Science.gov

Sample records for parathion determination correlation

  1. Parathion

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Parathion ; CASRN 56 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  2. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Rafique, Uzaira; Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude) than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue. PMID:24689059

  3. Methyl parathion

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl parathion ; CASRN 298 - 00 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. A novel fluorescence probing strategy for the determination of parathion-methyl.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; Li, Hongxia; Wang, Xinyan; Su, Xingguang

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive fluorescence probing strategy for parathion-methyl (PM) detection was developed based on electron transfer (ET) between p-nitrophenol (the hydrolysate of PM) and CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). PM was hydrolyzed by organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) to form p-nitrophenol. P-nitrophenol is a typically electron-deficient compound due to the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the nitro groups. The positive charge of CTAB which make it assemble with electronegative mercaptopropionic acid-capped QDs, could be used as an absorbent for p-nitrophenol due to the strong hydrophobic interaction between the long alkyl chain of CTAB and aromatic ring of p-nitrophenol. Thus, the fluorescence intensity of CdTe QDs/CTAB probe could be quenched by p-nitrophenol due to the ET mechanism. The fluorescence intensity of the QD/CTAB system was proportional to PM concentration in the range of 25-3000 ng mL(-1), with a detection limit of 18 ng mL(-1). Furthermore, the proposed method was simple in design and fast in operation, and has been successfully used for PM detection in environmental and agricultural samples with satisfactory recovery. PMID:25281077

  5. Suicidal poisoning by MCPA and parathion.

    PubMed

    De Beer, J; Heyndrickx, A; Van Peteghem, C; Piette, M; Timperman, J

    1980-01-01

    A suicidal poisoning committed by a sixty-five year old woman, who swallowed a bottle of Agroxyl, containing an aqueous 250 g/L solution of the sodium- and potassium salt of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid [MCPA], together with lethal amounts of a parathion formulation, is described. The case history, the postmortem examination and the concentrations of parathion and MCPA in the different viscera, are reported in detail. Parathion determination was performed by means of a routine method, previously developed in our laboratory. The MCPA quantification was achieved using a thoroughly evaluated EC- GLC micro-analytical procedure, which is discussed completely. Identity was confirmed by GC-MS. Intake of lethal parathion quantities caused the woman's death with five minutes. This case however is worth reporting, since we had the unique opportunity to establish the early distribution of MCPA through the body, during the short period of survival. PMID:7421141

  6. PERSISTENCE OF METHYL AND ETHYL PARATHION FOLLOWING SPILLAGE ON CONCRETE SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tests were carried out to determine the potential hazard of spillage of the pesticides, methyl parathion and ethyl parathion, on concrete surfaces. Results indicated that although a toxic hazard exists, especially for potential contamination of foodstuff, when liquid concentrates...

  7. Early Postnatal Parathion Exposure in Rats Causes Sex-Selective Cognitive Impairment and Neurotransmitter Defects Which Emerge in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Edward D.; Timofeeva, Olga A.; Yang, Liwei; Petro, Ann; Ryde, Ian T.; Wrench, Nicola; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental exposure of rats to the organophosphate (OP) pesticides leads to altered neurobehavioral function in juvenile and young adult stages. The current study was conducted to determine whether effects of neonatal parathion exposure on cognitive performance persist in older adult and aged rats, and the relationship of behavioral changes to underlying cholinergic and serotonergic mechanisms. We administered parathion to rat pups on postnatal days 1–4, at doses spanning the threshold for the initial signs of systemic toxicity and for barely-detectable cholinesterase inhibition (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg/day). Beginning at 14 months of age and continuing until 19 months, the rats were trained in the 16-arm radial maze. Controls showed the normal sex difference in this spatial learning and memory task, with the males committing significantly fewer working memory errors than females. Neonatal parathion exposure eliminated the sex difference primarily by causing impairment in males. In association with the effects on cognitive performance, neonatal parathion exposure elicited widespread abnormalities in indices of serotonergic and cholinergic synaptic function, characterized by upregulation of 5HT2 receptors and the 5HT transporter, deficits in choline acetyltransferase activity and nicotinic cholinergic receptors, and increases in hemicholinium-3 binding to the presynaptic choline transporter. Within-animal correlations between behavior and neurochemistry indicated a specific correlation between working memory performance and hippocampal hemicholinium-3 binding; parathion exposure destroyed this relationship. Like the behavioral effects, males showed greater effects of parathion on neurochemical parameters. This study demonstrates the sex-selective, long-term behavioral alterations caused by otherwise nontoxic neonatal exposure to parathion, with effects persisting into the beginning of senescence. PMID:20015457

  8. Determination of Parathion and Carbaryl Pesticides in Water and Food Samples Using a Self Assembled Monolayer/Acetylcholinesterase Electrochemical Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Valber A.; Caetano, Josiane; Machado, Sergio A. S.; Bertotti, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    An acetylcholinesterase (AchE) based amperometric biosensor was developed by immobilisation of the enzyme onto a self assembled modified gold electrode. Cyclic voltammetric experiments performed with the SAM-AchE biosensor in phosphate buffer solutions (pH = 7.2) containing acetylthiocholine confirmed the formation of thiocholine and its electrochemical oxidation at Ep = 0.28 V vs Ag/AgCl. An indirect methodology involving the inhibition effect of parathion and carbaryl on the enzymatic reaction was developed and employed to measure both pesticides in spiked natural water and food samples without pre-treatment or pre-concentration steps. Values higher than 91-98.0% in recovery experiments indicated the feasibility of the proposed electroanalytical methodology to quantify both pesticides in water or food samples. HPLC measurements were also performed for comparison and confirmed the values measured amperometrically.

  9. EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDE FORMULATING PLANT WORKERS TO PARATHION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential hazard to workers exposed to the organophosphorus pesticide, parathion, in formulating plants was studied. Potential dermal and respiratory exposure near certain work stations was determined. Calculations were based on the use of minimum protection (no respirator, s...

  10. Halloysite nanotubes-titanium dioxide as a solid-phase microextraction coating combined with negative corona discharge-ion mobility spectrometry for the determination of parathion.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Jafari, Mohammad Taghi; Mossaddegh, Mehdi

    2016-07-01

    Halloysite nanotubes-titanium dioxide (HNTs-TiO2) as a biocompatible environmentally friendly solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating was prepared. HNTs-TiO2 was chemically coated on the surface of a fused-silica fiber using a sol-gel process. Parathion as an organophosphorus pesticide was selected as a model compound to investigate the extraction efficiency of the fiber. The extracted analyte was detected by negative corona discharge-ion mobility spectrometer (NCD-IMS). The effective parameters on the extraction efficiency, such as salt effect, extraction temperature and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The extraction efficiency of HNTs-TiO2 fiber was compared with bare-silica (sol-gel based coating without HNTs-TiO2), HNTs, carbon nanotubes and commercial SPME fibers (PA, PDMS, and PDMS-DVB). The HNTs-TiO2 fiber showed highest extraction efficiency among the studied fibers. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were found to be 4.3 and 6.3%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values were 0.03 and 0.1 μg L(-1), respectively. The dynamic range of the method was in the range of 0.1-25 μg L(-1). The spiking recoveries were between 85 (±9) and 97 (±6). The SPME-HNTs-TiO2 combined with NCD-IMS was successfully applied for the determination of parathion in apple, strawberry, celery and water samples. PMID:27216393

  11. Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Parathion, Malathion, Diazinon, and Pirimiphos Methyl in Dried Medicinal Plants Using Solid-Phase Microextraction Fibre Coated with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Samadi, Nasrin; Salimi, Mona; Sarkhail, Parisa; Rastkari, Noushin

    2012-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of different organophosphorus pesticides in dried medicinal plant samples is described. The analytes were extracted by single-walled carbon nanotubes as a new solid-phase microextraction adsorbent. The developed method showed good performance. For diazinon and pirimiphos methyl calibration, curves were linear (r2 ≥ 0.993) over the concentration ranges from 1.5 to 300 ng g−1, and the limit of detection at signal-to-noise ratio of 3 was 0.3 ng g−1. For parathion and malathion, the linear range and limit of detection were 2.5–300 (r2 ≥ 0.991) and 0.5 ng g−1, respectively. In addition, a comparative study between the single-walled carbon nanotubes and a commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre for the determination of target analytes was carried out. Single-walled carbon nanotubes fibre showed higher extraction capacity, better thermal stability (over 350°C), and longer lifespan (over 250 times) than the commercial polydimethylsiloxane fibre. The developed method was successfully applied to determine target organophosphorus pesticides in real samples. PMID:22645439

  13. Behavior of parathion in tomatoes processed into juice and ketchup.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, M A; Kawar, N S

    1985-10-01

    Fresh tomatoes were cut, fortified with 25 ppm (micrograms/g) of parathion (0,0-diethyl 0-4-nitrophenylphosphorothioate) and processed into either juice or ketchup. Tomato juice was canned, while ketchup was placed in bottles. All samples were stored at room temperature for analysis at two-monthly intervals. Parathion residues were measured quantitatively by GLC, while the two metabolites, aminoparathion (0,0-diethyl 0-4-aminophenylphosphorothioate) and 4-nitrophenol, were determined colorimetrically. The presence of the three compounds was confirmed qualitatively by TLC. Blanching of tomatoes resulted in about 50% reduction of parathion level. Pulping of fruits caused a further decrease in parathion residues in juice as a result of its sorption and concentration in the semi-solid pulp. About 85% of parathion added to tomatoes was lost during the processing steps. Storage of juice resulted in a gradual decrease in parathion levels, whereby only 1.7% of the original amount was detected after six months of storage. The compound was stable in ketchup for the first four months of storage but decreased thereafter to almost 7% of the original quantity added to fruits. Aminoparathion and 4-nitrophenol were detected in low levels. PMID:4078230

  14. Degradation of organophosphorus pesticide parathion methyl on nanostructured titania-iron mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henych, Jiří; Štengl, Václav; Slušná, Michaela; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Janoš, Pavel; Kuráň, Pavel; Štastný, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Titania-iron mixed oxides with various Ti:Fe ratio were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of titanium(IV) oxysulphate and iron(III) sulphate with urea as a precipitating agent. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, XRF analysis, specific surface area (BET) and porosity determination (BJH). These oxides were used for degradation of organophosporus pesticide parathion methyl. The highest degradation efficiency approaching <70% was found for the samples with Ti:Fe ratio 0.25:1 and 1:0.25. Contrary, parathion methyl was not degraded on the surfaces of pure oxides. In general, the highest degradation rate exhibited samples consisted of the iron or titanium oxide containing a moderate amount of the admixture. However, distinct correlations between the degradation rate and the sorbent composition were not identified.

  15. Constitutive Androgen Receptor-Null Mice Are Sensitive to the Toxic Effects of Parathion: Association with Reduced Cytochrome P450-Mediated Parathion MetabolismS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Linda C.; Hernandez, Juan P.

    2010-01-01

    Constitutive androgen receptor (CAR) is activated by several chemicals and in turn regulates multiple detoxification genes. Our research demonstrates that parathion is one of the most potent, environmentally relevant CAR activators with an EC50 of 1.43 μM. Therefore, animal studies were conducted to determine whether CAR was activated by parathion in vivo. Surprisingly, CAR-null mice, but not wild-type (WT) mice, showed significant parathion-induced toxicity. However, parathion did not induce Cyp2b expression, suggesting that parathion is not a CAR activator in vivo, presumably because of its short half-life. CAR expression is also associated with the expression of several drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (P450). CAR-null mice demonstrate lower expression of Cyp2b9, Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, and Cyp3a11 primarily, but not exclusively in males. Therefore, we incubated microsomes from untreated WT and CAR-null mice with parathion in the presence of esterase inhibitors to determine whether CAR-null mice show perturbed P450-mediated parathion metabolism compared with that in WT mice. The metabolism of parathion to paraoxon and p-nitrophenol (PNP) was reduced in CAR-null mice with male CAR-null mice showing reduced production of both paraoxon and PNP, and female CAR-null mice showing reduced production of only PNP. Overall, the data indicate that CAR-null mice metabolize parathion slower than WT mice. These results provide a potential mechanism for increased sensitivity of individuals with lower CAR activity such as newborns to parathion and potentially other chemicals due to decreased metabolic capacity. PMID:20573718

  16. Macrophage TNF-α mediates parathion-induced airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Bruun, Donald A.; Jacoby, David B.; van Rooijen, Nico; Lein, Pamela J.; Fryer, Allison D.

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are implicated in human asthma. We previously demonstrated that, at concentrations that do not inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity, the OP parathion causes airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs as a result of functional loss of inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors on parasympathetic nerves. Because macrophages are associated with asthma, we investigated whether macrophages mediate parathion-induced M2 receptor dysfunction and airway hyperreactivity. Airway physiology was measured in guinea pigs 24 h after a subcutaneous injection of parathion. Pretreatment with liposome-encapsulated clodronate induced alveolar macrophage apoptosis and prevented parathion-induced airway hyperreactivity in response to electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves. As determined by qPCR, TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels were increased in alveolar macrophages isolated from parathion-treated guinea pigs. Parathion treatment of alveolar macrophages ex vivo did not significantly increase IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA but did significantly increase TNF-α protein release. Consistent with these data, pretreatment with the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept but not the IL-1β receptor inhibitor anakinra prevented parathion-induced airway hyperreactivity and protected M2 receptor function. These data suggest a novel mechanism of OP-induced airway hyperreactivity in which low-level parathion activates macrophages to release TNF-α-causing M2 receptor dysfunction and airway hyperreactivity. These observations have important implications regarding therapeutic approaches for treating respiratory disease associated with OP exposures. PMID:23377347

  17. Modulation of parathion toxicity by glucose feeding: Is nitric oxide involved?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jing . E-mail: jing.pope@okstate.edu; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Goad, John T.; Karanth, Subramanya; Pope, Carey

    2007-03-15

    Glucose feeding can markedly exacerbate the toxicity of the anticholinesterase insecticide, parathion. We determined the effects of parathion on brain nitric oxide and its possible role in potentiation of toxicity by glucose feeding. Adult rats were given water or 15% glucose in water for 3 days and challenged with vehicle or parathion (18 mg/kg, s.c.) on day 4. Functional signs, plasma glucose and brain cholinesterase, citrulline (an indicator of nitric oxide production) and high-energy phosphates (HEPs) were measured 1-3 days after parathion. Glucose feeding exacerbated cholinergic toxicity. Parathion increased plasma glucose (15-33%) and decreased cortical cholinesterase activity (81-90%), with no significant differences between water and glucose treatment groups. In contrast, parathion increased brain regional citrulline (40-47%) and decreased HEPs (18-40%) in rats drinking water, with significantly greater changes in glucose-fed rats (248-363% increase and 31-61% decrease, respectively). We then studied the effects of inhibiting neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) by 7-nitroindazole (7NI, 30 mg/kg, i.p. x4) on parathion toxicity and its modulation by glucose feeding. Co-exposure to parathion and 7NI led to a marked increase in cholinergic signs of toxicity and lethality, regardless of glucose intake. Thus, glucose feeding enhanced the accumulation of brain nitric oxide following parathion exposure, but inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis was ineffective at counteracting increased parathion toxicity associated with glucose feeding. Evidence is therefore presented to suggest that nitric oxide may play both toxic and protective roles in cholinergic toxicity, and its precise contribution to modulation by glucose feeding requires further investigation.

  18. SOME PROBLEMS RELATED TO CLEANUP OF PARATHION-CONTAMINATED SURFACES FOLLOWING SPILLAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to determine the most effective techniques or methods for cleanup and decontamination of various wood, metal, and concrete surfaces following spillage of 45% emulsifiable parathion. This involved certain absorbents and chemicals, some of which are readily a...

  19. Rapid multi-residue method for the determination of azinphos methyl, bromopropylate, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, parathion methyl and phosalone in apricots and peaches by using negative chemical ionization ion trap technology.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Konstantinos S; Aplada-Sarlis, Pipina; Kyriakidis, Nikolaos V

    2003-05-01

    A rapid, selective and sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of six common pesticides in stone fruit samples is described. The proposed method involves the extraction of the pesticides with the use of acetone solvent followed by liquid-liquid partition with a mixture of dichloromethane and light petroleum (40-60 degrees C) and subsequent determination by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry system using ion trap technology in negative ion chemical ionization mode. The average percent recoveries of bromopropylate and phosalone in the concentration range 0.2-2.0 mg/kg were 97.3 +/- 6.7 to 120 +/- 1.0%, while the recoveries of chlorpyrifos and parathion methyl examined in the concentration range 0.02-0.2 mg/kg were 95.5 +/- 7.5 to 145 +/- 3.6%, the recoveries of azinphos methyl in the range 0.05-0.5 mg/kg were 74.8 +/- 29.6 to 96.5 +/- 13% and those of dimethoate in the range 0.1-1.0 mg/kg were 73.1 +/- 5.7 to 92.8 +/- 2.8% for n = 3 for all the above pesticides. The high mean recovery (145%) for chlorpyrifos is attributed to a matrix enhancement effect. The limits of quantitation in apricots were 0.01 mg/kg for chlorpyrifos, 0.02 mg/kg for dimethoate and parathion methyl, 0.05 mg/kg for azinphos methyl and phosalone and 0.1 mg/kg for bromopropylate. The usefulness of tandem mass spectrometry for confirmation purposes was also examined. The method was applied successfully to the determination of the target pesticides in 32 samples of stone fruits (apricots and peaches). PMID:12830919

  20. Simultaneous detection of imidacloprid and parathion by the dual-labeled time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haiyan; Sheng, Enze; Feng, Lu; Zhou, Liangliang; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua

    2015-10-01

    A highly sensitive direct dual-labeled time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) to detect parathion and imidacloprid simultaneously in food and environmental matrices was developed. Europium (Eu(3+)) and samarium (Sm(3+)) were used as fluorescent labels by coupling separately with L1-Ab and A1P1-Ab. Under optimal assay conditions, the half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) and limit of detection (LOD, IC10) were 10.87 and 0.025 μg/L for parathion and 7.08 and 0.028 μg/L for imidacloprid, respectively. The cross-reactivities (CR) were negligible except for methyl-parathion (42.4 %) and imidaclothiz (103.4 %). The average recoveries of imidacloprid ranged from 78.9 to 104.2 % in water, soil, rice, tomato, and Chinese cabbage with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.4 to 11.6 %, and those of parathion were from 81.5 to 110.9 % with the RSD of 3.2 to 10.5 %. The results of TRFIA for the authentic samples were validated by comparison with gas chromatography (GC) analyses, and satisfactory correlations (parathion: R (2) = 0.9918; imidacloprid: R (2) = 0.9908) were obtained. The results indicate that the dual-labeled TRFIA is convenient and reliable to detect parathion and imidacloprid simultaneously in food and environmental matrices. PMID:25994268

  1. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Bosco de Salles, João; Matos Lopes, Renato; de Salles, Cristiane M. C.; Cassano, Vicente P. F.; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Cunha Bastos, Vera L. F.; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  2. Bioconcentration and Acute Intoxication of Brazilian Freshwater Fishes by the Methyl Parathion Organophosphate Pesticide.

    PubMed

    de Salles, João Bosco; Lopes, Renato Matos; de Salles, Cristiane M C; Cassano, Vicente P F; de Oliveira, Manildo Marcião; Bastos, Vera L F Cunha; Bastos, Jayme Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Three species of freshwater Brazilian fishes (pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus; piavussu, Leporinus macrocephalus, and curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus) were exposed to an acute dose of 5 ppm methyl parathion organophosphate pesticide. Three to five individuals per species were exposed, one at a time, to 40 liters tap water spiked with Folidol 600. Pesticide concentrations and cholinesterase (ChE) activities were evaluated in serum, liver, brain, heart, and muscle. The bioconcentration of methyl parathion was similar for all studied fishes. Brain tissue showed the highest pesticide concentration, reaching 80 ppm after exposure for 30 min to methyl parathion. Three to 5 hours of 5 ppm methyl parathion exposure provoked the death of all P. lineatus at 92% brain AChE inhibition, whereas fish from the other two species survived for up to 78 hours with less than 80% brain AChE inhibition. Our results indicate that acute toxic effects of methyl parathion to fish are correlated with brain AChE sensitivity to methyl paraoxon. PMID:26339593

  3. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PARATHION POISONING FOLLOWING MURINE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased Susceptibility to Parathion Poisoning Following Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection. Fifty to 100 percent mortality occurred in mice treated with ordinarily sublethal doses of parathion 2 to 5 days post infection with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). These mortalities appear...

  4. Effects on wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  5. Effects of wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California USA rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  6. Fatal parathion poisoning in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R. A.; Forthal, D. N.; Hill, R. H.; Demby, A.

    1987-01-01

    In May and June 1986, 49 persons in Sierra Leone were acutely poisoned by the organothiophosphate insecticide, parathion. Fourteen people died. Illness occurred in three episodes at two different locations that were 44 km apart. A study of 21 cases and 22 household controls was undertaken to explore which factors were associated with the development of the symptoms. Cases were more likely than controls to have eaten bread in the 4 hours before becoming ill (odds ratio, 12.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-83.8). Scrapings of residue from the floor of the truck that had brought the wheat flour from the mill to the general store where the baker purchased it were positive for parathion, suggesting that the flour had been contaminated during transport. Pesticide poisoning is a common problem in the developing world, and public health measures such as restricting the use of parathion may help to prevent fatal poisonings. PMID:3501344

  7. ACEPHATE, ALDICARB, CARBOPHENOTHION, DEF, EPN, ETHOPROP, METHYL PARATHION, AND PHORATE; THEIR ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY, BIOCONCENTRATION POTENTIAL, AND PERSISTENCE AS RELATED TO MARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity, bioconcentration, and persistence of the pesticides acephate, aldicarb, carbophenothion, DEF, EPN, ethoprop, methyl parathion, and phorate were determined for estuarine environments. Static acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine the 96-h EC50 values for al...

  8. RATES OF TRANSFORMATION OF METHYL PARATHION AND DIETHYL PHTHALATE BY AUFWUCHS MICROORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using batch cultures, the authors determined transformation rates for low concentrations of two toxicants--an insectide, methyl parathion, and a plasticizer, diethyl phthalate--by aufwuchs. Aufwuchs samples were collected from field sites, an indoor channel, and a continuous-flow...

  9. LABORATORY ECOSYSTEMS FOR STUDYING CHEMICAL FATE: AN EVALUATION USING METHYL PARATHION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of complex microcosms as tools for testing mathematical models of pollutant fate was evaluated by determining the transport and transformation of methyl parathion in two-8-compartment, continuous flow microcosms designed to enhance the effects of different degradation pro...

  10. Electrochemical investigation of methyl parathion at gold-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunya; Wang, Zhengguo; Zhan, Guoqin

    2011-01-01

    A gold/sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (nano-Au/SDBS/GCE) was electrochemically fabricated with a constant potential at -0.4V. The obtained nano-Au/SDBS/GCE was characterized with scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Electrochemical behaviors of methyl parathion at the nano-Au/SDBS/GCE were thoroughly investigated. Compared to the unmodified electrode, the peak current obviously increased and the oxidation peak potential negatively shifted. These changes indicated that the composite nanoparticles possess good electrocatalytic performance on the electrochemical reaction of methyl parathion. Experimental parameters such as deposition time, pH value and accumulation conditions were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the peak current corresponding to the oxidation of the hydroxylamine group was found in a good linear relationship with the methyl parathion concentration. In addition, a calibration curve with excellent linearity was obtained in the concentration range from 5.0×10(-7)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1) with an estimated detection limit of 8.6×10(-8)molL(-1) (S/N=3). The successful determination of methyl parathion in real samples demonstrated the usefulness and potential applications of this method. PMID:20832258

  11. Mass spectrometric detection of CYP450 adducts following oxidative desulfuration of methyl parathion.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Patrick B; Smith, Stanley V; Baker, Rodney C; Kramer, Robert E

    2013-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated desulfuration of methyl parathion results in mechanism-based inhibition of the enzyme. Although previous data suggest that reactive sulfur is released and binds to the apoprotein, the identities of neither the adduct(s) nor the affected amino acid(s) have been clearly determined. In this study, nanospray tandem mass spectroscopy was used to analyze peptide digests of CYP resolved by SDS-PAGE from liver microsomes of male rats following incubation in the absence or presence of methyl parathion. Oxidative desulfuration was confirmed by measurement of methyl paraoxon, and inhibition of specific CYP isozymes was determined by measurement of testosterone hydroxylation. Total CYP content was quantified spectrophotometrically. Incubation of microsomes with methyl parathion decreased CYP content by 58%. This effect was not associated with a comparable increase in absorbance at 420 nm, suggesting the displacement of heme from the apoprotein. Rates of testosterone 2β- and 6β-hydroxylation, respectively, were reduced to 8 and 2%, implicating CYP3A and CYP2C11 in the oxidative desulfuration of methyl parathion. Mass spectrometric analysis identified 96 amu adducts to cysteines 64 and 378 of CYP3A1. In addition, a peptide containing cysteine 433 that coordinates with heme was possibly modified as it was detected in control, but not methyl parathion samples. A comparison of rat CYP3A1 with human CYP3A4 suggests that cysteines 64 and 378 reside along the substrate channel, remote from the active site. Alteration of these residues might modulate substrate entry to the binding pocket of the enzyme. PMID:22271348

  12. Mechanism and kinetics of parathion degradation under ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Juan-Juan; Gao, Nai-Yun; Li, Cong; Li, Lei; Xu, Bin

    2010-03-15

    The parathion degradation under ultrasonic irradiation in aqueous solution was investigated. The results indicate that at the conditions in question, degradation rate of parathion decreased with increasing initial concentration and decreasing power. The optimal frequency for parathion degradation was 600 kHz. The free radical reactions predominate in the sonochemical degradation of parathion and the reaction zones are predominately at the bubble interface and, to a much lesser extent, in bulk solution. The gas/liquid interfacial regions are the real effective reaction sites for sonochemical degradation of parathion. The reaction can be well described as a gas/liquid heterogeneous reaction which obeys a kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The main pathways of parathion degradation by ultrasonic irradiation were also proposed by qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic byproducts. It is indicated that the N(2) in air takes part in the parathion degradation through the formation of NO(2) under ultrasonic irradiation. Parathion is decomposed into paraoxon and 4-nitrophenol in the first step via two different pathways, respectively, which is in agreement with the theoretical molecular orbital (MO) calculations. PMID:19854573

  13. Covalent Coupling of Organophosphorus Hydrolase Loaded Quantum Dots to Carbon Nanotube/Au Nanocomposite for Enhanced Detection of Methyl Parathion

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Dan; Chen, Wenjuan; Zhang, Weiying; Liu, Deli; Li, Haibing; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-02-15

    An amperometric biosensor for highly selective and sensitive determination of methyl parathion (MP) was developed based on dual signal amplification: (1) a large amount of introduced enzyme on the electrode surface and (2) synergistic effects of nanoparticles towards enzymatic catalysis. The fabrication process includes (1) electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles by a multi-potential step technique at multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film pre-cast on a glassy carbon electrode and (2) immobilization of methyl parathion degrading enzyme (MPDE) onto a modified electrode through CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) covalent attachment. The introduced MWCNT and gold nanoparticles significantly increased the surface area and exhibited synergistic effects towards enzymatic catalysis. CdTe QDs are further used as carriers to load a large amount of enzyme. As a result of these two important enhancement factors, the proposed biosensor exhibited extremely sensitive, perfectly selective, and rapid response to methyl parathion in the absence of a mediator.

  14. PARATHION RESIDUES ON APPLE AND PEACH FOLIAGE AS AFFECTED BY THE PRESENCE OF THE FUNGICIDES, MANEB AND ZINEB

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a search for factors that might produce more hazardous conditions for workers exposed to pesticide residues on crops, a study was carried out to determine if the presence of the fungicides, maneb or zineb, on apple and peach foliage where parathion had been applied, affects th...

  15. RATE OF SOIL REDUCTION AS AFFECTED BY LEVELS OF METHYL PARATHION AND 2, 4,-D (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple technique was demonstrated for determining the potential for synthetic organics to stress microbial populations. Oxidized Crowly and Cecil soil materials were amended with varying concentrations of 2,4-D and methyl parathion, flooded, and then analyzed for changes in pH,...

  16. Studies of the genetics of resistance to parathion and malathion in the housefly

    PubMed Central

    Nguy, V. D.; Busvine, J. R.

    1960-01-01

    Although considerable research has been made into the genetics of resistance to DDT in the housefly—often with conflicting conclusions being drawn from the results—little has been done on the mode of inheritance of resistance to organophosphorus compounds. The experiments described in this paper were designed to fill this gap. Tests on strains of houseflies resistant to either parathion or malathion and crossed with a normal colony indicated that both types of resistance are inherited through single dominant gene pairs, and tests specially designed to determine whether the genes for parathion resistance and those for malathion resistance lie on the same chromosome suggested that the two types of gene are either alleles or closely linked. PMID:14426867

  17. Ethyl parathion in wetlands following aerial application to sunflowers in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tome, M.W.; Grue, C.E.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    An operational aerial application of parathion to sunflower fields resulted in greater or equal spray deposit in wetlands adjacent to or surrounded by sunflower fields than in the sunflower fields. In another application, when the applicator attempted to avoid contamination of the wetlands, parathion still drifted into wetlands in detectable amounts; in 2 of 4 comparisons, spray deposit in wetlands and sunflower fields did not differ. Weather during both spray operations was ideal for North Dakota, Le., wind speeds <16 km/ hour, excellent visibility, and temperature <24 C. We review how spray droplet size, weather, terrain, and type of application equipment interact to determine the amount of drift from any application of pesticide. With this information, wildlife managers should be able to make decisions pertaining to insecticide applications that will minimize drift and reduce negative impacts to nontarget organisms

  18. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Benoit, Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats' acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning. PMID:27418928

  19. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat.

    PubMed

    Bunya, Naofumi; Sawamoto, Keigo; Benoit, Hanif; Bird, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats' acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning. PMID:27418928

  20. 75 FR 57787 - Methyl Parathion; Notice of Receipt of Request to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... request would delete methyl parathion use in or on sweet potatoes, walnuts, and yams. The request would... products containing methyl parathion on July 27, 2010 (75 FR 43981). This action on the...

  1. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF METHYL PARATHION IN SEDIMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The kinetics of disappearance of methyl parathion (0,0-dimethyl-0-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) were studied in anaerobic sediment samples in the laboratory as a function of methyl parathion concentration, pH, and Eh. The disappearance of methyl parathion is described by first-...

  2. Comparison of biosorption and phytoremediation of cadmium and methyl parathion, a case-study with live Lemna gibba and Lemna gibba powder.

