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Sample records for parathyroid hormone vitamin

  1. Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Analyses of secretion of parathyroid hormone during tests of stimulation and suppression of hormone-secretory activity using infusions of EDTA and calcium, respectively, have established that, in contrast to previous views, secretion of the hormone is not autonomous in many patients that have adenomatous hyperparathyroidism, but is responsive to changes in blood-calcium concentration. These findings have led to a new understanding of the pathophysiology of hormone production in hyperparathy-roidism. A related application of the diagnostic use of the radioimmunoassay is the preoperative localization of parathyroid tumors and the distinction between adenomas and chief-cell hyperplasia. Work involving catheterization and radioimmunoassay of blood samples obtained from the subclavin and innominate veins and the venae cavae, led to localization in a high percentage of patients. However, this procedure has been adopted recently to detect hormone concentration in the small veins directly draining the parathyroid glands.

  2. Vitamin D metabolites and bioactive parathyroid hormone levels during Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Schnoes, Heinrich K.; Deluca, Hector F.; Phelps, Mary E.; Klein, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of an 8-day space flight (Spacelab mission 2) on plasma levels of the vitamin D and parathyroid hormones is investigated experimentally in four crew members. The results are presented in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Parathyroid hormone levels remained normal throughout the flight, whereas vitamin D hormone levels increased significantly on day 1 but returned to normal by day 7.

  3. The control of calcium metabolism by parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in analysis of chemistry and physiology of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and Vitamin D are described along with development of techniques in radioassay methods. Emphasis is placed on assessment of normal and abnormal patterns of secretion of these hormones in specific relation to the physiological adaptations of weightlessness and space flight. Related diseases that involve perturbations in normal skeletal and calcium homeostasis are also considered.

  4. Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D 1974: Present status of physiological studies and analysis of calcium homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, J. T., Jr.; Swenson, K. G.

    1975-01-01

    The role of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D in the control of calcium and bone metabolism was studied. Particular emphasis was placed on the physiological adaptation to weightlessness and, as a potential model for this purpose, on the immobilization characteristic of space flight or prolonged bed rest. The biosynthesis, control of secretion, and metabolism of these hormonal agents is considered.

  5. Regulation of parathyroid hormone gene expression by hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia, and vitamin D in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Naveh-Many, T; Silver, J

    1990-01-01

    In vivo in the rat 1,25(OH)2D3 decreases and a low calcium increases PTH mRNA levels. We now report the effect of 3 and 8 wk of changes in dietary vitamin D and calcium on PTH mRNA levels. PTH mRNA levels were increased by 3 wk of calcium deficiency (five times), a vitamin D-deficient diet (two times), and combined deficiency (10 times), but not changed by high calcium. Vitamin D-deficient-diet rats' PTH mRNA did not decrease after a single large dose of 1,25(OH)2D3, but did decrease partially after repeated daily doses of 1,25(OH)2D3. Rats after a vitamin D-, calcium-deficient (-D-Ca) diet did not respond to changes in serum calcium at 1 h. Flow cytometry of isolated cells from parathyroid-thyroid tissue separated the smaller parathyroid from the larger thyroid cells and allowed an analysis of parathyroid cell number. In normal vitamin D/normal calcium (NDNCa) rats the parathyroid cells were 24.7 +/- 3.4% (n = 6) of the total cell number, whereas in -D-Ca rats they were 41.8 +/- 6.6% (n = 6) (P less than 0.05). That is, -D-Ca rats had 1.7 times the number of cells, whereas they had 10 times the amount of PTH mRNA, indicating the major contribution (6 times) of increased PTH gene expression per cell. Moreover, a calcium-deficient, more so than a vitamin D-deficient diet, amplifies the expression of the PTH gene, and vitamin D is necessary for an intact response of PTH mRNA to 1,25(OH)2D3 or calcium. Images PMID:2212016

  6. Temporal Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Parathyroid Hormone in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Martin H.; Bi, Caixia; Garber, Carl C.; Kaufman, Harvey W.; Liu, Dungang; Caston-Balderrama, Anne; Zhang, Ke; Clarke, Nigel; Xie, Minge; Reitz, Richard E.; Suffin, Stephen C.; Holick, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Interpretation of parathyroid hormone (iPTH) requires knowledge of vitamin D status that is influenced by season. Objective Characterize the temporal relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels [25(OH)D3] and intact iPTH for several seasons, by gender and latitude in the U.S. and relate 25-hydrovitamin D2 [25(OH)D2] levels with PTH levels and total 25(OH)D levels. Method We retrospectively determined population weekly-mean concentrations of unpaired [25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3] and iPTH using 3.8 million laboratory results of adults. The 25(OH)D3 and iPTH distributions were normalized and the means fit with a sinusoidal function for both gender and latitudes: North >40, Central 32–40 and South <32 degrees. We analyzed PTH and total 25(OH)D separately in samples with detectable 25(OH)D2 (?4 ng/mL). Findings Seasonal variation was observed for all genders and latitudes. 25(OH)D3 peaks occurred in September and troughs in March. iPTH levels showed an inverted pattern of peaks and troughs relative to 25(OH)D3, with a delay of 4 weeks. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was common (33% <20 ng/mL; 60% <30 ng/mL) as was elevated iPTH levels (33%>65 pg/mL). The percentage of patients deficient in 25(OH)D3 seasonally varied from 21% to 48% and the percentage with elevated iPTH reciprocally varied from 28% to 38%. Patients with detectable 25(OH)D2 had higher PTH levels and 57% of the samples with a total 25(OH)D > 50 ng/mL had detectable 25(OH)D2. Interpretation 25(OH)D3 and iPTH levels vary in a sinusoidal pattern throughout the year, even in vitamin D2 treated patients; 25(OH)D3, being higher in the summer and lower in the winter months, with iPTH showing the reverse pattern. A large percentage of the tested population showed vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism. These observations held across three latitudinal regions, both genders, multiple-years, and in the presence or absence of detectable 25(OH)D2, and thus are applicable for patient care. PMID:25738588

  7. Evidence of associations between feto-maternal vitamin D status, cord parathyroid hormone and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and newborn whole body bone mineral content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women and neonates, relationships among vitamin D status [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC) in the newborn are poorly characterized. The purpose...

  8. 4/22/15, 5:58 PMPLOS ONE: Temporal Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Parathyroid Hormone in the United States Page 1 of 11http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0118108

    E-print Network

    Xie, Minge

    4/22/15, 5:58 PMPLOS ONE: Temporal Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Parathyroid Hormone Abstract Background Interpretation of parathyroid hormone (iPTH) requires knowledge of vitamin D status between Vitamin D Status and Parathyroid Hormone in the United States. PLoS ONE 10(3): e0118108. doi:10

  9. Prospective associations of vitamin D status with ?-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glycemia: the impact of parathyroid hormone status.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Caroline K; Swaminathan, Balakumar; Hanley, Anthony J; Connelly, Philip W; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies have yielded conflicting findings on the relationship between low vitamin D (25-OH-D) and impaired glucose homeostasis. In this context, we hypothesized that combined assessment of 25-OH-D with its regulator parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be required for optimal evaluation of the impact of vitamin D status on glucose metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the prospective associations of 25-OH-D and PTH at 3 months postpartum with ?-cell function (Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 [ISSI-2]), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), and glycemia at 12 months postpartum in 494 women undergoing serial metabolic characterization. Notably, 32% of those with prediabetes/diabetes mellitus at 12 months postpartum had both vitamin D deficiency and PTH in the highest tertile at 3 months postpartum. On multiple-adjusted linear regression analyses, vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency with PTH in the highest tertile at 3 months independently predicted poorer ?-cell function (P = 0.03) and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.01) and increased fasting (P = 0.03) and 2-h glucose (P = 0.002) at 12 months postpartum. In contrast, vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency with lower PTH did not predict these outcomes. In conclusion, only vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency with increased PTH is an independent predictor of ?-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, and glycemia, highlighting the need for consideration of the PTH/25-OH-D axis when studying the impact of vitamin D status on glucose homeostasis. PMID:24875346

  10. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    SciTech Connect

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  11. Vitamin D3 decreases parathyroid hormone in HIV-infected youth being treated with tenofovir: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the effect of vitamin D (VITD) supplementation on tubular reabsorption of phosphate (TRP), serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C telopeptide (CTX) in HIV-infected youth receiving and not receiving tenofovir-containing cART (TDF). Design: Ra...

  12. In serum, higher parathyroid hormone but not lower vitamin D is associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Lu, H.; Shrestha, C.; Feng, Y.; Li, Y.; Peng, J.; Li, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D and calcium are known to regulate differentiation and proliferation of keratinocytes; they might potentially have a role in suppressing carcinogenesis in squamous epithelium. Serum parathyroid hormone (pth) is a sensitive indicator of calcium and vitamin D deficiency, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is an established marker of vitamin D status. Methods To determine whether levels of 25(OH)D, calcium, or pth in serum are associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (oscc), we examined those parameters in serum collected from 70 patients with oscc and from an equal number of matched control subjects. Results The results showed that intact pth was significantly higher in serum from oscc patients than in serum from control subjects. However, we observed no significant differences in 25(OH)D or calcium in serum from oscc patients and from control subjects. Conclusions We conclude that higher serum pth, but not lower serum vitamin D or calcium, is associated with oscc. PMID:26300676

  13. The Vitamin D, Ionised Calcium and Parathyroid Hormone Axis of Cerebral Capillary Function: Therapeutic Considerations for Vascular-Based Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Virginie; Takechi, Ryusuke; Pallabage-Gamarallage, Menuka; Giles, Corey; Mamo, John C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier dysfunction characterised by brain parenchymal extravasation of plasma proteins may contribute to risk of neurodegenerative disorders, however the mechanisms for increased capillary permeability are not understood. Increasing evidence suggests vitamin D confers central nervous system benefits and there is increasing demand for vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D may influence the CNS via modulation of capillary function, however such effects may be indirect as it has a central role in maintaining calcium homeostasis, in concert with calcium regulatory hormones. This study utilised an integrated approach and investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation, parathyroid tissue ablation (PTX), or exogenous infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on cerebral capillary integrity. Parenchymal extravasation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) was used as a marker of cerebral capillary permeability. In C57BL/6J mice and Sprague Dawley rats, dietary vitamin D was associated with exaggerated abundance of IgG within cerebral cortex (CTX) and hippocampal formation (HPF). Vitamin D was also associated with increased plasma ionised calcium (iCa) and decreased PTH. A response to dose was suggested and parenchymal effects persisted for up to 24 weeks. Ablation of parathyroid glands increased CTX- and HPF-IgG abundance concomitant with a reduction in plasma iCa. With the provision of PTH, iCa levels increased, however the PTH treated animals did not show increased cerebral permeability. Vitamin D supplemented groups and rats with PTH-tissue ablation showed modestly increased parenchymal abundance of glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of astroglial activation. PTH infusion attenuated GFAP abundance. The findings suggest that vitamin D can compromise capillary integrity via a mechanism that is independent of calcium homeostasis. The effects of exogenous vitamin D supplementation on capillary function and in the context of prevention of vascular neurodegenerative conditions should be considered in the context of synergistic effects with calcium modulating hormones. PMID:25874538

  14. Relationships among vitamin D levels, parathyroid hormone, and calcium absorption in young adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that vitamin D status in adults, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), is positively associated with calcium absorption fraction and inversely associated with serum PTH. Few comparable pediatric data exist. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to ev...

  15. Parathyroid hormone - Secretion and metabolism in vivo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habener, J. F.; Powell, D.; Murray, T. M.; Mayer, G. P.; Potts, J. T., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Gel filtration and radioimmunoassay were used to determine the molecular size and immunochemical reactivity of parathyroid hormone present in gland extracts, in the general peripheral circulation, and in parathyroid effluent blood from patients with hyperparathyroidism, as well as from calves and from cattle. It was found that parathyroid hormone secreted from the parathyroids in man and cattle is at least as large as the molecule extracted from normal bovine glands. However, once secreted into the circulation the hormone is cleaved, and one or more fragments, immunologically, dissimilar to the originally secreted hormone, constitute the dominant form of circulating immunoreactive hormone.

  16. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section 862...Test Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section 862...Test Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section 862...Test Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section 862...Test Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  2. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  3. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  4. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  5. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section... Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a) Identification. A parathyroid hormone test system is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma....

  6. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation maintains parathyroid hormone and improves bone density during initial military training: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lutz, Laura J; Rood, Jennifer C; Cable, Sonya J; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Young, Andrew J; McClung, James P

    2014-11-01

    Calcium and vitamin D are essential nutrients for bone health. Periods of activity with repetitive mechanical loading, such as military training, may result in increases in parathyroid hormone (PTH), a key regulator of Ca metabolism, and may be linked to the development of stress fractures. Previous studies indicate that consumption of a Ca and vitamin D supplement may reduce stress fracture risk in female military personnel during initial military training, but circulating markers of Ca and bone metabolism and measures of bone density and strength have not been determined. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial sought to determine the effects of providing supplemental Ca and vitamin D (Ca+Vit D, 2000mg and 1000IU/d, respectively), delivered as 2 snack bars per day throughout 9weeks of Army initial military training (or basic combat training, BCT) on PTH, vitamin D status, and measures of bone density and strength in personnel undergoing BCT, as well as independent effects of BCT on bone parameters. A total of 156 men and 87 women enrolled in Army BCT (Fort Sill, OK; 34.7°N latitude) volunteered for this study. Anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary intake data were collected pre- and post-BCT. In addition, peripheral quantitative computed tomography was utilized to assess tibia bone density and strength in a subset of volunteers (n=46). Consumption of supplemental Ca+Vit D increased circulating ionized Ca (group-by-time, P=0.022), maintained PTH (group-by-time, P=0.032), and increased the osteoprotegerin:RANKL ratio (group-by-time, P=0.006). Consistent with the biochemical markers, Ca+Vit D improved vBMD (group-by-time, P=0.024) at the 4% site and cortical BMC (group-by-time, P=0.028) and thickness (group-by-time, P=0.013) at the 14% site compared to placebo. These data demonstrate the benefit of supplemental Ca and vitamin D for maintaining bone health during periods of elevated bone turnover, such as initial military training. This trial was registered with ClincialTrials.gov, NCT01617109. PMID:25118085

  7. A vitamin D analogue (EB1089) inhibits parathyroid hormone-related peptide production and prevents the development of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Haq, M; Kremer, R; Goltzman, D; Rabbani, S A

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) and a low calcemic analogue EB1089 on parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHRP) production and on the development of hypercalcemia in Fischer rats implanted with the Leydig cell tumor H-500. Leydig cell tumors were implanted subcutaneously into male Fischer rats, which received constant infusions intraperitoneally of either 1,25(OH)2D3 (50-200 pmol/24 h), EB1089 (50-400 pmol/24 h), or vehicle for up to 4 wk. A control group of animals received similar infusions without tumor implantation. Plasma calcium, plasma levels of immunoreactive iPTHRP, and tumor PTHRP mRNA levels were determined as well as tumor size, animal body weight, and animal survival time. Non-tumor-bearing animals receiving > 50 pmol/24 h of 1,25(OH)2D3 became hypercalcemic, whereas no significant change in plasma calcium was observed in animals receiving < or = 200 pmol/24 h of EB1089. Tumor-bearing animals receiving vehicle alone or > 50 pmol/24 h of 1,25(OH)2D3 became severely hypercalcemic within 15 d. However, animals treated with low dose 1,25(OH)2D3 and all doses of EB1089 maintained near-normal or normal levels of plasma calcium for up to 4 wk. Additionally, reduced levels of tumor PTHRP mRNA and of plasma iPTHRP were observed compared with controls in both vitamin D- and EB1089-treated rats. Infusion of 50 pmol/24 h of 1,25(OH)2D3 and 200 pmol/24 h of EB1089 significantly reduced tumor volume by the end of experiment. The analogue but not 1,25(OH)2D3 substantially prolonged survival time in tumor-bearing animals with longer survival achieved at the highest dose, 400 pmol/24 h, of EB1089. These studies demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 and a low calcemic vitamin D analogue are potent inhibitors of PTHRP production in vivo. Low calcemic analogues may therefore represent important alternative therapy for malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Images PMID:8514854

