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1

Teaching human parasitology in China  

PubMed Central

China has approximately one-fifth of the world’s population. Despite the recent success in controlling major parasitic diseases, parasitic diseases remain a significant human health problem in China. Hence, the discipline of human parasitology is considered as a core subject for undergraduate and postgraduate students of the medical sciences. We consider the teaching of human parasitology to be fundamental to the training of medical students, to the continued research on parasitic diseases, and to the prevention and control of human parasitic diseases. Here, we have summarized the distribution of educational institutions in China, particularly those that teach parasitology. In addition, we have described some existing parasitology courses in detail as well as the teaching methods used for different types of medical students. Finally, we have discussed the current problems in and reforms to human parasitology education. Our study indicates that 304 regular higher education institutions in China offer medical or related education. More than 70 universities have an independent department of parasitology that offers approximately 10 different parasitology courses. In addition, six universities in China have established excellence-building courses in human parasitology. PMID:22520237

2012-01-01

2

DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY & PARASITOLOGY  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY & PARASITOLOGY Stephanie Porche Laurent Updated 8/14/09 Invoice Approval Process 1) When an invoice comes in, Catherine will review the invoice to ensure: a will go to each faculty member with invoices pending. 4) Faculty should review that the costs are accurate

3

Current bioethical issues in parasitology.  

PubMed

Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions. PMID:18814728

Boury, D; Dei-Cas, E

2008-09-01

4

[Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].  

PubMed

An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced different theoretical interpretations. The third period in the history of parasitology lasted from the mid 19th century to the end of World War I. At that time a common agreement was established in all Europe, with regard to interpretation of standards inspired by positivism, i.e. verification of empirical statements through observation. Parasitology emerged as a separate discipline. Theoretical barriers limiting its progress and setting the questions were overcome. The contagion concept was reinstated. The colonial conquests solving demography problem provided the most important social impulse for the progress in parasitology. It was supported by governments interested in having their colonies free from diseases, mainly malaria and other tropical diseases, and thus safe for the European pioneer settlers. There was also development of parasitological scientific institutions (institutes of tropical medicine) and didactics. After World War I parasitology entered the fruitful stage of discipline development which resulted in a division into subdisciplines and a progress of new scientific fields. Its theoretical standards have become fixed and provided a basis for preventive programmes against parasite diseases, supported financially by European goverments, USA and some other countries. Those programmes were executed both in the home countries and in the colonies. After World War II, in the fourth stage of parasitology development, attention was mainly paid to local natural environment in order to diagnose parasites and their vectors. At the same time, parasitology became an applied science practiced in many specialized centres not only at universities. Presently, the main aims of parasitology are studies on biodiversity of parasites and environmental protection in the developed countries, and within tropical medicine as the travel medicine, because of rapid increase of tourism. PMID:16913523

Lonc, Elzbieta; P?onka-Syroka, Bozena

2005-01-01

5

Fact or Artifact: A Parasitology Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This parasitology tutorial, from the University of Alberta (Canada)'s Microbiology & Public Health section, is intended to help microscopists in differentiating clinically important parasites from artifacts (e.g., materials from other sites in the body). A combination of color-image illustrations and text, this straightforward site highlights the important distinguishing characters of numerous parasites. The site is organized into six main sections: Introduction, Contents, Protozoans, Helminths, Artifacts, and Comparisons; a small selection of links to other parasitology Websites completes this resource.

6

Assessment of a novel method for teaching veterinary parasitology.  

PubMed

A student-centered innovative method of teaching veterinary parasitology was launched and evaluated at the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) in St. Kitts, where Parasitology is a required course for second-semester veterinary students. A novel method, named Iron Parasitology, compared lecturer-centered teaching with student-centered teaching and assessed the retention of parasitology knowledge of students in their second semester and again when they reached their seventh semester. Members of five consecutive classes chose to participate in Iron Parasitology with the opportunity to earn an additional 10 points toward their final grade by demonstrating their knowledge, communication skills, clarity of message, and creativity in the Iron Parasitology exercise. The participants and nonparticipants were assessed using seven parameters. The initial short-term study parameters used to evaluate lecturer- versus student-centered teaching were age, gender, final Parasitology course grade without Iron Parasitology, RUSVM overall grade point average (GPA), RUSVM second-semester GPA, overall GPA before RUSVM, and prerequisite GPA before RUSVM. The long-term reassessment study assessed retention of parasitology knowledge in members of the seventh-semester class who had Iron Parasitology as a tool in their second semester. These students were invited to complete a parasitology final examination during their seventh semester. There were no statistically significant differences for the parameters measured in the initial study. In addition, Iron Parasitology did not have an effect on the retention scores in the reassessment study. PMID:24503903

Pereira, Mary Mauldin; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathleen E; Wallace, Charles E; Krecek, Rosina C

2014-01-01

7

Scientific report Molecular biology tools in parasitology.  

E-print Network

Scientific report Molecular biology tools in parasitology. Their use for identification with molecular biology tools as well as for those who were naive in this respect. The project was that 2 groups of researchers, naive or familiar with molecular biology, could communicate. More than 120 played the game

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

Various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches of teaching veterinary parasitology, including the disciplinary, the problem-oriented and combined approaches. In the disciplinary approach, parasitology is taught in the classical manner as a coherent subject, covering parasite morphology, biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, pathology, immunology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, therapy, control, and prevention. Problem-oriented teaching approaches the subjects starting from diseases in animal species or from organ systems or other objectives (e.g. food safety); it also tackles training of skills for problem solving and self-learning. Combined approaches include elements of the disciplinary approach and those of other methods. A combined approach of teaching veterinary parasitology, including basic disciplinary teaching of at least 70-90 h, and additional problem-oriented education, was recently proposed in a resolution by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP News Lett. 5 (1) 3-4]. In 1999, a new curriculum has been established at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Berne, originally planned as a combination of organ-focused and problem-based approach. This model was soon identified to cause problems in teaching some disciplines, including infectious diseases. Conversely, the short-term experiences with this combined approach also confirmed some advantages of problem-oriented teaching in other, mainly clinical domains. Nevertheless, closer interdisciplinary contact and collaboration--especially in elective teaching--was enforced between paraclinical and clinical teaching by reforming the curriculum. However, it turned out that large student numbers in relation to the resources of manpower, rooms and finances limited the workability of the curriculum. Therefore, further and probably continuous improvement of the curriculum is necessary. PMID:12354454

Gottstein, B; Eckert, J

2002-10-01

9

ISRAEL SOCIETY FOR PARASITOLOGY PROTOZOOLOGY AND TROPICAL DISEASES  

E-print Network

mutually exclusive expression. By using increasing levels of drug pressure, it was possible to select://parasitology-soc.md.huji.ac.il #12;Tuesday, December 11, 2007 Session 5: General parasitology A var specific nuclear factor antigenic ligand of P. falciparum infected red blood cells is protein encoded by the multi-copy var gene

Cohen, Joel E.

10

Current status and challenge of Human Parasitology teaching in China  

PubMed Central

Parasitic infection profile in China has been changed greatly with the rapid economic development in China since the 1980s, such as the tremendous decreased infection rate of the soil-borne helminthiasis, the elimination of filariasis, the control of malaria, and the initiation to eradicate malaria in 2020. Some food-borne parasitic infections have increased such as Clonorchiasis, Cysticercosis, and Echinococcosis, probably because of the increased chances of eating out. This trend directly affected the status of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, such as the shorten length of this course, re-adjusted contents structure and teaching manners, even the change of the name of this course. In this paper, we analyzed the current status and challenges of Human Parasitology teaching in medical universities, and discussed the requisite contents and manners in course delivery and measures to improve the quality of Human Parasitology teaching in China. PMID:23265609

Peng, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chun-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Guang

2012-01-01

11

An integrated parasitology: revealing the elephant through tradition and invention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The field of parasitology contributes to the elucidation of patterns and processes in evolution, ecology and biogeography, of fundamental importance across the biosphere, leading to a thorough understanding of biodiversity and varied responses to global change. Foundations from taxonomic and systema...

12

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 119 (2002) 121124 Short communication  

E-print Network

cells; Toxoplasma; Yeast; Surface expression www.parasitology-online.com. Invasion-blocking antibodies, we decided to investigate the presence of this protein on different cell types. In this paper we report the localization of P0 protein on the surface of another Apicomplexan para- site Toxoplasma, yeast

Sharma, Shobhona

13

NOAA Technical Report NMFS 25 Parasitology and Pathology  

E-print Network

subcategories of lhe Technical Reports series: "Special Scientific Report-Fisheries" and "Circular." The series25 NOAA Technical Report NMFS 25 Parasitology and Pathology of Marine Organisms of the World Ocean Administration National Marine Fisheries Service #12;NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS NMFS The rna po ililies

14

The future of veterinary parasitology: a time for change?  

PubMed

The future of veterinary parasitology is discussed at a time when R&D funding from the pharmaceutical industry is declining, yet the opportunities for veterinary parasitologists to diversify their activities has never been greater. Emerging and re-emerging areas requiring input from veterinary parasitologists include: veterinary public health; conservation and wildlife diseases; emerging and exotic infectious diseases; surveillance strategies; economic effects of parasitic diseases; aquaculture; molecular epidemiology; dietary and biological control of parasitic diseases; animal welfare; organic agricultural systems; novel vaccination strategies; drug target characterisation and rational drug design. Without change, the survival of veterinary parasitology as a viable, distinct discipline is under threat. In this environment, veterinary parasitologists must be adaptable, imaginative and pro-active in terms of setting the agendas for establishing strategic alliances, promoting research needs and developing research programs. PMID:11516578

Thompson, R C

2001-07-12

15

An integrated parasitology: revealing the elephant through tradition and invention.  

PubMed

The field of parasitology contributes to the elucidation of patterns and processes in evolution, ecology, and biogeography that are of fundamental importance across the biosphere, leading to a thorough understanding of biodiversity and varied responses to global change. Foundations from taxonomic and systematic information drive biodiversity discovery and foster considerable infrastructure and integration of research programs. Morphological, physiological, behavioral, life-history, and molecular data can be synthesized to discover and describe global parasite diversity, in a timely manner. In fully incorporating parasitology in policies for adaptation to global change, parasites and their hosts should be archived and studied within a newly emergent conceptual universe (the 'Stockholm Paradigm'), embracing the inherent complexity of host-parasite systems and improved explanatory power to understand biodiversity past, present, and future. PMID:25488772

Hoberg, Eric P; Agosta, Salvatore J; Boeger, Walter A; Brooks, Daniel R

2014-12-01

16

Clinical and parasitological study on scabies in Sirte, Libya.  

PubMed

The present work aimed to determine the risk factors, clinical and parasitological skin lesion features and effective drug regimens. Study was carried out on 200 patients referred to dermatology outpatient clinics in Sirte-Libya. Each was subjected to detailed questionnaire, dermatological skin examination, parasitological skin scraping test (SST), burrow ink test (BIT), drug administration and follow up. Results revealed that females 59%, children 37.5% and military personnel 18% of immigrant families were particularly prone to scabies infestation. Effective risk factors included overcrowding, bed sharing, low hygienic and education levels. Commonest skin lesions included erythematous papules 93%, excoriated papules 77.5%, burrows 66%, pustulation 31%, vesicles 21.5 and nodules 3%. Predilection lesion sites were hand 86%, wrist 82%, abdomen 56%, male external genitalia 64.5% and female breast 28%. Specific SST was positive in 67.3% of cases, particularly sensitive in early cases with short itching duration. BIT was positive in 62%. Topical permethrin proved more effective than precipitated sulpher with cure rates of of 100% and 85.3% in 21% and 75% of cases, respectively. Ivermectin was 100% effective in 4% of cases. PMID:21268539

Fathy, Fouad M; El-Kasah, Fathi; El-Ahwal, Abdulla M

2010-12-01

17

The Quality of Methods Reporting in Parasitology Experiments  

PubMed Central

There is a growing concern both inside and outside the scientific community over the lack of reproducibility of experiments. The depth and detail of reported methods are critical to the reproducibility of findings, but also for making it possible to compare and integrate data from different studies. In this study, we evaluated in detail the methods reporting in a comprehensive set of trypanosomiasis experiments that should enable valid reproduction, integration and comparison of research findings. We evaluated a subset of other parasitic (Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, Trichuris and Schistosoma) and non-parasitic (Mycobacterium) experimental infections in order to compare the quality of method reporting more generally. A systematic review using PubMed (2000–2012) of all publications describing gene expression in cells and animals infected with Trypanosoma spp was undertaken based on PRISMA guidelines; 23 papers were identified and included. We defined a checklist of essential parameters that should be reported and have scored the number of those parameters that are reported for each publication. Bibliometric parameters (impact factor, citations and h-index) were used to look for association between Journal and Author status and the quality of method reporting. Trichuriasis experiments achieved the highest scores and included the only paper to score 100% in all criteria. The mean of scores achieved by Trypanosoma articles through the checklist was 65.5% (range 32–90%). Bibliometric parameters were not correlated with the quality of method reporting (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.05). Our results indicate that the quality of methods reporting in experimental parasitology is a cause for concern and it has not improved over time, despite there being evidence that most of the assessed parameters do influence the results. We propose that our set of parameters be used as guidelines to improve the quality of the reporting of experimental infection models as a pre-requisite for integrating and comparing sets of data. PMID:25076044

Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Bramhall, Michael; Noyes, Harry; Cruickshank, Sheena; Stevens, Robert; Brass, Andy

2014-01-01

18

[The consequences of the third edition of the Zoological Code for Nomenclature for parasitology].  

PubMed

In 1985 the Third Edition of the International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature, now called "the Code", was published in London. The most important new regulations are commented and especially those underlined which are relevant for parasitology. Therefore examples from parasitology are cited when the ending of species names, the derivatio nominis, the transcription of the German umlaut, the ending of family names as well as collective group names are explained. Furthermore the author comments the citation of the author's name and date of publication of a species description, the principle of continuity (nomina oblita), the term hospito-subspecies as well as the term hapanotype which was newly introduced into nomenclature. PMID:2729649

Eichler, W

1989-02-01

19

Review The Interplay of Molecular Biology and Veterinary Parasitology: A Need of the Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tools of molecular biology are increasingly relevant to veterinary parasitology. The techniques used with eukaryotic cells are generally applicable to the study of parasites and their hosts. The sequencing of the complete genomes of helminths and protozoa is allowing great advances in studying the biology, and improving diagnosis and control of parasites. Unique DNA sequences provide very high levels

ABDUL JABBAR; ZAFAR IQBAL; GHULAM MUHAMMAD; MUHAMMAD NISAR KHAN; RAO ZAHID ABBAS; ZIA-UD-DIN SANDHU; MUHAMMAD LATEEF

20

The Utrecht model of teaching veterinary medicine and the role of veterinary parasitology.  

PubMed

The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, established a new curriculum for teaching veterinary medicine in 1995 with the main objectives to improve the problem-solving and communication competences of the students and their scientific education. Because it is accepted that graduates cannot get a starting competence in all fields of the veterinary profession, a differentiation of education focused on animal species and life-long learning is emphasised. Major characteristics of this curriculum are a high degree of horizontal and vertical integration of the various disciplines, the preference for teaching in small working groups and the training for self-learning. This curriculum is described in some detail. Parasitology is not taught as a coherent subject but is integrated into various subjects, presented in an interdisciplinary approach. The number of contact hours is variable depending on optional courses and the differentiation tracks taken but it amounts for a minimum of approximately 90 contact hours for each student during the full curriculum. A major disadvantage of the curriculum is that examination of parasitology is within integrated subjects. Thus, students that perform poorly on parasitology may still pass. An advantage is the extended presence of parasitology in the last year of clinical training and the improved interdisciplinary interaction between parasitologists and clinicians. The curriculum has been changed again in 2001; study paths focused on animal species and other subjects start already in the first year, and approximately 25% of the first 4 years of the curriculum will be within these study paths. PMID:12354455

Eysker, M

2002-10-01

21

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 112 (2001) 183191 Cloning of a pyruvate phosphate dikinase from Trypanosoma  

E-print Network

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 112 (2001) 183­191 Cloning of a pyruvate phosphate dikinase 5EH, UK Accepted 6 November 2000 Abstract We have cloned and characterised a gene that encodes~o Paulo, Departamento de Parasitologia, ICB II, 05508-900 Sa~o Paulo, SP, Brazil. 0166-6851/01/$ - see

Schnaufer, Achim

2001-01-01

22

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 111 (2000) 309317 Genetic manipulation indicates that ARD1 is an essential  

E-print Network

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 111 (2000) 309­317 Genetic manipulation indicates that ARD1; accepted 14 August 2000 Abstract Nh -acetylation, the most common protein modification, involves -acetylation in Trypanosoma brucei we have cloned and characterised genes encoding putative homologues of ARD1

Cross, George

23

Parasitological Consequences of Overcrowding in Protected Camille Lebarbenchon,1,2  

E-print Network

dynamics, the evolution of parasite virulence, the indirect effects on the structure of invertebrate Poulin,3 Michel Gauthier-Clerc,2 and Fre´de´ric Thomas1 1 Ge´ne´tique et Evolution des Maladies the parasitological consequences of the overcrowding of animals in protected wildlife areas. Here, we discuss

24

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 130 (2003) 8390 Functional genetic identification of PRP1, an ABC transporter superfamily  

E-print Network

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 130 (2003) 83­90 Functional genetic identification of PRP1 protein 1 (PRP1). The predicted PRP1 protein encodes 1807 amino acids with the typical dimeric structure involving 10 transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). PRP1-mediated PENr could

Beverley, Stephen M.

25

New insights into the application of geographical information systems and remote sensing in veterinary parasitology.  

PubMed

Over the past 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in the development and application of geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS). In veterinary sciences, particularly in veterinary parasitology, GIS and RS offer powerful means for disease mapping, ecological analysis and epidemiological surveillance and have become indispensable tools for processing, analysing and visualising spatial data. They can also significantly assist with the assessment of the distribution of health-relevant environmental factors via interpolation and modelling. In this review, we first summarize general aspects of GIS and RS, and emphasize the most important applications of these tools in veterinary parasitology, including recent advances in territorial sampling. Disease mapping, spatial statistics, including Bayesian inference, ecological analyses and epidemiological surveillance are summarized in the next section and illustrated with a set of figures. Finally, a set of conclusions is put forward. PMID:18686231

Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Biggeri, Annibale; Cringoli, Giuseppe

2006-11-01

26

[Harmonization of microbiologicaland parasitological indices of epidemic safety of drinking water with the international requirements].  

PubMed

For the purpose of harmonization of microbiological and parasitological indices and benchmarks there was performed the comparative analysis of the requirements for the quality of drinking water in respect of the epidemic safety on the basic regulations of Russia, the Directive Council of the European Union EU, WHO, the United States, Canada, Australia, Finland, Sweden, Brazil, France, Japan and China. As a result, there were revealed the priority bacteriological, virological and parasitological parameters: E. coli--indicator of recent fecal contamination, coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria colony count (Heterotrophic plate count), which is in the water legislation of the Russian Federation is characterized as total bacterial count (TBC), being an integral index of the quality of wastewater treatment technologies and hygienic condition of the water supply systems, coliphages as an indicator of viral contamination. In the Guidelines for drinking-water quality control, WHO and a set of countries there is recommended a more wide range of indicators: enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enteroviruses, parasitological indices. With aim of harmonization of the requirements for the quality of drinking water in the Russian Federation with international approaches to the revision of the Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPin) 2.1.4.1074 into the project there are introduced priority indicator parameters of bacterial, viral and parasitic contamination of water, evidence-based guidelines. PMID:24340910

Ivanova, L V; Artemova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zaga?nova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasniak, A V; Korne?chuk, S S; Shustova, S S

2013-01-01

27

Posttherapeutic Cure Criteria in Chagas' Disease: Conventional Serology followed by Supplementary Serological, Parasitological, and Molecular Tests  

PubMed Central

We performed a critical study of conventional serology, followed by supplementary serological, parasitological, and molecular tests, to assess the response to etiologic treatment of Chagas' disease. A group of 94 Chagas' disease patients treated with benznidazole at least 10 years earlier were evaluated from the laboratory and clinical points of view. When conventional serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect immunofluorescence [IIF], and indirect hemagglutination [IHA]) and classic criteria (consistent results with any two of the three tests) or more rigorous criteria (consistent results from the three tests) were used, 10.6% and 8.5% of patients were considered treated and cured (TC) by classic and rigorous criteria, respectively. Patients were then evaluated using supplementary (recombinant ELISA and Trypanosoma cruzi excreted-secreted antigen blotting [TESA-blot]), parasitological (hemoculture), and molecular (PCR) tests. The results of recombinant ELISA were similar to those with the rigorous criterion (three consistent test results). The TESA-blot group showed a higher percentage (21.3%) of negative results than the groups defined by either cure criterion. Hemoculture and PCR gave negative results for all treated and cured (TC) patients, regardless of the criterion used. Recombinant ELISA and TESA-blot tests showed negative results for 70% and 87.5% of the patients categorized as TC by the classic and three-test criteria, respectively. For patients with discordant conventional serology, the supplementary serological and molecular tests were the decisive factor in determining therapeutic failure. Clinical evaluation showed that 62.5% of TC patients presented with the indeterminate form of the disease. Additionally, treated patients with negative TESA-blot results should be reevaluated later with all methodologies used here to verify whether TESA-blot is a reliable way to determine early parasitological cure of Chagas' disease. PMID:22739694

Silva, A. R.; Do Bem, V. A. L.; Bahia, M. T.; Martins-Filho, O. A.; Dias, J. C. P.; Albajar-Viñas, P.; Torres, R. M.; Lana, M.

2012-01-01

28

Posttherapeutic cure criteria in Chagas' disease: conventional serology followed by supplementary serological, parasitological, and molecular tests.  

PubMed

We performed a critical study of conventional serology, followed by supplementary serological, parasitological, and molecular tests, to assess the response to etiologic treatment of Chagas' disease. A group of 94 Chagas' disease patients treated with benznidazole at least 10 years earlier were evaluated from the laboratory and clinical points of view. When conventional serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect immunofluorescence [IIF], and indirect hemagglutination [IHA]) and classic criteria (consistent results with any two of the three tests) or more rigorous criteria (consistent results from the three tests) were used, 10.6% and 8.5% of patients were considered treated and cured (TC) by classic and rigorous criteria, respectively. Patients were then evaluated using supplementary (recombinant ELISA and Trypanosoma cruzi excreted-secreted antigen blotting [TESA-blot]), parasitological (hemoculture), and molecular (PCR) tests. The results of recombinant ELISA were similar to those with the rigorous criterion (three consistent test results). The TESA-blot group showed a higher percentage (21.3%) of negative results than the groups defined by either cure criterion. Hemoculture and PCR gave negative results for all treated and cured (TC) patients, regardless of the criterion used. Recombinant ELISA and TESA-blot tests showed negative results for 70% and 87.5% of the patients categorized as TC by the classic and three-test criteria, respectively. For patients with discordant conventional serology, the supplementary serological and molecular tests were the decisive factor in determining therapeutic failure. Clinical evaluation showed that 62.5% of TC patients presented with the indeterminate form of the disease. Additionally, treated patients with negative TESA-blot results should be reevaluated later with all methodologies used here to verify whether TESA-blot is a reliable way to determine early parasitological cure of Chagas' disease. PMID:22739694

Machado-de-Assis, G F; Silva, A R; Do Bem, V A L; Bahia, M T; Martins-Filho, O A; Dias, J C P; Albajar-Viñas, P; Torres, R M; Lana, M

2012-08-01

29

Comparative diagnosis of parasitological, serological, and molecular tests in dourine-suspected horses.  

PubMed

Study on comparative sensitivity of parasitological, serological, and molecular tests on 237 horses originating from two dourine-suspected districts of Arsi-Bale highlands of Ethiopia was conducted to determine the prevalence of the disease and degree of agreement of the diagnostic tests. Accordingly, the prevalence of the disease was found to be 4.6%, 36.7%, and 47.6% by parasitological Woo test, RoTat 1.2 and 18S PCR tests, respectively. The seroprevalence of the disease was 27.6% in CATT/Trypanosoma evansi test. In Ethiopia, it was for the first time that trypanosomes from dourine suspected horses were demonstrated in 4.6% of the animals using Woo test. The findings of the present study disclosed that dourine is highly prevalent and one of the major diseases of horses in the area. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in prevalence of the disease between districts, sexes, and age groups of the animals. However, there was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of the disease between emaciated and animals with good body condition. Assessment of the degree of agreement of the diagnostic tests employed revealed low to fair (k = 0·1 - 0·4) with significantly higher sensitivity by PCR than other tests. PMID:20526860

Gari, Fikru Regassa; Ashenafi, Hagos; Tola, Alemu; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Claes, Filip

2010-12-01

30

Serological and parasitological survey of dourine in the Arsi-Bale highlands of Ethiopia.  

PubMed

This study was conducted from August 2005 to January 2007 to determine prevalence and distribution of dourine in horses and to investigate the occurrence of clinical and carrier cases in donkeys and mules in the Arsi-Bale highlands. Study methodology was based on questionnaire, serological, clinical and parasitological survey. The questionnaire indicated that dourine is a major health problem of equines in the Arsi-Bale highlands. Though dourine is commonly observed throughout the year, it has a seasonal character and occurs mostly during the breeding season from June to late September. Serological screening of 646 horses showed a seroprevalence of 184 (28%), 161 (25%) and 125 (19%) for card agglutination test for trypanosomosis, LATEX and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Risk factors were parity number, previous history of abortion and body condition score. No trypanosomes could be detected by Giemsa staining or by haematocrit centrifugation technique. Ten puppies inoculated with blood samples, genital washes and oedematous fluids remained parasitologically negative. Different characteristic signs of dourine were observed. During the genital stage, mares showed vaginal oedema, discharge and presence of depigmented scars over the external genitalia. In stallions, oedema of the scrotum and prepuce, prepucial and urethral discharge, and ulceration of the genital mucosae mainly of the penile were observed. In both sexes, lameness in one or both legs, partial dragging and stiffness of the hind legs and incoordination were the dominant signs observed as nervous form of the disease. PMID:19924557

Hagos, Ashenafi; Abebe, Getachew; Büscher, Philip; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Claes, Filip

2010-04-01

31

Parasitology Today, vol. 16, no. 3, 2000 127 A number of parasite genome projects are under way, and  

E-print Network

Parasitology Today, vol. 16, no. 3, 2000 127 A number of parasite genome projects are under way for the analysis of parasite genomes. The nucleotide sequences of the entire genomes of sev- eral organisms analysis, or via the so-called `functional gen- omics approach'1. In parasitic species, such analysis may

Ramaswamy, Ram

32

A comparative evaluation of parasitological tests and a PCR for Trypanosoma evansi diagnosis in experimentally infected water buffaloes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study five parasitological methods and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were compared for the diagnostic sensitivity for Trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected water buffaloes over a period of 15 weeks. The combined estimates of sensitivity (CEse) of the PCR proved to be highest at 78.2%, closely followed by the mouse inoculation (MI), the micro-haematocrite centrifugation technique (MHCT) and

W. G Holland; F Claes; L. N My; N. G Thanh; P. T Tam; D Verloo; P Büscher; B Goddeeris; J Vercruysse

2001-01-01

33

8/21/01 Chapter for Molecular & Medical Parasitology J. Marr, T. Nilsen and R. Komuniecki, eds.  

E-print Network

8/21/01 Chapter for Molecular & Medical Parasitology J. Marr, T. Nilsen and R. Komuniecki, eds of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University Medical School, 660 S. Euclid Ave., St. Louis MO 63110 USA of Leishmania, from the perspective of studying parasite virulence throughout the infectious cycle. 1

Beverley, Stephen M.

34

An internationally recognized quality assurance system for diagnostic parasitology in animal health and food safety, with example data on trichinellosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quality assurance (QA) system was developed for diagnostic parasitology and implemented for several diagnostic assays including fecal flotation and sedimentation assays, trichomonad culture assay, and the testing of pork and horse meat for Trichinella to facilitate consistently reliable results. The system consisted of a validated test method, procedures to confirm laboratory capability, and protocols for documentation, reporting, and monitoring.

Alvin A. Gajadhar; Lorry B. Forbes

2002-01-01

35

A parasitological, molecular and serological survey of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs around the Aegean coast of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by the tick-borne protozoon Hepatozoon spp. The prevalence of the infection in the Aegean coast of Turkey was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using blood samples from 349 dogs collected from Central Aydin, Kusadasi, Selcuk, Central Manisa, Bodrum and Marmaris within the Aegean coast of Turkey. The indirect fluorescent

Tulin Ilhan Karagenc; Serdar Pasa; Gulcan Kirli; Murat Hosgor; Huseyin Bilgin Bilgic; Yavuz Hakan Ozon; Abidin Atasoy; Hasan Eren

2006-01-01

36

"Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

2013-01-01

37

Submicroscopic infections among children with adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to re-assess the treatment outcomes of Gabonese children, treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artesunate-mefloquine (AM) and categorized by microscopy as adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR), using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Dried blood spots were collected at day 0 and day 28 and stevor gene amplification was performed to detect Plasmodium falciparum infections. Plasmodial DNA was found in 27.5% (n=19/69) of the isolates collected at day 28; this proportion was 34.3% (n=12/35) in the SP group and 20.6% (n=7/34) in the AM group. This study underlines the need of an accurate and more appropriate technique such as PCR to evaluate antimalarial drug efficacy during clinical trials. PMID:24561075

Mawili-Mboumba, D P; Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Kombila, M

2014-06-01

38

Follow-up of experimental chronic Chagas' disease in dogs: use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) compared with parasitological and serological methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was compared with parasitological and serological methods to detect the infection in dogs, 5–12 years after experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. The ability of parasitological methods to identify a positive animal was 22 and 11% by hemoculture and xenodiagnosis\\/xenoculture, respectively. On the other hand, the serological tests, including conventional serology and anti-live

F. M. G Araújo; M. T Bahia; N. M Magalhães; O. A Martins-Filho; V. M Veloso; C. M Carneiro; W. L Tafuri; M Lana

2002-01-01

39

Clinical and parasitological response to oral chloroquine and primaquine in uncomplicated human Plasmodium knowlesi infections  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium knowlesi is a cause of symptomatic and potentially fatal infections in humans. There are no studies assessing the detailed parasitological response to treatment of knowlesi malaria infections in man and whether antimalarial resistance occurs. Methods A prospective observational study of oral chloroquine and primaquine therapy was conducted in consecutive patients admitted to Kapit Hospital, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo with PCR-confirmed single P. knowlesi infections. These patients were given oral chloroquine for three days, and at 24 hours oral primaquine was administered for two consecutive days, primarily as a gametocidal agent. Clinical and parasitological responses were recorded at 6-hourly intervals during the first 24 hours, daily until discharge and then weekly to day 28. Vivax malaria patients were studied as a comparator group. Results Of 96 knowlesi malaria patients who met the study criteria, 73 were recruited to an assessment of the acute response to treatment and 60 completed follow-up over 28 days. On admission, the mean parasite stage distributions were 49.5%, 41.5%, 4.0% and 5.6% for early trophozoites, late trophozoites, schizonts and gametocytes respectively. The median fever clearance time was 26.5 [inter-quartile range 16-34] hours. The mean times to 50% (PCT50) and 90% (PCT90) parasite clearance were 3.1 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.8-3.4) hours and 10.3 (9.4-11.4) hours. These were more rapid than in a group of 23 patients with vivax malaria 6.3 (5.3-7.8) hours and 20.9 (17.6-25.9) hours; P = 0.02). It was difficult to assess the effect of primaquine on P. knowlesi parasites, due to the rapid anti-malarial properties of chloroquine and since primaquine was administered 24 hours after chloroquine. No P. knowlesi recrudescences or re-infections were detected by PCR. Conclusions Chloroquine plus primaqine is an inexpensive and highly effective treatment for uncomplicated knowlesi malaria infections in humans and there is no evidence of drug resistance. Further studies using alternative anti-malarial drugs, including artemisinin derivatives, would be desirable to define optimal management strategies for P. knowlesi. PMID:20723228

2010-01-01

40

Comparison of Clinical and Parasitological Data from Controlled Human Malaria Infection Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Exposing healthy human volunteers to Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is an accepted tool to evaluate preliminary efficacy of malaria vaccines. To accommodate the demand of the malaria vaccine pipeline, controlled infections are carried out in an increasing number of centers worldwide. We assessed their safety and reproducibility. Methods We reviewed safety and parasitological data from 128 malaria-naïve subjects participating in controlled malaria infection trials conducted at the University of Oxford, UK, and the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, The Netherlands. Results were compared to a report from the US Military Malaria Vaccine Program. Results We show that controlled human malaria infection trials are safe and demonstrate a consistent safety profile with minor differences in the frequencies of arthralgia, fatigue, chills and fever between institutions. But prepatent periods show significant variation. Detailed analysis of Q-PCR data reveals highly synchronous blood stage parasite growth and multiplication rates. Conclusions Procedural differences can lead to some variation in safety profile and parasite kinetics between institutions. Further harmonization and standardization of protocols will be useful for wider adoption of these cost-effective small-scale efficacy trials. Nevertheless, parasite growth rates are highly reproducible, illustrating the robustness of controlled infections as a valid tool for malaria vaccine development. PMID:22701640

Roestenberg, Meta; O'Hara, Geraldine A.; Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Epstein, Judith E.; Edwards, Nick J.; Scholzen, Anja; van der Ven, André J. A. M.; Hermsen, Cornelus C.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Sauerwein, Robert W.

2012-01-01

41

Serological and parasitological response in chronic Chagas patients 3 years after nifurtimox treatment  

PubMed Central

Background With declining vectorial transmission, Chagas disease predominantly affects adults nowadays. The efficacy of nifurtimox in the chronic phase in adult patients is poorly known, particularly in regions where there is no risk of reinfection. Recommendations for treatment outcome assessment rely on serological follow-up. We evaluated the serological and parasitological response to nifurtimox in a cohort of adult patients three years post-treatment in Switzerland. Methods Patients treated with nifurtimox in 2008 during a cross-sectional study in Geneva, Switzerland, were contacted for follow-up in 2011. Two ELISAs and a rapid immunochromatographic test were used to test 2008 and 2011 serum samples simultaneously. In addition, conventional and real-time PCR were performed on 2011 samples. Results Thirty-seven (84.1%) of 44 eligible patients, predominantly female, middle-aged, Bolivians at the indeterminate stage, were enrolled. All 2011 ELISA and immunochromatographic tests were positive. Twenty-eight (75.7%) patients presented a lower optical density (OD) in 2011 compared to 2008. This OD difference was significant in both commercial (P?

2013-01-01

42

A parasitological survey of natural water springs and inhabitants of a tourist city in southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in main springs of Campos do Jordão, an important tourist city, in Brazil and to gather the largest amount of parasitological data from autochthonous population that live in rural areas of this city. The membrane filtration technique followed by direct immunofluorescence assay was employed for concentration and visualization of waterborne protozoa. In the period between June 2003 and May 2004, the presence of at least one pathogenic protozoa was detected in 25.0% (3/12) of the springs studied, with mean concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and 0.07 to 0.1 Giardia sp. cysts/L. The coproparasitological investigation conducted in dwellers from two rural communities from this city revealed that 49.2% (91/185) of people had intestinal parasites. Among pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium was the most prevalent species (8.1%) followed by Giardia duodenalis (5.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (2.7%), and Blastocystis hominis (2.2%). The most prevalent geohelminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (14.9%) and Trichuris trichiura (9.7%). This study demonstrated the contamination and the distribution of intestinal parasites, especially Cryptosporidium and Giardia species, in different springs of an important tourist city in Brazil, highlighting the need of monitoring natural water sources. The high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis detected in some specific populations of this city may function as a link of transmission of different intestinal parasitosis due to soil and water contamination, contributing to the maintenance of parasite life cycles. Therefore, the inclusion of consistent public health interventions with measures that include the protection of springs, the installation of minimum health infrastructure, and primary education of the population are widely necessary, aiming the control and prevention of parasite infections. PMID:22217166

Branco, Nilson; Leal, Diego Averaldo Guiguet; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

2012-05-01

43

[The singular story of Doctor Worm -Nicholas Andry de Boisregard- and of his daughters Parasitology and Orthopaedics].  

PubMed

Homini verminoso or Dr. Worm were the nicknames that Nicholas Aindry won in life for his consecration to the study of intestinal worms and for his bad temper, which led him to fiercely attack the surgeons. The article reassumes the studies and contributions that gave Andry the title of Father of Parasitology and the candidacy to Father of Orthopaedics, and mentions some other candidates to this honor. Quite a man, he had -besides his biological one- two famous daughters, growing till our days; wrote at least three valuable books; and planted the immortal "tree of Andry", the symbol of Orthopaedics. PMID:23282505

Ledermann, Walter

2012-10-01

44

The periparturient relaxation of immunity in Merino ewes infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis: parasitological and immunological responses.  

PubMed

The temporal association between the periparturient rise (PPR) in worm egg count (WEC) of grazing Merino ewes to infection with Trichostrongylus colubriformis and the underlying causal mechanisms was investigated in an experiment that incorporated two levels of pregnancy (pregnant or unmated), two levels of infection (infected with 6000 T. colubriformis L(3)/week or uninfected) and, following lambing, three levels of lactation (non-lactating/"dry", early-weaned 2 days after parturition, or suckled). The 128 ewes in the experiment were monitored for a range of parasitological and host systemic and local immune responses from days -50 to 42, relative to the midpoint of lambing (day 0). Unmated/non-lactating (dry) ewes remained largely resistant to T. colubriformis infection with WEC remaining below 200 eggs per gram (epg) throughout the experiment. For infected ewes, the PPR in WEC commenced during late pregnancy and peaked at 1552epg on day 42. There was evidence of a relaxation of immunity that preceded the rise, as demonstrated by a reduction in circulating eosinophils and plasma total antibody (Tab) and lower titres of Tab and IgG(1) in the small intestine in pregnant ewes. Circulating eosinophils and plasma Tab remained low in suckled ewes, and at the local level, lactating ewes also had lower titres of Tab, IgG(1), IgM, IgA and IgE as well as fewer mast cells (MC), globule leucocytes (GL) and goblet cells (GC) in intestinal tissue. These effects were associated with higher worm burdens. Weaning at 2 days after lambing resulted in a rapid amelioration of immunological responsiveness and a reduction in WEC, worm burden and parasite establishment rate. A rapid increase in circulating eosinophils and Tab titre followed by an improvement in components of the local immune response was also observed. Over the 6-week period following lambing, weaned ewes exhibited higher titres of Tab, IgG(1), IgM, IgA and IgE as well as higher numbers of MC, GL and GC present in the small intestinal tissue, compared to lactating ewes. The results provide a detailed characterisation of the periparturient relaxation of immunity to T. colubriformis, and highlight possible causative factors that deserve further investigation. PMID:19775817

Beasley, A M; Kahn, L P; Windon, R G

2010-02-26

45

Babesiosis in dogs and cats--expanding parasitological and clinical spectra.  

PubMed

Canine babesiosis caused by different Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and global significance. Historically, Babesia infection in dogs was identified based on the morphologic appearance of the parasite in the erythrocyte. All large forms of Babesia were designated Babesia canis, whereas all small forms of Babesia were considered to be Babesia gibsoni. However, the development of molecular methods has demonstrated that other Babesia species such as Babesia conradae, Babesia microti like piroplasm, Theileria spp. and a yet unnamed large form Babesia spp. infect dogs and cause distinct diseases. Babesia rossi, B. canis and Babesia vogeli previously considered as subspecies are identical morphologically but differ in the severity of clinical manifestations which they induce, their tick vectors, genetic characteristics, and geographic distributions, and are therefore currently considered separate species. The geographic distribution of the causative agent and thus the occurrence of babesiosis are largely dependent on the habitat of relevant tick vector species, with the exception of B. gibsoni where evidence for dog to dog transmission indicates that infection can be transmitted among fighting dog breeds independently of the limitations of vector tick infestation. Knowledge of the prevalence and clinicopathological aspects of Babesia species infecting dogs around the world is of epidemiologic and medical interest. Babesiosis in domestic cats is less common and has mostly been reported from South Africa where infection is mainly due to Babesia felis, a small Babesia that causes anemia and icterus. In addition, Babesia cati was reported from India and sporadic cases of B. canis infection in domestic cats have been reported in Europe, B. canis presentii in Israel and B. vogeli in Thailand. Babesiosis caused by large Babesia spp. is commonly treated with imidocarb dipropionate with good clinical response while small Babesia spp. are more resistant to anti-babesial therapy. Clinical and parasitological cure are often not achieved in the treatment of small Babesia species infections and clinical relapses are frequent. The spectrum of Babesia pathogens that infect dogs and cats is gradually being elucidated with the aid of molecular techniques and meticulous clinical investigation. Accurate detection and species recognition are important for the selection of the correct therapy and prediction of the course of disease. PMID:21571435

Solano-Gallego, Laia; Baneth, Gad

2011-09-01

46

862 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 89, NO. 4, AUGUST 2003 DUBEY, J. P., AND G. DESMONTS. 1987. Serological responses of equids  

E-print Network

­339. ------, M. M. GARNER, M. D. STETTER, A. E. MARSH, AND B. C. BARR. 2001. Acute Sarcocystis falcatula Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona. Journal of Parasitology 87: 824­832. GULLAND, F. M. D., L. J HUNTINGDON, AND L. J. LOWENSTINE. 1998. Meningoencephalitis due to a Sarcocystis neurona-like protozoan

Poulin, Robert

47

Bibliometric analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse databases.  

PubMed

The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indices were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades. PMID:19885331

Lee, Choon Shil

2009-10-01

48

Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey  

PubMed Central

Background In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. Methods For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. Results The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December) showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082) (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7%) malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0%) of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5%) were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6%) of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3%) of males and 23(2.1%) of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3%) and 10 (2.7%) of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l) and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l), respectively which was statistically significant (X2 = 3.72, P < 0.05). Although the prevalence pattern of Plasmodium species declined from October to December, the trend was non-significant (X2 for trend = 0.49, P > 0.05). The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3%) and in the second (35.4%) surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%). The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3%) than Misrak-Meskan (41.7%) (P < 0.05). Conclusion Malaria parasite and its vectors were found to be common during transmission periods in the highland fringes of Butajira. Thus, health education about the risk of malaria and its control programme in the area must be given adequate attention to minimize potential epidemics. In addition, the current study should be complemented from sero-epidemiological, prospective longitudinal and retrospective studies along with metrological and ecological factors, and socio-demographic data before concluding in favour of highland malaria transmission in the area. In light of its abundance, which coincided with the malaria transmission seasons, the possible role of An. christyi as a secondary vector in the highlands must be further investigated by including blood meal sources detection. PMID:21649923

2011-01-01

49

Differential impact of metacyclic and blood trypomastigotes on parasitological, serological and phenotypic features triggered during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed follow-up investigation of the major parasitological, serological and phenotypic features in dogs experimentally infected with metacyclic (MT) and blood (BT) trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi strain Berenice-78, typifying vectorial and transfusional transmission of human Chagas disease, has been conducted. Although there were no changes with respect to the window of patent-parasitaemia, significant differences between MT- and BT-infected dogs in

Cláudia Martins Carneiro; Olindo Assis Martins-Filho; Alexandre Barbosa Reis; Vanja Maria Veloso; Flávio Marcos Gomes Araújo; Maria Terezinha Bahia; Marta de Lana; George Luiz Lins Machado-Coelho; Giovanni Gazzinelli; Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira; Washington Luiz Tafuri

2007-01-01

50

The use of fish metabolic, pathological and parasitological indices in pollution monitoring . II. The Red Sea and Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

??The complex interactions between parasites, hosts and the environment are influenced by the stability of the ecosystem. Heteroxenous parasites, with complex, multiple-host life cycles, can persist only in habitats where the full range of their required hosts are present. Conversely, in impoverished environments such as those impacted by environmental stress, monoxenous species that have simple, single-host life cycles are likely to predominate. In the present study, we analyzed the ratio between heteroxenous and monoxenous (H/M) parasites as well as parasite species richness (SH/SM) and species diversity in rabbitfish (Siganus rivulatus) collected from several sites in the Red Sea. The rabbitfish is a Suez Canal immigrant, well established in the eastern Mediterranean, and fish were also collected from a site on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Separate treatment of the micro- and macroparasite components of the rabbitfish parasite communities in the Red Sea suggested that macroparasites only - monogenea and gut parasites - were better indicators than the parasite community as a whole. Quantification of macroparasites is accurate, saves time and effort, produces more accurate data and better differentiates between sites. Higher H/M ratios and SH/SM ratios were found in the rabbitfish collected at the ecologically stable habitat of the coral reef compared to rabbitfish from sandy habitat or mariculture-impacted sandy habitat. The results of the study emphasized the negative impacts of cage mariculture on the environment. The rabbitfish collected near the mariculture farms supported the poorest and least diverse parasite communities of all sampled sites, with virtual depletion of heteroxenous species, and even reduction of gill monogenean infections on the hosts. When results from the Mediterranean sites were compared with those of the Red Sea, the data showed full representation of monoxenous parasites (all but one of Red Sea origin), while heteroxenous species were completely absent. We may therefore regard the Mediterranean as a simulation model for a severely environmentally deteriorated, impoverished habitat, in which all or part of the intermediate host species have been depleted, enabling survival of the monoxenous parasite species only. Parasitological investigations were supplemented by testing the activity of cytochrome P 450- dependent mono-oxygenase EROD as a measure of exposure, and lysosomal stability as a measure of toxic effect in the liver of rabbitfish. The results underline the parasitological findings, showing that fish caught at the impacted sandy beach location in the Red Sea have significantly higher EROD activity and a decreased membrane stability compared with animals from the coral reef. In comparison, EROD activity values in rabbitfish from the Mediterranean Sea were double, while lysosomal membrane stability was half that measured at the most impacted Red Sea location.

Diamant, A.; Banet, A.; Paperna, I.; Westernhagen, H. v.; Broeg, K.; Kruener, G.; Koerting, W.; Zander, S.

51

[Evaluation of the parasitologic technics used in the diagnosis of human Trypanosoma gambiense trypanosomiasis in the Ivory Coast].  

PubMed

The investigators carried out a comparative evaluation of twelve or parasitological techniques used nowadays in the diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis and parasite isolation in the lymph fluid, blood and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). The tests were performed on 64 seropositive suspects selected with TESTRYP-CATT among 661 attendants examined at the Projet de Recherches Cliniques sur la Trypanosomiase (PRCT), Daloa, Côte-d'Ivoire. The study showed that the sensitivity of the different techniques varies between 17.2% (for CSF inoculation to Mastomys) and 84.5% (for the anion exchange centrifugation technique-mAECT). The classical techniques, says lymph fluid examination, direct blood examination and thick blood have a sensitivity of 58.6, 22.4 and 34.5% respectively. The most sensitive methods are lymph fluid examination, mAECT and double centrifugation of CSF (69%). The sensitivity increases up to 98.3% with the combination of two or three techniques. The combination of lymph fluid examination/mAECT/double centrifugation of CSF is either the most sensitive and the most suitable one for use in the field. The combination of lymph fluid examination and mAECT which detects 91.4% of the infected subjects is the most efficient. The authors discussed the results and recommended that similar study be done in field conditions to assess methods which either demonstrated better sensitivity and are more suitable for field use. PMID:8061525

Miezan, T W; Meda, A H; Doua, F; Cattand, P

1994-01-01

52

Genotypic analysis of ?-tubulin in Onchocerca volvulus from communities and individuals showing poor parasitological response to ivermectin treatment  

PubMed Central

Ivermectin (IVM) has been in operational use for the control of onchocerciasis for two decades and remains the only drug of choice. To investigate the parasitological responses and genetic profile of Onchocerca volvulus, we carried out a 21 month epidemiological study to determine the response of the parasite to IVM in 10 Ghanaian endemic communities. Onchocerca nodules were surgically removed from patients in three IVM response categories (good, intermediate and poor) and one IVM naïve community. DNA from adult worms was analyzed to determine any association between genotype and IVM response phenotypic. Embryogramme analysis showed significantly higher reproductive activity in worms from poor response communities, which had up to 41% of females with live stretched microfilaria (mf) in utero, despite IVM treatment, compared with good response communities, which had no intra-uterine stretched mf. ?-tubulin isotype 1 gene has been shown to be linked to IVM selection in O. volvulus and also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. We have genotyped the full length genomic DNA sequence of the ?-tubulin gene from 127 adult worms obtained from the four community categories. We found SNPs at 24 sites over the entire 3696 bp. Eight of the SNPs occurred at significantly higher (p < 0.05) frequencies in the poor response communities compared with the good response communities and the IVM naïve community. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses show that IVM resistance has been selected and the genotype (1183GG/1188CC/1308TT/1545GG) was strongly associated with the resistance phenotype. Since the region in the ?-tubulin gene where these four SNPs occur is within 362 bp, it is feasible to develop a genetic marker for the early detection of IVM resistance. PMID:24533268

Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Gyapong, John O.; Prichard, Roger K.