    PubMed

    Halaimi, F Z; Kellali, Y; Couderchet, M; Semsari, S

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals and pesticides can be adsorbed by several biomasses such as living or non-living aquatic plants. In this study adsorption properties of live Lemna gibba and Lemna gibba powder were investigated with regard to cadmium and methyl parathion (MP). Toxicity data (IC50) on live L. gibba indicated that the period of four days was adequate for phytoremediation. Initial adsorption studies showed that both adsorbents were capable of removing cadmium and methyl parathion. Cadmium and methyl parathion adsorption onto L. gibba powder was fast and equilibrium was attained within 120min. The adsorption data could be well interpreted by the Freundlich model. The KF were: 7.8963 (Cd(2+)/ live Lemna); 0.7300 (MP/live Lemna); 11.5813 (Cd(2+)/Lemna powder); 1.1852 (MP/Lemna powder) indicating that Cd(2+) was more efficiently removed by both biosorbents than MP. Adsorption kinetics for cadmium and methyl parathion in both systems and rate constants were determined for each contaminant. It was found that the overall adsorption process was best described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. Boyd model and external mass-transfer expression were tested. It was concluded that cadmium and methyl parathion sorption onto Lemna powder is governed by film diffusion. PMID:24815048

  3. DDE increased the toxicity of parathion to coturnix quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludke, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) were exposed to DDE or chlordane in the diet and subsequently dosed with parathion or paraoxon. Pretreatment with 5 or 50 ppm DDE in the diet for 12 weeks resulted in increased cholinesterase (ChE) activity in plasma, but not in the brain. Dietary concentrations of 5 and 50 ppm DDE caused increased susceptibility of quail that were challenged with parathion or paraoxon. The increased mortality resulting from DDE pretreatment was reflected in brain ChE inhibition. The synergistic action of DDE was apparent after 3 days of exposure to 50 ppm DDE and 1 week of exposure to 5 ppm DDE. Birds exposed for 3 weeks to 5 or 50 ppm DDE retained their DDE-potentiated sensitivity to parathion after 2 weeks on clean diet. Chlordane pretreatment resulted in decreased susceptibility (antagonism) to parathion, but not to paraoxon dosage. Implications of differing responses in ChE and mortality among controls, DDE-, and chlordane-pretreated birds after parathion or paraoxon dosage are discussed.

  4. Influence of vegetation in mitigation of methyl parathion runoff.

    PubMed

    Moore, M T; Bennett, E R; Cooper, C M; Smith, S; Farris, J L; Drouillard, K G; Schulz, R

    2006-07-01

    A pesticide runoff event was simulated on two 10 m x 50 m constructed wetlands (one non-vegetated, one vegetated) to evaluate the fate of methyl parathion (MeP) (Penncap-M). Water, sediment, and plant samples were collected at five sites downstream of the inflow for 120 d. Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed at each wetland outflow to determine exiting pesticide load. MeP was detected in water at all locations of the non-vegetated wetland (50 m), 30 min post-exposure. MeP was detected 20 m from the vegetated wetland inflow 30 min post-exposure, while after 10d it was detected only at 10 m. MeP was measured only in SPMDs deployed in non-vegetated wetland cells, suggesting detectable levels were not present near the vegetated wetland outflow. Furthermore, mass balance calculations indicated vegetated wetlands were more effective in reducing aqueous loadings of MeP introduced into the wetland systems. This demonstrates the importance of vegetation as sorption sites for pesticides in constructed wetlands. PMID:16314013

  5. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  6. Acute responses of American kestrels to methyl parathion and fenvalerate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o, methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10 h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?.C) and cold (-5?.C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (LD50=3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits=2.29-4.l4 mg/kg, producing overt intoxication (abnormal posture, ataxia, paresis), dose-dependent inhibition (26-67%) of brain acetylcholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Transient but pronounced hypothermia was associated with plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% (2 h after intubation), although this response was highly variable (plasma ChE inhibition vs. A cloacal temperature, r=-0.60). Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication (irregular head movement) and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, but did not alter cloacal temperature, plasma activities of CK, U-HBDH, and LDK, or concentrations of corticosterone, glucose, triiodothyronine, and uric acid. Cold exposure intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. It would thus appear that the organophosphorus insecticide methyl parathion poses far greater hazard than the pyrethroid fenvalerate to raptorial birds.

  7. ACUTE AND CHRONIC PARATHION TOXICITY TO FISH AND INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and chronic aquatic bioassays were conducted with a variety of organisms using parathion (0,0-diethyl 0-(p-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate) as the challenge compound. Acute LC50 values ranged from a low of 0.38 micrograms/l in invertebrates to a high of 2.0 mg/l in freshwater...

  8. NEUROTOXICITY OF PARATHION-INDUCED ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN NEONATAL RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biochemical and morphological neurotoxic effects of postnatal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were examined in rat pups dosed with parathion, at time points critical to hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis (i.e., D5-20). ippocampal cytopathology as assessed by l...

  9. Accumulation, metabolism and toxicity of parathion in tadpoles

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.J. )

    1990-04-01

    Earlier work exposing tadpoles to organophosphorus pesticides indicated the great resistance of tadpoles of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) to these chemicals and their surprising ability to accumulate parathion and fenthion from water. These qualities seemed to make them an ideal model with which to test a hypothesis advanced by Burke and Ferguson, who noted that parathion is more toxic to resistant mosquitofish in static water than in flowing water--a reversal of the pattern normally seen. They believed that highly toxic metabolite paraoxon was produced by the fish and that its buildup in static systems resulted in the unexpected mortality. Amphibians have been shown to produce paraoxon and to accumulate the parent compound parathion to levels that are potentially hazardous to other organisms. In the course of examining paraoxon production by tadpoles, it would also be possible to learn more about their patterns of parathion uptake and elimination. Retention of residues is also a matter of concern given the high levels observed in the earlier studies.

  10. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R; Baker, Angela A; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2015-10-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation. PMID:26212258

  11. Flight behavior of methyl-parathion-resistant and -susceptible western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations from Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Stebbing, Jenny A; Meinke, Lance J; Naranjo, Steve E; Siegfried, Blair D; Wright, Robert J; Chandler, Laurence D

    2005-08-01

    Relative flight behavior of methyl-parathion-resistant and -susceptible western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte populations, was studied as part of a larger effort to characterize the potential impact of insecticide resistance on adult life history traits and to understand the evolution and spread of resistance. A computer interfaced actograph was used to compare flight of resistant and susceptible individuals, and flight of resistant individuals with and without prior exposure to methyl-parathion. In each case, mean trivial and sustained flight durations were compared among treatments. In general, there were few differences in trivial or sustained flight characteristics as affected by beetle population, insecticide exposure, sex, or age and there were few significant interactions among variables. Tethered flight activity was highly variable and distributions of flight duration were skewed toward flights of short duration. Tethered flight activity was similar among resistant and susceptible beetles with the exception that susceptible beetles initiated more flights per beetle than resistant beetles. After sublethal exposure to methyl-parathion, total flight time, total trivial flight time, and mean number of flights per resistant beetle declined significantly. Because long-range flight was uncommon, short- to medium-duration flights may play an important role in determining gene flow and population spread of resistant D. v. virgifera. These results suggest that organophosphate-resistant beetles can readily move and colonize new areas, but localized selection pressure (e.g., management practices) and exposure to methyl-parathion may contribute to the small-scale differences in resistance intensity often seen in the field. PMID:16156583

  12. Environmentally-friendly in situ plated bismuth-film electrode for the quantification of the endocrine disruptor parathion in skimmed milk.

    PubMed

    Gerent, Giles G; Spinelli, Almir

    2016-05-01

    An in situ bismuth-film electrode (BiFE) together with square-wave cathodic voltammetry (SWCV) was used to determine the concentration of the endocrine disruptor parathion in skimmed milk. The experimental conditions (deposition time, deposition potential and Bi (III) concentration) were optimized for the preparation of the BiFE. A glassy carbon electrode was used as the substrate. The selection of the chemical composition of the supporting electrolyte and the solution pH was aimed at improving the reduction of parathion at the BiFE surface. In addition, the parameters of the square-wave cathodic voltammetry were adjusted to improve the sensor performance. A cathodic current identified at -0.523V increased linearly with the parathion concentration in the range of 0.2-2.0μmolL(-1) (R=0.999). The sensitivity of the calibration curve obtained was 4.09μALμmol(-1), and the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 55.7nmolL(-1) and 169.0 nmolL(-1), respectively. The performance of the sensor was tested using a sample of skimmed milk with parathion added. The same determination was carried out by UV-vis spectroscopy and the results obtained were used for the statistical evaluation of the data obtained. PMID:26812083

  13. Hormonal responses and tolerance to cold of female quail following parathion ingestion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Sileo, L.; Scanes, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-week-old female bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), maintained at 26 + 1?C, were provided diets containing 0,25, or 100 ppm parathion ad libitum. After 10 days, birds were exposed to mild cold (6 + 1?C) for 4,8, 12, 24, or 48 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in birds receiving 25 and 100 ppm parathion. Body weight, egg production, and plasma luteinizing hormone and progesterone concentrations were reduced in birds receiving 100 ppm parathion compared with other groups. Cold exposure did not alter plasma corticosterone levels in the 0- and 25-ppm parathion groups, but a two- to five fold elevation of plasma corticosterone was observed in birds fed 100 ppm parathion. These findings indicate that (i) short-term ingestion of parathion can impair reproduction possibly by altering gonadotropin or steroid secretion, and (ii) tolerance to cold may be reduced following ingestion of this organophosphate.

  14. Poisoning of Canada geese in Texas by parathion sprayed for control of Russian wheat aphid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Juenger, Gary; Roffe, Thomas J.; Smith, Milton R.; Irwin, Roy J.

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 200 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) died at a playa lake in the Texas Panhandle shortly after a winter wheat field in the basin adjacent to the lake was treated with parathion to control newly invading Russian wheat aphids (Diuraphis noxia). No evidence of infectious disease was diagnosed during necropsies of geese. Brain ChE activities were depressed up to 77% below normal. Parathion residues in GI tract contents of geese ranged from 4 to 34 ppm. Based on this evidence, parathion was responsible for the goose mortalities. Parathion applications to winter wheat will undoubtedly increase if parathion is applied for control of both Russian wheat aphids and greenbugs (Schizaphis graminum). Geese may potentially be exposed to widespread applications of parathion from fall to spring, essentially their entire wintering period.

  15. Involvement of oxidative stress in methyl parathion and parathion-induced toxicity and genotoxicity to human liver carcinoma (HepG₂) cells.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Falicia L; Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2013-06-01

    Methyl parathion (C₈H₁₀NO₅PS) and parathion (C₁₀H14 NO₅PS) are both organophosphate insecticides (OPI) widely used for household and agricultural applications. They are known for their ability to irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase which often leads to a profound effect on the nervous system of exposed organisms. Many recently published studies have indicated that human exposure to OPI may be associated with neurologic, hematopoietic, cardiovascular, and reproductive adverse effects. Studies have also linked OPI exposure to a number of degenerative diseases including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Also, oxidative stress (OS) has been reported as a possible mechanism of OPI toxicity in humans. Hence, the aim of the present investigation was to use human liver carcinoma (HepG₂) cells as a test model to evaluate the role of OS in methyl parathion- and parathion-induced toxicity. To achieve this goal, we performed the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay for cell viability, lipid peroxidation assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and Comet assay for DNA damage, respectively. Results from MTT assay indicated that methyl parathion and parathion gradually reduce the viability of HepG₂ cells in a dose-dependent manner, showing 48 h-LD₅₀ values of 26.20 mM and 23.58 mM, respectively. Lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) of MDA level in methyl parathion- and parathion-treated HepG₂ cells compared with controls, suggesting that OS plays a key role in OPI-induced toxicity. Comet assay indicated a significant increase in genotoxicity at higher concentrations of OPI exposure. Overall, we found that methyl-parathion is slightly less toxic than parathion to HepG₂ cells. The cytotoxic effect of these OPI was found to be associated, at least in part, with oxidative cell/tissue damage. PMID:21544925

  16. Involvement of Oxidative Stress in Methyl Parathion and Parathion-Induced Toxicity and Genotoxicity to Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Falicia L.; Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Methyl parathion (C8H10NO5PS) and parathion (C10H14NO5PS) are both organophosphate insecticides (OPI) widely used for household and agricultural applications. They are known for their ability to irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase which often leads to a profound effect on the nervous system of exposed organisms. Many recently published studies have indicated that human exposure to OPI may be associated with neurologic, hematopoietic, cardiovascular, and reproductive adverse effects. Studies have also linked OPI exposure to a number of degenerative diseases including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Also, oxidative stress (OS) has been reported as a possible mechanism of OPI toxicity in humans. Hence, the aim of the present investigation was to use human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells as a test model to evaluate the role of OS in methyl parathion- and parathion-induced toxicity. To achieve this goal, we performed the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay for cell viability, lipid peroxidation assay for malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and Comet assay for DNA damage, respectively. Results from MTT assay indicated that methyl parathion and parathion gradually reduce the viability of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, showing 48 h-LD50 values of 26.20 mM and 23.58 mM, respectively. Lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) of MDA level in methyl parathion- and parathion-treated HepG2 cells compared to controls, suggesting that OS plays a key role in OPI-induced toxicity. Comet assay indicated a significant increase in genotoxicity at higher concentrations of OPI exposure. Overall, we found that methyl-parathion is slightly less toxic than parathion to HepG2 cells. The cytotoxic effect of these OPI was found to be associated, at least in part, with oxidative cell/tissue damage. PMID:21544925

  17. A simple and sensitive fluorescent sensor for methyl parathion based on L-tyrosine methyl ester functionalized carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juying; Dong, Jing; Zhu, Haishuang; Teng, Xue; Ai, Shiyun; Mang, Minglin

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, a simple and sensitive fluorescent sensor for methyl parathion is developed based on L-tyrosine methyl ester functionalized carbon dots (Tyr-CDs) and tyrosinase system. The carbon dots are obtained by simple hydrothermal reaction using citric acid as carbon resource and L-tyrosine methyl ester as modification reagent. The carbon dots are characterized by transmission electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The carbon dots show strong and stable photoluminescence with a quantum yield of 3.8%. Tyrosinase can catalyze the oxidation of tyrosine methyl ester on the surface of carbon dots to corresponding quinone products, which can quench the fluorescence of carbon dots. When organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are introduced in system, they can decrease the enzyme activity, thus decrease the fluorescence quenching rate. Methyl parathion, as a model of OPs, was detected. Experimental results show that the enzyme inhibition rate is proportional to the logarithm of the methyl parathion concentration in the range 1.0×10(-10)-1.0×10(-4) M with the detection limit (S/N=3) of 4.8×10(-11) M. This determination method shows a low detection limit, wide linear range, good selectivity and high reproducibility. This sensing system has been successfully used for the analysis of cabbage, milk and fruit juice samples. PMID:25558870

  18. Abiotic degradation of methyl parathion by manganese dioxide: Kinetics and transformation pathway.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Caixiang; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Yinwen; Wu, Sisi; Yuan, Songhu; Zhu, Zhenli

    2016-05-01

    Methyl parathion, a widely used insecticide around the world, has aroused gradually extensive concern of researchers due to its degradation product such as methyl paraoxon, with higher toxicity for mammals and more recalcitrant. Given the ubiquity of manganese dioxide (MnO2) in soils and aquatic sediments, the abiotic degradation of methyl parathion by α-MnO2 was investigated in batch experiments. It was found that methyl parathion was decomposed up to 90% by α-MnO2 in 30 h and the removal efficiency of methyl parathion depended strongly on the loading of α-MnO2 and pH value in the solution where the reactions followed pseudo-first-order model well. The coexisting metal ions (such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+)) weakened markedly the degradation of methyl parathion by α-MnO2. However, the effect of dissolved organic matter (HA-Na) on reaction rates presented two sides: to improve hydrolysis rate but deteriorate oxidation rate of methyl parathion. Based on the degradation products identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometer (LC/HRMS), both hydrolysis and oxidation processes were proposed to be two predominant reaction mechanisms contributing to methyl parathion degradation by α-MnO2. This study provided meaningful information to elucidate the abiotic dissipation of methyl parathion by manganese oxide minerals in the environment. PMID:26891361

  19. EFFECT OF METHYL PARATHION ON FOOD DISCRIMINATION IN NORTHERN BOBWHITE (COLINUS VIRGINIANUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of methyl parathion on dietary discrimination ability was assessed in two-week-old northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). n initial oral dose of methyl parathion(O, 3 or 6 mg/kg: 0, 0-dimethyl 0-(4-nitrophenyl-ester) was given to two subgroups of bobwhite before a 6-...

  20. Five key factors determining pairwise correlations in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sahani, Maneesh; Carandini, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The responses of cortical neurons to repeated presentation of a stimulus are highly variable, yet correlated. These “noise correlations” reflect a low-dimensional structure of population dynamics. Here, we examine noise correlations in 22,705 pairs of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) of anesthetized cats, during ongoing activity and in response to artificial and natural visual stimuli. We measured how noise correlations depend on 11 factors. Because these factors are themselves not independent, we distinguished their influences using a nonlinear additive model. The model revealed that five key factors play a predominant role in determining pairwise correlations. Two of these are distance in cortex and difference in sensory tuning: these are known to decrease correlation. A third factor is firing rate: confirming most earlier observations, it markedly increased pairwise correlations. A fourth factor is spike width: cells with a broad spike were more strongly correlated amongst each other. A fifth factor is spike isolation: neurons with worse isolation were more correlated, even if they were recorded on different electrodes. For pairs of neurons with poor isolation, this last factor was the main determinant of correlations. These results were generally independent of stimulus type and timescale of analysis, but there were exceptions. For instance, pairwise correlations depended on difference in orientation tuning more during responses to gratings than to natural stimuli. These results consolidate disjoint observations in a vast literature on pairwise correlations and point towards regularities of population coding in sensory cortex. PMID:26019310

  1. Intralipid Fat Emulsion Decreases Respiratory Failure in a Rat Model of Parathion Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Courtney; Bird, Steven B.; Gaspari, Romolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapies exist for acute organophosphate (OP) exposure but mortality rates remain high (10% to 20%). Currently, treatment focuses on reversing the resultant cholinergic excess effects through the use of atropine. Intralipid fat emulsion (IFE) has been used to treat lipophilic drug ingestions and theoretically would be beneficial for some OP agents. Objectives The hypothesis was that IFE would decrease the acute respiratory depressant effects following lethal OP exposure using a lipophilic OP agent (parathion). Methods The authors used a previously validated animal model of OP poisoning with detailed physiologic respiratory recordings. The model consisted of Wistar rats anesthetized but spontaneously breathing 100% oxygen. Airflow, respiratory rate, tidal volume, mean arterial pressure, and pulse rate were digitally recorded for 120 minutes following OP exposure or until respiratory failure. Three study groups included parathion alone (n = 6), parathion and IFE 5 minutes after poisoning (n = 6), and parathion and IFE 20 minutes after poisoning (n = 6). In all groups, parathion was given as a single oral dose of 54 mg/kg (4 times the rat oral 50% population lethal dose [LD50]). Three boluses of IFE (15 mg/kg/min) were given over 3 minutes, 20 minutes apart, starting either 5 or 20 minutes after poisoning. Timing of IFE was based on parathion kinetics. In one study group IFE was initiated 5 minutes after poisoning to coincide with initial absorption of parathion. In another study group IFE was given at 20 minutes to coincide with peak intravenous parathion concentration. Primary outcome was percent of animals with apnea. Secondary outcome was time to apnea. Results Animals exposed to parathion alone demonstrated a steady decline in respiratory rate and tidal volume post-exposure, with apnea occurring a mean of 51.6 minutes after poisoning (95% CI = 35.8 min to 53.2 min). Animals treated with IFE 5 minutes post-exposuredemonstrated no difference in mean

  2. Biodegradation of methyl parathion and endosulfan using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma viridae.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, S; Anthonisamy, A; Arunkumar, S; Sivakumari, V

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the bioconversion and total breakdown of pesticides in the environment. This study was conducted to assess the pesticide degradation (endosulfan and methyl parathion) ability of the bacteria and fungi (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Trichoderma viridae). The screening test conducted to reveal the ability to degrade endosulfan and methyl parathion shows that Trichoderma viridae was effective compared to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pesticide degradation was estimated by optical density method. Methyl parathion was highly degraded compared to endosulfan. This study clearly proves that pesticides and their residue degradation can be accelerated by employing microbes which can be effectively utilized both as biocontrol agent and soil cleanser. PMID:22324156

  3. Studies on combined effects of organophosphates or carbamates and morsodren in birds. II. Plasma and cholinesterase in quail fed morsodren and orally dosed with parathion or carbofuran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Ludke, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The degree of interaction between mercury and cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides was determined by comparing enzyme responses to sublethal dosages of parathion or carbofuran in quail fed 0.05, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm morsodren for 18 weeks. A statistically significant interaction was defined as greater brain cholinesterase inhibition in morsodren-fed than in clean-fed birds following pesticide dosage. The tissue residues of mercury that accumulated before significant mercury-parathion interactions occurred were higher than levels that might be expected in natural populations, but significant mercury-carbofuran interactions occurred in birds that had only accumulated 1.0 ppm liver mercury. The results indicate that indiscriminate usage of cholinesterase inhibiting pesticides are dangerous, since natural populations of fish-eating birds oftentimes contain this magnitude of mercury.

  4. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  5. IMPAIRMENT OF ANTIPREDATOR BEHAVIOR IN 'PALAEMONETES PUGIO' BY EXPOSURE TO SUBLETHAL DOSES OF PARATHION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, when exposed to sublethal concentrations of methyl or ethyl parathion, become more susceptible to predation by gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis. An increase in spontaneous activity renders them more easily detected by a predator, and they fatigue...

  6. Graphene modified screen printed immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of parathion.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jyotsana; Vinayak, Priya; Tuteja, Satish K; Chhabra, Varun A; Bhardwaj, Neha; Paul, A K; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash

    2016-09-15

    Due to indiscriminate use of pesticides, there is a growing need to develop sensors that can sensitively detect the trace amount of pesticides in food and water samples. Parathion, identified as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, had been one of the most widely used pesticides throughout the world. Symptoms of its poisoning are found to be diverse enough to include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle cramping/twitching, and shortness of breath. In this work, a graphene based impedimetric immunosensor has been fabricated and employed for highly sensitive and specific detection of parathion. The fabrication proceeded through the modification of the screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPE) with graphene sheets, followed by their functionalization with 2-aminobenzyl amine (2-ABA) via an electrochemical reaction. These amine functionalized graphene electrodes were then bio-interfaced with the anti-parathion antibodies. In the impedimetric mode, this biosensor detected parathion in a broad linear range, i.e. 0.1-1000ng/L with a very low limit of detection (52pg/L). It also showed high selectivity towards parathion in the presence of malathion, paraoxon, and fenitrothion. The viability of this biosensor was demonstrated by detecting parathion in real samples (e.g., tomato and carrot) and through cross-calibration against HPLC. PMID:27135939

  7. Degradation of parathion and the reduction of acute toxicity in TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zoh, K D; Kim, T S; Kim, J G; Choi, K H

    2005-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of methyl parathion was done using a circulating TiO2/UV and TiO2/solar reactor. Indoor experimental results showed that, under the photocatalysis conditions, parathion was more effectively degraded than under the photolysis and TiO2 only conditions. Parathion (38 microM) was completely degraded under photocatalysis within 90 min, and more than 80% TOC decrease after 150 minutes. The main ionic byproducts during the photocatalysis were measured, and almost complete nitrogen recovery was achieved as mainly NO3- NO2-, and NH4+, and 80% of sulfur as recovered as SO4(2)-. Organic intermediates such as nitrophenol and methyl paraoxon were also identified during the photocatalysis of parathion, and these were further degraded after 90 minutes. Microtox bioassay using Vibrio fischeri was used in evaluating the toxicity of solutions treated by photocatalysis and photolysis of parathion. The results showed that the acute toxicity expressed as EC50 almost reduced after 90 min under the photocatalysis condition whereas only 40% reduction of toxicity as EC50 was achieved in photolysis condition. The outdoor results using a TiO2/solar system were similar to the TiO2 indoor system, indicating the possibility of applying TiO2/solar system for the treatment of parathion-contaminated water. PMID:16312950

  8. Kinetics and mechanism of the degradation of methyl parathion in aqueous hydrogen sulfide solution: investigation of natural organic matter effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaofen; Jans, Urs

    2006-02-01

    The kinetics of the transformation of methyl parathion have been investigated in aqueous solution containing reduced sulfur species and small concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) from different sources such as soil, river, and peat. It was shown that NOM mediates the degradation of methyl parathion in aqueous solutions containing hydrogen sulfide. After evaluating and quantifying the effect of the NOM concentration on the degradation kinetics of methyl parathion in the presence of hydrogen sulfide, it was found that the observed pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants (k(obs)) were proportional to NOM concentrations. The influence of pH on the degradation of methyl parathion in the aqueous solutions containing hydrogen sulfide and NOM has been studied. The rate of degradation of methyl parathion was strongly pH dependent. The results indicate k(obs) with a commercially available humic acid has a maximum value at approximately pH 8.3. Two main reaction mechanisms are identified to dominate the degradation of methyl parathion in aqueous solution containing hydrogen sulfide and NOM based on the products aminomethyl parathion and desmethyl methyl parathion. The two mechanisms are nitro-group reduction and nucleophilic attack at the methoxy-carbon. The reduction of the nitro-group is only observed in the presence of NOM. The results of this study form an important base for the evaluation and interpretation of transformation processes of methyl parathion in the environment. PMID:16509335

  9. Down-regulation of muscarinic receptors and the m3 subtype in white-footed mice by dietary exposure to parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jett, D.A.; Hill, E.F.; Fernando, J.C.; Eldefrawi, M.E.; Eldefrawi, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of ad libitum dietary exposure (as occurs in the field) to parathion for 14 d was investigated on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) in brains and submaxillary glands of adults of a field species, the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus. Immunoprecipitation using subtype selective antibodies revealed that the relative ratios of the m1-m5 mAChR subtypes in Peromyscus brain were similar to those in rat brain. There was little variability in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in control mice brains but large variability in 39 exposed mice, resulting from differences in food ingestion and parathion metabolism. Accordingly, data on radioligand binding to mAChRs in each mouse brain were correlated with brain AChE activity in the same mouse, and AChE inhibition served as a biomarker of exposure reflecting in situ paraoxon concentrations. Exposure to parathion for 14 d reduced maximal binding (Bmax) of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB), [3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS), and [3H]-4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide ([3H]-4-DAMP) by up to approximately 58% without affecting receptor affinities for these ligands. Maximal reduction in Bmax of [3H]QNB and [3H]-4-DAMP binding occurred in mice with highest AChE inhibition, while equivalent maximal reduction in Bmax of [3H]NMS occurred in mice with only approximately 10% AChE inhibition, without further change at higher parathion doses. This is believed to be due to the hydrophilicity of [3H]NMS, which limits its accessibility to internalized desensitized receptors. In submaxillary glands (mAChRs are predominantly m3 subtype), there were significant dose-dependent reductions in [3H]QNB binding and m3 mRNA levels in exposed mice, revealed by Northern blot analyses. The reduction in m3 receptors is suggested to result mostly from reduced synthesis at the transcription level, rather than from translational or posttranslational events. The data suggest that down-regulation of mAChRs occurs

  10. Does Memory of Childhood Determine Parenting? Correlation in Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, Gordon L.; Hoddinott, Susan N.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied 46 eldest or only children under school age and their parents to determine the relationship between parents' recollections of their own childhoods and the way they use their family physician for care of their children. The parents completed a questionnaire that measured the caring and overprotection dimensions of the parenting they themselves remember. Positive correlations were found between perceptions of maternal overprotection and the frequency of children's visits. Negative correlations were found between perceptions of parental affection and children's visits and non-routine diagnoses. Neuroticism was found to be a confounding variable that slightly weakened the relationship between maternal caring and children's visits. PMID:20469500

  11. INTERACTION BETWEEN GAMMA-HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE AND THE GASTROINTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE ABSORPTION, BIOTRANSFORMATION, AND EXCRETION OF PARATHION BY THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pretreatment of rats with the organochlorine insecticide lindane reduced the estimated absorption rate of parathion from the gastrointestinal tract. Lindane pretreatment also significantly reduced the metabolism of parathion to p-nitrophenol in vivo. Lindane pretreatment altered ...

  12. Laser correlation spectroscopy for determining biochemical parameters of whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolevich, Alexander N.; Prigun, Natali P.

    1999-02-01

    Correlation spectroscopy methods are widely used to study dynamical, morphological and optical parameters of biological objects. This work makes an attempt to explore these methods (in particular, due to their expressively) for diagnosing whole blood under normal and pathological states (cardiovascular diseases). Not only morphological characteristics of blood elements are known to change under diseases, but also its biochemical composition does. However, the biochemical analysis of blood is rather time and labor consuming. The paper is directed to investigate the correlation between optical characteristics of light scattering by blood and its biochemical parameters. Samples of whole blood were in vitro investigated for ills with different diagnoses and extend of cardio-vascular diseases as well as for essentially healthy donors. Simultaneous with the above characteristics we have monitored volumetric concentration of lipoproteides, erythrocytes and hemoglobin. The analysis of obtained results has show that the width of spectrum is greater for samples from healthy persons then from ills. Comparison of measured data on frequency spectrum, diffuse reflectivity's, biochemical and morphological blood parameters of the studied samples has shown the high correlation between the spectrum halfwidth and concentration of lipoproteides, erythrocyte setting rate. Some poorer correlation with spectrum occurs for concentration of hemoglobin and cholesterol. Thus, these are revealed an opportunity to design on express non-invasive method for determining the possibility of atherosclerotic disease.

  13. Enhancement of parathion toxicity to quail by heat and cold exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Becker, J.M.; Nakatsugawa, T.

    1987-01-01

    Effects of ambient temperature on the acute oral toxicity of parathion were investigated in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) maintained at thermoneutral temperature (26.degree. C) or exposed to elevated (37.degree. C) or reduced (4.degree. C) temperatures commonly encountered by free-ranging wild birds. Based upon estimates of the median lethal dosage, there was up to a two-fold enhancement of parathion toxicity in birds chronically exposed to heat or cold. Twenty-four hours after administration of a low dosage (4 mg/kg body wt, po), there was markedly greater cholinesterase inhibition in surviving heat-exposed quail compared with those reared at 26.degree. C (e.g., brain acetylcholinesterase depression of 42% versus 12%). There were no differences in hepatic activities of parathion oxidase, paraoxonase, or paraoxon deethylase which could account for greater toxicity to chronically heat-exposed birds. In contrast, 4 mg parathion/kg wt elicited less plasma cholinesterase inhibition in cold-exposed quail compared to thermoneutral controls (e.g., < 10% versus 48% depression after 24 hr). Increased liver weight and a doubling of paraoxonase activity may have been associated with greater tolerance to sublethal doses of parathion in chronically cold-exposed quail. These findings, together with limited field observations, indicate that the hazard associated with anticholinesterase exposure of wild birds is substantially influenced by environmental temperature.

  14. Sodium aescinate ameliorates liver injury induced by methyl parathion in rats.

    PubMed

    DU, Yuan; Wang, Tian; Jiang, Na; Ren, Ru-Tong; Li, Chong; Li, Chang-Kun; Fu, Feng-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Methyl parathion, a highly cytotoxic insecticide, has been used in agricultural pest control for several years. The present study investigated the protective effect of sodium aescinate (SA, the sodium salt of aescin) against liver injury induced by methyl parathion. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of 8 animals: the control group; the methyl parathion (15 mg/kg) poisoning (MP) group; and the MP plus SA at doses of 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 mg/kg groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the plasma were assayed. Nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidative parameters were measured. Histopathological examination of the liver was also performed. The results revealed that SA had no effect on AChE. Treatment with SA decreased the activities of ALT and AST, and the levels of malondialdehyde and NO. Treatment with SA also increased the level of glutathione and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. SA administration also ameliorated liver injury induced by methyl parathion poisoning. The findings indicate that SA protects against liver injury induced by methyl parathion and that the mechanism of action is related to the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of SA. PMID:22969975

  15. Children, but not chimpanzees, have facial correlates of determination

    PubMed Central

    Waller, B. M.; Misch, A.; Whitehouse, J.; Herrmann, E.