  8. Intraoperative Parathyroid Hormone Monitoring: Optimal Utilization.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kepal N; Caso, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) monitoring is a highly accurate surgical adjunct used to determine the extent of surgery in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism. It is the successful interpretation of changes in PTH levels that is essential for using this technique in a way to optimize cure. Thus, it is imperative that the surgeon has an understanding of PTH dynamics and carefully chooses the appropriate IOPTH protocol and interpretation criteria that will best predict operative success, minimize unnecessary bilateral exploration, decrease the likelihood of resecting parathyroid glands that are not hypersecreting, and prevent recurrence. PMID:26610776

  9. Fluoride Modulates Parathyroid Hormone Secretion in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Chaitanya P; Ryan, Kathleen A; Yin, Zhaoyu; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Preisser, John S; Everett, Eric T

    2015-12-01

    The study objective was to investigate the effects of fluoride on intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) secretion. Thyro-parathyroid complexes (TPC) from C3H (n = 18) and B6 (n = 18) mice were cultured in Ca2+-optimized medium. TPC were treated with 0, 250, or 500 µM NaF for 24 h and secreted iPTH assayed by ELISA. C3H (n = 78) and B6 (n = 78) mice were gavaged once with distilled or fluoride (0.001 mg [F-]/g of body weight) water. At serial time points (0.5-96 h) serum iPTH, fluoride, total calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels were determined. Expression of genes involved in mineral regulation via the bone-parathyroid-kidney (BPK) axis, such as parathyroid hormone (Pth), calcium-sensing receptor (Casr), vitamin D receptor (Vdr), parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh), fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23), ?-Klotho (?Klotho), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c (Fgf1rc), tumor necrosis factor 11 (Tnfs11), parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (Pth1r), solute carrier family 34 member 1 (Slc34a1), solute carrier 9 member 3 regulator 1 (Slc9a3r1), chloride channel 5 (Clcn5), and PDZ domain-containing 1 (Pdzk1), was determined in TPC, humeri, and kidneys at 24 h. An in vitro decrease in iPTH was seen in C3H and B6 TPC at 500 µM (p < 0.001). In vivo levels of serum fluoride peaked at 0.5 h in both C3H (p = 0.002) and B6 (p = 0.01). In C3H, iPTH decreased at 24 h (p < 0.0001), returning to baseline at 48 h. In B6, iPTH increased at 12 h (p < 0.001), returning to baseline at 24 h. Serum total calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels did not change significantly. Pth, Casr,?Klotho,Fgf1rc,Vdr, and Pthlh were significantly upregulated in C3H TPC compared to B6. In conclusion, the effects of fluoride on TPC in vitro were equivalent between the 2 mouse strains. However, fluoride demonstrated an early strain-dependent effect on iPTH secretion in vivo. Both strains demonstrated differences in the expression of genes involved in the BPK axis, suggesting a possible role in the physiologic handling of fluoride. PMID:26381618

  10. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 28. ...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1545 Parathyroid hormone test system. (a)...

  12. Parathyroid Hormone and Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein Analogs as Therapies for Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures result in significant morbidity and mortality. Anabolic agents reverse the negative skeletal balance that characterizes osteoporosis by stimulating osteoblast-dependent bone formation to a greater degree than osteoclast-dependent bone resorption. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) are peptide hormones which have anabolic actions when administered intermittently. The only FDA-approved anabolic bone treatment for treatment of osteoporosis in the United States is PTH 1-34, or teriparatide, administered by daily subcutaneous injections. However, PTH 1-84 is also available in Europe. Synthetic human PTHrP 1-36 and a PTHrP 1-34 analog, BA058, have also been shown to increase lumbar spine bone density. These agents and several other PTH and PTHrP analogs, including some which are not administered as injections, continue to be investigated as potential anabolic therapies for osteoporosis. PMID:24078470

  13. Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone type-1 receptor accelerate myocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Shigemi; Yoshioka, Kowasi

    2014-01-01

    The ZHTc6-MyoD embryonic stem cell line expresses the myogenic transcriptional factor MyoD under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Following induction, most of the ZHTc6-MyoD cells differentiate to myotubes. However, a small fraction does not differentiate, instead forming colonies that retain the potential for myocyte differentiation. In our current study, we found that parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor (PTH1R) expression in colony-forming cells at 13 days after differentiation was higher than that in the undifferentiated ZHTc6-MyoD cells. We also found that PTH1R expression was required for myocyte differentiation, and that parathyroid hormone accelerated the differentiation. Our analysis of human and mouse skeletal muscle tissues showed that most cells expressing PTH1R also expressed Pax7 and CD34, which are biomarkers of satellite cells. Furthermore, we found that parathyroid hormone treatment significantly improved muscle weakness in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. This is the first report indicating that PTH1R and PTH accelerate myocyte differentiation. PMID:24919035

  14. Effects of Parathyroid Hormone on Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Geara, Abdallah Sassine; Castellanos, Mario R.; Bassil, Claude; Schuller-Levis, Georgia; Park, Eunkue; Smith, Marianne; Goldman, Michael; Elsayegh, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) function as immunologic mediator has become interesting with the recent usage of PTH analogue (teriparatide) in the management of osteoporosis. Since the early 1980s, PTH receptors were found on most immunologic cells (neutrophils, B and T cells). The in vitro evaluations for a possible role of PTH as immunomodulator have shown inconsistent results mainly due to methodological heterogeneity of these studies: it used different PTH formulations (rat, bovine, and human), at different dosages and different incubating periods. In some of these studies, the lymphocytes were collected from uremic patients or animals, which renders the interpretation of the results problematic due to the effect of uremic toxins. Parathyroidectomy has been found to reverse the immunologic defect in patients with high PTH levels. Nonetheless, the clinical significance of these findings is unclear. Further studies are needed to define if PTH does have immunomodulatory effects. PMID:20886005

  15. Therapy of Hypoparathyroidism by Replacement with Parathyroid Hormone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is a state of hypocalcemia due to inappropriate low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). HypoPT is normally treated by calcium supplements and activated vitamin D analogues. Although plasma calcium is normalized in response to conventional therapy, quality of life (QoL) seems impaired and patients are at increased risk of renal complications. A number of studies have suggested subcutaneous injections with PTH as an alternative therapy. By replacement with the missing hormone, urinary calcium may be lowered and QoL may improve. PTH replacement therapy (PTH-RT) possesses, nevertheless, a number of challenges. If PTH is injected only once a day, fluctuations in calcium levels may occur resulting in hypercalcemia in the hours following an injection. Twice-a-day injections seem to cause less fluctuation in plasma calcium but do stimulate bone turnover to above normal. Most recently, continuous delivery of PTH by pump has appeared as a feasible alternative to injections. Plasma calcium levels do not fluctuate, urinary calcium is lowered, and bone turnover is only stimulated modestly (into the normal range). Further studies are needed to assess the long-term effects. If beneficial, it seems likely that standard treatment of HypoPT in the future will change into replacement therapy with the missing hormone. PMID:25101193

  16. Three-year follow-up of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and bone mineral density in nursing home residents who had received 12 months of daily bread fortification with 125 ?g of vitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted a single-arm clinical trial in institutionalized seniors, on the effects of high-dose vitamin D3-fortified bread daily intake (clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT00789503). Methods At 1 and 3 years after the dietary fortification was stopped, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone mineral density were measured in 23 of the original study subjects, aged 60-82 years who had consumed bread buns (100 g) fortified with 320 mg elemental calcium and 125 ?g (5,000 IU) vitamin D3 daily for one year. Results At the end of the 1-year supplementation phase (receiving vitamin D3 fortified bread daily), mean (SD) serum 25(OH)D was 127.3?±?37.8 nmol/L (baseline for this follow-up). At 1-year follow-up, the serum 25(OH)D was 64.9?±?24.8 nmol/L (p?=?0.001, vs. baseline); and at 3-year follow-up it was 28.0?±?15.0 nmol/L (p?=?0.001 vs. baseline). Serum PTH was 18.8?±?15.6 pg/ml at baseline while at Year 3 it was 48.4?±?18.4 pg/ml (p?=?0.001 vs. baseline). Lumbar spine BMD did not change from baseline to Year 3. However, by Year 3, hip BMD had decreased (0.927?±?0.130 g/cm2 vs. 0.907?±?0.121 g/cm2, p?=?0.024). Conclusion Vitamin D nutritional status exhibits a long half-life in the body, and a true steady-state plateau may not even be reached 1 year after a discontinuation in dose. Furthermore, once the need for vitamin D has been established, based on a low baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations, the appropriate action is to maintain corrective vitamin D supplementation over the long term. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: NCT00789503 PMID:24120120

  17. The calcium-sensing receptor regulates parathyroid hormone gene expression in transfected HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    Galitzer, Hillel; Lavi-Moshayoff, Vardit; Nechama, Morris; Meir, Tomer; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2009-01-01

    Background The parathyroid calcium receptor determines parathyroid hormone secretion and the response of parathyroid hormone gene expression to serum Ca2+ in the parathyroid gland. Serum Ca2+ regulates parathyroid hormone gene expression in vivo post-transcriptionally affecting parathyroid hormone mRNA stability through the interaction of trans-acting proteins to a defined cis element in the parathyroid hormone mRNA 3'-untranslated region. These parathyroid hormone mRNA binding proteins include AUF1 which stabilizes and KSRP which destabilizes the parathyroid hormone mRNA. There is no parathyroid cell line; therefore, we developed a parathyroid engineered cell using expression vectors for the full-length human parathyroid hormone gene and the human calcium receptor. Results Co-transfection of the human calcium receptor and the human parathyroid hormone plasmid into HEK293 cells decreased parathyroid hormone mRNA levels and secreted parathyroid hormone compared with cells that do not express the calcium receptor. The decreased parathyroid hormone mRNA correlated with decreased parathyroid hormone mRNA stability in vitro, which was dependent upon the 3'-UTR cis element. Moreover, parathyroid hormone gene expression was regulated by Ca2+ and the calcimimetic R568, in cells co-transfected with the calcium receptor but not in cells without the calcium receptor. RNA immunoprecipitation analysis in calcium receptor-transfected cells showed increased KSRP-parathyroid hormone mRNA binding and decreased binding to AUF1. The calcium receptor led to post-translational modifications in AUF1 as occurs in the parathyroid in vivo after activation of the calcium receptor. Conclusion The expression of the calcium receptor is sufficient to confer the regulation of parathyroid hormone gene expression to these heterologous cells. The calcium receptor decreases parathyroid hormone gene expression in these engineered cells through the parathyroid hormone mRNA 3'-UTR cis element and the balanced interactions of the trans-acting factors KSRP and AUF1 with parathyroid hormone mRNA, as in vivo in the parathyroid. This is the first demonstration that the calcium receptor can regulate parathyroid hormone gene expression in heterologous cells. PMID:19397786

  18. Parathyroid-hormone-related protein in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Zeimer, H. J.; Greenaway, T. M.; Slavin, J.; Hards, D. K.; Zhou, H.; Doery, J. C.; Hunter, A. N.; Duffield, A.; Martin, T. J.; Grill, V.

    1998-01-01

    Parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is the main mediator of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. It is also detected in many normal adult and fetal tissues. Altered calcium metabolism occurs in sarcoidosis, and two cases of sarcoidosis with hypercalcemia and elevated plasma PTHrP are described. An archival study of 20 lymph node biopsies with the pathological diagnosis of sarcoidosis was performed. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antiserum to human PTHrP and in situ hybridization using a riboprobe to human PTHrP were performed on the lymph node biopsies. Immunohistochemistry for PTHrP was also performed on the biopsies from the two cases with elevated plasma levels. Immunohistochemical analysis detected PTHrP in macrophages within granulomata in 17 of the 20 (85%) biopsies. In situ hybridization detected a positive signal for messenger RNA in the granulomata of 11 of 19 (58%) biopsies. PTHrP immunoreactivity and PTHrP gene expression are present in sarcoid granulomata. PTHrP may contribute to the hypercalcemia of sarcoidosis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9422518

  19. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  20. Performance characteristics of six intact parathyroid hormone assays.

    PubMed

    La'ulu, Sonia L; Roberts, William L

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of 6 intact parathyroid hormone assays: Access 2 (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA), ARCHITECT i2000(SR) (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL), ADVIA Centaur (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Deerfield, IL), Modular E170 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN), IMMULITE 2000 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), and LIAISON (DiaSorin, Stillwater, MN). Sample collection tubes and storage conditions were compared. Imprecision studies were performed using commercial quality control materials. Linearity was assessed using pools prepared from samples. For method comparison, serum and EDTA plasma samples were tested by all methods, and the ARCHITECT was used as the comparison method. Reference intervals were determined using various vitamin D cutoffs. The types of collection tubes and storage conditions are more important for some methods than others. Total coefficients of variation were 10.9% or less. The maximum deviation from the target recovery for linearity ranged from 5.0% to 82.2%. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated percentage biases ranging from -36.3% to 24.4%. The lower limit of the reference interval was not influenced by vitamin D status, whereas the upper reference limit was affected. PMID:21088157

  1. Circulating parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in rats after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Fung, Paul; Popova, Irina A.; Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone and calcithonin, two major calcium-regulating hormones, were measured in the plasma of five experimental groups of rats to evaluate postflight calcium homeostasis after the 14-day Cosmos 2044 flight. Parathyroid hormone values were slightly higher in the flight animals (F) than in the appropriate cage and diet controls (S) (44 +/- 21 vs 21 +/- 4 pg/ml, P less than 0.05), but they were the same as in the vivarium controls (V), which had different housing and feeding schedules. The difference in F and V (22 +/- 11 vs 49 +/- 16 pg/ml, P less than 0.05) was most likely due to failure of circulating calcitonin in F to show the normal age-dependent increase which was demonstrated in age-matched controls in a separate experiment. Basal values for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin were unchanged after 2 wk of hindlimb suspension, a flight simulation model, in age-matched and younger rats. From a time course experiment serum calcium was higher and parathyroid hormone lower after 4 wk than in ambulatory controls. Postflight circulating levels of parathyroid hormone appear to reflect disturbances in calcium homeostasis from impaired renal function of undetermined cause, whereas levels of calcitonin reflect depression of a normal growth process.

  2. Bone density parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women.

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, K. T.; Sneyd, M. J.; Compston, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between bone density and indices of calcium metabolism including parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle aged women. DESIGN--A cross sectional study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS--138 women volunteers aged 45-65 with no known osteoporosis and unselected for disease status recruited for a dietary assessment study from the community using general practice registers. Volunteer rate was 20%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Bone mineral density measured with dual energy x ray absorptiometry. RESULTS--Bone density at the lumbar spine and neck and trochanteric regions of the femur was inversely related to serum intact parathyroid hormone concentrations and positively related to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. These associations were independent of possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index, cigarette smoking habit, menopausal status, and use of diuretics and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. These associations were apparent throughout the whole distribution of bone density and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations within the normal range, suggesting a physiological relation. CONCLUSIONS--The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations influence bone density in middle aged women. Findings from this study together with other work suggest that the role of vitamin D in osteoporosis should not be neglected. The associations with parathyroid hormone also indicate plausible biological mechanisms. The roughly 5-10% difference in bone density between top and bottom tertiles of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, though not large in magnitude, may have considerable public health implications in terms of prevention of osteoporosis and its sequelae, fractures. PMID:1392857

  3. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parathyroid hormone test system. 862.1545 Section 862.1545 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  4. Structural Basis for Antibody Discrimination between Two Hormones That Recognize the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    McKinstry, William J.; Polekhina, Galina; Diefenbach-Jagger, Hannelore; Ho, Patricia W.M.; Sato, Koh; Onuma, Etsuro; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John; Parker, Michael W.