2012-01-01

53

Clinical, parasitological and immunological features of canal cleaners hyper-exposed to Schistosoma mansoni in the Sudan.  

PubMed

The present work was a longitudinal study on Schistosoma mansoni infection in occupationally hyperexposed canal cleaners in the Sudan and the influence of therapy on the parasitological and humoral immune parameters. Chronically infected canal cleaners (n = 28) were more resistant to reinfection (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05) than newly recruited canal cleaners (n=17). Chronically infected canal cleaners had a significantly higher degree of Symmers' fibrosis (chi2 = 19.1, P < 0.0001), significantly larger portal vein diameter (P < 0.05) and enlarged spleen (chi2 = 4.2, P < 0.05) than recently infected, newly recruited canal cleaners. ELISA was used to detect IgG, IgA and IgM in response to whole worm homogenate (WWH) and cercarial homogenate (CH). Chronically infected canal cleaners had significantly higher IgG to WWH antigen than newly recruited canal cleaners and normally exposed individuals (P < 0.05), while both chronically infected and newly recruited canal cleaners had higher IgG levels to CH antigen than normally exposed individuals (P < 0.05). The newly recruited canal cleaners had a significantly higher IgM level to CH antigen than chronically infected canal cleaners (P < 0.05). The IgG level to WWH antigen increased significantly after treatment in newly recruited canal cleaners and normally exposed individuals (P < 0.05). The IgA level to CH antigen increased significantly after treatment in the chronically infected group (P < 0.05). Comparison of the serological parameters between the different study groups with regards to infection and treatment is discussed. PMID:9099926

Satti, M Z; Sulaiman, S M; Homeida, M M; Younis, S A; Ghalib, H W

1996-06-01

54

Parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium.  

PubMed

The parasitological and histopathological effects of immunosuppression in guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus) experimentally infected with Schistosoma haematobium were studied. A total of 16 guinea-pigs were divided into four groups (four per group): non-immunosuppressed, non-infected group (NN); immunosuppressed, non-infected group (IN); immunosuppressed, infected group (II); non-immunosuppressed, infected group (NI). The IN and II groups were immunosuppressed with 5 mg/kg prednisolone while the II and NI animals were infected with 200-300 S. haematobium cercariae. Excretion of eggs in urine/faeces, worm burden and histopathology of some vital organs of the guinea-pigs were studied. Eggs of S. haematobium were observed in the urine of the NI and II groups from 9 weeks post-infection and in faeces from 10 and 13 weeks post-infection for the NI and II groups, respectively. However, II animals excreted more viable eggs in urine and faeces than those of the NI group. Worm recovery at 14 weeks post-infection showed that NI and II guinea-pigs had more female worms than male worms and a greater proportion of worm recovery for NI animals was of immature worms. Significant differences (P < 0.05) existed between female, male and immature worm burden of the two groups but not in their total worm burden (P>0.05). Histological changes, which were notably reactions to adult S. haematobium worms, were observed in the organs of the NI and II groups but these changes were seen more in the organs of the immunosuppressed, infected (II) than in the non-immunosuppressed, infected (NI) guinea-pigs. The results suggest that immunosuppression before infection increased worm survival and had a moderate effect on liver and bladder histology of S. haematobium infected guinea-pigs. PMID:21929842

Okeke, O C; Ubachukwu, P O; Okafor, F C; Shoyinka, S V O

2012-12-01

55

Measurement of parasitological data by quantitative real-time PCR from controlled human malaria infection trials at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research  

PubMed Central

Background The use of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has allowed for precise quantification of parasites in the prepatent period and greatly improved the reproducibility and statistical power of controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) trials. Parasitological data presented here are from non-immunized, control-challenged subjects who participated in two CHMI trials conducted at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR). Methods Standardized sporozoite challenge was achieved through the bite of five Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the 3D7clone of the NF54 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Blood smears were scored positive when two unambiguous parasites were found. Analysis of parasitological PCR data was performed on log-transformed data using an independent sample t-test when comparing the two studies. The multiplication rate of blood-stage parasites was estimated using the linear model. Results On average, parasites were detected 4.91 days (95% CI?=?4.190 to 5.627) before smears. The earliest parasites were detected within 120 hours (5.01 days) after challenge. Parasite densities showed consistent cyclic patterns of blood-stage parasite growth in all volunteers. The parasite multiplication rates for both studies was 8.18 (95% CI?=?6.162 to 10.20). Data showed that at low parasite densities, a combination of sequestration and stochastic effects of low copy number DNA may impact qPCR detection and the parasite detection limit. Conclusion Smear positive is an endpoint which antimalarial rescue is imperative whereas early detection of parasitological data by qPCR can allow for better anticipation of the endpoint. This would allow for early treatment to reduce clinical illness and risk for study participants. To use qPCR as the primary endpoint in CHMI trials, an algorithm of two positives by qPCR where one of the positives must have parasite density of at least 2 parasites/?L is proposed. PMID:25066459

2014-01-01

56

Weibull statistical analysis of tensile strength of vascular bundle in inner layer of moso bamboo culm in molecular parasitology and vector biology.  

PubMed

Bamboo is a radial gradient variation composite material against parasitology and vector biology, but the vascular bundles in inner layer are evenly distributed. The objective is to determine the regular size pattern and Weibull statistical analysis of the vascular bundle tensile strength in inner layer of Moso bamboo. The size and shape of vascular bundles in inner layer are similar, with an average area about 0.1550 mm2. A statistical evaluation of the tensile strength of vascular bundle was conducted by means of Weibull statistics, the results show that the Weibull modulus m is 6.1121 and the accurate reliability assessment of vascular bundle is determined. PMID:25016270

Le, Cui; Wanxi, Peng; Zhengjun, Sun; Lili, Shang; Guoning, Chen

2014-07-01

57

Entomological and parasitological impacts of indoor residual spraying with DDT, alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin in the western foothill area of Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background In Madagascar, indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticide was part of the national malaria control programme since the middle of the twentieth century. It was mainly employed in the highlands and the foothill areas, which are prone to malaria epidemics. Prior to a policy change foreseeing a shift from DDT to pyrethroids, a study was carried out to assess the entomological and parasitological impacts of IRS in areas with DDT or pyrethroids and in areas without IRS. Methods The study was carried out from October 2002 to February 2005 in three communes of the western foothill area of Madagascar. Two communes received IRS with DDT in February 2003, then IRS with pyrethroids (alphacypermethrin or deltamethrin) in February 2004. The third commune remained untreated. Mosquitoes were collected at night using human landing catches and early in the morning in resting places. Blood smears were obtained from schoolchildren and microscopically examined for Plasmodium presence. Results In total, 18,168 human landing mosquitoes and 12,932 resting anophelines were collected. The Anopheles species caught comprised 10 species. The main and most abundant malaria vector was Anopheles funestus (72.3% of human-seeking malaria vectors caught indoors). After IRS had taken place, this species exhibited a lower human biting rate and a lower sporozoite index. Overall, 5,174 blood smears were examined with a mean plasmodic index of 19.9%. A total of four Plasmodium species were detected. Amongst tested school children the highest plasmodial index was 54.6% in the untreated commune, compared to 19.9% in the commune sprayed with DDT and 11.9% in the commune sprayed with pyrethroid. The highest prevalence of clinical malaria attacks in children present at school the day of the survey was 33% in the untreated commune compared to 8% in the areas which received IRS. Conclusion In terms of public health, the present study shows (1) a high efficacy of IRS with insecticide, (2) a similar efficacy of DDT and pyrethroid and (3) a similar efficacy of alphacypermethrin and deltamethrin. The use of IRS with DDT and pyrethroid greatly decreased the vector-human contact, with an associated decrease of the plasmodial index. However malaria transmission did not reach zero, probably due to the exophilic host-seeking and resting behaviours of the malaria vectors, thus avoiding contact with insecticide-treated surfaces indoors. The study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the IRS implementation and the need for complementary tools for an optimal vector control in Madagascar. PMID:24423246

2014-01-01

58

Comparison of parasitological, serological, and molecular tests for visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional delayed-type study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of invasive and non-invasive tests for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a large series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In this delayed-type cross-sectional study, 113 HIV-infected symptomatic patients were evaluated by an adjudication committee after clinical follow-up to establish the presence or absence of VL as the target condition (reference test). The index tests were recombinant K39 antigen-based immunochromatographic test (rK39), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), prototype kit of direct agglutination test (DAT-LPC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in peripheral blood. Compared with parasitological test and adjudication committee diagnosis or latent class model analyses, IFAT and rk39 dipstick test presented the lowest sensitivity. DAT-LPC exhibited good overall performance, and there was no statistical difference between DAT-LPC and qPCR diagnosis accuracy. Real-time PCR emerges as a less invasive alternative to parasitological examination for confirmation of cases not identified by DAT. PMID:23836568

Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; de Sousa, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas Nogueira, Betânia Mara; Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Oliveira, Edward; Assis, Tália Santana Machado; de Mendonça, Andréa Laender Pessoa; Pinto, Bruna Fernandes; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Rabello, Ana

2013-09-01

59

PARASITOLOGY: The Malarial Secretome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The malaria parasite is a wily pathogen that resides comfortably within its parasitophorous vacuole in the host red blood cell. By skillfully exporting its own proteins across the parasitophorous vacuole membrane into the erythrocyte cytosol and plasma membrane, the malaria parasite ensures a steady supply of nutrients. As Przyborski and Lanzer discuss in their Perspective, the discovery of a host cell-targeting sequence in these exported parasite proteins reveals how the parasite accomplishes this task (Marti et al.; Hiller et al.).

Jude Przyborski (Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg; Department of Parasitology)

2004-12-10

60

Studies on Parasitologic and Haematologic Activities of an Enaminone Derivative of 4-Hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one Against Murine Schistosomiasis Mansoni  

PubMed Central

The activity of a novel enaminone derivative of 4–hydroxyquinoline, BDHQ, was screened for its effectiveness against murine schistosomiasis by electron microscopy and parasitologic studies. The correlation of these studies with serum levels of IFN–gamma and IgE is described. Two groups of 10 mice each were treated with different doses of BDHQ, and their results were correlated with the control and praziquantel (PZQ)–treated groups. Parasitologic study revealed significant reduction in mature worms and tissue egg loads in BDHQ– and PZQ–treated groups, whereas immature worms revealed significant reduction in BDHQ groups only. The group treated with a higher dose of BDHQ showed significant reductions in intestinal ova count when compared with the PZQ–treated group. Ultrastructural examination of the worm revealed significant degeneration of the spines and tegument in all treated groups, while the genital system was affected in BDHQ–treated groups only. BDHQ showed considerable effect on cellular activation where serum levels of IFN–gamma were significantly increased in comparison to control, while anti–soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) IgE was significantly increased in comparison to both the control and PZQ–treated groups. Ultrastructural examination revealed cellular activation in buffy coat and the liver in both the BDHQ– and PZQ–treated groups in comparison to the untreated one, whereas in the bone marrow and spleen, evidence of cellular activation was remarkable in the BDHQ–treated groups. In conclusion, BDHQ exhibits high levels of activity against adult and juvenile stages of these parasites, which may be due to its mixed cellular and humoral immunologic mechanisms, as demonstrated by the significant increase of serum levels of IgE and IFN–gamma shown on electron microscopy. Therefore, our results support the comparative advantage that BDHQ has over PZQ. PMID:17435624

El-Shennawy, Amal M.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Mohamed Abass

2007-01-01

61

Biochemical and Parasitological Studies on the Effect of hUCB-Selected CD34+ Progenitor/Stem Cells in Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Placenta and blood that remained in the umbilical cord is routinely available as a discarded tissue after deliveries and it is free of any legal, moral, ethical or religious objections, providing a high number of multipotent CD34+ progenitor and stem cells. Using ex vivo isolated CD34+ cells from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) have emerged as promising candidates to treat various diseases, including exogenous pathogenic infections. We have expanded to build a rational approach to study the effect of CD34+ cells after damaged liver tissues by the devastating human parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Methods and Results: Experimental studies were conducted in the Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science and Departments of Parasitology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, SCU, Egypt. We have studied the impact of ex vivo preparation of CD34+ cells from hUCB on S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis de novo, and treated for shorter and longer periods in vivo. Ova count, ALT and albumin were measured at specific time interval and histopathological examination of liver was conducted to confirm the biochemical results. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by ANOVA between groups. It was found that the administration of CD34+ cells have modestly reduced liver damage; reduced the S. mansoni infection associated elevation in serum levels of ALT; significantly improved serum levels of albumin and reduced egg granuloma diameter in the livers. Conclusions: We demonstrated that CD34+ cells can markedly ameliorated liver fibrosis in vivo and may be beneficial for therapy to recover organ structure and/or function of S. mansoni-infected mice. PMID:25473447

Abou-Zied, Akram M.; Soliman, Rasha H.; Hefila, Shorouk M.; Imam, Samir A.

2014-01-01

62

Albendazolesulphoxide concentrations in plasma and hydatid cyst and prediction of parasitological and clinical outcomes in patients with liver hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the relationship between plasma and cyst concentrations of albendazolesulphoxide (ASO) and their effects on parasitological findings and disease recurrence in patients with liver hydatidosis. Methods The study was conducted at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases “Dr. Fran Mihaljevi?,” Zagreb, Croatia, between August 2006 and January 2011. Consecutive patients (N?=?48, age 6-77 years) were treated with albendazole (3?×?5 mg/kg/d) over 28 days before surgical cyst removal (n?=?34) or percutaneous evacuation (PAIR) (n?=?14). Plasma ASO was determined on days 10 and 28 of treatment and cyst concentrations at surgery/PAIR. Results Disease recurred in 3 surgically treated patients. Variability of ASO concentrations was substantial. Plasma concentrations on day 10 were higher than on day 28 (geometric means ratio [GMR] 2.00; 95%CI 1.38-2.91, P?

Skuhala, Tomislava; Trkulja, Vladimir; Runje, Mislav; Vukeli?, Dalibor; Desnica, Boško

2014-01-01

63

Malaria Case-Management following Change of Policy to Universal Parasitological Diagnosis and Targeted Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The change of malaria case-management policy in Kenya to recommend universal parasitological diagnosis and targeted treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is supported with activities aiming by 2013 at universal coverage and adherence to the recommendations. We evaluated changes in health systems and case-management indicators between the baseline survey undertaken before implementation of the policy and the follow-up survey following the first year of the implementation activities. Methods/Findings National, cross-sectional surveys using quality-of-care methods were undertaken at public facilities. Baseline and follow-up surveys respectively included 174 and 176 facilities, 224 and 237 health workers, and 2,405 and 1,456 febrile patients. Health systems indicators showed variable changes between surveys: AL stock-out (27% to 21%; p?=?0.152); availability of diagnostics (55% to 58%; p?=?0.600); training on the new policy (0 to 22%; p?=?0.001); exposure to supervision (18% to 13%; p?=?0.156) and access to guidelines (0 to 6%; p?=?0.001). At all facilities, there was an increase among patients tested for malaria (24% vs 31%; p?=?0.090) and those who were both tested and treated according to test result (16% to 22%; p?=?0.048). At facilities with AL and malaria diagnostics, testing increased from 43% to 50% (p?=?0.196) while patients who were both, tested and treated according to test result, increased from 28% to 36% (p?=?0.114). Treatment adherence improved for test positive patients from 83% to 90% (p?=?0.150) and for test negative patients from 47% to 56% (p?=?0.227). No association was found between testing and exposure to training, supervision and guidelines, however, testing was significantly associated with facility ownership, type of testing, and patients' caseload, age and clinical presentation. Conclusions Most of the case-management indicators have shown some improvement trends; however differences were smaller than expected, rarely statistically significant and still leaving a substantial gap towards optimistic targets. The quantitative and qualitative improvement of interventions will ultimately determine the success of the new policy. PMID:21935464

Nyandigisi, Andrew; Memusi, Dorothy; Mbithi, Agneta; Ang'wa, Newton; Shieshia, Mildred; Muturi, Alex; Sudoi, Raymond; Githinji, Sophie; Juma, Elizabeth; Zurovac, Dejan

2011-01-01

64

Identification of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate-mefloquine combination in an area along the Thai-Myanmar border: integration of clinico-parasitological response, systemic drug exposure, and in vitro parasite sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Background A markedly high failure rate of three-day artesunate-mefloquine was observed in the area along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods Identification of Plasmodium falciparum isolates with intrinsic resistance to each component of the artesunate-mefloquine combination was analysed with integrated information on clinico-parasitological response, together with systemic drug exposure (area under blood/plasma concentration-time curves (AUC)) of dihydroartemisinin and mefloquine, and in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum in a total of 17 out of 29 P. falciparum isolates from patients with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Analysis of the contribution of in vitro parasite sensitivity and systemic drug exposure and relationship with pfmdr1 copy number in the group with sensitive response was performed in 21 of 69 cases. Results Identification of resistance and/or reduced intrinsic parasitocidal activity of artesunate and/or mefloquine without pharmacokinetic or other host-related factors were confirmed in six cases: one with reduced sensitivity to artesunate alone, two with resistance to mefloquine alone, and three with reduced sensitivity to artesunate combined with resistance to mefloquine. Resistance and/or reduced intrinsic parasitocidal activity of mefloquine/artesunate, together with contribution of pharmacokinetic factor of mefloquine and/or artesunate were identified in seven cases: two with resistance to mefloquine alone, and five with resistance to mefloquine combined with reduced sensitivity to artesunate. Pharmacokinetic factor alone contributed to recrudescence in three cases, all of which had inadequate whole blood mefloquine levels (AUC0-7days). Other host-related factors contributed to recrudescence in one case. Amplification of pfmdr1 (increasing of pfmdr1 copy number) is a related molecular marker of artesunate-mefloquine resistance and seems to be a suitable molecular marker to predict occurrence of recrudescence. Conclusions Despite the evidence of a low level of a decline in sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates to artemisinins in areas along the Thai-Myanmar border, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) would be expected to remain the key anti-malarial drug for treatment of multidrug resistance P. falciparum. Continued monitoring and active surveillance of clinical efficacy of ACT, including identification of true artemisinin resistant parasites, is required for appropriate implementation of malaria control policy in this area. PMID:23898808

2013-01-01

65

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount...identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using concentration preparations and...program must include samples that contain parasites that are commonly encountered in...

2012-10-01

66

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use these references in the laboratory for appropriate...calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month...

2012-10-01

67

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount...identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using concentration preparations and...program must include samples that contain parasites that are commonly encountered in...

2014-10-01

68

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use these references in the laboratory for appropriate...calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month...

2011-10-01

69

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount...identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using concentration preparations and...program must include samples that contain parasites that are commonly encountered in...

2013-10-01

70

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use these references in the laboratory for appropriate...calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month...

2014-10-01

71

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that determine the presence or absence of parasites by direct observation (wet mount...identification; (2) Those that identify parasites using concentration preparations and...program must include samples that contain parasites that are commonly encountered in...

2011-10-01

72

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use these references in the laboratory for appropriate...calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month...

2013-10-01

73

Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Parasitology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual presents techniques for the collection and examination of specimens in the diagnosis of parasitic disease and in field surveys conducted to determine the extent of parasitic infections in human and animal populations. It discusses areas in which parasites are most likely to be found and the relationships of parasites, vectors, and…

Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

74

42 CFR 493.1264 - Standard: Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and, if available, gross specimens for identification of parasites and use these references in the laboratory for appropriate...calibrated ocular micrometer for determining the size of ova and parasites, if size is a critical parameter. (c) Each month...

2010-10-01

75

PARASITOLOGY: Enhanced: New Ways to Control Malaria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites and insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors necessitates the development of new methods to combat malaria. In their Perspective, Hemingway and Craig explore transmission-blocking therapies that aim to prevent transmission of the reproductive stages of the malaria parasite from the insect vector to the human host when the mosquito takes its next blood meal. As part of this endeavor, they discuss new work by Osta et al. that identifies three mosquito genes affecting the sexual development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito gut.

Janet Hemingway (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine; )

2004-03-26

76

Parasitology Review Wildlife Health, WFB 861  

E-print Network

://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/publications/field_manual/section_5.pdf #12;Factors that Affect Burden and Disease · Host age / breeding status · Previous exposure to parasites · Time of year · Physiological relationship · Location · History of parasites in species, area #12

Jodice, Patrick

77

Parasitology http://journals.cambridge.org/PAR  

E-print Network

The immune status of a host infected with Trypanosoma spp. or Leishmania spp. can play an important role of pentavalent antimonials in the treatment of leishmaniasis. However, the potential relationship between of trypanosomiasis were performed by von Jancso & von Jancso in 1934 and 1935. While examining the effect of a single

Schnaufer, Achim

78

PARASITOLOGY: A Game of Cat and Mouth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been remarkably successful, infecting 30 to 50% of the world's population, many of whom are asymptomatic. In their Perspective, Volkman and Hartl discuss new work (Su et al.) that reveals the secret of the parasite's success. The three predominant strains of T. gondii-sibling progeny of a single cross that took place 10,000 years ago-all show greatly enhanced oral transmission between intermediate vertebrate hosts.

Sarah K. Volkman (Harvard School of Public Health; Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases)

2003-01-17

79

[Diagnostic kits in parasitology: which controls?].  

PubMed

The development of new diagnostic tools particularly for some parasitic "neglected diseases", is slowed or even hindered by limited resources assigned for basic and applied research in public institution and private sector. Even if the time-line and costs needed for developing a new In Vitro Diagnostic (IVD) test are generally lower compared to vaccines or new drugs, industry is poorly engaged in investing resources due to the perception of limited markets. To accelerate the development of diagnostics for the world's most deadly diseases, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and the Gates Foundation, last year launched a new initiative, FIND (Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, www.finddiagnostics.org). The aim is to "apply the latest biotechnology innovations to develop and validate affordable diagnostic tests for diseases of the developing world". Ideally, a new diagnostic test should be accurately evaluated prior to use in medical practice. The first step would be a pre-clinical evaluation, an analytic study to determine its laboratory performance. A crucial point in this phase is the calibration of reagents (antigens, antibodies, DNA probes, etc.) against a standard reference preparation. WHO, through the WHO International Laboratories for Biological Standards, "provides International Biological Reference Preparations which serve as reference sources of defined biological activity expressed in an internationally agreed unit" (www.who.int/biologicals/IBRP/index.htm). Standardization allows "comparison of biological measurements worldwide" and ensures the reliability of diagnostic procedures. These preparations are generally intended for use in the characterization of the activity of secondary reference preparations (regional, national or in-house working standards). Unfortunately, international reference standards for parasitic diseases are not available at present, except for Toxoplasma antibodies. The first international standard reagent for Anti-Toxoplasma Serum was established in 1968 and at present, an international standard reference serum, Anti-toxoplasma serum, human TOXM is available at the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in UK. Several collaborative, multicenter studies were carried out to assess the performance of different methods and commercial tests for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, by providing to participating laboratories a panel of well-defined sera to be tested. A four-phase process following well-accepted methodological standards for the development of diagnostics, analogous to those internationally accepted for drugs and vaccines was recently proposed. The pre-clinical evaluation, the analytic study to assess sensitivity, specificity, predictive values in laboratory (phase I), should be followed by a proof of principle study to distinguish diseased from healthy persons in easily accessible populations (phase II). The evaluation of test performance in populations of intended use (phase III), and finally the delineation of cost-effectiveness and societal impact of new tests in comparison with existing tools (phase IV) should complete the validation procedure. In this context, national regulatory agencies play a major role in pre-market approval and post-market surveillance of IVDs. The European Community in 1998 approved a directive (Directive 98/79/EC) which rules the marketing of IVD medical devices, in order to harmonise the performance levels and standards in European countries. But, among IVDs for parasitic diseases, only those to detect congenital toxoplasmosis are submitted to defined procedures to provide the verification of products before their placing on the market and the surveillance after their marketing by a notified body, which perform appropriate examinations, tests and inspections to production facilities to verify if the device meets the requirements of the directive. In U.

Rossi, P

2004-06-01

80

42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Ascaris lumbricoides Strongyloides stercoralis Trichuris trichiura Diphyllobothrium latum Cryptosporidium sp. Plasmodium falciparum (3) For laboratories specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the program must provide at...

2010-10-01

81

Hotel Intestine: laboratory for parasitology: Gregarine Information Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A thorough NSF funded research site dedicated to insect parasite fauna, especially the gregarines. This page is a work in progress as research develops. Some gregarine keys are included online, as well as survey results, and some systematics.

0000-00-00

82

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 113 (2001) 175181 Short communication  

E-print Network

a , Otavio H. Thiemann b , Juan D. Alfonzo c , Larry Simpson a,c, * a Howard Hughes Medical Institute, UCLA-mail address: simpson@hhmi.ucla.edu (L. Simpson). 0166-6851/01/$ - see front matter © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. A

Simpson, Larry

83

PARASITOLOGY: When the Host Is Smarter Than the Parasite  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The wily malaria parasite has become resistant to many affordable frontline antimalarial drugs, and new drug targets are desperately needed. Reporting in a Perspective on new work (Zhang et al.), Goldberg suggests that we look for drug targets among proteins that are shared by the host and parasite but whose synthesis is regulated in a different way.

Daniel E. Goldberg (Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Washington University; Department of Medicine and Department of Molecular Microbiology)

2002-04-19

84

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 94 (1998) 123126 Short communication  

E-print Network

-glucuronidase; Leishmania tarentolae Transfection of trypanosomatids, particularly the transfection of their mitochondrion,11]. In trypanosomatids, the genetic organization of the mitochondrion shows several unusual features like a complex DNA] and the still enigmatic process of RNA editing [14]. However, the trypanosomatid mitochondrion is not yet ac

Schnaufer, Achim

85

Elsevier Editorial System(tm) for Experimental Parasitology Manuscript Draft  

E-print Network

and adaptive immune system of the host. Infected mice adopt an immunoregulated phenotype, with abated allergic immunity. The molecular basis of parasite interactions with the host immune system centres upon secreted bakeri exerts widespread immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune system

Maizels, Rick

86

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 154 (2007) 103109 Short communication  

E-print Network

-genomic analysis of any organ- ism. Trypanosoma brucei is a model kinetoplastid protozoan pathogen and has the most advanced repertoire of tools for reverse genetic analysis available for any protozoan. The vast majority

Kelly, Steve

2007-01-01

87

Serologic and parasitologic survey of the endangered Attwater's prairie chicken.  

PubMed

Because conservation biologists have postulated that infectious diseases may have potentiated the endangerment of the Attwater's prairie chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri), free-living prairie chickens were surveyed from all remaining populations for helminthic endoparasites and antibody against the etiological agents of nine infectious diseases. Samples from 4 of 27 adult males were positive for anti-Pasteurella multocida antibody. All other serologic tests were negative (n = 19). We identified Dispharynx nasuta, a parasite previously associated with disease in other grouse from North America, in one of three adult Attwater's prairie chickens examined. Evidence of Trichostrongylus cramae was found for eight of nine suitable samples, which represents the first report of this parasite in prairie grouse. The mean intensity of T. cramae in Attwater's prairie chicken was 1,019.3 (Range = 3-1,906; n = 3). Further work is needed to determine whether P. multocida, T. cramae, or D. nasuta are detrimental to Attwater's prairie chicken populations. If so, conservation biologists could reduce the prevalence and incidence of these parasites and potentially gain more time to address the habitat conditions thought to be the ultimate cause of population declines. PMID:9476235

Peterson, M J; Purvis, J R; Lichtenfels, J R; Craig, T M; Dronen, N O; Silvy, N J

1998-01-01

88

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 131 (2003) 6575 Functional expression and characterization  

E-print Network

-Processing; Peptidyl-dipeptidase; Schistosoma Abbreviations: ACC, 7-amino-4-carbamoylmethyl coumarin; Bz-amido-coumarin; Z-Arg-Arg-AMC, benzoyloxycarbanoyl arginyl-arginyl 4-methyl-7-amido-coumarin; Z-Phe-Arg-AMC, benzoyloxycarbonyl phenylalanyl-arginyl 4-methyl-7-amido-coumarin Note: Both SmCB1.1 (accession no. AJ506157) and Sm

Bogyo, Matthew

89

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 131 (2003) 7781 Short communication  

E-print Network

-cumulative side effects. Amphotericin B is an even more toxic and less effective al- ternative. For the treatment-900 Ribeirão Preto--SP, Brazil b Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University Medical School

Beverley, Stephen M.

2003-01-01

90

Genome mining offers a new starting point for parasitology research.  

PubMed

Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases. PMID:25563615

Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao

2015-02-01

91

Journal of Parasitology Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of hemosporidian parasites in birds of Socorro  

E-print Network

on Socorro ground doves Columbina passerina socorrensis and mourning doves Zenaida macroura, as well in birds of Socorro Island, México and their role in the re-introduction of the Socorro Dove (Zenaida-introduction of the Socorro Dove (Zenaida graysoni) Short Title: Avian haemosporidian parasites diversity of Socorro Island

Sehgal, Ravinder

92

A phylogeny for the pomatiopsidae (Gastropoda: Rissooidea): a resource for taxonomic, parasitological and biodiversity studies  

PubMed Central

Background The Pomatiopsidae are reported from northern India into southern China and Southeast Asia, with two sub-families, the Pomatiopsinae (which include freshwater, amphibious, terrestrial and marine species) and the freshwater Triculinae. Both include species acting as intermediate host for species of the blood-fluke Schistosoma which cause a public health problem in East Asia. Also, with around 120 species, triculine biodiversity exceeds that of any other endemic freshwater molluscan fauna. Nevertheless, the origins of the Pomatiopsidae, the factors driving such a diverse radiation and aspects of their co-evolution with Schistosoma are not fully understood. Many taxonomic questions remain; there are problems identifying medically relevant species. The predicted range is mostly unsurveyed and the true biodiversity of the family is underestimated. Consequently, the aim of the study was to collect DNA-sequence data for as many pomatiopsid taxa as possible, as a first step in providing a resource for identification of epidemiologically significant species (by non-malacologists), for use in resolving taxonomic confusion and for testing phylogeographical hypotheses. Results The evolutionary radiation of the Triculinae was shown to have been rapid and mostly post late Miocene. Molecular dating indicated that the radiation of these snails was driven first by the uplift of the Himalaya and onset of a monsoon system, and then by late-Pliocene global warming. The status of Erhaia as Anmicolidae is supported. The genera Tricula and Neotricula are shown to be non-monophyletic and the tribe Jullieniini may be polyphyletic (based on convergent characters). Triculinae from northern Vietnam could be derived from Gammatricula of Fujian/Yunnan, China. Conclusions The molecular dates and phylogenetic estimates in this study are consistent with an Australasian origin for the Pomatiopsidae and an East to West radiation via Oligocene Borneo-Philippines island hopping to Japan and then China (Triculinae arising mid-Miocene in Southeast China), and less so with a triculine origin in Tibet. The lack of monophyly in the medically important genera and indications of taxonomic inaccuracies, call for further work to identify epidemiologically significant taxa (e.g., Halewisia may be potential hosts for Schistosoma mekongi) and highlight the need for surveys to determine the true biodiversity of the Triculinae. PMID:24548800

2014-01-01

93

EXPERIMENTAL PARASITOLOGY 68, 443-449 (1989) Characterization of a Protein Fraction Containing Cytochromes b  

E-print Network

.S.A. SHAW, J. M., AND SIMPSON, L. 1989. Characterization of a protein fraction containing cytochromes b°C as described previously (Simpson and Braly 1970). Cells were grown to midlog phase and were used phase cells by the Renografin flotation method (Simpson and Braly 1970; Simpson and Simp- son 1978

Simpson, Larry

94

Conventional parasitology and DNA-based diagnostic methods for onchocerciasis elimination programmes.  

PubMed

Commonly used methods for diagnosing Onchocerca volvulus infections (microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin snips and nodule palpation) are insensitive. Improved methods are needed for monitoring and evaluation of onchocerciasis elimination programmes and for clinical diagnosis of individual patients. A sensitive probe-based qPCR assay was developed for detecting O. volvulus DNA, and this was tested with samples collected from an endemic area in eastern Côte d'Ivoire. The new test was evaluated with dried skin snip pairs from 369 subjects and compared to routine skin snip microscopy and nodule palpation results from the same individuals. Onchocerciasis prevalence for these samples by qPCR, skin snip microscopy, and nodule palpation were 56.9%, 26.0%, and 37.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of all three tests produced an infection prevalence of 72.9%, which was significantly higher than 53.1% detected by microscopy plus nodule palpation without qPCR. However, the qPCR assay was negative for 54 of 229 individuals with palpable nodules. qPCR could be a useful tool for detecting residual O. volvulus infections in human populations as prevalence decreases in areas following community-directed treatment with ivermectin. PMID:25818324

Lloyd, Melanie M; Gilbert, Rebecca; Taha, Nathalie Tebao; Weil, Gary J; Meite, Aboulaye; Kouakou, Ilunga M M; Fischer, Peter U

2015-06-01

95

Serum biochemistry, serology, and parasitology of boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the Northwest Territories, Canada.  

PubMed

Boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are an ecologically and culturally important wildlife species and now range almost exclusively in the boreal forests of Canada, including the Northwest Territories, northern Alberta, and British Columbia. Boreal caribou are threatened throughout their Canadian range because of direct and indirect natural and anthropogenic factors. In the Northwest Territories, however, they have a continuous range that overall has not yet been subjected to the same degree of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation and degradation that has occurred elsewhere in Canada. To monitor the health of boreal caribou populations and individuals, we collected blood from 104 adult, female boreal caribou captured between March 2003 and February 2006 and measured serum biochemical parameters. Serum creatinine was higher in pregnant than in nonpregnant caribou. Several biochemical parameters differed among years, but they tended to be similar to those reported for reindeer. Serum antibodies were found to an alphaherpesvirus, Toxoplasma gondii, and to the Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in 37.5, 2.9, and 1.3% of boreal caribou, respectively. Fecal samples were collected from 149 boreal caribou, and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts, Giardia sp. cysts, trichostrongyle ova, dorsal-spined nematode larvae, cestode ova, and Eimeria sp. were found. Trypanosoma sp. was detected in the blood of 72.1% of boreal caribou. Eimeria sp., Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia sp. have not been previously reported in boreal caribou. PMID:20966261

Johnson, Deborah; Harms, N Jane; Larter, Nicholas C; Elkin, Brett T; Tabel, Henry; Wei, Guojian

2010-10-01

96

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 165 (2009) 162169 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

: Entomopathogenic nematodes Immune responses Steinernema glaseri Surface coat proteins Hemocytes Parasite a b s t r/evasion of host immune responses, which is required for successful host colonization. Steinernema glaseri NC strain SCPs suppressed immune responses in oriental beetle larvae (Exomala orientalis), a susceptible

97

Environmental Parasitology: Y~hat can Parasites tell us about Human Impacts on the Environment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of ways that environmental changes affect parasites, suggesting that information on parasites can indicate anthropogenic impacts. Parasitism may in- creese if the ~mpact reduces host resistance or increases the density of intermediate or definitive hosts. Parasitism may decrease if definitive or intermediate host density declines or parasites suffer higher mortality directly (eg. from toxic effects on

K. D. Lafferty

1997-01-01

98

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 137 (2004) 1321 Localization of organellar proteins in Plasmodium falciparum  

E-print Network

Available online 23 June 2004 Abstract The apicoplast and mitochondrion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium to the mitochondrion. To confirm the localization of these proteins, we have developed a new immunofluorescence assay (IFA) protocol using antibodies specific to the apicoplast and mitochondrion. In comparison

McFadden, Geoff

99

Systematic Parasitology 38: 111130, 1997. 111 c 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

with Flustra foliacea L. (Bryozoa) from the White Sea V.N. Ivanenko and A.V. Smurov Department of Invertebrate March, 1997 Abstract Asterocheres flustrae n. sp. is described from Flustra foliacea L. (Bryozoa) found

Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.

100

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

2009-07-01

101

The Utrecht model of teaching veterinary medicine and the role of veterinary parasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Utrecht, established a new curriculum for teaching veterinary medicine in 1995 with the main objectives to improve the problem-solving and communication competences of the students and their scientific education. Because it is accepted that graduates cannot get a starting competence in all fields of the veterinary profession, a differentiation of education focused on

M Eysker

2002-01-01

102

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 133 (2004) 4551 Arachidonic acid synthetic pathways of the oyster protozoan parasite,  

E-print Network

of the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus: evidence for usage of a delta-8 pathway Fu-Lin E. Chua Received 24 June 2003; accepted 28 August 2003 Abstract The meront stage of the oyster protozoan parasite; Oyster; Oyster parasite; Perkinsus marinus 1. Introduction Although parasitic protozoans effectively

Hartley, Troy W.

2004-01-01

103

Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted. PMID:25098300

Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

2014-10-01

104

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 153 (2007) 149157 Increased efficiency of homologous recombination in Toxoplasma gondii  

E-print Network

recombination in Toxoplasma gondii dense granule protein 3 demonstrates that GRA3 is not necessary in cell resistance gene in a type II strain. Two GRA3 strains were obtained after two independent electroporations with efficiency greater than 80%. No differences between wild-type and GRA3 were detected in cell culture growth

Sheridan, Jennifer

105

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 157 (2008) 7382  

E-print Network

recombinase-based positive­negative selection systems 2 for genetic manipulation in Trypanosoma brucei Michael integration followed by CRE recombinase-mediated excision of the marker cassette that can be selected; CRE recombinase; Ganciclovir; Fluoroorotic acid; Pyrimidine synthesis; Pyrimidine auxotroph; Culture

Cross, George

106

Systematic Parasitology 53: 227233, 2002. 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

in the Netherlands. 227 Thaumamermis zealandica n. sp. (Mermithidae: Nematoda) parasitising the intertidal marine zealandica n. sp. (Mermithidae; Nematoda), is described parasitising the in- tertidal marine amphipod

Poulin, Robert

107

Networks and the ecology of parasite transmission: A framework for wildlife parasitology?  

PubMed Central

Social network analysis has recently emerged as a popular tool for understanding disease transmission in host populations. Although social networks have most extensively been applied to modelling the transmission of diseases through human populations, more recently the method has been applied to wildlife populations. The majority of examples from wildlife involve modelling the transmission of contagious microbes (mainly viruses and bacteria), normally in context of understanding wildlife disease epidemics. However, a growing number of studies have used networks to explore the ecology of parasite transmission in wildlife populations for a range of endemic parasites representing a diversity of life cycles and transmission methods. This review addresses the application of network models in representing the transmission of parasites with more complex life cycles, and illustrates the way in which this approach can be used to answer ecological questions about the transmission of parasites in wildlife populations. PMID:24533342

Godfrey, Stephanie S.

2013-01-01

108

EXPERIMENTAL PARASITOLOGY 89, 285-295 (1998) ARTICLE NO. PR984295  

E-print Network

in young Bolivian patients. Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, exhibits the existence of two major lineages of T. infestans; Chagas disease; clones; PCR; MLEE; RAPD; human trans- cruzi

109

Cardiac involvement is a constant finding in acute Chagas' disease: a clinical, parasitological and histopathological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 8 years 58 acute cases of Chagas' disease were studied. Patients from an endemic area of the state of Barinas, Venezuela, showed fever (98%) and circulating forms of T. cruzi (100%), and were treated with oral benznidazole. The recorded mortality was 8.6%. Acute myocarditis was constantly found either in myocardial biopsies or at necropsy, even in patients

Henry Parada; Hugo A. Carrasco; Néstor Añez; Carmen Fuenmayor; Ignacio Inglessis

1997-01-01

110

Experimental Parasitology 114 (2006) 279288 www.elsevier.com/locate/yexpr  

E-print Network

; Hypervariable domain; DTU (Discrete Typing Units); Evolution; Editing 1. Introduction Chagas' disease. Chagas' disease shows considerable clinical variability (cardiac, digestive, or cardio of T. cruzi is thus of the utmost importance for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of Chagas

111

Experimental Parasitology 113 (2006) 17 www.elsevier.com/locate/yexpr  

E-print Network

online 10 January 2006 Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, has a basically clonal) cruzi (Chagas, 1909) the protozoan parasite responsible for Chagas disease in South and Central America

Roche, Benjamin

112

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 119 (2002) 179190 De novo arachidonic acid synthesis in Perkinsus marinus, a  

E-print Network

in Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea 6irginica Fu-Lin E. Chu *, Eric Abstract The capability of synthesizing fatty acids de novo in the meront stage of the oyster protozoan to synthesize 20:4(n-6) from acetate is particularly interesting. No parasitic protozoan has been reported

Hartley, Troy W.

113

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 136 (2004) 7186 Expression profiling using random genomic DNA microarrays  

E-print Network

of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major Natalia S. Akopyantsa, Robin S. Matliba,b, Elena N. Bukanovaa, Matthew R 2004; accepted 9 March 2004 Abstract To complete its life cycle, protozoan parasites of the genus profiling 1. Introduction Trypanosomatid protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are the causative

Stormo, Gary

114

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 128 (2003) 217228 Improvements in transfection efficiency and tests of RNA  

E-print Network

and tests of RNA interference (RNAi) approaches in the protozoan parasite Leishmania Kelly A. Robinson for reverse genetics applications in eukaryotic microbes which are asexual diploids, such as the protozoan The protozoan parasite Leishmania is the causative agent of leishmaniasis, whose clinical manifestations range

Beverley, Stephen M.

115

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 155 (2007) 103112 Structural polymorphism and diversifying selection on the pregnancy  

E-print Network

selection on the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate VAR2CSA Joseph Bockhorsta,b, Fangli Luc,1, Joel H 2007 Abstract VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a pregnancy malaria vaccine, but vaccine development. 1. Introduction Pregnancy associated malaria (PAM), a substantial cause of disease and death

Samudrala, Ram

2007-01-01

116

336 Parasitology Today, vol. IO,no.9, I994 Applications of Molecular Marker  

E-print Network

(Plasmodium), lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria and Brugia) and many arboviruses (most notably yellow fever been de- veloped for the yellow fever mosquito, A and dengue fever). The most successful efforts towards controlling these diseases have been ac- complished

Severson, David

117

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 42 (1990) 175-188 175 MOLBIO 01383  

E-print Network

Janeiro, Brazil (Received 5 February 1990; accepted 18 April 1990) Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) was isolated from 56 stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from human patients, animals and insects from Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia and Costa Rica. Comparison of the patterns of digested kDNA on acrylamide gels led

Simpson, Larry

118

Clinical pathology and parasitologic evaluation of free-living nestlings of the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus).  

PubMed

This study evaluated the health status and established hematologic and serum biochemistry parameters for free-living nestlings of the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) from the Brazilian Pantanal (19 degrees 51'-19 degrees 58'S; 56 degrees 17'-56 degrees 24'W), for four consecutive years (from December 2003 through December 2006). Physical examinations indicated that all the birds were in good health. Endoparasites and blood parasites were not detected in any of the nestlings, and ectoparasites seemed to be limited to Philornis sp. (Diptera: Muscidae). Significantly higher levels of total white blood cells and heterophils, glucose, total protein, triglycerides, and phosphorus were observed in females. In females, higher cholesterol levels and packed cell volumes were observed in older birds, and total white blood cell and heterophil counts were higher in young animals. In males, uric acid levels were higher in older individuals. Wild Pantanal Hyacinth Macaws feed on only two species of palm nuts (Acrocomia totai and Scheelea phalerta). This limited food habit has a strong impact on population size and may alter the clinical pathology parameters of these birds. Therefore, knowledge of blood levels in normal individuals is essential to assess the physiologic and pathologic condition of wild macaws, to assess the effects of environmental changes on their health, and to contribute to conservation strategies of this endangered species. PMID:19901373

Allgayer, M C; Guedes, N M R; Chiminazzo, C; Cziulik, M; Weimer, T A

2009-10-01

119

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 148 (2006) 144160 Heterologous expression of proteins from  

E-print Network

of adenosines and thymidines (%AT) did not appear to play a significant role. Of those proteins which expressed; Ligase independent; Cloning; Insect cells Abbreviations: %AT, percent adenosine and thymidine; CDK, cyclin dependent kinase; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; EDTA, ethylamine diamine tetraacetic acid; GRAVY

Gelb, Michael

120

Parasitology as a Teaching Tool: Isolation of Apicomplexan Cysts from Store-Bought Meat  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are obstacles to teaching science; however, these obstacles are not insurmountable. One obstacle is the students themselves. Students often labor under the misconception or anxiety that the course material will be too difficult to understand, or boring (mind-numbing), or that the information learned will not be applicable in their day-to-day…

Eggleston, Tracy L.; Fitzpatrick, Eileen; Hager, Kristin M.

2008-01-01

121

Hematology, parasitology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.  

PubMed

Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P<0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P<0.05). Twenty-one adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology. PMID:19617502

Miller, Debra Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H Scott; Miller, Karl V; Baldwin, Charles A

2009-07-01

122

Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected;\\u000afrom 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven;\\u000ajuvenile (three males, one female, three not;\\u000areported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans);\\u000aon the US Department of Energys Savannah;\\u000aRiver Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant;\\u000a(P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were;\\u000anoted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin,;\\u000aand hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex;\\u000aoccurred

Debra Lee Miller; Joshua Schrecengost; Anita Merrill; John Kilgo; H. Ray; Karl Karl V. Miller; A. Charles

2009-01-01

123

Parasitological impact of 2-year preventive chemotherapy on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are among the neglected tropical diseases in Africa. A national control program for these diseases was initiated in Uganda during March 2003. Annual treatment with praziquantel and albendazole was given to schoolchildren in endemic areas and to adults in selected communities where local prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in schoolchildren was high. METHODS: The impact

Yaobi Zhang; Artemis Koukounari; Narcis Kabatereine; Fiona Fleming; Francis Kazibwe; Edridah Tukahebwa; J Russell Stothard; Joanne P Webster; Alan Fenwick

2007-01-01

124

Poster Presentations 1. EMAN MOSTAFA, DEPT. OF PARASITOLOGY, ZAGAZIG UNIVERSITY, EGYPT  

E-print Network

, DIVISION OF PARASITIC DISEASES AND MALARIA, CDC CHARACTERIZING REACTIVITY TO ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS ANTIGENS THE EFFICACY OF MACROCYCLIC LACTONES IN THE TREATMENT OF HUMAN FILARIASIS 6. TIFFANY JENKINSON, CTEGD & DEPT IN PLACENTAL MALARIA 7. NICOLE S. KAWAHATA, DIVISION OF PARASITIC DISEASES AND MALARIA, CDC SEROLOGICAL SURVEY

Arnold, Jonathan

125

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 182 (2012) 9396 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

microfilament dynamics across the malaria parasite lifecycle Fiona Angrisanoa,b,1 , Michael J. Delvesc,1 November 2011 Keywords: Malaria Plasmodium berghei Ookinete Actin Jasplakinolide a b s t r a c t Malaria cytosolic pool of actin with no obvious F-actin structures. However, following treatment with the actin

McFadden, Geoff

126

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 96 (1998) 125137 Identification and characterisation of a functional peroxidoxin  

E-print Network

of research aimed at devel- oping novel chemotherapy. The ability of kineto- plastids to withstand oxidant represent major health and economic problems in developing countries. Chemotherapy has remained the major

Schnaufer, Achim

127

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 147 (2006) 211223 Regulation of surface coat exchange by differentiating African trypanosomes  

E-print Network

C; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; HSP70, heat shock protein 70 kDa; MSP, major surface protease; PAS and the tsetse fly vector. In the bloodstream, replicating long slender parasites transform into non in the mammalian bloodstream, transforming from a replicating long slender form into a non-dividing s

Menon, Anant K.