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions have long been proposed to be important agents in forming and maintaining cooperative interactions in social groups. Human beings are inordinately cooperative when compared with their closest-living relatives, the great apes, and hence one might expect species differences in facial expressivity in contexts in which cooperation could be advantageous. Here, human children and chimpanzees were given an identical task designed to induce an element of frustration (it was impossible to solve). In children, but not chimpanzees, facial expressions associated with effort and determination positively correlated with persistence at the task. By contrast, bodily indicators of stress (self-directed behaviour) negatively correlated with task persistence in chimpanzees. Thus, children exhibited more behaviour as they persisted, and chimpanzees exhibited less. The facial expressions produced by children, could, therefore, function to solicit prosocial assistance from others. PMID:24598107

  16. Absence of circannual toxicity of parathion to starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Grue, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ambient temperature and season have been observed to influence the toxicity of several environmental pollutants in homeotherms. The circannual toxicity of ethyl parathion (EP) was examined in adult European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Groups of birds housed in outdoor pens received oral doses of EP (20-150 mg/kg body weight) in fall, winter, spring and summer (temperature range -3.3 to 36.7?C). The median lethal dosage (LD50), and brain and plasma cholinesterase inhibition, were found to be quite similar among seasons. There was some suggestion that EP may have been more toxic during hot weather (winter versus summer LD50 estimate [95% confidence interval]:160 [114-225] vs. 118 [102-136] mg/kg; P<0.10). In view of previous reports in which ambient temperature extremes and harsh weather have enhanced organophosphorus insecticide toxicity to birds, it is concluded that circannual toxicity studies should include measures of sensitivity (acute oral exposure) and vulnerability (dietary exposure) to better predict responses of free-ranging birds

  17. Methyl parathion in residential properties: relocation and decontamination methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J Milton; Bing-Canar, John; Renninger, Steve; Dollhopf, Ralph; El-Zein, Jason; Star, Dave; Zimmerman, Dea; Anisuzzaman, Abul; Boylan, Kathline; Tomaszewski, Terrence; Pearce, Ken; Yacovac, Rebecca; Erlwein, Bobby; Ward, John

    2002-01-01

    In November 1994 methyl parathion (MP), a restricted agricultural pesticide, was discovered to have been illegally sprayed within hundreds of residences in Lorain County, Ohio. Surface levels and air concentrations of MP revealed detectable levels of the pesticide 3 years after spraying. Because of the high toxicity of MP (lethal dose to 50% of rats tested [LD50] = 15 mg/kg) and long half-life indoors, risk-based relocation and decontamination criteria were created. Relocation criteria were derived based on levels of p-nitrophenol in urine, a metabolic byproduct of MP exposure. In Ohio, concentrations of MP on surfaces and in the air were also used to trigger relocations. The criteria applied in Ohio underwent refinement as cases of MP misuse were found in Mississippi and then in several other states. The MP investigation (1994-1997) was the largest pesticide misuse case in the nation, ultimately involving the sampling of 9,000 residences and the decontamination of 1,000 properties. This article describes the methodology used for relocation of residents and decontamination of properties having MP. PMID:12634141

  18. Inheritance of methyl-parathion resistance in Nebraska western corn rootworm populations (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Parimi, Srinivas; Scharf, Michael E; Meinke, Lance J; Chandler, Laurence D; Siegfried, Blair D

    2003-02-01

    Field populations of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, were collected from three different sites (York Co., Phelps Co., and Saunders Co.) in Nebraska during 1996. Adult bioassays of these three populations were conducted with different concentrations of methyl-parathion and at a diagnostic concentration (1.0 microg/ml) to determine resistance levels among these populations. Self and reciprocal crosses were made between the two resistant and one susceptible laboratory-reared populations. Dose-responses and dominance ratios calculated for the four reciprocal crosses indicated that resistance was incompletely dominant in both strains, although in one of the strains there was an indication of sex linkage. However, evaluation of native polyacrylamide gels stained for nonspecific esterases and nonspecific esterase activity of parents and F1 progeny of the crosses suggested that esterase inheritance was completely dominant and autosomal. The results of this study were inconclusive with regard to the precise nature of inheritance, because the bioassays and esterase assays could not discriminate between heterozygotes and homozygotes. However, they do provide insight into the potential for developing simple diagnostic assays to assess resistance frequencies. Based on the inheritance studies described in this investigation, we can begin to generate information on specific genetic factors that dictate the evolutionary divergence of discrete resistant populations and facilitate modeling efforts designed to approximate the movement of genes for resistance among populations. PMID:12650355

  19. Detection of parathion and patulin by quartz-crystal microbalance functionalized by the photonics immobilization technique.

    PubMed

    Funari, Riccardo; Della Ventura, Bartolomeo; Carrieri, Raffaele; Morra, Luigi; Lahoz, Ernesto; Gesuele, Felice; Altucci, Carlo; Velotta, Raffaele

    2015-05-15

    Oriented antibodies are tethered on the gold surface of a quartz crystal microbalance through the photonics immobilization technique so that limit of detection as low as 50 nM and 140 nM are achieved for parathion and patulin, respectively. To make these small analytes detectable by the microbalance, they have been weighed down through a "sandwich protocol" with a second antibody. The specificity against the parathion has been tested by checking the immunosensor response to a mixture of compounds similar to parathion, whereas the specificity against the patulin has been tested with a real sample from apple puree. In both cases, the results are more than satisfactory suggesting interesting outlook for the proposed device. PMID:25190088

  20. Parathion accumulation in cricket frogs and its effect on American kestrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; de Chacin, H.; Pattee, O.H.; Lamont, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    Adult cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) were held individually for 96 h in static systems containing initial concentrations of either 0, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ppm parathion in 10 ml water. Mortality of cricket frogs was directly related to the parathion concentration in the water. Frogs from the 1.0- and 10-ppm groups accumulated 0.08 and 4.6 ppm parathion, respectively. One of four American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed frogs from the 10-ppm group died from organophosphate poisoning less than 3 h after consuming five frogs. Mortality did not occur in kestrels fed frogs from the other treatment groups, which represented more environmentally realistic levels of exposure.

  1. Assessing resting heart rate in adolescents: determinants and correlates.

    PubMed

    Rabbia, F; Grosso, T; Cat Genova, G; Conterno, A; De Vito, B; Mulatero, P; Chiandussi, L; Veglio, F

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of resting heart rate and its biological and environmental determinants in adolescents. The study was cross- sectional and the population consisted of 2230 children and adolescents, age range 12-18 years, enrolled randomly from state schools in Turin, Italy. In all participants the following parameters were evaluated: heart rate, blood pressure (BP), weight, height, degree of sexual development, physical activity, parental socio-cultural level. Heart rate and BP were measured after 5, 10 and 15 min in a sitting position. Furthermore, to obtain regression equations to define heart rate as a function of the other variables available, a multiple regression analysis was performed. In both sexes BP, but not heart rate, declined significantly from the first to the last determination. Heart rate was positively and significantly correlated to BP level in both sexes; heart rate was higher in girls (3 bpm) and followed a progressive decreasing trend with age in both sexes, that was opposite to BP values. Age, sexual maturation, height, physical activity and parental socio-cultural level were independent determinants of resting heart rate. In conclusion, resting heart rate in adolescents is related to several methodological, constitutional and environmental factors that have to be taken into account when assessing heart rate values and constructing tables of normal values. PMID:12082493

  2. Low cost sorbents for the removal of methyl parathion pesticide from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mubeena; Hasany, Syed Moosa; Bhanger, M I; Iqbal, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    Sorptive potential of selected agricultural waste materials i.e. rice (Oryza sativa) bran (RB), bagasse fly ash (BFA) of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), Moringa oleifera pods (MOP) and rice husk (RH) for the removal of methyl parathion pesticide (MP) from surface and ground waters has been investigated. Optimization of operating parameters of sorption process, i.e. sorbent dose, agitation time, pH, initial concentration of sorbate, and temperature have been studied. The sorption data fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption isotherms. The maximum capacities of RB, BFA, MOP and RH for MP were calculated to be 3.6+/-0.8, 5.3+/-1.4, 5.2+/-1.5 and 4.7+/-1.0 mmolg(-1) by Freundlich, 0.39+/-0.009, 0.39+/-0.005, 0.36+/-0.004 and 0.35+/-0.008 mmolg(-1) by Langmuir and 0.9+/-0.08, 1.0+/-0.10, 1.0+/-0.10 and 0.9+/-0.07 mmolg(-1) by D-R isotherms respectively, employing 0.1g of each sorbent, at pH 6, 90 min agitation time and at 303 K. Application of first order Lagergren and Morris-Weber equations to the kinetic data yielded correlation coefficients, close to unity. Thermodynamic parameters of sorption process, i.e. DeltaH, DeltaS and DeltaG were computed and their negative values indicated the exothermic and spontaneous nature of sorption process. The pesticide may be stripped by sonication with methanol, making the regeneration and reutilization of sorbents promising. The sorbents investigated exhibited their potential applications in water decontamination, treatment of industrial and agricultural waste waters. PMID:17109916

  3. Genetic damage caused by methyl-parathion in mouse spermatozoa is related to oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pina-Guzman, B.; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Rojas-Garcia, A.E.; Uriostegui-Acosta, M.; Quintanilla-Vega, B. . E-mail: mquintan@cinvestav.mx

    2006-10-15

    Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are considered genotoxic mainly to somatic cells, but results are not conclusive. Few studies have reported OP alterations on sperm chromatin and DNA, and oxidative stress has been related to their toxicity. Sperm cells are very sensitive to oxidative damage which has been associated with reproductive dysfunctions. We evaluated the effects of methyl-parathion (Me-Pa; a widely used OP) on sperm DNA, exploring the sensitive stage(s) of spermatogenesis and the relationship with oxidative stress. Male mice (10-12-weeks old) were administered Me-Pa (3-20 mg/kg bw/i.p.) and euthanized at 7- or 28-days post-treatment. Mature spermatozoa were obtained and evaluated for chromatin structure through SCSA (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay; DNA Fragmentation Index parameters: Mean DFI and DFI%) and chromomycin-A{sub 3} (CMA{sub 3})-staining, for DNA damage through in situ-nick translation (NT-positive) and for oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation (LPO; malondialdehyde production). At 7-days post-treatment (mature spermatozoa when Me-Pa exposure), dose-dependent alterations in chromatin structure (Mean DFI and CMA{sub 3}-staining) were observed, as well as increased DNA damage, from 2-5-fold in DFI% and NT-positive cells. Chromatin alterations and DNA damage were also observed at 28-days post-treatment (cells at meiosis at the time of exposure); suggesting that the damage induced in spermatocytes was not repaired. Positive correlations were observed between LPO and sperm DNA-related parameters. These data suggest that oxidative stress is related to Me-Pa alterations on sperm DNA integrity and cells at meiosis (28-days post-treatment) and epididymal maturation (7-days post-treatment) are Me-Pa targets. These findings suggest a potential risk of Me-Pa to the offspring after transmission.

  4. EFFECTS OF DIETARY METHYL PARATHION ON NORTHERN BOBWHITE EGG PRODUCTION AND EGGSHELL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need to develop avian reproduction tests that reflect more realistic exposure scenarios for short-lived pesticides, like organophosphorus and carbamate compounds. he effect of a short-term ietary methyl parathion exposure on northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) egg ...

  5. ACUTE TOXICITY OF METHYL-PARATHION IN WETLAND MESOCOSMS: INFLUENCE OF AQUATIC PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acute toxicity of methyl-parathion (MeP) introduced into constructed wetlands for the purpose of assessing the importance of emergent vegetation was tested using Hyalella azecta (Crustacea: Amphipoda). A vegetated (90% cover, mainly Juncus effuses) and a non-vegetated wetland (each with a water...

  6. THE INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN PINK SHRIMP 'PENAEUS DUORARUM' BY METHYL PARATHION AND ITS OXON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, E.C.3.1.1.7, (AChE) activity in the ventral nerve cord of pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) by methyl parathion (MPT) and methyl paraoxon (MPO) was investigated. When the animals were exposed to these compounds in water (in vivo), AChE activit...

  7. EFFECTS OF THE DURATION AND TIMING OF DIETARY METHYL PARATHION EXPOSURE ON BOBWHITE REPRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two northern bobwhite (colinus virginianus) reproduction tests were conducted concurrently to evaluate how the duration and time of initiation of methyl parathion exposure affeCted dose-response relationships of reproductive parameters. n the long-term exposure test, pairs of adu...

  8. EFFECTS OF METHYL PARATHION ON RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD (AGELIUS PHOENICUES) INCUBATION BEHAVIOR AND NESTING SUCCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Free-living female red-winged blackbirds were captured on their nests and given oral doses of 0,2.37 or 4.21 mg/kg methyl- parathion in a propylene glycol carrier during incubation. irds were released immediately after dosing and observed for 5 h to document behavioral effects, a...

  9. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) for degrdation of nerve agent simulant parathion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parathion, a simulant of nerve agent VX, has been studied for degradation on Fe3+, Fe2+ and zerovalent iron supported on chitosan. Chitosan, a naturally occurring biopolymer derivative of chitin, is a very good adsorbent for many chemicals including metals. Chitosan is used as supporting biopolymer ...

  10. 77 FR 18813 - Rescission of Previously Issued Cancellation Order for Methyl Parathion Product Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...This notice rescinds a previously issued Cancellation Order, printed in the Federal Register on December 28, 2011, to the extent it is applicable to one methyl parathion product. The product in question, EPA Registration Number 070506-00193, was previously cancelled under a separate Cancellation Order published in the Federal Register on July 27, 2010. The July 27, 2010 order correctly......

  11. Effects of malathion, diazinon, and parathion on mallard embryo development and cholinesterase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of external exposure of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs to malathion, diazinon, and parathion were examined using formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Treatment with aqueous emulsion simulated exposure at the rate of 100 gal per acre (153 liters/hectare) with three to six different doses per compound with treatment at 3 and 8 days of embryonic development. Treatment with a nontoxic oil vehicle simulated exposure at the rate of 11 gal per acre (16.8 liters/hectare) with three to six different doses per compound. The order of embryotoxicity on a pounds-per-acre basis was parathion > diazinon > malathion with either vehicle. However, the potential hazard under conditions of up to five times the maximum field level of application was greater for malathion because of the high permissible level of application for malathion on certain crops. Parathion, the most embryotoxic of the three, had the most pronounced effects when an oil vehicle was used, as reflected by an LC50 of about 2 lb of active ingredient per acre, stunted growth, and a high frequency of malformations involving distortion of the axial skeleton, particularly in the cervical region. All three compounds resulted in significant depression of plasma and brain cholinesterase activity, but parathion caused the most depression throughout development, which was still apparent in hatchlings. Treatment with either distilled water or oil vehicle alone did not result in any of these effects seen with organophosphorous insecticides.

  12. Determining correlation between Emerita analoga recruitment and coastal upwelling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K.; Godoy, E.; Dean, A.; Johnson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2003, Careers in Science (CiS) interns have been participating in the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association's Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS) program monitoring populations of Emerita analoga, the Pacific mole crab. The CiS intern program at the California Academy of Sciences is a multi-year, year-round work-based science education and youth development program for young people from groups typically under-represented in the sciences. E. analoga, an inhabitant of sandy beach swash zone, plays an essential role in marine food webs. Recent studies have suggested E. analoga to be indicators of DDT and domoic acid in the ecosystem. My peers and I collected E. analoga to determine population demographics, including size and sex. On a weekly basis during the months of June, July and August, at San Francisco’s Ocean Beach in Golden Gate National Recreational Area we systematically collect live samples and data for the population monitoring. From June to August 2009, field observations indicated the most abundant E. analoga recruit populations since 2003. After observing this change, we wanted to find possible causes for the increase in recruits. We hypothesized that there was a correlation between recruit population and coastal upwelling events because of the increased nutrient availability due to the events. We compared recruit population data from 2003 through 2009 to upwelling anomalies off the coast of San Francisco. We did not find an increased recruit population 4 to 5 months after an upwelling event, which is the time needed for E. analoga to develop from its planktonic stage to a recruit. One implication of our comparison is that upwelling events cannot be directly correlated with successful recruiting of E. analoga.

  13. Urinary p-nitrophenol as a biomarker of household exposure to methyl parathion.

    PubMed Central

    Hryhorczuk, Daniel O; Moomey, Mike; Burton, Ann; Runkle, Ken; Chen, Edwin; Saxer, Tiffanie; Slightom, Jennifer; Dimos, John; McCann, Ken; Barr, Dana

    2002-01-01

    Methyl parathion (MP) is an organophosphate pesticide illegally applied to the interiors of many hundreds of homes throughout the United States by unlicensed pesticide applicators. Public health authorities developed a protocol for investigating contaminated homes and classifying their need for public health interventions. This protocol included environmental screening for MP contamination and 1-day biomonitoring (a.m. and p.m. spot urine samples) of household members for p-nitrophenol (PNP), a metabolite of MP. The variability of urinary PNP excretion under these exposure conditions was unknown. We collected a.m. and p.m. spot urine samples for 7 consecutive days from 75 individuals, who were members of 20 MP-contaminated households in the greater Chicago, Illinois, area, and analyzed them for PNP. We also assessed the ability of the 1-day sampling protocol to correctly classify exposed individuals and households according to their need for public health interventions, assuming that 1 week of sampling (14 urinary PNPs) represented their true exposure condition. The coefficient of variation of log urinary PNPs for individuals over the course of 7 days of a.m. and p.m. sampling averaged about 15%. Adjusting for urinary excretion of creatinine improved reproducibility of urinary PNPs among children but not among adults. The 1-day protocol correctly classified true risk category in 92% of individuals and 85% of households. The data contained in this study can be used to refine what is already a reasonable and effective approach to identifying MP-exposed households and determining the appropriate public health intervention. PMID:12634137

  14. Oviposition and the plasma concentrations of LH, progesterone, and corticosterone in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) fed parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Sileo, L.; Scanes, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite quail were fed concentrations of parathion (0,50, 100, 200 or 400 p.p.m.) for 10 days. Food intake, body weight change, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, egg production, and ovary weight were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. In a second experiment, birds were fed 0, 25 or 100 p.p.m. parathion or pair-fed control food to equate consumption in the 100 p.p.m. group. Egg production was not affected in birds fed 25 p.p.m. or in the pair-fed group, but the daily time of oviposition was more variable than in the control group. Cessation of egg production, inhibition of follicular development, and reduced plasma LH concentration were observed in birds fed 100 p.p.m. parathion. These findings indicate that exposure to parathion can impair reproduction, possibly by altering gonadotrophin secretion.

  15. Correlation of Three Techniques for Determining Soil Permeability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winneberger, John T.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses problems of acquiring adequate results when measuring for soil permeability. Correlates three relatively simple techniques that could be helpful to the inexperienced technician dealing with septic tank practices. An appendix includes procedures for valid percolation tests. (MLB)

  16. Differential acetylcholinesterase inhibition of chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Jerry; Donerly, Sue; Levin, Edward D.; Linney, Elwood A.

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish are increasingly used for developmental neurotoxicity testing because early embryonic events are easy to visualize, exposures are done without affecting the mother and the rapid development of zebrafish allows for high throughput testing. We used zebrafish to examine how exposures to three different organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion) over the first five days of embryonic and larval development of zebrafish affected their survival, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and behavior. We show that at non-lethal, equimolar concentrations, chlorpyrifos (CPF) is more effective at equimolar concentrations than diazinon (DZN) and parathion (PA) in producing AChE inhibition. As concentrations of DZN and PA are raised, lethality occurs before they can produce the degree of AChE inhibition observed with CPF at 300nM. Because of its availability outside the mother at the time of fertilization, zebrafish provides a complementary model for studying the neurotoxicity of very early developmental exposures. PMID:22036888

  17. Methyl parathion and fenvalerate toxicity in American kestrels: Acute physiological responses and effects of cold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Franson, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Physiological and toxicological effects of p.o. methyl parathion (0.375-3.0 mg/kg) or fenvalerate (1000-4000 mg/kg) were examined over a 10-h period in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) maintained in thermoneutral (22?C) and cold (-5?C) environments. Methyl parathion was highly toxic (estimated median lethal dose of 3.08 mg/kg, 95% confidence limits of 2.29 -4.14 mg/kg), producing dose-dependent inhibition of brain and plasma cholinesterase activity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma corticosterone concentration. Brain and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in excess of 50% was associated with transient but pronounced hypothermia 2 h after intubation, although the magnitude of this response was yariable. Fenvalerate, at doses far exceeding those encountered in the environment, caused mild intoxication and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activity. Cold intensified methyl parathion toxicity, but did not affect that of fenvalerate. Thus, it would appear that organophosphorus insecticides pose far greater hazard than pyrethroids to raptorial birds.

  18. Characterization of general esterases from methyl parathion-resistant and -susceptible populations of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuguo; Scharf, Michael E; Meinke, Lance J; Chandler, Laurence D; Siegfried, Blair D

    2003-12-01

    A consistent correlation between elevated esterase activity and methyl parathion resistance among Nebraska western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, populations has previously been documented. Characterization of general esterase activity using naphtholic esters as model substrates indicated that differences between resistant and susceptible strains could be maximized by optimizing assay conditions. The optimal conditions identified here were similar to those reported for other insect species. The majority of general esterase activity was found in the cytosolic fractions of resistant populations, whereas the activity was more evenly distributed between cytosolic and mitochondrial/nuclear fractions in the susceptible population. General esterase activity was predominately located in the adult thorax and abdomen. Although there were significant differences in general esterase activities between resistant and susceptible populations, the differences exhibited in single beetle activity assays did not provide sufficient discrimination to identify resistant individuals. In contrast, single larva activity assays provided greater discrimination and could be considered as an alternative to traditional bioassay techniques. PMID:14977127

  19. Determination of backbone nitrogen-nitrogen J correlations in proteins.

    PubMed

    Theis, K; Dingley, A J; Hoffmann, A; Omichinski, J G; Grzesiek, S

    1997-12-01

    Recently, a quantitative J correlation technique has been presented which makes use of homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn cross-polarization (TOCSY) to measure (3)J(C)'(C)' in proteins isotopically enriched with (13)C [Grzesiek, S. and Bax, A. (1997) J. Biomol. NMR, 9, 207-211]. Since homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn is twice as fast as conventional COSY transfer, this method is much less sensitive to transverse relaxation, which is the principal limiting factor in achieving long-range J-coupling correlations in macromolecules. Here we describe a similar experiment which is used to measure(3) J(NN) coupling constants between sequential amide(15) N nuclei in the backbone of ubiquitin. As expected from the low magnetic moment of (15)N, the (3)J(NN) coupling constants are exceedingly small, with values between 0.14 and 0.36 Hz for residues in β-conformations and values below 0.15 Hz for residues in α-conformations. In contrast to what is expected from a Karplus-type dependence on the backbone angle ψ, large differences in the values of(3) J(NN) are observed for a number of residues with very similar backbone ψ angles. A quantitative description of statistical and systematic errors, in particular of relaxation effects during the TOCSY transfer, shows that these differences are highly significant. PMID:20859784

  20. Perturbed Hankel determinant, correlation functions and Painlevé equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min; Chen, Yang; Fan, Engui

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we continue with the study of the Hankel determinant, generated by a Pollaczek-Jacobi type weight, w(x; t, α, β) ≔ xα(1 - x)βe-t/x, x ∈ [0, 1], α > 0, β > 0, t ≥ 0. This reduces to the "pure" Jacobi weight at t = 0. It was shown in the work of Chen and Dai [J. Approximation Theory 162(2), 2149-2167 (2010)] that the logarithmic derivative of this Hankel determinant satisfies a Jimbo-Miwa-Okamoto σ-form of Painlevé V (PV). We show that, under a double scaling, where n the dimension of the Hankel matrix tends to ∞ and t tends to 0, such that s ≔ 2n2t is finite, the double scaled Hankel determinant (effectively an operator determinant) has an integral representation in terms of a particular PIII'. Expansions of the scaled Hankel determinant for small and large s are found. We also consider another double scaling with α = - 2n + λ, where n → ∞, and t tends to 0, such that s ≔ nt is finite. In this situation, the scaled Hankel determinant has an integral representation in terms of a particular PV, and its small and large s asymptotic expansions are also found. The reproducing kernel in terms of monic polynomials orthogonal with respect to the Pollaczek-Jacobi type weight under the origin (or hard edge) scaling may be expressed in terms of the solutions of a second order linear ordinary differential equation (ODE). With special choices of the parameters, the limiting (double scaled) kernel and the second order ODE degenerate to Bessel kernel and the Bessel differential equation, respectively.

  1. Redshift determination through weighted phase correlation: a linearithmic implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delchambre, L.

    2016-05-01

    We present a new algorithm having a time complexity of O(N log N) and designed to retrieve the phase at which an input signal and a set of not necessarily orthogonal templates match at best in a weighted chi-squared sense. The proposed implementation is based on an orthogonalization algorithm and thus also benefits from a high numerical stability. We successfully apply this method to the redshift determination of quasars from the twelfth Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar catalog and derive the proper spectral reduction and redshift selection methods. Also provided are the derivations of the redshift uncertainty and of the associated confidence. Results of this application are comparable to the performances of the SDSS pipeline while not having a quadratic time dependency.

  2. Redshift determination through weighted phase correlation: a linearithmic implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delchambre, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present a new algorithm having a time complexity of O(N log N) and designed to retrieve the phase at which an input signal and a set of not necessarily orthogonal templates match best in a weighted chi-squared sense. The proposed implementation is based on an orthogonalization algorithm and thus also benefits from high numerical stability. We apply this method successfully to the redshift determination of quasars from the twelfth Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar catalogue and derive the proper spectral reduction and redshift selection methods. Derivations of the redshift uncertainty and the associated confidence are also provided. The results of this application are comparable to the performance of the SDSS pipeline, while not having a quadratic time dependence.

  3. Immunotoxicity in mice induced by short-term exposure to methoxychlor, parathion, or piperonyl butoxide.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Tomoki; Kosaka, Tadashi; Hayashi, Koichi; Miyashita, Lisa; Tajima, Yukari; Wada, Kunio; Nishino, Risako; Ueda, Hideo; Harada, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental agents can compromise numerous immunological functions. Immunotoxicology focuses on the evaluation of the potential adverse effects of xenobiotics on immune mechanisms that can lead to harmful changes in host responses such as: increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and tumorigenesis; the induction of hypersensitivity reactions; or an increased incidence of autoimmune disease. In order to assess the immunosuppressive response to short-term exposure to some commonly used pesticides, the studies here focused on the response of mice after exposures to the organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor, the organophosphorus pesticide parathion, or the agricultural insecticide synergist piperonyl butoxide. In these studies, 7-week-old mice were orally administered (by gavage) methoxychlor, parathion, or piperonyl butoxide daily for five consecutive days. On Day 2, all mice in each group were immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and their SRBC-specific IgM responses were subsequently assessed. In addition, levels of B-cells in the spleen of each mouse were also analyzed via surface antigen expression. The results of these studies indicated that treatments with these various pesticides induced marked decreases in the production of SRBC-specific IgM antibodies as well as in the expression of surface antigens in IgM- and germinal center-positive B-cells. Based on these outcomes, it is concluded that the short-term exposure protocol was able to detect potential immunosuppressive responses to methoxychlor, parathion, and piperonyl butoxide in situ, and, as a result, may be useful for detecting other environmental chemical-related immunotoxicities. PMID:22834942

  4. An improved correlation method for determining the period of a torsion pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Jie; Wang Dianhong

    2008-09-15

    Considering variation of environment temperature and unhomogeneity of background gravitational field, an improved correlation method was proposed to determine the variational period of a torsion pendulum with high precision. The result of processing experimental data shows that the uncertainty of determining the period with this method has been improved about twofolds than traditional correlation method, which is significant for the determination of gravitational constant with time-of-swing method.

  5. Cholinesterase inhibition of birds inhabiting wheat fields treated with methyl parathion and toxaphene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niethammer, K.R.; Baskett, T.S.

    1983-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and dickcissels (Spiza americana) inhabiting wheat fields treated with 0.67 kg AI/ha methyl parathion and 1.35 kg AI/ha toxaphene showed brain cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition compared with birds inhabiting untreated fields. Maximum inhibition occurred about five days after insecticide application. ChE activities again approached normal 10 days after treatment. ChE inhibition for dickcissels and red-winged blackbirds differed significantly (p<0.05); maximum inhibition for the former species was 74%, and for the latter, 40%. These differences could not be explained by the diets of the two species, as they were similar.

  6. A receptor binding assay applied to monitoring the neurotoxicity of parathion to Peromyscus after oral exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jett, D.A.; Eldefrawi, A.T.; Eldefrawi, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Many naturally occurring toxins, as well as pesticides, metals, and other compounds that occur in our environment from anthropogenic activities, stimulate or antagonize neuro-receptors to produce acute and/or chronic toxicities. Recent advances in laboratory instrumentation and the availability of a variety of radiolabeled ligands and type-specific drugs for numerous receptors make it possible to easily screen large numbers of samples and detect changes in sensitivity and density of receptor types and subtypes. A receptor binding assay for examining the chronic dietary toxicity of parathion will be used as a model to describe the methodology.

  7. Multiple correlation computer program determines relationships between several independent and dependent variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspar, H.; Newsbaum, J. B.

    1967-01-01

    Relationships between independent and dependent variables are determined by multiple correlation computer program. This is applied to research and experimental design and development of complex hardware and components that require test programs.

  8. Altering the substrate specificity of methyl parathion hydrolase with directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tee-Kheang; Gahan, Lawrence R; Schenk, Gerhard; Ollis, David L

    2015-05-01

    Many organophosphates (OPs) are used as pesticides in agriculture. They pose a severe health hazard due to their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase. Therefore, detoxification of water and soil contaminated by OPs is important. Metalloenzymes such as methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) from Pseudomonas sp. WBC-3 hold great promise as bioremediators as they are able to hydrolyze a wide range of OPs. MPH is highly efficient towards methyl parathion (1 × 10(6) s(-1) M(-1)), but its activity towards other OPs is more modest. Thus, site saturation mutagenesis (SSM) and DNA shuffling were performed to find mutants with improved activities on ethyl paraxon (6.1 × 10(3) s(-1) M(-1)). SSM was performed on nine residues lining the active site. Several mutants with modest activity enhancement towards ethyl paraoxon were isolated and used as templates for DNA shuffling. Ultimately, 14 multiple-site mutants with enhanced activity were isolated. One mutant, R2F3, exhibited a nearly 100-fold increase in the kcat/Km value for ethyl paraoxon (5.9 × 10(5) s(-1) M(-1)). These studies highlight the 'plasticity' of the MPH active site that facilitates the fine-tuning of its active site towards specific substrates with only minor changes required. MPH is thus an ideal candidate for the development of an enzyme-based bioremediation system. PMID:25797441

  9. Alteration of neurotrophins in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of young rats exposed to chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Angela M; Filipov, Nikolay M; Carr, Russell L

    2007-12-01

    Exposure to either chlorpyrifos (CPS) or methyl parathion (MPS) results in the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and leads to altered neuronal activity which normally regulates critical genes such as the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The effects of postnatal exposure to CPS and MPS on the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels for NGF and BDNF were investigated in the frontal cerebral cortex (cortex) and hippocampus of rats. Oral administration of CPS (4.0 or 6.0 mg/kg), MPS (0.6 or 0.9 mg/kg), or the safflower oil vehicle was performed daily from postnatal day 10 (PND10) through PND20. Exposure induced significant effects on growth and cholinesterase activity. Increased NGF protein levels were observed in the hippocampus but not the cortex on PND20 with some reduction occurring on PND28 in both regions. These changes did not correlate with the changes in NGF mRNA. BDNF mRNA was increased in both regions on PND20 and PND28, whereas BDNF protein levels were increased on PND20. On PND12, c-fos mRNA, a marker of neuronal activation, was increased in both regions. Total BDNF protein was increased in the hippocampus but decreased in the cortex. No changes in NGF protein were observed. These results indicate that repeated developmental OP exposure during the postnatal period alters NGF and BDNF in the cortex and the hippocampus and the patterns of these alterations differ between regions. PMID:17893397

  10. Isolation of a selected microbial consortium capable of degrading methyl parathion and p-nitrophenol from a contaminated soil site.

