMed

    Harter-Lailheugue, S; Bouchet, F

    2006-03-01

    Paleoparasitology in the Old World has mainly concerned the study of latrine sediments and coprolites collected from mummified bodies or archaeological strata, mostly preserved by natural conditions. For the first time, different unusual archaeological samples were studied to look for the eggs of helminths parasites (embalming reject jar, canopic package, shroud). Now, samples of organic matter have been successfully processed in order to extract helminths eggs, following the protocol of BOUCHET 2001 (4). Helminth eggs are frequently preserved in the late Quaternary archaeological contexts because of their hard-wearing chitin shell. Six types of eggs were revealed (Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium, Taenia, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura). This study allows to enlarge the Palaeoparasitological research with material never exploited. Moreover, if we take into account identified parasite and geography, it's possible to enlarge the debate to parasite spatio-temporal migration. Considering the particular context of samples preservation, it's interesting to observe an exceptional conservation of parasitological sign related to excellent taphonomic condition (aridity anaeroby, rapid interruption of thanatomorphosis, natural "mummification"). PMID:16568686

  15. Prevalence of Zoonotic Intestinal Helminths of Canids in Moghan Plain, Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Bidaki, M; Mobedi, I; Ahari, S Sadeghieh; Habibizadeh, S; Naddaf, SR; Siavashi, MR

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed to elucidate the status of intestinal helminth infections in canids of Moghan Plain, northwestern Iran. Methods Eighty-five intestine samples from dead or shot wild canids, 59 fecal samples from sheepdogs and 5 from red foxes were collected from 2006 to 2008 and examined in Parasitology department of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Results Generally, adult worms, larvae, and eggs of 13 species of various parasitic helminths were recovered. Necropsy examinations showed that 96.47% animals harbored at least one helminth species. The prevalence of different species in necropsy were Mesocestoides sp. 84.7%, Rictolaria spp. 55.3%, Macranthorhynchus hirudinaceus 45.9%, Toxocara canis 43.5%, Toxascaris spp. 35.3%, Joyeuxiella sp. 34.1%; hookworms; 22.4%, Taenia spp. 11.8%, Alaria spp. 2.4% and Dipylidium caninum 1.2%. Besides, eggs belonging to 10 species of parasitic helminths were identified in 46 fecal samples and generally, 30.9% of samples harbored eggs of at least one helminth species. Conclusion The high prevalence of various helminth infections among canids in Moghan plain and contamination of environment by helminths eggs may increase the risk of infection for native people. PMID:22347243

  16. Etiologic Agents and Diseases Found Associated with Clinical Aspergillosis in Falcons

    PubMed Central

    Tarello, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe parasitological, microbiological, and pathological findings associated with the isolation of Aspergillus species in 94?clinically diseased captive falcons from Dubai. Concomitant agents and/or diseases were identified in 64?cases, causing either single (n = 36) or multiple coinfections (n = 28). Diagnoses found more often in association with aspergillosis were chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) (n = 29), Caryospora sp. (n = 16), Serratospiculum seurati infestation (n = 14), cestodiasis (n = 6), bumblefoot (n = 5), trematodosis due to Strigea falconispalumbi (n = 5), trichomoniasis (n = 4), Babesia shortti (n = 4), Mannheimia (Pastorella) haemolytica (n = 4), interstitial hepatitis (n = 4), Escherichia coli (n = 3), and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia (n = 2). Compared with a control group of 2000?diseased falcons without evidence of aspergillosis, the prevalence of Babesia shortti, CFIDS, Mannheimia (Pastorella) haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and falcon herpes virus infection was conspicuously higher in association with aspergillosis. These entities may be considered suitable candidates as predisposing factors for the mycosis. PMID:21754937

  17. Etiologic agents and diseases found associated with clinical aspergillosis in falcons.

    PubMed

    Tarello, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe parasitological, microbiological, and pathological findings associated with the isolation of Aspergillus species in 94?clinically diseased captive falcons from Dubai. Concomitant agents and/or diseases were identified in 64?cases, causing either single (n = 36) or multiple coinfections (n = 28). Diagnoses found more often in association with aspergillosis were chronic fatigue and immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) (n = 29), Caryospora sp. (n = 16), Serratospiculum seurati infestation (n = 14), cestodiasis (n = 6), bumblefoot (n = 5), trematodosis due to Strigea falconispalumbi (n = 5), trichomoniasis (n = 4), Babesia shortti (n = 4), Mannheimia (Pastorella) haemolytica (n = 4), interstitial hepatitis (n = 4), Escherichia coli (n = 3), and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxemia (n = 2). Compared with a control group of 2000?diseased falcons without evidence of aspergillosis, the prevalence of Babesia shortti, CFIDS, Mannheimia (Pastorella) haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and falcon herpes virus infection was conspicuously higher in association with aspergillosis. These entities may be considered suitable candidates as predisposing factors for the mycosis. PMID:21754937