2006-01-01

128

Babesiosis in dogs and cats—Expanding parasitological and clinical spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine babesiosis caused by different Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and global significance. Historically, Babesia infection in dogs was identified based on the morphologic appearance of the parasite in the erythrocyte. All large forms of Babesia were designated Babesia canis, whereas all small forms of Babesia were considered to be Babesia gibsoni. However, the development

Laia Solano-Gallego; Gad Baneth

2011-01-01

129

Parasitological and immunological diagnoses from feces of captive-bred snakes at Vital Brazil Institute.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from 56 snakes at the Vital Brazil Institute, in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, were tested using the sedimentation and flotation techniques to investigate the evolutionary forms of parasites such as helminths and protozoa, and using enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect antigens of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. Among the animals tested, 80.3% were positive for parasites. Out of these, there were 16 Bothrops jararaca, 16 B. jararacussu and 13 Crotalus durissus. The prevalence of parasitic nematodes was 41.1%, and nematodes were found in all three snake species. Among these, the most frequent finding was eggs of Kalicephalus sp., which were diagnosed in 25% of the snakes. The positivity for protozoa detected using parasite concentration techniques was 75%, including oocysts of Caryospora sp. in 75%, cysts with morphology similar to Giardia sp. 3.6%, amoeboid cysts in 41.1% and unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 8.9%. Immunoassays for Cryptosporidium sp. antigens produced positive findings in 60.7%. Pseudoparasites were detected in 64.3%. These results show that there is a need to improve the sanitary handling of captive-bred snakes, and also for the animal house that supplies rodents to feed them. The results also highlight that diagnostic tests should be performed periodically on stool specimens from captive-bred snakes. PMID:25054488

Souza, Janaína Lima de; Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Vazon, Adriana Prado; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Cortez, Myrian Bandeira Vianna; Silva, Valmir Laurentino da; Más, Leonora Brazil; Melgarejo, Aníbal Rafael; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira

2014-01-01

130

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 111 (2000) 4149 Cloning, expression and functional characterisation of a  

E-print Network

characterisation of a peroxiredoxin from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis Lee Robertson a characterisation of a peroxidase belonging to the peroxiredoxin family from the potato cyst nematode Globodera peroxiredoxin catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide, but not cumene or t-butyl hydroperoxide

Schnaufer, Achim

131

Evaluation of Biochemical, Hematological and Parasitological Parameters of Protein-Deficient Hamsters Infected with Ancylostoma ceylanicum  

PubMed Central

Background Hookworms infect millions of people worldwide and can cause severe clinical symptoms in their hosts. Prospective cohort studies in Brazil show high rates of hookworm reinfection in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children, despite previous treatment. Additionally, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can worsen the nutritional status of affected populations. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the effects of host malnutrition during Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection and how this infection affects host physiological parameters using a hamster model. Methodology/Principal Findings Hamsters were divided into four experimental groups: normal diet or low-protein diet (also referred to as “malnourished”) and A. ceylanicum infection or no infection. More severe pathogenesis was observed in the infected malnourished group, as demonstrated by significant decreases in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number and packed-cell volume compared to the non-infected malnourished group. Greater numbers of adult parasites and eggs were observed in the malnourished group compared to the control group; however, the oviposition rate was lower in the malnourished group. In general, greater values of total lipids were observed in malnourished animals compared to control animals, including lipids excreted in the stool. Conclusions In this work, we have demonstrated that animals fed an isocaloric low-protein diet presented more severe pathogenesis when infected with A. ceylanicum. The increased lipid concentration in the liver and blood is related to the conversion of the excess carbohydrate into fatty acids that increase the concentration of triglycerides in general. Triglycerides were excreted in the feces, indicating that infection associated with malnutrition caused a greater loss of these molecules for this group of animals and confirming the hypothesis that both nutrition and infection are responsible for the malabsorption syndrome. Taken together, the results found in this work confirm the hypothesis that the nutritional condition of the host greatly influences the course of the infection. PMID:25254370

Pacanaro, Carina P.; Dias, Sílvia R.; Serafim, Luciana R.; Costa, Mariana P.; Aguilar, Edenil; Paes, Paulo R.; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I.; Rabelo, Élida M.

2014-01-01

132

Systematic Parasitology 52: 219225, 2002. 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

Research, Lincoln, New Zealand 3Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Selangor, Malaysia Accepted for publication 9th January The oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq., indigenous to West Africa, is pollinated by weevils of the genus (Free, 1993). When the oil palm was introduced into SE Asia, where Elaeidobius weevils were absent

133

ORIGINAL PAPER Pathological and parasitological findings in a wild red titi  

E-print Network

the cause of death could not be unambiguously identified, the infestation with P. elegans is likely to have). In tropical forests, finding freshly dead or dying individuals is a rare event, unless, epidemics cause mass mortality, like the outbreaks of Ebola in chimpanzees and gorillas (Leendertz et al. 2006; Leroy et al. 2004

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

A molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis in domestic dogs in Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, asymptomatic dogs in nine provinces of Turkey were surveyed to investigate the prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon canis infection. DNA obtained from blood samples collected from 694 domestic dogs (243 stray, 288 shelter, and 163 pets) of both genders and varying ages were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, 285 thin blood smears prepared from these blood samples were also evaluated for microscopic examination. Direct microscopy revealed Hepatozoon gamonts in the peripheral blood of three of 285 (1.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-3.04) tested. Using PCR, 155 of the 694 (22.3%; 95% CI: 19.28-25.61) were found to be positive for the presence of H. canis DNA. The prevalence of infection was higher in adult dogs (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.1-30.7) than young animals (16.4%; 95% CI: 12.2-21.3). Although the prevalence determined by PCR was higher in male dogs (24.5%; 95% CI: 19.6-29.9) than in female dogs (20.8%; 95% CI: 16.9-25.1), gender differences were not significant. Pet dogs had a lower prevalence of infection (10.4%; 95% CI: 6.2-16.2) compared to stray (26.3%; 95% CI: 20.9-32.3) and shelter dogs (25.7%; 95% CI: 20.7-31.1), but no significant association between stray and shelter dogs was found for the presence of the parasite. Partial sequences of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. This epidemiological survey revealed a high prevalence of H. canis in dogs from several provinces in Turkey, and it suggests that the age and origin are associated with the parasite. PMID:25771934

Aktas, Munir; Özübek, Sezayi; Altay, Kür?at; Balkaya, ?brahim; Utuk, Armagan Erdem; K?rbas, Ak?n; ?imsek, Sami; Dumanl?, Nazir

2015-04-30

135

Variation in clinical and parasitological traits in Pietrain and Meishan pigs infected with Sarcocystis miescheriana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future prophylaxis needs new concepts, including natural disease resistance of hosts against infectious agents. Genomic approaches to detect and improve disease resistance in farm animals and the molecular mechanisms involved in host–parasite interactions depend to a high degree on the trait differences between founder breeds, i.e. on the animal model. The present study evaluates differences in susceptibility\\/resistance against Sarcocystis miescheriana

G. Reiner; J. Eckert; T. Peischl; S. Bochert; T. Jäkel; U. Mackenstedt; A. Joachim; A. Daugschies; H. Geldermann

2002-01-01

136

Trichinella spp. infection in horses of Romania: serological and parasitological survey.  

PubMed

Herbivorous animals are usually, by virtue of their diet, outside the major transmission cycles of Trichinella spp. However, since 1975, the year of the first report of human trichinellosis caused by the consumption of infected horse meat, the domestic horse has appeared as a novel vector of Trichinella spp. infection to humans, with 15 outbreaks documented in France and Italy. Romania, one of the main countries exporting horses into the European Union (EU), experienced a dramatic increase of Trichinella spp. infection in both domestic pigs and humans in the 1990s. Some Trichinella spiralis-infected horses were exported to the EU during this period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Trichinella spp. infections in horses from Romania using both direct and indirect tests. Of 3000 serum samples tested in 2001, none were positive by ELISA using three different Trichinella antigens (crude; excretory/secretory, ES; stg-BSA antigens). Of 2992 serum samples tested in 2002, 17 (0.56%) showed optical density values higher than the cut-off in an ELISA using ES antigens and one was confirmed by western blot (WB). Four of the 17 ELISA positive horses, including the horse with a confirmed serology by WB, were subjected for intensive meat examination at slaughter, but no Trichinella spp. larvae were detected. Further, no Trichinella spp. larvae were detected by trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion of 25,838 horses slaughtered in Alexandria and Timisoara between 2001 and 2004. The false positive results obtained by serology confirm the previous work on the unreliability of serology for detection of Trichinella spp. infection in horses. Furthermore, the lack of detection of Trichinella spp. infected horses by artificial digestion, suggests a very low prevalence of infection in horses in Romania. PMID:19062194

Blaga, Radu; Cretu, Carmen M; Gherman, Calin; Draghici, Alina; Pozio, Edoardo; Noeckler, Karsten; Kapel, Christian M O; Dida, Ion; Cozma, Vasile; Boireau, Pascal

2009-02-23

137

Serological and parasitological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from Colorado.  

PubMed

Ground-feeding birds are considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as indicators of soil contamination by oocysts, and birds of prey are indicators of T. gondii prevalence in rodents and other small mammals. Cats excrete environmentally resistant oocysts after consuming tissues of T. gondii -infected birds. In the present study, sera and tissues from 382 wild birds from Colorado were tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 38 birds with the use of the modified agglutination test (MAT, 1?25 titer). Tissues (brains, hearts) of 84 birds were bioassayed in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 1 barn owl (Tyto alba), 1 of 5 American kestrels (Falco sparverius), 1 of 7 ferruginous hawks (Buteo regalis), 1 of 4 rough-legged hawks (Buteo lagopus), 2 of 13 Swainson's hawks (Buteo swainsoni), and 1 of 25 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). This is the first time T. gondii has been isolated from the barn owl, ferruginous hawk, rough-legged hawk, and Swainson's hawk. PMID:20950101

Dubey, J P; Felix, T A; Kwok, O C H

2010-10-01

138

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 156 (2007) 4150 Histone modifications in Trypanosoma brucei  

E-print Network

. Edman analysis showed that the N-terminal alanine of H2A, H2B, and H4 could be monomethylated. We found that the histone H4 N-terminus is heavily modified, while, in contrast to other organisms, the histone H2A and H2B N-termini have relatively few modifications. Histone H3 appears to have a number of modifications

Cross, George

2007-01-01

139

[Methods for estimating the demographic structure of the taiga tick (Ixodidae) based on results of standard parasitological observations].  

PubMed

A retrospective estimation of the abundance dynamics of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus in mixed coniferous and leaf-bearing forests of the Udmurtia Republic in the period 1957-1986 was carried out. A possibility to estimate the absolute number of all stages of I. persulcatus based on relative indices. Females of I. persulcatus lay 20,250 eggs per 1 hectare, and this number of eggs gives birth to 15,000 larvae. From this number, 7870 larvae hibernate and 6550 individuals became fed. The number of nymphs is 5930, among which 5110 individuals live up to spring, and 1390 became fed. The number of adult mites in autumn is 1250; in subsequent spring this number decreases to 780. The mean number of engorged females is 8. The mortality rate of ticks caused by the deficit of hosts increases from preimaginal stages to adults; for larvae, nymphs and imago this index is 16.6, 72.8, and 97.9%, respectively. Quotas of individuals with 3-, 4- and 5-year life cycle among the unfed imago are 70.4, 28.0, and 1.6%, respectively. PMID:15656092

Korotkov, Iu S

2004-01-01

140

190 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 89, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2003 J. Parasitol., 89(1), 2003, pp. 190192  

E-print Network

ratio in experimentally induced infections of P. mexi- canum. Adult male lizards were assigned to 4, the sex ratio should often favor females. For example, when only 1 genotype is breeding, and selfing

Schall, Joseph J.

141

Serological and parasitological follow-up in dogs experimentally infected with Leishmania infantum and treated with meglumine antimoniate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six healthy beagle dogs were infected with Leishmania infantum (MCAN\\/ES\\/92\\/BCN-83\\/MON-1) by intravenous inoculation of 5×107 promastigotes and two others were used as controls. When animals showed clinical signs of disease at 29, 37, 41 and 45 weeks post-infection (p.i.), they were treated with meglumine antimoniate (20.4mg Sb\\/kg\\/12h) subcutaneously for two periods of 10 days each. Sera were tested periodically for

Cristina Riera; Josep Enric Valladares; Montserrat Gállego; Maria Jesus Aisa; Soledad Castillejo; Roser Fisa; Nuria Ribas; Jaume Carrió; Jordi Alberola; Margarita Arboix

1999-01-01

142

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 91 (1998) 7791 Regulation of 6sg expression site transcription and switching in  

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The Rockefeller Uni6ersity, 1230 York A6enue, New York, NY 10021, USA Abstract Current understanding of expression. © 1998 Francqui Foundation. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Trypanosoma. * Corresponding author: Tel.: +1 212 3277571; fax: +1 212 3277845; e-mail: gamc@rockvax.rockefeller.edu 0166

Cross, George

143

Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 117 (2001) 201209 Alpha and beta subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 from the  

E-print Network

dehydrogenase E1 from the microsporidian Nosema locustae: mitochondrion-derived carbon metabolism intracellular parasites that infect a variety of animals. Microsporidia contain no recognisable mitochondrion for a mitochondrion in microsporidia, and neither PDH subunit is predicted to encode an amino terminal leader sequence

Keeling, Patrick

144

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 103 (1999) 251259 T7 RNA polymerase-driven transcription in mitochondria of  

E-print Network

and other molecular processes in the trypanosome mitochondrion would benefit greatly from the ability transfected with bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase targeted to the mitochondrion. Mitochondria isolated from,3]. In yeast, the T7RNAP has been targeted to the mitochondrion by fusing the protein to a COXIV mitochondrial

Simpson, Larry

145

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 93 (1998) 7380 Are tRNAs imported into the mitochondria of kinetoplastid  

E-print Network

protozoa are encoded in nuclear DNA and transported into the mitochondrion (Simpson et al., Nucl Acids ResRNAs in these cells are imported into the mitochondrion as 5%-extended precursors which are processed into the mitochondrion. A single nu- clear-encoded tRNALys (CUU) of unknown func-* Corresponding author. 0166

Simpson, Larry

146

1524 THE JOURNAL OF PARASITOLOGY, VOL. 93, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2007 J. Parasitol., 93(?), 2007, pp. 15241527  

E-print Network

(Procyon lotor), Coyotes (Canis latrans), and Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in Wisconsin Identified lotor) 59 54 32 30* 5 Coyote (Canis latrans) 40 35 18 15 6 Skunk (Mephitis mephitis) 7 7 5 1 1 * Tissues­2006, sera and tissues from raccoons (Pro- cyon lotor), coyotes (Canis latrans), and skunks (Mephitis

Mladenoff, David

147

Influence of toltrazuril treatment on parasitological parameters and health performance of piglets in the field--an Austrian experience.  

PubMed

Porcine coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis is one of the leading causes of neonatal diarrhea in suckling piglets. Currently the only registered drug for metaphylaxis is toltrazuril. To evaluate the effect of treatment on piglets from 7 Austrian farms without and 8 Austrian farms with toltrazuril application we examined oocyst excretion (including determination of oocysts per gram of feces; OPG), diarrhea (fecal score FS 1-4 with 3 and 4 being diarrhea), and general health (health score HS 1-4 with 3 and 4 describing poor health). Both groups included farms with different levels of hygiene. Samples from 265 litters without treatment, comprising 1588 individual samples, and 1548 samples from 258 treated litters were taken twice (around the 14th and the 21st day of life, respectively), examined by autofluorescence and, if positive, by McMaster counting. In both groups animals had less diarrhea and lower health scores during the second sampling but the treated piglets were always significantly healthier and had less diarrhea. The percentage of weaned piglets was higher in treated animals although this was not significant (p=0.052). In the first round of sampling 17.8% of the individual samples from untreated piglets were positive for oocysts (with a maximum prevalence on the 12-15th day of life) while in the treated piglets only 0.4% shed oocysts p<0.001). At the second sampling only 2.1% of the untreated animals and none of treated piglets excreted I. suis (p=0.083). Positive animals shed up to 8 × 10(3)OPG. There was an increased risk for infected piglets to develop diarrhea (odds ratio, OR 4.73) and poor health (OR 5.05) in untreated piglets, and poor hygiene without disinfection was identified as a risk factor for poor health (OR 1.90), diarrhea (OR 1.42) and oocyst excretion (OR 1.73). The risk of poor health (OR 2.89) and diarrhea (OR 1.44) was also increased for piglets under poor hygienic conditions receiving toltrazuril, so both metaphylaxis of coccidiosis and good hygiene are necessary to effectively control neonatal diarrhea. The costs of treatment are considerably lower than the estimated financial production losses. Therefore, treatment is recommended for farms where clinical coccidiosis is diagnosed. PMID:21820246

Kreiner, Tanja; Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Tichy, Alexander; Joachim, Anja

2011-12-29

148

Gene Action and Cellular Function in Parasitic Protozoa Genomics and post-genomics in parasitology: genome babble or  

E-print Network

of 300 million cases with 2400 million people at risk. Each of the parasitic protozoan diseases, African, with those for other protozoan parasites and worms being developed rapidly [1]. In the following I will restrict myself to discussion of the protozoan parasites in the main. The genomes of these parasites

Schnaufer, Achim

149

Parasitological and molecular study of the furcocercariae from Melanoides tuberculata as a probable agent of cercarial dermatitis.  

PubMed

Cercarial dermatitis is caused by animal schistosomes in many parts of the world including Iran. Various stages of the parasites have been studied in intermediate and definitive hosts in northern and southwestern Iran; however, no molecular investigation for species identification and classification of these agents has been carried out, so far. In the present study, more than 3,800 aquatic snails were collected from water sources of Khuzestan, southwest Iran. The snails were identified as Lymnaea gedrosiana, Radix auricularia, Melanoides tuberculata, Melanopsis sp. and Physa acuta. They were examined for schistosome cercariae. Two specimens of M. tuberculata were infected with ocellate furcocercariae belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. Molecular studies were carried on these schistosomatid samples. Both samples belong to an unknown schistosome species and genus in sister position to Gigantobilharzia-Dendritobilharzia clade. They differ from other species in their ITS sequence region as well as in their intermediate host specificity--This is one of the first reports on schistosome cercariae from M. tuberculata and the first including molecular data. Due to adaptability and invasiveness of this snail species, this new schistosome species, as a potential causative agent of cercarial dermatitis in humans, needs to be studied further. PMID:21046153

Karamian, Mehdi; Aldhoun, Jitka A; Maraghi, Sharif; Hatam, Gholamreza; Farhangmehr, Babak; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud

2011-04-01

150

Parasitological and molecular study of the furcocercariae from Melanoides tuberculata as a probable agent of cercarial dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cercarial dermatitis is caused by animal schistosomes in many parts of the world including Iran. Various stages of the parasites\\u000a have been studied in intermediate and definitive hosts in northern and southwestern Iran; however, no molecular investigation\\u000a for species identification and classification of these agents has been carried out, so far. In the present study, more than\\u000a 3,800 aquatic snails

Mehdi Karamian; Jitka A. Aldhoun; Sharif Maraghi; Gholamreza Hatam; Babak Farhangmehr; Seyed Mahmoud Sadjjadi

2011-01-01

151

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 27 (1988) 63-70 63 Peculiar sequence organization of kinetoplast DNA minicircles from  

E-print Network

Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and 2Department of Biology and Molecular Biology Institute, Avenida Brasil 4365, CEP 21045 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Present addresses: *Innogenetics NV, Industrie, stocks, strains and clones of several kine- toplastid protozoa, including the human patho- gens

Simpson, Larry

1988-01-01

152

Evaluation of Streck Tissue Fixative, a Nonformalin Fixative for Preservation of Stool Samples and Subsequent Parasitologic Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a study to evaluate Streck tissue fixative (STF) as a substitute for formalin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in fecal preservation. A comparison of formalin, PVA, (mercuric chloride based), and STF was done by aliquoting fecal samples into each fixative. Stool specimens were collected in Haiti, and parasites included Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endolimax nana,

EVA K. NACE; FRANK J. STEURER; MARK L. EBERHARD

1999-01-01

153

Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in naturally-infected dogs and cats using serological, parasitological and molecular methods  

PubMed Central

Domestic dogs and cats are major domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi and a risk factor for parasite transmission. In this study we assessed the relative performance of a polymerase chain reaction assay targeted to minicircle DNA (kDNA-PCR) in reference to conventional serological tests, a rapid dipstick test and xenodiagnosis to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs and cats from an endemic rural area in northeastern Argentina. A total of 43 dogs and 13 cats seropositive for T. cruzi by an immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), which had been examined by xenodiagnosis, were also tested by kDNA-PCR. kDNA-PCR was nearly as sensitive as xenodiagnosis for detecting T. cruzi- infectious dogs and cats. kDNA-PCR was slightly more sensitive than xenodiagnosis in seropositive dogs (91% versus 86%, respectively) and cats (77% against 54%, respectively), but failed to detect all of the seropositive individuals. ELISA and IHA detected all xenodiagnosis-positive dogs and both outcomes largely agreed (kappa coefficient, ? = 0.92), whereas both assays failed to detect all of the xenodiagnosis-positive cats and their agreement was moderate (? = 0.68). In dogs, the sensitivity of the dipstick test was 95% and agreed closely with the outcome of conventional serological tests (? = 0.82). The high sensitivity of kDNA-PCR to detect T. cruzi infections in naturally-infected dogs and cats supports its application as a diagnostic tool complementary to serology and may replace the use of xenodiagnosis or hemoculture. PMID:23499860

Enriquez, G.F.; Cardinal, M.V.; Orozco, M.M.; Schijman, A.G.; Gürtler, R.E.

2013-01-01

154

Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 104 (1999) 93105 The Leishmania dono6ani LD1 locus gene ORFG encodes a  

E-print Network

antimonials, pentamidine and amphotericin B, but these drugs are difficult to administer and have considerable ORFG encodes a biopterin transporter (BT1) Craig Lemley a , Shaofeng Yan a,b , Vandana S. Dole c , Rentala Madhubala c , Mark L. Cunningham d , Stephen M. Beverley d , Peter J. Myler a,b , Kenneth D

Beverley, Stephen M.

1999-01-01

155

982 THEJOURNALOF PARASITOLOGY,VOL. 85, NO. 5, OCTOBER1999 J. Parasitol., 85(5), 1999 p. 982-984  

E-print Network

these dried blood spots using sodium dodecyl sulfate lysis followed by either phe- nol-chloroform extraction spots on Whatman filter paper were also made for the lizards and the frog. DNA was extracted from of hemoparasites (Plasmodium, hemogregarines) was noted for each. In addition to thin blood smears, dried blood

Schall, Joseph J.

156

Overcoming language and cultural barriers: a graphical communication tool to perform a parasitological screening in two vulnerable populations from Argentina.  

PubMed

This is an exploratory study of the application of a support tool for the detection of asymptomatic subjects carrying enteric parasites in two vulnerable populations in Argentina: a shantytown in the city of Buenos Aires and a rural Wichí indigenous community in the province of Chaco. The ethnic and cultural diversity, high illiteracy rate, and language barriers called for the development of an auxiliary resource to explain stool sample collection procedures. In individual interviews with each family, the authors used two instructional guidance leaflets in comic strip format depicting the procedures. They evaluated the acceptance of the graphical communication tool on the basis of the number of retrieved samples. Percentages of respondent families were 72.2% and 66.7%, respectively. Definitive validation of these instruments would allow their use in community studies, community service learning experiences, and research on aboriginal communities that would otherwise be excluded from studies on health status. PMID:23066862

Buyayisqui, María Pía; Bordoni, Noemí; Garbossa, Graciela

2013-01-01

157

Trypanosoma vivax Infections: Pushing Ahead with Mouse Models for the Study of Nagana. I. Parasitological, Hematological and Pathological Parameters  

PubMed Central

African trypanosomiasis is a severe parasitic disease that affects both humans and livestock. Several different species may cause animal trypanosomosis and although Trypanosoma vivax (sub-genus Duttonella) is currently responsible for the vast majority of debilitating cases causing great economic hardship in West Africa and South America, little is known about its biology and interaction with its hosts. Relatively speaking, T. vivax has been more than neglected despite an urgent need to develop efficient control strategies. Some pioneering rodent models were developed to circumvent the difficulties of working with livestock, but disappointedly were for the most part discontinued decades ago. To gain more insight into the biology of T. vivax, its interactions with the host and consequently its pathogenesis, we have developed a number of reproducible murine models using a parasite isolate that is infectious for rodents. Firstly, we analyzed the parasitical characteristics of the infection using inbred and outbred mouse strains to compare the impact of host genetic background on the infection and on survival rates. Hematological studies showed that the infection gave rise to severe anemia, and histopathological investigations in various organs showed multifocal inflammatory infiltrates associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver, and cerebral edema. The models developed are consistent with field observations and pave the way for subsequent in-depth studies into the pathogenesis of T. vivax - trypanosomosis. PMID:20706595

Chamond, Nathalie; Cosson, Alain; Blom-Potar, Marie Christine; Jouvion, Grégory; D'Archivio, Simon; Medina, Mathieu; Droin-Bergère, Sabrina; Huerre, Michel; Goyard, Sophie; Minoprio, Paola

2010-01-01

158

RENAL COCCIDIOSIS AND OTHER PARASITOLOGIC CONDITIONS IN LESSER SNOW GOOSE GOSLINGS AT THA-ANNE RIVER, WEST COAST HUDSON BAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goshings, approxinuateh: 5 weeks of age, were collected muear the mouthu of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, durimig mnid-Auugust 1991. Mamuy dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goshings from near the coast, where imabitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater

S. Gomis; A. B. Didiuk; J. Neufeld; G. Wobeser

159

Renal coccidiosis and other parasitologic conditions in lesser snow goose goslings at Tha-anne River, west coast Hudson Bay.  

PubMed

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings, approximately 5 weeks of age, were collected near the mouth of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, during mid-August 1991. Many dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goslings from near the coast, where habitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater prevalence of renal coccidiosis (Eimeria truncata) and cecal nematode (Trichostrongylus spp.) infection than did goslings from inland areas, where habitat destruction was not evident. Prevalence of infection with intestinal cestodes was greater at inland than at coastal sites. Prevalences of gizzard nematodes (Epomidiostomum spp.) and Leucocytozoon spp. were not significantly different at the two sites. Histological examination of kidneys and examination of kidney homogenates for oocysts were more sensitive methods than gross examination of the kidneys for detecting renal coccidial infection. The number of oocysts present in droppings was not a good indicator of the severity of renal coccidial infection in individual birds; however, the average number of oocysts in droppings was indicative of the average severity of infection among groups of goslings. PMID:8827676

Gomis, S; Didiuk, A B; Neufeld, J; Wobeser, G

1996-07-01

160

InternationalJournalfor Parasitology Vol.21, No. 7, pp. 821-838, 1991 Printed in Great Britain  

E-print Network

IN THE MONOGENEA (PLATYHELMINTHES), BASED UPON A PARSIMONY ANALYSIS OF SPERMIOGENETIC AND SPERMATOZOAL.Cladisticstudyin the Monogenea(Platyhelminthes),based upon aparsimony analysis of spermiogenetic and spermatozoal: Monogenea, Platyhelminthes; Polyopisthocotylea; MonopisthocotyIea; phylogeny; cladistics; systematics

161

75 FR 48698 - Medicare, Medicaid and CLIA Programs; COLA (Formerly the Commission on Office Laboratory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General...Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology,...

2010-08-11

162

78 FR 12323 - Announcement of the Re-Approval of the Commission on Office Laboratory Accreditation (COLA) as an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology, General...Bacteriology, Mycobacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology, Virology. Diagnostic Immunology, including Syphilis Serology,...

2013-02-22

163

2013, Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine This is an OpenAccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons  

E-print Network

[1]. In the 1980s, the global prevalence of amebiasis was estimated to be approximately 10 10% will be developed to invasive amebiasis, lead- ing to 110,000 deaths per year [2]. E. histolytica days to months [3]. Furthermore, even considering only E. histolytica infection, invasive amebiasis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

Immunological and parasitological parameters in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice treated with crude extract from the leaves of Mentha x piperita L.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by an intravascular trematode of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel is the drug used for treatment of schistosomiasis; nevertheless failure of treatment has been reported. Consequently, the identification of new effective schistosomicidal compounds is essential to ensure the effective control of schistosomiasis in the future. In this work we investigated the immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of the crude leaves extract of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) on murine Schistosomiasis mansoni. Female Balb/c mice were infected each with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and divided into three experimental groups: (I) untreated; (II) treated daily with M. x piperita L. (100mg/kg) and III) treated on 1/42/43 days post-infection with Praziquantel (500mg/kg). Another group with uninfected and untreated mice was used as a control. Subsequently, seven weeks post-infection, S. mansoni eggs were counted in the feces, liver and intestine. Worms were recovered by perfusion of the hepatic portal system and counted. Sera levels of IL-10, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-?, IgG1, IgE and IgG2a were assayed by ELISA. Animals treated with a daily dose of M. x piperita L. showed increased sera levels of IL-10, IFN-?, IgG2a and IgE. Besides, M. x piperita L. treatment promoted reduction in parasite burden by 35.2% and significant decrease in egg counts in the feces and intestine. PMID:24767421

Dejani, Naiara N; Souza, Laís C; Oliveira, Sandra R P; Neris, Débora M; Rodolpho, Joice M A; Correia, Ricardo O; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Sacramento, Luis V S; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda F

2014-08-01

165

Organismal effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems: developmental instability, clinical hematology, body condition, and blood parasitology.  

PubMed

This is the second of two articles reporting the results of a nonlethal biomonitoring study that quantified the effects of pesticide exposure on meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) living in golf course ecosystems of the Ottawa/Gatineau region (ON and PQ, Canada, respectively). In the present article, we describe results of measurements regarding developmental instability (e.g., fluctuating asymmetry), congenital birth defects (e.g., skeletal terata), clinical hematology (e.g., differential counts), general body condition (e.g., body mass-length relationships), and blood parasite load (Trypanosoma sp. and Bartonella spp.). Voles were captured during the year 2001 to 2003 at six golf courses and two reference sites. Once voles were fully sedated using isoflurane, blood was collected, radiographs taken, and morphometric measurements recorded. Three animals from each course were euthanized to determine body burdens of historically used organochlorine (OC) and metal-based pesticides. Exposure to in-use pesticides was determined from detailed golf course pesticide-use records. None of the endpoints measured was significantly related to body burdens of OC pesticides and metals historically used, nor did any endpoint significantly vary among capture sites in relation to total pesticide application to the capture site or to the number of days since the last application of pesticide. Based on these findings, it appears that voles from golf courses were no less healthy than their conspecifics from reference sites. PMID:15376537

Knopper, Loren D; Mineau, Pierre

2004-06-01

166

[Clinico-parasitological research in a focus of intestinal nematodiasis in Habak Province (the Socialist Republic of Vietnam) and the efficacy of medamine treatment in these infestations].  

PubMed

The authors described the focus of intestinal nematodiasis in Vietnam with the rate of infestation on the average 74.6% for ascaridiasis, 30.8 for trichocephaliasis and 20.2% for ancylostomiasis. The high rate of the geohelminthic infestation was related with the use of untreated feces for the vegetables rearing. The clinical symptoms of intestinal nematodiasis were featured by dyspepsia, pain and asthenoneurotic syndromes. The first field trials of mediamine treatment were performed for 267 patients in the high-intense foci of intestinal nematodiasis in the tropics. In trichocephaliasis patients therapeutic efficacy of the drug was 74%, in ancylostomiasis patients it was 71.9, in ascaridiasis patients 68.4%. Retrograde ascarid migration was noted in two patients. PMID:2377137

Khoang, T K; Bronshte?m, A M; Nguyen, T Z; Nguyen, V D; Sabgaida, T P

1990-01-01

167

Hernandez, Bunnell & Sukhdeo (In Press), Parasitology XX: 00-00 Summary Table 1. Parasite infrapopulations from Muskingum Brook (MB); mean abundance ( SD), total number of worms, and  

E-print Network

Acanthocephala Acanthocephalus sp. 1(0),1 100% 3(4),125 62% 1(1),8 60% - 0.1(0.3),4 14% - - - 0.3(1),7 20= largemouth. ANA APO ARO ASA ECH EGL ENI ENO ERO LGI LMA MSA UPY Acanthocephala Acanthocephalus sp EOLM UPY Acanthocephala Acanthocephalus sp. 0.3(0.5),3 27% - - - - Fessisentis sp. 0.1(0.3),1 9

Sukhdeo, Michael V.K.

168

A comparison of parasitological methods for the diagnosis of gambian trypanosomiasis in an area of low endemicity in Côte d'Ivoire.  

PubMed

The card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) was used to examine 8974 inhabitants in 14 village areas south-west of Daloa, Côte d'Ivoire; 114 (1.3%) were CATTT or +/-, and were further examined by one or more of 6 methods for the direct detection of trypanosomes: lymphatic gland puncture, stained thick blood film (TBF), haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT), mini-anion exchange column (MAEC), quantitative buffy coat method (QBC), and kit for in vitro isolation of trypanosomes (KIVI). Trypanosomes were seen by at least one method in 16 (14.0%) of the CATT+ group. Blood from 356 of the 8860 CATT- group was inoculated into KIVI; trypanosomes grew from the blood of 1 person. Eleven of the 17 patients with detectable trypanosomes were screened by all 6 methods: 6 were HCT+; 7 were gland+; 10 were MAEC+; 10 were KIVI+; 11 were both TBF+ and QBC+. One CATT+ patient was KIVI+ but otherwise negative, although TBF was not done. The overall prevalence of trypanosomes was 0.2% rising to 0.8% in one village area. The results support previous evidence that a reappraisal of procedures is required in the customary system of surveillance for gambian sleeping sickness. PMID:7570825

Truc, P; Bailey, J W; Doua, F; Laveissière, C; Godfrey, D G

1994-01-01

169

Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard (Lyon 1658–Paris 1742): the inventor of the word “orthopaedics” and the father of parasitology  

PubMed Central

This is an historical essay about Nicolas Andry, a French medical doctor (Lyon 1658–Paris 1742) who wrote in 1741 the famous book called “L’orthopedie”, which was soon after translated into English (1742) “Orthopaedia or the art of correcting and preventing deformities in children”. His life and works are detailed as the containment of the book composed of two volumes and many engravings (the crooked tree has become the symbol of numerous orthopaedic societies around the world). A discussion of semantics (ORTHO-PEDIE) and evolution of the meaning of this word is also discussed. PMID:21804898

2010-01-01

170

[Clinico-parasitological research in a mixed focus of clonorchiasis and intestinal nematodiasis in Hanamnin Province (the Socialist Republic of Vietnam)].  

PubMed

The authors described the clonorchiasis focus in the Vietnam province at the seaside delta of the Red River where the aforementioned invasion was accompanied with multiple invasions with intestinal nematodes. Clonorchiasis infestation rate was 28.4% ascaridiasis, 50.5%, trichocephaliasis, 21.3% ancylostomiasis, 7.0%. Clonorchiasis invasion was the result of consumed uncooked carp fish in the salad. It was revealed that the fish was reared in the ponds near the settlements and was fed untreated human and animal feces. The meal was more common among the male persons in the presence of the alcohol intake. Clinical symptoms of the mixed clonorchiasis and intestinal nematodiasis invasion was featured by pains, dyspepsia and the asthenoneurotic syndrome. PMID:2377136

Kieu, T L; Bronshte?n, A M; Fan, T I

1990-01-01

171

Parasitology International, in press 2012 DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2012.01.009 Are all species of Pseudorhabdosynochus strictly host  

E-print Network

reef. This suggests that acquisition of a less strict host specificity is an adaptation of P of Pseudorhabdosynochus strictly host specific? ­ a molecular study Charlotte Schoelinck (a, b) Corinne Cruaud (c), Jean-Lou Justine (a) (a) UMR 7138 Systématique, Adaptation, �volution, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Change in milk production after treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes according to grazing history, parasitological and production-based indicators in adult dairy cows.  

PubMed

To investigate future tools for targeted selective treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in adult dairy cows, we evaluated herd and individual cow factors associated with the post-treatment milk production (MP) response over time. A field trial involving 20 pasturing dairy herds in Western France was conducted in autumn 2010 and autumn 2011. In each herd, lactating cows were randomly allocated to a treatment group (fenbendazole) (623 cows), or a control group (631 cows). Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 10 to 14 weeks after treatment. Individual serum anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), pepsinogen levels, faecal egg count (FEC), and bulk tank milk ODR were measured at the time of treatment. Moreover, in each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, expressed in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. TEC was expected to reflect the development of immunity against GIN, and TEC=8 months was a cautious threshold over which the resistance to re-infection was expected to be established. Daily MP averaged by week was analyzed using linear mixed models with three nested random effects (cow within herd and herd within year). The overall treatment effect was significant but slight (maximum=+0.85 kg/d on week 6 after treatment), and the evolution of treated cows' MP differed significantly according to several factors. At the herd level, cows from low-TEC herds responded better than cows from high-TEC (? 8 months) herds; cows from herds in which the percentage of positive FEC was >22.6% (median value) responded better than those from herds where it was lower. At the individual cow level, primiparous cows, cows with days in milk (DIM) < or = 100 at the time of treatment, and cows with low individual ODR (< or = 0.38) responded better than multiparous cows, cows with DIM>100, and cows with higher ODR, respectively. These results highlight the variability of the treatment response, suggesting that whole herd anthelmintic treatment are not always appropriate, and propose promising key criteria for targeted selective treatment for GIN in dairy cows. Particularly, the TEC is an original criterion which lends support for a simultaneous on-farm qualitative analysis of grazing management factors. PMID:24468428

Ravinet, N; Bareille, N; Lehebel, A; Ponnau, A; Chartier, C; Chauvin, A

2014-03-17

173

BAITING RED FOXES IN AN URBAN AREA: A CAMERA TRAP STUDY DANIEL HEGGLIN,1 Institute of Parasitology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 266a, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland  

E-print Network

vulpes) is an established method of vaccinating foxes against rabies in rural envi- ronments. Furthermore.01). For rabies control in urban areas, avoiding contact of nontarget species with the rabies vaccine in the 1960s and 1970s (Breitenmoser et al. 2000). After oral rabies vac- cination campaigns, fox populations

Richner, Heinz

174

Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. Experimental Parasitology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of MontanideTM ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, ...

175

TRENDS in Parasitology Vol.18 No.6 June 2002 http://parasites.trends.com 1471-4922/02/$ see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S1471-4922(02)02269-9  

E-print Network

organisms that at one stage of their life cycle live at the expense of, and are dependent on, a host; true had on the tree of life (e.g. see Refs [1­16]). In particular, the alteration of the evolutionary mutualism is excluded from this (e.g. photosynthetic algae associated with fungi, cnidarians, molluscs

176

Automated reading and processing of quantitative IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE isotypic agglutination results in microplates. Development and application in parasitology-mycology.  

PubMed

Microplate agglutination techniques represent a simple and commonly used approach for the quantitative or qualitative isotypic analysis of specific antibodies. However, they require optical reading by the investigator and are thus prone to an important degree of variability. In order to solve some of the problems associated with the variability of optical readings, we have used an automatic reader scanning each of the 96 wells of a standard microplate in 32 different locations. The inherent advantages of the automatic reader were further maximized by coupling it to a dedicated computer running customized software designed to process data coming on-line from the spectrophotometer. This approach has been applied to the diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis and candidosis. Suspensions of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites or of sensitised erythrocytes were used for the determination of IgG antibodies or the quantification of IgM, IgA, or IgE specific isotypes. This procedure allows the simple and reproducible collection of objective results. Moreover, it permits a reduction in cut-off values and direct interpretation of results with automatic conversion of scores into titer, units, index, or into any other scale appropriate for standardization purposes. PMID:7594632

Aubert, D; Foudrinier, F; Kaltenbach, M L; Guyot-Walser, D; Marx-Chemla, C; Geers, R; Lepan, H; Pinon, J M

1995-10-26

177

DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS Dis Aquat Org  

E-print Network

Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, Jacksonville Field, includ- ing the southeastern United States. We examined necropsy findings and parasitological data from

Florida, University of

178

78 FR 40744 - Request for Nominations of Candidates To Serve on the Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...knowledgeable in the fields of infectious diseases and related disciplines, including epidemiology, microbiology, bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, public health, entomology, clinical medicine, and veterinary medicine, as...

2013-07-08

179

42 CFR 493.643 - Fee for determination of program compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...following subspecialties: (A) Bacteriology. (B) Mycobacteriology. (C) Mycology. (D) Parasitology. (E) Virology. (ii) The specialty of Serology, which includes one or more of the following subspecialties: (A) Syphilis...

2014-10-01

180

42 CFR 493.643 - Fee for determination of program compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following subspecialties: (A) Bacteriology. (B) Mycobacteriology. (C) Mycology. (D) Parasitology. (E) Virology. (ii) The specialty of Serology, which includes one or more of the following subspecialties: (A) Syphilis...

2012-10-01

181

42 CFR 493.643 - Fee for determination of program compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following subspecialties: (A) Bacteriology. (B) Mycobacteriology. (C) Mycology. (D) Parasitology. (E) Virology. (ii) The specialty of Serology, which includes one or more of the following subspecialties: (A) Syphilis...

2013-10-01

182

76 FR 76416 - Request for Nominations of Candidates To Serve on the Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...knowledgeable in the fields of infectious diseases and related disciplines, including epidemiology, microbiology, bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, public health, entomology, clinical medicine, and veterinary medicine, as...

2011-12-07

183

42 CFR 493.643 - Fee for determination of program compliance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following subspecialties: (A) Bacteriology. (B) Mycobacteriology. (C) Mycology. (D) Parasitology. (E) Virology. (ii) The specialty of Serology, which includes one or more of the following subspecialties: (A) Syphilis...

2011-10-01

184

Field evaluation of a fast anti- Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitology. In total, 103 suspected cases were recruited for the study. Based on parasitological examination, 49 patients were

A. Hailu; G. J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H. D. F. H. Schallig

2006-01-01

185

Toxicology/Cell Biology Ruminant Production  

E-print Network

Fletcher Poultry Health Management PHP Isabel Gimeno Poultry Health Management PHP James Flowers Parasitology PHP Bernie Hansen Critical Care Medicine DOCS Lizette Hardie Department Head DOCS Craig Harms Radiology MBS Jay Levine Epidemiology/Public Health PHP Michael Levy Parasitology PHP Greg Lewbart Aquatic

Langerhans, Brian

186

PRESENCE OF INFECTIOUS AGENTS AND PARASITES IN WILD POPULATION OF COTTONTAIL (SYLVILAGUS FLORIDANUS) AND CONSIDERATION ON ITS ROLE IN THE DIFFUSION OF PATHOGENS INFECTING HARES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three study areas located in Alessandria province (Piedmont, Italy), 271 Sylvilagus floridanus were captured for parasitological and serological survey. The parasitological research has shown the presence of ecto (ticks, fleas) and endoparasites (nematodes, protozoa), and in particular the infestation with exotic species (Euhoplopsyllus glacialis, Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Passalurus nonannulatus). Sera were tested to detect antibodies against the following

187

Noninvasive Monitoring of the Health of Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in the Kibale National Park, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the health status of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Kanyawara group in the Kibale National Park in Western Uganda via noninvasive methods. We conducted visual veterinary inspection, parasitological and urine analysis in association with behavioral observations, causing minimal disturbance or stress to individually recognized chimpanzees. We applied multiple parasitological techniques to 252 stool samples to compare their

Sabrina Krief; Michael A. Huffman; Thierry Sévenet; Jacques Guillot; Christian Bories; Claude Marcel Hladik; Richard W. Wrangham

2005-01-01

188

ENTERIC PARASITES IN WORKERS OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED TO SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

To determine if parasitic infections occur more frequently among workers exposed to wastewater than among controls, parasitologic examinations were performed on stool specimens collected over a 12-month period from sewer and highway maintenance workers. Three of 56 sewer maintena...

189

LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans Campus Application for Leave  

E-print Network

of Medicine ­ Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology Employee Name From: _____ AM ____PM To Request [ ] Training (15 days/yr) [ ] Voting Emergency Civilian [ ] Other ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Employee Signature Date Approved by and Title

190

CURRICULUM VITAE Holly Ernest DVM PhD  

E-print Network

Hospital, Pittsford, NY, Clinical Veterinarian & Veterinary Hospital Owner/Manager, Started new veterinary VGAP - Veterinary Graduate Academic in Microbiology/Immunology/Parasitology/Virology 1999 Health Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA Email: hbernest@ucdavis.edu Web Site: http

Ernest, Holly

191

EPIFLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY AND SOLID PHASE CYTOMETRY AS CONFIRMATORY METHODS FOR THE ENUMERATION OF PROTOZOA BY FLOW CYTOMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The detection of infective protozoan parasites contained in large volume environmental samples represents a unique challenge in environmental parasitology. Compounding this problem is the fact that infective stages of many protozoan parasites do not readily replicate in media or ...

192

August 2012 Volume 9, Issue 2  

E-print Network

in the Department of Zoology, Professor Pratt taught and conducted research in invertebrate zoology and parasitology. Su Sponaugle, a Professor in OSU's Department of Zoology and Dr. Cowen's wife. Her position includes

193

Inhibition of Toxoplasma gondii Replication by Dinitroaniline Herbicides THOMAS J. W. STOKKERMANS,* JOSEPH D. SCHWARTZMAN,* KAREN KEENAN,  

E-print Network

Inhibition of Toxoplasma gondii Replication by Dinitroaniline Herbicides THOMAS J. W. STOKKERMANS of Toxoplasma gondii replication by dinitroaniline herbicides. Experimental Parasitology 84, 355­370. Submicromolar concentrations of several dinitroaniline herbicides have been found to specifically inhibit

Morrissette, Naomi

194

Do bot flies, Cuterebra (Diptera: Cuterebridae), emasculate their hosts?  

E-print Network

Asa Fitch, in his description of a new species of Cuterebra that he named, "emasculator," was the first to suggest that bot flies castrated their mammalian hosts. In recent years, several major review papers and parasitology ...

Timm, Robert M.; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

1981-07-31

195

77 FR 36488 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17350  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Phocoena phocoena). Parts would be archived and used for research on a variety of health- related analyses such as tissue histology, contaminants analyses, infectious disease research, parasitology studies, and stable isotope work. Additionally,...

2012-06-19

196

Program of Study For a Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Sciences MLSP 201 Clinical Hematology I 3  

E-print Network

Bacteriology 4 MLSP 207 Immunology and Blood Banking 2 MLSP 208 General and Diagnostic Virology 2 MLSP 259 Medicine 2 LABM 235 Medical Mycology 1 MBIM 223 Medical Parasitology 4 Seminar MLSP 211 Seminar 1 LABM 220

Shihadeh, Alan

197

Program of Study For a Bachelor of Science in Medical Laboratory Sciences Number Course Title Crs.  

E-print Network

203 General Microbiology 3 MLSP 204 Systematic Bacteriology 4 MLSP 207 Immunology and Blood Banking 2 Parasitology for MLS Students 4 Seminar MLSP 211 Seminar 1 LABM 220 Clinical Chemistry and Endocrinology 4 LABM

Shihadeh, Alan

198

COCCIDIAN PARASITES (APICOMPLEXA: EUCOCCIDORIDA) IN HARDY HEAD FISH, ATHERINOMORUS CAPRICORNENSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Authors describe coccidian merozoites (asexual stages) in theexocrine pancreas and oocysts in the gut epithelium of hardy heads,(Woodland) (family Atherinidae) collected at Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, during the pre-ICOPA (International Congress of Parasitology) workshop...

199

Supplement 24, Part 6, Parasite-Subject Catalogue, Treatment  

E-print Network

Allopur inol Hart DT; Vickerman K; Coombs GH 1981 Parasitology 83 (3) Dec 529-541 Wa Leishmania mexicana mexicana, in vitro trans- formation of amastigotes to promastigotes? quantitative morphological and biochemical studies, nutritional requirements... by polyamines, implications Am i car b ai i de Hart DT; Vickerman ?; Coombs GH 1981 Parasitology 83 (3) Dec 529-541 Wa Leishmania mexicana mexicana, in vitro trans- formation of amastigotes to promastigotes. quantitative morphological and biochemical...

Edwards, Shirley J.; Hood, Martha W.; Shaw, Judith H.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Kirby, Margie D.; Hanfman, Deborah T.; Zidar, Judith A.

1982-01-01

200

An investigation into the health and welfare of red squirrels, Sciurus vulgaris, involved in reintroduction studies.  