    PubMed

    Pino, Nancy J; Dominguez, Maria C; Penuela, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    A bacterial consortium with the ability to degrade methyl parathion and p-nitrophenol, using these compounds as the only carbon source, was obtained by selective enrichment in a medium with methyl parathion. Samples were taken from Moravia, Medellin; an area that is highly contaminated, owing to the fact that it was used as a garbage dump from 1974 to 1982. Acinetobacter sp, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Citrobacter freundii, Stenotrophomonas sp, Flavobacterium sp, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas sp, Acinetobacter sp, Klebsiella sp and Proteus sp were the microorganisms identified within the consortium. In culture, the consortium was able to degrade 150 mg L⁻¹ of methyl-parathion and p-nitrophenol in 120 h, but after adding glucose or peptone to the culture, the time of degradation decreased to 24 h. In soil, the consortium was also able to degrade 150 mg L⁻¹ of methyl parathion in 120 h at different depths and also managed to decrease the toxicity. PMID:21328125

  11. CHANGES IN MALLARD HEN AND BROOD BEHAVIORS IN RESPONSE TO METHYL PARATHION-INDUCED ILLNESS OF DUCKLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Half the young in each of four broods of 5-d-old mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were gavaged orally with 4 mg/kg methyl parathion and released with their mother and untreated siblings in pond enclosures. our control broods received corn oil only. ctivity categories (Swimming, pree...

  12. Interactive toxicity of chlorpyrifos and parathion in neonatal rats: Role of esterases in exposure sequence-dependent toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kacham, R.; Karanth, S.; Baireddy, P.; Liu, J.; Pope, C. . E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu

    2006-01-15

    We previously reported that sequence of exposure to chlorpyrifos and parathion in adult rats can markedly influence toxic outcome. In the present study, we evaluated the interactive toxicity of chlorpyrifos (8 mg/kg, po) and parathion (0.5 mg/kg, po) in neonatal (7 days old) rats. Rats were exposed to the insecticides either concurrently or sequentially (separated by 4 h) and sacrificed at 4, 8, and 24 h after the first exposure for biochemical measurements (cholinesterase activity in brain, plasma, and diaphragm and carboxylesterase activity in plasma and liver). The concurrently-exposed group showed more cumulative lethality (15/24) than either of the sequential dosing groups. With sequential dosing, rats treated initially with chlorpyrifos prior to parathion (C/P) exhibited higher lethality (7/23) compared to those treated with parathion before chlorpyrifos (P/C; 1/24). At 8 h after initial dosing, brain cholinesterase inhibition was significantly greater in the C/P group (59%) compared to the P/C group (28%). Diaphragm and plasma cholinesterase activity also followed a relatively similar pattern of inhibition. Carboxylesterase inhibition in plasma and liver was relatively similar among the treatment groups across time-points. Similar sequence-dependent differences in brain cholinesterase inhibition were also noted with lower binary exposures to chlorpyrifos (2 mg/kg) and parathion (0.35 mg/kg). In vitro and ex vivo studies compared relative oxon detoxification of carboxylesterases (calcium-insensitive) and A-esterases (calcium-sensitive) in liver homogenates from untreated and insecticide pretreated rats. Using tissues from untreated rats, carboxylesterases detoxified both chlorpyrifos oxon and paraoxon, while A-esterases only detoxified chlorpyrifos oxon. With parathion pretreatment, A-esterases still detoxified chlorpyrifos oxon while liver from chlorpyrifos pretreated rats had little apparent effect on paraoxon. We conclude that while neonatal rats are less

  13. Production and characterization of a biotinylated single-chain variable fragment antibody for detection of parathion-methyl.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huimin; Zhao, Fengchun; Han, Xiao; Yang, Zhengyou

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we reported the development of a biotinylated single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-ELISA) for parathion-methyl (PM) detection. Firstly, a phage display library was generated using a pre-immunized BALB/C mouse against a specific hapten of PM. After four rounds of panning, the scFv gene fragments were transferred into a secreted expression vector. Then, the scFv antibodies were secreted expressed and screened by IC-ELISA against PM. The selected scFv antibody was fused with a biotin acceptor domain (BAD) and inserted into pET-28a(+) vector for high-level expression in Escherichia coli BL2 (DE3). After optimizing expression conditions, the scFv-BAD antibody was expressed as a soluble protein and biotinylated in vitro by the E. coli biotin ligase (BirA). Subsequently, the biotinylated scFv-BAD antibody was purified with a high yield of 59.2 ± 3.7 mg/L of culture, and was characterized by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Finally, based on the biotinylated scFv-BAD, a sensitive IC-ELISA for detection of PM was developed, and the 50% inhibition value (IC50) of PM was determined as 14.5 ng/mL, with a limit of detection (LOD, IC10) of 0.9 ng/mL. Cross-reactivity (CR) studies revealed that the scFv antibody showed desirable specificity for PM. PMID:27181246

  14. Evaluation of sublethal biomarkers in Litopenaeus vannamei on foodborne exposure to methyl parathion.

    PubMed

    Comoglio, L; Amin, O; Roque, A; Betancourt-Lozano, M; Anguas, D; Haro, B M

    2005-09-01

    Sublethal effects of foodborne exposure to methyl parathion (0.62 and 1.31 microg methyl parathion*g(-1) dry weight of food) on juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei using integrated biochemical (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ATPases) and physiological (feeding rate (FR), egestion rate (ER), and hepatosomatic index (HI)) biomarkers were evaluated. The HI was significantly higher in controls than in pesticide treatments. The FR was significantly lower in controls than in pesticide treatments while no significant differences were detected in the ER. AChE activity was significantly higher in controls than in pesticide treatments (control = 0.11 +/- 0.02; solvent control = 0.11 +/- 0.03; 0.62 = 0.07 +/- 0.01; 1.31 = 0.08 +/- 0.02 microM*min(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). The total-ATPase activity was significantly lower in controls than in pesticide treatments (control=77.90+/-12.41; solvent control = 83.69 +/- 22.05; 0.62 = 110.03 +/- 22.17; 1.31 = 121.54 +/- 19.84 microM P(i)*h(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). The Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was significantly higher in treatments than in controls (control = 65.14+/-10.76; solvent control = 75.12 +/- 21.10; 0.62 = 100.53 +/- 20.97; 1.31 = 108.94 +/- 17.26 microM P(i)*h(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). Finally, the results obtained for the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were significantly higher in control and in 1.31 than in solvent control and in 0.62 (control = 14.06+/-2.63; solvent control=7.30 +/- 4.13; 0.62 = 7.60 +/- 3.81; 1.31 = 13.42 +/- 2.88 microM P(i)*h(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). The results in this study showed that pulse exposures to methyl parathion via food could elicit measurable effects on the marine shrimp L. vannamei, indicating that foodborne exposure can be a reliable toxicological procedure and, if combined with pulse exposures, could also simulate more realistic exposure scenarios. PMID:15978292

  15. Determination of Critical Experiment Correlations Using the Sampler Sequence Within SCALE 6.2

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Rearden, Bradley T

    2015-01-01

    The validation of neutron transport methods used in nuclear criticality safety analyses is required by consensus American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS) standards. In the last decade, there has been an increased interest in correlations among critical experiments used in validation that have shared physical attributes and which impact the independence of each measurement. The statistical methods included in many of the frequently cited guidance documents on performing validation calculations incorporate the assumption that all individual measurements are independent, so little guidance is available to practitioners on the topic. Typical guidance includes recommendations to select experiments from multiple facilities and experiment series in an attempt to minimize the impact of correlations or common-cause errors in experiments. Recent efforts have been made both to determine the magnitude of such correlations between experiments and to develop and apply methods for adjusting the bias and bias uncertainty to account for the correlations. This paper describes recent work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the Sampler sequence from the SCALE code system to develop experimental correlations using a Monte Carlo sampling technique. Sampler will be available for the first time with the release of SCALE 6.2, and a brief introduction to the methods used to calculate experiment correlations within this new sequence is presented in this paper. Techniques to utilize these correlations in the establishment of upper subcritical limits are the subject of a companion paper and will not be discussed here. Example experimental uncertainties and correlation coefficients are presented for a variety of low-enriched uranium water-moderated lattice experiments selected for use in a benchmark exercise by the Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety Subgroup on Uncertainty Analysis in Criticality Safety Analyses. The results include

  16. Studies on combined effects of organophosphates and heavy metals in birds. I. Plasma and brain cholinesterase in Coturnix quail fed methyl mercury and orally dosed with parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.; Ludke, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    We found that mercury potentiated the toxicity and biochemical effects of parathion. Male Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed a sublethal concentration of morsodren (4 ppm as methyl mercury) for 18 weeks. This resulted in an accumulation of 21.0 ppm of mercury in the liver and 8.4 ppm in the carcass. Birds fed clean feed and those fed morsodren-treated feed were orally dosed with 2, 4, 6, 8,and 10 mg/kg parathion, and their 48-h survival times compared. The computed LD50 was 5.86mg/kg in birds not fed morsodren and 4.24 in those fed the heavy metal. When challenged with a sublethal, oral dose of parathion (1.0 mg/kg), morsodren-fed birds exhibited significantly greater inhibition of plasma and brain cholinesterase activity than controls dosed with parathion. Brain cholinesterase activity was inhibited 41% in morsodren-fed birds and 26in clean-fed birds dosed with parathion, which suggested that the increase in parathion toxicity in the presence of morsodren was directly related to the inhibitation of brain cholinesterase.

  17. A new method for determination of postmortem left ventricular volumes: clinico-pathologic correlations.

    PubMed

    Wissler, R W; Lichtig, C; Hughes, R; Al-Sadir, J; Glagov, S

    1975-05-01

    A description is presented of a new and simple procedure for ventricular volume determination by means of pressure fixation of the heart and preparation of plastic molds of the ventricles which can be used to displace water in a graduated cylinder to determine the volume of the mold. Correlations between postmortem ventricular volume as measured by this method and antemortem stroke volume or clinical cardiac status indicate that a large left ventricular volume is often correlated with a low cardiac output and cardiogenic shock. PMID:1119371

  18. Experimental determination of correlations for mean heat transfer coefficients in plate fin and tube heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Dawid

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical method for determining heat transfer coefficients in cross-flow heat exchangers with extended heat exchange surfaces. Coefficients in the correlations defining heat transfer on the liquid- and air-side were determined using a nonlinear regression method. Correlation coefficients were determined from the condition that the sum of squared liquid and air temperature differences at the heat exchanger outlet, obtained by measurements and those calculated, achieved minimum. Minimum of the sum of the squares was found using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The uncertainty in estimated parameters was determined using the error propagation rule by Gauss. The outlet temperature of the liquid and air leaving the heat exchanger was calculated using the analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  19. Correlation of Condylar Guidance Determined by Panoramic Radiographs to One Determined by Conventional Methods

    PubMed Central

    Godavarthi, A Sowjanya; Sajjan, M C Suresh; Raju, A V Rama; Rajeshkumar, P; Premalatha, Averneni; Chava, Narayana

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the feasibility of using panoramic radiographs as an alternative to an interocclusal recording method for determining the condylar guidance in dentate and edentulous conditions. Materials and Methods: 20 dentulous individuals with an age range of 20-30 years and 20 edentulous patients of 40-65 years were selected. An interocclusal bite registration was done in protrusive position for all the subjects. Orthopantomographs were made for all patients in open mouth position. Hanau articulator was modified to record the angulations to the accuracy of 1°. Tracing of glenoid fossa on radiograph was done to measure the condylar guidance angles. Readings were recorded and analyzed by Freidman’s test and t-test. Results: Condylar guidance values obtained by the interocclusal method and radiographic method in dentate individuals on the right side and left side 40.55°, and 37.1°, and 40.15°, and 34.75°, respectively. In the edentulous individuals, the values on the right side and left side was 36.7° and 36.1° and 35.95° and 33.6,° respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P = < 0.001) in dentate group and was not statistically significant (P = 0.6493) in edentulous group. Conclusion: Panoramic radiograph can be used as an alternative to interocclusal technique only in edentulous patients. Further studies comparing panoramic radiograph to jaw tracking devices would substantiate the results of this study. PMID:26464554

  20. Comparison of photon correlation spectroscopy with photosedimentation analysis for the determination of aqueous colloid size distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.

    1990-01-01

    Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) utilizes the Doppler frequency shift of photons scattered off particles undergoing Brownian motion to determine the size of colloids suspended in water. Photosedimentation analysis (PSA) measures the time-dependent change in optical density of a suspension of colloidal particles undergoing centrifugation. A description of both techniques, important underlying assumptions, and limitations are given. Results for a series of river water samples show that the colloid-size distribution means are statistically identical as determined by both techniques. This also is true of the mass median diameter (MMD), even though MMD values determined by PSA are consistently smaller than those determined by PCS. Because of this small negative bias, the skew parameters for the distributions are generally smaller for the PCS-determined distributions than for the PSA-determined distributions. Smaller polydispersity indices for the distributions are also determined by PCS. -from Author

  1. Spin-foam fermions: PCT symmetry, Dirac determinant and correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Muxin; Rovelli, Carlo

    2013-04-01

    We discuss fermion coupling in the framework of spin-foam quantum gravity. We analyze the gravity-fermion spin-foam model and its fermion correlation functions. We show that there is a spin-foam analogue of PCT symmetry for the fermion fields on a spin-foam model, which is proved for spin-foam fermion correlation functions. We compute the determinant of the Dirac operator for the fermions, where two presentations of the Dirac determinant are given in terms of diagram expansions. We compute the fermion correlation functions and show that they can be given by Feynman diagrams on the spin-foams, where the Feynman propagators can be represented by a discretized path integral of a world-line action along the edges of the underlying 2-complex.

  2. Determinant Representation for Dynamical Correlation Functions of the Quantum Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, T.; Korepin, V. E.; Slavnov, N. A.

    Painlevé analysis of correlation functions of the impenetrable Bose gas by M. Jimbo, T. Miwa, Y. Mori and M. Sato [1] was based on the determinant representation of these correlation functions obtained by A. Lenard [2]. The impenetrable Bose gas is the free fermionic case of the quantum nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In this paper we generalize the Lenard determinant representation for ψ (0,0)ψ (x,t)> to the non-free fermionic case. We also include time and temeprature dependence. In forthcoming publications we shall perform the JMMS analysis of this correlationl function. This will give us a completely integrable equation and asymptotic for the quantum correlation function of interacting fermions.

  3. Determining the Number of Components from the Matrix of Partial Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the number of components to retain in a principal components or image components analysis which utilizes a matrix of partial correlations. Advantages and uses of the method are discussed and a comparison of the proposed method with existing methods is presented. (JKS)

  4. Identifying correlates and determinants of physical activity in youth: How can we advance the field?

    PubMed

    Atkin, Andrew J; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Dollman, James; Taylor, Wendell C; Stanley, Rebecca M

    2016-06-01

    This commentary provides a critical discussion of current research investigating the correlates and determinants of physical activity in young people, with specific focus on conceptual, theoretical and methodological issues. We draw on current child and adolescent literature and our own collective expertise to illustrate our discussion. We conclude with recommendations that will strengthen future research and help to advance the field. PMID:26940254

  5. Communication: Two-determinant mixing with a strong-correlation density functional.

    PubMed

    Becke, Axel D

    2013-07-14

    In recent papers [A. D. Becke, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 074109 (2013); ibid. 138, 161101 (2013)], a density functional for strong correlations in quantum chemistry was introduced. The functional is designed to capture molecular dissociation limits using symmetry-restricted orbitals. Here we demonstrate that the functional describes, with good accuracy, two-determinant multi-reference states. The examples of this work involve 50∕50 mixing of symmetry-equivalent Slater determinants at avoided crossings. We employ exactly-computed exchange and fractional spin-orbital occupancies. The connection with dissociated systems and single-determinant reference states is explained. PMID:23862918

  6. Single-particle structure determination by correlations of snapshot X-ray diffraction patterns.

    PubMed

    Starodub, D; Aquila, A; Bajt, S; Barthelmess, M; Barty, A; Bostedt, C; Bozek, J D; Coppola, N; Doak, R B; Epp, S W; Erk, B; Foucar, L; Gumprecht, L; Hampton, C Y; Hartmann, A; Hartmann, R; Holl, P; Kassemeyer, S; Kimmel, N; Laksmono, H; Liang, M; Loh, N D; Lomb, L; Martin, A V; Nass, K; Reich, C; Rolles, D; Rudek, B; Rudenko, A; Schulz, J; Shoeman, R L; Sierra, R G; Soltau, H; Steinbrener, J; Stellato, F; Stern, S; Weidenspointner, G; Frank, M; Ullrich, J; Strüder, L; Schlichting, I; Chapman, H N; Spence, J C H; Bogan, M J

    2012-01-01

    Diffractive imaging with free-electron lasers allows structure determination from ensembles of weakly scattering identical nanoparticles. The ultra-short, ultra-bright X-ray pulses provide snapshots of the randomly oriented particles frozen in time, and terminate before the onset of structural damage. As signal strength diminishes for small particles, the synthesis of a three-dimensional diffraction volume requires simultaneous involvement of all data. Here we report the first application of a three-dimensional spatial frequency correlation analysis to carry out this synthesis from noisy single-particle femtosecond X-ray diffraction patterns of nearly identical samples in random and unknown orientations, collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Our demonstration uses unsupported test particles created via aerosol self-assembly, and composed of two polystyrene spheres of equal diameter. The correlation analysis avoids the need for orientation determination entirely. This method may be applied to the structural determination of biological macromolecules in solution. PMID:23232406

  7. An approach for the quantitative consideration of genetic polymorphism data in chemical risk assessment: examples with warfarin and parathion.

    PubMed

    Gentry, P Robinan; Hack, C Eric; Haber, Lynne; Maier, Andrew; Clewell, Harvey J

    2002-11-01

    In recent years, a great deal of research has been conducted to identify genetic polymorphisms. One focus has been to characterize variability in metabolic enzyme systems that could impact internal doses of pharmaceuticals or environmental pollutants. Methods are needed for using this metabolic information to estimate the resulting variability in tissue doses associated with chemical exposure. We demonstrate here the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling in combination with Monte Carlo analysis to incorporate information on polymorphisms into the analysis of toxicokinetic variability. Warfarin and parathion were used as case studies to demonstrate this approach. Our results suggest that polymorphisms in the PON1 gene, that give rise to allelic variants of paraoxonase, which is involved in the metabolism of paraoxon (a metabolite of parathion), make only a minor contribution to the overall variability in paraoxon tissue dose, while polymorphisms in the CYP2C9 gene, which gives rise to allelic variants of the major metabolic enzyme for warfarin, account for a significant portion of the overall variability in (S)-warfarin tissue dose. These analyses were used to estimate chemical-specific adjustment factors (CSAFs) for the human variability in toxicokinetics for both parathion and warfarin. Implications of alternatives in the calculation of CSAFs are explored. Key decision points for applying the PBPK-Monte Carlo approach to evaluate toxicokinetic variability for other chemicals are also discussed. PMID:12388841

  8. Metabolism of carbaryl, chloropyrifos, DDT, and parathion in the European corn borer: effects of microsporidiosis on toxicity and detoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Tetreault, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the effects of microsporidiosis on an insect's response to insecticide intoxication. Healthy European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, larvae and those heavily infected with the microsporidian pathogen, Nosema pyrausta, were bioassayed with ten insecticides. The compounds used were carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, DDT, diazinon, fonofos, methomyl, parathion, permethrin, and terbufos. Third instar larvae were used for topical bioassays. The compounds carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorophrifos, methomyl and terbufos were found to be significantly more toxic to diseased insects than healthy insects at the 0.05 probability level. To examine the effect of Nosema pyrausta infection on the European corn borer's ability to detoxify insecticides, /sup 14/C ring-labeled carbaryl, chlorophrifos, DDT, and parathion were topically applied to fourth instar larvae. Qualitative differences between healthy and diseased insects were found in the metabolic pathways of carbaryl, DDT, and parathion. The degradative fate of chlorophrifos was the same in both groups. Quantitatively, each insecticide penetrated diseased larvae faster. This resulted in larger amounts of the applied dose of parent compound and metabolites being found in the feces from diseased insects. Conversely, healthy insects had more of these materials present in the body and associated with the cuticle.

  9. Comparison of Methods for Determining Boundary Layer Edge Conditions for Transition Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Berry, Scott A.; Hollis, Brian R.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    Data previously obtained for the X-33 in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel have been reanalyzed to compare methods for determining boundary layer edge conditions for use in transition correlations. The experimental results were previously obtained utilizing the phosphor thermography technique to monitor the status of the boundary layer downstream of discrete roughness elements via global heat transfer images of the X-33 windward surface. A boundary layer transition correlation was previously developed for this data set using boundary layer edge conditions calculated using an inviscid/integral boundary layer approach. An algorithm was written in the present study to extract boundary layer edge quantities from higher fidelity viscous computational fluid dynamic solutions to develop transition correlations that account for viscous effects on vehicles of arbitrary complexity. The boundary layer transition correlation developed for the X-33 from the viscous solutions are compared to the previous boundary layer transition correlations. It is shown that the boundary layer edge conditions calculated using an inviscid/integral boundary layer approach are significantly different than those extracted from viscous computational fluid dynamic solutions. The present results demonstrate the differences obtained in correlating transition data using different computational methods.

  10. Correlation functions of XX0 Heisenberg chain, q-binomial determinants, and random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogoliubov, N. M.; Malyshev, C.

    2014-02-01

    The XX0 Heisenberg model on a cyclic chain is considered. The representation of the Bethe wave functions via the Schur functions allows to apply the well-developed theory of the symmetric functions to the calculation of the thermal correlation functions. The determinantal expressions of the form-factors and of the thermal correlation functions are obtained. The q-binomial determinants enable the connection of the form-factors with the generating functions both of boxed plane partitions and of self-avoiding lattice paths. The asymptotical behavior of the thermal correlation functions is studied in the limit of low temperature provided that the characteristic parameters of the system are large enough.

  11. Comparative effects of parathion and chlorpyrifos on extracellular endocannabinoid levels in rat hippocampus: Influence on cholinergic toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jing; Parsons, Loren; Pope, Carey

    2013-11-01

    Parathion (PS) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) that elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Endocannabinoids (eCBs, N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA; 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2AG) can modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. We proposed that differential inhibition of eCB-degrading enzymes (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH, and monoacylglycerol lipase, MAGL) by PS and CPF leads to differences in extracellular eCB levels and toxicity. Microdialysis cannulae were implanted into hippocampus of adult male rats followed by treatment with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg, sc), PS (27 mg/kg) or CPF (280 mg/kg) 6–7 days later. Signs of toxicity, AChE, FAAH and MAGL inhibition, and extracellular levels of AEA and 2AG were measured 2 and 4 days later. Signs were noted in PS-treated rats but not in controls or CPF-treated rats. Cholinesterase inhibition was extensive in hippocampus with PS (89–90%) and CPF (78–83%) exposure. FAAH activity was also markedly reduced (88–91%) by both OPs at both time-points. MAGL was inhibited by both OPs but to a lesser degree (35–50%). Increases in extracellular AEA levels were noted after either PS (about 2-fold) or CPF (about 3-fold) while lesser treatment-related 2-AG changes were noted. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 (3 mg/kg, ip) had no influence on functional signs after CPF but markedly decreased toxicity in PS-treated rats. The results suggest that extracellular eCBs levels can be markedly elevated by both PS and CPF. CB1-mediated signaling appears to play a role in the acute toxicity of PS but the role of eCBs in CPF toxicity remains unclear. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos and parathion both extensively inhibited hippocampal cholinesterase. • Functional signs were only noted with parathion. • Chlorpyrifos and parathion increased hippocampal extracellular anandamide levels. • 2-Arachidonoylglycerol levels were

  12. Behavioral correlates of male mating success in a multisire flock as determined by DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Jones, M E; Mench, J A

    1991-07-01

    The fertility of an individual rooster within a multi-sire flock may be influenced by a number of behavioral considerations, including frequency and timing of matings and the male's position in the social dominance hierarchy. The relationship between behavior and fertility has proven difficult to assess, however, because there are a limited number of heritable morphological traits that can be used to determine paternity. The objectives of the present study were to use DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity in domestic fowl and to assess some behavioral and physiological correlates of mating success. Sixty day-old chicks from each of two commercial breeds, DeKalb White Leghorn (L) and Warren Color-Sexed (W), were reared in either same-breed or mixed-breed groups. At 43 wk of age, all females and six randomly selected males were mixed into one large pen. Male aggressive and mating behaviors were recorded over a 4-mo period. Fertility of individual sires was determined by DNA fingerprinting and pedigree analysis of chicks. Dominance rank and the frequencies of both completed matings and mating attempts were positively correlated with fertility (P less than .01). In addition, wing flapping was correlated with both dominance (P less than .001) and fertility (P less than .05). There was no correlation between fertility and plasma testosterone. There were breed effects on dominance status, with W dominating L. Multiple paternity was demonstrated in 4 out of 10 families by DNA fingerprinting. The present study is the first one to demonstrate a correlation between dominance and fertility in a flock containing several males of the same breed and morphology. PMID:1886859

  13. Stature and gender determination and their correlation using odontometry and skull anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Devi Charan; Wadhwan, Vijay; Jain, Anshi; Khanna, Kaveri Surya

    2014-01-01

    Background: When the body has been mutilated, it is common to have the extremities or head amputated from the trunk. In concern with forensic odontology, an estimate must have been made based on the correlation of osteometry along with odontometry in determining sex, race and stature. Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate and correlate height and gender from odontometry and anthropometric data of the skull. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, I.T.S Center for Dental studies and Research, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad (UP) with the representative study subjects of 60 patients as 30 males and 30 females in the age group of 15-25 years. The selected parameters were measured and then correlated to investigate stature and gender from odontometry and anthropometric data of the skull. Results: On linear regression analysis, the selected parameters were found to be statistically significant predictor of height. It was also established by Karl Pearson's coefficient correlation that the left mandibular canine index for female was statistically significant to show sexual dimorphism. Conclusion: In the emerging field of forensic odontology, skull anthropometry, odontometry exhibits stature determination and strong sexual dimorphism. PMID:25125917

  14. Correlation as a Determinant of Configurational Entropy in Supramolecular and Protein Systems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    For biomolecules in solution, changes in configurational entropy are thought to contribute substantially to the free energies of processes like binding and conformational change. In principle, the configurational entropy can be strongly affected by pairwise and higher-order correlations among conformational degrees of freedom. However, the literature offers mixed perspectives regarding the contributions that changes in correlations make to changes in configurational entropy for such processes. Here we take advantage of powerful techniques for simulation and entropy analysis to carry out rigorous in silico studies of correlation in binding and conformational changes. In particular, we apply information-theoretic expansions of the configurational entropy to well-sampled molecular dynamics simulations of a model host–guest system and the protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The results bear on the interpretation of NMR data, as they indicate that changes in correlation are important determinants of entropy changes for biologically relevant processes and that changes in correlation may either balance or reinforce changes in first-order entropy. The results also highlight the importance of main-chain torsions as contributors to changes in protein configurational entropy. As simulation techniques grow in power, the mathematical techniques used here will offer new opportunities to answer challenging questions about complex molecular systems. PMID:24702693

  15. A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t(sub 1) vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appopriate. This diagnostic, T(sub 1) is defined for use with self-consistent-field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T(sub 1) is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of non-dynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C(sub 0) from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T(sub 1) (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

  16. A diagnostic for determining the quality of single-reference electron correlation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    It was recently proposed that the Euclidian norm of the t sub 1 vector of the coupled cluster wave function (normalized by the number of electrons included in the correlation procedure) could be used to determine whether a single-reference-based electron correlation procedure is appropriate. This diagnostic, T sub 1, is defined for use with self consistent field molecular orbitals and is invariant to the same orbital rotations as the coupled cluster energy. T sub 1 is investigated for several different chemical systems which exhibit a range of multireference behavior, and is shown to be an excellent measure of the importance of nondynamical electron correlation and is far superior to C sub 0 from a singles and doubles configuration interaction wave function. It is further suggested that when the aim is to recover a large fraction of the dynamical electron correlation energy, a large T sub 1 (i.e., greater than 0.02) probably indicates the need for a multireference electron correlation procedure.

  17. Determination of correlated uncertainties of sestamibi- 99mTc marking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, C. H. S.; Gama, A.; Camilo, T. G. N.; Mesquita, C. T.; Peixoto, J. G. P.

    2016-07-01

    The input quantities determination involved in radiopharmaceutical marking used in heart scans allowed to estimate the combined and associated standard uncertainty with the process. The U value demonstrated that any parameter of the quality control process can be compared and correlated to obtain a real value and validation method, indicating or not, the adequacy of institutional practices and reinforcing the importance of the uncertainties associated to the results in medicine.

  18. A STUDY OF THE BINDING OF SULFUR TO RAT LIVER MICROSOMES WHICH OCCURS CONCURRENTLY WITH THE METABOLISM OF O,O-DIETHYL O-P-NITROPHENYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE (PARATHION) TO O,O-DIETHYL O-P-NITROPHENYL PHOSPHATE (PARAOXON)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to investigate the nature of the sulfur that is bound to liver microsomes concurrently with the metabolism of parathion to paraoxon, an isolated rat liver microsomal preparation was labeled with (35S) parathion and the purified product was examined by chemical degradatio...

  19. Correlation between Central Venous Pressure and Inferior Vena Cava Sonographic Diameter; Determining the Best Anatomic Location

    PubMed Central

    Naghipour, Bahman; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The correlation of central venous pressure (CVP) with inferior vena cava (IVC) sonographic diameter has been reported in several studies. However, few studies have attempted to find the best anatomic location of measurement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was determining the best anatomic location to find precise correlation between CVP and IVC diameter using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Methods: In the present diagnostic accuracy study, patients in need of central venous catheterization and TEE were enrolled. Maximum diameter of IVC were measured during expiratory phase of respiratory cycle at the level of diaphragm, 2cm above the diaphragm and at the point of entry into the right atrium using SonoSite TEE device. CVP was measured using an electronic transducer connected to the central venous line. The best location for sonography was determined via calculating and comparing area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC). Results: 39 patients were enrolled (53.8% female). Mean CVP was 6.8 ± 1.4 mmHg and 25 (64.1%) patients had normal CVP, while 14 (35.9%) showed elevated CVP (> 6 mmHg). Evaluating AUC showed that IVC diameter (p = 0.01), aorta diameter (p = 0.01) and IVC / aorta ratio (p = 0.004) had acceptable correlation with CVP. Point of entry of IVC into the right atrium with AUC of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.95 – 1.00) was the location of highest correlation with CVP. Conclusion: Based on the present findings, the IVC sonographic diameter and IVC / aorta ratio had acceptable correlation with CVP at the level of IVC entry into the right atrium.