    2009-08-18

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a vital role in the embryonic development of the skeleton and other tissues. When it is produced in excess by cancers it can cause hypercalcemia, and its local production by breast cancer cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis formation in that disease. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the action of PTHrP through its receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor 1, without influencing parathyroid hormone action through the same receptor. Such neutralizing antibodies against PTHrP are therapeutically effective in animal models of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and of bone metastasis formation. We have determined the crystal structure of the complex between PTHrP (residues 1-108) and a neutralizing monoclonal anti-PTHrP antibody that reveals the only point of contact is an {alpha}-helical structure extending from residues 14-29. Another striking feature is that the same residues that interact with the antibody also interact with parathyroid hormone receptor 1, showing that the antibody and the receptor binding site on the hormone closely overlap. The structure explains how the antibody discriminates between the two hormones and provides information that could be used in the development of novel agonists and antagonists of their common receptor.

  5. Ultrasonographic evaluation of parathyroid hyperplasia in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: Positive correlation between parathyroid volume and circulating parathyroid hormone concentration.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Miyakawa, Megumi; Takeshita, Akira; Miura, Daishu; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2015-09-01

    There are few reports on parathyroid ultrasonography of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). This study investigated the ultrasonographic features of parathyroid glands in 10 patients with MEN1 who underwent preoperative neck ultrasonography and parathyroidectomy between 2006 and 2010 at Toranomon Hospital. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features, laboratory and ultrasonographic data, and pathological diagnosis. A total of 38 parathyroid glands were surgically removed (three to five glands from each patient). All removed parathyroids were pathologically diagnosed as hyperplasia. Seven cases (70.0 %) had adenomatous thyroid nodules. Twenty-five enlarged parathyroid glands (65.8 %) were detected by preoperative ultrasonography with a detection rate of 81.8 % (9/11) and 59.3 % (16/27) for patients without and with adenomatous nodules, respectively. Total parathyroid gland weight and potentially predictable total parathyroid volume by preoperative ultrasonography were significantly correlated with preoperative serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) concentration (R = 0.97, P < 0.001 and R = 0.96, P < 0.001, respectively). The equation used for prediction of the total volume by ultrasonography was 15 × iPTH (pg/ml) - 1,000 and that for total weight was 20 × iPTH (pg/ml) - 1,400. Although adenomatous nodules often coexisted with MEN1 and made identification of enlarged parathyroid glands by ultrasonography difficult, the positive correlation between the predictable parathyroid volume by ultrasonography and serum iPTH suggests that their measurement is useful in the preoperative detection and localization of enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with MEN1. Furthermore, the presence of parathyroid glands that should be resected can be predicted before surgery using the equation proposed here. PMID:25227285

  6. Three-phase model harmonizes estimates of the maximal suppression of parathyroid hormone by 25-hydroxyvitamin D in persons 65 y of age and older

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration or threshold of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] needed to maximally suppress intact serum parathyroid hormone (iPTH) has been suggested as a measure of optimal vitamin D status. Depending upon the definition of maximal suppression of iPTH and the two-phase regression approach used, ...

  7. Three-Phase Model Harmonizes Estimates of the Maximal Suppression of Parathyroid Hormone by 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Persons 65 Years of Age and Older 1–3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration or threshold of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] needed to maximally suppress intact serum parathyroid hormone (iPTH) has been suggested as a measure of optimal vitamin D status. Depending upon the definition of maximal suppression of iPTH and the 2-phase regression approach used, 2 d...

  8. Heterogeneity of Parathyroid Hormone. CLINICAL AND PHYSIOLOGIC IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Robert; Yalow, Rosalyn S.

    1973-01-01

    When immunoreactive human parathyroid hormone (hPTH), extracted by three different solvents (20% acetone in 1% acetic acid, 8 M urea, or normal saline) from parathyroid glandular tissue was subjected to Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and immunoassay using two different antisera (273 and C-329), four distinct fractions were observed. The first (I), a void volume peak, was detected by both antisera with similar immunoreactivity, as was a second (II), which had the elution and sedimentation properties of highly purified bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH); a third (III) eluted between [125I]growth hormone and [125I]insulin, sedimented with the velocity of a molecule of approximately 6,000 mol wt, and was detected primarily by antiserum 273; a final fraction (IV), detected primarily by C-329, eluted just prior to [125I]insulin. The elution profiles of the acetone-acetic acid and 8 M urea extracts were similar and contained fraction II as their major component. In saline extracts, however, fraction III predominated. Three fractions, having gel filtration and immunologic characteristics similar to fractions II, III, and IV, respectively, of saline glandular extracts, were detected in the plasma of patients with both primary (adenomatous or carcinomatous) and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The predominant component in every plasma was the intermediate fraction that, like III, was detected primarily by antiserum 273, while the least abundant form was consistently the final fraction, detected primarily by antiserum C-329. The first fraction, like II, was detected with about equal potency by both antisera and had an elution volume on Sephadex corresponding to that of intact bPTH. It bore a reciprocal relationship to serum calcium and disappeared from the plasma of a uremic patient during calcium infusion or following parathyroidectomy with a half-time of no more than 20 min. This component therefore probably represents biologically active hormone. The intermediate and final fractions had turnover times in the plasma of a uremic patient more than 100 times greater than the active form, remained elevated even in the presence of post-parathyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism in this patient and were presumed to be biologically inactive. The ratio of biologically inactive fragments to the active form was greater in secondary hyperparathyroidism. The evidence presented favors a glandular origin for the fragments. Comparison of hormonal assays with the two antisera reveals a striking advantage in the preoperative diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism with antiserum 273 that is due to the enhanced sensitivity occasioned by its detection of a biologically inactive as well as the biologically active hormonal form. Images PMID:4719672

  9. Osteoblast hydraulic conductivity is regulated by calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    It is our hypothesis that osteoblasts play a major role in regulating bone (re)modeling by regulating interstitial fluid (ISF) flow through individual bone compartments. We hypothesize that osteoblasts of the blood-bone membrane lining the bone surfaces are capable of regulating transosseous fluid flow. This regulatory function of the osteoblasts was tested in vitro by culturing a layer of rat calvarial osteoblasts on porous membranes. Such a layer of osteoblasts subjected to 7.3 mm Hg of hydrostatic pressure posed a significant resistance to fluid flow across the cell layer similar in magnitude to the resistance posed by endothelial monolayers in vitro. The hydraulic conductivity, the volumetric fluid flux per unit pressure drop, of the osteoblast layer was altered in response to certain hormones. Hydraulic conductivity decreased approximately 40% in response to 33 nM parathyroid hormone, while it exhibited biphasic behavior in response to calcitonin: increased 40% in response to 100 nM calcitonin and decreased 40% in response to 1000 nM calcitonin. Further, activation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin dramatically increased the hydraulic conductivity, while elevation of intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i, by the calcium ionophore A23187 initially decreased the hydraulic conductivity at 5 minutes before increasing conductivity by 30 minutes. These results suggest that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and [Ca2+]i may mediate changes in the osteoblast hydraulic conductivity. The increase in hydraulic conductivity in response to 100 nM calcitonin and the decrease in response to PTH suggest that the stimulatory and inhibitory effects on bone formation of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone, respectively, may be due in part to alterations in bone fluid flow.

  10. Intrathymic ectopic parathyroid adenoma caused primary hyperparathyroidism with vitamin D deficiency several years after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sellitri, Francesco; Tamburrini, Alessandro; Tacconi, Federico; Bollero, Patrizio; Ortensi, Andrea; Mineo, Tommaso Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Up to 25% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism have ectopic parathyroid adenoma. A 45-year-old formerly obese woman underwent extended thymectomy for a parathyroid adenoma located in hyperplastic thymic tissue, associated with primary hyperparathyroidism and severe vitamin D deficiency, but normal bone mineral density. At nine months follow-up, all laboratory test results were within normal limits and she presented no symptoms and no recurrence of disease. In this case, autonomous growth of a parathyroid adenoma was reasonably secondary to chronic calcium and vitamin D malabsorption, which often occurs after bariatric surgery for pathologic obesity. PMID:26273343

  11. The effect of continuous infusion of human parathyroid hormone on bone architecture in female mice

    E-print Network

    Eisenberg, Rahel E. (Rahel Esther)

    2009-01-01

    This research sought to create an animal model of secondary hyperparathyroidism through continuous infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in adult female mice, and to subsequently study the catabolic effects of PTH. Osmotic ...

  12. Turmeric inhibits parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) secretion from human rheumatoid synoviocytes

    E-print Network

    Frye, J.; Timmermann, Barbara N.; Funk, J.

    2012-06-12

    Excessive production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) by tumor-like synoviocytes contributes to joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Having previously demonstrated that curcuminoid-only and essential oil-only fractions...

  13. The Neuroendocrine Functions of the Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dobolyi, Arpád; Dimitrov, Eugene; Palkovits, Miklós; Usdin, Ted B.

    2012-01-01

    The G-protein coupled parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) is concentrated in endocrine and limbic regions in the forebrain. Its endogenous ligand, tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39), is synthesized in only two brain regions, within the posterior thalamus and the lateral pons. TIP39-expressing neurons have a widespread projection pattern, which matches the PTH2R distribution in the brain. Neuroendocrine centers including the preoptic area, the periventricular, paraventricular, and arcuate nuclei contain the highest density of PTH2R-positive networks. The administration of TIP39 and an antagonist of the PTH2R as well as the investigation of mice that lack functional TIP39 and PTH2R revealed the involvement of the PTH2R in a variety of neural and neuroendocrine functions. TIP39 acting via the PTH2R modulates several aspects of the stress response. It evokes corticosterone release by activating corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Block of TIP39 signaling elevates the anxiety state of animals and their fear response, and increases stress-induced analgesia. TIP39 has also been suggested to affect the release of additional pituitary hormones including arginine-vasopressin and growth hormone. A role of the TIP39-PTH2R system in thermoregulation was also identified. TIP39 may play a role in maintaining body temperature in a cold environment via descending excitatory pathways from the preoptic area. Anatomical and functional studies also implicated the TIP39-PTH2R system in nociceptive information processing. Finally, TIP39 induced in postpartum dams may play a role in the release of prolactin during lactation. Potential mechanisms leading to the activation of TIP39 neurons and how they influence the neuroendocrine system are also described. The unique TIP39-PTH2R neuromodulator system provides the possibility for developing drugs with a novel mechanism of action to control neuroendocrine disorders. PMID:23060860

  14. Parathyroid Hormone, Cognitive Function and Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lourida, Ilianna; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Dickens, Chris M.; Soni, Maya; Ku?ma, El?bieta; Kos, Katarina; Llewellyn, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic factors are increasingly recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Abnormal parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels play a role in neuronal calcium dysregulation, hypoperfusion and disrupted neuronal signaling. Some studies support a significant link between PTH levels and dementia whereas others do not. Methods We conducted a systematic review through January 2014 to evaluate the association between PTH and parathyroid conditions, cognitive function and dementia. Eleven electronic databases and citation indexes were searched including Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Hand searches of selected journals, reference lists of primary studies and reviews were also conducted along with websites of key organizations. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts of identified studies. Data extraction and study quality were performed by one and checked by a second reviewer using predefined criteria. A narrative synthesis was performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results The twenty-seven studies identified were of low and moderate quality, and challenging to synthesize due to inadequate reporting. Findings from six observational studies were mixed but suggest a link between higher serum PTH levels and increased odds of poor cognition or dementia. Two case-control studies of hypoparathyroidism provide limited evidence for a link with poorer cognitive function. Thirteen pre-post surgery studies for primary hyperparathyroidism show mixed evidence for improvements in memory though limited agreement in other cognitive domains. There was some degree of cognitive impairment and improvement postoperatively in observational studies of secondary hyperparathyroidism but no evident pattern of associations with specific cognitive domains. Conclusions Mixed evidence offers weak support for a link between PTH, cognition and dementia due to the paucity of high quality research in this area. PMID:26010883

  15. Parathyroid hormone is not an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Arnadottir, M; Nilsson-Ehle, P

    1994-01-01

    The reduced lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities in uraemia are reflected by increased serum triglyceride concentrations and reduced HDL cholesterol concentrations. Both hyperparathyroidism and circulating inhibitor(s) of LPL have been associated with the disturbances of lipid metabolism in uraemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate if parathyroid hormone (PTH) had an inhibitory effect on LPL activity. Plasma post-heparin LPL activities, plasma LPL inhibitory activities, serum PTHintact and serum PTHC-terminal concentrations were analysed in 20 patients on haemodialysis and 20 healthy controls. The effects of purified, human PTHintact and a carboxyterminal fragment of PTH (PTH39-84) on LPL activities in post-heparin plasma from healthy individuals and on the enzyme activity of purified, bovine milk LPL, activated with apolipoprotein CII, were studied. Patients had significantly higher plasma LPL inhibitory activities than controls, but there was no correlation between plasma LPL inhibitory activities and serum PTH concentrations. Neither PTHintact nor PTH39-84 had a significant effect on LPL activities in vitro. Thus there was no evidence of a direct inhibition of LPL activity by PTH under the present in-vivo or in-vitro conditions. PMID:7870347

  16. Pulsatile Release of Parathyroid Hormone from an Implantable Delivery System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohua; Pettway, Glenda J.; McCauley, Laurie K.; Ma, Peter X.

    2007-01-01

    Intermittent (pulsatile) administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is known to improve bone micro-architecture, mineral density and strength. Therefore, daily injection of PTH has been clinically used for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, this regimen of administration is not convenient and is not a favorable choice of patients. In this study, an implantable delivery system has been developed to achieve pulsatile release of PTH. A well-defined cylindrical device was first fabricated with a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic acid) (PLLA), using a reverse solid free form fabrication technique. Three-component polyanhydrides composed of sebacic acid, 1,3-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane and poly(ethylene glycol) were synthesized and used as isolation layers. The polyanhydride isolation layers and PTH-loaded alginate layers were then stacked alternately within the delivery device. The gap between the stacked PTH-releasing core and the device frame was filled with PLLA to seal. Multi-pulse PTH release was achieved using the implantable device. The lag time between two adjacent pulses were modulated by the composition and the film thickness of the polyanhydride. The released PTH was demonstrated to be biologically active using an in vitro assay. Timed sequential release of multiple drugs has also been demonstrated. The implantable device holds promise for both systemic and local therapies. PMID:17576005

  17. Parathyroid hormone: anabolic and catabolic actions on the skeleton.

    PubMed

    Silva, Barbara C; Bilezikian, John P

    2015-06-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is essential for the maintenance of calcium homeostasis through, in part, its actions to regulate bone remodeling. While PTH stimulates both bone formation and bone resorption, the duration and periodicity of exposure to PTH governs the net effect on bone mass, that is whether it is catabolic or anabolic. PTH receptor signaling in osteoblasts and osteocytes can increase the RANKL/OPG ratio, increasing both osteoclast recruitment and osteoclast activity, and thereby stimulating bone resorption. In contrast, PTH-induced bone formation is explained, at least in part, by its ability to downregulate SOST/sclerostin expression in osteocytes, permitting the anabolic Wnt signaling pathway to proceed. The two modes of administration of PTH, that is, continuous vs. intermittent, can regulate, in bone cells, different sets of genes; alternatively, the same sets of genes exposed to PTH in sustained vs. transient way, will favor bone resorption or bone formation, respectively. This article reviews the effects of PTH on bone cells that lead to these dual catabolic and anabolic actions on the skeleton. PMID:25854704

  18. Parathyroid hormone-related protein in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Abbink, Wout; Flik, Gert

    2007-01-01

    A brief description is given of the discovery of PTHrP and the roles of the peptide in mammalian physiology. Next, the occurrence of PTHrP in the earliest vertebrates, sharks, skates and fishes, is reviewed and the calciotropic functions of PTHrP are addressed more specifically in fishes. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a hypercalcemic hormone in teleostean fishes, but also has para- and autocrine functions. After the isolation and identification of fish PTHrP and PTHrP receptors and the subsequent development of recombinant protein and a real-time quantitative PCR, a calciotropic role of PTHrP in fish physiology could be assessed. PTHrP influences calcium physiology via regulation of calcium mobilisation from internal sources (bone and scales) and via calcium uptake from the environment (water and diet). Continuous variations in the need for calcium and in the availability of environmental calcium require fast calciotropes to guarantee calcium balance, in which PTHrP is pivotal for the fish. PTHrP is essential in fish bone physiology, e.g. in mineralisation and calcium reabsorption from the scales. Moreover, PTHrP plays a role in vitellogenesis, cortisol production, regulation of renal Mrp2 activity and melatonin synthesis. The plethora of functions of PTHrP in fish concern endocrine, paracrine and autocrine (and possibly intracrine) functions; calciotropic actions of PTHrP at the organismal and cellular level are prominent in fish. The strong conservation of the pthrp gene in the vertebrate lineage and the N-terminal similarity of the coded proteins relates to the important role of PTHrP in calcium physiology that is of paramount importance to all physiological processes. Recent and ongoing studies will contribute to our rapidly expanding knowledge of the original physiological functions of PTHrP in teleost fish. PMID:17188690