PubMed

The threats posed by parapoxvirus infection, metabolic bone disease and coccidiosis to the reintroduction of red squirrels into Thetford Chase were investigated by making blood biochemical, radiological and parasitological examinations on the squirrels before they were released and on resident squirrels. Red squirrels found dead in Thetford Chase were examined post mortem by parasitological, electron microscopical and radiological techniques. Parapoxvirus infection was the probable cause of death of two red squirrels. Parapoxvirus infection may be a significant threat to remnant populations of red squirrels in England, and to the success of conservation measures. PMID:8578648

Sainsbury, A W; Gurnell, J

1995-10-01

201

Supplement 21, Part 1, Authors: A To Z  

E-print Network

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INDEX-CATALOGUE OF MEDICAL? AND VETERINARY ZOOLOGY SUPPLEMENT 21, PART 1 AUTHORS: A TO ? By SHIRLEY J. EDWARDS, Technical Information Specialist JUDITH H. SHAW, Zoologist MARTHA W. HOOD, Zoologist... JANE D. RAYBURN, Technical Information Specialist MARGIE D. KIRBY, Technical Information Specialist DEBORAH A. TOLSON, Biological Laboratory Technician ANIMAL PARASITOLOGY INSTITUTE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE Issued September 1976 U...

Hood, Martha W.; Tolson, Deborah A.; Kirby, Margie D.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Edwards, Shirley J.; Shaw, Judith H.

1976-01-01

202

Infection in the Classroom: Parasites as Models to Teach Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Society of Parasitologists established a five-year plan to educate various groups about parasites and parasitology, which were targeted at K-12 students and teachers, college students and teachers and biologists in other disciplines. This program also developed the idea to host a symposium and workshop for these targeted groups.

Seville, R. Scott; Couch, Lee; Seed, Richard; Chappell, Cynthia; Patton, Sharon

2004-01-01

203

Use of Case Studies for Stimulating Thinking and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that a case-study approach can stimulate student thinking and learning, this paper describes how students in a writing-intensive course on parasitology wrote brief medical case studies of parasites already studied for other students to read, evaluate, and identify the parasite. The paper presents a brief description of the course, an…

Zeakes, Samuel J.

204

One reserve, three primates: applying a holistic approach to understand the interconnections among ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), and humans (Homo sapiens) at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied cultural anthropological, ethological, and parasitological methodologies to investigate the interplay among three primate species, ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), and humans (Homo sapiens) who live within the same habitat (i.e. in sympatry) around the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. Through a fusion of these methodologies we hope to provide a holistic understanding of the advantages

James E. Loudon; Michelle L. Sauther; Krista D. Fish; Mandala Hunter-Ishikawa; Youssouf Jacky Ibrahim

205

Anthelmintic resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first reports of resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics were made some three decades ago, this phenomenon has changed from being considered merely as a parasitological curiosity to a state of industry crisis in certain livestock sectors. This extreme situation exists with the small ruminant industry of the tropical\\/sub-tropical region of southern Latin America where resistance to the

Peter J. Waller

1997-01-01

206

Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using  

E-print Network

Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using, Blantyre 3, Malawi; d The National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, MD, and approved October 12, 2010 (received for review May 20, 2010) Malaria infections commonly

Read, Andrew

207

Review article Using molecular tools for diagnosis  

E-print Network

are ribosomal DNA and RNA as well as fragments derived from RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA). The most studied protozoan genera have been: Eimeria, Babesia, Theileria, Trypanosoma and Cryptosporidium parasitology / molecular tool / polymerase chain reaction (PCR) I ran- dom amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF FILARIAL INFECTION AND ANTIFILARIAL IMMUNITY IN A COHORT OF HAITIAN CHILDREN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal studies are being conducted in Leogane, Haiti to investigate the relationship between acquisition of filarial infection and development of antifilarial immunity as well as the impact of maternal infection on this relationship. Children (0-24 months of age) residing in Leogane were enrolled and were examined periodically to monitor parasitologic status and to collect serum for antigen and antifilarial antibody

PATRICK J. LAMMIE; MERRYL D. REISS; KATHLEEN A. DIMOCK; THOMAS G. STREIT; JACQUELIN M. ROBERTS; MARK L. EBERHARD

209

Artesunate/Amodiaquine Malaria Treatment for Equatorial Guinea (Central Africa)  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination artesunate (AS)/amodiaquine (AQ) therapy, and 2) to determine the difference between recrudescence and resistance. An in vivo efficacy study was conducted in Equatorial Guinea. A total of 122 children 6–59 months of age from two regional hospitals were randomized and subjected to a 28-day clinical and parasitological follow-up. A blood sample on Whatman paper was taken on Days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 or on any day in cases of treatment failure, with the parasite DNA then being extracted for molecular analysis purposes. A total of 4 children were excluded, and 9 cases were lost to follow-up. There were 17 cases of late parasitological failure, 3 cases of late clinical failure, and 89 cases of adequate clinical and parasitological response. The parasitological failure rate was 18.3% (20 of 109) and the success rate 81.70% (95% confidence interval [72.5–87.9%]). After molecular correction, real treatment efficacy stood at 97.3%. Our study showed the good efficacy of combination AS/AQ therapy. This finding enabled this treatment to be recommended to Equatorial Guinea's National Malaria Control Program to change the official treatment policy as of March 2008. PMID:23530078

Charle, Pilar; Berzosa, Pedro; de Lucio, Aida; Raso, José; Nseng Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín

2013-01-01

210

Female facial attractiveness increases  

E-print Network

. Keywords: facial attractiveness; mate choice; beauty; oestrus; monogamy 1. INTRODUCTION Human females lack of Humanities, Charles University, Legerova 63, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic 3 Department of Parasitology, and 4 Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7

Flegr, Jaroslav

211

Análisis de resultados del Programa Externo de Control de Calidad SEIMC. Año 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. In this article, the most important conclusions and lessons from the 2009 controls are presented. As a whole, the results obtained in 2009 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found

Enrique Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes; M. del Remedio Guna Serrano; Nieves Orta Mira; María Ovies; Marta Poveda; Concepción Gimeno Cardona; José L. Pérez

2011-01-01

212

Análisis de resultados del Programa Externo de Control de Calidad SEIMC. Año 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria and virology. This article present the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2008 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2008 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards of the microbiology laboratories in

María del Remedio Guna Serrano; Nieves Orta Mira; Enrique Ruiz de Gopegui; María Rosario Ovies; Concepción Gimeno Cardona; José L. Pérez

2010-01-01

213

Low risk for helminth infection in wastewater-fed rice cultivation in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was done to assess the risk of helminth infection in association with wastewater-fed rice cultivation in an agricultural setting of Nam Dinh city, Vietnam. In a cross sectional survey data were collected for 202 households in a commune where wastewater was used for irrigation and for 201 households in a commune that used river water. Parasitological examination was

Do Thuy Trang; Wim van der Hoek; Phung Dac Cam; Khuong Thanh Vinh; Nguyen Van Hoa; Anders Dalsgaard

2006-01-01

214

A Virus-Shaping Reproductive Strategy in a Drosophila  

E-print Network

to protect the parasitoid egg from the host immune reaction. Advances in Parasitology, Volume 70 # 2009 directly or indirectly influenced by symbiotic organisms, such as bacteria and viruses. For instance, the symbiotic bacteria Hamilto- nella infecting aphids confers resistance against parasitoid attack (Oliver et

215

ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 1999, 58, 453457 Article No. anbe.1999.1122, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on  

E-print Network

be considered, with apologies to Tom Lehrer, as a special- ization on diseases of the rich. From the perspective with complex age-related changes in adult behaviour. Schmid-Hempel employs the factory­ fortress metaphor be familiar to anyone who has studied parasitology), Schmid-Hempel's review emphasizes that our under

Fox, Charles W.

216

Lymphatic filariasis on the coast of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitological, clinical and entomological surveys for lymphatic filariasis were carried out in 6 villages and 3 towns on the coast of Ghana. Few or no filarial infections were observed in the towns or in the villages east of Accra. However, Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was common in the 4 western villages, with overall prevalences of 9.2%–25.4% and overall microfilariae (mf) geometric

S. K. Dunyo; M. Appawu; F. K. Nkrumah; A. Baffoe-Wilmot; E. M. Pedersen; P. E. Simonsen

1996-01-01

217

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Histoplasma capsulatum and Pneumocystis spp.  

E-print Network

found in bat guano accumulated in confined spaces such as caves and abandoned mines and buildings infection with this fungus in Mexican caves has been well-documented [5-8]. * Correspondence: emello@unam.mx 1 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, National Autonomous University

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

QUEENS COLLEGE, CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK Material and Transportation Fees  

E-print Network

Plants 212 $50 Biology ­ Histology 360 $10 Biology ­ Interbrate Zoology 220 $60 Biology ­ Introduction Biology ­ Limnology 646 $60 Biology ­ Lower Plants 210 $50 #12;Biology ­ Lower Plants 610 $50 Biology ­ Mycology 611 $50 Biology ­ Omithology 723 $50 Biology ­ Parasitology 320 $20 Biology ­ Plant Systematics

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

219

QUEENS COLLEGE, CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK Material and Transportation Fees  

E-print Network

­ Higher Plants 212 $60 Biology ­ Histology 360 $10 Biology ­ Interbrate Zoology 220 $60 Biology Plants 210 $60 Biology ­ Lower Plants 310 $60 Biology ­ Lower Plants 610 $60 Biology ­ Mycology 611 $60 Biology ­ Omithology 723 $60 Biology ­ Parasitology 320 $20 Biology ­ Plant Systematics 614 $60 Biology

Johnson Jr.,, Ray

220

Ecology and Conservation Biology This option is appropriate for students interested in the scientific study of ecology and conservation  

E-print Network

excessive rates of extinction and loss. Conservation biology is an interdisciplinary field, drawing 336 Ecological and Evolutionary Animal Physiology 3 Biol 351 Comparative Chordate Anatomy 5 Y Biol 353 Introductory Parasitology 4 Y Biol 354 Animal Behavior 3 Biol 354L Laboratory in Animal Behavior 1 Y Biol 355

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

221

June Open Day 2014 Academic Talks & Tours  

E-print Network

.15-12.45pm 3 University Gardens, Room 202 D15 #12;Celtic & Gaelic Taster session: try the language, Microbiology, Parasitology, Virology) 1.30-2pm Boyd Orr Building, Lecture Theatre 1 D1 Celtic & Gaelic Talk 12 Humanities Lecture Theatre, Main Building A24 Comparative Literature Talk See Modern Languages talk Computing

Guo, Zaoyang

222

Conservation Ecology & Entomology Department Dr Sonja Matthee  

E-print Network

Conservation Ecology & Entomology Department Dr Sonja Matthee I completed my post graduate training in 2000 in the Department of the Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science at Pretoria. A new species of Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) from South African Mammals. Journal of Parasitology, 97: 389

Geldenhuys, Jaco

223

Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats from São Paulo state, Brazil: Seroprevalence, oocyst shedding, isolation in mice, and biologic and molecular characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cats are the most important hosts in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infections in humans and animals. Serologic and parasitological prevalence of T. gondii were determined in 237 cats from 15 counties in São Paulo state, Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in a 1:25 dilution of serum of 84 (35.4%) out of 237 cats by the modified agglutination

H. F. J. Pena; R. M. Soares; M. Amaku; J. P. Dubey; S. M. Gennari

2006-01-01

224

This article was published in an Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and  

E-print Network

://www.elsevier.com/copyright #12;Author's personal copy Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 155 (2007) 113­122 A Toxoplasma gondii in revised form 14 June 2007; accepted 14 June 2007 Available online 19 June 2007 Abstract Toxoplasma gondii infected with wild type parasites. Thus, our results suggest that normal response to calcium fluxes plays

Sheridan, Jennifer

225

RESPONSES OF SMALL INTESTINAL ARCHITECTURE AND FUNCTION OVER TIME TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN A TROPICAL POPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the response of the small intestinal mucosa to environmental conditions, we studied changes in mucosal architecture and function in a longitudinal cohort study in African adults. Over three consecutive years, 238 adults submitted monthly stool samples for parasitologic and bacteriologic analysis and underwent an annual endoscopic jejunal biopsy for mucosal morphometry. Absorption and permeability assays were performed on

PAUL KELLY; IAN MENZIES; ROGER CRANE; ISAAC ZULU; CAROLE NICKOLS; ROGER FEAKINS; JAMES MWANSA; VICTOR MUDENDA; MAX KATUBULUSHI; STEVE GREENWALD; MICHAEL FARTHING

2004-01-01

226

Pre-Veterinary Medicine The Pre-Veterinary option emphasizes preparation for further study for the Doctor of Veterinary  

E-print Network

Y Biol 352 Vertebrate Histology 4 Y Biol 353 Introductory Parasitology 4 Y Biol 354 Animal Behavior 3 Biol 354L Laboratory in Animal Behavior 1 Y Biol 365 Vertebrate Biology 4 Y Biol 423 Developmental Ecology 3 An S 214 Domestic Animal Physiology 3 Y An S 319 Animal Nutrition 3 An S 331 Domestic Animal

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

227

An epizootic of common loons in coastal waters of North Carolina: Concentrations of elemental contaminants and results of necropsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1993 die-off of common loons (Gavia immer) in the coastal waters of North Carolina was investigated with emphasis on comparing mercury, selenium, arsenic, and lead between birds from the epizootic and reference specimens. Die-off specimens were emaciated but contained no ingested foreign bodies and no lesions suggestive of infectious disease. Results of bacteriology, virology, parasitology, and botulism testing were

Tom Augspurger; J. C. Franson; Kathryn A. Converse; Paul R. Spitzer; Erica A. Miller

1998-01-01

228

Gender differences in behavioural changes induced by latent toxoplasmosis  

E-print Network

Toxoplasma gondii modifies behaviour of its intermediate hosts, including humans, where it globally infects effects on human behaviour. The coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii uses felids as definitive hosts for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Human; Toxoplasma; 16PF

Flegr, Jaroslav

229

Information on Vinchucas and Chagas disease.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following a significant increase in the number of vinchucas observed at La Silla during the last summer, the Director-General of ESO asked Prof. Hugo Schenone, Director of the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology of the University of Chile to pay a visit to La Silla to investigate the situation. The following gives a summary of the resulting report.

Schenone, H.

1981-12-01

230

Blood parasites of five species of lizards trapped in Abha Province, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Five species of lizards, Agama yemenensis, A. adramitana, Chamaeleo chamaeleon, C. calyptratus and Acanthodactylus baskinaus were trapped alive from Abha Province. Serological and parasitological examinations of blood revealed antibodies against toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis. Blood films showed Hepatozoon spp. The results were discussed with reference to their role as reservoir hosts. PMID:9914710

al Sadoon, M K; el Bahrawy, A F

1998-12-01

231

[Description of the adult stage of Staphylocystis biliarius Villot, 1877 (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), a parasite of Crocidura russula Hermann, 1780 (Insectivora: Soricidae) (author's transl].  

PubMed

The parasitological study of the shrew Crocidura russula from Catalonia (Spain) allowed to collect several mature Hymenolepididae, the scolex framework of which corresponding perfectly to that of the larva Staphylocytis biliarius Villot, 1877. The anatomy of the adult stage of this species, which has to be denominated as Hymenolepis biliarius (Villot, 1877) n. comb., is described for the first time. PMID:613963

Mas-Coma, S; Jourdane, J

1977-01-01

232

Approved: October 2012 Approved Biology Advanced Course Lists  

E-print Network

Introductory Parasitology 4 cr BIOL 354 Animal Behavior 3 cr BIOL 354L Laboratory in Animal Behavior 1 cr BIOL Animal Behavior 3 cr EEOB 514 Evolutionary Ecology 3 cr EEOB 531 Conservation Biology 3 cr EEOB 534 Physiology Laboratory 1 cr BIOL 335 Princ. of Human & Other Animal Phys. 4 cr BIOL 336 Ecological

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

233

Parasitismo intestinal em uma aldeia indígena Parakanã, sudeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the occurrence and epidemiological aspects of intestinal parasites among the Parakanã indigenous people in the Paranatinga settlement (in the eastern Amazon Region), parasitological tests were performed in April 1992 and February 1995. One fresh stool specimen was obtained and immediately processed using the Hoffman and direct methods. Some 126 samples were obtained in April 1992 (from a total

Rogério dos Anjos Miranda; Fábio Branches Xavier; Raimundo Camurça de Menezes

1998-01-01

234

Malaria: even more chronic in nature than previously thought; evidence for subpatent parasitaemia detectable by the polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high endemicity areas, malaria is a chronic disease: examination of blood films reveals that up to half of the population, particularly children, harbour parasites at any one given time. The parasitological status of the remainder was addressed using the polymerase chain reaction, a technique 100 to 1000 times more sensitive than microscopy, on a series of samples from Dielmo,

Emmanuel Bottius; Antonella Guanzirolli; Jean-François Trape; Christophe Rogier; L. Konate; Pierre Druilhe

1996-01-01

235

Prospects & Overviews Red algal parasites: Models for a life  

E-print Network

with closely related free-living lineages with which to make comparisons. Parasites found throughout; red algae Introduction Parasitology is one of the oldest fields of medical research and continues of the stramenopile lineage. This entire group (which includes diatoms and brown algae) is hypothesized to be derived

Lane, Chris

236

Influence of latent `asymptomatic' toxoplasmosis on body weight of pregnant women  

E-print Network

Flegr1 , Stpánka Hrdá1 and Petr Kodym2 1 Department of Parasitology, Charles University, Vinicná 7, 128 Toxoplasma-positive women (p = 0.04), suggesting that slow and cumulative effects of latent toxoplasmosis, sometimes even resulting in the death of the patient, usually occur only after severe damage to the immune

Flegr, Jaroslav

237

Las publicaciones de investigación biomédica en la Revista de Biología Tropical  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contributions published in Revista de Biología Tropical in the area of Biomedical Sciences are reviewed in terms of number of contributions and scope of research subjects. Biomedical Sciences, particular - ly Parasitology and Microbiology, constituted the predominant subject in the Revista during the first decade, reflecting the intense research environment at the School of Microbiology of the University of

José María Gutiérrez

238

rea de Biologa y Biomedicina  

E-print Network

, parasitología y virología, neurociencias, cáncer, biología sintética y de sistemas, medicina molecular, biología, posicionándose como un referente en temáticas como la biología estructural, las neurociencias o las enfermedades

Fitze, Patrick

239

Positive Montenegro skin test among patients with sporotrichosis in Rio De Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 52 patients with sporotrichosis confirmed by isolation of Sporothrix schenckii and reactivity to the Montenegro skin test (MST) during an ongoing outbreak of this mycosis in Rio de Janeiro. The objective was to emphasize the importance of parasitological confirmation and the possibility of incorrect diagnosis based on the lesion's appearance, epidemiological information, and immunological tests. The antigen used

Mônica Bastos de Lima Barros; Armando Schubach; Antônio Carlos Francesconi-do-Valle; Maria Clara Gutierrez-Galhardo; Tânia Maria Pacheco Schubach; Fátima Conceição-Silva; Mariza de Matos Salgueiro; Eliame Mouta-Confort; Rosani Santos Reis; Maria de Fátima Madeira; Tullia Cuzzi; Leonardo Pereira Quintella; Janaína Pinho da Silva Passos; Maria José Conceição; Mauro Célio de Almeida Marzochi

2005-01-01

240

Sporotrichosis—The main differential diagnosis with tegumentary leishmaniosis in dogs from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-four dogs from the State of Rio de Janeiro with ulcerated cutaneous lesions were submitted to clinical, dermatological, parasitological, mycological, histopathological and cytopathological exams, a leishmanin skin test, an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test for leishmaniosis, and nonspecific laboratory tests such as blood count and serum biochemistry. Sporothrix schenckii was isolated from 41 dogs and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis was isolated from

Isabele Barbieri dos Santos; Tânia M. P. Schubach; Luiz R. P. Leme; Thais Okamoto; Fabiano B. Figueiredo; Sandro A. Pereira; Leonardo P. Quintella; Maria de F. Madeira; Flávia Coelho; Rosani dos S. Reis; Armando de O. Schubach

2007-01-01

241

Integrate Study of a Bolivian Population Infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, the Agent of Chagas Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross section of a human population (501 individuals) selected at random, and living in a Bolivian community, highly endemic for Chagas disease, was investigated combining together clinical, parasitological and molecular approaches. Conventional serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated an active transmission of the infection, a high seroprevalence (43.3%) ranging from around 12% in < 5 years to 94.7%

Simone Frédérique Brenière; Marie France Bosseno; François Noireau; Nina Yacsik; Pascale Liegeard; Christine Aznar; Mireille Hontebeyrie

2002-01-01

242

Cryptosporidium parvum:PCR-RFLP Analysis of the TRAP-C1 (Thrombospondin-Related Adhesive Protein of Cryptosporidium1) Gene Discriminates between Two Alleles Differentially Associated with Parasite Isolates of Animal and Human Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spano, F., Putignani, L., Guida, S., Crisanti, A. 1998.Cryptosporidium parvum: PCR-RFLP analysis of the TRAP-C1 (thrombospondin-related adhesive protein ofCryptosporidium-1) gene discriminates between two alleles differentially associated with parasite isolates of animal and human origin.Experimental Parasitology90,195–198.

Furio Spano; Lorenza Putignani; Serena Guida; Andrea Crisanti

1998-01-01

243

Performance of three multi-species rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission in Ethiopia is unstable and variable, caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) is scaling up parasitological diagnosis of malaria at all levels of the health system; at peripheral health facilities this will be through use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). The present study compared three RDT products to provide

Ruth A Ashton; Takele Kefyalew; Gezahegn Tesfaye; Helen Counihan; Damtew Yadeta; Bonnie Cundill; Richard Reithinger; Jan H Kolaczinski

2010-01-01

244

Immunodiagnosis of human trichinellosis and identification of specific antigen for Trichinella spiralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude antigens obtained from the infective stage larvae of Trichinella spiralis were used in an ELISA for detecting IgG antibodies to T. spiralis in serum samples collected from three groups of individuals. The individuals of the first group were parasitologically confirmed trichinellosis patients, while those of group 2 were patients with other helminthiasis and group 3 were healthy, parasite-free individuals.

Pakpimol Mahannop; Prasert Setasuban; Nimit Morakote; Pramuan Tapchaisri; Wanpen Chaicumpa

1995-01-01

245

Article de recherche Variations biologiques et parasitaires  

E-print Network

par Trichinella spiralis C Soulé J Dupouy-Camet P Georges JJ Fontaine T Ancelle A Delvigne C Perret C cheval à Trichinella spiralis, 7 chevaux femelles ont été infestés par 20 000 larves de Trichinella and parasitological modifications in mares infected and reinfected by Trichinella spiralis. Seven mares were infected

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Efficacy of injectable moxidectin against mixed ( Psoroptes ovis and Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis) mange infestation in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field efficacy of injectable moxidectin was evaluated in sheep naturally infested with both Psoroptes ovis and Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis mange. Three groups of 15 ewes were selected from the flock based on parasitological and clinical status. Group 1 remained as untreated controls; Group 2 animals received a subcutaneous injection of moxidectin at 0.2 mg kg?1 body weight on Day

J. ?orba; M. Várady; J. Prasli?ka; O. Tomašovi?ová

1995-01-01

247

Nematode lungworms of two species of anuran amphibians: Evidence for co-adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic studies have indicated that some parasite species formerly thought to be generalists are complexes of morphologically similar species, each appearing to specialize on different host species. Studies on such species are needed to obtain ecological and parasitological data to address whether there are fitness costs in parasitizing atypical host species. We examined whether lungworms from two anuran host species,

Oluwayemisi K. Dare; Steven A. Nadler; Mark R. Forbes

2008-01-01

248

I N T H I S I S S U E Canada Post Corporation  

E-print Network

AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES SUMMER / Ã?TÃ? 2004 A Macdonald Extra 1 FMT Students Reap Rewards 1 Brace. The colloquium is a forum where graduate students present their research findings and discuss research topics and Applied Mechanics, the Institute of Parasitology, Natural Resource Sciences and Plant Science. Topics

Shoubridge, Eric

249

Genetic engineering  

SciTech Connect

This series reviews new developments in recombinant DNA technology and its applications. Each volume consists of 3 - 4 mini-reviews. Volume 7 contains two articles on aspects of molecular parasitology and one review on gene expression in animal cells of biotechnological interest.

Rigby, P.

1988-01-01

250

Entamoeba gingivalis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kansas State University offers a few pictures and interesting tidbits on tooth amoebas, the toothbrush-fleeing microscopic parasites found where the teeth meet the gums. These photos and facts are part of a tutorial for Steve J. Upton's Animal Parasitology course at Kansas State University. Interestingly, 1% of all females with IUD's harbor uterine E. gingivalis.

Upton, Steve J.

251

Research needs in taeniasis—cysticercosis (Memorandum)*  

PubMed Central

This Memorandum discusses the epidemiology of taeniasis—cysticercosis, particularly the survival of taeniid eggs in nature, and goes on to consider diagnostic procedures (parasitological and serological), resistance to infection, pathogenesis and clinical pathology, chemotherapy, and the economic and social consequences of infection. Topics requiring further research are listed, and recommendations are made concerning the approach to the problem. PMID:1085668

1976-01-01

252

Assessment of clinical pathology, pathogen exposure, and impact of  

E-print Network

Introduction: Martes americana ·Family Mustelidae ·Males 900-1300 gm ·Females 600-900 gm ·Mesocarnivore ·Forest in American martens (Martes americana) of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, U.S.A. Comparative Parasitology 78.O. Helldin. 1997. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes

Gray, Matthew

253

Internal parasites of free-ranging guanacos from Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the winter of 2000, a greater than 80% reduction in the guanaco population located in Cabo Dos Bah??as Wildlife Reserve, Chubut, Argentina, was evident due to massive mortality attributed to starvation. Twelve guanacos were necropsied and samples were analyzed at the Parasitology Laboratory of Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Fecal analysis revealed developmental stages of Nematodirus

P. M. Beldomenico; M. Uhart; M. F. Bono; C. Marull; R. Baldi; J. L. Peralta

2003-01-01

254

Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses and Protection against Schistosomes Induced by a Radiation-Attenuated Vaccine in Chimpanzees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni vaccine is highly effective in rodents and primates but has never been tested in humans, primarily for safety reasons. To strengthen its status as a paradigm for a human recombinant antigen vaccine, we have undertaken a small-scale vaccination and challenge experiment in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Immunological, clinical, and parasitological parameters were measured in three animals after

MATTHIAS EBERL; JAN A. M. LANGERMANS; PATRICE A. FROST; RICHARD A. VERVENNE; GOVERT J. VAN DAM; A. M. Deelder; A. W. Thomas; P. S. Coulson; R. A. Wilson

2001-01-01

255

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed Central

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-01-01

256

Some intestinal parasites of Arctic fox, Banks Island, N. W. T.  

PubMed

Small intestinal parasitology of 50 trapped Arctic fox taken on Banks Island, The Northwest Territories, showed a prevalence of Taenia crassiceps (78%), Toxascaris leonina (60%), Echinococcus multilocularis (2%) and Coccidia (2%). Attention is drawn to the absence of Toxocara sp. and of Uncinaria sp. PMID:497890

Eaton, R D; Secord, D C

1979-04-01

257

Investigations on the aetiology of pinching off syndrome in four white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the aetiology of the pinching off syndrome (POS), a generalized feather abnormality affecting free-living nestling of the white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Europe. For the first time, extensive clinical, haematological, biochemical, virological, bacteriological, nutritional, histopathological, parasitological and electron microscopical examinations were performed on three females and one male suffering from POS.

Kerstin Müller; Elvira Schettler; Helga Gerlach; Leo Brunnberg; Hafez Mohamed Hafez; Kim Hattermann; Reimar Johne; Rainer Kollmann; Oliver Krone; Michael Lierz; Sonja Linke; Dörte Lueschow; Annette Mankertz; Hermann Müller; Christina Prusas; Rüdiger Raue; Dirk Soike; Stephanie Speck; Petra Wolf; Kai Frölich

2007-01-01

258

PARASITES OF NATIVE AND NONNATIVE FISHES OF THE LITTLE COLORADO RIVER, GRAND CANYON, ARIZONA  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: A 2-year, seasonal, parasitological study of 1435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of non-native fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 (possibly 18) species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosisand Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1

Anindo Choudhury; Timothy L. Hoffnagle; Rebecca A. Cole

2004-01-01

259

Effects of the Trematode Uvulifer ambloplitis on Juvenile Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus: Ecological Implications  

E-print Network

Effects of the Trematode Uvulifer ambloplitis on Juvenile Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus the following article: Effects of the Trematode Uvulifer ambloplitis on Juvenile Bluegill Sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus: Ecological Implications A. Dennis Lemly; Gerald W. Esch The Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 70, No

Wisenden, Brian D.

260

Book Reviews Post-mortem as a life style choice  

E-print Network

Book Reviews Post-mortem as a life style choice Parasites, People and Places. Essays on Field-date modern concepts (`spatial heterogeneity', `landscape epidemiology' and `core-satellite species' [1], etc parasitology as a science. Technical advances are mentioned (putting numbers on life cycles, epidemiological

Read, Andrew

261

TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTION IN CATS FROM SAO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL: SEROPREVALENCE, OOCYST SHEDDING, ISOLATION IN MICE, AND BIOLOGIC AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cats are the most important hosts in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infections in humans and animals. Serologic and parasitologic prevalence of T. gondii were determined in 237 cats from 15 counties in São Paulo state, Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 1:25 dilution of serum of 84...

262

MVR-PCR analysis of hypervariable DNA sequence variation.  

PubMed

Techniques for accurate marking of infectious microbial agents circulating in populations would be very useful to epidemiologists. In this article, David Arnot, Cally Roper and Ali Sultan review recent progress in transferring MVR-PCR DNA finger-printing techniques from human forensic medicine to parasitology. PMID:15275434

Arnot, D E; Roper, C; Sultan, A A

1994-08-01

263

ARCTIC BIODIVERSITY: FROM DISCOVERY TO FAUNAL BASELINES-REVEALING THE HISTORY OF A DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of parasite biodiversity contributes to new and exciting approaches to understand the structure, history and future of the Arctic fauna. As a discovery- based process the Beringian Coevolution Project and activities under the umbrella of the Research Group for Arctic Parasitology serve as...

264

Exploring the interface between diagnostics and maps of neglected parasitic diseases.  

PubMed

Although not new, the 'One Health' concept is gaining progressively more importance in parasitology. Now more than ever, veterinary and human perspectives should be closely joined in diagnosis and surveillance of neglected parasitic diseases. We argue that concerted, standardized and harmonized diagnostic and surveillance strategies are needed for the control and/or elimination of animal and human neglected parasitic infections. A key challenge is to integrate parasitological data with available geospatial methods in an accessible and user-friendly framework. We discuss the capability of new diagnostic devices (e.g. Mini-FLOTAC) and geospatial technologies supported by mobile- and electronic-based approaches as one of the research priorities of the new millennium. PMID:24679439

Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe

2014-12-01

265

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bolivia. A study of 185 human cases from Alto Beni (La Paz Department). Isolation and isoenzyme characterization of 26 strains of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis [corrected].  

PubMed

A clinical, serological, parasitological and therapeutic study of cutaneous leishmaniasis was carried out in a low sub-andean area (250-800 metres) of the La Paz Department, Bolivia. A team of seismic prospectors (350 workers) was surveyed for 12 months. Of 200 suspected cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 185 were serologically or parasitologically confirmed (incidence 52.8%). Those exposed to the greatest risk of infection were working in a virgin forest environment. Leishmanial organisms were isolated from 26 of the workers, either by in vitro cultivation or inoculation into hamsters. Isoenzyme characterization of the organisms by cellulose acetate electrophoresis showed them to be Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis [corrected]. The results of treatment of 168 patients with a pentavalent antimonial drug are also reported. PMID:3449990

Desjeux, P; Mollinedo, S; Le Pont, F; Paredes, A; Ugarte, G

1987-01-01

266

Cytauxzoon sp. infection in two free ranging young cats: clinicopathological findings, therapy and follow up.  

PubMed

Two young brother male free-ranging domestic shorthair cats were evaluated for diarrhea. They presented with intraerythrocytic piroplasms on blood smear evaluation. Only the first cat was anemic (mild non-regenerative anemia). A partial segment of the 18S rRNA was amplified and sequenced, revealing a homology of 99% with Cytauxzoon sp. and of 93% with Cytauxzoon felis. The first cat was treated with doxycycline and imidocarb dipropionate and monitored by serial laboratory exams, resulting negative for Cytauxzoon sp. infection after the end of the therapy (follow-up period of 175 days). The second cat received the same therapy, but doxycycline was discontinued by the owner after 1 week. He was monitored for 130 days, remaining erythroparasitemic and asymptomatic. We described cases of Cytauxzoon sp. infection in domestic cats with detailed clinical data, description of two therapeutic protocols, and follow-up after treatment with opposite parasitological responses (parasitological cure versus persistence of infection). PMID:25308457

Carli, Erika; Trotta, Michele; Bianchi, Eliana; Furlanello, Tommaso; Caldin, Marco; Pietrobelli, Mario; Solano-Gallego, Laia

2014-01-01

267

First detection of acalculous cholecystitis associated with Sarcocystis infection in a patient with AIDS.  

PubMed

Acalculous cholecystitis and cholangitis are increasingly being recognized as complications of AIDS. The opportunistic parasites that have been most commonly associated with these disorders are Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. The authors performed a parasitological survey on the gallbladder tissue sections of patients underwent cholecystectomy due to chronic acalculous cholecystitis at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Light microscopic investigation in more than three hundred archived histopathological slides revealed the presence of sexual stages (i.e., mature sporocysts) of a coccidial protozoan in a patient with AIDS who developed acalculous cholecystitis as confirmed by histological, parasitological and molecular tests in which Sarcocystis species was the only identifiable pathogen in gallbladder sections. In the best of our knowledge it's the first documented case of chronic non-calculous cholecystitis due to Sarcocystis parasite in an Iranian AIDS patient from worldwide. PMID:24827104

Agholi, Mahmoud; Heidarian, Hamid Reza; Moghadami, Mohsen; Hatam, Gholam Reza

2014-06-01

268

Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.  

PubMed

Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture. PMID:25260074

Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

2014-12-01

269

Supplement 18, Part 7, Parasite-Subject Catalogue: Hosts  

E-print Network

JUDITH HUMPHREY SHAW, Zoologist MARTHA L. WALKER, Zoologist ANIMAL PARASITOLOGY INSTITUTE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE Issued March 1974 U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1974 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U... bronchii cloaca POLYGLOSSARY OF HUNGARIAN altest l?gzs?k ?tolr, arteria epe epevezet?k ver vlredlny ? s ont agvelo ANATOMICAL TERMS ENGLISH ROUMANIAN VII HUNGARIAN s ? ennyv? ? ? s at ? ma, klo?ka k?tosz?vet guga diafragma rekeszisom...

Edwards, Shirley J.; Kirby, Margie D.; Crawley, Lila R.; Rayburn, Jane D.; Shaw, Judith H.; Walker, Martha L.

1974-01-01

270

Ian Humphery-Smith on current challenges in proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ian Humphery-Smith is Professor of Pharmaceutical Proteomics at Utrecht University, The Netherlands, and until recently was a Managing Director and Chief Scientific Officer of Glaucus Proteomics. After a PhD in Parasitology at the University of Queensland, he studied virology and bacteriology in France as a post-doc, before returning to Australia as Course-Coordinator in Medical Microbiology and Immunology at the University

Joanna Owens

2003-01-01

271

The discovery of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a cause of human eosinophilic meningitis.  

PubMed

The theoretical and subsequent confirmation in 1961 of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, as the causative agent o f eosinophilic meningitis is one o f the remarkable parasitological findings of the twentieth century. Here, Joseph Alicato briefly summarizes the early history and his epidemiological studies on the relationship between the parasite and the epidemics o f encephalitis that swept through Oceania after the Second World War. PMID:15463478

Alicata, J E

1991-06-01

272

MALARIA PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS IN ERITREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parasitological cross-sectional survey was undertaken from September 2000 through February 2001 to estimate the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in Eritrea. A total of 12,937 individuals from 176 villages were screened for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasite species using the OptiMal Rapid Diagnostic Test. Malaria prevalence was generally low but highly focal and variable with the proportion of

DAVID M. SINTASATH; TEWOLDE GHEBREMESKEL; MATTHEW LYNCH; ECKHARD KLEINAU; GUSTAVO BRETAS; JOSEPHAT SHILILU; EUGENE BRANTLY; PATRICIA M. GRAVES; JOHN C. BEIER

2005-01-01

273

[Helminths of Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771 from Szczecin area].  

PubMed

In 2006, an emaciated female peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus was found near its nest, and died soon after. Parasitological research involved digestive tract and respiratory system, kidney and liver. In air sacs, nematode Serratospiculum tendo (Nitzsch, 1857), which causes the falcon disease serratospiculiasis, was found, and in the digestive tract trematodes Strigeafalconis Szidat, 1928, Conodiplostomum spathula (Creplin, 1829), and a cestode Cladotaenia cylindracea (Bloch, 1782). PMID:18702320

Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Okulewicz, Anna; Sitko, Jiljí

2008-01-01

274

Fleas (Siphonaptera)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This large resource, by parasitology researchers at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, represents two decades of research on fleas (order Siphonaptera). The site covers (in varied detail) biology, morphology, taxonomy, hosts, distribution, and references/ links (paper and online). Also at the site is a database providing geographic distribution information by taxon (several options). A collection of spectacular scanning microscope images rounds out the site.

275

Plasmodium gallinaceum:Effect of Insect Cells on Ookinete Development in Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mazzacano, C. A., Vargas, J. C., Mackay, A. J., and Beier, J. C. 1998.Plasmodium gallinaceum:Effect of insect cells on ookinete developmentin vitro. Experimental Parasitology88, 210–216.In vitroculture conditions affecting the transformation efficiency from zygote to ookinete forPlasmodium gallinaceumwere examined, as a step toward improving the overall efficiency ofin vitroculture systems for sporogonic stages. Gametocytes from infected chickens were allowed to fertilizein

Celeste A. Mazzacano; Juan C. Vargas; Andrew J. Mackay; John C. Beier

1998-01-01

276

Heterologous antagonistic and synergistic interactions between helminths and between helminths and protozoans in concurrent experimental infection of mammalian hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental concurrent infection with two or more parasite species in mammalian host models may result in heterologous antagonistic and synergistic interactions ranging in magnitude from reduced\\/enhanced growth and fecundity to blockage\\/enhancement of establishment\\/expulsion. With some exceptions only, there is a reasonable correlation between the levels of interaction monitored by parasitological and by clinico-pathological parameters. Heterologous antagonistic interactions mediated by functional

N. Ø. Christensen; P. Nansen; B. O. Fagbemi; J. Monrad

1987-01-01

277

Influence of crude fiber from two different sources and two levels of cobalt on the biotic potential of Haemonchus contortus in sheep  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE OF CRUDE FIBER FROM TWO DIFFERENT SOURCES AND TWO LEVELS OF COBALT ON THE BIOTIC POTENTIAL OF HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS IN SHEEP A Thesis by BARNABAS CHARLES NJAU Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major Subject: Veterinary Parasitology INFLUENCE OF CRUDE FIBER FROM TWO DIFFERENT SOURCES AND TWO LEVELS OF COBALT ON THE BIOTIC POTENTIAL OF HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS IN SHEEP A...

Njau, Barnabas Charles

1976-01-01

278

Cyclosporins: Lack of Correlation between Antischistosomal Properties and Inhibition of Cyclophilin Isomerase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khattab, A., Pica-Mattoccia, L., Klinkert, M. Q., Wenger, R., and Cioli, D. 1998. Cyclosporins: Lack of correlation between antischistosomal properties and inhibition of cyclophilin isomerase activity.Experimental Parasitology90, 103–109. The immunosuppressive fungal products cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506 bind with high affinity to intracellular receptor proteins: cyclophilin (CYP) is one of the receptors for CsA and FK506-binding protein (FKBP) is one

A Khattab; L Pica-Mattoccia; M. Q Klinkert; R Wenger; D Cioli

1998-01-01

279

Intestinal myiasis due to Eristalis tenax: report of a new case in Spain.  

PubMed

We describe a new case of accidental intestinal myiasis by Eristalis tenax in Spain. Only about 20 cases have been reported worldwide, two of them occurring in Spain. A 51-year-old patient with nonspecific abdominal pain and occasional diarrhoea expelled larvae in her stool. Macroscopic analysis of these larvae revealed morphology compatible with that of Eristalis tenax. The larva analysis showed its autofluorescence as parasitological feature described for the first time. PMID:21811757

Clavel, Antonio; Toledo, Miguel; Goñi, Pilar; Aspiroz, Carmen

2011-07-01

280

Cure of Short-and Long-Term Experimental Chagas' Disease Using D0870  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas' disease, a protozoan infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, constitutes a major public health problem in Latin America. With the use of mouse models of both short- and long-term forms of the disease, the efficacy of D0870, a bis-triazole derivative, was tested. D0870 was able to prevent death and induced parasitological cure in 70 to 90 percent of animals,

Julio A. Urbina; Gilberto Payares; Judith Molina; Cristina Sanoja; Andreina Liendo; Keyla Lazardi; Marta M. Piras; Romano Piras; Norma Perez; Patrick Wincker; John F. Ryley

1996-01-01

281

European Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda), intermediate hosts of trematodiases, based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae are of a great parasitological importance because of the very numerous helminth species they transmit, mainly trematodiases of large medical and veterinary impact. The present knowledge on the genetics of lymnaeids and on their parasite–host inter-relationships is far from being sufficient. The family is immersed in a systematic–taxonomic confusion. The necessity for a tool

M. D Bargues; M Vigo; P Horak; J Dvorak; R. A Patzner; J. P Pointier; M Jackiewicz; C Meier-Brook; S Mas-Coma

2001-01-01

282

Taenia solium: A Cysteine Protease Secreted by Metacestodes Depletes Human CD4 Lymphocytes in Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molinari, J. L., Mejia, H., White, A. C. Jr., Garrido, E., Borgonio, V. M., Baig, S., and Tato, P., 2000. Taenia solium: A cysteine protease secreted by metacestodes depletes human CD4 Lymphocytes in Vitro. Experimental Parasitology94, 133–142. Excreted\\/secreted products from Taenia solium metacestodes cultured in vitro were analyzed for peptidase activity using peptide substrates Z-Phe-Arg-AFC, Arg-AFC, and Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AFC and zymography

Jose L. Molinari; Herlinda Mejia; A. Clinton White; Esperanza Garrido; Veronica M. Borgonio; Salman Baig; Patricia Tato

2000-01-01

283

Health assessment of the Christmas Island flying fox (Pteropus melanotus natalis).  

PubMed

During July-August 2010, 28 Christmas Island flying foxes (Pteropus melanotus natalis) were captured and anesthetized for examination, sample collection, and release to determine the potential role of disease in recent population declines. Measurements and samples were taken for morphologic, hematologic, biochemical, and parasitologic analysis. These are the first blood reference ranges reported for this species. These data are being used to inform investigations into conservation status and population management strategies for the Christmas Island flying fox. PMID:24807172

Hall, Jane; Rose, Karrie; Smith, Craig; De Jong, Carol; Phalen, David; Austen, Jill; Field, Hume

2014-07-01

284

Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) Does Not Induce Nitric Oxide (NO) Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rajan, T. V., Shultz, L. D., Babu, S., Doukas, J., Greiner, D., and Porte, P. 1998. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) does not induce nitric oxide (NO) synthesis.Experimental Parasitology88, 217–222. Diethylcarbomazine (DEC) was discovered in 1947 as a potent therapeutic agent in lymphatic filariasis and has been a mainstay of antifilarial therapy over the past five decades (R. I. Hewitt,et al., 1947,Journal of

T. V. Rajan; Leonard D. Shultz; Subash Babu; John Doukas; Dale Greiner; Pat Porte

1998-01-01

285

Trypanosomatidae: PhytomonasDetection in Plants and Phytophagous Insects by PCR Amplification of a Genus-Specific Sequence of the Spliced Leader Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serrano, M. G., Nunes, L. R., Campaner, M., Buck, G. A., Camargo, E. P., and Teixeira, M. M. G. 1999. Trypanosomatidae:Phytomonasdetection in plants and phytophagous insects by PCR amplification of a genus-specific sequence of the spliced leader gene.Experimental Parasitology91, 268–279. In this paper we describe a method for the detection ofPhytomonasspp. from plants and phytophagous insects using the PCR technique

Myrna G. Serrano; Luiz R. Nunes; Marta Campaner; Gregory A. Buck; Erney P. Camargo; Marta M. G. Teixeira

1999-01-01

286

First record of trypanosomes from the blood of sculpins (Cottus ricei and C. cognatus) from Lake Superior, WI, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During parasitological research of fishes in Lake Superior (USA) in August-September 1994, infection with trypanosomes of the blood of sculpins (Cottus ricei and C. cognatus) was recorded for the first time. The descriptions of three morphological groups of the genus Trypanosoma: T. sp. I, found in blood of C. ricei, T. sp. II and T. sp. III from blood of C. cognatus, have been provided.

Pronina, Svetlana V.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Selgeby, Jim H.

1999-01-01

287

Two novel mutations of pfdhps K540T and I588F, affecting sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistant response in uncomplicated falciparum malaria at Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in pfdhfr and pfdhps genes have been shown to associate with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. However, pfdhfr, pfdhps genotypes and the correlations to SP treatment outcome in Indonesia has not yet been well analysed. Methods After obtaining informed consent, 61 uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients were recruited in Banjar district, South Kalimantan Province, Indonesia, from October 2009 to August 2010. They were treated by a single oral dose of SP and its effects on clinical and parasitological status were followed until day 28 after treatment. Occasionally, a thick smear blood film for microscopy observation and blood spot on a filter paper for pfdhfr and pfdhps genotype analysis were collected. Results Pfdhfr and pfdhps genotypes from 24 P. falciparum-infected patients consisting of adequate clinical parasitological response (ACPR) (n?=?6; 25.0%) and early treatment failure (ETF) (n?=?10; 41.7%) or late parasitological failure (LPF) (n?=?8; 33.3%) were obtained by sequencing. Two novel mutations of pfdhps gene, K540T and I588F, were determined in ten and five isolates, respectively. These mutations were present in the pfdhfr/pfdhps combined haplotypes of ANRNI/SGTGA (n?=?6), ANRNL/SGTGA (n?=?4), and ANRNI/SGEAA(588F) (n?=?5), (mutation codons are bold typed); these haplotypes were mostly belonging to parasitological failure (ETF or LPF). The parasites acquiring five mutations in pfdhfr/pfdhps haplotypes and four mutations with additional I588F did not respond adequately to SP treatment. Conclusion Many of Plasmodium falciparum infected patients in Banjar district, South Kalimantan, Indonesia did not respond adequately to SP treatment and these low ineffectiveness of SP in this area was associated with two novel mutations of pfdhps, K540T and I588F. PMID:25187019

2014-01-01

288

Humane teaching methods prove efficacious within veterinary and other biomedical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal use resulting in harm or death remains common within veterinary education, in disciplines such as surgery, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, pharmacology, and parasitology. However, many non-harmful alternatives now exist, including computer simulations, high quality videos, 'ethically-sourced cadavers,' such as from animals euthanized for medical reasons, preserved specimens, models and surgical simulators, non-invasive self-experimentation, and supervised clinical experiences. Studies of veterinary

Andrew Knight

289

[First record of Microsomacanthus tuvensis Spasskaya et Spasskii, 1961 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) in Poland].  

PubMed

During standard parasitological studies of the tufted duck Aythya fuligula, obtained from fishermen from West Pomerania in December 2007, three cestode specimens were found in the jejunum of one male host. They were determinated as Microsomacanthus tuvensis (Spasskaya et Spasskii, 1961) on the basis of the cirrus's and cirrus sac's size and vagina's shape. This is the first record of this species in Poland. PMID:20209817

Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta

2009-01-01

290

Attenuation of Schistosoma mansoni cercarial infectivity to albino mice by methanol extract of some plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study elucidates the activity of certain plants’ methanol extract: Anagallis arvensis, Solanum nigrum (green fruits), Chenopodium ambrosioides, Calendula officinalis and Sesbania sesban, on the infectivity of S. mansoni cercariae to albino mice. Then, some parasitological parameters, e.g. the worm load\\/mouse, number of ova\\/g tissue in liver and intestine and the developmental stages of ova in the small intestinal wall

E. G. Kamel; M. A. El-Emam; S. S. M. Mahmoud; F. M. Fouda; F. E. Bayaumy

2010-01-01

291

An evaluation of the pulmonary arterial lesions in canine Dirofilariasis using fluorescent antibody techniques  

E-print Network

and the serum antibodies titered. When the antibody response had reached a maximum level the animals were euthanized and the serum harvested. Antibody titers were determined by bentonite flocculation (BF) tests. ' A serologic antigen from the parasitology... section of 2 22 the National Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, was used in the BF test to determine the antibody response to the adult anti- gen. The results were then compared with a titered serum obtained from the same source...