  20. Protective effect of sodium aescinate on lung injury induced by methyl parathion.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuan; Wang, Tian; Jiang, Na; Ren, Ru-Tong; Zhao, De-Lu; Li, Chong; Fu, Feng-Hua

    2011-10-01

    Methyl parathion (MP) is a high venenosus insecticide. It has been used in pest control of agriculture for several years. The present study is performed to investigate the protective effect of sodium aescinate (SA) on lung injury induced by MP. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats are randomly divided into five groups, with 8 animals in each group: control group, MP administration group, MP plus SA at doses of 0.45 mg/kg, 0.9 mg/kg and 1.8 mg/kg groups. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and nitric oxide (NO) level in plasma, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, NO level, and antioxidative parameters in lung tissue are assayed. Histopathological examination of lung is also performed. The results show that SA has no effect on AChE. Treatment with SA decreases the activity of MPO in lung and the level of NO in plasma and lung. The level of malondialdehyde in lung is decreased after SA treatments. SA increases the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and the content of glutathione in lung. SA administration also ameliorates lung injury induced by MP. The findings indicate that SA could protect lung injury induced by MP and the mechanism of action is related to the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of SA. PMID:21177729

  1. Fate and biological effects of methyl parathion in outdoor ponds and laboratory aquaria. II. Effects.

    PubMed

    Crossland, N O

    1984-10-01

    Methyl parathion (MEP) applied to three outdoor ponds at a nominal concentration of 100 micrograms liter-1 was toxic to some species of aquatic insects and crustaceans but not to fish. The spectrum of toxicity was similar to predictions based on a literature survey of data obtained from laboratory tests. Various secondary effects occurred that could not be predicted from laboratory toxicity tests. An increase in populations of Diaptomus in treated ponds was probably caused by mortality of predators and competitors. A bloom of filamentous algae which then collapsed, leading to severe depletion of dissolved oxygen and fish deaths, may have been triggered by mortality of herbivorous mayflies and daphnids. The growth of juvenile rainbow trout in treated ponds was significantly less than in untreated ponds. On the other hand their growth in laboratory aquaria was not affected when rainbow trout were exposed to higher concentrations of MEP than occurred in the outdoor ponds. It was concluded that growth of rainbow trout in the ponds was probably affected by mortality among aquatic insects and crustaceans on which they feed. PMID:6489243

  2. Kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis of methyl parathion using citrate-stabilized 10 nm gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nita, Rafaela; Trammell, Scott A; Ellis, Gregory A; Moore, Martin H; Soto, Carissa M; Leary, Dagmar H; Fontana, Jake; Talebzadeh, Somayeh F; Knight, D Andrew

    2016-02-01

    "Ligand-free" citrate-stabilized 10 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) promote the hydrolysis of the thiophosphate ester methyl parathion (MeP) on the surface of gold as a function of pH and two temperature values. At 50 °C, the active surface gold atoms show catalytic turnover ∼4 times after 8 h and little turnover of gold surface atoms at 25 °C with only 40% of the total atoms being active. From Michaelis-Menten analysis, k(cat) increases between pH 8 and 9 and decreases above pH 9. A global analysis of the spectral changes confirmed the stoichiometric reaction at 25 °C and the catalytic reaction at 50 °C and mass spectrometry confirmed the identity of p-nitrophenolate (PNP) product. Additional decomposition pathways involving oxidation and hydrolysis independent of the formation of PNP were also seen at 50 °C for both catalyzed and un-catalyzed reactions. This work represents the first kinetic analysis of ligand-free AuNP catalyzed hydrolysis of a thiophosphate ester. PMID:26547026

  3. Long-term neurobehavioral health effects of methyl parathion exposure in children in Mississippi and Ohio.

    PubMed Central

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Kakolewski, Kirsten; Bove, Frank J; Kaye, Wendy E

    2004-01-01

    Methyl parathion (MP), an organophosphate pesticide licensed only for agricultural uses, was sprayed illegally for pest control in Mississippi and Ohio residences. To evaluate the association between MP exposure and neurobehavioral development, we assessed children 6 years or younger at the time of the spraying and local comparison groups of unexposed children using the Pediatric Environmental Neurobehavioral Test Battery (PENTB). The PENTB is composed of informant-based procedures (parent interview and questionnaires) and performance-based procedures (neurobehavioral tests for children 4 years or older) that evaluate cognitive, motor, sensory, and affect domains essential to neurobehavioral assessment. Children were classified as exposed or unexposed on the basis of urinary para-nitrophenol levels and environmental wipe samples for MP. Exposed children had more difficulties with tasks involving short-term memory and attention. Additionally, parents of exposed children reported that their children had more behavioral and motor skill problems than did parents of unexposed children. However, these effects were not consistently seen at both sites. There were no differences between exposed and unexposed children in tests for general intelligence, the integration of visual and motor skills, and multistep processing. Our findings suggest that MP might be associated with subtle changes to short-term memory and attention and contribute to problems with motor skills and some behaviors, but the results of the study are not conclusive. PMID:14698930

  4. Photoresponse of a strongly correlated material determined by scanning photocurrent microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasırga, T. Serkan; Sun, Dong; Park, Jae H.; Coy, Jim M.; Fei, Zaiyao; Xu, Xiaodong; Cobden, David H.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of a current by light is a key process in optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. In band semiconductors, depletion fields associated with interfaces separate long-lived photo-induced carriers. However, in systems with strong electron-electron and electron-phonon correlations it is unclear what physics will dominate the photoresponse. Here, we investigate photocurrent in VO2, an exemplary strongly correlated material known for its dramatic metal-insulator transition at Tc ~ 68 °C, which could be useful for optoelectronic detection and switching up to ultraviolet wavelengths. Using scanning photocurrent microscopy on individual suspended VO2 nanobeams we observe a photoresponse peaked at the metal-insulator boundary but extending throughout both insulating and metallic phases. We determine that the response is photothermal, implying efficient carrier relaxation to a local equilibrium in a manner consistent with strong correlations. Temperature-dependent measurements reveal subtle phase changes within the insulating state. We further demonstrate switching of the photocurrent by optical control of the metal-insulator boundary arrangement. Our work shows the value of applying scanning photocurrent microscopy to nanoscale crystals in the investigation of strongly correlated materials, and the results are relevant for designing and controlling optoelectronic devices employing such materials.

  5. Extrapolating laboratory avian toxicity data to free-living birds: Comparison of the toxicity of parathion to captive and free-living European starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Rattner, B.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, we captured nesting wild female European starlings with young 8-10 days of age. Birds were weighted, banded, and given one of four dosages of the OP insecticide parathion (50, 72, 104 or 150 mg/kg dissolved in corn oil) or pure corn-oil (control). and their young weighed. Nest boxes (7- 12/treatment) were observed and young re-weighed 2-3 days postdose to determine presence/absence of the females. If necessary, males were captured and fate of young used to confirm female response. Brain ChE inhibition in dosed birds (based on a pilot study) was 55-74%. EC50's (failure to return to nest box) for the females was 74 mg/kg in 1985 and 92 mg/kg in 1986. Confidence limit (95%) for these estimates overlapped LD50's for captive female starlings dosed with the OP in spring and early summer 1987 (136, 128 mg/kg, respectively). Results suggest that responses of captive and free-living birds to potentially lethal concentrations of OP's are similar, despite the additional stresses in the wild.

  6. Determining the hydrodynamic radii of AOT micelles with silver nanoparticles by means of photon correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulavchenko, A. I.; Popovetskiy, P. S.

    2012-06-01

    The possibility of determining the sizes of micelles of sodium di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) with silver nanoparticles in decane against the background of a large excess of empty micelles by means of photon correlation spectroscopy with unimodal analysis of the autocorrelation function is demonstrated. Contributions from all components to the light scattering are estimated by measuring the static (Rayleigh) light scattering and allowing for partial absorption of the laser radiation by silver nanoparticles. Areas of the correct determination of the hydrodynamic radius of the micelles with nanoparticles are determined via unimodal analysis of the autocorrelation function in dependence on the nanoparticle size (10-2 nm) and silver concentration (1-30 mM) at a constant AOT concentration (0.25 mol/L) and aqueous pseudophase content (1 vol %).

  7. Characterization of a fenpropathrin-degrading strain and construction of a genetically engineered microorganism for simultaneous degradation of methyl parathion and fenpropathrin.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yuanfan; Zhou, Jin; Hong, Qing; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Jiandong; Li, Shunpeng

    2010-11-01

    A gram-negative fenpropathrin-degrading bacterial strain Sphingobium sp. JQL4-5 was isolated from the wastewater treatment sludge of an insecticide factory. Strain JQL4-5 showed the ability to degrade other pyrethroid insecticides, but it was not able to degrade methyl parathion. To enhance its degrading range of substrate, a methyl parathion hydrolase gene (mpd) was successfully introduced into the chromosome of strain JQL4-5 with a mini-Tn-transposon system. A genetically engineered microorganism (GEM) named JQL4-5-mpd resulted, which was capable of simultaneously degrading methyl parathion and fenpropathrin. Soil treatment results indicated that JQL4-5-mpd is a promising multifunctional bacterium in the bioremediation of multiple pesticide-contaminated environments. PMID:20624669

  8. Comparative analyses of genotoxicity, oxidative stress and antioxidative defence system under exposure of methyl parathion and hexaconazole in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pragyan; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the comparative effects of methyl parathion and hexaconazole on genotoxicity, oxidative stress, antioxidative defence system and photosynthetic pigments in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety karan-16). The seeds were exposed with three different concentrations, i.e. 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 % for 6 h after three pre-soaking durations 7, 17 and 27 h which represents G1, S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, respectively. Ethyl methane sulphonate, a well-known mutagenic agent and double distilled water, was used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The results indicate significant decrease in mitotic index with increasing concentrations of pesticides, and the extent was higher in methyl parathion. Chromosomal aberrations were found more frequent in methyl parathion than hexaconazole as compared to their respective controls. Treatment with the pesticides induced oxidative stress which was evident with higher contents of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, and the increase was more prominent in methyl parathion. Contents of total phenolics were increased; however, soluble protein content showed a reverse trend. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were significantly up-regulated, and more increase was noticed in hexaconazole. Increments in total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were observed up to 0.1 % but decreased at higher concentration (0.5 %), and the reductions were more prominent in methyl parathion than hexaconazole as compared to their respective controls. Methyl parathion treatment caused more damage in the plant cells of barley as compared to hexaconazole, which may be closely related to higher genotoxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:26286802

  9. Silver nanoparticle-modified electrode for the determination of nitro compound-containing pesticides.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Camila Alves; Santana, Edson Roberto; Piovesan, Jamille Valéria; Spinelli, Almir

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports the electroanalytical determination of pendimethalin and ethyl parathion by square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry using a material comprised of chitosan-stabilized silver nanoparticles to modify a glassy carbon electrode. Under optimized experimental conditions, the peak current was found to vary linearly with the concentration of pendimethalin in the range of 70 to 2000 nmol L(-1) and with concentration of ethyl parathion in the range of 40 to 8000 nmol L(-1). Detection limits of 36 and 40 nmol L(-1) were obtained for pendimethalin and ethyl parathion, respectively. The silver - nanoparticle-modified electrode was successfully employed for the analysis of pesticides in tap and mineral water (pendimethalin) and in lettuce and honey (ethyl parathion) samples. Pendimethalin recovery was between 94 and 100 %, and ethyl parathion recovery was between 97 and 101 %, indicating no significant matrix interference effects on the analytical results. The accuracy of the electroanalytical methodology using the proposed modified electrode was also compared to that of the UV-vis spectrophotometric method. PMID:26873207

  10. Correlation techniques to determine model form in robust nonlinear system realization/identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stry, Greselda I.; Mook, D. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The fundamental challenge in identification of nonlinear dynamic systems is determining the appropriate form of the model. A robust technique is presented which essentially eliminates this problem for many applications. The technique is based on the Minimum Model Error (MME) optimal estimation approach. A detailed literature review is included in which fundamental differences between the current approach and previous work is described. The most significant feature is the ability to identify nonlinear dynamic systems without prior assumption regarding the form of the nonlinearities, in contrast to existing nonlinear identification approaches which usually require detailed assumptions of the nonlinearities. Model form is determined via statistical correlation of the MME optimal state estimates with the MME optimal model error estimates. The example illustrations indicate that the method is robust with respect to prior ignorance of the model, and with respect to measurement noise, measurement frequency, and measurement record length.

  11. Voxel-based analysis in neuroferritinopathy expands the phenotype and determines radiological correlates of disease severity.

    PubMed

    Keogh, M J; Aribisala, B S; He, J; Tulip, E; Butteriss, D; Morris, C; Gorman, G; Horvath, R; Chinnery, P F; Blamire, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Neuroferritinopathy is an autosomal dominant adult-onset movement disorder which occurs due to mutations in the ferritin light chain gene (FTL). Extensive iron deposition and cavitation are observed post-mortem in the basal ganglia, but whether more widespread pathological changes occur, and whether they correlate with disease severity is unknown. 3D-T1w and quantitative T2 whole brain MRI scans were performed in 10 clinically symptomatic patients with the 460InsA FTL mutation and 10 age-matched controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based relaxometry (VBR) were subsequently performed. Clinical assessment using the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale (UDRS) and Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) was undertaken in all patients. VBM detected significant tissue changes within the substantia nigra, midbrain and dentate together with significant cerebellar atrophy in patients (FWE, p < 0.05). Iron deposition in the caudate head and cavitation in the lateral globus pallidus correlated with UDRS score (p < 0.001). There were no differences between groups with VBR. Our data show that progressive iron accumulation in the caudate nucleus, and cavitation of the globus pallidus correlate with disease severity in neuroferritinopathy. We also confirm sub-clinical cerebellar atrophy as a feature of the disease. We suggest that VBM is an effective technique to detect regions of iron deposition and cavitation, with potential wider utility to determine radiological markers of disease severity for all NBIA disorders. PMID:26142024

  12. Determination of correlation functions of turbulent velocity and sound speed fluctuations by means of ultrasonic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Tatiana A.; Durgin, William W.

    2011-12-01

    An experimental study of the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves through grid-generated turbulence by means of an ultrasound technique is discussed. Experimental data were obtained for ultrasonic wave propagation downstream of heated and non-heated grids in a wind tunnel. A semi-analytical acoustic propagation model that allows the determination of the spatial correlation functions of the flow field is developed based on the classical flowmeter equation and the statistics of the travel time of acoustic waves traveling through the kinematic and thermal turbulence. The basic flowmeter equation is reconsidered in order to take into account sound speed fluctuations and turbulent velocity fluctuations. It allows deriving an integral equation that relates the correlation functions of travel time, sound speed fluctuations and turbulent velocity fluctuations. Experimentally measured travel time statistics of data with and without grid heating are approximated by an exponential function and used to analytically solve the integral equation. The reconstructed correlation functions of the turbulent velocity and sound speed fluctuations are presented. The power spectral density of the turbulent velocity and sound speed fluctuations are calculated.

  13. Short-Arc Correlation and Initial Orbit Determination For Space-Based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Scheeres, D.

    2011-09-01

    Initial orbit determination (IOD) of space debris is an important segment of space situational awareness and is often coupled with the problem of track correlation, since in order to determine the orbit of an observed object, multiple observations must be combined. It is generally uncertain, however, whether two arbitrary tracks are of the same object. Recently, Fujimoto and Scheeres have proposed a novel and rigorous track correlation and IOD technique where each observation is assigned an “admissible region” in state space based on some physical constraints. The relationship of two observations is then determined by finding whether these regions intersect via Bayes’ rule. In this paper, we propose a new application of this method to space-based observations. Preliminary results show robustness to classically singular geometries, such as GEO-on-GEO observations. Admissible regions were first proposed by Milani et al. for heliocentric orbits, and Tommei et al. expanded this concept to Earth orbiting objects. Maruskin et al. was first to introduce the concept of intersecting multiple admissible regions to correlate tracks and obtain an initial orbit estimate, albeit the correlation was conducted in 2-dimensional subspaces of the state space. Fujimoto and Scheeres fully developed ways of characterizing intersections of admissible regions in the full 6-dimensional state space. They showed through topological arguments that a positive correlation also simultaneously provides an initial orbit estimate. A method of linearly mapping admissible regions to the state space was introduced in order to improve computational turn-around, and was validated with a series of numerical tests. For space-based observations, the observation location vector, previously assumed to be Earth-fixed, is now allowed to propagate under two-body dynamics. Several technical challenges arise when we make this change. First, the admissible region spans over a larger region in the state space

  14. Semiquantitative determination of serum IgE by reagent strips: PRIST/TOTALE correlation.

    PubMed

    Pena, J M; Botey, J; Gutiérrez, V; Eseverri, J L; Marín, A

    1991-06-01

    Due to its great simplicity, the determination of total and specific IgE with a reagent strip could be a screening method for in vitro allergy diagnosis if a correlation with classical techniques is verified. The TOTALE reagent strip for semiquantitative determination of total serum IgE is one of these methods and unites the now classical foundation (anti-IgE/IgE/anti-IgE labeled sandwich) and the ease of the reagent strip technique. In a preliminary evaluation of these methods we compared the PRIST isotopic method to the TOTALE one for serum total IgE. In summary, the most relevant consequences from this comparison are the following ones: a) The initial sample is the same for both: serum. b) No additional equipment or materials other than the serum sample are needed for TOTALE practising. c) The reagent strip has a lower cost and is faster than the PRIST method. d) Correlation coefficients were 0.89 (n = 35) in the range of measurement under study and 0.93 (n = 23) in the range from 5 to 200 U/L. PMID:1669578

  15. The asymptotics of an eigenfunction-correlation determinant for Dirac-δ perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebert, Martin

    2015-07-01

    We prove the exact asymptotics of the scalar product of the ground states of two non-interacting Fermi gases confined to a 3-dimensional ball BL of radius L in the thermodynamic limit, where the underlying one-particle operators differ by a Dirac-δ perturbation. More precisely, we show the algebraic decay of the correlation determinant |det|(< φ)j L, ψk L > j , k = 1 , … , N 2 = L - ζ ( E ) + o ( 1 ) , as N, L → ∞ and N / |B L| → ρ > 0 , where φj L and ψk L denote the lowest-energy eigenfunctions of the finite-volume one-particle Schrödinger operators. The decay exponent is given in terms of the s-wave scattering phase shift ζ ( E ) ≔ /1 π 2 δ 2 ( √{ E } ) . For an attractive Dirac-δ perturbation, we conclude that the decay exponent /1 π 2 ↑arcsin↑ |T ( E ) / 2| HS 2 found in the work of Gebert et al. [J. Spect. Theory (to be published); e-print arXiv:1407.2512] does not provide a sharp upper bound on the decay of the correlation determinant.

  16. Toxicity of mixtures of parathion, toxaphene and/or 2,4-D in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, D J; Rao, N G; Berg, I E; Khattree, R; Chaturvedi, A K

    1990-08-01

    The toxicity of the mixtures of parathion (PA), toxaphene (TOX) and/or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied in ICR male mice (21-24 g) by oral intubation, in corn oil, daily for up to 14 days. On Day 15, the exposure was discontinued, and animals were monitored for an additional period of 7 days for the possible reversibility of the toxicity. The body weight gain decreased with the mixtures, as well as with the individual agricultural chemicals (ACs), during the 14-day period. The cholinesterase (ChE) activity in the serum and brain was inhibited in the animals of the groups of PA (1-10 mg kg-1) and PA (5 mg kg-1)-containing mixtures. TOX (50-200 mg kg-1) caused initial inhibitory effects of 20-65% on the serum ChE (Day 1) before producing increases of 53-64% in the enzyme activity by Day 15, with little effects on the brain ChE levels. 2,4-D (50-200 mg kg-1) resulted in significantly elevated levels of the serum ChE, with substantial decreased in the brain ChE activity. The serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase level was up (38-630%) in TOX (50 mg kg-1), 2,4-D (50 mg kg-1) or their mixture group. No pathological changes at the light microscopic level in the brain and liver were noticed. TOX and TOX-containing mixtures significantly increased the liver/body weight ratio and decreased the pentobarbital (60 mg kg-1, i.p., in saline)-induced sleep.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2391407

  17. Methods of assessing neurobehavioral development in children exposed to methyl parathion in Mississippi and Ohio.

    PubMed Central

    Zeitz, Perri; Kakolewski, Kirsten; Imtiaz, Rubina; Kaye, Wendy

    2002-01-01

    Methyl parathion (MP), an organophosphate pesticide, was sprayed illegally for pest control in U.S. residences and businesses in Mississippi and Ohio. To evaluate the association between MP exposure and neurobehavioral development, children 6 years of age or younger at the time of the spraying and local comparison groups of unexposed children were assessed using the pediatric environmental neurobehavioral test battery (PENTB). The PENTB is composed of informant-based procedures (parent interview and questionnaires) and performance-based procedures (neurobehavioral tests for children 4 years of age or older) that evaluate each of the four broad domains (cognitive, motor, sensory, and affect) essential to neurobehavioral assessment. Children were classified as exposed or unexposed using urinary p-nitrophenol (PNP) levels and environmental wipe samples for MP. Exposure was defined as a urinary PNP level of greater than or equal to 100 ppb for the child or any other individual living in the household. Environmental wipe sample levels of greater than or equal to 150 g MP/100 cm2 and greater than or equal to 132.9 g MP/100 cm2 were used to define MP exposure for children living in Mississippi and Ohio, respectively. The PENTB was first administered in summer 1999 (year 1). The PENTB was readministered in summer 2000 (year 2) to children who participated in year 1 of the study. A description of the methods used in the study are presented. Results of data analyses for both years of the study will be presented in a separate publication. PMID:12634144

  18. Persistent Behavioral Alterations in Rats Neonatally Exposed to Low Doses of the Organophosphate Pesticide, Parathion

    PubMed Central

    Timofeeva, Olga A.; Sanders, David; Seemann, Kristen; Yang, Liwei; Hermanson, Daniel; Regenbogen, Sam; Agoos, Samantha; Kallepalli, Anita; Rastogi, Anit; Braddy, David; Wells, Corinne; Perraut, Charles; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Levin, Edward D.

    2008-01-01

    Although developmental exposures of rats to low levels of the organophosphate pesticides (OPs), chlorpyrifos (CPF) or diazinon (DZN), both cause persistent neurobehavioral effects, there are important differences in their neurotoxicity. The current study extended investigation to parathion (PTN), an OP that has higher systemic toxicity than either CPF or DZN. We gave PTN on postnatal days (PND) 1–4 at doses spanning the threshold for systemic toxicity (0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg/day, s.c.) and performed a battery of emotional and cognitive behavioral tests in adolescence through adulthood. The higher PTN dose increased time spent on the open arms and the number of center crossings in the plus maze, indicating greater risk-taking and overall activity. This group also showed a decrease in tactile startle response without altering prepulse inhibition, indicating a blunted acute sensorimotor reaction without alteration in sensorimotor plasticity. T-maze spontaneous alternation, novelty suppressed feeding, preference for sweetened chocolate milk, and locomotor activity were not significantly affected by neonatal PTN exposure. During radial arm maze acquisition, rats given the lower PTN dose committed fewer errors compared to controls and displayed lower sensitivity to the amnestic effects of the NMDA receptor blocker, dizocilpine. No PTN effects were observed with regard to the sensitivity to blockade of muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors, or serotonin 5HT2 receptors. This study shows that neonatal PTN exposure evokes long-term changes in behavior, but the effects are less severe, and in some incidences opposite in nature, to those seen earlier for CPF or DZN, findings consistent with our neurochemical studies showing different patterns of effects and less neurotoxic damage with PTN. Our results reinforce the conclusion that low dose exposure to different OPs can have quite different neurotoxic effects, obviously unconnected to their shared property as

  19. Highly Sensitive Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide and Glucose by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Watabe, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuki; Morikawa, Mika; Okada, Ryuichi; Miura, Toshiaki; Ito, Etsuro

    2011-01-01

    Background Because H2O2 is generated by various oxidase-catalyzed reactions, a highly sensitive determination method of H2O2 is applicable to measurements of low levels of various oxidases and their substrates such as glucose, lactate, glutamate, urate, xanthine, choline, cholesterol and NADPH. We propose herein a new, highly sensitive method for the measurement of H2O2 and glucose using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Methodology/Principal Findings FCS has the advantage of allowing us to determine the number of fluorescent molecules. FCS measures the fluctuations in fluorescence intensity caused by fluorescent probe movement in a small light cavity with a defined volume generated by confocal illumination. We thus developed a highly sensitive determination system of H2O2 by FCS, where horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzes the formation of a covalent bond between fluorescent molecules and proteins in the presence of H2O2. Our developed system gave a linear calibration curve for H2O2 in the range of 28 to 300 nM with the detection limit of 8 nM. In addition, by coupling with glucose oxidase (GOD)-catalyzed reaction, the method allows to measure glucose in the range of 80 nM to 1.5 µM with detection limit of 24 nM. The method was applicable to the assay of glucose in blood plasma. The mean concentration of glucose in normal human blood plasma was determined to be 4.9 mM. Conclusions/Significance In comparison with commercial available methods, the detection limit and the minimum value of determination for glucose are at least 2 orders of magnitude more sensitive in our system. Such a highly sensitive method leads the fact that only a very small amount of plasma (20 nL) is needed for the determination of glucose concentration in blood plasma. PMID:21850246

  20. Second harmonic correlation spectroscopy: a method for determining surface binding kinetics and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Sly, Krystal L; Mok, Sze-Wing; Conboy, John C

    2013-09-01

    These studies describe the implementation of second harmonic correlation spectroscopy (SHCS) to measure the adsorption and desorption kinetics of molecular species associated with a surface. Specifically, the local fluctuations of the measured second harmonic (SH) signal were used to determine the binding kinetics and thermodynamics of (S)-(+)-1,1'-bi-2-napthol SBN intercalation into a 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DOPC) bilayer. In order to determine the adsorption and desorption rates, the SH signal was collected above saturation concentration at steady-state equilibrium as a function of time. The autocorrelated SH signal was then fit to a correlation model developed for molecules binding at a surface when there is no contribution from molecules in solution. The measured adsorption rate for SBN to DOPC was 2.7 ± 0.2 × 10(3) s(-1) M(-1) and the desorption rate was 9 ± 4 × 10(-4) s(-1). The kinetic rates as well as the calculated equilibrium binding constant, 3.0 ± 1.3 × 10(6) M(-1) obtained from SHCS were compared with those obtained from a conventional binding isotherm and found to be statistically consistent. The primary advantage of using SHCS is both the absorption and desorption rates were determined in the same experiment using only a single bulk concentration of SBN. The results of these studies demonstrate that SHCS can be used to provide accurate kinetic and thermodynamic binding data in a label-free manner in lieu of conventional isotherm studies, especially where time and analyte are scarce. PMID:23927733

  1. Determination of parabens in serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Correlation with lipstick use.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Gabriella Padovani; Santos, Nayara de Kássia Souza; Albuquerque, Ana Carolina; Martins, Isarita

    2016-08-01

    Parabens are the most widely used preservative and are considered to be relatively safe compounds. However, studies have demonstrated that they may have estrogenic activity, and there is ongoing debate regarding the safety and potential cancer risk of using products containing these compounds. In the present work, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied to determine methylparaben and propylparaben concentrations in serum, and the results were correlated with lipstick application. Samples were analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The validation results demonstrated the linearity of the method over a range of 1-20 ng/mL, in addition to the method's precision and accuracy. A statistically significant difference was demonstrated between serum parabens in women who used lipstick containing these substances compared with those not using this cosmetic (p = 0.0005 and 0.0016, respectively), and a strong association was observed between serum parabens and lipstick use (Spearman correlation = 0.7202). PMID:27154569

  2. Detrended fluctuation analysis in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy for determining coarsening dynamics in alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Lorenz-M.; Sepiol, Bogdan; Pfau, Bastian; Vogl, Gero; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Weinkamer, Richard

    2006-10-15

    We study the dynamics of precipitate coarsening in phase-separating alloys at late stages of phase separation by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). For analyzing time series of fluctuating speckle intensities from small-angle scattering of coherent x rays, the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), which is ideal for determining power-law correlations, is applied. We discuss the application of DFA with respect to XPCS data by means of simulated time series. In particular, the effects of different signal-to-noise ratios are examined. Results from measurements of the two model systems Al-6 at. % Ag at 140 deg. C and Al-9 at. % Zn at 0 deg. C are presented. Since the DFA effectively removes adulterating trends in the data, quantitative agreement with Monte Carlo simulations is obtained. It is verified that two different coarsening mechanisms are predominant in the two systems--coarsening either by diffusion of single atoms or by movement of whole precipitates.

  3. Determination of Dynamics of Plant Plasma Membrane Proteins with Fluorescence Recovery and Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Laňková, Martina; Humpolíčková, Jana; Vosolsobě, Stanislav; Cit, Zdeněk; Lacek, Jozef; Čovan, Martin; Čovanová, Milada; Hof, Martin; Petrášek, Jan

    2016-04-01

    A number of fluorescence microscopy techniques are described to study dynamics of fluorescently labeled proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and whole organelles. However, for studies of plant plasma membrane (PM) proteins, the number of these techniques is still limited because of the high complexity of processes that determine the dynamics of PM proteins and the existence of cell wall. Here, we report on the usage of raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) for studies of integral PM proteins in suspension-cultured tobacco cells and show its potential in comparison with the more widely used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method. For RICS, a set of microscopy images is obtained by single-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fluorescence fluctuations are subsequently correlated between individual pixels and the information on protein mobility are extracted using a model that considers processes generating the fluctuations such as diffusion and chemical binding reactions. As we show here using an example of two integral PM transporters of the plant hormone auxin, RICS uncovered their distinct short-distance lateral mobility within the PM that is dependent on cytoskeleton and sterol composition of the PM. RICS, which is routinely accessible on modern CLSM instruments, thus represents a valuable approach for studies of dynamics of PM proteins in plants. PMID:27041337

  4. Prenatal determinants of optic nerve hypoplasia: Review of suggested correlates and future focus

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Borchert, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH), a congenital malformation characterized by an underdeveloped optic nerve, is a seemingly epidemic cause of childhood blindness and visual impairment with associated lifelong morbidity. While the prenatal determinants of ONH are unknown, early case reports have led to a longstanding speculation that risky health behaviors (e.g. recreational drugs, alcohol) are a likely culprit. There has yet to be a systematic review of the epidemiology of ONH to assess the common prenatal features that may help focus research efforts in the identification of likely prenatal correlates. A review of the past 50 years of epidemiologic research was conducted to examine the prenatal features linked with ONH and provide direction for future research. There are select prominent prenatal features associated with ONH: young maternal age and primiparity. Commonly implicated prenatal exposures (e.g., recreational or pharmaceutical drugs, viral infection, etc.) were rare or uncommon in large cohort studies of ONH and therefore unlikely to be major contributors to ONH. Familial cases and gene mutations are rare. The preponderance of young mothers and primiparity among cases of ONH is striking, although the significance is unclear. Recent research suggests a potential role for prenatal nutrition, weight gain, and factors of deprivation. With the rapidly increasing prevalence of ONH, future research should focus on investigating the relevance of young maternal age and primiparity and exploring the recently suggested etiologic correlates in epidemic clusters of ONH. PMID:24160732

  5. Removal of methyl parathion and tetrachlorvinphos by a bacterial consortium immobilized on tezontle-packed up-flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Ocampo, Gustavo; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Ortiz-Hernández, M Laura

    2011-11-01

    A tezontle-packed up-flow reactor (TPUFR) with an immobilized bacterial consortium for biological treatment of methyl-parathion and tetrachlorvinphos was evaluated. These organophosphate pesticides are widely used in Mexico for insect and mite control, respectively. With the aim of developing a tool for pesticide biodegradation, four flow rates (0.936, 1.41, 2.19, and 3.51 l/h) and four hydraulic residence times (0.313, 0.206, 0.133, and 0.083 h) were evaluated in a TPUFR. In the bioreactor, with an operating time of 8 h and a flow of 0.936 l/h, we obtained 75% efficiency in the removal of methyl-parathion and tetrachlorvinphos. Their adsorptions in the volcanic rock were 9% and 6%, respectively. It was demonstrated that the removal of pesticides was due to the biological activity of the immobilized bacterial consortium. We confirmed the decrease in toxicity in the treated effluent from the bioreactor through the application of acute toxicity tests on Eisenia foetida. Immobilization of a bacterial consortium using tezontle as a support is innovative and an economical tool for the treatment of mixtures of organophosphorus pesticide residues. PMID:21533773

  6. Photosystem II antenna phosphorylation-dependent protein diffusion determined by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Masakazu; Pack, Chan-Gi; Takenaka, Yoshiko; Sako, Yasushi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Flexibility of chloroplast thylakoid membrane proteins is essential for plant fitness and survival under fluctuating light environments. Phosphorylation of light-harvesting antenna complex II (LHCII) is known to induce dynamic protein reorganization that fine-tunes the rate of energy conversion in each photosystem. However, molecular details of how LHCII phosphorylation causes light energy redistribution throughout thylakoid membranes still remain unclear. By using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we here determined the LHCII phosphorylation-dependent protein diffusion in thylakoid membranes isolated from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. As compared to the LHCII dephosphorylation-induced condition, the diffusion coefficient of LHCII increased nearly twofold under the LHCII phosphorylation-induced condition. We also verified the results by using the LHCII phosphorylation-deficient mutant. Our observation suggests that LHCII phosphorylation-dependent protein reorganization occurs along with the changes in the rate of protein diffusion, which would have an important role in mediating light energy redistribution throughout thylakoid membranes. PMID:24088948

  7. Analysis of trifluralin, methyl paraoxon, methyl parathion, fenvalerate and 2,4-D dimethylamine in pond water using solid-phase extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swineford, D.M.; Belisle, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of trifluralin, methyl paraoxon, methyl parathion, fenvalerate, and 2,4-D dimethylamine salt in pond water using a solid-phase C18 column. After elution from the C18 column, the eluate was analyzed on a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with an electron-capture or flame photometric detector.