  18. An epizootic of common loons in coastal waters of North Carolina: concentrations of elemental contaminants and results of necropsies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.; Franson, J.C.; Converse, Kathryn A.; Spitzer, P.; Miller, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    A 1993 die-off of common loons (Gavia immer) in the coastal waters of North Carolina was investigated with emphasis on comparing mercury, selenium, arsenic, and lead between birds from the epizootic and reference specimens. Die-off specimens were emaciated but contained no ingested foreign bodies and no lesions suggestive of infectious disease. Results of bacteriology, virology, parasitology, and botulism testing were unremarkable. The geometric mean concentrations (wet weight) of liver mercury (10.9 ppm), and arsenic (0.96 ppm) did not differ between specimens from the die-off and reference loons from the same area that died of other causes. The geometric mean liver selenium concentration of die-off specimens (10.4 ppm) was significantly higher than that of reference loons. Liver lead concentrations were <0.20 ppm in all but one sample (5.83 ppm). The geometric mean mercury concentration in the primary remiges of die-off specimens (5.44 ppm dry weight) was significantly lower than in reference birds. Liver mercury significantly correlated with liver selenium on a molar concentration basis. We interpret the range of liver mercury concentrations in birds from the epizootic, similar liver mercury concentrations in reference loons, and higher mercury concentrations in reference loon feathers as evidence that factors other than mercury were primarily responsible for the emaciation diagnosed as the cause of mortality.

  19. Transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis: evaluation of the role of Enterobius vermicularis.

    PubMed

    Girginkarde?ler, Nogay; Kurt, Ozgür; Kilimcio?lu, Ali A; Ok, Ulgen Z

    2008-03-01

    The role of Enterobius vermicularis in the transmission of Dientamoeba fragilis has been evaluated in two groups of patients admitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of Celal Bayar University: one group with E. vermicularis infection (n=187, Pinworm Group), and the other with D. fragilis infection (n=126, Dientamoeba Group). The presence of the other parasite, pinworm or Dientamoeba, was investigated with the microscopic examination of cellophane tape and stool samples for three consecutive days. In the Pinworm Group, 9.6% of the patients were found to be coinfected with D. fragilis, while 25.4% of the patients in the Dientamoeba Group were found to be coinfected with pinworms. The coincidence rates of D. fragilis and E. vermicularis, higher than the prevalence of each parasite in similar populations, suggest a common relation between these two parasites, possibly in entering the human body. E. vermicularis infection was found to be significantly more common in younger children (p<0.001), indicating that younger children may also be at higher risk for D. fragilis infection. These findings also raise the question of whether the unrelated symptoms of the pinworm infected patients such as abdominal pain and diarrhea may actually be due to overlooked Dientamoeba infections. PMID:17921047

  20. Update on the distribution of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in the U.S. and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, A.; Charipar, E.; Nelson, P.; Hodgson, J.R.; Bonar, S.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2006-01-01

    The documented range of the invasive and potentially pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in the United States and Canada is updated based on examination of museum depositions and original field collections. Gravid specimens of B. acheilognathi were collected from the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in Peter Lake, at the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC) Land o' Lakes, Wisconsin. A single immature specimen of the parasite was collected from a white bass, Morone chrysops (Rafinesque) in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. This is the first record of B. acheilognathi in Canada and extends its northern range in the interior of the continent by more than 600 miles over the last documented record. The previous record of B. acheilognathi in Canada, from the northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis in British Columbia, is a misidentification of Eubothrium tulipai. Examination of selected records of intestinal cestodes from native cyprinids, in the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology (HWML, n = 9) collection and in the United States National Parasite Collection (USNPC, n = 8), provided evidence of the parasite in Nebraska and possibly in the upper Colorado River basin. Introductions into Wisconsin-Michigan were due to the stocking of golden shiners, whereas the source of the introduction in Manitoba remains unknown.