Obeck, Douglas Koch

1971-01-01

292

The Ceratopogonid Web Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Daniel Hagan of the Institute of Anthropology & Parasitology (Georgia Southern University) maintains this Webpage on the Dipteran family Ceratopogonidae. Known to the layperson as "nuisance pests," the Ceratopogonidae include such favorites as biting midges, bloodsucking midges, and sand flies. The homepage offers a wealth of information organized into several extensive bibliographies, checklists, and catalogs; the biannual Ceratopogonidae Information Exchange (CIE) Newsletter; a Directory of Ceratopogonid Researchers; and a collection of WWW links.

293

Association between Protection against Clinical Malaria and Antibodies to Merozoite Surface Antigens in an Area of Hyperendemicity in Myanmar: Complementarity between Responses to Merozoite Surface Protein 3 and the 220-Kilodalton Glutamate-Rich Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a longitudinal clinical and parasitological follow-up study in OoDo, a village in southeast Asia in which malaria is hyperendemic, in order to assess the association between protection against malaria attacks and antibodies to three currently evaluated vaccine candidates, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), MSP3, and the 220-kDa glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) from Plasmodium falciparum. Our results showed that the

Soe Soe; Michael Theisen; Christian Roussilhon; K.-S. Aye; P. Druilhe

2004-01-01

294

Efficacy of dichlorvos in the control of murine acariasis  

E-print Network

EFFICACY OF DICHLORVOS IN THE CONTROL OF MURINE ACARIASIS A Thesis by Clara Jane Fraser Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1971... Major Subject: Veterinary Parasitology EFFICACY OF DICHLORVOS IN THE CONTROL OF MURINE ACARIASIS A Thesis by Clara Jane Fraser Approved as to style and content by: (Chai Committee (Hea of Department) (Member) ( r) ( ber) (Member) (Member...

Fraser, Clara Jane

1971-01-01

295

Clinical evaluation of American river otters in a reintroduction study.  

PubMed

Ten American river otters (Lutra canadensis) were evaluated clinically before release into Oklahoma waterways. Otters were immobilized for physical, radiographic, and electrocardiographic examinations and for collection of blood samples. Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses, urinalyses, parasitologic examinations, surgical omental biopsies, and necropsy findings were included. Respiratory tract disease, bacterial and parasitic infections, and starvation apparently were contributing causes of postrelease mortality in 4 of the otters. PMID:6511575

Hoover, J P; Root, C R; Zimmer, M A

1984-12-01

296

The Unfortunate Nurse A Case Study of Dengue Fever and Social Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based on an actual incident in which dengue virus was transmitted by an accidental needlestick, this case study introduces students to “emerging pathogens” and other concepts in parasitology, immunology, epidemiology, and public policy. Students also read a primary paper and learn about two modern techniques widely used in medical and research settings (i.e., EIA and Taqman RT-PCR). The case is suitable for general education biology, cell biology, microbiology, immunology, and science and public policy courses.

Karen M. Aguirre

2007-01-01

297

Mosquito PlasmodiumInteractions in Response to Immune Activation of the Vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowenberger, C. A., Kamal, S., Chiles, J., Paskewitz, S., Bulet, P., Hoffmann, J. A., and Christensen, B. M. 1999. Mosquito-Plasmodiuminteractions in response to immune activation of the vector.Experimental Parasitology91,59–69. During the development ofPlasmodiumsp. within the mosquito midgut, the parasite undergoes a series of developmental changes. The elongated ookinete migrates through the layers of the midgut where it forms the oocyst

Carl A. Lowenberger; Sofie Kamal; Jody Chiles; Susan Paskewitz; Philippe Bulet; Jules A. Hoffmann; Bruce M. Christensen

1999-01-01

298

An explicit immunogenetic model of gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheep-Teladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of host-parasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649

Prada Jiménez de Cisneros, Joaquín; Stear, Michael J; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise

2014-10-01

299

Application of real-time PCR for the detection of Strongyloides spp. in clinical samples in a reference center in Spain.  

PubMed

Strongyloidiasis is one of the major intestinal helminthic infections in humans with a worldwide distribution, affecting especially tropical and subtropical regions. This disease can occur without any symptoms or as a potentially fatal hyperinfection or disseminated infection. Definitive diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection relies mainly on demonstration of larvae in stool, but at present there is no gold standard for this diagnosis. Our main objective was to evaluate a real-time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene of Strongyloides spp. and to compare it with routine parasitological methods. DNA from Strongyloides venezuelensis was used to optimize PCR protocols obtaining an analytical sensitivity of 0.1 pg of parasite DNA per sample. Sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR on fecal samples from 231 patients screened for suspected strongyloidiasis attending two hospitals in Madrid were 93.8% and 86.5%, respectively. No significant differences were found when comparing Ct-values of positive PCR between parasitological positive and negative samples. This study showed that real-time PCR is an effective tool for diagnosing strongyloidiasis and could be applied in association with parasitological methods in epidemiological studies in endemic areas. It would be also important to assess its performance in immunocompromised populations who are at risk of fatal disease. PMID:25447829

Saugar, José M; Merino, Francisco J; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Ortega, Sheila; Gárate, Teresa; Rodríguez, Esperanza

2015-02-01

300

An explicit immunogenetic model of gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal nematodes are a global cause of disease and death in humans, wildlife and livestock. Livestock infection has historically been controlled with anthelmintic drugs, but the development of resistance means that alternative controls are needed. The most promising alternatives are vaccination, nutritional supplementation and selective breeding, all of which act by enhancing the immune response. Currently, control planning is hampered by reliance on the faecal egg count (FEC), which suffers from low accuracy and a nonlinear and indirect relationship with infection intensity and host immune responses. We address this gap by using extensive parasitological, immunological and genetic data on the sheep–Teladorsagia circumcincta interaction to create an immunologically explicit model of infection dynamics in a sheep flock that links host genetic variation with variation in the two key immune responses to predict the observed parasitological measures. Using our model, we show that the immune responses are highly heritable and by comparing selective breeding based on low FECs versus high plasma IgA responses, we show that the immune markers are a much improved measure of host resistance. In summary, we have created a model of host–parasite infections that explicitly captures the development of the adaptive immune response and show that by integrating genetic, immunological and parasitological understanding we can identify new immune-based markers for diagnosis and control. PMID:25121649

Prada Jiménez de Cisneros, Joaquín; Stear, Michael J.; Mair, Colette; Singleton, Darran; Stefan, Thorsten; Stear, Abigail; Marion, Glenn; Matthews, Louise

2014-01-01

301

Evaluation of a gp63–PCR Based Assay as a Molecular Diagnosis Tool in Canine Leishmaniasis in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

A gp63PCR method was evaluated for the detection and characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) (L.) parasites in canine lymph node aspirates. This tool was tested and compared to other PCRs based on the amplification of 18S ribosomal genes, a L. infantum specific repetitive sequence and kinetoplastic DNA minicircles, and to classical parasitological (smear examination and/or culture) or serological (IFAT) techniques on a sample of 40 dogs, originating from different L. infantum endemic regions in Tunisia. Sensitivity and specificity of all the PCR assays were evaluated on parasitologically confirmed dogs within this sample (N?=?18) and control dogs (N?=?45) originating from non–endemic countries in northern Europe and Australia. The gp63 PCR had 83.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity, a performance comparable to the kinetoplast PCR assay and better than the other assays. These assays had comparable results when the gels were southern transferred and hybridized with a radioactive probe. As different infection rates were found according to the technique, concordance of the results was estimated by (?) test. Best concordance values were between the gp63PCR and parasitological methods (74.6%, 95% confidence intervals CI: 58.8–95.4%) or serology IFAT technique (47.4%, 95% CI: 23.5–71.3%). However, taken together Gp63 and Rib assays covered most of the samples found positive making of them a good alternative for determination of infection rates. Potential of the gp63PCR-RFLP assay for analysis of parasite genetic diversity within samples was also evaluated using 5 restriction enzymes. RFLP analysis confirmed assignment of the parasites infecting the dogs to L. infantum species and illustrated occurrence of multiple variants in the different endemic foci. Gp63 PCR assay thus constitutes a useful tool in molecular diagnosis of L. infantum infections in dogs in Tunisia. PMID:25153833

Guerbouj, Souheila; Djilani, Fattouma; Bettaieb, Jihene; Lambson, Bronwen; Diouani, Mohamed Fethi; Ben Salah, Afif; Ben Ismail, Riadh; Guizani, Ikram

2014-01-01

302

Randomized Single-Blinded Non-inferiority Trial Of 7 mg/kg Pentamidine Isethionate Versus 4 mg/kg Pentamidine Isethionate for Cutaneous Leishmaniaisis in Suriname  

PubMed Central

Background Standard treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname entails three injections of pentamidine isethionate (PI) 4 mg/kg per injection in 7 days (7 day regimen). Compliance to treatment is low and may contribute to increasing therapy failure. A 3 day regimen, including 2 injections of 7 mg/kg in 3 days may increase compliance. Methods In a randomized, single-blinded non-inferiority trial conducted in Suriname, 84 CL patients received the 7 day regimen and 79 CL patients received the 3 day regimen. Primary objective was the proportion of patients clinically cured at 6 weeks follow-up. Secondary objectives were clinical cure at 12 weeks follow-up; parasitological cure at 6 and 12 weeks; adverse and drug related toxicity events recorded one week after the end of treatment and health related quality of life. The non-inferiority margin was set at 15%, 1 sided test, ? = 0.1. Results At 6 weeks follow-up 31 (39%) patients in the 3 day regimen and 41 (49%) patients in the 7 day regimen were clinically cured. Intention to treat (ITT) analyses showed that the difference in proportion clinically cured was -9.6% (90% Confidence Interval (CI): -22.3% to 3.2%). Per protocol (PP) analysis showed that the difference in proportion clinically cured was 0.2% (90% CI: -14.6% to 15.2%). ITT analysis showed that the difference in proportion parasitological cured at 6 weeks was -15.2% (90% CI:-28.0% to -2.5%). PP analyses showed similar results. Non-inferiority could not be concluded for all adverse and toxicological events. Conclusion We cannot conclude that the 3 day regimen is non-inferior to the 7 day regimen regarding proportion clinically and parasitological cured. Therefore there is no evidence to change the current standard practice of the 7 day regimen for the treatment of CL in Suriname. PMID:25793773

Hu, Ricardo V. P. F.; Straetemans, Masja; Kent, Alida D.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Lai A Fat, Rudy F. M.

2015-01-01

303

Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, amodiaquine, and the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children in Cameroon. METHODS: In a randomized study we evaluated the effectiveness and tolerance of (i) sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) (25 mg/kg body weight of sulfadoxine and 1.25 mg/kg of pyrimethamine in a single oral dose), (ii) amodiaquine (AQ) (30 mg/kg body weight in three divided daily doses), and (iii) the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-amodiaquine combination (SP+AQ) (same doses as in the other two treatment groups, given simultaneously on day 0) in young children in southern Cameroon. The parasitological and clinical responses were studied until day 28 in accordance with the modified 1996 WHO protocol for the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs. FINDINGS: Of 191 enrolled patients, 6 and 8 were excluded or lost to follow-up before day 14 and between day 14 and day 28, respectively. For the AQ-treated patients, parasitological and clinical evaluation on day 14 showed late treatment failure in 2 of 61 (3.3%) and adequate clinical response with parasitological failure in one (1.6%). There was an adequate clinical response in all patients treated with SP or SP+AQ. Therapeutic failure rates on day 28 were 13.6%, 10.2% and 0% in the SP, AQ, and SP+AQ groups, respectively. Anaemia improved in all three regimens. AQ produced faster fever clearance but was associated with more transient minor side-effects than SP. SP+AQ reduced the risk of recrudescence between day 14 and day 28 but increased the incidence of minor side-effects. CONCLUSION: SP+AQ can be recommended as a temporary means of slowing the spread of multidrug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Africa while the introduction of other combinations, including artemisinin derivatives, is awaited. PMID:12163917

Basco, Leonardo K.; Same-Ekobo, Albert; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Ndounga, Mathieu; Metoh, Theresia; Ringwald, Pascal; Soula, Georges

2002-01-01

304

Predictive role of polymerase chain reaction in the early diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection.  

PubMed

The efficacy of specific chemotherapy in congenital Chagas disease before the first year of life ranges between 90 and 100%. Between this age and 15 years of age, the efficacy decreases to around 60%. Therefore, early infection detection is a priority in vertical transmission. The aim of this work was to assess whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays a predictive role in the diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease as compared to conventional parasitological and serological methods. To this end, we studied a total of 468 children born to Trypanosoma cruzi seroreactive mothers came from Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay, who lived in the city of Buenos Aires and suburban areas (Argentina), a non-endemic area of this country. These children were assessed by PCR from 2004 to 2009 with the specific primers Tcz1 and Tcz2, and 121 and 122. PCR allowed detecting 49 T. cruzi-positive children. Eight of these 49 children were excluded from the analysis: six because they did not complete follow-up and two because the first control was performed after 12 months of age. Parasitological methods allowed detecting 25 positive children, 7 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.53±2.00 vs. 6.71±1.46 months; p=0.0002). Serological methods allowed detecting 16 positive children, 12 of whom had been earlier diagnosed by PCR (1.46±1.48 vs. 11.77±4.40 months; p<0.0001). None of the children negative by PCR was positive by serological or parasitological methods. This study shows that PCR allows early diagnosis in congenital Chagas disease. At present, an early positive PCR is not indicative for treatment. However, a positive PCR would alert the health system to search only those infected infants diagnosed by early PCR and thus generate greater efficiency in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital T. cruzi infection. PMID:24892867

Velázquez, Elsa B; Rivero, Rocío; De Rissio, Ana María; Malagrino, Nora; Esteva, Mónica I; Riarte, Adelina Rosa; Ruiz, Andrés Mariano

2014-09-01

305

Endoparasitic infections in Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus) of Veterinary College Campus, Mathura.  

PubMed

A survey was made to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in free range blue peacocks living in and around the premises of College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Mathura. Faecal samples of peacocks were collected randomly and brought to the divisional laboratory for faecal sample examination. During the coprological examination, eggs and oocysts of cestodes and coccidia belonging to Eimeria and Isospora species were identified, respectively based on the morphology and micrometry of these parasitic stages. The present study has generated an important data regarding the else while parasitologically neglected national bird of India. PMID:24431536

Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Shanker, Daya; Kumar, Pradeep

2013-04-01

306

Infection with Crenosoma striatum lungworm in Long-eared Hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus) in Kerman province southeast of Iran.  

PubMed

Hedgehogs are distributed in different areas of Iran. Unfortunately, clinical and parasitological studies on parasites of hedgehogs are very few. Crenosoma striatum is a common lungworm in hedgehogs. C. striatum infection can cause weight loss, dry cough, bronchitis with ulcerous reactions based on secondary bacterial infections, pulmonary damage, thickening of the tracheal wall, and pulmonary emphysema up to cardiovascular failure. In this survey, six dead hedgehogs (Hemiechinus auritus) were investigated for lungworm infection. All the six hedgehogs had C. striatum infection in their lungs. PMID:25732884

Mirzaei, Mohammad

2014-12-01

307

The correlation between the egg count per gram of feces and the number of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep  

E-print Network

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE EGG COUNT PER GRAM OF FECES AND THE NUMBER OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL NEMATODES IN SHEEP A Thesis A. N. M. Abdul /ader Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1961 Ma]or Subject& Veterinary Parasitology THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE EGG COUNT PER GRAM OF FECES AND THE NUMBER OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL NEMATODES IN SHEEP A Thesis By A. N, M...

Qadir, A. N. M. Abdul

1961-01-01

308

[Achievement of the elimination of tropical malaria in The Republic of Tajikistan].  

PubMed

To achieve the elimination of tropical malaria, Tajikistan divided its territory into districts in terms of the malariogenic potential (receptivity + vulnerability) and identified priority regions to be exposed, determined the population's fever background and the required personnel, equipment, and reagents for parasitological examinations, and compiled an inventory of malaria foci. The investigators tested a new (artesunate + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine) treatment regimen in patients with tropical malaria and in parasite carriers and established active detection of malaria cases through homestead rounds and population examinations. The packages of antimalarial measures were improved, by annually evaluating their efficiency in accordance with the monitoring and estimation indicators. PMID:25850307

2015-01-01

309

The infectivity of Bunostomum phlebotomum to sheep, rabbits and guinea pigs  

E-print Network

THE INFECT1VITY OP BUNOSTOMUM PHLEBOTOMUM TO SHEEP, RABBITS AND GUINEA PIGS A Thesis By GARY DAVID BORING Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1964 Ma]or Sub)cot: Veterinary Parasitology THE INFECTIVITY OF BUNOSTOMUM PHLEBOTOMUM TO SHEEP~ RABBITS AND GUINEA PIGS A Thesis By GARY DAVID BORING Approved as to style and content by: i Ma (Chairman of Committee) /7 ~ 3...

Boring, Gary David

1964-01-01

310

A Giant Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst Treated without Lobectomy  

PubMed Central

A 20 year-old woman was admitted to our clinic complaining of dyspnea, cough, chest pain and pleural effusion. The diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid cyst was made on the basis of parasitology laboratory findings, computed tomographic results and chest radiographic findings. A giant pulmonary hydatid cyst (33×14×12 cm) was located in the left lower lobe, which involved more than 90% of the lobe. The patient was treated surgically using cystotomy and capitonnage. This is a case of a giant pulmonary hydatid cyst published in the literature, which was surgically treated without a lobectomy, by preserving the lung parenchyma. PMID:20046431

Sinmaz, Emrah

2009-01-01

311

[Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2012].  

PubMed

The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) include controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2012 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2012 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous editions. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. Once again, the results of this program highlighted the need to implement both internal and external controls in order to assure the maximal quality of the microbiological tests. PMID:24630577

de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique Ruiz; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

2014-02-01

312

[Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology].  

PubMed

The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most important conclusions and lessons of the 2010 controls. As a whole, the results obtained in 2010 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. However, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests(1). PMID:22305663

Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Serrano, M del Remedio Guna; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

2011-12-01

313

Aminosidine sulphate in experimental cryptosporidiosis.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at investigating the efficiency of a recent antibiotic Aminosidine sulphate (Gabbroral) in experimental cryptosporidiosis. The course of infection was studied when the drug was given early before the infection, and late during the infection both parasitologically and histopathologically. When the drug was given early, the results were satisfactory, with a significant reduction of size, number and pathological changes of the parasites in the stool and in ileal sections of infected mice. However, the drug had no effect when given late during the infection. PMID:8077744

Youssef, M M; Hammam, S M; abou Samra, L M; Khalifa, A M

1994-08-01

314

Malaria epidemics in Europe after the First World War: the early stages of an international approach to the control of the disease.  

PubMed

The severity and endemicity of malaria declined gradually in Europe until WWI. During and after the war, the number of malaria cases increased substantially and peaked in 1922-1924. This prompted the Hygiene Commission of the League of Nations to establish a Malaria Commission in 1923 to define the most efficient anti-malaria procedures. Additionally, between 1924 and 1930 there were several international meetings and collaborations concerning malaria, which involved the main institutes of parasitology and the Rockefeller Foundation. The Commission reports, the guidelines for anti-malaria campaigns and the scientific programs which came out of these meetings and collaborations are analyzed in the present paper. PMID:21779694

Gachelin, Gabriel; Opinel, Annick

2011-06-01

315

Highly diluted medication reduces parasitemia and improves experimental infection evolution by Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

Background There is no published information about the use of different protocols to administer a highly diluted medication. Evaluate the effect of different protocols for treatment with biotherapic T. cruzi 17 dH (BIOTTc17dH) on clinical/parasitological evolution of mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain. Methods A blind, randomized controlled trial was performed twice, using 60 28-day-old male Swiss mice infected with T. cruzi-Y strain, in five treatment groups: CI - treated with a 7% ethanol-water solution, diluted in water (10 ?L/mL) ad libitum; BIOTPI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 ?L/mL) ad libitum during a period that started on the day of infection; BIOT4DI - treated with BIOTTc17dH in water (10 ?L/mL) ad libitum beginning on the 4th day of infection; BIOT4-5–6 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2?mL/ animal/day) on the 4th, 5th and 6th days after infection; BIOT7-8–9 - treated with BIOTTc17dH by gavage (0.2?mL/ animal/day) on the 7th, 8th and 9th days after infection. We evaluated: parasitemia; total parasitemia (Ptotal); maximum peak of parasites; prepatent period (PPP) - time from infection to detection of the parasite in blood; patent period (PP) - period when the parasitemia can be detected in blood; clinical aspects; and mortality. Results Parasitological parameters in the BIOTPI and mainly in the BIOT4PI group showed better evolution of the infection compared to the control group (CI), with lower Ptotal, lower maximum peak of parasites, higher PPP, lower PP and longer survival times. These animals showed stable body temperature and higher weight gain and water consumption, with more animals having normal-appearing fur for longer periods. In contrast, groups BIOT4-5–6 and BIOT7-8–9 showed worse evolution of the infection compared to the control group, considering both parasitological and clinical parameters. The correlation analysis combined with the other data from this study indicated that the prepatent period is the best parameter to evaluate the effect of a medication in this model. Conclusions The BIOT4DI group showed the best clinical and parasitological evolution, with lower parasitemia and a trend toward lower mortality and a longer survival period. The prepatent period was the best parameter to evaluate the effect of a medication in this model. PMID:22784664

2012-01-01

316

Artemisinin-based combination therapies: a vital tool in efforts to eliminate malaria  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine has led to the recent adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as the first line of treatment against malaria. ACTs comprise semisynthetic artemisinin derivatives paired with distinct chemical classes of longer acting drugs. These artemisinins are exceptionally potent against the pathogenic asexual blood stages of Plasmodium parasites and also act on the transmissible sexual stages. These combinations increase the rates of clinical and parasitological cures and decrease the selection pressure for the emergence of antimalarial resistance. This Review article discusses our current knowledge about the mode of action of ACTs, their pharmacological properties and the proposed mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:19881520

Eastman, Richard T.; Fidock, David A.

2010-01-01

317

V-shaped Pits in Regions of Ancient Baekje Kingdom Paleoparasitologically Confirmed as Likely Human-Waste Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies. PMID:25352710

Shin, Dong Hoon; Shim, Sang-Yuck; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Suk Bae; Lee, Geon Il; Chai, Jong-Yil

2014-01-01

318

A case report of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a Malaysian child.  

PubMed

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old Malaysian child. This case was initially reported as 'normal' after the examination of proglottids shed from the anus of the child at a private laboratory on two occasions. The putative proglottids shed was then referred to the Parasite Southeast Asia Diagnostic (Para:SEAD) Laboratory, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya for further examination. Microscopic examination confirmed that the child was infected with H. diminuta based on the characteristic eggs found in the proglottids. She was treated with a single dose praziquantel (20 mg/kg of body weight) and recovered well. PMID:22735844

Rohela, M; Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Kalaichelvan, B; Wan Hafiz, W I; Mohd Redzuan, A N

2012-06-01

319

Canine generalized demodicosis treated with varying doses of a 2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid spot-on and oral ivermectin: parasiticidal effects and long-term treatment outcomes.  

PubMed

Advocate(®) (2.5% moxidectin+10% imidacloprid) (Bayer HealthCare, Leverkusen, Germany) is a multiparasiticidal spot-on authorized for treating canine demodicosis in many countries. This blinded, randomized three-phase clinical trial compared its efficacy employing different dosing regimens with that of ivermectin. In the blinded first phase, 58 dogs suffering from generalized demodicosis were randomly assigned to one of four groups and treated with monthly, biweekly or weekly applications of Advocate(®), or with oral ivermectin (IVR) at 500 ?g/kg daily. Dogs were evaluated clinically and multiple skin scrapings undertaken every 4 weeks until parasitological cure was achieved (defined as two consecutive series of deep skin scrapings at monthly intervals negative for all life forms). Forty dogs completed the 16-week initial blinded phase, with 5 cases achieving parasitological cure. Five dogs were deemed treatment failures and subsequently treated with ivermectin. The treatment protocol was then changed for the remaining 35 dogs and this cross-over phase (Phase 2) was maintained for a further 8 weeks with an additional 9 dogs achieving parasitological cure. Thereafter, all remaining animals were treated with IVR until cured (Phase 3). Overall, 26 dogs achieved parasitological cure during the clinical investigation. Of these, 23 remained disease-free for at least 12 months while two were lost to follow up and one died of unrelated causes. A total of 32 (55.2%) dogs were withdrawn at various stages of the investigation including the 5 dogs that were judged treatment failures. Other reasons for withdrawal included: non-compliance, lost to follow-up, ivermectin toxicity or reasons unrelated to the investigation. No adverse effects were attributable to the use of Advocate(®). Parasiticidal efficacy was assessed by changes in mite counts (live adult, juvenile and egg) and skin lesion extent & severity scores. Statistical significance was assessed using ANCOVA with initial mite counts or skin scores used as the covariate to account for variations in disease severity. Planned pairwise comparisons were used to identify differences between treatment groups. The efficacy of Advocate(®) increased with its rate of application across all measures of efficacy. Although ivermectin was shown to be more effective than Advocate(®) applied once weekly, both treatment protocols produced clinically satisfactory results. It was concluded that weekly application of Advocate(®) can be recommended as effective for the treatment of canine generalized demodicosis without the potential for toxicity associated with ivermectin. PMID:25262617

Paterson, Tara E; Halliwell, Richard E; Fields, Paul J; Louw, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoff; Louw, Jakobus; Pinckney, Rhonda

2014-10-15

320

V-shaped pits in regions of ancient Baekje kingdom paleoparasitologically confirmed as likely human-waste reservoirs.  

PubMed

In a paleo-parasitological analysis of soil samples obtained from V-shaped pits dating to the ancient Baekje period in Korean history, we discovered Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis eggs. In light of the samples' seriously contaminated state, the V-shaped pits might have served as toilets, cesspits, or dung heaps. For a long period of time, researchers scouring archaeological sites in Korea have had difficulties locating such structures. In this context then, the present report is unique because similar kind of the ancient ruins must become an ideal resource for successful sampling in our forthcoming paleoparasitological studies. PMID:25352710

Shin, Dong Hoon; Shim, Sang-Yuck; Kim, Myeung Ju; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Suk Bae; Lee, Geon Il; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

2014-10-01

321

[Improved methods for the helminthological autopsy of wild animals].  

PubMed

After having adopted the law on the protection of animal world, mass helminthological dissections became impermissible++. Elaboration and use of distance and other merciful methods of investigation are necessary. Coprological examinations of wild animals are hindered by the lack of precise information on the egg structure and larvae of helminths, appropriate atlases and keys. This deficiency should be made up in the nearest future. When dissecting each cadaver of rare or endangered animals its complete parasitological (not only zooparasitological) examination has to be carried out. PMID:3431906

Spasski?, A A

1987-01-01

322

Indirect fluorescent antibody test in the serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was found to be 100% sensitive and 100% specific when tested with sera from 125 parasitologically proven kala-azar patients, 100 healthy controls and 50 sick control cases. Promastigotes of both L. enriettii and L. donovani as well as amastigotes of L. enriettii were found equally satisfactory as antigen for IFAT. From the results of the present study, it is concluded that IFAT is a highly sensitive as well as specific serological test for the diagnosis of kala-azar. PMID:1303085

Muazzam, N; Rahman, K M; Miah, R A; Asna, S M

1992-12-01

323

Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum among children in Calabar, south eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

Sixty-nine children aged between 6 and 60 months with parasitologically proven Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with chloroquine (2.5 mg/kg) in the Children's Emergency Room of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) in 1993. Thirty subjects (mean age 27.8 months) and 39 (mean age 29.5 months) received chloroquine phosphate suppository (Pharma Deko) and chloroquine sulphate syrup (May & Baker), respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) 14-day in vivo field test was used in evaluating the response to treatment. In both treatment groups the responses were similar. Overall, parasitological cure occurred in 24 subjects (34.8%) and in the remaining 45 subjects (65.2%) treatment failed (chloroquine resistance). This level of chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum (CRPF) is higher than 53.6% reported in this centre in 1989. Furthermore, in the present study the proportion of RII (46.4%) is significantly higher than 21.4% (P < 0.02) obtained in 1989. Our findings show a worsening of CRPF in Calabar with RII being the main contributor. This observation indicates the need for continued surveillance of the response of P. falciparum to chloroquine and alternative antimalarials as a means of evolving an effective treatment policy for malaria. PMID:9227007

Antia-Obong, O E; Alaribe, A A; Young, M U; Bassy, A; Etim, B V

1997-07-01

324

Jane: a new tool for the cophylogeny reconstruction problem  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes the theory and implementation of a new software tool, called Jane, for the study of historical associations. This problem arises in parasitology (associations of hosts and parasites), molecular systematics (associations of orderings and genes), and biogeography (associations of regions and orderings). The underlying problem is that of reconciling pairs of trees subject to biologically plausible events and costs associated with these events. Existing software tools for this problem have strengths and limitations, and the new Jane tool described here provides functionality that complements existing tools. Results The Jane software tool uses a polynomial time dynamic programming algorithm in conjunction with a genetic algorithm to find very good, and often optimal, solutions even for relatively large pairs of trees. The tool allows the user to provide rich timing information on both the host and parasite trees. In addition the user can limit host switch distance and specify multiple host switch costs by specifying regions in the host tree and costs for host switches between pairs of regions. Jane also provides a graphical user interface that allows the user to interactively experiment with modifications to the solutions found by the program. Conclusions Jane is shown to be a useful tool for cophylogenetic reconstruction. Its functionality complements existing tools and it is therefore likely to be of use to researchers in the areas of parasitology, molecular systematics, and biogeography. PMID:20181081

2010-01-01

325

Survey of Trypanosoma and Leishmania in wild and domestic animals in an Atlantic rainforest fragment and surroundings in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma and Leishmania infections affect wild and domestic animals and human populations. The growing process of deforestation and urbanization of Atlantic Rainforest areas has given rise to introduction of humans and domestic animals to the sylvatic cycles of Trypanosoma and Leishmania species. Serological, parasitological, and molecular surveys among wild and domestic animals in the Corrego do Veado Biological Reserve, which is an Atlantic Rainforest fragment in the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, were evaluated. In total, 154 wild animals of 25 species and 67 domestic animals (47 dogs and 20 horses) were sampled. All the domestic animals were serologically negative for anti-Leishmania infantum chagasi antibodies and negative in parasitological approaches. Only the Order Chiroptera presented positive blood cultures and cryopreserved isolates. The phylogenetic trees based on SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes confirmed the occurrence of Trypanosoma dionisii and provided the first record of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei in southeastern Brazil. The studies conducted in Atlantic Rainforest remaining trees provide the knowledge of parasite diversity or detect parasites that can accelerate the loss of hosts diversity. PMID:24897863

Acosta, Igor da C L; Da Costa, Andrea P; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

2014-05-01

326

Preventive prospective of triclosan and triclosan-liposomal nanoparticles against experimental infection with a cystogenic ME49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

The preventative effect of triclosan (TS) and TS liposomal nanoparticles was studied on the early establishment of chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Swiss albino mice were orally infected with 10 cysts of avirulent ME49 strain of T. gondii, and 2 weeks later they were orally treated with dual daily doses of 200mg/kg and 120 mg/kg TS and TS liposomes for 30 days; respectively. Effect of TS and TS liposomes was parasitologically and ultrastructurally evaluated, versus infected non-treated control. Their safety was biochemically assessed. Parasitologically, both TS and TS liposomes induced significant reduction in mice mortality, brain parasite burden and infectivity of cysts obtained from the brains of treated mice. Ultrastructurally, scanning electron microscopy of cysts obtained from infected mice treated with either TS or TS liposomes showed surface irregularities, protrusions and depressions. Transmission electron microscopy revealed disintegration of the cyst wall and vacuolation of the bradyzoites with disintegration of plasma membranes of both cysts and bradyzoites whether treated with TS or TS liposomes. Biochemical study reflected the safety of the TS and TS liposomes. Therefore, TS proved an effective, promising and safe preventive drug against early establishment of chronic toxoplasmosis. Loading TS on liposomes marginally enhanced its efficacy against T. gondii cysts yet allowed its use in a lower dose. PMID:25305510

El-Zawawy, Lobna A; El-Said, Doaa; Mossallam, Shereen F; Ramadan, Heba S; Younis, Salwa S

2015-01-01

327

Efficacy of doramectin in Trixacarus caviae infestation in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).  

PubMed

The present study was intended to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin against seven naturally Trixacarus caviae infested male guinea pigs. Multiple skin scrapings of all the seven guinea pigs were found microscopically positive for T. caviae mites. Clinically these animals revealed, more or less denuded, very red often thickened, and crustated cutaneous lesions restricted at the sacral region and back. Doramectin 1 % (w/v) was administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 400 ?g/kg once weekly, which resulted in profound improvements in clinical conditions within 14 days after the first doramectin application. It took almost 28 days for the cutaneous lesions to disappear and to witness partial hair coat regrowth. Two moderately infested guinea pigs required only single injection of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure, while remaining five (one moderately infested and four severely infested) guinea pigs required two injections of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure. No adverse effects were revealed by any of the doramectin treated guinea pigs during the study period. Thus, it can be concluded from the present study that guinea pigs naturally infested by T. caviae mites can be cured safely using two doses of doramectin once in a week. PMID:24431558

Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Ahmed, Quazi Shahir; Sayedda, Kauser; Singh, Krishna Veer

2013-04-01

328

Identification and characterization of hundreds of potent and selective inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei growth from a kinase-targeted library screening campaign.  

PubMed

In the interest of identification of new kinase-targeting chemotypes for target and pathway analysis and drug discovery in Trypanosomal brucei, a high-throughput screen of 42,444 focused inhibitors from the GlaxoSmithKline screening collection was performed against parasite cell cultures and counter-screened against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. In this way, we have identified 797 sub-micromolar inhibitors of T. brucei growth that are at least 100-fold selective over HepG2 cells. Importantly, 242 of these hit compounds acted rapidly in inhibiting cellular growth, 137 showed rapid cidality. A variety of in silico and in vitro physicochemical and drug metabolism properties were assessed, and human kinase selectivity data were obtained, and, based on these data, we prioritized three compounds for pharmacokinetic assessment and demonstrated parasitological cure of a murine bloodstream infection of T. brucei rhodesiense with one of these compounds (NEU-1053). This work represents a successful implementation of a unique industrial-academic collaboration model aimed at identification of high quality inhibitors that will provide the parasitology community with chemical matter that can be utilized to develop kinase-targeting tool compounds. Furthermore these results are expected to provide rich starting points for discovery of kinase-targeting tool compounds for T. brucei, and new HAT therapeutics discovery programs. PMID:25340575

Diaz, Rosario; Luengo-Arratta, Sandra A; Seixas, João D; Amata, Emanuele; Devine, William; Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Rojas-Barros, Domingo I; Jimenez, Elena; Ortega, Fatima; Crouch, Sabrinia; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Fiandor, Jose Maria; Martin, Jose Julio; Berlanga, Manuela; Gonzalez, Silvia; Manzano, Pilar; Navarro, Miguel; Pollastri, Michael P

2014-10-01

329

Evaluation of selected antiprotozoal drugs in the Babesia microti-hamster model.  

PubMed Central

The presently used therapy for Babesia microti infections, a combination of quinine and clindamycin, does not always result in parasitologic cures. To identify possible alternative chemotherapeutic agents for such infections, we screened, in the hamster-B. microti system, 12 antiprotozoal drugs that have either recently been released for human use or were in experimental stages of development at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research for the treatment of malaria and leishmaniasis. Several well-recognized antimalarial drugs, such as mefloquine, halofantrine, artesunate, and artelenic acid, exhibited little or no effect on parasitemia. Two 8-aminoquinolines, WR006026 [8-(6-diethylaminohexylamino)-6-methoxy-4-methylquinoline dihydrochloride] and WR238605 [8-[(4-amino-1-methylbutyl)amino]-2,6-dimethoxy-4-methyl-5 -(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy-7) quinoline succinate], produced clearance of patent parasitemia. Furthermore, blood from infected hamsters treated with WR238605 via an intramuscular injection failed to infect naive hamsters on subpassage, thus producing a parasitologic cure. These two compounds merit further screening in other systems and may prove useful in treating human babesiosis. PMID:8980761

Marley, S E; Eberhard, M L; Steurer, F J; Ellis, W L; McGreevy, P B; Ruebush, T K

1997-01-01

330

Identification and Characterization of Hundreds of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Growth from a Kinase-Targeted Library Screening Campaign  

PubMed Central

In the interest of identification of new kinase-targeting chemotypes for target and pathway analysis and drug discovery in Trypanosomal brucei, a high-throughput screen of 42,444 focused inhibitors from the GlaxoSmithKline screening collection was performed against parasite cell cultures and counter-screened against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cells. In this way, we have identified 797 sub-micromolar inhibitors of T. brucei growth that are at least 100-fold selective over HepG2 cells. Importantly, 242 of these hit compounds acted rapidly in inhibiting cellular growth, 137 showed rapid cidality. A variety of in silico and in vitro physicochemical and drug metabolism properties were assessed, and human kinase selectivity data were obtained, and, based on these data, we prioritized three compounds for pharmacokinetic assessment and demonstrated parasitological cure of a murine bloodstream infection of T. brucei rhodesiense with one of these compounds (NEU-1053). This work represents a successful implementation of a unique industrial-academic collaboration model aimed at identification of high quality inhibitors that will provide the parasitology community with chemical matter that can be utilized to develop kinase-targeting tool compounds. Furthermore these results are expected to provide rich starting points for discovery of kinase-targeting tool compounds for T. brucei, and new HAT therapeutics discovery programs. PMID:25340575

Diaz, Rosario; Luengo-Arratta, Sandra A.; Seixas, João D.; Amata, Emanuele; Devine, William; Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Rojas-Barros, Domingo I.; Jimenez, Elena; Ortega, Fatima; Crouch, Sabrinia; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Fiandor, Jose Maria; Martin, Jose Julio; Berlanga, Manuela; Gonzalez, Silvia; Manzano, Pilar; Navarro, Miguel; Pollastri, Michael P.

2014-01-01

331

Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

2014-04-01

332

Microbiological laboratory results from Haiti: June-October 1995.  

PubMed Central

From June to October 1995, the U.S. Army's 86th Combat Support Hospital was deployed in Haiti in support of the United Nations peacekeeping mission. The hospital's mission was to provide comprehensive health care to United Nations military and civilian personnel in Haiti. The hospital's laboratory, with microbiological and parasitological capability, was a critical asset in light of the infectious disease threats in Haiti. A total of 356 microbiological (5.4%) and 887 parasitological (13.4%) tests were performed, out of a total of 6628 laboratory tests. One finding was the discovery of antibiotic-resistant urinary isolates of Escherichia coli. These were from community-acquired infections and included strains resistant to ampicillin (6/15), trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (6/15), and ciprofloxacin (2/15). Ampicillin (8/15) and trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (3/15) resistance was also noted in Shigella spp. However, no chloroquine-resistant strains of malaria were encountered. Dengue virus, also mosquito borne, was a major pathogen. Antimicrobial-resistant nosocomial pathogens were also encountered. Deployed laboratories should be able to determine antimicrobial susceptibility and perform microbial identification to guide clinical management, conduct medical surveillance, and detect emerging resistance. PMID:9185362

Drabick, J. J.; Gambel, J. M.; Huck, E.; De Young, S.; Hardeman, L.

1997-01-01

333

Sentinel Surveillance of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Preschool-Aged and School-Aged Children in Selected Local Government Units in the Philippines: Follow-up Assessment.  

PubMed

This study was a follow-up to the baseline nationwide survey of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in preschool-aged children in the Philippines and in school-aged children in selected sentinel sites to assess the Integrated Helminth Control Program of the Department of Health. The objective of the study was to describe the current prevalence and intensity of STH infections in preschool-aged and school-aged children in 6 sentinel provinces and to compare these data with baseline findings. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of STH infections. Parasitological assessment involved the examination of stool samples by the Kato-Katz method. Although parasitological parameters in the 2 age groups at follow-up showed significant reductions from the baseline, these parameters remained high despite 3 years of mass drug administration (MDA). Efforts toward achieving high MDA coverage rates, provision of clean water, environmental sanitation, and promotion of hygiene practices must be prioritized. PMID:23572379

Belizario, Vicente Y; Totañes, Francis Isidore G; de Leon, Winifreda U; Ciro, Raezelle Nadine T; Lumampao, Yvonne F

2015-03-01

334

The protective immune response produced in dogs after primary vaccination with the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish®) remains effective against an experimental challenge one year later.  

PubMed

Control of canine leishmaniasis is an important objective for the benefit of dogs living in or visiting endemic areas and for public health because of the zoonotic nature of this disease. Resistance or susceptibility to developing canine leishmaniasis after exposure to Leishmania infantum is primarily determined by the ability of the immune system to develop an appropriate Th1-dominated specific response to the parasite. For this reason there is a need for effective canine vaccines that can decrease the number of dogs developing progressive infections. In this study, we followed the impact of the LiESP/QA-21 canine vaccine (composed of excreted-secreted proteins of L. infantum and the QA-21 saponin adjuvant), recently launched commercially in Europe, on selected humoral and cellular immune parameters following an infectious intravenous challenge with L. infantum promastigotes administered one year after the primary vaccine course. We also followed parasitological parameters to determine the parasitological status of the challenged dogs. In contrast to controls, vaccinated dogs retained significantly stronger cell-mediated immune responses against the parasite despite a virulent challenge and had significantly lower mean parasite burdens at the end of the study, associated with a lower probability of developing active infections. These results confirm that the immune responses generated by vaccination with LiESP/QA-21 are still effective against an intravenous challenge one year after the primary vaccine course. PMID:24964736

Martin, Virginie; Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Moreno, Javier; McGahie, David; Gueguen, Sylvie; Cuisinier, Anne-Marie

2014-01-01

335

Identification of Leishmania spp. by Molecular Amplification and DNA Sequencing Analysis of a Fragment of rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 ? †  

PubMed Central

Isoenzyme analysis of cultured parasites is the conventional approach for Leishmania species identification. Molecular approaches have the potential to be more sensitive and rapid. We designed PCR generic primers to amplify a segment of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) from multiple Leishmania species. To validate the selected ITS2 fragment, we tested clinical specimens and compared the species results obtained by the molecular approach (PCR followed by DNA sequencing analysis) with those from the parasitologic approach (in vitro culture followed by isoenzyme analysis). Among the 159 patients with clinical specimens positive by both approaches, a total of eight Leishmania species were identified. The species results were concordant for all but two patients: for one patient, the results were Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis by the molecular approach versus L. (V.) braziliensis by the parasitologic approach; for the other patient, the results were L. (Leishmania) tropica versus L. (L.) major, respectively. ITS2 PCR, followed by sequencing analysis, can be used to detect and discriminate among Leishmania species. The results confirmed our hypothesis that a region of the ITS2 gene can complement the characterization of Leishmania parasites at the species level. The approach we developed can be used as a diagnostic tool in reference laboratories with adequate infrastructure to perform molecular characterization of pathogens. PMID:21752983

de Almeida, Marcos E.; Steurer, Francis J.; Koru, Ozgur; Herwaldt, Barbara L.; Pieniazek, Norman J.; da Silva, Alexandre J.

2011-01-01

336

Preliminary investigation of the contribution of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and UGT1A9 polymorphisms on artesunate-mefloquine treatment response in Burmese patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  

PubMed

CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and UGT1A9 genetic polymorphisms and treatment response after a three-day course of artesunate-mefloquine was investigated in 71 Burmese patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Results provide evidence for the possible link between CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 polymorphisms and plasma concentrations of artesunate/dihydroartemisinin and treatment response. In one patient who had the CYP2A6*1A/*4C genotype (decreased enzyme activity), plasma concentration of artesunate at one hour appeared to be higher, and the concentration of dihydroartemisinin was lower than for those carrying other genotypes (415 versus 320 ng/mL). The proportion of patients with adequate clinical and parasitologic response who had the CYP2B6*9/*9 genotype (mutant genotype) was significantly lower compared with those with late parasitologic failure (14.0% versus 19.0%). Confirmation through a larger study in various malaria-endemic areas is required before a definite conclusion on the role of genetic polymorphisms of these drug-metabolizing enzymes on treatment response after artesunate-based combination therapy can be made. PMID:24891466

Phompradit, Papichaya; Muhamad, Poonuch; Cheoymang, Anurak; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

2014-08-01

337

Field trial of vaccination against American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) in dogs.  

PubMed

In Santiago del Estero, an area endemic for Chagas' disease in northwestern Argentina, household dogs were vaccinated with live-attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi, and the prospective incidence of natural infection by this parasite was assessed during a two-year followup period. Vaccinated dogs received 10(7) attenuated, TCC strain T. cruzi epimastigotes and were given booster vaccinations two and 14 months later. The number of animals that could be evaluated in vaccinated versus control groups was 73 and 75 after one year and 49 and 40 after two years, respectively. Parasitologic evaluation by xenodiagnosis indicated that vaccination had reduced natural T. cruzi infection from 26.7% to 12.3% after one year (P = 0.015). The preventive effect of vaccination after the second year was less significant in spite of the booster vaccinations. Inclusion of indirect hemagglutination data for the diagnosis of infection slightly increased the number of infected dogs without affecting the evidence for protection in the first year. Serologic, parasitologic, and isoenzyme studies indicated that protection was mediated by an attenuated, self-cured infection. In 15 dogs in which the vaccination failed to completely prevent natural infection, immunization nevertheless impaired their ability to infect the natural insect vectors of the disease in humans. PMID:8352387

Basombrio, M A; Segura, M A; Mora, M C; Gomez, L

1993-07-01

338

A coprological survey of parasites in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Sector Santa Rosa, ACG, Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Neotropical primate parasitology has been dominated by studies of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.), whereas the literature on the parasites of other platyrrhines is relatively sparse. We analysed the faeces of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in a Costa Rican tropical dry forest and recovered 8 parasite taxa (Filariopsis barretoi,Giardia duodenalis, Strongyloides sp., Prosthenorchis sp., a spirurid nematode, a subulurid nematode, a strongylid nematode and a cestode). F. barretoi and Strongyloides sp. were the most prevalent parasites and were recovered from 84 and 76% of the sampled individuals, respectively. Individual capuchins were infected with an average of 1.89 parasite species. Capuchins host a diverse suite of parasites belonging to several taxonomic groups (Nematoda, Cestoda, Acanthocephala, Protozoa) and including species with direct and indirect life cycles. Many capuchin parasites are transmitted through the consumption of invertebrate intermediate hosts making diet a critical component of capuchin-parasite ecology. This study represents the most intensive parasitological survey of wild capuchin monkeys to date. PMID:23571310

Parr, Nigel A; Fedigan, Linda M; Kutz, Susan J

2013-01-01

339

Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Suspected Patients Referred To the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Tehran, Iran from 2008 To 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major health problem in many parts of Iran, although diagnosis of CL especially in the endemic area is easy, but treatment and management of the disease is a global dilemma. Diagnosis of CL in non-endemic area is not as simple as in endemic foci. In this study, the status and the proportions of CL induced by Leishmania major and L. tropica among CL suspected patients referred to the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, (CRTSDL) during 2008 to 2011 are described. Methods CL patients with suspected lesions were clinically examined. History of trip to zoonotic CL and/or anthroponotic CL endemic areas and the characteristics of their lesion(s) were recorded. Diagnosis of the lesion was done using direct smear microscopy, culture and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results A total of 404 (M = 256, F = 148) patients with 776 lesions were recruited and parasitologically examined. The results showed that 255 of the patients with 613 lesions; patients with lesion(s) induced by L. major=147 (M = 63, 43%, F = 84, 57%) and lesion(s) induced by L. tropica=108 (M = 35, 32%, F = 73, 68%). History of travel to endemic area was not always correlated with isolated Leishmania species. Conclusion Although travel history to endemic area is an important factor to be considered for diagnosis, but parasitological confirmation is necessary initiation of treatment. PMID:24454437

MOHAMMADI, Akram MIR AMIN; KHAMESIPOUR, Ali; KHATAMI, Alireza; JAVADI, Amir; NASSIRI-KASHANI, Mansour; FIROOZ, Alireza; DOWLATI, Yahya; BEHNIA, Massoud; ESKANDARI, Seyyed Ebrahim

2013-01-01

340

Where are the parasites in food webs?  

PubMed Central

This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies) focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles. PMID:23092160

2012-01-01

341

[Not Available].  