  19. Kinetics of parathyroid hormone after parathyroidectomy in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Skalli, Z; Elouazzani, H; Alhamany, Z; Mattous, M; Benamar, L; Bayahia, R; Belkouchi, M; El Malki, HadjOmar; Ouzeddoun, N

    2015-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common complication in chronic renal failure. The treatment in some cases requires parathyroidectomy. The kinetics of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels after surgery helps to evaluate the efficacy of parathyroidectomy. Prospective analysis was made of the kinetics of intact PTH (iPTH) after parathyroidectomy in 10 chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients who had secondary hyperparathyroidism. We determined the levels of iPTH before surgery and its evolution after parathyroidectomy at regular intervals: Day 0, D7, D15, D30 and D90. The mean age of our patients was 40 ± 13 years, with a sex ratio of 1. The mean duration on HD was 122 ± 63 months. The duration of secondary hyperparathyroidism varied from one year to 12 years. All patients had received medical treatment for hyperparathyroidism. The indications for parathyroidectomy included resistance to medical treatment in seven cases, development of brown tumors in two cases and soft tissue calcifications in one case. All patients had radiographic evidence of hyperparathyroidism. The parathyroidectomy was sub-total in all patients, 6/8 in four cases and 7/8 in six cases. The mean iPTH level was 2341 ± 1946 pg/mL before surgery. A sharp drop in this level was noticed on D0, with a median of 92 pg/mL and, thereafter, the levels were 79 pg/mL on D7, 25 pg/mL on D15 and 36 pg/mL after 1 month. At 3 months post-surgery, the mean iPTH level was 302 pg/mL. Histological examination of the resected gland showed parathyroid hyperplasia in all patients. In our series, the efficacy of sub-total parathyroidectomy was satisfactory with rapid normalization of PTH, which is consistent with the literature data. Sub-total parathyroidectomy still has a place in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal failure. Its indications should be limited to cases resistant to medical treatment and, in particular, in cases with occurrence of complications. PMID:26586059

  20. Parathyroid Glands response to Low Vitamin D levels in Healthy Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadat-Ali, Mir; Al-Omran, Abdullah S; Al-Turki, Haifa A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the correlation of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D (25-OHD) levels based on different assays for measuring 25-OHD in healthy Saudi Arabians living along the east coast. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 200 patients (150 women and 50 men aged between 18-69 years) between January 2011 and December 2012, attending outpatient clinic at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar. The first 200 patients seen without vitamin D supplementation at clinic were enrolled in the study. Serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, and 25-OHD tests were performed. 25-OHD was assessed using:chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA)radioimmunoassay (RIA) using Wallac 1470 Gamma CounterHPLC –LC.MS (high performance liquid chromatography-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The data was collected, entered into a database and analysed using SPSS, Inc., version 14. Results: The mean age was 45.8±15.8 (18-74) years, and calcium level was 2.27±0.15 mmol/l. (range 2.125 to 2.62 mmol/l). Alkaline phosphatase was 88.91±35.94 (34-302) IU, parathormone 6.7±3.06 (1.35-21.2) (1.3-6.8 pmol/l). Of the participants, 188 were either vitamin D insufficient or deficient as measured by CLIA 11.85±6.14 (2-29.6), and 91 (48.4%) of them had secondary hyperparathyroidism 9.48±4.55 pc/l. Those with normal CLIA-measured 25-OHD levels had normal PTH levels. Of those with insufficiency, 4/21 (19%) had raised PTH levels; and of those with deficiency, 81/166 (48.79%) had raised levels, whereas with HPLC-LC.MS, 156 were shown to be insufficient and 97 deficient (with PTH level of 7.41±4.2). Thirteen of 41 patients (31.7%) with insufficiency were shown, by HPLC-LC.MS, to have raised PTH. All patients with vitamin D deficiency as diagnosed by HPLC-LC.MS had secondary hyperparathyroidism. Conclusions: The above results suggest that the method of measurement strongly influences vitamin D levels and that previous reports suggesting no association between vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism should be viewed with caution. PMID:25964700

  1. Immunochemical Localization of Parathyroid Hormone in Cancer Tissue from Patients with Ectopic Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Genaro M. A.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    1974-01-01

    Immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) in nonparathyroid malignant tumors associated with hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia in the absence of demonstrable bone metastases was determined by radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescent techniques. Six of seven tumors contained material with immunological cross-reactivity to bovine PTH by radioimmunoassay and immunofluorescence. The intensity of the immunofluorescent stain varied considerably in the different tumors. From 15 to 90% of neoplastic cells were stained specifically with fluorescein-labeled anti-PTH. In contrast, normal parathyroid glands and parathyroid adenomas showed uniform distribution of immunofluorescence in all parenchymal cells. In one malignant tumor, PTH was localized also by immunoautoradiography. In every case PTH was detected only in the cytoplasm of parenchymal cells. One patient lacked detectable PTH in his tumor, yet showed regression of the hypercalcemia to normal values after removal of large masses of neoplastic tissue and recurrence of hypercalcemia when new growth occurred. Dilutional radioimmunoassay curves of nonparathyroid malignant tumors were in most cases different from those obtained with extracts of normal parathyroid glands and parathyroid adenomas. Although both nonparathyroid neoplasmas and parathyroid extracts demonstrated immunoheterogeneity by gel filtration, greater heterogeneity was found in nonparathyroid malignant tumors. In those tumors in which immunological cross-reactivity to PTH was detected, the capability of secreting PTH may be restricted to derepressed cell clones amidst other neoplastic cells, whereas the greater heterogeneity of ectopic PTH may reflect hormone cleavage by proteolytic enzymes in the tumor that is less specific than the Pro-PTH cleaving enzyme in the parathyroids. Images PMID:4364410

  2. Two Years of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Treatment Decreased Parathyroid Gland Volume and Serum Parathyroid Hormone Level in Hemodialysis Patients With Advanced Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Toyonaga, Jiro; Suehiro, Takaichi; Eriguchi, Rieko; Fujimi, Satoru; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    The long-term effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment on parathyroid gland (PTG) volume has been scarcely investigated in patients with moderate to advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The present study was a prospective observational study to determine the effect of cinacalcet treatment on PTG volume and serum biochemical parameters in 60 patients with renal SHPT, already treated with intravenous vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA). Measurement of biochemical parameters and PTG volumes were performed periodically, which were analyzed by stratification into tertiles across the baseline parathyroid hormone (PTH) level or PTG volume. We also determined the factors that can estimate the changes in PTG volume and the achievement of the target PTH range by multivariable analyses. Two years of cinacalcet treatment significantly decreased the serum levels of PTH, calcium, and phosphate, followed by the improvement of achieving the target ranges for these parameters recommended by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. Cinacalcet decreased the maximal and total PTG volume by about 30%, and also decreased the serum PTH level independent of the baseline serum PTH level and PTG volume. Ten out of 60 patients showed 30% increase in maximal PTG after 2 years. Multivariable analysis showed that patients with nodular PTG at baseline and patients with higher serum calcium and PTH levels at 1 year were likely to exceed the target range of PTH at two years. In conclusion, cinacalcet treatment with intravenous VDRA therapy decreased both PTG volume and serum intact PTH level, irrespective of the pretreatment PTG status and past treatment history. PMID:25851690

  3. Relaxant mechanisms of parathyroid hormone in rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Toshio; Okamoto, Eri; Shimoya, Machiko; Nakazato, Yoshikazu; Ito, Shigeo

    2002-10-01

    The effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on tension and intracellular Ca level ([Ca ] ) were examined in ring preparations of rat mesenteric artery using isometric tension recording and the fura-2 method, respectively. The PTH (30 n ) elicited relaxation in arterial rings precontracted by phenylephrine regardless of the presence or absence of endothelium. In the endothelium-denuded arterial rings precontracted by 3 micro M of phenylephrine or 60 m of potassium chloride (KCl), PTH-related protein and PTH produced concentration-dependent relaxation to the same extent, but inhibited contraction induced by phenylephrine more effectively than that induced by KCl. Phenylephrine-induced tonic contraction was changed to a phasic one with decreased peak tension in the presence of PTH. Similar changes were observed with extracellular Ca removal or methoxyverapamil plus SK&F96365, respective of voltage-gated and receptor-operated Ca channel inhibitors. Phenylephrine evoked a concentration-dependent contraction concomitant with an increase in [Ca ]. PTH reduced both responses to the same extent. In a Ca -free solution, PTH inhibited a phasic contraction and a transient increase in [Ca ] in response to phenylephrine but not caffeine. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that PTH and PTH receptors were expressed in the rat mesenteric artery. In this tissue, PTH increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of PTH on alpha -adrenoceptor-mediated contraction results from the inhibition of Ca influx through receptor-operated and voltage-gated Ca channels, and Ca release from Ca stores, probably via increased cAMP in the rat mesenteric artery. PMID:12352317

  4. Comparison between whole and intact parathyroid hormone assays.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masatomo; Tanaka, Motoko; Hamano, Takayuki; Nakanishi, Shohei; Fujii, Hideki; Kato, Hitoshi; Koiwa, Fumihiko; Ando, Ryoichi; Kimata, Naoki; Akiba, Takashi; Kono, Takashi; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Shigematsu, Takashi; Kakuta, Takatoshi; Kazama, Junichiro James; Tominaga, Yoshihiro; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2011-06-01

    The standard measurement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the intact PTH (iPTH) assay, which is used for approximately 90% of Japanese dialysis patients. The iPTH assay reacts not only with 1-84?PTH, but also with large truncated fragments of non-1-84?PTH, including 7-84?PTH. On the other hand, the whole PTH assay is specific for 1-84?PTH. The aim of the current study was to define the validity of both whole and intact PTH assays. A total of 738 hemodialysis patients were enrolled from twelve dialysis services. The serum PTH level was evaluated by both intact and whole PTH assays simultaneously. Non-1-84?PTH was determined by subtracting the whole PTH value from that of the intact PTH assay. The median level of whole PTH was 121?pg/mL, and that of iPTH was 210?pg/mL. The whole PTH assay had a very high correlation with the iPTH assay (r?=?0.870, P?

  5. Significance of rebounding parathyroid hormone levels during parathyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, David F.; Ojomo, Kristin A.; Mazeh, Haggi; Oltmann, Sarah C.; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Using minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP), most surgeons require a 50% decline in intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IoPTH) to determine cure, but the significance of IoPTH kinetics occurring after this drop remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of IoPTH levels that first meet criteria for cure, but then increase again, or rebound, between 10 and 15 minutes post-excision. METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing initial parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism at our institution from 2001 – 2011. Rebound IoPTH was defined as an increase in PTH ? 5 pg/mL after achieving the 50% drop required for cure. Comparisons were evaluated with the student's t-test, Chi-squared test, or Fisher's exact test where appropriate. RESULTS Of the 1,386 patients who met selection criteria, 86 (6.2%) patients exhibited rebound IoPTH. The mean magnitude of rebound was 13.8 ± 3.6 pg/mL. Compared to those not displaying rebound, more patients with rebound IoPTH were treated with open parathyroidectomy rather than MIP (10.8% vs. 4.5%, p<0.01). The recurrence rate among those with rebound IoPTH was more than double that of patients without rebound IoPTH (5.8% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.03). Magnitude of rebound, however, did not correlate with recurrence. The rate of persistent disease was not different between those with and without rebound IoPTH. Rebound was a much better indicator of recurrence than patients whose final IoPTH levels were not within the normal range. CONCLUSIONS Rebound IoPTH is more common in patients who develop recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, surgeons should closely monitor patients with rebound IoPTH for disease recurrence. PMID:23669749

  6. Parathyroid Hormone Therapy Mollifies Radiation-Induced Biomechanical Degradation in Murine Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sagar S.; Gallagher, Katherine K.; Donneys, Alexis; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Sarhaddi, Deniz; Nelson, Noah S.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Descriptions of mandibular distraction osteogenesis for tissue replacement after oncologic resection or for defects caused by osteoradionecrosis have been limited. Previous work demonstrated radiation decreases union formation, cellularity and mineral density in mandibular distraction osteogenesis. The authors posit that intermittent systemic administration of parathyroid hormone will serve as a stimulant to cellular function, reversing radiation-induced damage and enhancing bone regeneration. Methods Twenty male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 (radiation and distraction osteogenesis, n = 7) and group 2 (radiation, distraction osteogenesis, and parathyroid hormone, n = 5) received a human-equivalent dose of 35 Gy of radiation (human bioequivalent, 70 Gy) fractionated over 5 days. All groups, including group 3 (distraction osteogenesis, n = 8), underwent a left unilateral mandibular osteotomy with bilateral external fixator placement. Distraction osteogenesis was performed at a rate of 0.3 mm every 12 hours to reach a gap of 5.1 mm. Group 2 was injected with parathyroid hormone (60 ?g/kg) subcutaneously daily for 3 weeks after the start of distraction osteogenesis. On postoperative day 40, all left hemimandibles were harvested. Biomechanical response parameters were generated. Statistical significance was considered at p ? 0.05. Results Parathyroid hormone–treated mandibles had significantly higher failure load and higher yield than did untreated mandibles. However, these values were still significantly lower than those of nonirradiated mandibles. Conclusions The authors have successfully demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of parathyroid hormone to stimulate and enhance bone regeneration in their irradiated murine mandibular model of distraction osteogenesis. Anabolic regimens of parathyroid hormone, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved drug on formulary, significantly improve outcomes in a model of postoncologic craniofacial reconstruction. PMID:23806959

  7. Supplementation with 1000 IU vitamin D/d leads to parathyroid hormone suppression, but not increased fractional calcium absorption, in 4-8-y-old children: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of vitamin D supplementation in healthy prepubertal children on physiologic outcomes have not been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with 1000 IU vitamin D(3)/d on calcium absorption. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assign...

  8. Parathyroid hormone secretion by multiple distinct cell populations, a time dynamic mathematical model

    PubMed Central

    Pruett, William A.; Hester, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The acute response of parathyroid hormone to perturbations in serum ionized calcium ([Ca2+]) is physiologically complex, and poorly understood. The literature provides numerous observations of quantitative and qualitative descriptions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) dynamics. We present a physiologically based mathematical model of PTH secretion constructed from mechanisms suggested in the literature, and validated against complex [Ca2+] clamping protocols from human data. The model is based on two assumptions. The first is that secretion is a fraction of cellular reserves, with the fraction being determined by the kinetics of [Ca2+] with its receptor. The second is that there are multiple distinct populations of parathyroid cells, with different secretory parameters. The steady state and transient PTH secretion responses of the model are in agreement with human experimental PTH responses to different hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia stimuli. This mathematical model suggests that a population of secreting cells is responsible for the PTH secretory dynamics observed experimentally. PMID:24744900

  9. Parathyroid Hormone as a Novel Biomarker for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand and predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a biomarker that reflects disease severity is needed. Research Design and Methods Data from 10269 adults aged over 40 years of age were retrieved from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), and 1302 patients met the criteria for COPD. The association between values of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and COPD severity including lung function and quality of life, were analyzed. Results In COPD patients, lung function was inversely related to PTH values (P = 0.02 for FVC [% predicted]; P < 0.001 for FEV1 [% predicted]); however, the association of lung function with vitamin D levels was not statistically significant in a multivariable analysis. Value of PTH was independently associated with EQ5D-index (P = 0.04), but vitamin D level showed no significant relationship with EQ5D-index (P = 0.59) or EQ5D-VAS (P = 0.81). Conclusions Elevation of PTH, unlike vitamin D, is independently associated with COPD severity, and may be a better biomarker for COPD. PMID:26398210

  10. Influence of hypermagnesemia on serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Cholst, I.N.; Steinberg, S.F.; Tropper, P.J.; Fox, H.E.; Segre, G.V.; Bilezikian, J.P.