  8. Development of surface imprinted core-shell nanoparticles and their application in a solid-phase dispersion extraction matrix for methyl parathion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Li, Weiming; Li, He; Tang, Youwen

    2014-04-01

    Applying molecular imprinting techniques to the surface of functionalized SiO2 allows the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with accessible, high affinity and surface exposed binding sites. This paper demonstrates a new strategy for producing such hybrid organic-inorganic surface imprinted silica nanoparticles for specific recognition of methyl parathion. The technique provides surface grafting imprinting in chloroform using amino modified silica nanoparticles as supports, acrylamide as the functional monomer, γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane as the grafting agent, and methyl parathion as a template. The amino propyl functional monomer layer directs the selective occurrence of imprinting polymerization at the silica surface through copolymerization of grafting agents with functional monomers, but also acts as an assistive monomer to drive the template into the formed polymer shells to create effective recognition sites. The resulting MIPs-SiO2 nanoparticles display three-dimensional core-shell architectures and large surface areas. The molecularly imprinted shell provides recognition sites for methyl parathion, with the materials exhibiting excellent performance for selecting the template. Using MIPs-SiO2 nanoparticles as a matrix of solid-phase dispersion extraction sorbents, trace amounts of methyl parathion are selectivity extracted from pear and green vegetable samples while simultaneously eliminating matrix interferences, attaining recoveries of 84.7-94.4% for the samples. PMID:24576608

  9. On fermionic shadow wave functions for strongly correlated multi-reference systems based on a single Slater determinant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcavecchia, Francesco; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that extending the shadow wave function to fermionic systems facilitates to accurately calculate strongly correlated multi-reference systems such as the stretched {H}2 molecule. This development considerably extends the scope of electronic-structure calculations and enables to efficiently recover the static correlation energy using just a single Slater determinant.

  10. Correlation between lip prints and finger prints in sex determination and pattern predominance in 5000 subjects.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Neha; Sheikh, Soheyl; Bansal, Richa; Pallagati, Shambulingappa

    2013-12-01

    Fingerprints are considered to be the most reliable criteria for personal identification. In the past decades, lip-print studies (Cheiloscopy) attracted the attention of many scientists as a new tool for human identification in both civil and criminal issues. The present study was undertaken to observe the correlation between lip prints and finger print pattern in sex determination and to determine the pattern predominance in a sample of 5000 individuals. The study was carried out in 5000 individuals in Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology of Maharishi Markandeshwar College of Dental Sciences and Research, M.M. University, Mullana. Of the participants, 2500 were males and 2500 females. Lip prints and finger prints of the right hand were collected then studied and analyzed statistically. For lip prints TSUCHIHASHIS Y. classification (1970) was followed; HENRYS classification(1897) was followed for finger prints. Whorls were of a high frequency in males, but females presented with a high frequency of loops. Type I, I', II lip print pattern was most predominant in females while Type III and Type IV was most predominant in males. The present study described in detail that for both males and females, the most predominant lip-print patterns showed an association with the respective predominant finger print patterns. The establishment of a database of Cheiloscopy and Dactyloscopyis recommended for all individuals in a certain locality, which could be used as a reference in civil litigations and criminal cases. Such studies may be useful particularly in Forensic science and in justice. PMID:24776436

  11. Genetically Determined Amerindian Ancestry Correlates with Increased Frequency of Risk Alleles for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, E; Webb, R; Rasmussen, A.; Kelly, J.A; Riba, L.; Kaufman, K.M.; Garcia-de la Torre, I.; Moctezuma, J.F.; Maradiaga-Ceceña, M.A.; Cardiel, M.; Acevedo, E.; Cucho-Venegas, M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gamron, S.; Pons-Estel, B.A.; Vasconcelos, C.; Martin, J.; Tusié-Luna, T.; Harley, J.B.; Richardson, B.; Sawalha, A.H.; Alarcón-Riquelme, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To analyze if genetically determined Amerindian ancestry predicts the increased presence of risk alleles of known susceptibility genes for systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms within 16 confirmed genetic susceptibility loci for SLE were genotyped in a set of 804 Mestizo lupus patients and 667 Mestizo normal healthy controls. In addition, 347 admixture informative markers were genotyped. Individual ancestry proportions were determined using STRUCTURE. Association analysis was performed using PLINK, and correlation of the presence of risk alleles with ancestry was done using linear regression. Results A meta-analysis of the genetic association of the 16 SNPs across populations showed that TNFSF4, STAT4, PDCD1, ITGAM, and IRF5 were associated with lupus in a Hispanic-Mestizo cohort enriched for European and Amerindian ancestry. In addition, two SNPs within the MHC region, previously associated in a genome-wide association study in Europeans, were also associated in Mestizos. Using linear regression we predict an average increase of 2.34 risk alleles when comparing a lupus patient with 100% Amerindian ancestry to an SLE patient with 0% American Indian Ancestry (p<0.0001). SLE patients with 43% more Amerindian ancestry are predicted to carry one additional risk allele. Conclusion Amerindian ancestry increased the number of risk alleles for lupus. PMID:20848568

  12. Determination of simple correlated wave functions for few-electron systems using a Jastrow factor

    SciTech Connect

    Umezawa, N.; Sarsa, A.; Le Sech, C.; Chikyow, T.

    2006-01-15

    Compact Jastrow-Slater-type correlated wave functions for three- and four-electron atoms and ions (Li, Be{sup +}, B{sup 2+}, C{sup 3+}, Be, B{sup +}, and C{sup 2+}) are proposed. The Jastrow factor we employed consists of one-body and two-body functions including only two variational parameters in total. We found that a one-body Jastrow function with one variational parameter, which is responsible for the screening effect around the nucleus, is effective for reproducing good total energies of the three- and four-electron atomic systems if hydrogenoid orbitals are adopted in the Slater determinant. On the other hand, a determinant composed of Hartree-Fock orbitals multiplied by the same Jastrow factor was found to give rather worse results than that composed of hydrogenoid orbitals. This result clearly indicates that analytic hydrogenoid orbitals coupled with the one-body Jastrow function are useful for describing simple wave functions and understanding the physical properties of these systems.

  13. Fast spatiotemporal correlation spectroscopy to determine protein lateral diffusion laws in live cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, Carmine; Gratton, Enrico; Beltram, Fabio; Cardarelli, Francesco

    2013-07-23

    Spatial distribution and dynamics of plasma-membrane proteins are thought to be modulated by lipid composition and by the underlying cytoskeleton, which forms transient barriers to diffusion. So far this idea was probed by single-particle tracking of membrane components in which gold particles or antibodies were used to individually monitor the molecules of interest. Unfortunately, the relatively large particles needed for single-particle tracking can in principle alter the very dynamics under study. Here, we use a method that makes it possible to investigate plasma-membrane proteins by means of small molecular labels, specifically single GFP constructs. First, fast imaging of the region of interest on the membrane is performed. For each time delay in the resulting stack of images the average spatial correlation function is calculated. We show that by fitting the series of correlation functions, the actual protein "diffusion law" can be obtained directly from imaging, in the form of a mean-square displacement vs. time-delay plot, with no need for interpretative models. This approach is tested with several simulated 2D diffusion conditions and in live Chinese hamster ovary cells with a GFP-tagged transmembrane transferrin receptor, a well-known benchmark of membrane-skeleton-dependent transiently confined diffusion. This approach does not require extraction of the individual trajectories and can be used also with dim and dense molecules. We argue that it represents a powerful tool for the determination of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters over very wide spatial and temporal scales. PMID:23836651

  14. Phospholipid Diffusion Coefficients of Cushioned Model Membranes determined via Z-Scan Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Sarah M.; Allgeyer, Edward S.; Fick, Jörg; Prudovsky, Igor; Mason, Michael D.; Neivandt, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Model cellular membranes enable the study of biological processes in a controlled environment and reduce the traditional challenges associated with live or fixed cell studies. However, model membrane systems based on the air/water or oil/solution interface do not allow for incorporation of transmembrane proteins, or for the study of protein transport mechanisms. Conversely, a phospholipid bilayer deposited via the Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir Schaefer method on a hydrogel layer is potentially an effective mimic of the cross-section of a biological membrane, and facilitates both protein incorporation and transport studies. Prior to application, however, such membranes must be fully characterized, particularly with respect to the phospholipid bilayer phase transition temperature. Here we present a detailed characterization of the phase transition temperature of the inner and outer leaflets of a chitosan supported model membrane system. Specifically, the lateral diffusion coefficient of each individual leaflet has been determined as a function of temperature. Measurements were performed utilizing z-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), a technique that yields calibration-free diffusion information. Analysis via the method of Wawrezinieck and coworkers, revealed that phospholipid diffusion changes from raft-like to free diffusion as the temperature is increased; an insight into the dynamic behavior of hydrogel supported membranes not previously reported. PMID:23705855

  15. Temperature and humidity flux-variance relations determined by one-dimensional eddy correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Harold L.

    1990-10-01

    It may be possible to estimate surface fluxes of scalar quantities from measurement of their variance and mean wind speed. The flux-variance relation for temperature and humidity was investigated over prairie and desert-shrub plant communities. Fluxes were measured by one-dimensional eddy correlation, humidity by fast-response wet-bulb psychrometers and Krypton open-path hygrometers, temperature by fine-wire thermocouples, and mean windspeed by a cup anemometer. The quality of the flux-variance relation proved to be good enough for application to flux measurement. Regressions of flux estimated by the variance technique versus measured flux usually had r 2 values greater than 0.97 for sensible heat flux and greater than 0.88 for water vapor flux. More uniform surfaces tended to yield the same flux-variance relations except when fluxes were small. This exception supported the hypothesis that sparse sources of flux may increase variance downwind. Nonuniform surfaces yielded flux-variance relations that were less predictable, although reasonably accurate once determined. The flux-variance relation for humidity was quite variable over dry surfaces with senescent vegetation.

  16. Structure determination of chemisorbed chirality transfer complexes: Accelerated STM analysis and exchange-correlation functional sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, M. N.; Goubert, G.; Rasmussen, A. M. H.; Dong, Y.; Lemay, J.-C.; Demers-Carpentier, V.; McBreen, P. H.; Hammer, B.

    2014-11-01

    Linking STM images to atomic positions determined by DFT calculations is an important step in characterizing the intermolecular interactions at play in many surface processes including asymmetric hydrogenation on heterogeneous catalysts. An accelerated data extraction method is used to collect STM information on the geometry of complexes formed between the two substrates, 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone (TFAP) and 3,3,3-methyltrifluoropyruvate (MTFP), and the chiral modifier (R)-(+)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine ((R)-NEA) on Pt(111). We present new experimental data for complexes formed by MTFP and the (R)-NEA-1 conformer along with a new and enlarged set of reformulated STM data that extends what was reported in previously published studies of complexed MTFP and TFAP. Atomic geometries based on DFT calculations using PBE, M06-L, and optB88-vdW exchange-correlation functionals will also be presented. It will be shown that both substrates have well-defined complexation geometries when interacting with the modifier and that the relative complexation energies are not markedly sensitive to the functional employed.

  17. Correlates and Determinants of Reproductive Behavior among Female University Students in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Farideh Khalaj Abadi; Cleland, John; Mehryar, Amir Hooshang

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper aims to examine the reproductive health and behaviors which might expose young people at risks of STIs/HIV and potential correlates of such behaviors among female college students in Tehran. Methods This paper focuses on the study conducted on a sample of 1743 female undergraduate students in four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran during 2005− 2006 using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. The main focus was to determine the predictors of premarital heterosexual reproductive behavior among female students. Results The mean age of the unmarried students was 21.4 years. Low self-efficacy (OR=7.87, p <0.001), perceived peers’ liberal attitude on virginity (OR= 4.33), perception of parents’ liberal attitude towards relationship with the opposite sex and poor family atmosphere (OR=3.04 and 2.20, p <0.001, respectively) were predictors of ever having any type of sexual experience after controlling for other factors. The only predictors of penetrative sex remained in the logistic model were older age (OR=5.95), low self-efficacy (OR=10.86), poor family atmosphere (OR= 2.96), liberal parental attitude (OR=4.29) and liberal peer norms on virginity (OR= 4.90). Conclusion Interventional programs need to be designed at various levels such as enhancing self-efficacy, informing families of the protective role of a balanced control and monitoring over adolescents’ behavior and choices of peer network against premarital sexual activity. PMID:23926523

  18. Oblique rotaton in canonical correlation analysis reformulated as maximizing the generalized coefficient of determination.

    PubMed

    Satomura, Hironori; Adachi, Kohei

    2013-07-01

    To facilitate the interpretation of canonical correlation analysis (CCA) solutions, procedures have been proposed in which CCA solutions are orthogonally rotated to a simple structure. In this paper, we consider oblique rotation for CCA to provide solutions that are much easier to interpret, though only orthogonal rotation is allowed in the existing formulations of CCA. Our task is thus to reformulate CCA so that its solutions have the freedom of oblique rotation. Such a task can be achieved using Yanai's (Jpn. J. Behaviormetrics 1:46-54, 1974; J. Jpn. Stat. Soc. 11:43-53, 1981) generalized coefficient of determination for the objective function to be maximized in CCA. The resulting solutions are proved to include the existing orthogonal ones as special cases and to be rotated obliquely without affecting the objective function value, where ten Berge's (Psychometrika 48:519-523, 1983) theorems on suborthonormal matrices are used. A real data example demonstrates that the proposed oblique rotation can provide simple, easily interpreted CCA solutions. PMID:25106398

  19. A rough set based rational clustering framework for determining correlated genes.

    PubMed

    Jeyaswamidoss, Jeba Emilyn; Thangaraj, Kesavan; Ramar, Kadarkarai; Chitra, Muthusamy

    2016-06-01

    Cluster analysis plays a foremost role in identifying groups of genes that show similar behavior under a set of experimental conditions. Several clustering algorithms have been proposed for identifying gene behaviors and to understand their significance. The principal aim of this work is to develop an intelligent rough clustering technique, which will efficiently remove the irrelevant dimensions in a high-dimensional space and obtain appropriate meaningful clusters. This paper proposes a novel biclustering technique that is based on rough set theory. The proposed algorithm uses correlation coefficient as a similarity measure to simultaneously cluster both the rows and columns of a gene expression data matrix and mean squared residue to generate the initial biclusters. Furthermore, the biclusters are refined to form the lower and upper boundaries by determining the membership of the genes in the clusters using mean squared residue. The algorithm is illustrated with yeast gene expression data and the experiment proves the effectiveness of the method. The main advantage is that it overcomes the problem of selection of initial clusters and also the restriction of one object belonging to only one cluster by allowing overlapping of biclusters. PMID:27352972

  20. [Determination of organic phosphorus pesticide residues in scallion by gas chromatography coupled with microwave clean-up].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Li, An; Li, Haiyan; Tong, Kexing; Zhou, Lili; Zhou, Huimin; Zhao, Tong

    2007-05-01

    A method for the determination of organic phosphorus pesticide residues is described. It covers 25 residues in scallion including dichlorvos, ethoprophos, phorate, diazinon, disulfoton, dimethoate, pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion, fenitrothion, parathion, chlorfenvinphos, ethion, EPN, dyfonate, chlorpyrifos-methyl, parathion-methyl, fenthion, quinalphos, gardona, methidathion, carbophenothion, phosmet, phosalone, and coumaphos. After the scallion samples were heated for 30 s in microwave oven, the residues were extracted with acetonitrile, and then the organic phase was salted out from the matrix. As a result, most of the interfering impurities were abolished in the heating process. In this study, these pesticides were categorized into two groups for analysis. The gas chromatographic analysis was performed on a capillary column (DB-1701, 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm) and determined with a flame photometric detector. Linear correlation coefficients of the 25 organic phosphorus pesticides were not lower than 0.991 0 and the linear ranges for most of the compounds were between 0.1 to 5.0 mg/L. The detection limits were between 0.025 and 0.200 mg/L. In recovery study, average recoveries ranged from 85.2% to 119.6% at the fortification levels of 0.05, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg and the relative standard deviations were in the range of 2.1% and 14.8%. The method is a simple, rapid and highly efficient one to determine organic phosphorus pesticide residues in scallion. PMID:17679438

  1. A new technique to determine the correlation between the QT interval and heart-rate for control and SIDS babies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, D.; Shannon, D. C.; Abboud, S.; Akselrod, S.; Cohen, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of the autonomic nervous system to alter the QT interval in response to heart rate changes is essential to cardiovascular control. An accurate way to determine the relation between QT intervals and their corresponding RR intervals is described. A computer algorithm measures the RR intervals using digital filtering and cross-correlating the QRS sections of consecutive waveforms. The QT intervals is calculated by choosing a section of, the ECG that includes the T wave and cross-correlating it with all the consecutive T waves. At least 4000 pairs of QT-RR intervals are computed for each subject and a best fit correlation function determines the relations between the QT and RR intervals. This technique enables to establish a precise correlation between RR and QT in order to distinguish between control and SIDS babies.

  2. A determinant-based criterion for working correlation structure selection in generalized estimating equations.

    PubMed

    Jaman, Ajmery; Latif, Mahbub A H M; Bari, Wasimul; Wahed, Abdus S

    2016-05-20

    In generalized estimating equations (GEE), the correlation between the repeated observations on a subject is specified with a working correlation matrix. Correct specification of the working correlation structure ensures efficient estimators of the regression coefficients. Among the criteria used, in practice, for selecting working correlation structure, Rotnitzky-Jewell, Quasi Information Criterion (QIC) and Correlation Information Criterion (CIC) are based on the fact that if the assumed working correlation structure is correct then the model-based (naive) and the sandwich (robust) covariance estimators of the regression coefficient estimators should be close to each other. The sandwich covariance estimator, used in defining the Rotnitzky-Jewell, QIC and CIC criteria, is biased downward and has a larger variability than the corresponding model-based covariance estimator. Motivated by this fact, a new criterion is proposed in this paper based on the bias-corrected sandwich covariance estimator for selecting an appropriate working correlation structure in GEE. A comparison of the proposed and the competing criteria is shown using simulation studies with correlated binary responses. The results revealed that the proposed criterion generally performs better than the competing criteria. An example of selecting the appropriate working correlation structure has also been shown using the data from Madras Schizophrenia Study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26626276

  3. Determination of Multivalent Protein–Ligand Binding Kinetics by Second-Harmonic Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Binding kinetics of the multivalent proteins peanut agglutinin (PnA) and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) to a GM1-doped 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid bilayer were investigated by both second-harmonic correlation spectroscopy (SHCS) and a traditional equilibrium binding isotherm. Adsorption and desorption rates, as well as binding affinity and binding free energy, for three bulk protein concentrations were determined by SHCS. For PnA binding to GM1, the measured adsorption rate decreased with increasing bulk PnA concentration from (3.7 ± 0.3) × 106 M–1·s–1 at 0.43 μM PnA to (1.1 ± 0.1) × 105 M–1·s–1 at 12 μM PnA. CTB–GM1 exhibited a similar trend, decreasing from (1.0 ± 0.1) × 109 M–1·s–1 at 0.5 nM CTB to (3.5 ± 0.2) × 106 M–1·s–1 at 240 nM CTB. The measured desorption rates in both studies did not exhibit any dependence on initial protein concentration. As such, 0.43 μM PnA and 0.5 nM CTB had the strongest measured binding affinities, (3.7 ± 0.8) × 109 M–1 and (2.8 ± 0.5) × 1013 M–1, respectively. Analysis of the binding isotherm data suggests there is electrostatic repulsion between protein molecules when PnA binds GM1, while CTB–GM1 demonstrates positive ligand–ligand cooperativity. This study provides additional insight into the complex interactions between multivalent proteins and their ligands and showcases SHCS for examining these complex yet technologically important protein–ligand complexes used in biosensors, immunoassays, and other biomedical diagnostics. PMID:25314127

  4. Determining Correlation and Coherence Lengths in Turbulent Boundary Layer Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Wall pressure data acquired during flight tests at several flight conditions are analysed and the correlation and coherence lengths of the data reported. It is found that the correlation and coherence lengths are influenced by the origin of the structure producing the pressure and the frequency bandwidth over which the analyses are performed. It is shown how the frequency bandwidth biases the correlation length and how the convection of the pressure field might reduce the coherence measured between sensors. A convected form of the cross correlation and cross spectrum is introduced to compensate for the effects of convection. Coherence lengths measured in the streamwise direction appear much longer than expected. Coherent structures detected using the convected cross correlation do not exhibit an exponential coherent power decay.

  5. Determination of Black Hole Mass in Cyg X-1 by Scaling of Spectral Index-QPO Frequency Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaposhnikov, Nickolai; Titarchuk, Lev

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that timing and spectral properties of Galactic Black Hole (BH) X-ray binaries (XRB) are strongly correlated. In particular, it has been shown that low frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO) nu(sub low) - photon index GAMMA correlation curves have a specific pattern. In a number of the sources studied the shape of the index-low frequency QPO correlations are self-similar with a position offset in the nu(sub low) - GAMMA plane determined by a BH mass M(sub BH). Specifically, Titarchuk & Fiorito (2004) gave strong theoretical and observational arguments that the QPO frequency values in this nu(sub low) - GAMMA correlation should be inversely proportional to M(sub BH). A simple translation of the correlation for a given source along frequency axis leads to the observed correlation for another source. As a result of this translation one can obtain a scaling factor which is simply a BH mass ratio for these particular sources. This property of the correlations offers a fundamentally new method for BH mass determination in XRBs. Here we use the observed QPO-index correlations observed in three BH sources: GRO J1655-40, GRS 1915+105 and Cyg X-1. The BH mass of (6.3 plus or minus 0.5) solar mass in GRO J1655-40 is obtained using optical observations. RXTE observations during the recent 2005 outburst yielded sufficient data to establish the correlation pattern during both rise and decay of the event. We use GRO J1655-40 as a standard reference source to measure the BH mass in Cyg X-1. We also revisit the GRS 1915+105 data as a further test of our scaling method. We obtain the BH mass in Cyg X-1 in the range 7.6-9.9.

  6. Automatic determination of important mode-mode correlations in many-mode vibrational wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-04-01

    We introduce new automatic procedures for parameterizing vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction wave functions. Importance measures for individual mode combinations in the wave function are derived based on upper bounds to Hamiltonian matrix elements and/or the size of perturbative corrections derived in the framework of VCC. With a threshold, this enables an automatic, system-adapted way of choosing which mode-mode correlations are explicitly parameterized in the many-mode wave function. The effect of different importance measures and thresholds is investigated for zero-point energies and infrared spectra for formaldehyde and furan. Furthermore, the direct link between important mode-mode correlations and coordinates is illustrated employing water clusters as examples: Using optimized coordinates, a larger number of mode combinations can be neglected in the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function than with normal coordinates for the same accuracy. Moreover, the fraction of important mode-mode correlations compared to the total number of correlations decreases with system size. This underlines the potential gain in efficiency when using optimized coordinates in combination with a flexible scheme for choosing the mode-mode correlations included in the parameterization of the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function. All in all, it is found that the introduced schemes for parameterizing correlated many-mode vibrational wave functions lead to at least as systematic and accurate calculations as those using more standard and straightforward excitation level definitions. This new way of defining approximate calculations offers potential for future calculations on larger systems.

  7. Determination of multivalent protein-ligand binding kinetics by second-harmonic correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sly, Krystal L; Conboy, John C

    2014-11-18

    Binding kinetics of the multivalent proteins peanut agglutinin (PnA) and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) to a GM1-doped 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid bilayer were investigated by both second-harmonic correlation spectroscopy (SHCS) and a traditional equilibrium binding isotherm. Adsorption and desorption rates, as well as binding affinity and binding free energy, for three bulk protein concentrations were determined by SHCS. For PnA binding to GM1, the measured adsorption rate decreased with increasing bulk PnA concentration from (3.7 ± 0.3) × 10(6) M(-1)·s(-1) at 0.43 μM PnA to (1.1 ± 0.1) × 10(5) M(-1)·s(-1) at 12 μM PnA. CTB-GM1 exhibited a similar trend, decreasing from (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10(9) M(-1)·s(-1) at 0.5 nM CTB to (3.5 ± 0.2) × 10(6) M(-1)·s(-1) at 240 nM CTB. The measured desorption rates in both studies did not exhibit any dependence on initial protein concentration. As such, 0.43 μM PnA and 0.5 nM CTB had the strongest measured binding affinities, (3.7 ± 0.8) × 10(9) M(-1) and (2.8 ± 0.5) × 10(13) M(-1), respectively. Analysis of the binding isotherm data suggests there is electrostatic repulsion between protein molecules when PnA binds GM1, while CTB-GM1 demonstrates positive ligand-ligand cooperativity. This study provides additional insight into the complex interactions between multivalent proteins and their ligands and showcases SHCS for examining these complex yet technologically important protein-ligand complexes used in biosensors, immunoassays, and other biomedical diagnostics. PMID:25314127

  8. Pyrazinamide resistance determined by liquid culture at low pH better correlates with genetic mutations in MDR tuberculosis isolates.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Wang, Zhongdong; Zheng, Huiwen; Song, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yufeng; Zhao, Yanlin

    2015-12-01

    We detected the pyrazinamide (PZA) susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in the Bactec MGIT 960 liquid medium with different pH values. Our results demonstrated that PZA resistance determined by liquid culture at pH 5.7 (94.9%) showed better correlation with genetic changes among multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates (P=0.001). PMID:26506283

  9. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Lisa; Harrison, Paul; Kohler, Malcolm; Ferry, Berne

    2014-01-01

    Background Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs). Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur) and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001); correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001); negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001), reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the most comprehensive

  10. Determining the static electronic and vibrational energy correlations via two-dimensional electronic-vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2015-05-01

    Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this paper, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate the slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. We also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions.

  11. Determining the static electronic and vibrational energy correlations via two-dimensional electronic-vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2015-05-07

    Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this paper, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate the slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. We also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions.

  12. Determining the static electronic and vibrational energy correlations via two-dimensional electronic-vibrational spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2015-05-07

    Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this report, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate themore » slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. In conclusion, we also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions« less

  13. Determining the static electronic and vibrational energy correlations via two-dimensional electronic-vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2015-05-07

    Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this report, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate the slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. In conclusion, we also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion by Fe3O4@SiO2@mTiO2 nanomicrospheres.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lingling; Pi, Fuwei; Wang, Yifan; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-09-01

    A novel magnetic mesoporous nanomicrospheres Fe3O4@SiO2@mTiO2 were synthetized and characterized by a series of techniques including FE-TEM, EDS, FE-SEM, PXRD, XPS, BET, TGA as well as VSM, and subsequently tested as a photocatalyst for the degradation of Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion under UV irradiation. The well-designed nanomicrospheres exhibit a pure and highly crystalline anatase TiO2 layer, large specific surface area, and high-magnetic-response. Photocatalytic degradation of the three organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and the formation intermediates were identified using HPLC, TOC-Vcpn, IC, pH meter and GC-MS. Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion disappeared after 45min, 45min, and 80min UV illumination, respectively. At the end of the treatment, the total organic carbon (TOC) of the OPPs was reduced 80-85%. The main mineralization products were SO4(2-), NO3(-) and PO4(3-) and Omethoate additionally formed NO2(-). Based on the results, we proposed the photocatalytic degradation pathways for Acephate, Omethoate, and Methyl parathion. PMID:27152972

  15. Environmental pollutants parathion, paraquat and bisphenol A show distinct effects towards nuclear receptors-mediated induction of xenobiotics-metabolizing cytochromes P450 in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vrzal, Radim; Zenata, Ondrej; Doricakova, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2015-10-01

    Environmental pollutants parathion, bisphenol A and paraquat were not systematically studied towards the effects on the expression of phase I xenobiotics-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (CYPs). We monitored their effects on the expression of selected CYPs in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Moreover, we investigated their effects on the receptors regulating these CYPs, particularly arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) by gene reporter assays. We found that parathion and bisphenol A are the activators of AhR. Moreover, they are the inducers of CYP1A1 mRNA in hepatoma cells HepG2 as well as in human hepatocytes by AhR-dependent mechanism via formation of AhR-DNA-binding complex, as revealed by gel shift assay. All three compounds possessed anti-glucocorticoid action as revealed by GR-dependent gene reporter assay and a decline in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene expression in human hepatocytes. Moreover, parathion and bisphenol A are the activators of PXR and inducers of CYP3A4 mRNA and protein in the primary cultures of human hepatocytes. In conclusion, the studied compounds displayed distinct activities towards nuclear receptors involved in many biological processes and these findings may help us to better understand their adverse actions in pathological states followed after their exposure. PMID:26196221

  16. The Vital Function of Fe3O4@Au nanocomposites for Hydrolase Biosensor Design and Its Application in Detection of Methyl Parathion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yuting; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2013-02-04

    A nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorating a magnetic Fe3O4 core was synthesized using cysteamine (SH–NH2) as linker, and characterized by TEM, XPS, UV and electrochemistry. Then a hydrolase biosensor, based on self-assembly of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) on the Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite, was developed for sensitive and selective detection of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) methyl parathion. The magnetic nanocomposite provides an easy way to construct the enzyme biosensor by simply exerting an external magnetic field, and also provides a simple way to renew the electrode surface by removing the magnet. Unlike inhibition-based enzyme biosensors, the hydrolase is not poisoned by OPs and thus is reusable for continuous measurement. AuNPs not only provide a large surface area, high loading efficiency and fast electron transfer, but also stabilize the enzyme through electrostatic interactions. The MPH biosensor shows rapid response and high selectivity for detection of methyl parathion, with a linear range from 0.5 to 1000 ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL. It also shows acceptable reproducibility and stability. The simplicity and ease of operation of the proposed method has great potential for on-site detection of P–S containing pesticides and provides a promising strategy to construct a robust biosensor.