PubMed

The teaching of Biology at the Medical Faculty in Sofia started in 1918 with Botany and Zoology. Already in the next year, it was radically changed by Metodii Popov: 1. Instead of Botany he introduced General Biology, and instead of Zoology - Parasitology (including a general review of the evolution of non-vertebrate animals) and Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates; 2. He adapted the teaching of Biology to the needs of the medical education. Those changes were possible thanks to the considerable medical background of M. Popov - it started in 1911 with suitable specialization and research activities, and continued with the establishment of Department of Biology and the Medical Faculty, and the involvement of medics, besides biologists, in its academic staff. During the past years there have been a lot of changes in the curriculum both in its schedule and contents. Some of them were as a result of the development of the biological science and the integration with the other disciples, but some were forced by the administration. Today the students have 90 hours of lectures and a practical course of 90 hours as well. They have at their disposal textbooks on "Biology", "Parasitology" and "Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates", as well as, a "Textbook for the practical Course on Biology". Their knowledge is evaluated during the practical course, at two colloquia, and at a practical and theoretical (oral) exam at the end of the first year of education. PMID:11624533

Nakov, L

342

Comparative studies on IFAT, ELISA & DAT for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to estimate the specificity and sensitivity of different serological methods for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Bangladesh. Blood samples from 155 suspected kala-azar patients together with 80 sick subjects and 50 healthy subjects from the endemic areas were collected. Out of the 155 suspected kala-azar patients, bone marrow were collected from 126 patients. All bone marrow samples were examined by direct microscopy. 92 bone marrow samples were also examined by culture method. Blood samples were examined by various serological tests. Out of 126 marrow samples, LD bodies were present by microscopy in 77 (61.1%) cases and out of 92 marrow samples, cultures for LD bodies were positive in 33 (35.9%) cases. All the three serological tests (IFAT, ELISA & DAT) were positive in all parasitologically positive kala-azar patients. They were also positive in seven (15.5%) out of 45 parasitologically negative cases and 10 (34.4%) out of remaining 29 cases in whom bone marrow samples were not available. Thus the serological tests proved to be simple, non-invasive, highly sensitive and specific methods for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. DAT is the simplest of these serological tests, although these tests did not differ in sensitivity and specificity. PMID:9037842

Alam, M J; Rahman, K M; Asna, S M; Muazzam, N; Ahmed, I; Chowdhury, M Z

1996-04-01

343

Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

2014-01-01

344

Quality of uncomplicated malaria case management in Ghana among insured and uninsured patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction The National Health Insurance Act, 2003 (Act 650) established the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana with the aim of increasing access to health care and improving the quality of basic health care services for all citizens. The main objective is to assess the effect of health insurance on the quality of case management for patients with uncomplicated malaria, ascertaining any significant differences in treatment between insured and non-insured patients. Method A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 523 respondents diagnosed with malaria and prescribed malaria drugs from public and private health facilities in 3 districts across Ghana’s three ecological zones. Collected information included initial examinations performed on patients (temperature, weight, age, blood pressure and pulse); observations of malaria symptoms by trained staff, laboratory tests conducted and type of drugs prescribed. Insurance status of patients, age, gender, education level and occupation were asked in the interviews. Results Of the 523 patients interviewed, only 40 (8%) were uninsured. Routine recording of the patients’ age, weight, and temperature was high in all the facilities. In general, assessments needed to identify suspected malaria were low in all the facilities with hot body/fever and headache ranking the highest and convulsion ranking the lowest. Parasitological assessments in all the facilities were also very low. All patients interviewed were prescribed ACTs which is in adherence to the drug of choice for malaria treatment in Ghana. However, there were no significant differences in the quality of malaria treatment given to the uninsured and insured patients. Conclusion Adherence to the standard protocol of malaria treatment is low. This is especially the case for parasitological confirmation of all suspected malaria patients before treatment with an antimalarial as currently recommended for the effective management of malaria in the country. The results show that about 16 percent of total sample were parasitologically tested. Effective management of the disease demands proper diagnosis and treatment and therefore facilities need to be adequately supplied with RDTs or be equipped with well functioning laboratories to provide adequate testing. PMID:25056139

2014-01-01

345

Efficacy of 5-Nitroimidazoles for the Treatment of Giardiasis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide and 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of giardiasis. We evaluated the efficacy of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NI) in the treatment of giardiasis in a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comprehensive literature search in PubMed-Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for RCTs evaluating the efficacy of 5-NI vs. control (placebo or active treatment) on parasitological cure in patients with parasitologically-demonstrated giardiasis. The search was performed in May 2013 with no language restriction by two authors independently. The efficacy outcome was parasitological cure, and harmful outcomes were abdominal pain, bitter or metallic taste, and headache. We included 30 RCTs (n?=?3,930). There was a significant and slightly higher response rate with 5-NI in giardiasis treatment (RR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.11, p?=?0.005). There was high heterogeneity among studies (I2?=?72%). The response rates for metronidazole, tinidazole and secnidazole were similar (RR 1.05, 95%CI 1.01–1.09, p?=?0.01; RR 1.32 95%CI 1.10–1.59, p?=?0.003; and RR 1.18 95%CI 0.93–1.449, p?=?0.18, respectively). On subgroup analyses, the response rates did not vary substantially and high heterogeneity persisted (I2?=?57%–80%). Harmful outcomes were uncommon, and 5-NIs were associated with lower risk of abdominal pain, and higher risk of both bitter or metallic taste and headache. Conclusions Studies investigating the efficacy of 5-NI in giardiasis treatment are highly heterogeneous. 5-NIs have a slightly better efficacy and worse profile for mild harmful outcomes in the treatment of giardiasis in comparison to controls. Larger high quality RCTs are needed to further assess efficacy and safety profiles of 5-NI. PMID:24625554

Deshpande, Abhishek; Thota, Priyaleela; Roman, Yuani; Hernandez, Adrian V.

2014-01-01

346

Four Additional Cases of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Infection Confirmed by Analysis of COX1 Gene in Korea  

PubMed Central

Most of the diphyllobothriid tapeworms isolated from human samples in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) have been identified as Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense by genetic analysis. This paper reports confirmation of D. nihonkaiense infections in 4 additional human samples obtained between 1995 and 2014, which were analyzed at the Department of Parasitology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Korea. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) gene revealed a 98.5-99.5% similarity with a reference D. nihonkaiense sequence in GenBank. The present report adds 4 cases of D. nihonkaiense infections to the literature, indicating that the dominant diphyllobothriid tapeworm species in Korea is D. nihonkaiense but not D. latum. PMID:25748716

Park, Sang Hyun; Jeon, Hyeong Kyu; Kim, Jin Bong

2015-01-01

347

Fasciola hepatica: influence of gender and liver biotransformations on flukicide treatment efficacy of rats infested and cured with either clorsulon/ivermectin or triclabendazole.  

PubMed

Two fasciolicide preparations have been compared in 130 rats experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Parasitological, immunological, and biochemical parameters have been followed to monitor the efficacy of the treatments. While Fascinex (triclabendazole) efficiently cured both male and female rats when administered as soon as 4 weeks postinfection, treatment with Ivomec-D (clorsulon + ivermectin) displayed a low efficacy on either male or female rats at this time point (54 and 0%, respectively). Moreover, when administered 8 weeks postinfection, the Ivomec-D treatment proved highly efficient on male rats while it displayed little effect on the female population (100 and 53%, respectively). This unexpected result has been related to an overexpression of a P4503A isoform that is observed only in females that have been treated with Ivomec-D. The influence of this P4503A cytochrome on drug metabolism and the need for the incorporation of both genders in clinical trials are discussed. PMID:10831390

Sibille, P; Calléja, C; Carreras, F; Bigot, K; Galtier, P; Boulard, C

2000-04-01

348

[Age-related dynamics of roach infection rate with Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Ligulidae) plerocercoids and probability of its usage for the calculation of host death rate].  

PubMed

Results of special parasitological dissections of roach samples from catches with the same fishing gear and at the same station (Monakhovo Cove, Chivyrkui Bay of the Lake Baikal) and at the same time in different years (1998-2002) are given. Stability of age-related dynamics of roach infection rate with Ligula intestinalisis in different years with the maximum of prevalence and mean abundance in fish of 3+ age, and the following sharp decrease in these rates in elder age groups, was revealed. Basing on prevalence decreasing of a single roach generation, the rate of fish mortality during its growth from age group 3+ to 4+ was estimated as 15.9-20.7%. PMID:25693329

Pronin, N M; Pronina, S V

2014-01-01

349

Seroepidemiological study of visceral leishmaniasis among humans and animal reservoirs in Bushehr province, Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

Using direct agglutination tests, a survey of visceral leishmaniasis was carried out among children and adults from 13 villages and from nomadic tribes in Bushehr province during 1998-99. Of the 1496 plasma samples, the overall seropositive rate (titres > or = 1:3200) was 3.4%. Almost all cases (94.1%) were in children under 10 years old. Eighteen patients were diagnosed with kala azar; fever and splenomegaly were the predominant signs and symptoms. Parasitology and serology examinations of local animals identified dogs and jackals infected with Leishmania infantum. Suggestions for control of visceral leishmaniasis in this area are to eliminate stray dogs, identify cases among humans and suspected leashed dogs, and treat infected individuals. PMID:15332732

Mohebali, M; Hamzavi, Y; Edrissian, G H; Forouzani, A

2001-11-01

350

Principles and applications of polymerase chain reaction in medical diagnostic fields: a review  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized the detection and characterization of microorganisms in a broad range of medical diagnostic fields, including virology, mycology, parasitology, microbiology and dentistry. Among these methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has generated great benefits and allowed scientific advancements. PCR is an excellent technique for the rapid detection of pathogens, including those difficult to culture. Along with conventional PCR techniques, Real-Time PCR has emerged as a technological innovation and is playing an ever-increasing role in clinical diagnostics and research laboratories. Due to its capacity to generate both qualitative and quantitative results, Real-Time PCR is considered a fast and accurate platform. The aim of the present literature review is to explore the clinical usefulness and potential of both conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR assays in diverse medical fields, addressing its main uses and advances. PMID:24031310

Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Crovela, Sergio

2009-01-01

351

The nematode community in the Atlantic rainforest lizard Enyalius perditus Jackson, from south-eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Studies focusing on communities of helminths from Brazilian lizards are increasing, but there are many blanks in the knowledge of parasitic fauna of wild fauna. This lack of knowledge hampers understanding of ecological and parasitological aspects of involved species. Moreover, the majority of research has focused on parasitic fauna of lizards from families Tropiduridae and Scincidae. Only a few studies have looked at lizards from the family Leiosauridae, including some species of Enyalius. This study presents data on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Enyalius perditus and their relationships with ecological aspects of hosts in a disturbed Atlantic rainforest area in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. Two nematode species, Oswaldocruzia burseyi [(Molineidae) and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae) were found. Nematode species showed an aggregated distribution in this host population, with O. burseyi being more aggregated than S. oscari. The present study extends the range of occurrence of O. burseyi to the Brazilian continental area. PMID:22008646

Barreto-Lima, A F; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A

2012-12-01

352

Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

1990-01-01

353

Joseph Leidy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Joseph Leidy was the leading American expert on anatomy and vertebrate paleontology during the mid nineteenth century and author of over 200 scientific texts. Philadelphia's Academy of Natural Sciences, where Leidy worked, is fortunate to have a great portion of Leidy's collections. The Academy has put together this nice, illustrated site on Leidy's important work. The section on fossils includes a hypertext list of specific names with links to photographs, illustrations, and descriptions of the specimens. Be sure not to miss the section on the duckbilled dinosaur Hadrosaurus foulkii, the subject of Leidy's best known monograph. Other highlights are an overview of Leidy's other scientific work, including forays into parasitology and protozoology and his Professorship in Anatomy, a timeline biography, and a thorough index.

354

[Analysis of the results of the SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2011].  

PubMed

The External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica [SEIMC]) includes controls for bacteriology, serology, mycology, parasitology, mycobacteria, virology, and molecular microbiology. This article presents the most relevant conclusions and lessons from the 2011 controls. Overall, the results obtained in 2011 confirm the excellent skill and good technical standards found in previous years. Nevertheless, erroneous results can be obtained in any laboratory and in clinically relevant determinations. The results of this program highlight the need to implement both internal and external controls, such as those offered by the SEIMC program, in order to ensure maximal quality of microbiological tests. PMID:23453224

Ruiz de Gopegui Bordes, Enrique; Guna Serrano, M del Remedio; Orta Mira, Nieves; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

2013-02-01

355

Parasites as valuable stock markers for fisheries in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands.  

PubMed

Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area. PMID:24598117

Lester, R J G; Moore, B R

2015-01-01

356

Comparative efficacy of meglumine antimoniate and aminosidine sulphate, alone or in combination, in canine leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Thirty-two domestic dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and showing viscero-cutaneous signs of canine leishmaniasis were treated with aminosidine sulphate (11 dogs) meglumine antimoniate (10 dogs) or with a combination of the two drugs (11 dogs) for 21 consecutive days. Clinical and laboratory assessments, made on day 21 and at 2, 4 and 6 months after initiation of treatment, showed that the drug combination gave the best score in terms of clinical efficacy, incidences of early clinical relapse, any clinical relapse or apparent parasitological cure, and reduction in parasite densities in bone-marrow and lymphnode aspirates (even though a lower dose of antimonial was used in the combination than for antimonial monotherapy). For each of the above parameters, however, the higher efficacy of the drug combination was not statistically significant, probably because of the large variations caused by using naturally infected animals of various ages and breeds. PMID:9625912

Oliva, G; Gradoni, L; Cortese, L; Orsini, S; Ciaramella, P; Scalone, A; de Luna, R; Persechino, A

1998-03-01

357

Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial–temporal models?  

PubMed Central

As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

Alegana, Victor A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wright, Jim A.; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

2013-01-01

358

Spatio-temporal patterns of schistosomiasis japonica in lake and marshland areas in China: the effect of snail habitats.  

PubMed

The progress of the integrated control policy for schistosomiasis implemented since 2005 in China, which is aiming at reducing the roles of bovines and humans as infection sources, may be challenged by persistent presence of infected snails in lake and marshland areas. Based on annual parasitologic data for schistosomiasis during 2004-2011 in Xingzi County, a spatio-temporal kriging model was used to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Results showed that environmental factors related to snail habitats can explain the spatio-temporal variation of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps of schistosomiasis risk illustrated that clusters of the disease fluctuated during 2004-2008; there was an extensive outbreak in 2008 and attenuated disease occurrences afterwards. An area with an annually constant cluster of schistosomiasis was identified. Our study suggests that targeting snail habitats located within high-risk areas for schistosomiasis would be an economic and sustainable way of schistosomiasis control in the future. PMID:24980498

Hu, Yi; Gao, Jie; Chi, Meina; Luo, Can; Lynn, Henry; Sun, Liqian; Tao, Bo; Wang, Decheng; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

2014-09-01

359

Redescription of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis metacercariae (Digenea: Clinostomidae) in cichlids from Lake Kinneret, Israel.  

PubMed

Clinostomidae are digeneans characterized by a complex taxonomic history, continuously under revision based on both morphological and molecular analysis. Among the 14 species considered valid so far Clinostomum phalacrocoracis has been well described only at the adult stage, whereas the morphology of the metacercarial stage has been reported only once. During a parasitological survey carried out on 262 wild cichlids sampled from Lake Kinneret (Israel) metacercariae referable to C. phalacrocoracis were found in 18 fingerlings. In this study, we report this clinostomid species for the first time in wild fish from Israel describing the metacercarial stage of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis, coupling its morphological description with molecular analysis carried out on ITS rDNA and COI mtDNA sequences. PMID:24986336

Caffara, Monica; Davidovich, Nadav; Falk, Rama; Smirnov, Margarita; Ofek, Tamir; Cummings, David; Gustinelli, Andrea; Fioravanti, Maria L

2014-01-01

360

Euclinostomum heterostomum infection in guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured in Southern Thailand.  

PubMed

During April to June 2009 and February 2010 to February 2011, numerous digenetic trematode metacercariae were observed embedded in the muscles of guppies Poecilia reticulata cultured at Kidchakan Supamattaya Aquatic Animal Health Research Center, Songkhla, southern Thailand. A total of 424 guppies were examined to identify the parasite and to study its pathogenicity. Based on conventional parasitological techniques, the parasitic digenean found in the guppies was identified as Euclinostomum heterostomum Rudolphi, 1809. Histological analysis revealed numerous metacercariae embedded in the fish muscle. A life cycle study indicated that the snail Indoplanorbis exustus was the first intermediate host, with the guppies serving as the second intermediate host. No E. heterostomum metacercariae were found in cohabited fish species, giant sailfin molly Poecilia velifera or platy Xiphophorus maculatus, which indicated that the guppy was the only suitable fish host present. PMID:23709465

Suanyuk, Naraid; Mankhakhet, Suchanya; Soliman, Hatem; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2013-05-27

361

Multiple parasites mediate balancing selection at two MHC class II genes in the fossorial water vole: insights from multivariate analyses and population genetics.  

PubMed

We investigated the factors mediating selection acting on two MHC class II genes (DQA and DRB) in water vole (Arvicola scherman) natural populations in the French Jura Mountains. Population genetics showed significant homogeneity in allelic frequencies at the DQA1 locus as opposed to neutral markers (nine microsatellites), indicating balancing selection acting on this gene. Moreover, almost exhaustive screening for parasites, including gastrointestinal helminths, brain coccidia and antibodies against viruses responsible for zoonoses, was carried out. We applied a co-inertia approach to the genetic and parasitological data sets to avoid statistical problems related to multiple testing. Two alleles, Arte-DRB-11 and Arte-DRB-15, displayed antagonistic associations with the nematode Trichuris arvicolae, revealing the potential parasite-mediated selection acting on DRB locus. Selection mechanisms acting on the two MHC class II genes thus appeared different. Moreover, overdominance as balancing selection mechanism was showed highly unlikely in this system. PMID:18624885

Tollenaere, C; Bryja, J; Galan, M; Cadet, P; Deter, J; Chaval, Y; Berthier, K; Ribas Salvador, A; Voutilainen, L; Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

2008-09-01

362

History and development of research on wildlife parasites in southern Africa, with emphasis on terrestrial mammals, especially ungulates.  

PubMed

The history of wildlife parasitology in South Africa, and to some extent southern Africa, is reviewed, giving a brief overview of the early years and following its development from the founding of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in 1908 until the turn of the century. An emphasis is placed on game species. The main findings on protozoan parasites, including those of carnivores, are presented, starting in the 1890s and leading up to the first decade of the 21st century. Important developments with regard to the studies of arthropod and helminth parasites took place during a period of three decades, starting from the 1970s. Because of the sheer volume of work done by parasitologists during this time, this particular part of the overview concentrates on South African authors or authors working in South Africa at the time, and is limited to hosts that are members of the order Perissodactyla and the superorder Cetartiodactyla. PMID:25830101

Junker, Kerstin; Horak, Ivan G; Penzhorn, Banie

2015-04-01

363

Acanthocephala of marine fishes off Fiji Islands, with descriptions of Filisoma longcementglandatus n. sp., Neorhadinorhynchus macrospinosus n. sp. (Cavisomidae), and gravid females of Rhadinorhynchus johnstoni (Rhadinorhynchidae); and keys to species of the genera Filisoma and Neorhadinorhynchus.  

PubMed

A parasitological collection from marine fishes off the Fiji Islands yielded 5 species of acanthocephalans from 4 species of fish as follows: Filisoma longcementglandatus n. sp. from scat Scatophagus argus; Neorhadinorhynchus macrospinosus n. sp. from vermiculated rabbit fish Siganus vermicularis; Neorhadinorhynchus nudum (Harada, 1938) Yamaguti, 1939 (Cavisomidae) from mackerel tuna Euthynnus affinis; Rhadinorhynchus johnstoni Golvan, 1969 (Rhadinorhynchidae) from E. affinis; and Neoechinorhynchus agilis (Rudolphi, 1819) Van Cleave, 1916 (Neoechinorhynchidae) from striped mullet Mugil cephalus. All are new locality records and, except for N. agilis, new host records. Filisoma longcementglandatus is distinguished from all other species of the genus by its very long cement glands and size and armature of its proboscis. Neorhadinorhynchus macrospinosus has distinctly larger proboscis hooks than all other members of the genus. Keys to species of the genera Filisoma and Neorhadinorhynchus are included. Gravid females of the inadequately described R. johnstoni are described for the first time. Taxonomic notes on the other acanthocephalan species are also included. PMID:7931911

Amin, O M; Nahhas, F M

1994-10-01

364

[Instituto de Investigaciones Clinicas "Dr. Américo Negrette": 55 years of excellent research versus global economic recession].  

PubMed

The Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas "Dr. Américo Negrette" belongs to the Faculty of Medicine at University of Zulia in Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. It was created on December 4, 1959 by Dr. Américo Negrette. Today, with 55 years of existence, the Institute seeks to fulfill the mission that characterizes it, based on the values instilled by its founder and maintained by subsequent generations, whose research projects are implemented through seven research sections: Biochemistry, Hematologic Research, Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience, Immunology and Cell Biology, Clinical Neurochemistry, Parasitology and Virology. The research originated in these laboratories have become national and international points of reference, despite the current economic situation with budget deficits that put at risk the quality and originality of their projects with negative consequences on the productivity and applications for health population, reasons of biomedical research. PMID:25558749

Valero Cedeño, Nereida Josefina

2014-12-01

365

Parasitic diseases of marine fish: epidemiological and sanitary considerations.  

PubMed

Over recent decades, parasitic diseases have been increasingly considered a sanitary and economic threat to Mediterranean aquaculture. In order to monitor the distribution of parasites in cultured marine fish from Italy and study their pathogenic effects on the host, a three-year survey based on parasitological and histopathological exams was carried out on 2141 subjects from eleven fish species and coming from different farming systems (extensive, intensive inland farms, inshore floating cages, offshore floating cages and submersible cages). A number of parasitic species was detected, mostly in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), mullets (Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada) and sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo), with distribution patterns and prevalence values varying in relation to the farming system, in-season period and size category. The epidemiology and pathological effects of the parasites found during the survey are discussed. PMID:16881387

Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M; Florio, D; Gustinelli, A; Marcer, F; Quaglio, F

2006-06-01

366

Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.  

PubMed

Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies.  PMID:25082165

Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

2014-01-01

367

Helminth parasitic infections of the central nervous system: a diagnostic approach.  

PubMed

Helminth parasitic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) occur worldwide with high prevalence in tropical and subtropical countries. Clinical evaluation of patients is mandatory, and it is convenient to group the clinical manifestations into syndromes: for example space-occupying lesions, meningitis, and encephalitis. The history should focus on residence or travel to endemic areas, diet, activities, intercurrent medical conditions, and associated clinical clues. Direct parasitological diagnosis can be reached by cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral tissue examination either by microscopy, culture, or immunological techniques. Immunodiagnosis by detection of parasite antibodies or antigens in serum could provide indirect evidence of parasitic infections. In addition, various imaging and radiological techniques e.g., computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) complement the diagnostic work-up of CNS diseases. Finally, the helminthic CNS infections of global impact, such as schistosomiasis, neurotoxocariasis, Strongyloides infection, neurotrichinosis, neurocysticercosis, and echinococcosis will be briefly discussed as regards the principal clinical and diagnostic features. PMID:24961012

Othman, Ahmad A; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Ganna, Ahmed A

2014-04-01

368

The impact of multiple infections on wild animal hosts: a review  

PubMed Central

Field parasitological studies consistently demonstrate the reality of polyparasitism in natural systems. However, only recently, studies from ecological and evolutionary fields have emphasised a broad spectrum of potential multiple infections-related impacts. The main goal of our review is to reunify the different approaches on the impacts of polyparasitism, not only from laboratory or human medical studies but also from field or theoretical studies. We put forward that ecological and epidemiological determinants to explain the level of polyparasitism, which regularly affects not only host body condition, survival or reproduction but also host metabolism, genetics or immune investment. Despite inherent limitations of all these studies, multiple infections should be considered more systematically in wildlife to better appreciate the importance of parasite diversity in wildlife, cumulative effects of parasitism on the ecology and evolution of their hosts. PMID:22957114

Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge

2011-01-01

369

[Acanthamoeba sp. keratitis: first case confirmed by isolation and molecular typification in Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina].  

PubMed

Some species of the Acanthamoeba genus cause keratitis, a very painful, most likely unilateral corneal infection , associated with eye and vision impairment. We here present a case of a 31-year-old female patient, a regular user of soft contact lenses without good practices of lens hygiene and handling. The patient attended medical consultation after two months of inflammation and pain in her right eye. After ophthalmological studies, and due to suspicion of a parasitic infection, a biopsy was performed and the sample submitted for bacteriological and parasitological analyses. Moreover, contact lens holders and lens cleaning solutions were studied. The samples yielded negative results for bacterial infection. However, cultivation of all samples showed the presence of amoeboid parasites. Isolated amoebae were morphologically and molecularly classified as members of the Acanthamoeba genus. This is the first case of keratitis caused by Acanthamoeba in Bahía Blanca, Buenos Aires Province, where the parasite was identified by specific and sensitive molecular techniques. PMID:20589334

Gertiser, M L; Giagante, E; Sgattoni, E; Basabe, N; Rivero, F; Luján, H; Occhionero, M; Paniccia, L; Visciarelli, E; Costamagna, S R

2010-01-01

370

Status and prospects of DNA barcoding in medically important parasites and vectors.  

PubMed

For over 10 years, DNA barcoding has been used to identify specimens and discern species. Its potential benefits in parasitology were recognized early, but its utility and uptake remain unclear. Here we review studies using DNA barcoding in parasites and vectors affecting humans and find that the technique is accurate (accords with author identifications based on morphology or other markers) in 94-95% of cases, although aspects of DNA barcoding (vouchering, marker implicated) have often been misunderstood. In a newly compiled checklist of parasites, vectors, and hazards, barcodes are available for 43% of all 1403 species and for more than half of 429 species of greater medical importance. This is encouraging coverage that would improve with an active campaign targeting parasites and vectors. PMID:25447202

Ondrejicka, Danielle A; Locke, Sean A; Morey, Kevin; Borisenko, Alex V; Hanner, Robert H

2014-12-01

371

Parasites or Cohabitants: Cruel Omnipresent Usurpers or Creative “Éminences Grises”?  

PubMed Central

This paper presents many types of interplays between parasites and the host, showing the history of parasites, the effects of parasites on the outcome of wars, invasions, migrations, and on the development of numerous regions of the globe, and the impact of parasitic diseases on the society and on the course of human evolution. It also emphasizes the pressing need to change the look at the parasitism phenomenon, proposing that the term “cohabitant” is more accurate than parasite, because every living being, from bacteria to mammals, is a consortium of living beings in the pangenome. Even the term parasitology should be replaced by cohabitology because there is no parasite alone and host alone: both together compose a new adaptive system: the parasitized-host or the cohabitant-cohabited being. It also suggests switching the old paradigm based on attrition and destruction, to a new one founded on adaptation and living together. PMID:21785696

Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Lenzi, Henrique L.

2011-01-01

372

A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases.  

PubMed

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS) was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language). The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology) and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries. PMID:25526544

Charbonnier, Amandine; Knapp, Jenny; Demonmerot, Florent; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Raoul, Francis; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Damy, Sylvie

2014-01-01

373

 

PubMed Central

Intestinal bilharziasis (or schistosomiasis) is becoming more and more frequent among Canadian travellers who come in contact with natural soft waters in tropical countries. The clinical signs accompanying contamination, the prodrome and the chronic phase are inconstant, but eosinophilia is often the warning sign, and specific seroparasitologic findings suggest the diagnostic investigation, Five tourists from Quebec became infected while travelling in Martinique. The clinical, parasitologic and serologic features that led to the diagnosis are described. The prodome (a flu-like syndrome with eosinophilia) is underlined. Treatment with niridazole was effective, as confirmed by the absence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs (or the presence of dead eggs) in specimens from rectal biopsies performed subsequently. Images FIG. 2 PMID:7059888

Viens, P.; Morisset, R.; Clermont, R.

1982-01-01

374

A report on the genital myiasis by Wohlfahrtia magnifica in camel herds in southwest of Iran.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a disease of vertebrate animals caused by different fly larvae. Wohlfahrtia magnifica is responsible for serious losses in animal husbandry in Eurasia. Larvae of W. magnifica parasitize several warm-blooded vertebrates and are responsible for a severe traumatic myiasis of mucosal membranes or wounds. This myiasis has been reported in many European areas, but for the first time was reported from Iran. Larvae infestation was observed in five camels out of 35 (14.28%) around the perinea and vaginal region of camels in a herd in southwest of Iran. The larvae samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory of parasitology for identification. This is the first report of infestation of a camel herd (camelus dromedarius) in Iran. The treatment was performed and prevented the loss from camels and improved their physical condition. Although the myiasis is not a lethal disorder, however knowledge of the disease is necessary from preventive, diagnostic and curative standpoint. PMID:25610587

Pirali Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Dehghani Samani, Amir; Rajabi Vardanjani, Hossein

2014-01-01

375

Human host determinants influencing the outcome of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infections  

PubMed Central

Since first identified, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness has been described as invariably fatal. Increasing data however argue that infection by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, the causative agent of HAT, results in a wide range of outcomes in its human host and importantly that a number of subjects in endemic areas are apparently able to control infection to low levels, undetectable by the classical parasitological tests used in the field. Thus, trypanotolerance seems to occur in humans as has already been described in cattle or in the rodent experimental models of infection. This review focuses on the description of the diversity of outcomes resulting from T. b. gambiense in humans and on the host factors involved. The consequences/impacts on HAT epidemiology resulting from this diversity are also discussed with regard to implementing sustainable HAT control strategies. PMID:21385185

Bucheton, B; MacLeod, A; Jamonneau, V

2011-01-01

376

Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida Trypanosomatidae): ecology of the transmission cycle in the wild environment of the Andean valley of Cochabamba, Bolivia.  

PubMed

An active Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle maintained by wild rodents in the Andean valleys of Cochabamba Bolivia is described. Wild and domestic Triatoma infestans with 60% infection with T. cruzi were found and was evidenced in 47.5% (rodents) and 26.7% (marsupial) by parasitological and/or serologycal methods. Phyllotis ocilae and the marsupial species Thylamys elegans, are the most important reservoirs followed by Bolomys lactens and Akodon boliviensis. In spite of both genotypes (TCI and TCII) being prevalent in Bolivia, in our study area only T. cruzi I is being transmitted. Our data suggest that wild T. infestans and wild small mammals play an important role in the maintenance of the transmission cycle of T. cruzi. Furthermore, the finding of high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in wild T. infestans point to the risk of the dispersion of Chagas' disease. PMID:16797540

Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Pinho, Ana Paula; Cuervo, Patricia; Alfaro, Fernando; Solano, Marco; Xavier, Samanta C C; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Fernandes, Octavio; Torrico, Faustino; Noireau, François; Jansen, Ana Maria

2006-12-01

377

Gastrointestinal parasites of sheep, municipality of Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study investigated the gastrointestinal parasitism by helminths and protozoa in sheep (Ovis aries) Santa Inês breed, municipality of Lajes, Rio Grande do Norte. Monthly, from April 2005 to August 2007, stool samples were collected from two tracer lambs in the first day of the experiment and performed a necropsy of these animals in 44th day. A total of 64 lambs were sampled, but only 62 lambs were slaughtered. The fecal samples were examined by sedimentation in water. The contents of the abomasum, small intestine and large intestine were examined for the recovery of helminths. The parasitological examination revealed eggs of the following groups of helminths: Strongyloidea, Strongyloides sp., Trichuris sp., and Moniezia sp. Also were found oocysts of Eimeria spp., cysts of Entamoeba ovis and Giardia duodenalis. The helminths identified from examining the contents were: Haemonchus contortus, Cooperia pectinata, Cooperia punctata, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Moniezia expansa, Oesophagostomum sp. Skrjabinema ovis and Trichuris sp. PMID:22534950

de Souza, Maria de Fátima; Pimentel-Neto, Manoel; da Silva, Rízia Maria; Farias, Albeísa Cleyse Batista; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi

2012-01-01

378

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: an unresolved mystery  

PubMed Central

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a cutaneous sequela of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), develops in some patients alongside but more commonly after apparent cure from VL. In view of the pivotal role of PKDL patients in the transmission of VL, here we review clinical, epidemiological, parasitological, and immunological perspectives of this disease, focusing on five hypotheses to explain the development of PKDL: (i) the role of antimonial drugs; (ii) UV-induced skin damage; (iii) reinfection; (iv) organ specific failure of memory T cell responses; and (v) genetic susceptibility of the host. This review will enable researchers and clinicians to explore the unresolved mystery of PKDL and provide a framework for future application of ‘omic’ approaches for the control and eventual elimination of VL. PMID:24388776

Mukhopadhyay, Debanjan; Dalton, Jane E.; Kaye, Paul M.; Chatterjee, Mitali

2014-01-01

379

[Molecular genetics and epigenetics in the morphogenesis mechanisms].  

PubMed

The progress of molecular genetics principally changed the views on heredity and, in the long run, wrecked the synthetic theory of evolution, designed for the microevolutionary processes in populations only. Molecular genetics as a whole is sufficient for analyzing evolutionary processes in viruses and prokaryotes. But in multicellular organisms, with the advent of more complicated morphogenesis, epigenetic processes took effect. Appealing exclusively to the integrity of the organism in ontogeny is insufficient for the understanding of these processes; further studies of the molecular basis for this integrity are required. The discovery of homeobox genes was an important step on this path. The theory of evolution should include not only the molecular processes but also the laws of ecosystem and biosphere processes, which study requires handling many problems of ecology, parasitology, palaeontology, and geology. All these fields together comprise an enormous area of knowledge for which the development of a unified theory is scarcely possible. PMID:17691453

Tatarinov, L P

2007-01-01

380

Helminth fauna of the Iberian lynx, Lynx pardinus.  

PubMed

Specimens of 12 helminth species were collected from carcasses of eight Lynx pardinus (Temminck, 1827), a carnivore endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. These species included: Brachylaima sp. (12.5%) (Trematoda); Taenia pisiformis (12.5%), T. polyacantha (25%), T. taeniaeformis (25%) and Mesocestoides litteratus (37.5%) (Cestoda); Eucoleus aerophilus (12.5%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (12.5%), Toxocara cati (37.5%), Toxascaris leonina (62.5%), Vigisospirura potekhina potekhina (12.5%), Mastophorus muris (12.5%) and Physaloptera praeputialis (12.5%) (Nematoda). The helminth fauna in Iberian lynx is compared with that of L. canadensis and L. rufus in America, and for L. lynx in Eurasia. The potential relationships between the parasitological data and some geographical, historical and dietary factors are discussed. PMID:9765373

Torres, J; Garciá-Perea, R; Gisbert, J; Feliu, C

1998-09-01

381

Redescription of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis metacercariae (Digenea: Clinostomidae) in cichlids from Lake Kinneret, Israel  

PubMed Central

Clinostomidae are digeneans characterized by a complex taxonomic history, continuously under revision based on both morphological and molecular analysis. Among the 14 species considered valid so far Clinostomum phalacrocoracis has been well described only at the adult stage, whereas the morphology of the metacercarial stage has been reported only once. During a parasitological survey carried out on 262 wild cichlids sampled from Lake Kinneret (Israel) metacercariae referable to C. phalacrocoracis were found in 18 fingerlings. In this study, we report this clinostomid species for the first time in wild fish from Israel describing the metacercarial stage of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis, coupling its morphological description with molecular analysis carried out on ITS rDNA and COI mtDNA sequences. PMID:24986336

Caffara, Monica; Davidovich, Nadav; Falk, Rama; Smirnov, Margarita; Ofek, Tamir; Cummings, David; Gustinelli, Andrea; Fioravanti, Maria L.

2014-01-01

382

Bucephalus polymorphus Baer, 1827 - a new fish parasite in Austria?  

PubMed

During parasitological studies of the invasive round goby fish species Apollonia melanostoma (Pallas, 1814) from the Danube River in 2007 the digenean Bucephalus polymorphus Baer, 1827 was detected for the first time in Austria. Encysted metacercariae of the parasite were found on the fins, skin and gills of the fish. The occurrence of the parasite is strictly dependant on the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), which acts as the obligatory first intermediate host in its life cycle. The mussel has also invaded Austrian waters, but has appeared in 1870 already. It will not be possible to establish whether the parasite was introduced to Austria with the gobies, or has arrived earlier, but it should be the subject of future investigations to ascertain whether the parasite will be able to establish a firm population in Austria, and whether this introduction puts additional pressure on the native fish populations. PMID:19915818

Michael Mühlegger, J; Jirsa, Franz; Konecny, Robert; Sattmann, Helmut; Frank, Christa

2009-10-01

383

Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa  

PubMed Central

Many attempts have been made to quantify Africa’s malaria burden but none has addressed how urbanization will affect disease transmission and outcome, and therefore mortality and morbidity estimates. In 2003, 39% of Africa’s 850 million people lived in urban settings; by 2030, 54% of Africans are expected to do so. We present the results of a series of entomological, parasitological and behavioural meta-analyses of studies that have investigated the effect of urbanization on malaria in Africa. We describe the effect of urbanization on both the impact of malaria transmission and the concomitant improvements in access to preventative and curative measures. Using these data, we have recalculated estimates of populations at risk of malaria and the resulting mortality. We find there were 1,068,505 malaria deaths in Africa in 2000 — a modest 6.7% reduction over previous iterations. The public-health implications of these findings and revised estimates are discussed. PMID:15608702

Hay, Simon I.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Snow, Robert W.

2011-01-01

384

The investigation of congenital infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in an endemic area of Chile: three protocols explored in a pilot project  

PubMed Central

Given the increasing travel of pregnant women from areas were Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic, the congenital transmission of the parasite has become a global public-health problem. In a recent pilot study, which ran in Chile from 2006 to 2010, three strategies for exploring and managing T. cruzi-infected mothers and their infected or uninfected neonates were investigated. Any protocols applied to the investigation of such mother-and-child pairs need to include the detection of infection in pregnant women, the detection of infection, if any, in the children born to the women, the appropriate treatment of the infected neonates, and the serological–parasitological follow-up of all of the neonates until their medical discharge. PMID:21396248

Zulantay, I; Corral, G; Guzman, M C; Aldunate, F; Guerra, W; Cruz, I; Araya, A; Tapia, V; Marquez, F; Muñoz, C; Apt, W

2011-01-01

385

Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis. PMID:24742904

Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

2014-08-01

386

Evaluation of a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a nonendemic setting  

PubMed Central

The disappearance of lytic, protective antibodies (Abs) from the serum of patients with Chagas disease is accepted as a reliable indicator of parasitological cure. The efficiency of a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a purified, trypomastigote-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucin antigen for the serologic detection of lytic Abs against Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in a nonendemic setting using a panel of 92 positive and 58 negative human sera. The technique proved to be highly sensitive {100%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 96-100} and specific (98.3%; 95% CI = 90.7-99.7), with a kappa score of 0.99. Therefore, this assay can be used to detect active T. cruzi infection and to monitor trypanosomicidal treatment. PMID:24271047

Izquierdo, Luis; Marques, Alexandre Ferreira; Gállego, Montserrat; Sanz, Sílvia; Tebar, Sílvia; Riera, Cristina; Quintó, Llorenç; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Almeida, Igor C; Gascon, Joaquim

2013-01-01

387

Intravenous Artesunate for Severe Malaria in Travelers, Europe  

PubMed Central

Multicenter trials in Southeast Asia have shown better survival rates among patients with severe malaria, particularly those with high parasitemia levels, treated with intravenous (IV) artesunate than among those treated with quinine. In Europe, quinine is still the primary treatment for severe malaria. We conducted a retrospective analysis for 25 travelers with severe malaria who returned from malaria-endemic regions and were treated at 7 centers in Europe. All patients survived. Treatment with IV artesunate rapidly reduced parasitemia levels. In 6 patients at 5 treatment centers, a self-limiting episode of unexplained hemolysis occurred after reduction of parasitemia levels. Five patients required a blood transfusion. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had received higher doses of IV artesunate than patients without hemolysis. IV artesunate was an effective alternative to quinine for treatment of malaria patients in Europe. Patients should be monitored for signs of hemolysis, especially after parasitologic cure. PMID:21529383

Junghanss, Thomas; Kapaun, Annette; Gjørup, Ida; Richter, Joachim; Hugo-Persson, Mats; Mørch, Kristine; Foroutan, Behruz; Suttorp, Norbert; Yürek, Salih; Flick, Holger

2011-01-01

388

Prevention and control of malaria and sleeping sickness in Africa: Where are we and where are we going?  

PubMed Central

The International Symposium on Malaria and Human African Trypanosomiasis: New Strategies for their Prevention & Control was held 7-8 October, 2010 in Cotonou, Benin with about 250 participants from 20 countries. This scientific event aimed at identifying the gaps and research priorities in the prevention and control of malaria and sleeping sickness in Africa and to promote exchange between North and South in the fields of medical entomology, epidemiology, immunology and parasitology. A broad range of influential partners from academia (scientists), stakeholders, public health workers and industry attempted the meeting and about 40 oral communications and 20 posters were presented by phD students and internationally-recognized scientists from the North and the South. Finally, a special award ceremony was held to recognize efforts in pioneer work conducted by staff involved in the diagnostic of the Sleeping illness in West Africa with partnership and assistance from WHO and Sanofi-Aventis group. PMID:21410946

2011-01-01

389

History and development of research on wildlife parasites in southern Africa, with emphasis on terrestrial mammals, especially ungulates  

PubMed Central

The history of wildlife parasitology in South Africa, and to some extent southern Africa, is reviewed, giving a brief overview of the early years and following its development from the founding of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in 1908 until the turn of the century. An emphasis is placed on game species. The main findings on protozoan parasites, including those of carnivores, are presented, starting in the 1890s and leading up to the first decade of the 21st century. Important developments with regard to the studies of arthropod and helminth parasites took place during a period of three decades, starting from the 1970s. Because of the sheer volume of work done by parasitologists during this time, this particular part of the overview concentrates on South African authors or authors working in South Africa at the time, and is limited to hosts that are members of the order Perissodactyla and the superorder Cetartiodactyla.

Junker, Kerstin; Horak, Ivan G.; Penzhorn, Banie

2014-01-01

390

Prevalence of larval helminths in freshwater snails of the Kinmen Islands.  

PubMed

A survey of larval helminths in freshwater snails of Kinmen was conducted from 1986 to 1987. Parasitological examinations of a total of 726 live snails collected from 25 loci revealed that 20 of 80 Bithynia fuchsiana were infected with metacercariae of Echinostoma gotoi and 36 with metacercariae of other echinostomes. Among 57 Radix auricularia swinhoei snails, 27 were infected with echinostomes and eight with metacercariae of other flukes. Of 20 Cipangopaludina chinensis, 18 were found with larvae of echinostomes. Larval trematodes were also found in three of 37 Austropeplea ollula and two of 87 Gyraulus spirillus. Third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus cantonensis were found in Ampullarius canaliculatus (5/103), Sinotaia quadrata (20/141), Hippeutis umbilicalis cantori (1/70) and Gyraulus spirillus (2/87). Segmentina hemisphaerula were not infected. Cercariae of Centrocestus formosanus, Haplorchis pumilio and a xiphidiocercaria were found in three, two and two specimens, respectively, of 37 Thiara tuberculata. PMID:8132969

Chao, D; Wang, L C; Huang, T C

1993-12-01

391

A human case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a child from eastern Sicily.  

PubMed

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old child living in a suburban area of Catania, Italy. This case was initially referred to us as Dipylidium caninum infection, which was not cured after being treated twice with mebendazole. However, by analyzing the clinical presentation and stool samples we arrived to the diagnosis of H. diminuta infection. The case presented with atypical allergic manifestations which had never been reported as clinical features of symptomatic H. diminuta infection; remittent fever with abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous itching, transient thoracic rash, and arthromyalgias. The patient was treated with a 7-day cycle of oral niclosamide, which proved to be safe and effective. This case report emphasizes that a correct parasitological diagnosis requires adequate district laboratories and trained personnel. In addition, we recommend the importance of reporting all H. diminuta infection cases, in order to improve knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment protocols. PMID:20585535

Patamia, Ildebrando; Cappello, Elisa; Castellano-Chiodo, Donato; Greco, Filippo; Nigro, Luciano; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-06-01

392

CellPress: Trends Journals Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sixteen review journals from Elsevier Trends Journals are now available online to BioMedNet members (BioMedNet membership is free but requires registration) via trends Online. Journals included in this service are Trends in Biochemical Sciences, Trends in Biotechnology, Trends in Cell Biology, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Drug Discovery Today, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Trends in Endocrinology, Trends in Genetics, Immunology Today, Trends in Microbiology, Molecular Medicine Today, Trends in Neuroscience, Parasitology Today, Pharmaceutical Science & Technology Today, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, and Trends in Plant Science. These journals are freely accessible until May 1, 1999. Afterwards, access is available only to subscribers of each particular Trends journal. Full-text articles from January 1998 can be viewed in both HTML and .pdf formats.

393

DNA barcoding of schistosome cercariae reveals a novel sub-lineage within Schistosoma rodhaini from Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Lake Victoria.  

PubMed

While Schistosoma rodhaini is typically considered a parasite of small mammals and is very scantly distributed in the Lake Victoria basin, it is known to hybridize with the more widespread Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of intestinal schistosomiasis. As part of broader parasitological and malacological surveys for S. mansoni across Lake Victoria, schistosome cercariae were harvested from a field-caught Biomphalaria choanomphala taken on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Uganda. Upon DNA barcoding, these cercariae were found to be a mixture of both S. rodhaini and S. mansoni, with further phylogenetic analysis revealing a hitherto unknown sub-lineage within S. rodhaini. Despite repeated sampling for eggs and miracidia from both chimpanzees and staff on Ngamba Island Sanctuary, detection of S. rodhaini within local definitive hosts awaits additional efforts, which should be mindful of a potential host role of spotted-necked otters. PMID:22448675

Standley, C J; Stothard, J R

2012-10-01

394

Moxidectin Efficacy in a Goat Herd with Chronic and Generalized Sarcoptic Mange  

PubMed Central

A case of sarcoptic mange affecting almost all the animals of a dairy goat herd is described. This pruritic skin disease led progressively to high mortality and dramatic drop of milk yield. The lesions of the affected goats were typical of a chronic and generalized-diffuse sarcoptic mange. Diagnosis was confirmed by skin scrapings and histopathology in which many mites were demonstrated. All surviving goats were treated with injectable moxidectin solution 1% (CYDECTIN-Fort Dodge) at the dose of 0.2?mg/kg, applied every 15 days for four times, subcutaneously. Although pruritus had decreased soon after the first treatment, a satisfactory healing of cutaneous lesions was witnessed 6 weeks after the beginning of moxidectin trial. Parasitological cure was achieved in all affected animals by the end of the trial. In the four monthly followups, no evidence of sarcoptic mange could be found. PMID:21776348

Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Farmaki, Rania; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Elias; Karatzias, Harilaos; Koutinas, Alexander F.

2011-01-01

395

A Human Case of Hymenolepis diminuta in a Child from Eastern Sicily  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 2-year-old child living in a suburban area of Catania, Italy. This case was initially referred to us as Dipylidium caninum infection, which was not cured after being treated twice with mebendazole. However, by analyzing the clinical presentation and stool samples we arrived to the diagnosis of H. diminuta infection. The case presented with atypical allergic manifestations which had never been reported as clinical features of symptomatic H. diminuta infection; remittent fever with abdominal pain, diffuse cutaneous itching, transient thoracic rash, and arthromyalgias. The patient was treated with a 7-day cycle of oral niclosamide, which proved to be safe and effective. This case report emphasizes that a correct parasitological diagnosis requires adequate district laboratories and trained personnel. In addition, we recommend the importance of reporting all H. diminuta infection cases, in order to improve knowledge on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment protocols. PMID:20585535

Patamia, Ildebrando; Cappello, Elisa; Castellano-Chiodo, Donato; Greco, Filippo; Cacopardo, Bruno

2010-01-01

396

A placebo-controlled treatment trial of Blastocystis hominis infection with metronidazole.  