    1984-05-10

    Serum concentrations of calcium and parathyroid hormone were measured in seven pregnant women who were receiving intravenous magnesium sulfate for the suppression of premature labor. After administration of magnesium sulfate, the mean (+/- S.E.M.) serum magnesium level rose rapidly from the normal base-line level of 2.0 +/- 0.2 mg per deciliter to 6.1 +/- 0.4 mg per deciliter (0.8 +/- 0.1 to 2.5 +/- 0.2 mmol per liter) at 30 minutes and remained markedly elevated. Concentrations of total and ionized calcium fell gradually in all subjects from normal base-line concentrations, 8.6 +/- 0.2 and 4.4 +/- 0.1 mg per deciliter (2.2 +/- 0.1) and 1.1 +/- 0.03 mmol per liter), respectively, into the hypocalcemic range, reaching a nadir of 7.6 +/- 0.2 and 3.9 +/- 0.1 mg per deciliter (1.9 +/- 0.1 and 0.98 +/- 0.03 mmol per liter), respectively, at three hours. Parathyroid hormone levels fell rapidly in response to magnesium infusion, from 13.1 +/- 2.5 to 7.8 +/- 0.7 pg per milliliter at 30 minutes, and were significantly below base-line levels for two hours despite frank hypocalcemia. These results suggest that hypermagnesemia rapidly decreases the secretion of parathyroid hormone in vivo in human subjects and that parathyroid hormone levels remain depressed despite concomitant hypocalcemia. The results also suggest that the hypocalcemia associated with hypermagnesemia may be due in part to the suppressive effects of hypermagnesemia on parathyroid hormone secretion.

  11. DLC1-dependent parathyroid hormone-like hormone inhibition suppresses breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Lei, Rong; Zhuang, Xueqian; Zhang, Ning; Pan, Hong; Li, Gang; Hu, Jing; Pan, Xiaoqi; Tao, Qian; Fu, Da; Xiao, Jianru; Chin, Y Eugene; Kang, Yibin; Yang, Qifeng; Hu, Guohong

    2014-04-01

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of breast cancer that is often accelerated by TGF-? signaling; however, little is known about how the TGF-? pathway is regulated during bone metastasis. Here we report that deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) is an important regulator of TGF-? responses and osteolytic metastasis of breast cancer cells. In murine models, breast cancer cells lacking DLC1 expression exhibited enhanced capabilities of bone metastasis. Knockdown of DLC1 in cancer cells promoted bone metastasis, leading to manifested osteolysis and accelerated death in mice, while DLC1 overexpression suppressed bone metastasis. Activation of Rho-ROCK signaling in the absence of DLC1 mediated SMAD3 linker region phosphorylation and TGF-?-induced expression of parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH), leading to osteoclast maturation for osteolytic colonization. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of Rho-ROCK effectively reduced PTHLH production and breast cancer bone metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Evaluation of clinical breast tumor samples revealed that reduced DLC1 expression was linked to elevated PTHLH expression and organ-specific metastasis to bone. Overall, our findings define a stroma-dependent paradigm of Rho signaling in cancer and implicate Rho-TGF-? crosstalk in osteolytic bone metastasis. PMID:24590291

  12. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

  13. Parathyroid hormone-related protein induces spontaneous osteoclast formation via a paracrine cascade

    PubMed Central

    Nakchbandi, Inaam A.; Weir, Eleanor E.; Insogna, Karl L.; Philbrick, William M.; Broadus, Arthur E.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments in vivo have established that tooth eruption fails in the absence of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related protein (PTHrP) action in the microenvironment of the tooth because of the failure of osteoclastic bone resorption on the coronal tooth surface to form an eruption pathway. To elucidate the effects of PTHrP on osteoclast regulation in this environment, we established primary cultures of epithelial stellate reticulum cells and mesenchymal dental follicle (DF) cells surrounding the teeth. When cocultured, these cells are fully capable of supporting the formation of functional osteoclasts in the absence of added splenic osteoclast precursors, osteoblasts, or vitamin D/PTH/PTHrP. Neutralizing the effects of PTHrP resulted in a decrease in the number of osteoclasts formed, suggesting that stellate reticulum-derived PTHrP drives osteoclast formation. DF cells were found to express functional PTH/PTHrP type I receptors, and conditioned media collected from PTHrP-treated DF cells were able to induce bone resorption in the fetal-rat long-bone assay. PTHrP treatment also induced an increase in osteoclast differentiation factor expression and a concomitant decrease in osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor expression in DF cells. The addition of osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor resulted in a decrease in the number of osteoclasts formed in the cocultures, suggesting that osteoclast formation is mediated by osteoclast differentiation factor. Thus, PTHrP seems to regulate osteoclast formation via mediation of the DF, in a manner analogous to the osteoblast-mediated process in the peripheral skeleton. The primary coculture system of dental crypt cells also offers a system for the study of osteoclast formation and regulation. PMID:10829073

  14. Signal transduction pathways mediating parathyroid hormone regulation of osteoblastic gene expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Bloch, S. R.; Pearman, A. T.

    1994-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a central role in regulation of calcium metabolism. For example, excessive or inappropriate production of PTH or the related hormone, parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), accounts for the majority of the causes of hypercalcemia. Both hormones act through the same receptor on the osteoblast to elicit enhanced bone resorption by the osteoclast. Thus, the osteoblast mediates the effect of PTH in the resorption process. In this process, PTH causes a change in the function and phenotype of the osteoblast from a cell involved in bone formation to one directing the process of bone resorption. In response to PTH, the osteoblast decreases collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin expression and increases production of osteocalcin, cytokines, and neutral proteases. Many of these changes have been shown to be due to effects on mRNA abundance through either transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms. However, the signal transduction pathway for the hormone to cause these changes is not completely elucidated in any case. Binding of PTH and PTHrP to their common receptor has been shown to result in activation of protein kinases A and C and increases in intracellular calcium. The latter has not been implicated in any changes in mRNA of osteoblastic genes. On the other hand activation of PKA can mimic all the effects of PTH; protein kinase C may be involved in some responses. We will discuss possible mechanisms linking PKA and PKC activation to changes in gene expression, particularly at the nuclear level.

  15. The secretory response of parathyroid hormone to acute hypocalcemia in vivo is independent of parathyroid glandular sodium/potassium-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Martuseviciene, Giedre; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Clausen, Torben; Olgaard, Klaus; Lewin, Ewa

    2011-04-01

    The involvement of sodium/potassium-ATPase in regulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is inferred from in vitro studies. Recently, the ?-klotho-dependent rapid recruitment of this ATPase to the parathyroid cell plasma membrane in response to low extracellular calcium ion was suggested to be linked to increased hormone secretion. In this study, we used an in vivo rat model to determine the importance of sodium/potassium-ATPase in PTH secretion. Glands were exposed and treated in situ with vehicle or ouabain, a specific inhibitor of sodium/potassium-ATPase. PTH secretion was significantly increased in response to ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid-induced acute hypocalcemia and to the same extent in both vehicle and ouabain groups. The glands were removed, and inhibition of the ATPase was measured by (86)rubidium uptake, which was found to be significantly decreased in ouabain-treated parathyroid glands, indicating inhibition of the ATPase. As ouabain induced systemic hyperkalemia, the effect of high potassium on hormone secretion was also examined but was found to have no effect. Thus, inhibition of the parathyroid gland sodium/potassium-ATPase activity in vivo had no effect on the secretory response to acute hypocalcemia. Hence, the suggested importance of this ATPase in the regulation of PTH secretion could not be confirmed in this in vivo model. PMID:21209610

  16. Nonlinear dynamics in pulsatile secretion of parathyroid hormone in normal human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prank, Klaus; Harms, Heio; Brabant, Georg; Hesch, Rolf-Dieter; Dämmig, Matthias; Mitschke, Fedor

    1995-03-01

    In many biological systems, information is transferred by hormonal ligands, and it is assumed that these hormonal signals encode developmental and regulatory programs in mammalian organisms. In contrast to the dogma of endocrine homeostasis, it could be shown that the biological information in hormonal networks is not only present as a constant hormone concentration in the circulation pool. Recently, it has become apparent that hormone pulses contribute to this hormonal pool, which modulates the responsiveness of receptors within the cell membrane by regulation of the receptor synthesis, movement within the membrane layer, coupling to signal transduction proteins and internalization. Phase space analysis of dynamic parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion allowed the definition of a (in comparison to normal subjects) relatively quiet ``low dynamic'' secretory pattern in osteoporosis, and a ``high dynamic'' state in hyperparathyroidism. We now investigate whether this pulsatile secretion of PTH in healthy men exhibits characteristics of nonlinear determinism. Our findings suggest that this is conceivable, although on the basis of presently available data and techniques, no proof can be established. Nevertheless, pulsatile secretion of PTH might be a first example of nonlinear deterministic dynamics in an apparently irregular hormonal rhythm in human physiology.

  17. Dimeric Arrangement of the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor and a Structural Mechanism for Ligand-induced Dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Pioszak, Augen A.; Harikumar, Kaleeckal G.; Parker, Naomi R.; Miller, Laurence J.; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-06-25

    The parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP). Little is known about the oligomeric state of the receptor and its regulation by hormone. The crystal structure of the ligand-free PTH1R extracellular domain (ECD) reveals an unexpected dimer in which the C-terminal segment of both ECD protomers forms an {alpha}-helix that mimics PTH/PTHrP by occupying the peptide binding groove of the opposing protomer. ECD-mediated oligomerization of intact PTH1R was confirmed in living cells by bioluminescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments. As predicted by the structure, PTH binding disrupted receptor oligomerization. A receptor rendered monomeric by mutations in the ECD retained wild-type PTH binding and cAMP signaling ability. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that PTH1R forms constitutive dimers that are dissociated by ligand binding and that monomeric PTH1R is capable of activating G protein.

  18. Molecular recognition of parathyroid hormone by its G protein-coupled receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Pioszak, Augen A.; Xu, H. Eric

    2008-08-07

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is central to calcium homeostasis and bone maintenance in vertebrates, and as such it has been used for treating osteoporosis. It acts primarily by binding to its receptor, PTH1R, a member of the class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family that also includes receptors for glucagon, calcitonin, and other therapeutically important peptide hormones. Despite considerable interest and much research, determining the structure of the receptor-hormone complex has been hindered by difficulties in purifying the receptor and obtaining diffraction-quality crystals. Here, we present a method for expression and purification of the extracellular domain (ECD) of human PTH1R engineered as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion that readily crystallizes. The 1.95-{angstrom} structure of PTH bound to the MBP-PTH1R-ECD fusion reveals that PTH docks as an amphipathic helix into a central hydrophobic groove formed by a three-layer {alpha}-{beta}-{beta}{alpha} fold of the PTH1R ECD, resembling a hot dog in a bun. Conservation in the ECD scaffold and the helical structure of peptide hormones emphasizes this hot dog model as a general mechanism of hormone recognition common to class B GPCRs. Our findings reveal critical insights into PTH actions and provide a rational template for drug design that targets this hormone signaling pathway.

  19. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy without using intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring or gamma probe

    PubMed Central

    Soyder, Aykut; Ünübol, Mustafa; Ömürlü, ?mran Kurt; Güney, Engin; Özba?, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Minimal invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is a common surgical technique for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and is usually done in conjunction with positive imaging techniques. We aimed to assess the results of this technique, performed without the use of intraoperative tests, in cases with PHPT caused by a single parathyroid adenoma. Material and Methods: The data for patients who were diagnosed with PHPT were assessed retrospectively. Only those who had undergone a parathyroid adenoma localization study with ultrasonography (US) and parathyroid scintigraphy (PS) before the surgery, along with those patients for whom the MIP technique was routinely performed with frozen pathology, were included. Results: The study group was made up of 65 patients who had undergone the MIP technique. The mean age of the patients was 56±14 (20–81), with most being females [M/F: 19 (29.2%)/46 (70.8%)]. The mean calcium values before the operation were 11.24±1.26 mg/dL (8–15.5) (normal range: 8.4–10.2), and the parathyroid hormone (PTH) values were 388 pg/mL (249–707.75). These same values, measured 24 hours after the operation, were determined as 9.04±1.04 mg/dL (6.8–13.9) and 27 pg/mL (6–86), respectively. The follow-up period for the patients was an average of 26.6±9.4 (3–76) months, and only 3 (4.6%) cases of persistent hyperparathyroidism were detected within this period. Conclusion: Our success rate with MIP in PHPT cases was determined to be 95.4%; therefore, this technique may be applied with a high success rate without any assistance from intraoperative tests, such as rapid serum PTH (rPTH) assays or gamma probes, in the presence of localization results of PS and US. PMID:25931949

  20. Aldosterone and parathyroid hormone interactions as mediators of metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Tomaschitz, Andreas; Ritz, Eberhard; Pieske, Burkert; Rus-Machan, Jutta; Kienreich, Katharina; Verheyen, Nicolas; Gaksch, Martin; Grübler, Martin; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Mrak, Peter; Toplak, Hermann; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; März, Winfried; Pilz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is strongly linked with development and progression of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Accumulating evidence suggests a bidirectional interplay between parathyroid hormone and aldosterone. This interaction may lead to a disproportionally increased risk of CV damage, metabolic and bone diseases. This review focuses on mechanisms underlying the mutual interplay between aldosterone and PTH as well as their potential impact on CV, metabolic and bone health. PTH stimulates aldosterone secretion by increasing the calcium concentration in the cells of the adrenal zona glomerulosa as a result of binding to the PTH/PTH-rP receptor and indirectly by potentiating angiotensin 2 induced effects. This may explain why after parathyroidectomy lower aldosterone levels are seen in parallel with improved cardiovascular outcomes. Aldosterone mediated effects are inappropriately pronounced in conditions such as chronic heart failure, excess dietary salt intake (relative aldosterone excess) and primary aldosteronism. PTH is increased as a result of (1) the MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) mediated calciuretic and magnesiuretic effects with a trend of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia; the resulting secondary hyperparathyroidism causes myocardial fibrosis and disturbed bone metabolism; and (2) direct effects of aldosterone on parathyroid cells via binding to the MR. This adverse sequence is interrupted by mineralocorticoid receptor blockade and adrenalectomy. Hyperaldosteronism due to klotho deficiency results in vascular calcification, which can be mitigated by spironolactone treatment. In view of the documented reciprocal interaction between aldosterone and PTH as well as the potentially ensuing target organ damage, studies are needed to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to address this increasingly recognized pathophysiological phenomenon. PMID:24095631

  1. Extremely high parathyroid hormone concentrations associated with pityriasis rubra pilaris and monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tanriover, Mine Durusu; Portakal, Oytun; Hapa, Asli; Tekinel, Yasemin; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Buyukasik, Yahya; Arici, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    We present a case with extremely high parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in the order of hundred thousands accompanied by dermatological and hematological diseases. After several diagnostic interventions, no malignancy could be demonstrated except monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. The dermatological findings were taken to be manifestations of the hematological disease. Since the first serum intact PTH concentration of the patient was found to be higher than 2500 pg/ml, dilution study was performed and found to be 215,977 pg/ml. The high concentration of serum PTH was taken to be falsely high due to assay interference. This concentration was checked from three different paths; a test for linear dilution was performed, the test was repeated with another method and the sample was treated to remove or inhibit interfering substances. The results were compatible with endogenous antibody interference, presumed to be a result of monoclonal gammopathy. The extremely high PTH concentrations were not only due to assay interference, but also secondary hyperparathyroidism, which was evident by the decrease in PTH concentrations with calcium and vitamin D treatments. PMID:22906636