  17. Fabrication of polymerized crystalline colloidal array thin film modified β-cyclodextrin polymer for paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl detection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Minh-Phuong N; Seo, Seong S

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an optical chemical sensor for the detection of organophosphate (OP) compounds using a polymerized crystalline colloidal array (PCCA) thin film composed of a close-packed colloidal array of polystyrene particles. The PCCA thin film was modified with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) polymer as a capping cavity for the selective detection of paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl chemical agents. The fabrication of the modified PCCA thin film was optimized and the structure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The arrangement of polystyrene particles in the PCCA follows a pattern of the fcc (111) planes with strong diffraction peak in the visible spectral region and pH dependence. The diffraction peak of the β-CD modified PCCA thin film showed a red shift according to the change of paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl concentrations at a fast response time (10 s) and high sensitivity with detection limits of 2.0 and 3.4 ppb, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed interaction mechanism of β-CD with paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl in the β-CD modified PCCA thin film were discussed. PMID:24813957

  18. Background Noise Reduction Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation Determined by the Cross-Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Fuller, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Background noise due to flow in wind tunnels contaminates desired data by decreasing the Signal-to-Noise Ratio. The use of Adaptive Noise Cancellation to remove background noise at measurement microphones is compromised when the reference sensor measures both background and desired noise. The technique proposed modifies the classical processing configuration based on the cross-correlation between the reference and primary microphone. Background noise attenuation is achieved using a cross-correlation sample width that encompasses only the background noise and a matched delay for the adaptive processing. A present limitation of the method is that a minimum time delay between the background noise and desired signal must exist in order for the correlated parts of the desired signal to be separated from the background noise in the crosscorrelation. A simulation yields primary signal recovery which can be predicted from the coherence of the background noise between the channels. Results are compared with two existing methods.

  19. Exact Interval Estimation, Power Calculation, and Sample Size Determination in Normal Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of analysis of correlation coefficients from a multivariate normal population. A unified theorem is derived for the regression model with normally distributed explanatory variables and the general results are employed to provide useful expressions for the distributions of simple, multiple, and partial-multiple…

  20. Determination of melamine of milk based on two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ren-jie; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    The adulteration of milk with harmful substances is a threat to public health and beyond question a serious crime. In order to develop a rapid, cost-effective, high-throughput analysis method for detecting of adulterants in milk, the discriminative analysis of melamine is established in milk based on the two-dimensional (2D) correlation infrared spectroscopy in present paper. Pure milk samples and adulterated milk samples with different content of melamine were prepared. Then the Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of all samples were measured at room temperature. The characteristics of pure milk and adulterated milk were studied by one-dimensional spectra. The 2D NIR and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy were calculated under the perturbation of adulteration concentration. In the range from 1400 to 1800 cm-1, two strong autopeaks were aroused by melamine in milk at 1464 cm-1 and 1560 cm-1 in synchronous spectrum. At the same time, the 1560 cm-1 band does not share cross peak with the 1464 cm-1 band, which further confirm that the two bands have the same origin. Also in the range from 4200 to 4800 cm-1, the autopeak was shown at 4648 cm-1 in synchronous spectrum of melamine in milk. 2D NIR-IR hetero-spectral correlation analysis confirmed that the bands at 1464, 1560 and 4648 cm-1 had the same origin. The results demonstrated that the adulterant can be discriminated correctly by 2D correlation infrared spectroscopy.

  1. Determination of vaporization enthalpies of the branched esters from correlation gas chromatography and transpiration methods

    SciTech Connect

    Verevkin, S.P.; Heintz, A.

    1999-12-01

    Vaporization enthalpies are indispensable for the assessment of the environmental fate and behavior of environmental contaminants. The temperature dependencies of retention indices of a set of 80 esters with branched molecular structures were measured on a nonpolar gas chromatographic column. The correlation gas chromatography method and reliable data set of 16 esters selected from the literature were used to derive a correlation for the prediction of the standard molar enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub 1}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup {degree}} at the temperature T = 298.15 K. Experimental values of {Delta}{sub 1}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup {degree}} for 64 branched esters were obtained with the help of this correlation. The vaporization enthalpies of isopentyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and neopentyl pivalate were additionally obtained by the transpiration method from the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure measured in a flow system and used for checking the validity of the correlation gas chromatography method.

  2. Recent Development in Determining Spontaneous Heating Susceptibility of Indian Coals and Its Correlation with Intrinsic Parameters of Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Santosh Kumar; Panigrahi, Durga Charan

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes a new electro-chemical method called wet oxidation potential technique for determining the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. Altogether 78 coal samples collected from thirteen different mining companies spreading over most of the Indian coalfields have been used for this experimental investigation. Experiments have also been carried out for proximate and ultimate analyses of coal. Susceptibility index obtained from wet oxidation potential was correlated with intrinsic parameters of coal. It has been found that susceptibility index bears a good correlation with moisture content, volatile matter, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon content of coal.

  3. Whole cell-enzyme hybrid amperometric biosensor for direct determination of organophosphorous nerve agents with p-nitrophenyl substituent.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Mulchandani, Priti; Chen, Wilfred; Wang, Joseph; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2004-03-30

    In this paper, we reported the construction of a hybrid biosensor for direct, highly selective, sensitive, and rapid quantitative determination of organophosphate pesticides with p-nitrophenyl substituent using purified organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) for the initial hydrolysis and Arthrobacter sp. JS443 for subsequent p-nitrophenol oxidation. The biocatalytic layer was prepared by co-immobilizing Arthrobacter sp. JS443 and OPH on a carbon paste electrode. OPH catalyzed the hydrolysis of organophosphorus pesticides with p-nitrophenyl substituent such as paraoxon and methyl parathion to release p-nitrophenol that was oxidized by the enzymatic machinery of Arthrobacter sp. JS443 to carbon dioxide through electroactive intermediates 4-nitrocatechol and 1,2,4-benzenetriol. The oxidization current of the intermediates was measured and correlated to the concentration of organophosphates. The best sensitivity and response time were obtained using a sensor constructed with 0.06 mg dry weight of cell and 965 IU of OPH operating at 400 mV applied potential (vs. Ag/AgCl reference) in 50 mM citrate-phosphate pH 7.5 buffer at room temperature. Using these conditions, the biosensor measured as low as 2.8 ppb (10 nM) of paraoxon and 5.3 ppb (20 nM) of methyl parathion without interference from phenolic compounds, carbamate pesticides, triazine herbicides, and organophosphate pesticides that do not have the p-nitrophenyl substituent. The biosensor had excellent operational life-time stability with no decrease in response for more than 40 repeated uses over a 12-h period when stored at room temperature, while its storage life was approximately 2 days when stored in the operating buffer at 4 degrees C. PMID:14991648

  4. Determining inclinations of active galactic nuclei via their narrow-line region kinematics. II. Correlation with observed properties

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, T. C.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Turner, T. J.

    2014-04-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight, yet the specific inclinations of all but a few AGNs are generally unknown. By determining the inclinations and geometries of nearby Seyfert galaxies using the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs) and comparing them with observed properties, we find strong correlations between inclination and total hydrogen column density, infrared color, and Hβ FWHM. These correlations provide evidence that the orientation of AGNs with respect to our line of sight affects how we perceive them beyond the Seyfert 1/2 dichotomy. They can also be used to constrain three-dimensional models of AGN components such as the broad-line region and torus. Additionally, we find weak correlations between AGN luminosity and several modeled NLR parameters, which suggests that the NLR geometry and kinematics are dependent to some degree on the AGN's radiation field.

  5. The correlation of epicardial adipose tissue on postmortem CT with coronary artery stenosis as determined by autopsy.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Damien I; Ebert, Lars C; Flach, Patricia M; Ruder, Thomas D; Thali, Michael J; Ampanozi, Garyfalia

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to assess whether epicardial and paracardial adipose tissue volumes, as determined by computed tomography (CT), correlate with coronary artery stenosis as determined by autopsy. The postmortem CT data and autopsy findings of 116 adult human decedents were retrospectively compared. Subjects were classified into three groups according to their degree of coronary artery stenosis: ≥50, <50%, and no stenosis. Epicardial and paracardial adipose tissue volumes were calculated based on manual segmentation after threshold based masking. In addition, epicardial adipose tissue thickness was measured using a caliper. All three parameters (thickness of epicardial fat and volumes of both epicardial and paracardial fat) were compared among the three groups and correlated with the degree of coronary artery stenosis. The group with no coronary artery stenosis showed the lowest mean values of epicardial adipose tissue volume, while the coronary artery stenosis ≥50 % group showed the highest volume. All measured variables (thickness of epicardial fat and volumes of both epicardial and paracardial fat) correlated significantly with the grade of coronary artery stenosis, even after controlling for BMI, however, epicardial adipose tissue volume exhibited the strongest correlation. This study reveals that there is an association between the degree of coronary artery stenosis and the amount of epicardial fat tissue: The larger the volume of epicardial fat, the higher the degree of coronary artery stenosis. PMID:25711291

  6. Correlates of Immunity to Influenza as Determined by Challenge of Children with Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peter F; Hoen, Anne G; Ilyushina, Natalia A; Brown, Eric P; Ackerman, Margaret E; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Connor, Ruth I; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Haynes, Brenda C; Luke, Catherine J; Subbarao, Kanta; Treanor, John J

    2016-04-01

    Background.  The efficacy of live, attenuated live attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine(IIV) is poorly explained by either single or composite immune responses to vaccination. Protective biomarkers were therefore studied in response to LAIV or IIV followed by LAIV challenge in children. Methods.  Serum and mucosal responses to LAIV or IIV were analyzed using immunologic assays to assess both quantitative and functional responses. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in nasal washes collected before vaccination, on days 2, 4, and 7 after initial LAIV, and again after LAIV challenge using a 63-multiplex Luminex panel. Results.  Patterns of immunity induced by LAIV and IIV were significantly different. Serum responses induced by IIV, including hemagglutination inhibition, did not correlate with detection or quantitation of LAIV on subsequent challenge. Modalities that induced sterilizing immunity seen after LAIV challenge could not be defined by any measurements of mucosal or serum antibodies induced by the initial LAIV immunization. No single cytokine or chemokine was predictive of protection. Conclusions.  The mechanism of protective immunity observed after LAIV could not be defined, and traditional measurements of immunity to IIV did not correlate with protection against an LAIV challenge. PMID:27419180

  7. Communication: Tensor hypercontraction. III. Least-squares tensor hypercontraction for the determination of correlated wavefunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenstein, Edward G.; Parrish, Robert M.; Sherrill, C. David; Martínez, Todd J.

    2012-12-01

    The manipulation of the rank-four tensor of double excitation amplitudes represents a challenge to the efficient implementation of many electronic structure methods. We present a proof of concept for the approximation of doubles amplitudes in the tensor hypercontraction (THC) representation. In particular, we show how THC can be used to both reduce the scaling with respect to molecular size of coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) (and related methods) by two orders [from O(N6) to O(N4)] and remove the memory bottleneck associated with storage of the doubles amplitudes. The accuracy of correlated methods as integral and amplitude approximations are introduced is examined. For a set of 20 small molecules, single and double-excitation configuration interaction (CISD), quadratic CISD (QCISD), and CCSD correlation energies could be reproduced with millihartree accuracy after the introduction of these approximations. Our approach exploits otherwise hidden factorizable tensor structure in both the electron repulsion integrals and the wavefunction coefficients and should be applicable with suitable modifications to many methods in electronic structure theory.

  8. Neural correlates of spatial and nonspatial attention determined using intracranial electroencephalographic signals in humans.

    PubMed

    Park, Ga Young; Kim, Taekyung; Park, Jinsick; Lee, Eun Mi; Ryu, Han Uk; Kim, Sun I; Kim, In Young; Kang, Joong Koo; Jang, Dong Pyo; Husain, Masud

    2016-08-01

    Few studies have directly compared the neural correlates of spatial attention (i.e., attention to a particular location) and nonspatial attention (i.e., attention to a feature in the visual scene) using well-controlled tasks. Here, we investigated the neural correlates of spatial and nonspatial attention in humans using intracranial electroencephalography. The topography and number of electrodes showing significant event-related desynchronization (ERD) or event-related synchronization (ERS) in different frequency bands were studied in 13 epileptic patients. Performance was not significantly different between the two conditions. In both conditions, ERD in the low-frequency bands and ERS in the high-frequency bands were present bilaterally in the parietal cortex (prominently on the right hemisphere) and frontal regions. In addition to these common changes, spatial attention involved right-lateralized activity that was maximal in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL), whereas nonspatial attention involved wider brain networks including the bilateral parietal, frontal, and temporal regions, but still had maximal activity in the right parietal lobe. Within the parietal lobe, spatial attention involved ERD or ERS in the right SPL, whereas nonspatial attention involved ERD or ERS in the right inferior parietal lobule. These findings reveal that common as well as different brain networks are engaged in spatial and nonspatial attention. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3041-3054, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27125904

  9. Correlates of Immunity to Influenza as Determined by Challenge of Children with Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter F.; Hoen, Anne G.; Ilyushina, Natalia A.; Brown, Eric P.; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Connor, Ruth I.; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Haynes, Brenda C.; Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta; Treanor, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The efficacy of live, attenuated live attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine(IIV) is poorly explained by either single or composite immune responses to vaccination. Protective biomarkers were therefore studied in response to LAIV or IIV followed by LAIV challenge in children. Methods. Serum and mucosal responses to LAIV or IIV were analyzed using immunologic assays to assess both quantitative and functional responses. Cytokines and chemokines were measured in nasal washes collected before vaccination, on days 2, 4, and 7 after initial LAIV, and again after LAIV challenge using a 63-multiplex Luminex panel. Results. Patterns of immunity induced by LAIV and IIV were significantly different. Serum responses induced by IIV, including hemagglutination inhibition, did not correlate with detection or quantitation of LAIV on subsequent challenge. Modalities that induced sterilizing immunity seen after LAIV challenge could not be defined by any measurements of mucosal or serum antibodies induced by the initial LAIV immunization. No single cytokine or chemokine was predictive of protection. Conclusions. The mechanism of protective immunity observed after LAIV could not be defined, and traditional measurements of immunity to IIV did not correlate with protection against an LAIV challenge. PMID:27419180

  10. Microprocessors as a tool in determining correlation between sferics and tornado genesis: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    Sferics - atmospheric electromagnetic radiation - can be directly correlated, it is believed, to the genesis of tornadoes and other severe weather. Sferics are generated by lightning and other atmospheric disturbances that are not yet entirely understood. The recording and analysis of the patterns in which sferics events occur, it is hoped, will lead to accurate real-time prediction of tornadoes and other severe weather. Collection of the tremendous amount of sferics data generated by one storm system becomes cumbersome when correlation between at least two stations is necessary for triangulation. Microprocessor-based computing systems have made the task of data collection and manipulation inexpensive and manageable. The original paper on this subject delivered at MAECON '78 dealt with hardware interfacing. Presented were hardware and software tradeoffs, as well as design and construction techniques to yield a cost effective system. This updated paper presents an overview of where the data comes from, how it is collected, and some current manipulation and interpretation techniques used.

  11. Metabolic Engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for Complete Mineralization of Methyl Parathion and γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting; Liu, Ruihua; Zuo, Zhenqiang; Che, You; Yu, Huilei; Song, Cunjiang; Yang, Chao

    2016-05-20

    Agricultural soils are often cocontaminated with multiple pesticides. Unfortunately, microorganisms isolated from natural environments do not possess the ability to simultaneously degrade different classes of pesticides. Currently, we can use the approaches of synthetic biology to create a strain endowed with various catabolic pathways that do not exist in a natural microorganism. Here, we describe the metabolic engineering of a biosafety Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 for complete mineralization of methyl parathion (MP) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) by functional assembly of the MP and γ-HCH mineralization pathways. The engineered strain was genetically stable, and no growth inhibition was observed. Such a strain not only would reduce the toxicity of MP and γ-HCH but also would prevent the accumulation of potentially toxic intermediates in the environment. Furthermore, expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin improved the ability of the engineered strain to sequester O2. The inoculation of the engineered strain to soils treated with MP and γ-HCH resulted in a higher degradation rate than in noninoculated soils. Moreover, introduced GFP may be used to monitor the activity of the engineered strain during bioremediation. The engineered strain may be a promising candidate for in situ bioremediation of soil cocontaminated with MP and γ-HCH. PMID:26854500

  12. Effect of subchronic administration of methyl parathion on in vivo protein synthesis in pregnant rats and their conceptuses

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Thornburg, J.E.; Stedman, D.B.; Welsch, F.

    1984-03-15

    Pregnant rats received daily po doses of the organophosphate methyl parathion (MPTH) from Day 6 through Day 15 or 19 of gestation at doses causing no (1.0 mg/kg) or minimal (1.5 mg/kg) signs of maternal toxicity. Following the dose of MPTH on Day 15 or 19, in vivo protein synthesis was measured 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 hr after sc injection of L-(1-/sup 14/C)valine at a dose of 5 microCi/mmol/100 g body wt. The specific activity of (/sup 14/C)valine in the free amino acid pool and protein bound pool was significantly reduced in various regions of maternal brain and in maternal viscera, placenta, and whole embryos (Day 15), and in fetal brain and viscera (Day 19). The inhibitory effect of MPTH on net protein synthesis was dose dependent, greater on Day 19 than 15 of gestation and more pronounced in fetal than in maternal tissues.

  13. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity recovery following acute methyl parathion intoxication in two feral rodent species: comparison to laboratory rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.K.; Silvey, N.J.; Bailey, E.M. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Widespread use of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) has produced both acute and chronic intoxication among nontarget organisms. Most such studies have included fish and birds as opposed to mammals. However, numerous OP toxicity studies have been conducted on laboratory rodents creating a temptation to apply this data to feral rodents. Chronic OP exposure has been reported to produce cholinergic adaptation which in turn lowers mortality rates following a subsequent acute anticholinesterase exposure. The relevance that these laboratory rodent studies have on feral rodents is subject to debate. Field studies involving OP exposure among nontarget feral mammals have produced contradictory results. Increased mortality as a result of repeated OP application has been reported. This observation may be of considerable importance to nontarget feral rodent populations due to the repetitive nature of OP application protocols. The ability of feral rodents to recover brain AChE activity (BAA) between OP application intervals undoubtedly promotes their survival. This study investigated and compared BAA recovery following acute oral methyl parathion intoxication among 2 feral rodent species and among 2 common laboratory rodent species.

  14. Chinese and American Children's Perceptions of Popularity Determinants: Cultural Differences and Behavioral Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yan; Xie, Hongling; Shi, Junqi

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate cultural construction of children's perceptions of popularity determinants using a cross-cultural approach. This study examined 327 Chinese and 312 American fifth-graders' perceptions of what individual characteristics and peer relationships would make a peer popular. Consistent with cultural emphases,…

  15. Determining the Correlation of Effective Middle School Math Teachers and Math Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becoats, Jocelyn B.

    2009-01-01

    This study determined whether there was a significant relationship between teacher effect data in middle school mathematics and a teachers years of experience and whether there was a significant relationship between an effective teacher as measured by the total score on the Haberman instrument and teacher effect scores as measured by SAS EVAAS,…

  16. Shear strain determination of the polymer polydimethysiloxane (PMDS) using digital image correlation in different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, G. N.; Nunes, L. C. S.; dos Santos, P. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a digital image correlation (DIC) method is used in order to analyze the adhesive shear modulus of poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) submitted to different loads and temperatures. This is an optical-numerical full-field surface displacement measurement method. It is based on a comparison between two images of a specimen coated by a random speckled pattern in the undeformed and in the deformed states. A single lap joint testing is performed. This is a standard test specimen for characterizing adhesive properties and it is considered the simplest form of adhesive joints. For the single lap joint specimen, steel adherends are bonded using a flexible rubber elastic polymer (PDMS), which is a commercially available silicone elastic rubber

  17. Determination of three-dimensional movement for rotary blades using digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rong; Chen, Yue; Pan, Yanting; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2015-02-01

    Non-contact and accurate motion measurement of the rotary objects is crucial in engineering applications. A modified Newton-Raphson algorithm, which is capable of positioning marks with large rotation, has been proposed. A stereo imaging system with a pair of synchronized digital high-speed cameras was developed and achieved full-field displacement measurement based on 3D image correlation photogrammetry for rotary objects. This system has been applied to measuring the 3D motion of a wind turbine blade model. The displacement components of the rotary blade were presented, and the corresponding frequency spectra were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed system could measure the 3D motion of rotary blades precisely, and it also provided an alternative potential non-contact diagnosis means for large wind turbine blades.

  18. Correlation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Signatures Determined by Phenotype Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Jolanda; van Limpt, Kees; Wels, Michiel; Smokvina, Tamara; Knol, Jan; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a bacterial species commonly colonizing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and also frequently used in food products. While some strains have been studied extensively, physiological variability among isolates of the species found in healthy humans or their diet is largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of carbohydrate utilization capabilities of human isolates and food-derived strains of L. rhamnosus in relation to their niche of isolation and genotype. We investigated the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of 25 out of 65 L. rhamnosus strains from various niches, mainly human feces and fermented dairy products. Genetic fingerprinting of the strains by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) identified 11 distinct subgroups at 70% similarity and suggested niche enrichment within particular genetic clades. High-resolution carbohydrate utilization profiling (OmniLog) identified 14 carbon sources that could be used by all of the strains tested for growth, while the utilization of 58 carbon sources differed significantly between strains, enabling the stratification of L. rhamnosus strains into three metabolic clusters that partially correlate with the genotypic clades but appear uncorrelated with the strain's origin of isolation. Draft genome sequences of 8 strains were generated and employed in a gene-trait matching (GTM) analysis together with the publicly available genomes of L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and HN001 for several carbohydrates that were distinct for the different metabolic clusters: l-rhamnose, cellobiose, l-sorbose, and α-methyl-d-glucoside. From the analysis, candidate genes were identified that correlate with l-sorbose and α-methyl-d-glucoside utilization, and the proposed function of these genes could be confirmed by heterologous expression in a strain lacking the genes. This study expands our insight into the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the species L. rhamnosus

  19. Correlation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Signatures Determined by Phenotype Profiling.

    PubMed

    Ceapa, Corina; Lambert, Jolanda; van Limpt, Kees; Wels, Michiel; Smokvina, Tamara; Knol, Jan; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2015-08-15

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a bacterial species commonly colonizing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of humans and also frequently used in food products. While some strains have been studied extensively, physiological variability among isolates of the species found in healthy humans or their diet is largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of carbohydrate utilization capabilities of human isolates and food-derived strains of L. rhamnosus in relation to their niche of isolation and genotype. We investigated the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of 25 out of 65 L. rhamnosus strains from various niches, mainly human feces and fermented dairy products. Genetic fingerprinting of the strains by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) identified 11 distinct subgroups at 70% similarity and suggested niche enrichment within particular genetic clades. High-resolution carbohydrate utilization profiling (OmniLog) identified 14 carbon sources that could be used by all of the strains tested for growth, while the utilization of 58 carbon sources differed significantly between strains, enabling the stratification of L. rhamnosus strains into three metabolic clusters that partially correlate with the genotypic clades but appear uncorrelated with the strain's origin of isolation. Draft genome sequences of 8 strains were generated and employed in a gene-trait matching (GTM) analysis together with the publicly available genomes of L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and HN001 for several carbohydrates that were distinct for the different metabolic clusters: l-rhamnose, cellobiose, l-sorbose, and α-methyl-d-glucoside. From the analysis, candidate genes were identified that correlate with l-sorbose and α-methyl-d-glucoside utilization, and the proposed function of these genes could be confirmed by heterologous expression in a strain lacking the genes. This study expands our insight into the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the species L. rhamnosus

  20. Determination of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets and correlation with oral disintegration.

    PubMed

    Abdelbary, G; Eouani, C; Prinderre, P; Joachim, J; Reynier, Jp; Piccerelle, Ph

    2005-03-23

    The assessment of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDT) is very important in the evaluation and the development of new formulations of this type. So far neither the US Pharmacopoeia nor the European Pharmacopoeia has defined a specific disintegration test for RDT; currently, it is only possible to refer to the tests on dispersible or effervescent tablets for the evaluation of RDT's disintegration capacity. In the present study, we have evaluated the disintegration profile of RDT manufactured by main commercialised technologies, using the texture analyser (TA). In order to simulate as much as possible the oral disintegration of these dosage forms, a new operating structure was developed. This structure mimics the situation in the patient's mouth and provides a gradual elimination of the detached particles during the disintegration process. The obtained time-distance profiles or disintegration profiles enabled the calculation of certain quantitative values as the disintegration onset (t1) and the total disintegration time (t2). These values were used in the characterisation of the effect of test variables as the disintegration medium and temperature on the disintegration time of RDT. Moreover, the oral disintegration time of the same products was evaluated by 14 healthy volunteers. Results obtained when artificial saliva at 37 degrees C was employed as disintegration medium were used to correlate the in vitro (t2) and oral disintegration times. Excellent correlation was found and in addition, we were able to achieve a qualitative measure of the mouthfeel by comparing the thickness of the tablets and the penetration distance obtained from the disintegration profile. This method also permitted the discrimination between different RDT, where differences in the disintegration mechanism were reflected on the disintegration profile achieved for each tablet. PMID:15725551

  1. Determination of size and sign of hetero-nuclear coupling constants from 2D 19F-13C correlation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampt, Kirsten A. M.; Aspers, Ruud L. E. G.; Dvortsak, Peter; van der Werf, Ramon M.; Wijmenga, Sybren S.; Jaeger, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Fluorinated organic compounds have become increasingly important within the polymer and the pharmaceutical industry as well as for clinical applications. For the structural elucidation of such compounds, NMR experiments with fluorine detection are of great value due to the favorable NMR properties of the fluorine nucleus. For the investigation of three fluorinated compounds, triple resonance 2D HSQC and HMBC experiments were adopted to fluorine detection with carbon and/or proton decoupling to yield F-C, F-C{H}, F-C{Cacq} and F-C{H,Cacq} variants. Analysis of E.COSY type cross-peak patterns in the F-C correlation spectra led, apart from the chemical shift assignments, to determination of size and signs of the JCH, JCF, and JHF coupling constants. In addition, the fully coupled F-C HMQC spectrum of steroid 1 was interpreted in terms of E.COSY type patterns. This example shows how coupling constants due to different nuclei can be determined together with their relative signs from a single spectrum. The analysis of cross-peak patterns, as presented here, not only provides relatively straightforward routes to the determination of size and sign of hetero-nuclear J-couplings in fluorinated compounds, it also provides new and easy ways for the determination of residual dipolar couplings and thus for structure elucidation. The examples and results presented in this study may contribute to a better interpretation and understanding of various F-C correlation experiments and thereby stimulate their utilization.

  2. Determination of the distribution of galaxies in groups and clusters by correlation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sanroma, M.; Salvador-Sole, E. )

    1989-07-01

    A new method for determining the two-dimensional number density profile in groups and clusters of galaxies is presented and tested. It is based on the use of the distribution of intergalactic projected separations, which can be calculated in a straightforward manner from the positions of galaxies in a plate. After establishing the mathematical foundation and practical implementation of the method, we show its potential by applying it to Monte Carlo clusters with a small number of galaxies. Several questions of interest to the general user are discussed and illustrated with real data. With this new method, reliable number density profiles can be determined for groups and clusters with a small number of galaxies. 21 refs.

  3. Determinants of Thailand household healthcare expenditure: the relevance of permanent resources and other correlates.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Albert A; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Benson, David A

    2010-03-01

    Several papers in the leading health economics journals modeled the determinants of healthcare expenditure using household survey or family budgets data of developed countries. Past work largely used self-reported current income as the core determinant, whereas the theoretically correct concept of household resource constraint is permanent or long-run income (á lá Milton Friedman). This paper strives to rectify the theoretical oversight of using current income by augmenting the model with household asset. Using longitudinal data, we constructed 'wealth index' as a distinct covariate to capture the households' tendency to liquidate assets when defraying necessary healthcare liabilities after exhausting cash incomes. (Current income and assets together capture the household expanded resource base). Using 98 632 household observations from Thailand Socio-Economic Surveys (1994-2000 biennial data cycles) we found, using a double-hurdle model with dependent errors, that out-of-pocket healthcare spending behaves as a technical necessity across income quintiles and household sizes. Pre-1997 economic shock income elasticities are smaller than the post-shock estimates across income quintiles for large and small households. Proximity to death, median age, and assets are also among other significant determinants. Our novel findings extend the theoretical consistency of a multi-level decision model in household healthcare expenditure in the developing Asian country context. PMID:19405046

  4. Accurate mass determination for double-lined spectroscopic binaries by digital cross-correlation spectroscopy: DM Virginis revisited.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, D. W.; Nordstroem, B.; Andersen, J.; Torres, G.; Stefanik, R. P.; Thaller, M.; Bester, M. J.

    1996-10-01

    Fundamental mass determinations in eclipsing binaries rely on radial velocities derived from double-lined spectra. We evaluate the performance of the CfA Digital Speedometers for deriving radial velocities of double-lined systems, using simulated observations of composite spectra. When XCSAO (Kurtz et al. 1992) is used to calculate a one-dimensional cross-correlation, simple fits to the double peaks in the correlation function can lead to systematic errors as large as 3km/s due to the effects of line blending. The two-dimensional correlation scheme TODCOR (Zucker & Mazeh 1994ApJ...420..806Z) can reduce the systematic errors by an order of magnitude. We apply TODCOR to a new mass determination for the F-type eclipsing binary DM Vir, achieving an accuracy of 0.6%. The improved physical properties of DM Vir agree very well with stellar evolution models incorporating the most recent opacity data, both with and without convective core overshooting, and for reasonable assumptions about the chemical composition. The age of DM Vir is found to be 1.75+/-0.20x10^9^yr, metallicity being the dominant source of uncertainty.

  5. Mechanical analysis and force chain determination in granular materials using digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fanxiu; Zhuang, Qi; Zhang, Huixin

    2016-06-20

    The mechanical behaviors of granular materials are governed by the grain properties and microstructure of the materials. We conducted experiments to study the force transmission in granular materials using plane strain tests. The large amount of nearly continuous displacement data provided by the advanced noncontact experimental technique of digital image correlation (DIC) has provided a means to quantify local displacements and strains at the particle level. The average strain of each particle could be calculated based on the DIC method, and the average stress could be obtained using Hooke's law. The relationship between the stress and particle force could be obtained based on basic Newtonian mechanics and the balance of linear momentum at the particle level. This methodology is introduced and validated. In the testing procedure, the system is tested in real 2D particle cases, and the contact forces and force chain are obtained and analyzed. The system has great potential for analyzing a real granular system and measuring the contact forces and force chain. PMID:27409099

  6. Determination of Limit Cycles Using Both the Slope of Correlation Integral and Dominant Lyapunov Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, Rogelio; Alonso, Gustavo; Palacios, Javier C.

    2004-02-15

    A method for nonlinear analysis of instabilities in boiling water reactors (BWRs) is presented. Both the Dominant Lyapunov Exponent method and the Slope of the Correlation Integral (SOCI) method are used to analyze the average power reactor monitor (APRM) signals from a BWR. The main advantage of using the two methods in a complementary manner is that doing so results in an enhancement of the capability to analyze noisy systems, such as the APRM signals in a BWR. Previously, such nonlinear analysis had been performed using independently either the Dominant Lyapunov Exponent Method or the SOCI method. These two methods are sensitive to noise in a signal and normally require large amounts of data for a reliable analysis.This proposed system for nonlinear analysis is composed first of a home-developed computer program called 'SLOPE', which is based on the SOCI method. Then, the signal analysis is also performed by the 'LENNS' code, which is used to obtain the dominant Lyapunov exponent. Since only the dominant Lyapunov exponent is computed, there is no need to acquire large amounts of data; thus, computational processing time is greatly reduced, even in the case of noisy data.The system was used to analyze BWR signals containing stationary and nonstationary limit cycles. It was found that this method satisfactorily calculates the limit cycles, extracting useful information from noisy signals.