PubMed

Blastocystis hominis, previously considered a harmless yeast, is now classified as a protozoan inhabiting the human intestinal tract. The pathogenicity of B. hominis remains controversial and is currently the subject of extensive debate.1- 5 As a result of the uncertainty surrounding the pathogenic role of B. hominis, large-scale treatment trials of B. hominis infection have so far been lacking. In spite of this, several drugs have been reported to be active against the parasite.6-8 The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole treatment in inducing clinical remission and parasitologic eradication in immunocompetent individuals with B. hominis as the only evident cause of diarrhea. PMID:12650658

Nigro, Luciano; Larocca, Licia; Massarelli, Laura; Patamia, Ildebrando; Minniti, Salvatore; Palermo, Filippo; Cacopardo, Bruno

2003-01-01

397

[Cestode of the family Hymenolepididae from ducks of Chukotka: Microsomacanthus parasobolevi sp. n.--a widely distributed parasite of eider ducks].  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Microsomacanthus Lopez-Neyra, 1942 is described. The material was collected from eider ducks (Somateria mollissima, S. fischeri, and S. spectabilis) in the Chaunskaya lowland (North-Western Chukotka). Microsomacanthus parasobolevi sp. n. differs from the closest species of this genus (M. polystictae Regel, 1988, M. sobolevi Spassky et Jurpalova, 1964; M. strictophalius Tolkatchieva, 1966) by the structure and size of the copulatory organ. Wide distribution of the new species was detected based on the cestodes collections from eider ducks of the Eastern Chukotka, Lena River mouth (in the museum of the Institute of the Parasitology RAS) and Iceland (Karl Skirnisson's cestode collection of the common eider). Furthermore, this species was reported once of the common eider in Newfoundland and Labrador, but erroneously identified as Hymenglejns (Microsomacanthnis) formosoides Spasskaja et Spassky, 1961 by Bishop and Threlfall (1974). PMID:15907028

Regel', K V

2005-01-01

398

Decisions for the future.  

PubMed

Music and science have always been my passion. Ultimately, though, the scale was tipped in favor of science. And I lived out my science dreams in trying to grasp as many facets of it as possible. As a biologist, I didn't stay in one stream and thus, I have embraced not only molecular biology but parasitology as well. This was way back 1980s, when such a research career was viewed highly unusual in a Japanese context. My commitment to malaria and vaccine development follows the same path. I believe one has to integrate knowledge on a wide variety of academic fields--gene expressions, protein structure, epidemiology, immunology--to achieve significant success. Similar to life itself, one has to be prepared well to be able to accept and interpret as widely as possible what one may term as "accidental results" or "accidental elements." PMID:24832717

Horii, Toshihiro

2014-01-01

399

Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).  

PubMed

Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

2014-03-01

400

Pseudosuccinea columella (Say 1817) (Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae), snail host of Fasciola hepatica: first record for France in the wild.  

PubMed

The lymnaeid snail Pseudosuccinea columella has shown strong invasive capabilities in the last decades, and this species has now a worldwide distribution. So far, the presence of this snail in Europe was restricted to botanical gardens, but the recent discovery of a few specimens along the banks of the Lot River, southwestern France is the first record of this species in the wild. The first generation of this P. columella isolate obtained in the laboratory was used for parasitological tests with a French Fasciola hepatica sample. Experimental infections showed that 100% of snails (n=26) developed infection when exposed to F. hepatica miracidia. Consequences for the epidemiology of F. hepatica transmission in France are discussed. PMID:17661191

Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Coustau, Christine; Rondelaud, Daniel; Theron, André

2007-10-01

401

[Investigation of vectors and reservoirs in an acute Chagas outbreak due to possible oral transmission in Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia].  

PubMed

Colombia recorded 11 cases of acute Chagas disease and 80 cases of oral contamination with Trypanosoma cruzi. The current study analyzes the entomological and parasitological characteristics of the outbreak in Aguachica, Cesar Department, in 2010. An interdisciplinary group of health professionals and regional university personnel conducted the laboratory tests in the patients and the investigation of the transmission focus. Eleven cases of acute Chagas diseases were detected in a single family in a dwelling with domiciliated triatomines and Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus, and two Didelphis marsupialis opossums infected with T. cruzi in Attalea butyracea and Elaeis oleifera palm trees in the urban area of Aguachica. The study analyzes the role of R. pallescens and palm trees in the wild cycle of T. cruzi and in oral transmission of Chagas disease. Sporadic incursions by wild R. pallescens, P. geniculatus, and E. cuspidatus from the nearby palm trees into human dwellings may cause increasingly frequent outbreaks of oral Chagas disease. PMID:24896050

Soto, Hugo; Tibaduiza, Tania; Montilla, Marleny; Triana, Omar; Suárez, Diana Carolina; Torres Torres, Mariela; Arias, María Teresa; Lugo, Ligia

2014-04-01

402

Diseases of salamanders  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Few diseases are reported in salamanders. Two notable exceptions are infections by Ranavirus and Ichthyophonus. Except for mortality events associated with ranaviruses in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) and spotted salamanders (A. maculatum), dieoffs of salamanders are rarely detected or reported. Diseases presented in this chapter are those encountered in free-living salamanders of the United States and Canada. A few additional diseases that are occasionally seen in captive and zoo animals have been reviewed by Green (2001). This chapter on Diseases of Salamanders will address five common infectious diseases of free-living larval and adult salamanders: Ranavirus (iridovims) infection Chytrid fungal infection Ichthyophoniasis Clinostomum metacercaria Chiggers Many helminthic parasites infect salamanders, but with few exceptions, these infections are unlikely to cause illness (morbidity) or death (mortality). Readers are referred to parasitology texts for a review of protozoan, helminthic and ectoparasitic organisms of amphibians (Flynn, 1973; Poynton and Whitaker, 2001).

Converse, K.A.; Green, D.E.

2005-01-01

403

Diseases of tadpoles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This chapter is devoted to the diseases of anuran larvae that cause morbidity( illness) and mortality (death). The purpose of this chapter is to describe diseases that may be encountered in free-living tadpoles of the United States and Canada. Much of the information in this chapter comes from unpublished diagnostic examinations of amphibians done at the U.S. Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC). Many parasites infect amphibians, and with very few exceptions, these are clinically silent infections (produce no overt evidence of illness or death); accordingly, readers are referred to parasitology texts for a review of protozoan, helminthic and ectoparasitic organisms of amphibians (Flynn, 1973; Poynton and Whitaker, 2001). Diseases presented in this chapter are Ranaviral (iridovirus) infection Adenovirus infection Lucke frog herpesvirus Chytrid fungal infection Watermold infection (saprolegniasis) Coccidiosis Leeches Anchorworms

Converse, K.A.; Green, D.E.

2005-01-01

404

Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial-temporal models.  

PubMed

As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

Alegana, Victor A; Atkinson, Peter M; Wright, Jim A; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M

2013-12-01

405

A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases  

PubMed Central

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS) was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language). The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology) and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries. PMID:25526544

Charbonnier, Amandine; Knapp, Jenny; Demonmerot, Florent; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Raoul, Francis; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Damy, Sylvie

2014-01-01

406

Use of RNAlater® as a preservation method for parasitic coprology studies in wild-living chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the use of an RNA stabilisation buffer, RNAlater® (Ambion, Austin, Texas), as a preservation medium for parasitic coprology analysis of faecal samples collected from chimpanzees living in the wild (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). Thirty faecal samples collected in the forests of south-east Cameroon (Mambele area) from 2003 to 2011 were preserved in RNAlater® at ?80 °C and analysed for their parasite content. We identified and counted parasitic elements and assessed their shape, size and morphology in relation to the storage time of the samples. We found that parasite elements were identifiable in RNAlater® preserved samples after as many as 7 years, showing that RNAlater® could be an effective and reliable preservation medium for coprology. Thus, its use could be an interesting way to optimise sample collection for several types of studies (parasitology and bacteriology/virology) at once, especially considering the logistically challenging and time-consuming field campaigns needed to obtain these faecal samples. PMID:23850999

Drakulovski, P.; Locatelli, S.; Butel, C.; Pion, S.; Krasteva, D.; Mougdi-Pole, E.; Delaporte, E.; Peeters, M.; Mallié, M.

2013-01-01

407

[Accidental myiasis by Ornidia obesa in humans].  

PubMed

Dipterous of the genus Ornidia are pollinator bugs, but immature stages can be found in organic matter in decomposition. This article refers to a found of larvae of Ornidia obesa in humans feces. An eight years old child was treated in a medical clinic due to the presence of two larvae and one pupae in the feces, hyperthermia, intestinal obstruction and strong abdominal pain. Medical therapy consisted of Mebendazol and Ivermectin in the indicated doses. 24 hours after the administration of the drugs, several larvae were expelled with diarrheic feces. The material was taken to the Parasitological Veterinary Lab, and the larvae were classified belonging to the genus Ornidia. According to the literature, this specie of Diptera is not incriminated to cause myiasis in vertebrates. We think that this study reports a case of accidental myiasis in humans, were the patient may have ingested food with immature stages of the fly (eggs or larvae). PMID:20059825

Monteiro, Silvia G; Faccio, Lucian; Otto, Mateus Anderson; Soares, João Fabio; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Mazzanti, Alexandre

2008-09-01

408

Preliminary investigation of trypanosomosis in exotic dog breeds from Zambia's Luangwa and Zambezi valleys using LAMP.  

PubMed

Abstract. Canine African trypanosomosis (CAT) is rarely reported in the literature. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) against microscopy to detect CAT in six exotic dog breeds naturally infected with trypanosomes from Zambia's South Luangwa National Park and Chiawa Game Management Area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CAT in Zambia. The patients exhibited a variety of aspecific clinical signs. The LAMP did not only confirm all six parasitologically positive CAT cases detected passively between April 2010 and January 2012, but was also critical in trypanosome speciation. According to LAMP, the majority of the dogs had monolytic infections with either Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The LAMP is thus a potential simple and cost-effective tool for trypanosome diagnosis in endemic regions. The rare report of zoonotic trypanosomes in dogs in Zambia has public health implications and justifies further investigations of CAT. PMID:23716412

Namangala, Boniface; Oparaocha, Elizabeth; Kajino, Kiichi; Hayashida, Kyoko; Moonga, Ladslav; Inoue, Noboru; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2013-07-01

409

A case of severe anemia by Necator americanus infection in Korea.  

PubMed

This report describes clinical and parasitological findings of an 82-yr-old female patient who lived in a local rural village and suffered from severe chronic anemia for several years. She was transferred to the National Police Hospital in Seoul for management of severe dyspnea and dizziness. At admission, she showed symptoms or signs of severe anemia. Gastroduodenoscopy observed hyperemic mucosa of the duodenum and discovered numerous moving roundworms on the mucosa. Endoscopy isolated seven of them, which were identified as Necator americanus by characteristic morphology of cutting plates in the buccal cavity. The patient was treated with albendazole and supportive measures for anemia, and her physical condition much improved. This case suggests the possibility that hookworm N. americanus is still transmitted in a remote local mountainous area in Korea. PMID:21165298

Hyun, Hee Jae; Kim, Eun-Min; Park, So Yeon; Jung, Jun-Oh; Chai, Jong-Yil; Hong, Sung-Tae

2010-12-01

410

Expression of Regulatory T Cells in Jejunum, Colon, and Cervical and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes of Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania infantum  

PubMed Central

Using flow cytometry, we evaluated the frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in mononuclear cells in the jejunum, colon, and cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and in uninfected controls. All infected dogs showed chronic lymphadenitis and enteritis. Despite persistent parasite loads, no erosion or ulcers were evident in the epithelial mucosa. The colon harbored more parasites than the jejunum. Frequencies of total CD4+, total Foxp3, and CD4+ Foxp3+ cells were higher in the jejunum than in the colon. Despite negative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serum results for cytokines, levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), gamma interferon (IFN-?), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) were higher in the jejunum than in the colon for infected dogs. However, IL-4 levels were higher in the colon than in the jejunum for infected dogs. There was no observed correlation between clinical signs and histopathological changes or immunological and parasitological findings in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of canines with visceral leishmaniasis. However, distinct segments of the GIT presented different immunological and parasitological responses. The jejunum showed a lower parasite load, with increased frequencies and expression of CD4, Foxp3, and CD8 receptors and IL-10, TGF-?, IFN-?, and TNF-? cytokines. The colon showed a higher parasite load, with increasing expression of IL-4. Leishmania infantum infection increased expression of CD4, Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-?, IFN-?, and TNF-? and reduced CD8 and IL-4 expression in both the jejunum and the colon. PMID:24935975

Figueiredo, Maria M.; Deoti, Beatriz; Amorim, Izabela F.; Pinto, Aldair J. W.; Moraes, Andrea; Carvalho, Carolina S.; Magno da Silva, Sydnei; de Assis, Ana C. B.; de Faria, Ana M. C.

2014-01-01

411

Systematic analysis of funding awarded for antimicrobial resistance research to institutions in the UK, 1997–2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the level of research funding awarded to UK institutions specifically for antimicrobial resistance-related research and how closely the topics funded relate to the clinical and public health burden of resistance. Methods Databases and web sites were systematically searched for information on how infectious disease research studies were funded for the period 1997–2010. Studies specifically related to antimicrobial resistance, including bacteriology, virology, mycology and parasitology research, were identified and categorized in terms of funding by pathogen and disease and by a research and development value chain describing the type of science. Results The overall dataset included 6165 studies receiving a total investment of £2.6 billion, of which £102 million was directed towards antimicrobial resistance research (5.5% of total studies, 3.9% of total spend). Of 337 resistance-related projects, 175 studies focused on bacteriology (40.2% of total resistance-related spending), 42 focused on antiviral resistance (17.2% of funding) and 51 focused on parasitology (27.4% of funding). Mean annual funding ranged from £1.9 million in 1997 to £22.1 million in 2009. Conclusions Despite the fact that the emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens our future ability to treat many infections, the proportion of the UK infection-research spend targeting this important area is small. There are encouraging signs of increased investment in this area, but it is important that this is sustained and targeted at areas of projected greatest burden. Two areas of particular concern requiring more investment are tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24038777

Head, Michael G.; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Cooke, Mary K.; Wurie, Fatima B.; Atun, Rifat; Hayward, Andrew C.; Holmes, Alison; Johnson, Alan P.; Woodford, Neil

2014-01-01

412

Epidemiological aspects of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

An epidemiological study to examine the sero-prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) among domestic and wild canines in endemic foci of Iran was carried out during 1999-2003 to assess the distribution of the disease and the possible association between infection in dogs, wild canines and people. Anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT). Parasitological study was performed for all captured wild canines and were detected in some of the seropositive dogs with specific clinical signs (n=107). Serum samples (n=1568) were collected from domestic dogs in villages that are known endemic foci of human visceral leishmaniosis (HVL). Wild canine sera were collected from jackals (Canis aureus, n=10), foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=10) and wolves (Canis lupus, n=10). Of the 1568 serum sampled collected from domestic dogs, 222 (14.2%) were positive by DAT (1:320 and above). No statistically significant difference was found between male (15.2%) and female (11.8%) sero-prevalence (P=0.083). Dogs of 8 years and above showed the highest sero-prevalence (40.6%). Only 23.9% of the seropositive domestic dogs had clinical signs. Parasitology and serology tests that were performed in 30 wild canines showed 10% these animals were infected by Leishmania infantum. Ten out of 11 Leishmania spp. isolated from the dogs and wild canines were identified as L. infantum and one other as L. tropica by molecular and biochemical techniques. For the first time in Iran, L. infantum and L. tropica were isolated from viscera of both a wolf and a domestic dog. PMID:15845279

Mohebali, Mehdi; Hajjaran, Homa; Hamzavi, Yazdan; Mobedi, Iraj; Arshi, Shahnam; Zarei, Zabih; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Naeini, Koroush Manouchehri; Avizeh, Reza; Fakhar, Mehdi

2005-05-15

413

Intestinal coccidiosis of anadromous and landlocked alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, caused by Goussia ameliae n. sp. and G. alosii n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae)  

PubMed Central

Anadromous alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, have experienced significant population level declines caused by factors including habitat destruction. Alewives occur in two different life histories, anadromous and landlocked forms. The landlocked alewife evolved from ancestral anadromous populations, resulting in an exclusively freshwater and phenotypically unique form. The occurrence of parasites in a host is linked to the environment, making alewives an ideal model to compare parasitology within a single species with contrasting life histories. Currently, little information exists on the presence and impacts of parasites in these fish populations; the present study sets out to better understand coccidiosis in the threatened anadromous populations and to understand how coccidian parasites compare in both life history forms. The intestinal coccidian, Goussia ameliae n. sp., was described infecting the pyloric cecum of 76% and 86% of young-of-the-year and adult anadromous alewives, respectively, from the Maurice River, New Jersey, USA. The coccidian was found in landlocked alewife populations with a prevalence of 92% and 34% in YOY and adult fish, respectively. An analysis of the small subunit 18S ribosomal RNA gene of G. ameliae from both life history forms demonstrated that the coccidian had 100% sequence identity, confirming the same parasite species in both forms. Though genetic analysis demonstrated G. ameliae to be identical, some differences were observed in sporulation and morphology of the parasite within the two populations. The sporocysts in anadromous populations were shorter and wider, and sporulation timing differed from that of landlocked fish. These differences may either be attributed to differences in the host type or to the sporulation environment. Lastly, alewives from landlocked populations were frequently co-infected with a second coccidian species in the posterior intestine, which occurred at a lower prevalence. This species, G. alosii n. sp., was described based on morphological characters of the sporulated oocysts in fresh parasitological preparations. PMID:25853050

Lovy, Jan; Friend, Sarah E.

2015-01-01

414

Distantiae Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: A New Epidemiological Feature of Acute Chagas Disease in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The new epidemiological scenario of orally transmitted Chagas disease that has emerged in Brazil, and mainly in the Amazon region, needs to be addressed with a new and systematic focus. Belém, the capital of Pará state, reports the highest number of acute Chagas disease (ACD) cases associated with the consumption of açaí juice. Methodology/Principal Findings The wild and domestic enzootic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated in the two locations (Jurunas and Val-de Cães) that report the majority of the autochthonous cases of ACD in Belém city. Moreover, we evaluated the enzootic cycle on the three islands that provide most of the açaí fruit that is consumed in these localities. We employed parasitological and serological tests throughout to evaluate infectivity competence and exposure to T. cruzi. In Val-de-Cães, no wild mammal presented positive parasitological tests, and 56% seroprevalence was observed, with low serological titers. Three of 14 triatomines were found to be infected (TcI). This unexpected epidemiological picture does not explain the high number of autochthonous ACD cases. In Jurunas, the cases of ACD could not be autochthonous because of the absence of any enzootic cycle of T. cruzi. In contrast, in the 3 island areas from which the açaí fruit originates, 66.7% of wild mammals and two dogs displayed positive hemocultures, and 15.6% of triatomines were found to be infected by T. cruzi. Genotyping by mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I) targeting revealed that the mammals and triatomines from the islands harbored TcI and Trypanosoma rangeli in single and mixed infections. Conclusion/Significance These findings show that cases of Chagas disease in the urban area of Belém may be derived from infected triatomines coming together with the açaí fruits from distant islands. We term this new epidemiological feature of Chagas disease as “Distantiae transmission”. PMID:24854494

Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Bilac, Daniele; de Araújo, Vitor Antônio Louzada; Neto, Sócrates Fraga da Costa; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; da Silva, Luiz Felipe Coutinho Ferreira; Jansen, Ana Maria

2014-01-01

415

Fexinidazole: A Potential New Drug Candidate for Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background New safe and effective treatments for Chagas disease (CD) are urgently needed. Current chemotherapy options for CD have significant limitations, including failure to uniformly achieve parasitological cure or prevent the chronic phase of CD, and safety and tolerability concerns. Fexinidazole, a 2-subsituted 5-nitroimidazole drug candidate rediscovered following extensive compound mining by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative and currently in Phase I clinical study for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, was evaluated in experimental models of acute and chronic CD caused by different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Methods and Findings We investigated the in vivo activity of fexinidazole against T. cruzi, using mice as hosts. The T. cruzi strains used in the study were previously characterized in murine models as susceptible (CL strain), partially resistant (Y strain), and resistant (Colombian and VL-10 strains) to the drugs currently in clinical use, benznidazole and nifurtimox. Our results demonstrated that fexinidazole was effective in suppressing parasitemia and preventing death in infected animals for all strains tested. In addition, assessment of definitive parasite clearance (cure) through parasitological, PCR, and serological methods showed cure rates of 80.0% against CL and Y strains, 88.9% against VL-10 strain, and 77.8% against Colombian strain among animals treated during acute phase, and 70% (VL-10 strain) in those treated in chronic phase. Benznidazole had a similar effect against susceptible and partially resistant T. cruzi strains. Fexinidazole treatment was also shown to reduce myocarditis in all animals infected with VL-10 or Colombian resistant T. cruzi strains, although parasite eradication was not achieved in all treated animals at the tested doses. Conclusions Fexinidazole is an effective oral treatment of acute and chronic experimental CD caused by benznidazole-susceptible, partially resistant, and resistant T. cruzi. These findings illustrate the potential of fexinidazole as a drug candidate for the treatment of human CD. PMID:23133682

Bahia, Maria Terezinha; de Andrade, Isabel Mayer; Martins, Tassiane Assíria Fontes; do Nascimento, Álvaro Fernando da Silva; Diniz, Lívia de Figueiredo; Caldas, Ivo Santana; Talvani, André; Trunz, Bernadette Bourdin; Torreele, Els; Ribeiro, Isabela

2012-01-01

416

Early detection of Trypanosoma evansi infection and monitoring of antibody levels by ELISA following treatment.  

PubMed

In present communication, we report an outbreak of Trypanosoma evansi in equine herd n = 30 (horse and mules) which, were reared in fly proof stables as well as in open paddock maintained under semi-intensive system of management, and its effective control using trypanocidal drug. The infection was monitored by antibody ELISA up to 180 days post-treatment (PT). A total of 8 out of 14 equines (57.14 %) which were maintained only in open paddocks were found positive with T. evansi infection parasitologically. The infected animals were treated with quinapyramine methyl sulphate and chloride combination administered at the prescribed dose rate on 3rd day of screening. The parasite could not be detected from any treated animals from day-3 PT up to 6 month. Further, we also could not observe relapse of infection, neither in treated group nor in equine herd maintained at the farm. Sero-conversion was observed in all eight animals by 10th day of screening, indicating that immune response was due to recent infection as the animals became chronologically positive. The antibody titre reached at the peak by 10-14th day in all infected animals, and started declining by 17th day of screening, further reached to near cut off level by 180 days. Since, antibodies persisted up to 6 month PT and antibody detection assays are not able to differentiate between current and past infections in treated cases. The detection of circulating antigen assay and parasitological techniques in combination may be performed for effective diagnosis and management of T. evansi infection. PMID:24505190

Yadav, S C; Kumar, Rajender; Manuja, Anju; Goyal, Liza; Gupta, A K

2014-03-01

417

Efficacy of artesunate plus chloroquine for uncomplicated malaria in children in Sao Tome and Principe: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.  

PubMed

We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Sao Tome and Principe to investigate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of chloroquine (CQ) combined with artesunate (AS) over CQ monotherapy. Four hundred children, aged 6-59 months, with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomized to receive a standard dose of CQ (25 mg/kg bodyweight) over 3 d or CQ + AS (4 mg/kg bodyweight) daily for 3 d. Children were followed-up for 28 d. The combined treatment was well tolerated and there were no serious drug-related adverse events. By day 2 parasite clearance was significantly faster for children treated with CQ + AS compared with CQ alone (29/194 [14.9%] vs. 168/190 [88.4%] still parasitaemic, P< 0.0001). Day 14 parasitological failure rates were 153/191 (80.1%) for CQ alone compared with 32/193 (16.6%) in the CQ + AS group (odds ratio [OR] =20.2, 95% CI 11.7-35.4, P< 0.001). Corresponding clinical failure rates were 128/161 (67.0%) and 12/193 (6.2%) (OR = 30.6, 95% CI 15.3-62.7, P< 0.001). By day 28 the parasitological failure rates (new infections excluded) were 155/191 (81.1%) in the CQ group and 63/194 (32.4%) in the CQ + AS group (OR = 8.9, 95% CI 5.4-14.7, P< 0.001). Symptoms resolved faster in children who received AS. They were also less likely to be gametocytaemic after treatment. The combination treatment was well tolerated and considerably improved treatment efficacy. However, the current levels of CQ resistance preclude its use in Sao Tome where CQ should be abandoned as first-line drug. However, CQ + AS may be an option in areas where CQ resistance is lower. PMID:16117967

Gil, V S; Ferreira, M C R; d'Alva, F S M; d'Abreu, J A; Will, I M; Gomes, M L; Castelli, F; Taylor, W R; Olliaro, P; D'Alessandro, U

2003-01-01

418

Efficacy and safety of the combination imidacloprid 10 % / moxidectin 1.0 % spot-on (Advocate(®) spot-on for small cats and ferrets) in the treatment of ear mite infection (Otodectes cynotis) in ferrets.  

PubMed

In this study, the efficacy and safety of a treatment with the combination imidacloprid 10 %/ moxidectin 1.0 % spot-on (Advocate(®) spot-on for small cats and ferrets) was tested in 39 ferrets naturally infested with ear mites (Otodectes cynotis). The study was performed as a multicentre, non-randomised, non-controlled (all study animals were treated) and non-blinded clinical field study in two French veterinary practices. Four visits (day (D) 0 = inclusion and first treatment, D14 = second treatment, D28 = possible third treatment, D56 = termination) were planned. The dosage was one pipet per ferret (designed for cats weighing up to 4 kg, corresponding to a dose of moxidectin ranging from 2.2 to 5 mg/kg body weight) two or three times at 14-days intervals (at D0, D14 and possibly D28 depending on the parasitological examination of the ears at D28). The main efficacy criterion was the absence of the parasite (all stages incl. eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults) from ear scrapings by microscopic examination. At D28 after two treatments (D0 and D14), 76.9 % (30/39) of animals were cured. Only 23 % (9/39) needed a third treatment. At day 56, 100 % were cured. Local symptoms (inflammation and pruritus) were consistently improved (50.6 % improvement at D14, 81.0 % at D28 and 97.9 % at D56) as well as the abnormal cerumen production (14.7 % improvement at D14, 77.7 % at D28 and 100.0 % at D56). No general symptoms were noticed during the study (general health and skin aspect). Advocate(®) spot-on for small cats and ferrets is an effective and safe treatment for ear mite infection in ferrets. Two or three treatments administered in 14-days intervals to ferrets infested with ear mites provided 100 % parasitological cure on D56. PMID:21739384

Le Sueur, Christophe; Bour, Sophie; Schaper, Roland

2011-08-01

419

A Comparison of Multiple Methods for Estimating Parasitemia of Hemogregarine Hemoparasites (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) and Its Application for Studying Infection in Natural Populations  

PubMed Central

Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon) and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella), based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina) and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina). From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite distributions in sympatric natural populations. PMID:24743340

Maia, João P.; Harris, D. James; Carranza, Salvador; Gómez-Díaz, Elena

2014-01-01

420

Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children in Zaire and Uíge Provinces, angola.  

PubMed

The development of resistance to antimalarials is a major challenge for global malaria control. Artemisinin-based combination therapies, the newest class of antimalarials, are used worldwide but there have been reports of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia. In February through May 2013, we conducted open-label, nonrandomized therapeutic efficacy studies of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in Zaire and Uíge Provinces in northern Angola. The parasitological and clinical responses to treatment in children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum monoinfection were measured over 28 days, and the main outcome was a PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) proportion on day 28. Parasites from treatment failures were analyzed for the presence of putative molecular markers of resistance to lumefantrine and artemisinins, including the recently identified mutations in the K13 propeller gene. In the 320 children finishing the study, 25 treatment failures were observed: 24 in the AL arms and 1 in the DP arm. The PCR-corrected ACPR proportions on day 28 for AL were 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78 to 95%) in Zaire and 97% (91 to 100%) in Uíge. For DP, the proportions were 100% (95 to 100%) in Zaire, and 100% (96 to 100%) in Uíge. None of the treatment failures had molecular evidence of artemisinin resistance. In contrast, 91% of AL late-treatment failures had markers associated with lumefantrine resistance on the day of failure. The absence of molecular markers for artemisinin resistance and the observed efficacies of both drug combinations suggest no evidence of artemisinin resistance in northern Angola. There is evidence of increased lumefantrine resistance in Zaire, which should continue to be monitored. PMID:25367912

Plucinski, Mateusz M; Talundzic, Eldin; Morton, Lindsay; Dimbu, Pedro Rafael; Macaia, Aleixo Panzo; Fortes, Filomeno; Goldman, Ira; Lucchi, Naomi; Stennies, Gail; MacArthur, John R; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

2015-01-01

421

Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails  

PubMed Central

Background To complement ongoing schistosomiasis control within national control programmes (NCPs) that administer praziquantel to school-age children, assessing the risk and extent of schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children (PSAC) is important. Methods In June 2012, schistosomiasis in Chikhwawa district, Malawi was assessed across 12 villages examining pre-school-age children (PSAC) and their mothers by serological and parasitological diagnosis, as supplemented with urine-antigen and questionnaire-interview methods. Urinary tract morbidity was inferred by haematuria and albuminuria assays. Results In total, 49.5% (CI95 42.6-56.4) of 208 PSAC and 94.5% (CI95 90.9-98.1) of 165 mothers were seropositive for schistosomiasis, in 2 villages seroprevalence exceeded 75% in PSAC. Egg-patent urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis was observed; 17.7% (CI95 12.4-23.2) of PSAC and 45.1% (CI95 37.4-52.8) of mothers having active schistosomiasis by parasitological and urine-antigen testing combined. PSAC often had extensive daily water contact and many (~25%) had haematuria and albuminuria. As eggs with an atypical morphology of Schistosoma haematobium were observed, a general selection of schistosome eggs was characterized by DNA barcoding, finding Group I S. haematobium and Group IV and V S. mansoni. Malacological surveys encountered several populations of Bulinus globosus but failed to find Biomphalaria. Conclusions Both PSAC and their mothers appear to be at significant risk of schistosomiasis and should be considered for treatment within the NCP of Malawi. PMID:24690282

2014-01-01

422

A comparison of multiple methods for estimating parasitemia of hemogregarine hemoparasites (apicomplexa: adeleorina) and its application for studying infection in natural populations.  

PubMed

Identifying factors influencing infection patterns among hosts is critical for our understanding of the evolution and impact of parasitism in natural populations. However, the correct estimation of infection parameters depends on the performance of detection and quantification methods. In this study, we designed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the 18 S rRNA gene to estimate prevalence and intensity of Hepatozoon infection and compared its performance with microscopy and PCR. Using qPCR, we also compared various protocols that differ in the biological source and the extraction methods. Our results show that the qPCR approach on DNA extracted from blood samples, regardless of the extraction protocol, provided the most sensitive estimates of Hepatozoon infection parameters; while allowed us to differentiate between mixed infections of Adeleorinid (Hepatozoon) and Eimeriorinid (Schellackia and Lankesterella), based on the analysis of melting curves. We also show that tissue and saline methods can be used as low-cost alternatives in parasitological studies. The next step was to test our qPCR assay in a biological context, and for this purpose we investigated infection patterns between two sympatric lacertid species, which are naturally infected with apicomplexan hemoparasites, such as the genera Schellackia (Eimeriorina) and Hepatozoon (Adeleorina). From a biological standpoint, we found a positive correlation between Hepatozoon intensity of infection and host body size within each host species, being significantly higher in males, and higher in the smaller sized host species. These variations can be associated with a number of host intrinsic factors, like hormonal and immunological traits, that require further investigation. Our findings are relevant as they pinpoint the importance of accounting for methodological issues to better estimate infection in parasitological studies, and illustrate how between-host factors can influence parasite distributions in sympatric natural populations. PMID:24743340

Maia, João P; Harris, D James; Carranza, Salvador; Gómez-Díaz, Elena

2014-01-01

423

Accuracy of Individual Rapid Tests for Serodiagnosis of Gambiense Sleeping Sickness in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT) of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa. Methodology/Principal findings SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d’Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p?0.0003) to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7–99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%. Conclusions/Significance The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance. PMID:25642701

Jamonneau, Vincent; Camara, Oumou; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Peylhard, Moana; Koffi, Mathurin; Sakande, Hassane; N’Dri, Louis; Sanou, Djénéba; Dama, Emilie; Camara, Mamadou; Lejon, Veerle

2015-01-01

424

Study of the snail intermediate hosts for Schistosoma mansoni on Itamaracá Island in northeast Brazil: spatial displacement of Biomphalaria glabrata by Biomphalaria straminea.  

PubMed

In 2012 a malacological survey of the breeding sites of Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea , the two intermediate host snails of Schistosoma mansoni , was carried out on Itamaraca Island in Pernambuco, Brazil. This study has now been extended by studying the competition between the two species. Snails were collected and dissected to identify the species and tests were performed to verify S. mansoni infection. Student's t test was used to compare the proportion between the two species and their breeding sites and a parasitological survey was conducted among local residents, using the Kato-Katz method. The spatial distribution of the two snail species was determined using TerraView, while a snail density map was constructed by Kernel estimate. The survey identified two breeding sites for B. glabrata with 17 specimens and 19 breeding sites for B. straminea with 459 snails, all of them negative for S. mansoni infection. The statistical analysis revealed that the proportion of the numbers of specimens and breeding sites of B. straminea (37.84 ± 9.01) were significantly greater than those of B. glabrata (8.50 ± 6.50). Parasitological examinations from 41 residents diagnosed two cases of schistosomiasis with parasite loads of 60 and 84 eggs per 1 g of stool, respectively. This indiction of a competitive process between the two snail species requires monitoring of schistosomiasis in the resident and travelling human populations occupying this environment, which could potentially result in social and economic changes on the island risking its attraction as a centre for eco-tourism. PMID:24893012

Barbosa, Constança S; Barbosa, Verônica S; Nascimento, Wheverton C; Pieri, Otavio S; Araújo, Karina C G M

2014-05-01

425

Preliminary analysis of ectoparasites of the sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus (Mitchill, 1815) originating from different water habitats.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study has been to carry out a preliminary parasitological analysis of sturgeon specimens in the context of the presence of external parasites, and to determine their possible influence on the health of the fish. The examination of external parasites was performed on specimens of A. oxyrinchus oxyrinchus captured from an open system pond (the Fish Farm in Ku?niczka, Poland) and from the St John River (Canada), in the spring and summer of 2008. Mucus collected from the skin surface of the pectoral fin and around the gills of A. oxyrinchus oxyrinchus individuals was fixed in 30% ethyl alcohol. The preparations were examined under a microscope. In total, 227 specimens of parasites were isolated from the skin of A. oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. The parasites belonged to three taxa: Protozoa, Monogenea and Crustacea. The degree of parasitic infestation by particular parasites in the analyzed samples ranged from 27.2 to 100%, and the value of the mean infestation varied from 1 to 13.6. Among the determined parasites, Trichodina sp. were characterized by the highest parasitological parameters. The other determined protozoan, i.e. Apiosoma sp., was found on the skin of half the examined individuals of A. oxyrinchus captured from the flow-through pond. Several individuals of the monogenetic fluke Gyrodactylus sp. were found on the skin of A. oxyrinchus oxyrinchus originating from the pond. Ergasilus sieboldi was identified in the samples obtained from both water habitats. Three individuals of the crustacean Argulus coregoni were observed on the skin of fish captured in the St John River. PMID:24881285

Popielarczyk, Renata; Kolman, Ryszard

2013-01-01

426

Predictive Models for the Diagnostic of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives In Brazil, as in many other affected countries, a large proportion of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occurs in remote locations and treatment is often performed on basis of clinical suspicion. This study aimed at developing predictive models to help with the clinical management of VL in patients with suggestive clinical of disease. Methods Cases of VL (n?=?213) had the diagnosis confirmed by parasitological method, non-cases (n?=?119) presented suggestive clinical presentation of VL but a negative parasitological diagnosis and a firm diagnosis of another disease. The original data set was divided into two samples for generation and validation of the prediction models. Prediction models based on clinical signs and symptoms, results of laboratory exams and results of five different serological tests, were developed by means of logistic regression and classification and regression trees (CART). From these models, clinical-laboratory and diagnostic prediction scores were generated. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were used to evaluate the models' performance. Results Based on the variables splenomegaly, presence of cough and leukopenia and on the results of five serological tests it was possible to generate six predictive models using logistic regression, showing sensitivity ranging from 90.1 to 99.0% and specificity ranging from 53.0 to 97.2%. Based on the variables splenomegaly, leukopenia, cough, age and weight loss and on the results of five serological tests six predictive models were generated using CART with sensitivity ranging from 90.1 to 97.2% and specificity ranging from 68.4 to 97.4%. The models composed of clinical-laboratory variables and the rk39 rapid test showed the best performance. Conclusion The predictive models showed to be a potential useful tool to assist healthcare systems and control programs in their strategical choices, contributing to more efficient and more rational allocation of healthcare resources. PMID:22389742

Machado de Assis, Tália S.; Rabello, Ana; Werneck, Guilherme L.

2012-01-01

427

Spatial and temporal variations relevant to tsetse control in the Bipindi focus of southern Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) remains a public health problem in many poor countries. Due to lack of financial resources in these countries, cost-effective strategies are needed for efficient control of this scourge, especially the tsetse vector. It was shown that perennial water sources maintain a favourable biotope for tsetse flies and thus the transmission dynamics of sleeping sickness. The present paper aimed at assessing the transmission dynamics of HAT in a forest environment where the hydrographic network is important. Methods Two entomological surveys were carried out in July 2009 and March 2010 in the Bipindi sleeping sickness focus of the South Region of Cameroon. Entomological and parasitological data were collected during both trapping periods (including the climate variations throughout a year) and compared to each other. The level of risk for transmission of the disease during each trapping period was also evaluated at the trap level and materialised on the map of the Bipindi focus. Results Glossina palpalis palpalis was the most prevalent tsetse fly species captured in this focus. The overall densities of tsetse flies as well as the risk for transmission of HAT in the Bipindi focus were significantly higher in July than in March. At the trap level, we observed that these parameters were almost constant, whatever the trapping period, when the biotope included perennial water sources. Conclusions This study shows that the spatial distribution of traps, as well as the temporal climatic variations might influence entomological and parasitological parameters of HAT and that the presence of perennial water sources in biotopes would favour the development of tsetse flies and thus the transmission of sleeping sickness. These factors should, therefore, be taken into account in order to provide more efficient vector control. PMID:23815985

2013-01-01

428

[Helminthofauna of the goosander Mergus merganser L., 1758 from the north-western Poland].  

PubMed

The goosander, Mergus merganser, is a rare in Poland water bird (Anseriformes: Mergini). It eats fish and small invertebrates. The purpose of this study was a preliminary parasitological examination of the digestive tract of the goosander wintering on the Szczecin Lagoon. The research material were the parasites recovered from digestive tracts of 6 birds (two males and four females), which died during feeding in fishing nets in winter 2001. The birds were subject to standard parasitological examinations using commonly adopted methods. The trematodes and the cestodes found were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and subsequently stained using iron carmine (Cestoda) and borax alcohol carmine (Digenea) and then they were closed in Canada balsam. Nematodes were kept in 70% alcohol and cleared with 80% lactic acid or lactophenol. The parasite assemblages were analysed through calculating prevalence, intensity of infection, relative density and domination index. Also, the topic structure of the parasite assemblages or their habitat preferences in a host animal digestive tract were determined. The presently reported study detected a total of 1596 parasitic worms: digeneans (1086), tapeworms (410) and nematodes (100). Acanthocephalans were not found. Even though only a few goosanders were examined, the results show a high species richness of parasite assemblages consisting of 22 species, representing 21 genera. The following were deemed as definite dominants (superdominants): Diplostomum mergi Dubois, 1932; D. pusillum (Dubois, 1928); Microsomacanthus abortiva (von Linstow, 1904) and Schistocephalus solidus (Müller, 1776). Helminths were found in all birds with their great relative density and intensity of occurrence (266 parasites on average). As expected, the parasite assemblages were characterized by considerable topical specificity, probably resulting from the feeding preferences of the worms. The majority of helminths, including predominant part of flatworms, were found in duodenum and jejunum of ducks. Nematodes, on the other hand, colonized mainly the gizzard and proventriculus. PMID:19338224

Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kalisi?ska, Elzbieta; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Korol, Eleonora N

2008-01-01

429

Diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness using an antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed

A monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (antigen ELISA) developed for detection of trypanosome antigens in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients as a means for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness was evaluated at the Bureau Central de la Trypanosomiase, Kinshasa, Zaire. Sixty-nine (89.6%) of 77 parasitologically confirmed cases examined at the Daloa clinic had antigens in serum; 35 (45.5%) had antigens in CSF and, in 4 of these, the antigens were detected in CSF only. Taking the serum and CSF results together, 73 (94.8%) of the 77 patients were positive in the assay. In the Kinshasa series, 168 (89.4%) of 188 parasitologically confirmed cases were positive by antigen ELISA. The controls, who included 165 blood donors and 40 patients with malaria, 2 with hydatidosis and 12 with leishmaniasis, were negative by antigen ELISA. Analysis of CSF results for 35 patients who had antigens in CSF revealed that 34 (97.1%) had elevated CSF white cell counts, 29 (82.9%) had elevated protein levels, and 23 (65.7%) had trypanosomes in their CSF. Moreover, analysis of results for 34 patients whose CSF had been shown to harbour trypanosomes by the double centrifugation technique showed that 24 (70.6%) had antigens in CSF, 28 (82.6%) had elevated protein levels, and 33 (97.1%) had elevated CSF white cell counts. Antigens were rapidly cleared from peripheral circulation following institution of treatment. Antigen clearance was accompanied by a rapid fall in CSF protein levels and white cell counts. These results demonstrate the potential of antigen ELISA, not only as a tool for diagnosis, but also for clinical staging and treatment follow-up of patients with T. b. gambiense sleeping sickness. PMID:1566302

Nantulya, V M; Doua, F; Molisho, S

1992-01-01

430

Initial experiences with praziquantel in the treatment of human infections due to Schistosoma haematobium  

PubMed Central

Initial studies of the tolerance and efficacy of praziquantel in the treatment of human infections due to Schistosoma haematobium were conducted at the WHO Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Ndola, Zambia. The first stage of the trial was a double-blind assessment against placebo of the tolerance and efficacy of oral doses of 1×20, 2×20, or 3×20 mg/kg in patients with a minimum schistosome egg excretion of 50 per random 10-ml sample of urine. Later a single-blind trial was carried out of the efficacy of three oral doses, each of 20 mg/kg, given at 4-hour intervals, or of a single oral dose of 50 mg/kg. In 79 young Zambians with S. haematobium infections (and often other parasitic infections), patient tolerance to the drug was very good, only minor post-treatment symptoms of intermittent epigastric pain, anorexia, and headache being noted, all of short duration. No changes of clinical relevance were detected in the results of a battery of haematological and biochemical tests. Post-treatment eosinophilia occurred in 42% of drug-treated patients but also in 30% of those given placebo. Serial electrocardiograms revealed no changes of significance. At six months after treatment, of 73 patients followed up, only 1 case of parasitological failure was detected. At one year, 66 (83.5%) of 79 patients with S. haematobium infection were followed up and 2 (2.5%) parasitological failures were detected. Two years after treatment, 45 (57%) of 79 patients with S. haematobium showed negative urines, 7 (9%) had positive hatching tests, and 27 (34%) were absent. PMID:396053

Davis, A.; Biles, J. E.; Ulrich, A.-M.

1979-01-01

431

Efficacy of Direct Detection of Pathogens in Naturally Infected Mice by Using a High-Density PCR Array  

PubMed Central

We used a high-density array of real-time PCR assays for commonly reported rodent infectious agents (PRIA) to test naturally infected index mice and sentinel mice exposed by contact and soiled-bedding transfer. PRIA detected 14 pathogens—including viruses, bacteria, fur mites, pinworms, and enteric protozoa—in 97.2% of 28 pooled fecal samples, fur–perianal swabs, and oral swabs from 4 cages containing a total of 10 index mice. Among these pathogens, PRIA (like conventional health monitoring methods) failed to detect Mycoplasma pulmonis, Pasteurella pneumotropica, and Giardia spp. in all of the 9 contact and 9 soiled-bedding sentinels. PRIA demonstrated murine adenovirus and Cryptosporidium and Spironucleus spp. in contact but not soiled-bedding sentinels and detected Helicobacter and pinworms in fewer than half of the soiled-bedding sentinels. Of the 4 species of Helicobacter that species-specific PCR assays identified in index mice, only H. ganmani was found in soiled-bedding and contact sentinels. PRIA detected all of the pathogens in sentinels that were identified by conventional methods. Myobia musculi was detected by PCR in index and sentinel mice but missed by conventional parasitologic examinations. In summary, PRIA reproducibly detected diverse pathogens in heavily pooled specimens collected noninvasively from infected index mice antemortem. The inability of PRIA and conventional health monitoring methods (that is, parasitology, microbiology, and serology) to demonstrate transmission of some pathogens to contact sentinels and the inefficient transmission of others to soiled-bedding sentinels underscores the importance of direct PCR testing to determine the pathogen status of rodents in quarantine and during routine colony surveillance. PMID:24351765

Henderson, Kenneth S; Perkins, Cheryl L; Havens, Richard B; Kelly, Mee-Jin E; Francis, Brian C; Dole, Vandana S; Shek, William R

2013-01-01

432

Infected dogs as a risk factor in the transmission of human Trypanosoma cruzi infection in western Venezuela.  

PubMed

A total of 565 mongrel dogs from rural localities of Venezuela were examined by serological (DAT, IFAT and ELISA) and parasitological tests to address the status of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and to evaluate their role in the transmission of the infection to human population. The overall percentage of sero-positive infected dogs shown to be 67.6% (382/565):253 (61.7%) from 47 villages belonging to 8 states located at 4 different geographical regions of western Venezuela and 129 (33.5%) dogs from 48 households located in areas where Chagas disease is endemic. From 101 sampled dogs living in close proximity to 30 acute chagasic patients, 84% expressed specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies (Ab) with 12 of them (14%) showing blood circulating parasites (BCP). In these houses a high proportion of sero-positive people (20%) and frequent indoor infestation by triatomine-bugs (70%) was also recorded. The analysis revealed that from the 47 rural villages sampled during the study, 91.5% had the presence of T. cruzi sero-positive dogs, ranging from 62% positive localities at the states of Falcon and Cojedes to 100% in the other six studied Venezuelan states. This demonstrates that T. cruzi-infected dogs are found throughout all the geographical regions of western Venezuela irrespective of their ecological differences. Molecular typing of T. cruzi isolates from infected dogs using ribosomal and mini-exon gene markers, revealed the presence of both T. cruzi I and T. cruzi II lineages. The coincidence in the circulation of T. cruzi II in dog and human populations at the same locality and at the same time is reported and its significance is discussed. The combined serological, parasitological, epidemiological and molecular data is gathered here to call the attention on the presence of infected dogs as a risk factor in the maintenance of T. cruzi as a source for infection to humans. PMID:16797466

Crisante, Gladys; Rojas, Agustina; Teixeira, Marta M G; Añez, Nestor

2006-07-01

433

Combined Treatment of Heterocyclic Analogues and Benznidazole upon Trypanosoma cruzi In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in Latin America but no vaccines or safe chemotherapeutic agents are available. Combined therapy is envisioned as an ideal approach since it may enhance efficacy by acting upon different cellular targets, may reduce toxicity and minimize the risk of drug resistance. Therefore, we investigated the activity of benznidazole (Bz) in combination with the diamidine prodrug DB289 and in combination with the arylimidamide DB766 upon T. cruzi infection in vivo. The oral treatment of T.cruzi-infected mice with DB289 and Benznidazole (Bz) alone reduced the number of circulating parasites compared with untreated mice by about 70% and 90%, respectively. However, the combination of these two compounds decreased the parasitemia by 99% and protected against animal mortality by 100%, but without providing a parasitological cure. When Bz (p.o) was combined with DB766 (via ip route), at least a 99.5% decrease in parasitemia levels was observed. DB766+Bz also provided 100% protection against mice mortality while Bz alone provided about 87% protection. This combined therapy also reduced the tissular lesions induced by T. cruzi infection: Bz alone reduced GPT and CK plasma levels by about 12% and 78% compared to untreated mice group, the combination of Bz with DB766 resulted in a reduction of GPT and CK plasma levels of 56% and 91%. Cure assessment through hemocultive and PCR approaches showed that Bz did not provide a parasitological cure, however, DB766 alone or associated with Bz cured ?13% of surviving animals. PMID:21814568

Batista, Denise da Gama Jaén; Batista, Marcos Meuser; de Oliveira, Gabriel Melo; Britto, Constança Carvalho; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina Mondaine; Stephens, Chad E.; Boykin, David W.; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré Correia

2011-01-01

434

Antitrypanosomal Activity of Fexinidazole Metabolites, Potential New Drug Candidates for Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to verify the in vivo efficacy of sulfoxide and sulfone fexinidazole metabolites following oral administration in a murine model of Chagas disease. Female Swiss mice infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi were treated orally once per day with each metabolite at doses of 10 to 100 mg/kg of body weight for a period of 20 days. Parasitemia was monitored throughout, and cures were detected by parasitological and PCR assays. The results were compared with those achieved with benznidazole treatment at the same doses. Fexinidazole metabolites were effective in reducing the numbers of circulating parasites and protecting mice against death, compared with untreated mice, but without providing cures at daily doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg. Both metabolites were effective in curing mice at 50 mg/kg/day (30% to 40%) and 100 mg/kg/day (100%). In the benznidazole-treated group, parasitological cure was detected only in animals treated with the higher dose of 100 mg/kg/day (80%). Single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters for each metabolite were obtained from a parallel group of uninfected mice and were used to estimate the profiles following repeated doses. Pharmacokinetic data suggested that biological efficacy most likely resides with the sulfone metabolite (or subsequent reactive metabolites formed following reduction of the nitro group) following administration of either the sulfoxide or the sulfone and that prolonged plasma exposure over the 24-h dosing window is required to achieve high cure rates. Fexinidazole metabolites were effective in treating T. cruzi in a mouse model of acute infection, with cure rates superior to those achieved with either fexinidazole itself or benznidazole. PMID:24841257

Nascimento, Alvaro F. S.; Mazzeti, Ana Lia; Marques, Luiz F.; Gonçalves, Karolina R.; Mota, Ludmilla W. R.; Diniz, Lívia de F.; Caldas, Ivo S.; Talvani, André; Shackleford, David M.; Koltun, Maria; Saunders, Jessica; White, Karen L.; Scandale, Ivan; Charman, Susan A.; Chatelain, Eric

2014-01-01

435

Intestinal coccidiosis of anadromous and landlocked alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, caused by Goussia ameliae n. sp. and G. alosii n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).  