  2. A Comparison of Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (1–36) and Parathyroid Hormone (1–34) on Markers of Bone Turnover and Bone Density in Postmenopausal Women: The PrOP Study

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Mara J; Augustine, Marilyn; Kahn, Leila; Martin, Emily; Oakley, Christine C; Carneiro, Raquel M; Tedesco, Mary Beth; Laslavic, Angela; Sereika, Susan M; Bisello, Alessandro; Garcia-Ocańa, Adolfo; Gundberg, Caren M; Cauley, Jane A; Stewart, Andrew F

    2013-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)(1–36) increases lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), acting as an anabolic agent when injected intermittently, but has not been directly compared to parathyroid hormone (PTH)(1–34). We performed a three month, randomized, prospective study in 105 postmenopausal women with low bone density or osteoporosis comparing daily subcutaneous injections of PTHrP(1–36) to PTH(1–34). Thirty-five women were randomized to each of three groups: PTHrP(1–36) 400 ?g/d; PTHrP(1–36) 600 ?g/d; and PTH(1–34) 20 ?g/d. The primary outcomes measures were changes in amino-terminal telopeptides of procollagen 1 (PINP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptides of collagen 1 (CTX). Secondary measures included safety parameters, 1,25(OH)2vitamin D and BMD. The increase in bone resorption (CTX) by PTH(1–34) (92%) (p<0.005) was greater than for PTHrP(1–36) (30%) (p<0.05). PTH(1–34) also increased bone formation (PINP) (171%) (p<0.0005) more than either dose of PTHrP(1–36) (46 & 87%). The increase in PINP was earlier (day 15) and greater than the increase in CTX for all three groups. LS BMD increased equivalently in each group (p<0.05 for all). Total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) BMD increased equivalently in each group but were only significant for the two doses of PTHrP(1–36) (p<0.05) at the TH, and for PTHrP(1–36) 400 (p<0.05) at the FN. PTHrP(1–36) 400 induced mild, transient (day 15) hypercalcemia. PTHrP(1–36) 600 required a dose reduction for hypercalcemia in three subjects. PTH(1–34) was not associated with hypercalcemia. Each peptide induced a marked biphasic increase in 1,25(OH)2D. Adverse events (AE) were similar among the three groups. This study demonstrates that PTHrP(1–36) and PTH(1–34) cause similar increases in LS BMD. PTHrP(1–36) also increased hip BMD. PTH(1–34) induced greater changes in bone turnover than PTHrP(1–36). PTHrP(1–36) was associated with mild transient hypercalcemia. Longer term studies using lower doses of PTHrP(1–36) are needed to define both the optimal dose and full clinical benefits of PTHrP. PMID:23661240

  3. ALX 111: ALX1-11, parathyroid hormone (1-84) - NPS Allelix, PREOS, PTH, recombinant human parathyroid hormone, rhPTH (1-84).

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    ALX 111 [parathyroid hormone (1-84) - NPS Allelix, recombinant human parathyroid hormone, rhPTH (1-84), PREOS] is a full-length, recombinant human parathyroid hormone. It has potential as an anti-osteoporotic agent, due to its properties as a bone formation stimulant. This profile has been selected from R&D Insight, a pharmaceutical intelligence database produced by Adis International Ltd. It has been recommended that ALX 111 should be given for 1 to 2 years and may be given in combination with an antiresorptive agent, such as estrogen or a bisphosphonate. In December 1999, Allelix Biopharmaceuticals merged with NPS Pharmaceuticals. This combined company is operating as NPS Pharmaceuticals in the US and as NPS Allelix in Canada. The merger has enabled a phase III study of ALX 111 to begin in the US, Europe and South America. NPS harmaceuticals has signed an agreement with Bio-Imaging Technologies, which will provide all image handling and analysis for this trial. Until 1994, Allelix Biopharmaceuticals and Glaxo in Canada were involved in a joint venture to investigate the efficacy of ALX 111 in osteoporosis. Allelix was subsequently, until September 1998, collaborating with Astra of Sweden in developing ALX 111. Astra had acquired exclusive worldwide rights to ALX 111 and was responsible for development of the agent. However, Astra returned all rights to ALX 111 to Allelix as a result of its merger with Zeneca to form AstraZeneca. In December 1999, Allelix Biopharmaceuticals merged with NPS Pharmaceuticals. This combined company is operating as NPS Pharmaceuticals in the US and as NPS Allelix in Canada. The merger has enabled a phase III study of ALX 111 to begin in the US, Europe and South America. The phase III trial of ALX 111 for the treatment of osteoporosis has completed patient enrolment, and phase II trials have been completed in Canada and the Netherlands. The 18-month, phase III, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial (Treatment of Osteoporosis with Parathyroid Hormone; TOP) has been designed to assess the bone-building and fracture-reducing potential of the drug, and over 2600 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who have not received previous drug therapy for osteoporosis have been enrolled. Treatment will be completed in September 2003, but more than 75% of patients enrolled in the TOP study have chosen to enrol in an Open Label Extension Study (OLES), which allows for a total treatment period of up to 24 months. NPS Pharmaceuticals has signed an agreement with Bio-Imaging Technologies, which will provide all image handling and analysis for this trial. In September 2002, NPS Pharmaceuticals announced that it has met its patient enrolment target (n > 150) for its POWER (PTH for Osteoporotic Women on Estrogen Replacement) study; a 24-month phase III trial initiated in Europe in November 2001. In this trial, women with osteoporosis receive SC injections of ALX 111 or placebo, in combination with their existing hormone replacement therapies, to test the bone building potential of the drug. In addition to the POWER study, a clinical trial sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is being conducted to evaluate the potential of ALX 111 to build bone in combination with another osteoporosis medication. The 'PaTH' study (PTH/alendronate) is designed to assess the effect of various combinations and sequential uses of ALX 111 and Merck's Fosamax, a drug for slowing the loss of bone due to osteoporosis. The PaTH study, initiated in May 2000 and scheduled to conclude in September 2003, involved 238 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is thought that alendronic acid and ALX 111, when administered in combination, may act in an additive manner to treat osteoporosis because they act in different ways; alendronic acid acts to inhibit resorption and ALX 111 speeds up bone formation and resorption, with a net increase in formation. Results of this study are still being analysed but preliminary results appear to be positive. The effect of ALX 111 on bone cell cultures underare still being analysed but p

  4. Chronic hemodialysis patients without marked elevation of intact parathyroid hormone are also good candidates for early intervention with cinacalcet.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hayato; Masakane, Ikuto; Kudo, Kenichi; Ito, Minoru; Tanida, Hideki; Koshika, Masataka; Nishida, Wakako; Tomita, Yoshihiko

    2013-06-01

    Management of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism is crucial in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Cinacalcet is usually used for chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) patients with elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. However, a certain number of CKD-MBD patients have normal iPTH levels and are not subjected to cinacalcet therapy. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a new treatment algorithm of early initiation of cinacalcet therapy in this subgroup of patients, mainly for correcting Ca and P metabolism. Seventy-one HD patients, including 44 patients without marked elevation of iPTH (102?vitamin D sterols were compared between pre- and post-cinacalcet administration retrospectively. Sixty-four of 71 patients did not require discontinuation of cinacalcet. In these 64 patients, serum Ca (P?=?0.0003), P (P?=?0.0153), and iPTH (P?vitamin D sterols was unchanged (P?=?0.5930) but the proportion of patients who received maxacalcitol was significantly reduced after cinacalcet administration (P?=?0.0108). The new treatment algorithm of early initiation of cinacalcet is considered to be well tolerated and effective for controlling hypercalcemia, and/or hyperphosphatemia and/or increased iPTH of CKD-MBD patients. PMID:23735149

  5. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay during focused parathyroidectomy: the importance of 20 minutes measurement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring during the surgical procedure can confirm the removal of all hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue, as the half-life of PTH is approximately 5 min. The commonly applied Irvin criterion is reported to correctly predict post-operative calcium levels in 96-98% of patients. However, the PTH baseline reference concentration is markedly influenced by surgical manipulations during preparation of the affected glands, interindividual variability of the PTH half-life and modifications in the physiological state of the patient during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible impact of the measurement of intraoperative PTH 20 minutes after surgery. Methods Between 2003 and 2012, 188 patients underwent a focused parathyroidectomy associated to rapid intraoperative PTH assay monitoring. Blood samples were collected: 1) at pre-incision time, 2) at 10 min after gland excision and 3) at 20 min after excision, if a sufficient reduction of PTH value was not observed. On the bases of the Irvin criterion, an intra-operative PTH drop>50% from the highest either pre-incision or pre-excision level after parathyroid excision was considered a surgical success. Results A >50% decrease of PTH after gland excision compared to the highest pre-excision value occurred in 156/188 patients (83%) within 10 min and in further 12/188 after 20 minutes (6.4%). In the remaining 20 patients (10.6%) values of PTH remained substantially unchanged or decreased less than 50% and for this reason bilateral neck exploration was performed. An additional pathologic parathyroid was removed in 9 cases, a third in one. In the other 10 cases further neck exploration by a standard cervical approach was negative and in four of these persistent postoperative hypercalcemia was demonstrated. The overall operative success was 97.3%. Intraoperative PTH monitoring was accurate in predicting operative success or failure in 96.3% of patients. Conclusions The 20 minutes PTH measurement appears very useful, avoiding unnecessary bilateral exploration and the related risk of complications with only a slight increase of the duration of surgery and of the costs. PTH values decreasing appeared to be influenced by surgical manipulations during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. PMID:24044556

  6. Development of monoclonal antibodies against parathyroid hormone: genetic control of the immune response to human PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, S.R.; Lin, C.S.; Potts, J.T. Jr.; Rosenthal, A.S.; Rosenblatt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Seventeen monocloanl antibodies against the aminoterminal portion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were generated by using BALB/c mouse for immunization fully biologically active synthetic human PTH-(1-34) and bovine PTH-(1-84) as immunogens, monoclonal antibody methods, and a solid-phase screening assay. Isotypic analysis of these monoclonal antibodies was performed using affinity purified goat antimouse immunoglobulins specific for IgG heavy chains and ..mu..(IgM). All antibodies were IgM as evidenced by 40 times greater than background activity when 25,000 cpm of /sup 125/I-labelled goat anti-mouse IgM was used as second antibody in a radioimmunoassay.

  7. Evolution of Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Family and Their Ligands in Vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    On, Jason S. W.; Chow, Billy K. C.; Lee, Leo T. O.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of the parathyroid hormones in vertebrates, including PTH, PTH-related peptide (PTHrP), and tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39), has been proposed to be the result of two rounds of whole genome duplication in the beginning of vertebrate diversification. Bioinformatics analyses, in particular chromosomal synteny study and the characterization of the PTH ligands and their receptors from various vertebrate species, provide evidence that strongly supports this hypothesis. In this mini-review, we summarize recent advances in studies regarding the molecular evolution and physiology of the PTH ligands and their receptors, with particular focus on non-mammalian vertebrates. In summary, the PTH family of peptides probably predates early vertebrate evolution, indicating a more ancient existence as well as a function of these peptides in invertebrates. PMID:25806022

  8. Differential effects of intermittent and continuous administration of parathyroid hormone on bone histomorphometry and gene expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Sibonga, Jean D.; Turner, Russell T.

    2002-01-01

    A mechanism explaining the differential skeletal effects of intermittent and continuous elevation of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) remains elusive. Intermittent PTH increases bone formation and bone mass and is being investigated as a therapy for osteoporosis. By contrast, chronic hyperparathyroidism results in the metabolic bone disease osteitis fibrosa characterized by osteomalacia, focal bone resorption, and peritrabecular bone marrow fibrosis. Intermittent and continuous PTH have similar effects on the number of osteoblasts and bone-forming activity. Many of the beneficial as well as detrimental effects of the hormone appear to be mediated by osteoblast-derived growth factors. This hypothesis was tested using cDNA microgene arrays to compare gene expression in tibia of rats treated with continuous and pulsatile administration of PTH. These treatments result in differential expression of many genes, including growth factors. One of the genes whose steady-state mRNA levels was increased by continuous but not pulsatile administration was platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A). Administration of a PDGF-A antagonist greatly reduced bone resorption, osteomalacia, and bone marrow fibrosis in a rat model for hyperparathyroidism, suggesting that PDGF-A is a causative agent for this disease. These findings suggest that profiling changes in gene expression can help identify the metabolic pathways responsible for the skeletal responses to the hormone.

  9. Serum 25(OH)D Level and Parathyroid Hormone in Chinese Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Guiyang Urban Community from Southeast of China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Zhang; Li-Xing, Shi; Nian-Chun, Peng; Shu-Jing, Xu; Miao, Zhang; Hong, Li; Hui-Jun, Zhuang; Ming-Xian, Gong; Song, Zhang; Rui, Wang; Ying, Hu; Jing-Lu, Zhang; Shuang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate vitamin D status and serum parathyroid hormone (IPTH) of healthy adults living in Guiyang. Design and Participants. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation in the General Community in Guiyang by cluster sampling method. The data was a part of 1510 participants (634 men, 876 women) aged 20-79 years median 45.2 years from November 2009 to February 2010 in Guiyang Health Measures Survey. Measurements. Aradioimmunoassay was used to measure the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Results.The mean serum 25(OH)D level was (20.4 ± 9.0)?ng/mL and the highest level among participants aged 40-59 years (22.8?ng/mL). The mean serum PTH level was (32.1 ± 13.7)?pg/mL and the lowest level among participants aged 40-50 years (30.8?ng/mL). Serum 25(OH)D was below 50?nmol/liter in 52.3%, below 75?nmol/liter in 84.6%, and above 75?nmol/liter in 15.4% of the respondents. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was 5.4% (5.4% among men and 4.6% among women). The prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism increased (5.8%, 6.5%, and 7.1%, resp.) with decreasing serum 25(OH)D levels among subjects who were 30 to 20, 19.9 to 10, and <10?ng/mL, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with serum PTH. Conclusions. Vitamin D insufficiency and its complication of secondary hyperparathyroidism are common. PMID:24065989

  10. Structural Basis for Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein Binding to the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor and Design of Conformation-selective Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Pioszak, Augen A.; Parker, Naomi R.; Gardella, Thomas J.; Xu, H. Eric

    2009-12-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) are two related peptides that control calcium/phosphate homeostasis and bone development, respectively, through activation of the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R), a class B G protein-coupled receptor. Both peptides hold clinical interest for their capacities to stimulate bone formation. PTH and PTHrP display different selectivity for two distinct PTH1R conformations, but how their binding to the receptor differs is unclear. The high resolution crystal structure of PTHrP bound to the extracellular domain (ECD) of PTH1R reveals that PTHrP binds as an amphipathic {alpha}-helix to the same hydrophobic groove in the ECD as occupied by PTH, but in contrast to a straight, continuous PTH helix, the PTHrP helix is gently curved and C-terminally 'unwound.' The receptor accommodates the altered binding modes by shifting the side chain conformations of two residues within the binding groove: Leu-41 and Ile-115, the former acting as a rotamer toggle switch to accommodate PTH/PTHrP sequence divergence, and the latter adapting to the PTHrP curvature. Binding studies performed with PTH/PTHrP hybrid ligands having reciprocal exchanges of residues involved in different contacts confirmed functional consequences for the altered interactions and enabled the design of altered PTH and PTHrP peptides that adopt the ECD-binding mode of the opposite peptide. Hybrid peptides that bound the ECD poorly were selective for the G protein-coupled PTH1R conformation. These results establish a molecular model for better understanding of how two biologically distinct ligands can act through a single receptor and provide a template for designing better PTH/PTHrP therapeutics.