  7. Digital image correlation: a technique for determining local mechanical conditions within early bone callus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, M S; Schell, H; Lienau, J; Duda, G N

    2007-09-01

    Local mechanical conditions are known to play a role during the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues, and histomorphometrical investigations of the time course of healing have enabled specific conclusions regarding the mechanosensitivity of tissue differentiation. However, the mechanism for this influence is not clearly understood. In order to extend this analysis, it is essential to link local histological understanding with direct characterisation of the local mechanical environment. Digital image correlation (DIC) is a computer-based image analysis technique that enables the non-contact measurement of strains on material surfaces and is finding application in many areas of biomechanics. Here we report a DIC technique to investigate the local distribution of mechanical strain within regenerating soft tissue sections. We provide exemplary data from analysis of a section of sheep bone callus. An assessment of displacement measurement accuracy gave an RMS error of 4.2 microm, corresponding to an estimated strain error of 1.4%. The sections showed concentrations of up to four times the applied strain and comparison of the strain patterns with histological analysis confirmed that these concentrations reflected boundaries between hard and soft callus. PMID:17045512

  8. Correlation between microbial community structure and biofouling as determined by analysis of microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuechao; Miao, Yu; Wu, Bing; Ye, Lin; Yu, Haiyan; Liu, Su; Zhang, Xu-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    Three lab-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were continuously operated to treat saline wastewater under 0%, 0.75% and 1.5% NaCl stress. 0.75% and 1.5% NaCl reduced the COD and NH4(+)-N removal at the beginning, while the removal efficiencies could be recovered along with the operation of MBRs. Also, the polysaccharide in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) played an important role in the membrane fouling. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene showed that the increasing level of salinity reduced the diversity of the microbial community, and a higher salinity stimulated the growth of Bacteroidetes. At genus level, Flavobacterium, Aequorivita, Gelidibacter, Microbacterium, and Algoriphagus increased with the increase of salinity, which are shown to be highly salt tolerant. The strength of salinity or the duration of salinity could stimulate the microorganisms with similar functions, and the changes of polysaccharide in EPS and SMP were closely related to the membrane fouling rate as well as correlated with some saline-resistance genera. PMID:26318928

  9. Determination of furan levels in commercial orange juice products and its correlation to the sensory and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Kim, Min Yeop; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-11-15

    The objective of current study was to determine the furan levels in commercial orange juices (OJs) and relate to the sensory and quality characteristics of OJs. The factors among sensory and quality characteristics that showed high correlation to furan were identified. The furan levels found in 18 commercial OJs ranged from 0.59 to 27.39ng/mL. Freshly-squeezed type OJs (n=4) had significantly lower furan levels (4.68ng/mL) than other OJs treated with heat processing (p<0.05). Vitamin C content, specifically, dehydroascorbic acid showed higher correlation to the furan level in OJs (r=0.833). A descriptive sensory analysis result revealed the different flavor profile of commercial OJs according to the processing method and added ingredient in OJs. Current approach of using sensory analysis for prediction of furan level in food products can be applied to future studies in many other food commodities. PMID:27283680

  10. Genetically determined ABCB5 functionality correlates with pigmentation phenotype and melanoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jennifer Y.; Zhang, Mingfeng; Schatton, Tobias; Wilson, Brian J.; Alloo, Allireza; Ma, Jie; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Frank, Natasha Y.; Han, Jiali; Frank, Markus H.

    2013-01-01

    ABCB5 is a multidrug resistance (MDR) member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of active transporters and represents a marker for chemoresistant malignant melanoma-initiating cells. ABCB5 expression is closely linked to tumorigenicity and progression of diverse human malignancies, including melanoma, and is functionally required for tumor growth. Here, we genotyped 585 melanoma cases and 605 age-matched controls for 44 ABCB5 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to span a region covering 108.2kb of the gene on the 7p21.1 locus. We identified three SNPs that were associated with decreased melanoma risk in additive models: rs10231520 (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70–0.98), rs17817117 (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68–0.98), and rs2301641 (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.69–0.98). Additionally, the rs2301641 SNP was associated with non-red compared to red hair color (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14–1.03) in controls. Twelve human melanoma cell lines were genotyped for the rs2301641 SNP, which encodes a non-synonymous ABCB5 amino acid change (K115E). Functional studies revealed that the E form associated with lower melanoma risk correlated significantly with decreased ABCB5 transport capacity (P<0.01) and increased melanin production (P<0.05). Our results identify novel associations of the ABCB5 K115E polymorphism with human pigmentation phenotype and melanoma risk and point to potential functional roles of ABCB5 in melanomagenesis. Moreover, they provide a first example that functional variation in a prospective cancer stem cell marker can be associated with disease risk for the corresponding malignancy. PMID:23770371

  11. Photometric determination of phenomenological correlation between osmotic behavior and hemolysis of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, X S; Kamino, K

    1995-01-01

    The osmotic behavior of red blood cells from a human and from several other mammalian species was studied by photometric measurements. When red blood cells were suspended in sodium chloride solutions with various osmotic concentrations, the optical density at 620 nm was reciprocally related to the relative volume of the red cells. Thus, we evaluated the osmotic volume changes in the red cells from optical density measurements. The Boyle-van't Hoff relation was applicable to the osmotic behavior of red cells which responded as a complete osmometer in hypertonic and slightly hypotonic (lower than about 240 mOsm) solutions. Also, we examined the rheological correlation between osmotic volume changes and hemolysis. Osmotic hemolysis occurred corresponding to breakdown of the Boyle-van't Hoff relation in hypotonic solutions. The critical osmotic concentration for the breakdown of the Boyle-van't Hoff relation was that for osmotic hemolysis. In Na2SO4 solutions, although the critical osmotic concentration shifted towards a smaller value, the critical volume for the breakdown of the Boyle-van't Hoff relation and for osmotic hemolysis was maintained at a constant value, indicating that the onset of osmotic hemolysis depends exclusively upon the critical volume. In the samples from a human, the critical volume for the onset of hemolysis was estimated to be 1.25 +/- 0.05 in the ratio to the normal volume in iso-osmotic solution. From these obtained results, it is suggested that the red cell behaves in hypotonic solutions as a viscoelastic body of the type represented by the Voigt model, and the viscoelastic breakdown of the membrane results in osmotic hemolysis in hypotonic solution. PMID:8713172

  12. The vital function of Fe3O4@Au nanocomposites for hydrolase biosensor design and its application in detection of methyl parathion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuting; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorating a magnetic Fe3O4 core was synthesized using cysteamine (SH-NH2) as linker, and characterized by TEM, XPS, UV and electrochemistry. Then a hydrolase biosensor, based on self-assembly of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) on the Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite, was developed for sensitive and selective detection of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) methyl parathion. The magnetic nanocomposite provides an easy way to construct the enzyme biosensor by simply exerting an external magnetic field, and also provides a simple way to renew the electrode surface by removing the magnet. Unlike inhibition-based enzyme biosensors, the hydrolase is not poisoned by OPs and thus is reusable for continuous measurement. AuNPs not only provide a large surface area, high loading efficiency and fast electron transfer, but also stabilize the enzyme through electrostatic interactions. The MPH biosensor shows rapid response and high selectivity for detection of methyl parathion, with a linear range from 0.5 to 1000 ng mL-1 and a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL-1. It also shows acceptable reproducibility and stability. The simplicity and ease of operation of the proposed method has great potential for on-site detection of P-S containing pesticides and provides a promising strategy to construct a robust biosensor.A nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorating a magnetic Fe3O4 core was synthesized using cysteamine (SH-NH2) as linker, and characterized by TEM, XPS, UV and electrochemistry. Then a hydrolase biosensor, based on self-assembly of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) on the Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite, was developed for sensitive and selective detection of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) methyl parathion. The magnetic nanocomposite provides an easy way to construct the enzyme biosensor by simply exerting an external magnetic field, and also provides a simple way to renew the electrode surface by removing the magnet. Unlike

  13. A novel correlation for rapid lactose determination in milk by a cryoscopic technique.

    PubMed

    Colinas, Carmen; Barrera, Ignacio; Blanco, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    Residual lactose in special milk was systematically determined for people with lactose intolerance by means of a rapid on-line measurement of the cryoscopic point. A proposed cryoscopic procedure was compared to 2 conventional yet highly laborious methods: the enzymatic procedure with spectrophotometric control and the polarimetric method. Several experiments with different mixtures of both semi-skimmed and low-lactose milk were performed. A lineal relationship was found between lactose concentration and freezing point, the analytical equation for which shows a close relationship regarding the 3 methods used. The advantages of the cryoscopic procedure include speed in obtaining results and operational simplicity at a low cost, better monitoring of enzymatic hydrolysis kinetics, and greater control over the production process for delactosed milk. The equation obtained also enables prediction of the lactose percentage in commercial milk by a simple measurement of freezing point. PMID:17225605

  14. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  15. Quantitative Determination of Asphaltenes and Resins in Solution by Means of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Correlations to Emulsion Stability.

    PubMed

    Kallevik, Harald; Kvalheim, Olav M.; Sjöblom, Johan

    2000-05-15

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the range 1100-2250 nm together with a latent-variable regression technique is used to analyze the content of asphaltene and resins in solution. It is shown that this technique is capable of determining the amount of these components individually. w/o emulsions were prepared from the separated components of asphaltenes and resins from crude oils. The stability was directly determined with the critical voltage in a dielectric instrumentation. The emulsion stability decreased linearly with an increase in the resin/asphaltene ratio. A final linear model correlating the critical voltage and the analytical concentrations (from the NIR spectra) could be established for this model system. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:11254289

  16. Determination of fission neutron transmission through waste matrix material using neutron signal correlation from active assay of {sup 239}Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Hollas, C.L.; Arnone, G.; Brunson, G.; Coop, K.

    1996-09-01

    The accuracy of TRU (transuranic) waste assay using the differential die-away technique depends upon significant corrections to compensate for the effects of the matrix material in which the TRU waste is located. The authors have used a new instrument, the Combined Thermal/Epithermal Neutron (CTEN) instrument for the assay of TRU waste, to develop methods to improve the accuracy of these corrections. Neutrons from a pulsed 14-MeV neutron generator are moderated in the walls of the CTEN cavity and induce fission in the TRU material. The prompt neutrons from these fission events are detected in cadmium-wrapped {sup 3}He neutron detectors. They report new methods of data acquisition and analysis to extract correlation in the neutron signals resulting form fission during active interrogation. They use the correlation information in conjunction with the total number of neutrons to determine the fraction of fission neutrons transmitted through the matrix material into the {sup 3}He detectors. This determination allows them to cleanly separate the matrix effects into two processes: matrix modification upon the neutron interrogating flux and matrix modification upon the fraction of fission neutrons transmitted to the neutron detectors. This transmission information is also directly applied in a neutron multiplicity analysis in the passive assay of {sup 240}Pu.

  17. Correlation of tryptophan fluorescence intensity decay parameters with sup 1 H NMR-determined rotamer conformations: (tryptophan sup 2 )oxytocin

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.B.A.; Schwartz, G.P.; Laws, W.R. ); Wyssbrod, H.R.; Porter, R.A. ); Michaels, C.A. )

    1992-02-18

    While the fluorescence decay kinetics of tyrosine model compounds can be explained in terms of heterogeneity derived from the three ground-state {chi}{sup 1} rotamers, a similar correlation has yet to be directly observed for a tryptophan residue. In addition, the asymmetric indole ring might also lead to heterogeneity from {chi}{sup 2} rotations. In this paper, the time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence properties of (tryptophan{sup 2})oxytocin at pH 3 are presented and compared with {sup 1}H NMR results. According to the unrestricted analyses of individual fluorescence decay curves taken as a function of emission wavelength-independent decay constants, only three exponential terms are required. In addition, the preexponential weighting factors (amplitudes) have the same relative relationship (weights) as the {sup 1}H NMR-determined {chi}{sup 1} rotamer populations of the indole side chain. {sup 15}N was used in heteronuclear coupling experiments to confirm the rotamer assignments. Inclusion of a linked function restricting the decay amplitudes to the {chi}{sup 1} rotamer populations in the individual decay curve analyses and in the global analysis confirms this correlation. According to qualitative nuclear Overhauser data, there are two {chi}{sup 2} populations.

  18. Experimental Determination of the Electrostatic Nature of Carbonyl Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions Using IR-NMR Correlations.

    PubMed

    Kashid, Somnath M; Bagchi, Sayan

    2014-09-18

    Hydrogen-bonding plays a fundamental role in the structure, function, and dynamics of various chemical and biological systems. Understanding the physical nature of interactions and the role of electrostatics in hydrogen-bonding has been the focus of several theoretical and computational research. We present an experimental approach involving IR-(13)C NMR correlations to determine the electrostatic nature of carbonyl hydrogen-bonding interactions. This report provides a direct experimental evidence of the classical nature of hydrogen-bonding interaction in carbonyls, independent of any theoretical approximation. These results have important implications in chemistry and biology and can be applied to probe the reaction mechanisms involving carbonyl activation/stabilization by hydrogen bonds using spectroscopic techniques. PMID:26276334

  19. A quantitative correlational investigation of the definition of key decision variables used for the determination of wind energy systems' feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Kathleen M.

    Several factors are critical in determining if a wind farm has a high probability of success. These factors include wind energy potential or wind class, sales price, cost of the wind energy generated, market for selling the wind, capacity factor or efficiency of the turbines, capital investment cost, debt and financing, and governmental factors such as taxes and incentives. This research studied the critical factors of thirty-three land based wind farms in the United States with over 20 mega-watts (MW) of capacity that have become operational since 1999. The goal was to develop a simple yet effective decision model using the critical factors to predict an internal rate of return (IRR) and the impact of having a tax credit to supplement the revenue stream. The study found that there are five critical factors that are significantly correlated with the internal rate of return (IRR) of a wind farm project. The critical factors are wind potential or wind class, cost of the wind energy generated, capacity factor or efficiency of the wind turbines, cost of capital investment, and the existence of a federal production tax credit (PTC). The decision model was built using actual wind farm data and industry standards whereby a score from zero to one hundred was coded for each of values except for the production tax credit. Since all the projects qualified for the production tax credit prior to their start up, it was no longer a variable. However, without the presence of this tax credit, the data imply that the projects would not be profitable within the first ten to fifteen years of operation. The scores for each of the categories were totaled and regressed against a calculated internal rate of return. There was ninety-seven percent correlation which was supported by simulation analysis. While this model is not intended to supplant rigorous accounting and financial study, it will help quickly determine if a site has potential and save many hours of analytical work.

  20. Determining the Total Volume of the 2.05 Ga Bushveld Magmatic Event: Correlation of the Molopo Farms Complex, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, E.; Gates, M.; Pitcavage, E.; Bybee, G. M.; Feineman, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in South Africa, erupted 2.05 billion years ago, is the world's largest layered intrusion in the range of 710-1060 x 103 km3 conservatively. However, the total volume of the magmatic event that produced the BIC remains poorly known. Several other intrusions occurred approximately contemporaneously with the BIC, but a clear relationship between these multiple intrusions is yet to be determined. The Molopo Farms Complex (MFC) is a layered igneous complex of similar age 2.044 Ga ­± 24 Ma located in Botswana, 200km west of the far western limb of the BIC, with a total volume of 1300 km2. Using trace element analysis, this study makes an attempt to find a correlation between the magma that emplaced the Molopo Farms Complex with the Bushveld Igneous Complex. The MFC is related to the BIC and is located under approximately 200m of Kalahari sands, which prevents any direct sampling or observation. Unlike the BIC, the MFC is poorly studied creating a lack of information for the complex. Drill core samples from the MFC were analyzed to determine the trace element composition using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Using previously reported values for the BIC; a comparison can be made on both complexes to find possible correlations. The comparison of trace element schematics in the MFC and the BIC suggest that both complexes are derived from the same parental magma, often referred to as the "B1" magma. These comparisons allow for an assumption that the initial parental magma of the BIC may have also emplaced the MFC.

  1. Determinants of Prakriti, the Human Constitution Types of Indian Traditional Medicine and its Correlation with Contemporary Science

    PubMed Central

    Rotti, Harish; Raval, Ritu; Anchan, Suchitra; Bellampalli, Ravishankara; Bhale, Sameer; Bharadwaj, Ramachandra; Bhat, Balakrishna K.; Dedge, Amrish P.; Dhumal, Vikram Ram; Gangadharan, G. G.; Girijakumari, T. K.; Gopinath, Puthiya M.; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Halder, Swagata; Joshi, Kalpana S.; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Kamath, Archana; Kondaiah, Paturu; Kukreja, Harpreet; Kumar, K. L. Rajath; Nair, Sreekumaran; Nair, S. N. Venugopalan; Nayak, Jayakrishna; Prasanna, B. V.; Rashmishree, M.; Sharanprasad, K.; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Patwardhan, Bhushan; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Valiathan, Marthanda Varma Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Constitutional type of an individual or prakriti is the basic clinical denominator in Ayurveda, which defines physical, physiological, and psychological traits of an individual and is the template for individualized diet, lifestyle counseling, and treatment. The large number of phenotype description by prakriti determination is based on the knowledge and experience of the assessor, and hence subject to inherent variations and interpretations. Objective: In this study we have attempted to relate dominant prakriti attribute to body mass index (BMI) of individuals by assessing an acceptable tool to provide the quantitative measure to the currently qualitative ayurvedic prakriti determination. Materials and Methods: The study is cross sectional, multicentered, and prakriti assessment of a total of 3416 subjects was undertaken. Healthy male, nonsmoking, nonalcoholic volunteers between the age group of 20-30 were screened for their prakriti after obtaining written consent to participate in the study. The prakriti was determined on the phenotype description of ayurvedic texts and simultaneously by the use of a computer-aided prakriti assessment tool. Kappa statistical analysis was employed to validate the prakriti assessment and Chi-square, Cramer's V test to determine the relatedness in the dominant prakriti to various attributes. Results: We found 80% concordance between ayurvedic physician and software in predicting the prakriti of an individual. The kappa value of 0.77 showed moderate agreement in prakriti assessment. We observed a significant correlations of dominant prakriti to place of birth and BMI with Chi-square, P < 0.01 (Cramer's V-value of 0.156 and 0.368, respectively). Conclusion: The present study attempts to integrate knowledge of traditional ayurvedic concepts with the contemporary science. We have demonstrated analysis of prakriti classification and its association with BMI and place of birth with the implications to one of the ways for

  2. Using digital image correlation to determine bone surface strains during loading and after adaptation of the mouse tibia.

    PubMed

    Sztefek, Pavel; Vanleene, Maximilien; Olsson, Robin; Collinson, Rebecca; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Shefelbine, Sandra

    2010-03-01

    Previous models of cortical bone adaptation, in which loading is imposed on the bone, have estimated the strains in the tissue using strain gauges, analytical beam theory, or finite element analysis. We used digital image correlation (DIC), tracing a speckle pattern on the surface of the bone during loading, to determine surface strains in a murine tibia during compressive loading through the knee joint. We examined whether these surface strains in the mouse tibia are modified following two weeks of load-induced adaptation by comparison with contralateral controls. Results indicated non-uniform strain patterns with isolated areas of high strain (0.5%), particularly on the medial side. Strain measurements were reproducible (standard deviation of the error 0.03%), similar between specimens, and in agreement with strain gauge measurements (between 0.1 and 0.2% strain). After structural adaptation, strains were more uniform across the tibial surface, particularly on the medial side where peak strains were reduced from 0.5% to 0.3%. Because DIC determines local strains over the entire surface, it will provide a better understanding of how strain stimulus influences the bone response during adaptation. PMID:20005517

  3. Phenotypic Assays to Determine Virulence Factors of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) Isolates and their Correlation with Antibiotic Resistance Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Tabasi, Mohsen; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Mehri; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Urinary tract infection caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains is one of the most important infections in the world. UPEC encode widespread virulence factors closely related with pathogenesis of the bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of different phenotypic virulence markers in UPEC isolates and determine their correlation with antibiotic resistance pattern. Methods UPEC isolates from patients with different clinical symptoms of UTI were collected and screened for biofilm and hemolysin production, mannose resistant, and mannose sensitive hemagglutination (MRHA and MSHA, respectively). In addition, antimicrobial resistance pattern and ESBL-producing isolates were recorded. Results Of the 156 UPEC isolates, biofilm and hemolysin formation was seen in 133 (85.3%) and 53 (34%) isolates, respectively. Moreover, 98 (62.8%) and 58 (37.2%) isolates showed the presence of Types 1 fimbriae (MSHA) and P fimbriae (MRHA), respectively. Our results also showed a relationship between biofilm formation in UPEC isolated from acute cystitis patients and recurrent UTI cases. Occurrence of UTI was dramatically correlated with the patients' profiles. We observed that the difference in antimicrobial susceptibilities of the biofilm and nonbiofilm former isolates was statistically significant. The UPEC isolates showed the highest resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, and cotrimoxazole. Moreover, 26.9% of isolates were ESBL producers. Conclusion This study indicated that there is a relationship between the phenotypic virulence traits of the UPEC isolates, patients' profiles, and antibiotic resistance. Detection of the phenotypic virulence factors could help to improve understanding of pathogenesis of UPEC isolates and better medical intervention. PMID:26473094

  4. Differential sensitivity of plasma carboxylesterase-null mice to parathion, chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon, but not to diazinon, dichlorvos, diisopropylfluorophosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, cyclosarin thiocholine, tabun thiocholine, and carbofuran

    PubMed Central

    Duysen, Ellen G.; Cashman, John R.; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    Mouse blood contains four esterases that detoxify organophosphorus compounds: carboxylesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase, and paraoxonase-1. In contrast human blood contains the latter three enzymes but not carboxylesterase. Organophosphorus compound toxicity is due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Symptoms of intoxication appear after approximately 50% of the acetylcholinesterase is inhibited. However, complete inhibition of carboxylesterase and butyrylcholinesterase has no known effect on an animal’s well being. Paraoxonase hydrolyzes organophosphorus compounds and is not inhibited by them. Our goal was to determine the effect of plasma carboxylesterase deficiency on response to sublethal doses of 10 organophosphorus toxicants and one carbamate pesticide. Homozygous plasma carboxylesterase deficient ES1−/− mice and wild-type littermates were observed for toxic signs and changes in body temperature after treatment with a single sublethal dose of toxicant. Inhibition of plasma acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and plasma carboxylesterase was measured. It was found that wild-type mice were protected from the toxicity of 12.5 mg/kg parathion applied subcutaneously. However, both genotypes responded similarly to paraoxon, cresyl saligenin phosphate, diisopropylfluorophosphate, diazinon, dichlorvos, cyclosarin thiocholine, tabun thiocholine, and carbofuran. An unexpected result was the finding that transdermal application of chlorpyrifos at 100 mg/kg and chlorpyrifos oxon at 14 mg/kg was lethal to wild-type but not to ES1−/− mice, showing that with this organochlorine, the presence of carboxylesterase was harmful rather than protective. It was concluded that carboxylesterase in mouse plasma protects from high toxicity agents, but the amount of carboxylesterase in plasma is too low to protect from low toxicity compounds that require high doses to inhibit acetylcholinesterase. PMID:22209767

  5. A correlation analysis of Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape-determined pediatric weight with actual pediatric weight in India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Deepak Geetaprasad; Kole, Tamorish; Nagpal, Rahul; Smith, Jeffery Paul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape indicates standardized, pre-calculated medication doses, dose delivery volumes, and equipment sizes using color-coded zones based on height-weight correlations. The present study attempted to provide more evidence on the effectiveness of the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape by comparing the tape-estimated weights with actual weights. We hypothesized that the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape would overestimate weights in Indian children aged<10 years, leading to inaccurate dosing and equipment sizing in the emergency setting. METHODS: This prospective study of pediatric patients aged <10 years who were divided into three groups based on actual body weight: <10 kg, 10–18 kg, and >18 kg. We calculated the percentage difference between the Broselow-predicted weight and the measured weight as a measure of tape bias. Concordant results were those with a mean percent difference within 3%. Standard deviation was measured to determine precision. Accuracy was determined as color-coded zone prediction and measured weight concordance, including the percentage overestimation by 1–2 zones. RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio of the patients was 1.3:1. Total agreement between color-coding was 63.18% (κ=0.582). The Broselow™ color-coded zone agreement was 74.8% in the <10 kg group, 61.24% in the 10–18 kg group, and 53.42% in the >18 kg group. CONCLUSIONS: The Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape showed good evidence for being more reliable in children of the <10 kg and 10–18 kg groups. However, as pediatric weight increased, predictive reliability decreased. This raises concerns over the use of the Broselow™ Pediatric Emergency Tape in Indian children because body weight was overestimated in those weighing >18 kg. PMID:27006737

  6. Detailed angular correlation analysis with 4{pi} spectrometers: Spin determinations and multipolarity mixing measurements in {sup 128}Ba

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenhoever, I.; Vogel, O.; Klein, H.; Dewald, A.; von Brentano, P.; Gableske, J.; Nicolay, N.; Gelberg, A.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Janssens, R.V.; Carpenter, M.P.; Kruecken, R.; Petkov, P.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Bazzacco, D.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Pavan, P.; de Angelis, G.; Lunardi, S.; Napoli, D.R.; Frauendorf, S.; Doenau, F.

    1998-08-01

    We analyze for the first time the full {gamma}{gamma} directional correlations from oriented states (DCO) in an experiment performed with the GASP detector array. Our analysis is based on a transformation of the directional information into expansion coefficients of an orthogonal basis. With this method, which we call SpeeDCO (spectral expansion of DCO), the complete DCO information is concentrated in 12 {gamma}{gamma} coincidence spectra. The analysis is applicable to all detector arrays which uniformly cover the solid angle. We show that the complete DCO information can be used for a reliable and unique determination of spins and multipolarity mixing ratios in weakly populated bands. We were able to establish the spins and the positive parity of the {Delta}I=1 {open_quotes}M1 band{close_quotes} in {sup 128}Ba and multipolarity mixing ratios of nine M1/E2 in-band transitions were derived as well. The measured values are in good agreement with those expected for a high-K rotational band. thinsp thinsp thinsp {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Vapor-phase concentrations of PAHs and their derivatives determined in a large city: correlations with their atmospheric aerosol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barrado, Ana Isabel; García, Susana; Sevillano, Marisa Luisa; Rodríguez, Jose Antonio; Barrado, Enrique

    2013-11-01

    Thirteen PAHs, five nitro-PAHs and two hydroxy-PAHs were determined in 55 vapor-phase samples collected in a suburban area of a large city (Madrid, Spain), from January 2008 to February 2009. The data obtained revealed correlations between the concentrations of these compounds and a series of meteorological factors (e.g., temperature, atmospheric pressure) and physical-chemical factors (e.g., nitrogen and sulfur oxides). As a consequence, seasonal trends were observed in the atmospheric pollutants. A "mean sample" for the 14-month period would contain a total PAH concentration of 13835±1625 pg m(-3) and 122±17 pg m(-3) of nitro-PAHs. When the data were stratified by season, it emerged that a representative sample of the coldest months would contain 18900±2140 pg m(-3) of PAHs and 150±97 pg m(-3) of nitro-PAHs, while in an average sample collected in the warmest months, these values drop to 9293±1178 pg m(-3) for the PAHs and to 97±13 pg m(-3) for the nitro-PAHs. Total vapor phase concentrations of PAHs were one order of magnitude higher than concentrations detected in atmospheric aerosol samples collected on the same dates. Total nitro-PAH concentrations were comparable to their aerosol concentrations whereas vapor phase OH-PAHs were below their limits of the detection, indicating these were trapped in airborne particles. PMID:23816454

  8. Microsomal biotransformation of chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): mechanistic insights into interspecific differences in toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lavado, Ramon; Schlenk, Daniel

    2011-01-17

    Rainbow trout often serve as a surrogate species evaluating xenobiotic toxicity in cold-water species including other salmonids of the same genus, which are listed as threatened or endangered. Biotransformation tends to show species-specific patterns that influence susceptibility to xenobiotic toxicity, particularly organophosphate insecticides (OPs). To evaluate the contribution of biotransformation in the mechanism of toxicity of three organophosphate (phosphorothionate) insecticides, (chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion), microsomal bioactivation and detoxification pathways were measured in gills, liver and olfactory tissues in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and compared to juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Consistent with species differences in acute toxicity, significantly higher chlorpyrifos bioactivation was found in liver microsomes of rainbow trout (up to 2-fold) when compared with coho salmon. Although bioactivation to the oxon was observed, the catalytic efficiency towards chlorpyrifos dearylation (detoxification) was significantly higher in liver for both species (1.82 and 0.79 for trout and salmon, respectively) when compared to desulfuration (bioactivation). Bioactivation of parathion to paraoxon was significantly higher (up to 2.2-fold) than detoxification to p-nitrophenol in all tissues of both species with rates of conversion in rainbow trout, again significantly higher than coho salmon. Production of fenoxon and fenthion sulfoxides from fenthion was detected only in liver and gills of both species with activities in rainbow trout significantly higher than coho salmon. NADPH-dependent cleavage of fenthion was observed in all tissues, and was the only activity detected in olfactory tissues. These results indicate rainbow trout are more sensitive than coho salmon to the acute toxicity of OP pesticides because trout have higher catalytic rates of oxon formation. Thus, rainbow trout may serve as a conservative surrogate

  9. High-resolution spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation for surface structure determination and the study of correlated electron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    The surface structure of three molecular adsorbate systems on transition metal surfaces, ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} CO adsorbed on Cu(111), and c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), have been determined using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS). The adsorption site and bond lengths are reported for the adsorbate-metal bond and the first two substrate layers. The ARPEFS diffraction pattern of the shake-up peak for c(2x2) N2/Ni(100) is also discussed. A unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level satellites is presented. We show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. Specifically, we present data for the C 1s from ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2x1)CO/Ni(110), N is from c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), and Ni 3p from clean nickel(111). The satellite peaks in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature. A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FF-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The spectrometer is designed for ultra-high resolution theoretical resolving power E/{Delta}E{approx}-10{sup 6} in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  10. In-situ Neutron Scattering Determination of 3D Phase-Morphology Correlations in Fullerene Block Copolymer Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Alamgir; Bucknall, David; Raghavan, Dharmaraj

    2015-02-23

    High efficiency solar energy devices can potentially meet all global energy requirements by efficiently harvesting energy from the solar spectrum. However, for solar technologies to be ubiquitous and meet the global power requirements, innovative and revolutionary approaches to trap solar energy are needed. In this regard, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have drawn much attention, largely due to the ease with which OPVs can be manufactured at much lower costs compared to conventional inorganic PVs. Currently the most efficient OPV devices (at ~10%) are still below a technologically useful efficiency (~15%). It can be argued that to date most of the development of the OPVs has been driven by their electronic properties, without much consideration or understanding of the structure and morphology of the organic components and in particular how these affect the performance of the solar cell devices. It is only in the last few years that the latter has begun to be addressed. Arguably, without a complete understanding of the effect of morphology and structure on device performance, the theoretical maximum efficiency of these devices is unlikely to ever be realized. A thorough understanding of the structure and morphology of the polymers and how this affects device efficiency is vital to achieve the full potential of OPVs. If OPV devices with 15% efficiency can be achieved, coupled with the predicted low cost of processing, such devices would create an enabling technology, making these types of solar cells significant power generators and thereby reduce the dependency on conventional energy sources. This would fulfill the economic solar energy challenge identified by the NAE in their Grand Challenges of the 21st Century. In this project, we conducted a directed series of experiments to determine morphology-property correlations in bulk heterojunction films by careful control of the OPV structure and morphology. Unlike most research undertaken in the PV arena, this is mostly