PubMed

Anadromous alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, have experienced significant population level declines caused by factors including habitat destruction. Alewives occur in two different life histories, anadromous and landlocked forms. The landlocked alewife evolved from ancestral anadromous populations, resulting in an exclusively freshwater and phenotypically unique form. The occurrence of parasites in a host is linked to the environment, making alewives an ideal model to compare parasitology within a single species with contrasting life histories. Currently, little information exists on the presence and impacts of parasites in these fish populations; the present study sets out to better understand coccidiosis in the threatened anadromous populations and to understand how coccidian parasites compare in both life history forms. The intestinal coccidian, Goussia ameliae n. sp., was described infecting the pyloric cecum of 76% and 86% of young-of-the-year and adult anadromous alewives, respectively, from the Maurice River, New Jersey, USA. The coccidian was found in landlocked alewife populations with a prevalence of 92% and 34% in YOY and adult fish, respectively. An analysis of the small subunit 18S ribosomal RNA gene of G. ameliae from both life history forms demonstrated that the coccidian had 100% sequence identity, confirming the same parasite species in both forms. Though genetic analysis demonstrated G. ameliae to be identical, some differences were observed in sporulation and morphology of the parasite within the two populations. The sporocysts in anadromous populations were shorter and wider, and sporulation timing differed from that of landlocked fish. These differences may either be attributed to differences in the host type or to the sporulation environment. Lastly, alewives from landlocked populations were frequently co-infected with a second coccidian species in the posterior intestine, which occurred at a lower prevalence. This species, G. alosii n. sp., was described based on morphological characters of the sporulated oocysts in fresh parasitological preparations. PMID:25853050

Lovy, Jan; Friend, Sarah E

2015-08-01

436

Thiamin supplementation does not reduce the frequency of adverse events after anti-malarial therapy among patients with falciparum malaria in southern Laos  

PubMed Central

Background In a recent study one third of Lao patients presenting with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria had biochemical evidence of thiamin deficiency, which was associated with a higher incidence of adverse events. Thiamin supplementation might, therefore, reduce adverse events in this population. Methods An exploratory, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, superiority trial of thiamin supplementation in patients of all ages with uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria was conducted in Xepon District, Savannakhet Province, southern Laos. Patients were randomly assigned to either oral thiamin 10 mg/day for 7 days immediately after standard anti-malarial treatment then 5 mg daily until day 42, or identical oral placebo. Results After interim analyses when 630 patients (314 in thiamin and 316 in placebo groups) had been recruited, the trial was discontinued on the grounds of futility. On admission biochemical thiamin deficiency (alpha???25%) was present in 27% of patients and 9% had severe deficiency (alpha?>?31%). After 42 days of treatment, the frequency of thiamin deficiency was lower in the thiamin (2%, 1% severe) compared to the placebo (11%, 3% severe) groups (p??0.05). Clinical, haematological, and parasitological responses to treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion Thiamin supplementation reduced biochemical thiamin deficiency among Lao malaria patients following anti-malarial drug treatment, but it did not reduce the frequency of adverse events after anti-malarial therapy or have any detected clinical or parasitological impact. Trial registration ISRCTN 85411059 PMID:25027701

2014-01-01

437

Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression?  

PubMed Central

The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to control (untreated) worms. This comparative pharmacological evaluation of three of the most used macrocyclic lactones compounds provides new insights into the action of these drugs. PMID:24533290

Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

2012-01-01

438

Artemisinin-Naphthoquine versus Artemether-Lumefantrine for Uncomplicated Malaria in Papua New Guinean Children: An Open-Label Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) with broad efficacy are needed where multiple Plasmodium species are transmitted, especially in children, who bear the brunt of infection in endemic areas. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), artemether-lumefantrine is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but it has limited efficacy against P. vivax. Artemisinin-naphthoquine should have greater activity in vivax malaria because the elimination of naphthoquine is slower than that of lumefantrine. In this study, the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of these ACTs were assessed in PNG children aged 0.5–5 y. Methods and Findings An open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial of artemether-lumefantrine (six doses over 3 d) and artemisinin-naphthoquine (three daily doses) was conducted between 28 March 2011 and 22 April 2013. Parasitologic outcomes were assessed without knowledge of treatment allocation. Primary endpoints were the 42-d P. falciparum PCR-corrected adequate clinical and parasitologic response (ACPR) and the P. vivax PCR-uncorrected 42-d ACPR. Non-inferiority and superiority designs were used for falciparum and vivax malaria, respectively. Because the artemisinin-naphthoquine regimen involved three doses rather than the manufacturer-specified single dose, the first 188 children underwent detailed safety monitoring. Of 2,542 febrile children screened, 267 were randomized, and 186 with falciparum and 47 with vivax malaria completed the 42-d follow-up. Both ACTs were safe and well tolerated. P. falciparum ACPRs were 97.8% and 100.0% in artemether-lumefantrine and artemisinin-naphthoquine-treated patients, respectively (difference 2.2% [95% CI ?3.0% to 8.4%] versus ?5.0% non-inferiority margin, p?=?0.24), and P. vivax ACPRs were 30.0% and 100.0%, respectively (difference 70.0% [95% CI 40.9%–87.2%], p<0.001). Limitations included the exclusion of 11% of randomized patients with sub-threshold parasitemias on confirmatory microscopy and direct observation of only morning artemether-lumefantrine dosing. Conclusions Artemisinin-naphthoquine is non-inferior to artemether-lumefantrine in PNG children with falciparum malaria but has greater efficacy against vivax malaria, findings with implications in similar geo-epidemiologic settings within and beyond Oceania. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000913077 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25549086

Laman, Moses; Moore, Brioni R.; Benjamin, John M.; Yadi, Gumul; Bona, Cathy; Warrel, Jonathan; Kattenberg, Johanna H.; Koleala, Tamarah; Manning, Laurens; Kasian, Bernadine; Robinson, Leanne J.; Sambale, Naomi; Lorry, Lina; Karl, Stephan; Davis, Wendy A.; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M.; Betuela, Inoni; Davis, Timothy M. E.

2014-01-01

439

Visceral leishmaniasis in Iran: Review of the Epidemiological and Clinical Features  

PubMed Central

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening vector-borne parasitic disease is distributed in some parts of the new world and old world. The disease is endemic in different parts of Iran. This review article has been focused on major topics of epidemiological aspects and clinical features of VL in Iran for the period of 2002 through 2012. For the detection of VL in humans as well as animal reservoir hosts, anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using direct agglutination test (DAT) as a validated serological test. Parasitological examinations were performed on suspected VL patients as well as canines and rodents. Different molecular methods were used for identification of species and genotype/ or strain of Leishmania spp. isolated from infected humans, animal reservoir hosts and vectors. Altogether, 1698 out of 36081 (4.7%) human serum samples collected from 5 distinct geographical zones showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ? 1:3200 using DAT. The majority of VL cases in the endemic areas were found among children up to 12 years old. Almost 75% of DAT-positive cases (?1:3200) in endemic areas showed clinical signs and symptoms. Predominant signs and symptoms in 217 hospitalized patients with DAT positive (?1:3200) results included paleness (99.5%), fever (96.9%), splenomegaly (91.5%), hepatomegaly (53.6%) and lymphadenopathy (21.1%). Integrated VL surveillance system in primary care using DAT, could decrease mortality and morbidity of the disease in the VL endemic areas of the northwestern Iran. Out of 7204 serum samples collected from domestic dogs in various geographical locations of Iran, 879 (12.2%) were DAT sero-positive at titers ? 1:320. L. infantum as the principal causative agent of the disease was isolated from infected humans, domestic and wild canines and rodents. The principal animal reservoir hosts of the infection are domestic and wild canines. Ph. kandelakii, Ph. perfiliewi transcaucasicus, Ph. tobbi in northwestern Iran; Ph. major s.l. (=Ph. neglectus), Ph. keshishiani, and Ph. alexandri in southern parts of Iran were molecularly and/or parasitologically positive for L. infantum infections. The zoonotic form of VL (ZVL) caused by L. infantum occurs sporadically in all geographical zones of Iran but in northwestern and southern parts of the country the disease is endemic. DAT as an appropriate and potential tool has been used for sero-diagnosis and sero-epidemiological of VL among humans as well as domestic and wild canines. PMID:24454426

Mohebali, Mehdi

2013-01-01

440

Safety and efficacy of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Zambian children  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria in Zambia remains a public health and developmental challenge, affecting mostly children under five and pregnant women. In 2002, the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria was changed to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) that has proved to be highly efficacious against multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Objective The study objective was to determine whether dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA/PQP) had similar efficacy, safety and tolerability as AL for the treatment of children with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Ndola, Zambia. Methods Between 2005 and 2006, 304 children (6-59 months old) with uncomplicated P. falciparum were enrolled, randomized to AL (101) or DHA/PQP (203) and followed up for 42 days. Outcome of treatment was defined according to the standard WHO classification, i.e. early treatment failure (ETF), late clinical failure (LCF, late parasitological failure (LPF) and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR). Recurrent infections were genotyped to distinguish between recrudescence and new infection. Results No ETF was observed. At day 28, PCR-uncorrected ACPR was 92% in the DHA/PQP and 74% in the AL arm (OR: 4.05; 95%CI: 1.89-8.74; p < 0.001). Most failure were new infections and PCR-corrected ACPR was similar in the two study arms (OR: 0.69; 95%CI: 0.22-2.26; p = 0.33). Similar results were observed for day 42, i.e. higher PCR-uncorrected ACPR for DHA/PQP, mainly due to the difference observed up to day 28, while the PCR-corrected ACPR was similar: DHA/PQP: 93% (179/192), AL: 93% (84/90), (OR: 0.92; 95%CI: 0.30-2.64; p = 0.85). Except for cough, more frequent in the DHA/PQP arm (p = 0.04), there were no differences between treatment arms in the occurrence of adverse events. Two serious adverse events were probably associated to AL treatment. Conclusion DHA/PQP was as efficacious, safe and well tolerated in treatment of uncomplicated malaria as AL, though in the latter group more new infections during the follow up were observed. DHA/PQP seems a potential candidate to be used as an alternative first-line or rescue treatment in Zambia. Trial Registration ISRCTN16263443, at http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn PMID:21352609

2011-01-01

441

Malaria infection and disease in an area with pyrethroid-resistant vectors in southern Benin  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to investigate baseline data on malaria before the evaluation of new vector control strategies in an area of pyrethroid-resistance of vectors. The burden of malaria was estimated in terms of infection (prevalence and parasite density) and of clinical episodes. Methods Between December 2007 and December 2008 in the health district of Ouidah - Kpomassè - Tori Bossito (southern Benin), a descriptive epidemiological survey of malaria was conducted. From 28 selected villages, seven were randomized from which a total of 440 children aged 0 to 5 years were randomly selected. Clinical and parasitological information was obtained by active case detection of malaria episodes carried out during eight periods of six consecutive days scheduled at six weekly intervals and by cross-sectional surveys of asymptomatic infection. Entomological information was also collected. The ownership, the use and the correct use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) were checked over weekly-survey by unannounced visits at home in the late evening. Results Mean parasite density in asymptomatic children was 586 P. falciparum asexual forms per ?L of blood (95%CI 504-680). Pyrogenic parasite cut-off was estimated 2,000 P. falciparum asexual blood forms per ?L. The clinical incidence of malaria was 1.5 episodes per child per year (95%CI 1.2-1.9). Parasitological and clinical variables did not vary with season. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the principal vector closely followed by Anopheles funestus. Entomological inoculation rate was 5.3 (95%CI 1.1-25.9) infective bites per human per year. Frequency of the L1014F kdr (West) allele was around 50%. Annual prevalence rate of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection was 21.8% (95%CI 19.1-24.4) and increased according to age. Mean rates of ownership and use of LLINs were 92% and 70% respectively. The only correct use of LLINs (63%) conferred 26% individual protection against only infection (OR = 0.74 (95%IC 0.62-0.87), p = 0.005). Conclusion The health district of Ouidah-Kpomassè-Tori Bossito is a mesoendemic area with a moderate level of pyrethroid-resistance of vectors. The used LLINs rate was high and only the correct use of LLINs was found to reduce malaria infection without influencing malaria morbidity. PMID:21194470

2010-01-01

442

Outcome of artemether-lumefantrine treatment for uncomplicated malaria in HIV-infected adult patients on anti-retroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria and HIV infections are both highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, with HIV-infected patients being at higher risks of acquiring malaria. The majority of antiretroviral (ART) and anti-malarial drugs are metabolized by the CYP450 system, creating a chance of drug-drug interaction upon co-administration. Limited data are available on the effectiveness of the artemether-lumefantrine combination (AL) when co-administered with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). The aim of this study was to compare anti-malarial treatment responses between HIV-1 infected patients on either nevirapine- or efavirenz-based treatment and those not yet on ART (control-arm) with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, treated with AL. Method This was a prospective, non-randomized, open-label study conducted in Bagamoyo district, with three arms of HIV-infected adults: efavirenz-based treatment arm (EFV-arm) n?=?66, nevirapine-based treatment arm (NVP-arm) n?=?128, and control-arm n?=?75, with uncomplicated malaria. All patients were treated with AL and followed up for 28 days. The primary outcome measure was an adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) after treatment with AL by day 28. Results Day 28 ACPR was 97.6%, 82.5% and 94.5% for the NVP-arm, EFV-arm and control-arm, respectively. No early treatment or late parasitological failure was reported. The cumulative risk of recurrent parasitaemia was >19-fold higher in the EFV-arm than in the control-arm (Hazard ratio [HR], 19.11 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 10.5–34.5]; P?

2014-01-01

443

Telmisartan, an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPAR gamma activator, alleviates liver fibrosis induced experimentally by Schistosoma mansoni infection  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatic schistosomiasis is considered to be one of the most prevalent forms of chronic liver disease in the world due to its complication of liver fibrosis. The demonstration of the pro-fibrogenic role of angiotensin (Ang) II in chronic liver disease brought up the idea that anti-Ang II agents may be effective in improving hepatic fibrosis by either blocking Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors or inhibiting the angiotensin converting enzyme. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR?) activation has been also shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation and progression of fibrosis. The present study has aimed at testing the anti-fibrogenic effects of telmisartan; an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPAR? partial agonist, alone or combined with praziquantel (PZQ) on Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis in mice. Methods To achieve the aim of the study, two sets of experiments were performed in which telmisartan was initiated at the 5th (set 1) and the 10th (set 2) weeks post infection to assess drug efficacy in both acute and chronic stages of liver fibrosis, respectively. Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were randomly divided into the following four groups: infected-control (I), telmisartan-treated (II), PZQ-treated (III), and telmisartan+PZQ-treated (IV). In addition, a normal non-infected group was used for comparison. Parasitological (hepatomesenteric worm load and oogram pattern), histopathological, morphometric, immunohistochemical (hepatic expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2; MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2; TIMP-2), and biochemical (serum transforming growth factor beta 1; TGF-?1 and liver function tests) studies were performed. Results Telmisartan failed to improve the parasitological parameters, while it significantly (P<0.05) decreased the mean granuloma diameter, area of fibrosis, and serum TGF-?1. Additionally, telmisartan increased MMP-2 and decreased TIMP-2 hepatic expression. Combined treatment failed to show any additive properties, yet it did not affect the anti-schistosomal activity of PZQ. Conclusions These results suggest potential anti-fibrotic effects of telmisartan, an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPAR? partial agonist, in acute and chronic stages of Schistosoma mansoni–induced liver fibrosis in mice. PMID:23829789

2013-01-01

444

Development of a new version of the Liverpool Malaria Model. I. Refining the parameter settings and mathematical formulation of basic processes based on a literature review  

PubMed Central

Background A warm and humid climate triggers several water-associated diseases such as malaria. Climate- or weather-driven malaria models, therefore, allow for a better understanding of malaria transmission dynamics. The Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM) is a mathematical-biological model of malaria parasite dynamics using daily temperature and precipitation data. In this study, the parameter settings of the LMM are refined and a new mathematical formulation of key processes related to the growth and size of the vector population are developed. Methods One of the most comprehensive studies to date in terms of gathering entomological and parasitological information from the literature was undertaken for the development of a new version of an existing malaria model. The knowledge was needed to allow the justification of new settings of various model parameters and motivated changes of the mathematical formulation of the LMM. Results The first part of the present study developed an improved set of parameter settings and mathematical formulation of the LMM. Important modules of the original LMM version were enhanced in order to achieve a higher biological and physical accuracy. The oviposition as well as the survival of immature mosquitoes were adjusted to field conditions via the application of a fuzzy distribution model. Key model parameters, including the mature age of mosquitoes, the survival probability of adult mosquitoes, the human blood index, the mosquito-to-human (human-to-mosquito) transmission efficiency, the human infectious age, the recovery rate, as well as the gametocyte prevalence, were reassessed by means of entomological and parasitological observations. This paper also revealed that various malaria variables lack information from field studies to be set properly in a malaria modelling approach. Conclusions Due to the multitude of model parameters and the uncertainty involved in the setting of parameters, an extensive literature survey was carried out, in order to produce a refined set of settings of various model parameters. This approach limits the degrees of freedom of the parameter space of the model, simplifying the final calibration of undetermined parameters (see the second part of this study). In addition, new mathematical formulations of important processes have improved the model in terms of the growth of the vector population. PMID:21314922

2011-01-01

445

Development of a new version of the Liverpool Malaria Model. II. Calibration and validation for West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background In the first part of this study, an extensive literature survey led to the construction of a new version of the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM). A new set of parameter settings was provided and a new development of the mathematical formulation of important processes related to the vector population was performed within the LMM. In this part of the study, so far undetermined model parameters are calibrated through the use of data from field studies. The latter are also used to validate the new LMM version, which is furthermore compared against the original LMM version. Methods For the calibration and validation of the LMM, numerous entomological and parasitological field observations were gathered for West Africa. Continuous and quality-controlled temperature and precipitation time series were constructed using intermittent raw data from 34 weather stations across West Africa. The meteorological time series served as the LMM data input. The skill of LMM simulations was tested for 830 different sets of parameter settings of the undetermined LMM parameters. The model version with the highest skill score in terms of entomological malaria variables was taken as the final setting of the new LMM version. Results Validation of the new LMM version in West Africa revealed that the simulations compare well with entomological field observations. The new version reproduces realistic transmission rates and simulated malaria seasons are comparable to field observations. Overall the new model version performs much better than the original model. The new model version enables the detection of the epidemic malaria potential at fringes of endemic areas and, more importantly, it is now applicable to the vast area of malaria endemicity in the humid African tropics. Conclusions A review of entomological and parasitological data from West Africa enabled the construction of a new LMM version. This model version represents a significant step forward in the modelling of a weather-driven malaria transmission cycle. The LMM is now more suitable for the use in malaria early warning systems as well as for malaria projections based on climate change scenarios, both in epidemic and endemic malaria areas. PMID:21410939

2011-01-01

446

Hyperparasitaemia during bouts of malaria in French Guiana  

PubMed Central

Background High circulating parasite load is one of the WHO criteria for severe falciparum malaria. During a period of 11 years (2000–2010), the frequency of hyperparasitaemia (HP) (?4% infected erythrocytes) during bouts of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae in patients referred to Cayenne General Hospital (CGH) in French Guiana and the frequency of their admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were evaluated. Methods A mean of 1,150 malaria cases were referred to the Parasitology Laboratory of CGH each year over the last decade. During this period, malaria diagnostic (microscopy) and parasitaemia evaluation have remained unchanged: determination of the parasitized erythrocytes percentage with asexual forms on thin blood smears for all cases of parasitaemia exceeding 0.1%. Patients admitted to the ICU can be counted by origin of the request for malaria testing. All the data collected retrospectively were anonymized in a standardized case report form and in database. Results Between 2000 and 2010, 12,254 bouts of malaria were confirmed at the Parasitology Laboratory of CHG: P. vivax: 56.2%, P. falciparum: 39.5%, co-infection with both species: 3.4%, P. malariae: 0.9%. HP was observed in 262 cases, at a frequency of 4.9% for P. falciparum and only 0.041% for P. vivax, with no recorded cases for P. malariae. The need for intensive care was correlated with P. falciparum parasite load: 12.3% of cases for parasitaemia of 4-9%, 21.2% for parasitaemia 10-19%, 50% for parasitaemia 20-29% and 77.8% for parasitaemia ?30% (n=9). The patient with the highest parasitaemia (75% infected erythrocytes with asexual form) presented a major concomitant lupus flare-up treated with corticoids. He survived without obvious sequelae. Conclusions In French Guiana during bouts of malaria, HP was observed at a frequency of ~ 5% for P. falciparum and two orders of magnitude less frequent for P. vivax. HP is a severity criterion for falciparum malaria in this endemic area. However, two of the patients with HP ?30% were not admitted to the ICU and sequel-free cure in malaria patients with 75% parasitaemia is, therefore, possible. PMID:23324618

2013-01-01

447

Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression.  

PubMed

The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to control (untreated) worms. This comparative pharmacological evaluation of three of the most used macrocyclic lactones compounds provides new insights into the action of these drugs. PMID:24533290

Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

2013-12-01

448

Management of imported malaria in Europe  

PubMed Central

In this position paper, the European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Study Group on Clinical Parasitology, summarizes main issues regarding the management of imported malaria cases. Malaria is a rare diagnosis in Europe, but it is a medical emergency. A travel history is the key to suspecting malaria and is mandatory in patients with fever. There are no specific clinical signs or symptoms of malaria although fever is seen in almost all non-immune patients. Migrants from malaria endemic areas may have few symptoms. Malaria diagnostics should be performed immediately on suspicion of malaria and the gold- standard is microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. A Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) may be used as an initial screening tool, but does not replace urgent microscopy which should be done in parallel. Delays in microscopy, however, should not lead to delayed initiation of appropriate treatment. Patients diagnosed with malaria should usually be hospitalized. If outpatient management is preferred, as is the practice in some European centres, patients must usually be followed closely (at least daily) until clinical and parasitological cure. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is either with oral artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) or with the combination atovaquone/proguanil. Two forms of ACT are available in Europe: artemether/lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine. ACT is also effective against Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium knowlesi, but these species can be treated with chloroquine. Treatment of persistent liver forms in P. vivax and P. ovale with primaquine is indicated after excluding glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. There are modified schedules and drug options for the treatment of malaria in special patient groups, such as children and pregnant women. The potential for drug interactions and the role of food in the absorption of anti-malarials are important considerations in the choice of treatment. Complicated malaria is treated with intravenous artesunate resulting in a much more rapid decrease in parasite density compared to quinine. Patients treated with intravenous artesunate should be closely monitored for haemolysis for four weeks after treatment. There is a concern in some countries about the lack of artesunate produced according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). PMID:22985344

2012-01-01

449

Randomized Clinical Trial on Ivermectin versus Thiabendazole for the Treatment of Strongyloidiasis  

PubMed Central

Background Strongyloidiasis may cause a life-threatening disease in immunosuppressed patients. This can only be prevented by effective cure of chronic infections. Direct parasitologic exams are not sensitive enough to prove cure if negative. We used an indirect immune fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) along with direct methods for patient inclusion and efficacy assessment. Methodology/Principal Findings Prospective, randomized, open label, phase III trial conducted at the Centre for Tropical Diseases (Verona, Italy) to compare efficacy and safety of ivermectin (single dose, 200 µg/kg) and thiabendazole (two daily doses of 25 mg/Kg for two days) to cure strongyloidiasis. The first patient was recruited on 6th December, 2004. Follow-up visit of the last patient was on 11th January, 2007. Consenting patients responding to inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to one of the treatment arms. Primary outcome was: negative direct and indirect (IFAT) tests at follow-up (4 to 6 months after treatment) or subjects with negative direct test and drop of two or more IFAT titers. Considering 198 patients who concluded follow-up, efficacy was 56.6% for ivermectin and 52.2% for thiabendazole (p?=?0.53). If the analysis is restricted to 92 patients with IFAT titer 80 or more before treatment (virtually 100% specific), efficacy would be 68.1% for ivermectin and 68.9% for thiabendazole (p?=?0.93). Considering direct parasitological diagnosis only, efficacy would be 85.7% for ivermectin and 94.6% for thiabendazole (p?=?0.21). In ivermectin arm, mild to moderate side effects were observed in 24/115 patients (20.9%), versus 79/108 (73.1%) in thiabendazole arm (p?=?0.00). Conclusion No significant difference in efficacy was observed, while side effects were far more frequent in thiabendazole arm. Ivermectin is the drug of choice, but efficacy of single dose is suboptimal. Different dose schedules should be assessed by future, larger studies. Trial Registration Portal of Clinical Research with Medicines in Italy 2004–004693–87 PMID:21814588

Bisoffi, Zeno; Buonfrate, Dora; Angheben, Andrea; Boscolo, Marina; Anselmi, Mariella; Marocco, Stefania; Monteiro, Geraldo; Gobbo, Maria; Bisoffi, Giulia; Gobbi, Federico

2011-01-01

450

Gastrointestinal parasites of free-living Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the Northern Red Sea, Egypt.  

PubMed

The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna infecting the free-living and alive Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) inhabiting waters of the Red Sea at Hurghada, Egypt. A total of 94 individual faecal samples of the examined bottlenose dolphins were collected during several diving expeditions within their natural habitats. Using classical parasitological techniques, such as sodium acetate acetic acid formalin method, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears, coproantigen ELISA, PCR and macroscopical analyses, the study revealed infections with 21 different parasite species belonging to protozoans and metazoans with some of them bearing zoonotic and/or pathogenic potential. Four identified parasite species are potential zoonotic species (Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Ascaridida indet.); three of them are known to have high pathogenic potential for the examined dolphin species (Nasitrema attenuata, Zalophotrema spp. and Pholeter gastrophilus) and some appear to be directly associated with stranding events. In detail, the study indicates stages of ten protozoan species (Giardia spp., Sarcocystis spp., Isospora (like) spp., Cystoisospora (like) spp., Ciliata indet. I and II, Holotricha indet., Dinoflagellata indet., Hexamita (like) spp., Cryptosporidium spp.), seven trematode species (N. attenuata, Nasitrema spp. I and II, Zalophotrema curilensis, Zalophotrema spp., Pholeter gastrophilus, Trematoda indet.), one cestode species (Diphyllobothrium spp.), two nematode species (Ascaridida indet, Capillaria spp.) and one crustacean parasite (Cymothoidae indet.). Additionally, we molecularly identified adult worms of Anisakis typica in individual dolphin vomitus samples by molecular analyses. A. typica is a common parasite of various dolphin species of warmer temperate and tropical waters and has not been attributed as food-borne parasitic zoonoses so far. Overall, these parasitological findings include ten new host records for T. aduncus (i.e. in case of Giardia spp., Sarcocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Nasitrema spp., Zalophotrema spp., Pholeter gastrophilus, A. typica, Capillaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp. and Cymothoidae indet.). The present results may be used as a baseline for future monitoring studies targeting the impact of climate or other environmental changes on dolphin's health conditions and therefore contribute to the protection of these fascinating marine mammals. PMID:24477747

Kleinertz, S; Hermosilla, C; Ziltener, A; Kreicker, S; Hirzmann, J; Abdel-Ghaffar, F; Taubert, A

2014-04-01

451

Mapping B-Cell Epitopes for the Peroxidoxin of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Its Potential for the Clinical Diagnosis of Tegumentary and Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

The search toward the establishment of novel serological tests for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis and proper differential diagnosis may represent one alternative to the invasive parasitological methods currently used to identify infected individuals. In the present work, we investigated the potential use of recombinant peroxidoxin (rPeroxidoxin) of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis as a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of human tegumentary (TL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Linear B-cell epitope mapping was performed to identify polymorphic epitopes when comparing orthologous sequences present in Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent for Chagas disease (CD), and the Homo sapiens and Canis familiaris hosts. The serological assay (ELISA) demonstrated that TL, VL and CVL individuals showed high levels of antibodies against rPeroxidoxin, allowing identification of infected ones with considerable sensitivity and great ability to discriminate (specificity) between non-infected and CD individuals (98.46% and 100%; 98.18% and 95.71%; 95.79% and 100%, respectively). An rPeroxidoxin ELISA also showed a greater ability to discriminate between vaccinated and infected animals, which is an important requirement for the public campaign control of CVL. A depletion ELISA assay using soluble peptides of this B-cell epitope confirmed the recognition of these sites only by Leishmania-infected individuals. Moreover, this work identifies two antigenic polymorphic linear B-cell epitopes of L. braziliensis. Specific recognition of TL and VL patients was confirmed by significantly decreased IgG reactivity against rPeroxidoxin after depletion of peptide-1- and peptide-2-specific antibodies (peptide 1: reduced by 32%, 42% and 5% for CL, ML and VL, respectively; peptide-2: reduced by 24%, 22% and 13% for CL, ML and VL, respectively) and only peptide-2 for CVL (reduced 9%). Overall, rPeroxidoxin may be a potential antigen for the immunodiagnosis of TL, VL or CVL, as it has a higher agreement with parasitological assays and is better than other reference tests that use soluble Leishmania antigens for diagnosing CVL in Brazil (EIE-LVC, Bio-manguinhos, FIOCRUZ). PMID:24921246

Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Santos, Thaís Teodoro de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Luíza Teixeira; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; de Carvalho, Silvio Fernando Guimarães; Coelho, Eduardo Antônio Ferraz; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

2014-01-01

452

Health-Related Quality of Life among School Children with Parasitic Infections: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Survey in Côte d'Ivoire  

PubMed Central

Background Parasitic infections are still of considerable public health relevance, notably among children in low- and middle-income countries. Measures to assess the magnitude of ill-health in infected individuals, however, are debated and patient-based proxies through generic health-related quality of life (HrQoL) instruments are among the proposed strategies. Disability estimates based on HrQoL are still scarce and conflicting, and hence, there is a need to strengthen the current evidence-base. Methodology Between November 2011 and February 2012, a national school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire. Children underwent parasitological and clinical examination to assess infection status with Plasmodium and helminth species and clinical parameters, and responded to a questionnaire interview incorporating sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported morbidity, and HrQoL. Validity analysis of the HrQoL instrument was performed, assessing floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, and correlation with morbidity scores. Multivariate regression models were applied to identify significant associations between HrQoL and children's parasitic infection and clinical status. Principal Findings Parasitological examination of 4,848 children aged 5–16 years revealed Plasmodium spp., hookworm, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura prevalences of 75.0%, 17.2%, 5.7%, 3.7%, 1.8%, and 1.3%, respectively. Anemic children showed a significant 1-point reduction in self-rated HrQoL on a scale from 0 to 100, whereas no significant negative association between HrQoL and parasite infection was observed. The 12-item HrQoL questionnaire proofed useful, as floor and ceiling effects were negligible, internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha?=?0.71), and valid, as revealed by significant negative correlations and associations with children's self-reported and clinically assessed morbidity. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that HrQoL tools are not sufficiently sensitive to assess subtle morbidities due to parasitic infection in Ivorian school-aged children. However, more advanced morbid sequelae (e.g., anemia), were measurable by the instrument's health construct. Further investigations on health impacts of parasitic infection among school-aged children and refinement of generic HrQoL questionnaires are warranted. PMID:25474579

Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Yapi, Richard B.; Ndri, Prisca B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; Fürst, Thomas; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Raso, Giovanna

2014-01-01

453

[Cutanous myiasis caused by Sarcophaga spp. larvae in a diabetic patient].  

PubMed

Myiasis is defined as a parasitic infestation of tissues and organs in living vertebrates with dipterous larvae. Infestation with dipterous larvae can occur when flies deposit their eggs or first stage larvae on the host's tissues. Myiasis is seen more frequently in tropical and subtropical countries, especially in rural regions where people are in close contact with animals. Diagnosis of myiasis depends on the demonstration of larvae on the host's tissues or organs. Correct identification of the larvae is important for the initiation of appropriate treatment and establishment of preventive measures. In this report, a case of diabetic wound ulcer complicated with myiasis was presented. A 68 years old male patient with a diabetic wound was admitted to the Hacettepe University Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Ankara in July 2013. The patient had a history of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus over 10 years and hypertension, coronary artery disease and chronic renal failure for several years. His left leg under the knee and his right toe were amputated because of diabetic foot. The infection on his right heel had started as a single, painless ulcer 5 months ago. He had medical advice from a health care provider and used ampicilin-sulbactam for 3 months. However, the wound progressed in spite of the treatment and upon admission to our hospital, he was hospitalized with the diagnosis of diabetic foot ulcer. The C-reactive protein, sedimentation rate, white blood cell count and HbA1c values were found to be high. Piperacillin-tazobactam therapy was started and debridement of necrotic tissue was planned. During the debridement prosedure larvae were observed under the necrotic tissue. Two larvae were collected and delivered to the parasitology laboratory. After morphological examination the larvae washed in distilled water and killed in 70% alcohol and they were taken to the Ankara University Veterinary Faculty, Department of Parasitology for identification. The morphological characteristics of cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior spiracles and slits of the posterior spiracles were examined and the larvae were identified as third stage of Sarcophaga spp. Diabetes, coronary artery disease and low socio-economic level as well as the presence of an open, neglected wound were attributed as the most important predisposing factors that led to the development of myiasis in this patient. It should be kept in mind that the diabetic patients with open wounds may develop myiasis especially in the summer months and larvae can cause progressive wound infection. PMID:24819275

Demirel Kaya, Filiz; Orkun, Omer; Cakmak, Ay?e; Inkaya, Ahmet Ca?kan; Erguven, Sibel

2014-04-01

454

Serological and infection statuses of dogs from a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE This study investigated the serological status of dogs living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area and its correlation with the parasitological condition of the animals. METHODS Canine humoral response was evaluated using the sera of 134 dogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry to detect parasites in the skin, lymph node, and spleen of the animals. The specific antibodies investigated were IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgE. RESULTS According to the parasitological, laboratory, and clinical findings, the dogs were placed into one of four groups: asymptomatic with (AP+, n = 21) or without (AP-, n = 36) Leishmania tissue parasitism and symptomatic with (SP+, n = 52) or without (SP-, n = 25) parasitism. Higher IgG and IgE levels were positively correlated with the infection condition and parasite load, but not with the clinical status. In all groups, total IgG was the predominant antibody, which occurred at the expense of IgG2 instead of IgG1. Most of the infected dogs tested positive for IgG (SP+, 98.1%; AP+, 95.2%), whereas this was not observed with IgE (SP+, 80.8%; AP+, 71.2%). The most relevant finding was the high positivity of the uninfected dogs for Leishmania-specific IgG (SP-, 60.0%; AP-, 44.4%), IgE (SP-, 44.0%; AP-, 27.8%), IgG1 (SP-, 28.0%; AP-, 22.2%), and IgG2 antibodies (SP-, 56.0%; AP-, 41.7%). CONCLUSIONS The serological status of dogs, as determined by any class or subclass of antibodies, did not accurately distinguish dogs infected with L. (L.) infantum chagasi from uninfected animals. The inaccuracy of the serological result may impair not only the diagnosis, but also epidemiological investigations and strategies for visceral leishmaniasis control. This complex serological scenario occurring in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area highlights the challenges associated with canine diagnosis and points out the difficulties experienced by veterinary clinicians and coordinators of control programs. PMID:25210815

Laranjeira, Daniela Farias; da Matta, Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro; Tomokane, Thaíse Yumie; Marcondes, Mary; Corbet, Carlos Eduardo Pereira; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra

2014-01-01

455

Diagnosis of the pinworm Syphacia muris in the Wistar rat Rattus norvegicus.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare three qualitative parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Syphacia muris infection in 30 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) infected naturally. Methods of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman, Pons and Janer, or HPJ) and spontaneous flotation (Willis) for faecal samples and a method of taping (Graham) were performed and compared. The Graham and Willis methods were more sensitive than the HPJ method (P< 0.05). The Graham method was able to detect S. muris eggs in 100% of the samples. Eggs were detected in 83% and 60% of the samples using the Willis and HPJ methods, respectively. Method choice is important for screening for parasites of rats kept under laboratory conditions, as accurate diagnosis helps prevent future environmental contamination and infection. We concluded that the Graham method was the most efficient of those tested in this study for detection of S. muris infection in rats. This method is also rapid, inexpensive and practical, and should be implemented as a necessary measure for infection control. PMID:25327496

Sousa, J E N; Carvalho, E F G; Levenhagen, M A; Chaves, L A; Costa-Cruz, J M

2014-10-20

456

Breeding, Husbandry, Veterinary Care, and Hematology of Marsh Rice Rats (Oryzomys palustris), a Small Animal Model for Periodontitis.  

PubMed

Rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) are a recognized animal model for studying periodontal disease and the photoperiodic regulation of reproduction. Here we share information regarding the breeding, husbandry, veterinary care, and hematologic findings about this animal species to facilitate its use in studies at other research institutions. Rice rats initially were quarantined and monitored for excluded pathogens by using microbiologic, parasitologic, and serologic methods with adult female Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus sentinel animals. Breeders were paired in a monogamous, continuous-breeding system. Rats were housed in static filter-top cages, maintained on commercial chow under 14:10-h light:dark cycles at 68 to 79 °F (20.0 to 26.1 °C) and 30% to 70% humidity. Rice rats apparently adapt relatively well to standard laboratory conditions, despite their aggressive behavior toward conspecifics and humans. Our analysis of 97 litters revealed that dams gave birth to an average of 5.2 pups per dam and weaned 4.2 pups per dam. Several procedures and biologic reagents normally used in standard laboratory rodents (mice and rats) can be used with rice rats. In addition, we present hematologic and serum chemistry values that can be used as preliminary reference values for future studies involving rice rats. PMID:25651091

Aguirre, J Ignacio; Edmonds, Kent; Zamora, Bernadette; Pingel, Jennifer; Thomas, Linda; Cancel, Denisse; Schneider, Laura; Reinhard, Mary K; Battles, August H; Akhter, Mohammed P; Kimmel, Donald B; Wronski, Thomas J

2015-01-01

457

[Ectoparasites in goat and sheep folks from Alto Mearim and Grajaú Microregion, State of Maranhão].  

PubMed

Goat and sheep folks from Alto Mearim and Grajaú microregion, State of Maranhão, were examined by inspection and by feeling to collected ectoparasites. The specimens were kept in individual bottles for each host sampled with alcohol 70 degrees GL as preserver liquid. The identification was carried out at Universidade Estadual do Maranhão at the laboratory of parasitology. The ticks were examined in stereomicroscope and identified through Aragão and Fonseca (1961) dicotomic key; the lice were mounted in slides according to Pinto (1938) technique, examined in optic microscope and identified through Tuff (1977) and Furmam and Catts (1977) keys; the fly larvae were examined in stereomicroscope and identified by the morphology of the peritreme, and spiracular slits. In 380 animals sampled, 143 (37,64%) were infested with ectoparasites. The following parasites were identified: Bovicola caprae, Boophilus microplus, larvae of Cochliomya hominivorax (screw-worm) and larvae of Dermatobia hominis (bot fly). Parasitary association was observed only in goats in Grajaú and Sítio Novo (louse+tick; louse+bot fly; screw-worm+louse and ticks+louse+screw-worm). The statistic analyses demonstrated that the prevalence of ectoparasites was high in the rainy season (P<0.02). PMID:16153346

Brito, Danilo R B; Santos, Ana Clara G; Guerra, Rita M S N C

2005-01-01

458

Lymphatic filariasis among the Yakurr people of Cross River State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In order to initiate a disease elimination programme for lymphatic filariasis based on mass drug administration, a proper understanding of the geographical distribution and degree of risk is essential. Methods An investigation of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti was carried out among 785 people in four communities of Yakurr Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria between March and August, 2009. Finger prick blood smear samples collected from the subjects were examined for W. bancrofti using standard parasitological protocol. The subjects were also screened for clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis. Results Of the 785 persons examined, 48 (6.1%) were positive for microfilariae in their thick blood smear. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of lymphatic filariasis among the various age groups (P??0.05). The overall mean microfilarial density of the infected individuals was 5.6mf/50 ?l. There was a significant variation (P?

2012-01-01

459

Relationship between the Prevalence of Ectoparasites and Associated Risk Factors in Free-Range Pigs in Kenya.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites and possible risk factors in free-range pigs from 135 farms of Busia District, Kenya. Three hundred and six pigs were examined for presence of external parasites using standard parasitological methods. Data on management practices including housing and history of acaricide spraying were also collected. The ectoparasites found in the pigs were Haematopinus suis (96.1%), Sarcoptes scabiei (63.7%), and ticks (29.7%). The tick species included Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (70%), Boophilus decoloratus (31%), and Amblyomma variegatum (12%). The occurrence of the infestations was associated with age, being highest in sows (S. scabiei) and finishers (ticks and H. suis). Male pigs had highest prevalences of H. suis and ticks, while female pigs had highest prevalence of S. scabiei. The prevalence of the parasitic infestations was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with their origin being either lower (H. suis and S. scabiei) or higher (ticks) in pigs originating from divisions with high rainfall. Housed pigs had significantly (P < 0.05) lower prevalence of H. suis and ticks than those from households without pig housing. It is concluded that the free-range pigs have high prevalence of ectoparasites, and effective control strategies focussing on improved animal husbandry and acaricide use should be implemented. PMID:23984085

Kagira, John Maina; Kanyari, Paul Njuki; Maingi, Ndicho; Githigia, Samuel Maina; Ng'ang'a, Chege; Gachohi, John

2013-01-01

460

Comparative serology techniques for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a rural population from the state of Querétaro, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Immunological diagnostic methods for Trypanosoma cruzi depend specifically on the presence of antibodies and parasitological methods lack sensitivity during the chronic and “indeterminate” stages of the disease. This study performed a serological survey of 1,033 subjects from 52 rural communities in 12 of the 18 municipalities in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. We detected anti-T. cruzi antibodies using the following tests: indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), ELISA and recombinant ELISA (rELISA). We also performed Western blot (WB) analysis using iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD), a detoxifying enzyme excreted by the parasite, as the antigen. Positive test results were distributed as follows: ELISA 8%, rELISA 6.2%, IFA and IHA 5.4% in both cases and FeSOD 8%. A comparative study of the five tests was undertaken. Sensitivity levels, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, concordance percentage and kappa index were considered. Living with animals, trips to other communities, gender, age, type of housing and symptomatology at the time of the survey were statistically analysed using SPSS software v.11.5. Detection of the FeSOD enzyme that was secreted by the parasite and used as an antigenic fraction in WBs showed a 100% correlation with traditional ELISA tests. PMID:25411004

Villagrán-Herrera, María Elena; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Rodríguez-Méndez, Adriana Jheny; Hernández-Montiel, Hebert Luis; Dávila-Esquivel, Felipe de Jesús; González-Pérez, Germán; Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; de Diego-Cabrera, José Antonio

2014-01-01

461

Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter and Multidrug Resistance 1 Genes: Parasite Risk Factors that Affect Treatment Outcomes for P. falciparum Malaria after Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine  

PubMed Central

Adequate clinical and parasitologic cure by artemisinin combination therapies relies on the artemisinin component and the partner drug. Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes are associated with decreased sensitivity to amodiaquine and lumefantrine, but effects of these polymorphisms on therapeutic responses to artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have not been clearly defined. Individual patient data from 31 clinical trials were harmonized and pooled by using standardized methods from the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network. Data for more than 7,000 patients were analyzed to assess relationships between parasite polymorphisms in pfcrt and pfmdr1 and clinically relevant outcomes after treatment with AL or ASAQ. Presence of the pfmdr1 gene N86 (adjusted hazards ratio = 4.74, 95% confidence interval = 2.29 – 9.78, P < 0.001) and increased pfmdr1 copy number (adjusted hazards ratio = 6.52, 95% confidence interval = 2.36–17.97, P < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for recrudescence in patients treated with AL. AL and ASAQ exerted opposing selective effects on single-nucleotide polymorphisms in pfcrt and pfmdr1. Monitoring selection and responding to emerging signs of drug resistance are critical tools for preserving efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies; determination of the prevalence of at least pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y should now be routine. PMID:25048375

Venkatesan, Meera; Gadalla, Nahla B.; Stepniewska, Kasia; Dahal, Prabin; Nsanzabana, Christian; Moriera, Clarissa; Price, Ric N.; Mårtensson, Andreas; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Dorsey, Grant; Sutherland, Colin J.; Guérin, Philippe; Davis, Timothy M. E.; Ménard, Didier; Adam, Ishag; Ademowo, George; Arze, Cesar; Baliraine, Frederick N.; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Björkman, Anders; Borrmann, Steffen; Checchi, Francesco; Desai, Meghna; Dhorda, Mehul; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; El-Sayed, Badria B.; Eshetu, Teferi; Eyase, Frederick; Falade, Catherine; Faucher, Jean-François; Fröberg, Gabrielle; Grivoyannis, Anastasia; Hamour, Sally; Houzé, Sandrine; Johnson, Jacob; Kamugisha, Erasmus; Kariuki, Simon; Kiechel, Jean-René; Kironde, Fred; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; LeBras, Jacques; Malmberg, Maja; Mwai, Leah; Ngasala, Billy; Nosten, Francois; Nsobya, Samuel L.; Nzila, Alexis; Oguike, Mary; Otienoburu, Sabina Dahlström; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Piola, Patrice; Rombo, Lars; Schramm, Birgit; Somé, A. Fabrice; Thwing, Julie; Ursing, Johan; Wong, Rina P. M.; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Zongo, Issaka; Plowe, Christopher V.; Sibley, Carol Hopkins

2014-01-01

462

Interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasite infection in wild bovids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, I explored the interactions among host diet, nutritional status and gastrointestinal parasitism in wild bovids by examining temporal patterns of nematode faecal egg shedding in species with different diet types during a drought and non-drought year. Study species included three grass and roughage feeders (buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck), four mixed or intermediate feeders (eland, Grant's gazelle, impala, Thomson's gazelle) and two concentrate selectors (dik-dik, klipspringer). Six out of the nine focal species had higher mean faecal egg counts in the drought year compared to the normal year, and over the course of the dry year, monthly faecal egg counts were correlated with drought intensity in four species with low-quality diets, but no such relationship was found for species with high-quality diets. Comparisons of dietary crude protein and faecal egg count in impala showed that during the dry season, individuals with high faecal egg counts (???1550 eggs/g of faeces) had significantly lower crude protein levels than individuals with low (0-500 eggs/g) or moderate (550-1500 eggs/g) egg counts. These results suggest that under drought conditions, species unable to maintain adequate nutrition, mainly low-quality feeders, are less able to cope with gastrointestinal paras