  11. Parathyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    McClenaghan, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is an exceedingly rare endocrine malignancy first described in 1933. It accounts for between 0.5% and 5% of all cases of primary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid carcinoma is unusual among endocrine malignancies, being more hormonally active than its benign counterpart. Parathyroid carcinoma poses a diagnostic challenge both clinically and histologically due to the lack of features which can definitively distinguish malignant from benign disease early in its clinical course. Here, we describe the clinical features of the disease, and present the current opinion on optimal management. Further, we analyse the most recent histological advances made to aid in the diagnosis and management of this rare, but potentially devastating, disease. PMID:26312219

  12. Effect of parathyroid hormone on transport by toad and turtle bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors recently demonstrated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) inhibited both vasopressin- and cyclic AMP-stimulated water transport in the toad bladder. This was associated with an increase in calcium uptake by isolated epithelial cells. They postulated that PTH exerts its action on H/sub 2/O transport by directly stimulating calcium uptake. The current study was designed to compare the effects of PTH and the calcium ionophore, A23187, on H/sub 2/O and Na transport and H..mu.. secretion in toad and turtle bladders. In toad bladder, PTH and A23187 decreased arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated H/sub 2/O flow and short-circuit current (SCC) after 60 min serosal incubation. In turtle bladder A23187 decreased SCC to 79.3 +/- 3.6% of base line (P < 0.05), and significantly decreased RSCC as well. PTH had no effect on SCC or H/sup +/ secretion in turtle bladders. Both PTH and A23187 increased /sup 45/Ca uptake in toad bladder epithelial cells; only A23187 increased /sup 45/Ca uptake in the turtle bladder. The different action of PTH in these two membranes, compared with that of the calcium ionophore, illustrates the selectivity of PTH on membrane transport. PTH increases calcium uptake and decreases transport only in a hormone-sensitive epithelium, whereas the ionophore works in virtually all living membranes. The mode of action of these two agents to increase calcium uptake is, therefore likely different.

  13. Quantitation of Parathyroid Hormone in Serum or Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Singh, Ravinder J

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH), an 84 amino acid peptide hormone, is an important regulator of calcium homeostasis. Quantitation of PTH in serum is useful for the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and for monitoring osteodystrophy in patients with renal failure. The biological activity of PTH arises from binding of PTH (N terminus) to its target receptor (D'Amour et al., Kidney Int 68: 998-1007, 2005). Several C-terminal and N-terminal fragments circulate in normal subjects. Recent studies have demonstrated that accurate quantitation of PTH fragments may be of clinical value. In this chapter a mass spectrometry based method for quantitation of PTH(1-84) is described. This method involves immunoaffinity capture of PTH followed by trypsinization and quantitation of PTH-specific tryptic peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The N-terminal tryptic peptide, PTH(1-13) as surrogate of 1-84 PTH, is used for quantitation. PMID:26602132

  14. Parathyroid hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system in plasma membranes of rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Neuman, W.F.; Schneider, N.

    1980-12-01

    Purified plasma membranes were prepared from normal rat livers. These membranes were unable to degrade parathyroid hormone (PTH), bovine PTH-(1 to 84) (bPTH-(1 to 84)), or bPTH-(1 to 34). The entire molecule bPTH-(1 to 84) caused a marked activation of adenylate cyclase (cAMP production increased over 5-fold), with half-maximal stimulation at 6.9 x 10/sup -8/ M. The amino-terminal fragment bPTH-(1 to 34) was equipotent but gave a smaller maximal cAMP production. The human (h) amino acid sequence, hPTH-(1 to 34) was only weakly effective at a concentration of 10/sup -5/ M. A similar species specificity was shown with crude rat renal cortical membranes. Of a variety of ligands, only glucagon and 10/sup -3/ M F/sup -/ were cyclase activators in these liver plasma membranes. Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-bPTH by these membranes was fairly extensive but showed a saturation of binding only at high hormone concentrations (> 10/sup -6/ M). Clearly, cleavage of the intact molecule PTH-(1 to 84) is not required for activation of the adenylate cyclase system of liver membranes. It appears that two rat tissues, liver and kidney, exhibit some species specificity in cyclase activation, i.e. the hPTH-(1 to 34) (Niall sequence) is inactive.

  15. Parathyroid hormone depresses cytosolic pH and DNA synthesis in osteoblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, I.R.; Civitelli, R.; Avioli, L.V.; Hruska, K.A. )

    1988-07-01

    It has recently become apparent that a number of hormones and growth factors modulate cytosolic pH (pH{sub i}) and there is some evidence that this in turn may influence cell growth. The authors have examined the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on both these parameters in an osteoblast-like cell line, UMR 106. Preliminary studies, using the pH-sensitive fluorescent probe 2{prime},7{prime}-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5,(6)-carboxyfluorescein indicated that these cells regulate pH{sub i} by means of an amiloride-inhibitable Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchanger. Rat PTH-(1-34) (rPTH) caused a progressive dose-related decrease in pH{sub i} with a half-maximal effect at 10{sup {minus}11} M. The diacylglycerol analogue, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, increased both pH{sub i} and ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation, and amiloride reduced both indexes. However, rPTH remained a potent inhibitor of ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation in the presence of amiloride, even though it did not affect pH{sub i} in these circumstances. It is concluded that PTH decreases pH{sub i} and growth in UMR 106 cells but that these changes can be dissociated. Depression of pH{sub i} may have other important effects on bone metabolism, such as reducing cell-cell communication, and may be associated with alkalinization of the bone fluid compartment.

  16. Observations on the effect of parathyroid hormone on environmental blood lead concentrations in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, J.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on blood lead (Pb) concentrations was observed preliminarily in three different situations. Of 342 healthy bus drivers with no unusual exposure to Pb, 25 drivers with the highest and 25 with the lowest blood Pb were compared for serum PTH concentrations. There was no association between blood Pb and serum PTH concentrations. Eight women with postmenopausal osteoporosis enrolled in an experimental protocol to increase bone mass received daily PTH (1-34 fragment) for 1 week, calcitonin for the next 2 weeks, and oral calcium for the subsequent 10 weeks. This cycle was repeated four times during the year. Initial blood Pb concentrations averaged 6.0 micrograms/dl (range 2.1-8.9). Mean blood Pb concentrations decreased by 1.7 micrograms/dl over 1 year of therapy. The confidence interval for this change excluded zero, the mean change was significantly different from the mean change for comparative population (P less than 0.050), and paired changes were statistically significant (P = 0.045). Lastly, a single subject with hyperparathyroid disease and no unusual exposures to lead demonstrated stabilized blood Pb concentrations that were 50% lower after removal of his hyperplastic parathyroid glands. These observations suggest that the effect of PTH on increasing bone turnover and releasing Pb into blood is not easily detected at low physiologic amounts of PTH, but that with pathologic increases of PTH in hyperparathyroid disease, elevation of blood Pb from bone or increased gastrointestinal absorption may be possible. Likewise, either bone building therapies (PTH + calcitonin + calcium) may move Pb from blood into bone or supplemental calcium may decrease Pb gastrointestinal absorption, thereby explaining the observed lower blood Pb concentrations.

  17. Factors that influence parathyroid hormone half-life: Are new intraoperative criteria needed?

    PubMed Central

    Leiker, Andrew J.; Yen, Tina W. F.; Eastwood, Dan C.; Doffek, Kara M.; Szabo, Aniko; Evans, Douglas B.; Wang, Tracy S.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis Patient characteristics, such as age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), and renal function may affect existing criteria for intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Design Retrospective review of a prospectively-collected parathyroid database. Setting Academic medical center. Patients 306 patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) who underwent initial parathyroidectomy between August 2005 and April 2011. Interventions All patients underwent MIP with complete IOPTH information. Outcome measures Individual IOPTH kinetic profiles were fitted with an exponential decay curve and individual IOPTH half-lives were determined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between patient demographics or laboratory data and IOPTH half-life. Results Mean age of the cohort was 60 years, 78% were female, 90% were White, and median BMI was 28.3 kg/m2. Overall, median IOPTH half-life was 3 minutes, 9 seconds. On univariate analysis, there was no association between IOPTH half-life and patient age, renal function, preoperative serum calcium or PTH levels. Age, BMI, and age-BMI interaction were included in the final multivariate median regression analysis; race, gender, and GFR were not predictors of IOPTH half-life. IOPTH half-life increased with increasing BMI, an effect that diminished with increasing age and was negligible after age 55 (p=0.0014). Conclusion BMI, especially in younger patients, may have a role in the IOPTH half-life of patients undergoing parathyroidectomy. However, the differences in half-life are relatively small and the clinical implication are likely not significant. Current IOPTH criteria can continue to be applied to all patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:23677330

  18. Effects of intermittent versus continuous parathyroid hormone administration on condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qi; Wan, Qilong; Yang, Rongtao; Zhou, Haihua; Li, Zubing; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different PTH administration exerts different effects on condylar chondrocyte. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration suppresses condylar chondrocyte proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous PTH administration maintains condylar chondrocyte proliferating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration enhances condylar chondrocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Endochondral ossification is a complex process involving chondrogenesis and osteogenesis regulated by many hormones and growth factors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), one of the key hormones regulating bone metabolism, promotes osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis by intermittent administration, whereas continuous PTH administration inhibits bone formation. However, the effects of PTH on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are still unclear. In this study, intermittent PTH administration presented enhanced effects on condylar chondrocyte differentiation and bone formation, as demonstrated by increased mineral nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, up-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), ALP, collagen type X (COL10a1), collagen type I (COL1a1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and osterix (OSX) mRNA and/or protein expression. On the contrary, continuous PTH administration promoted condylar chondrocyte proliferation and suppressed its differentiation, as demonstrated by up-regulated collagen type II (COL2a1) mRNA expression, reduced mineral nodule formation and down-regulated expression of the mRNAs and/or proteins mentioned above. Our data suggest that PTH can regulate condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, depending on the type of PTH administration. These results provide new insight into the effects of PTH on condylar chondrocytes and new evidence for using local PTH administration to cure mandibular asymmetry.

  19. A comparison of parathyroid hormone-related protein (1-36) and parathyroid hormone (1-34) on markers of bone turnover and bone density in postmenopausal women: the PrOP study.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Mara J; Augustine, Marilyn; Khan, Leila; Kahn, Leila; Martin, Emily; Oakley, Christine C; Carneiro, Raquel M; Tedesco, Mary Beth; Laslavic, Angela; Sereika, Susan M; Bisello, Alessandro; Garcia-Ocańa, Adolfo; Gundberg, Caren M; Cauley, Jane A; Stewart, Andrew F

    2013-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)(1-36) increases lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD), acting as an anabolic agent when injected intermittently, but it has not been directly compared with parathyroid hormone (PTH)(1-34). We performed a 3-month randomized, prospective study in 105 postmenopausal women with low bone density or osteoporosis, comparing daily subcutaneous injections of PTHrP(1-36) to PTH(1-34). Thirty-five women were randomized to each of three groups: PTHrP(1-36) 400?µg/day; PTHrP(1-36) 600?µg/day; and PTH(1-34) 20?µg/day. The primary outcome measures were changes in amino-terminal telopeptides of procollagen 1 (PINP) and carboxy-terminal telopeptides of collagen 1 (CTX). Secondary measures included safety parameters, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, and BMD. The increase in bone resorption (CTX) by PTH(1-34) (92%) (p?

  20. Individual and combined effects of noise-like whole-body vibration and parathyroid hormone treatment on bone defect repair in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and exposure to whole-body vibration on osteoporotic fracture healing has been previously investigated, but data on their concurrent use are lacking. Thus, we evaluated the effects of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, whole-body vibration, and their combination on bone repair in osteoporotic mice. Noise-like whole-body vibration with a broad frequency range was used instead of conventional sine-wave whole-body vibration at a specific frequency. Mice were ovariectomized at 9?weeks of age and subjected to drill-hole surgery in the right tibial diaphysis at 11?weeks. The animals were divided into four groups (n?=?12 each): a control group, and groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, noise-like whole-body vibration, and both. From postoperative day 2, the groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were subcutaneously administered parathyroid hormone at a dose of 30?µg/kg/day. The groups treated with noise-like whole-body vibration and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were exposed to noise-like whole-body vibration at a root mean squared acceleration of 0.3g and frequency components of 45-100?Hz for 20?min/day. Following 18?days of interventions, the right tibiae were harvested, and the regenerated bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and nanoindentation testing. Compared with the control group, callus volume fraction was 40% higher in groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and 73% higher in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration, and callus thickness was 35% wider in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration. Indentation modulus was 46% higher in groups treated with noise-like whole-body vibration and 43% higher in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration, and hardness was 31% higher in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration compared with the control group. There was no interaction between the two treatments for both structure and mechanical indexes. The main effects of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration on bone repair included increased bone formation and enhanced mechanical function of regenerated bone, respectively. The combined treatment resulted in further regeneration of bone with high indentation modulus and hardness, suggesting the therapeutic potential of the combined use of noise-like whole-body vibration and intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone for enhancing osteoporotic bone healing. PMID:26586525

  1. Impact of parathyroid hormone on bone marrow-derived stem cell mobilization and migration

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Bruno C; Grabmaier, Ulrich; Brunner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is well-known as the principal regulator of calcium homeostasis in the human body and controls bone metabolism via actions on the survival and activation of osteoblasts. The intermittent administration of PTH has been shown to stimulate bone production in mice and men and therefore PTH administration has been recently approved for the treatment of osteoporosis. Besides to its physiological role in bone remodelling PTH has been demonstrated to influence and expand the bone marrow stem cell niche where hematopoietic stem cells, capable of both self-renewal and differentiation, reside. Moreover, intermittent PTH treatment is capable to induce mobilization of progenitor cells from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. This novel function of PTH on modulating the activity of the stem cell niche in the bone marrow as well as on mobilization and regeneration of bone marrow-derived stem cells offers new therapeutic options in bone marrow and stem cell transplantation as well as in the field of ischemic disorders. PMID:25426261

  2. Critical Role of Activating Transcription Factor 4 in the Anabolic Actions of Parathyroid Hormone in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shibing; Franceschi, Renny T.; Luo, Min; Fan, Jie; Jiang, Di; Cao, Huiling; Kwon, Tae-Geon; Lai, Yumei; Zhang, Jian; Patrene, Kenneth; Hankenson, Kurt; Roodman, G. David; Xiao, Guozhi

    2009-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. However, its mechanism of action in osteoblast and bone is not well understood. In this study, we show that the anabolic actions of PTH in bone are severely impaired in both growing and adult ovariectomized mice lacking bone-related activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Our study demonstrates that ATF4 deficiency suppresses PTH-stimulated osteoblast proliferation and survival and abolishes PTH-induced osteoblast differentiation, which, together, compromise the anabolic response. We further demonstrate that the PTH-dependent increase in osteoblast differentiation is correlated with ATF4-dependent up-regulation of Osterix. This regulation involves interactions of ATF4 with a specific enhancer sequence in the Osterix promoter. Furthermore, actions of PTH on Osterix require this same element and are associated with increased binding of ATF4 to chromatin. Taken together these experiments establish a fundamental role for ATF4 in the anabolic actions of PTH on the skeleton. PMID:19851510

  3. Parathyroid hormone levels in long-term renal transplant children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Isabella; Di Zazzo, Giacomo; Laurenzi, Chiara; Ravŕ, Lucilla; Giannone, Germana; Picca, Stefano; Dello Strologo, Luca

    2011-11-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of chronic renal failure. Kidney transplantation corrects renal insufficiency and most metabolic abnormalities but hyperparathyroidism persists in 50% of children after transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate parathyroid hormone (PTH) course and potential risk factors for hyperparathyroidism in children after renal transplant. We collected data from 145 transplanted children (mean follow-up 4.7 years). Intact PTH level (iPTH) rapidly decreased in the first 6 months post-transplant and continued to decline in the following years. iPTH was above the normal range in 69.1% of the patients at the time of transplant and in 47% 1 year later, this improvement continuing thereafter. Hypercalcemia was present in 20.3% of the patients before transplant and in 6.3 and 4.1% of patients 6 months and 1 year after transplant, respectively. Hypophosphatemia was present in 5.5% of the patients at 6 months, and 45.5% of the patients needed phosphorus supplements during the first 6 months after transplant. Multivariate analysis indicated pre-transplant hyperparathyroidism, dialysis duration, creatinine clearance and hypophosphatemia as predictors of persistent hyperparathyroidism. In kidney transplanted children, serum iPTH normalized in the long term in the majority of cases. Thus, parathyroidectomy should be reserved for selected patients. PMID:21556715

  4. Regional responsiveness of the tibia to intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone as affected by skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Tanner, S.; Curren, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether the acute inhibition of bone formation and deficit in bone mineral induced by skeletal unloading can be prevented, we studied the effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration (8 micrograms/100 g/day) on growing rats submitted to 8 days of skeletal unloading. Loss of weight bearing decreased periosteal bone formation by 34 and 51% at the tibiofibular junction and tibial midshaft, respectively, and reduced the normal gain in tibial mass by 35%. Treatment with PTH of normally loaded and unloaded animals increased mRNA for osteocalcin (+58 and +148%, respectively), cancellous bone volume in the proximal tibia (+41 and +42%, respectively), and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction (+27 and +27%, respectively). Formation was also stimulated at the midshaft in unloaded (+47%, p < 0.05), but not loaded animals (-3%, NS). Although cancellous bone volume was preserved in PTH-treated, unloaded animals, PTH did not restore periosteal bone formation to normal nor prevent the deficit in overall tibial mass induced by unloading. We conclude that the effects of PTH on bone formation are region specific and load dependent. PTH can prevent the decrease in cancellous bone volume and reduce the decrement in cortical bone formation induced by loss of weight bearing.

  5. Parathyroid hormone modulates the response of osteoblast-like cells to mechanical stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, K. D.; Duncan, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical loading stimulates many responses in bone and osteoblasts associated with osteogenesis. Since loading and parathyroid hormone (PTH) activate similar signaling pathways in osteoblasts, we postulate that PTH can potentiate the effects of mechanical stimulation. Using an in vitro four-point bending device, we found that expression of COX-2, the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase, was dependent on fluid forces generated across the culture plate, but not physiologic levels of strain in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. Addition of 50 nM PTH during loading increased COX-2 expression at both subthreshold and threshold levels of fluid forces compared with either stimuli alone. We also demonstrated that application of fluid shear to MC3T3-E1 cells induced a rapid increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Although PTH did not significantly change [Ca(2+)](i) levels, flow and PTH did produce a significantly greater [Ca(2+)](i) response and increased the number of responding cells than is found in fluid shear alone. The [Ca(2+)](i) response to these stimuli was significantly decreased when the mechanosensitive channel inhibitor, gadolinium, was present. These studies indicate that PTH increases the cellular responses of osteoblasts to mechanical loading. Furthermore, this response may be mediated by alterations in [Ca(2+)](i) by modulating the mechanosensitive channel.

  6. Specific inhibition of long-lasting, L-type calcium channels by synthetic parathyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, P.K.T.; Wang, R.; Shan, J.; Karpinski, E.; Benishin, C.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of an active synthetic N-terminal fragment of bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH), bPTH-(1-34), on Ca{sup 2+} channels was studied in mouse neuroblastoma cells (N1E-115). With the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, T (transient) and L (long-lasting) types of Ca{sup 2+} currents were identified. Pharmacological characterization showed that the L current was amplified by the Ca{sup 2+} channel stimulator BAY K-8644, but the T current was unaffected. The administration of bPTH-(1-34) produced dose-related inhibition of the L current, which could be reversed by BAY K-8644. The peptide had no effect on the T current. In addition, use of the fluorescent indicator fura-2 showed that bPTH-(1-34) inhibited the KCl-stimulated increase in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+} in neuroblastoma cells with L channels but not in cells with T channels. An inactivated (oxidized) preparation of bPTH-(1-34) failed to affect the L current. High-affinity binding of labeled PTH analog to these neuroblastoma cells was also demonstrated. In addition, bPTH-(1-34) inhibited the L current in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from rat tail artery. These data indicate that, in some tissues PTH can act as an endogenous blocker of Ca{sup 2+} entry.

  7. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) production sites in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Trivett, M K; Walker, T I; Macmillan, D L; Clement, J G; Martin, T J; Danks, J A

    2002-07-01

    This study describes the distribution of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) antigen and its mRNA in seven species of cartilaginous fish from six elasmobranch families. Antigen was detected using antibodies to synthetic human PTHrP and the mRNA with a riboprobe to human PTHrP gene sequence. The distribution pattern of PTHrP in the cartilaginous fish studied, reflected that observed in mammals but PTHrP further occurs in some sites unique to cartilaginous fish. Of particular note was the demonstration of PTHrP in the shark skeleton, which although considered not to contain bone, may form by a process similar to that forming the early stages of mammalian endochondral bone. The distribution of PTHrP in the elasmobranch skeleton resembled the distribution of PTHrP in the developing mammalian skeleton. Differences in the staining pattern between antisera to N-terminal PTHrP and mid-molecule PTHrP in the brain and pituitary suggested that the PTHrP molecule might be post-translationally processed in these tissues. The successful use of antibodies and a probe to human PTHrP in tissues from the early vertebrates examined in this study suggests that the PTHrP molecule is conserved from elasmobranchs to humans. PMID:12171475

  8. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) production sites in elasmobranchs

    PubMed Central

    Trivett, M K; Walker, T I; Macmillan, D L; Clement, J G; Martin, T J; Danks, J A

    2002-01-01

    Abstract This study describes the distribution of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) antigen and its mRNA in seven species of cartilaginous fish from six elasmobranch families. Antigen was detected using antibodies to synthetic human PTHrP and the mRNA with a riboprobe to human PTHrP gene sequence. The distribution pattern of PTHrP in the cartilaginous fish studied, reflected that observed in mammals but PTHrP further occurs in some sites unique to cartilaginous fish. Of particular note was the demonstration of PTHrP in the shark skeleton, which although considered not to contain bone, may form by a process similar to that forming the early stages of mammalian endochondral bone. The distribution of PTHrP in the elasmobranch skeleton resembled the distribution of PTHrP in the developing mammalian skeleton. Differences in the staining pattern between antisera to N-terminal PTHrP and mid-molecule PTHrP in the brain and pituitary suggested that the PTHrP molecule might be post-translationally processed in these tissues. The successful use of antibodies and a probe to human PTHrP in tissues from the early vertebrates examined in this study suggests that the PTHrP molecule is conserved from elasmobranchs to humans. PMID:12171475

  9. Parathyroid hormone regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor signaling in osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alice; Loots, Gabriela G; Yellowley, Clare E; Dosé, Andréa C; Genetos, Damian C

    2015-12-01

    Osteoblasts perceive and respond to changes in their pericellular environment, including biophysical signals and oxygen availability, to elicit an anabolic or catabolic response. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) affects each arm of skeletal remodeling, with net anabolic or catabolic effects dependent upon duration of exposure. Similarly, the capacity of osteoblastic cells to perceive pericellular oxygen has a profound effect on skeletal mass and architecture, as mice expressing stable hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and -2? demonstrate age-dependent increases in bone volume per tissue volume and osteoblast number. Further, HIF levels and signaling can be influenced in an oxygen-independent manner. Because the cellular mechanisms involved in PTH regulation of the skeleton remain vague, we sought whether PTH could influence HIF-1? expression and HIF-?-driven luciferase activity independently of altered oxygen availability. Using UMR106.01 mature osteoblasts, we observed that 100nM hPTH(1-34) decreased HIF-1? and HIF-responsive luciferase activity in a process involving heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and cyclic AMP but not intracellular calcium. Altering activity of the small GTPase RhoA and its effector kinase ROCK altered HIF-?-driven luciferase activity in the absence and presence of PTH. Taken together, these data introduce PTH as a regulator of oxygen-independent HIF-1? levels through a mechanism involving cyclic AMP, Hsp90, and the cytoskeleton. PMID:26151122

  10. Amphiregulin lacks an essential role for the bone anabolic action of parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Jay, Freya F; Vaidya, Mithila; Porada, Sabrina M; Andrukhova, Olena; Schneider, Marlon R; Erben, Reinhold G

    2015-12-01

    Although parathyroid hormone (PTH) has long been known to act as a bone anabolic agent when administered intermittently, the exact underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Amphiregulin (AREG), a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor, has been identified to be a PTH target gene in vitro and in vivo. Here, we used female global AREG knockout (AREG-KO) mice to explore the role of AREG in mediating the bone anabolic effects of PTH. AREG-KO mice were characterized by unchanged distal femoral cancellous bone mass and only subtle decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical thickness at the femoral midshaft at 3 and 8 months of age, relative to wildtype controls. AREG deficiency was associated with complex changes in the mRNA expression of other EGFR ligands in femoral cancellous bone osteoblasts in situ in 3-week-old mice. To examine the bone anabolic effects of PTH in the absence and presence of AREG, we injected 3-month-old AREG-KO females and wildtype control littermates with 80 ?g/kg PTH or vehicle 5 times per week over 4 weeks. Intermittent PTH treatment of AREG-KO mice led to increases in femoral trabecular and cortical BMD, cortical thickness, endocortical and periosteal bone formation, cancellous bone formation rate, and serum osteocalcin, comparable to those observed in wildtype control mice. In conclusion, our data indicate that the bone anabolic effects of PTH do not require AREG, at least in 3-month-old female mice. PMID:26427650

  11. Full length parathyroid hormone (1–84) in the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Jódar-Gimeno, Esteban

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review the pharmacological properties and the available clinical data of full length parathyroid hormone (PTH) in post-menopausal osteoporosis. Sources: A MEDLINE search was completed, together with a review of information obtained from the manufacturer and from the medicine regulatory agencies. Study and data selection: Studies were selected according to relevance and availability. Relevant information (design, objectives, patients’ characteristics, outcomes, adverse events, dosing, etc) was analyzed. Results: Different studies have shown that, when administered intermittently as a subcutaneous injection in the abdomen, PTH increases bone mineral density (BMD) and prevents vertebral fractures. On completion of PTH therapy (up to 24 months), there is evidence that sequential treatment with alendronate is associated with a therapeutic benefit in terms of increase in BMD. Further trials are necessary to determine long-term safety and the role of PTH in combination with other treatments for osteoporosis and the effect of repeated cycles of PTH followed by an anti-catabolic agent. There are currently no completed comparative trials with other osteoporosis treatments. Conclusions: Full length PTH, given intermittently as an abdominal subcutaneous injection, appears to be a safe and efficacious treatment option for high risk osteoporosis. More data are needed to determine its specific role in osteoporosis treatment. PMID:18044089

  12. Influence of Parathyroid Hormone-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles in Porous Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Piergiorgio; Nandagiri, Vijay Kumar; Pabari, Ritesh; Daly, Jacqueline; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles, containing human parathyroid hormone (PTH (1–34)), prepared by a modified double emulsion-solvent diffusion-evaporation method, were incorporated in porous freeze-dried chitosan-gelatin (CH-G) scaffolds. The PTH-loaded nanoparticles (NPTH) were characterised in terms of morphology, size, protein loading, release kinetics and in vitro assessment of biological activity of released PTH and cytocompatibility studies against clonal human osteoblast (hFOB) cells. Structural integrity of incorporated and released PTH from nanoparticles was found to be intact by using Tris-tricine SDS-PAGE. In vitro PTH release kinetics from PLGA nanoparticles were characterised by a burst release followed by a slow release phase for 3–4 weeks. The released PTH was biologically active as evidenced by the stimulated release of cyclic AMP from hFOB cells as well as increased mineralisation studies. Both in vitro and cell studies demonstrated that the PTH bioactivity was maintained during the fabrication of PLGA nanoparticles and upon release. Finally, a content of 33.3% w/w NPTHs was incorporated in CH-G scaffolds, showing an intermittent release during the first 10 days and, followed by a controlled release over 28 days of observation time. The increased expression of Alkaline Phosphatase levels on hFOB cells further confirmed the activity of intermittently released PTH from scaffolds. PMID:26343649

  13. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma producing parathyroid hormone-related protein: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Michinori; Wakiyama, Shigeki; Shiba, Hiroaki; Gocho, Takeshi; Misawa, Takeyuki; Ishida, Yuichi; Itsubo, Mariko; Suzuki, Masafumi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-08-01

    Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHCC) is an uncommon form of primary liver cancer. A 57-year-old man was readmitted to our hospital for treatment of recurrent CHCC, 12 months after central bisegmentectomy and 4 months after limited hepatic resection. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple hepatic nodules. Laboratory data showed increased serum levels of ?-fetoprotein (AFP), calcium, and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP), to 5,571 ng/mL, 17.0 mg/dL, and 16.1 pmol/L, respectively. Palliative mass reduction surgery was indicated by the fact that the hypercalcemia was difficult to manage medically. Thus, we performed lateral segmentectomy with partial resection of segment 7 and the caudate lobe, and microwave coagulation therapy for multiple recurrent CHCC. Thereafter, the serum PTH-rP and AFP levels decreased remarkably and the hypercalcemia was controlled for the next 3 months. He died of disease progression 9 months after the last hepatic surgery. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of CHCC producing PTH-rP in the English-language literature. PMID:24013836

  14. Impact of intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels on surgical results in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Weber, Theresia; Zeier, Martin; Hinz, Ulf; Schilling, Tobias; Büchler, Markus W

    2005-09-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement on surgical results in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism (HPT). From December 1999 to February 2004, a series of 95 consecutive patients underwent total parathyroidectomy and intraoperative PTH measurement for renal HPT. Intraoperative PTH was measured before and 15 minutes after parathyroidectomy with the Immulite DPC assay for intact PTH. The median PTH levels before surgery were 133.0 pmol/L, which declined to 5.9 pmol/L at the end of the operation. At follow-up, 91 of 95 (96%) patients presented with normal calcium levels. Persistent renal HPT was seen in three patients, and recurrent HPT was diagnosed in another. In 99% of the patients the intraoperative PTH levels declined more than 50% and in 73% the PTH decay was more than 90%. In 64% of the patients PTH levels dropped into the normal range (< 7.6 pmol/L). Altogether, 97% of the patients with an intraoperative PTH decrease of more than 90% presented with normal PTH levels postoperatively (p = 0.0237), as did all of the patients whose intraoperative PTH dropped into the normal range (p = 0.0432). Intraoperative PTH measurement with a decrease in intraoperative PTH of at least 90% is highly predictive of successful parathyroidectomy and normalization of postoperative calcium and PTH levels. PMID:16132402

  15. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIII. The Parathyroid Hormone Receptors—Family B G Protein–Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The type-1 parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR1) is a family B G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates the actions of two polypeptide ligands; parathyroid hormone (PTH), an endocrine hormone that regulates the levels of calcium and inorganic phosphate in the blood by acting on bone and kidney, and PTH-related protein (PTHrP), a paracrine-factor that regulates cell differentiation and proliferation programs in developing bone and other tissues. The type-2 parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR2) binds a peptide ligand, called tuberoinfundibular peptide-39 (TIP39), and while the biologic role of the PTHR2/TIP39 system is not as defined as that of the PTHR1, it likely plays a role in the central nervous system as well as in spermatogenesis. Mechanisms of action at these receptors have been explored through a variety of pharmacological and biochemical approaches, and the data obtained support a basic “two-site” mode of ligand binding now thought to be used by each of the family B peptide hormone GPCRs. Recent crystallographic studies on the family B GPCRs are providing new insights that help to further refine the specifics of the overall receptor architecture and modes of ligand docking. One intriguing pharmacological finding for the PTHR1 is that it can form surprisingly stable complexes with certain PTH/PTHrP ligand analogs and thereby mediate markedly prolonged cell signaling responses that persist even when the bulk of the complexes are found in internalized vesicles. The PTHR1 thus appears to be able to activate the G?s/cAMP pathway not only from the plasma membrane but also from the endosomal domain. The cumulative findings could have an impact on efforts to develop new drug therapies for the PTH receptors. PMID:25713287

  16. A Retrospective Study of the Impact of Intraoperative Intact Parathyroid Hormone Monitoring During Total Parathyroidectomy for Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Hiramitsu, Takahisa; Tominaga, Yoshihiro; Okada, Manabu; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone (IO-iPTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). The cut-off for IO-iPTH monitoring remains unknown. This was a single-center retrospective review of 226 consecutive patients (107 males and 119 females) who underwent parathyroidectomy data for secondary HPT between May 2010 and March 2014. The predetermined cut-off for IO-iPTH was a 70% IO-iPTH drop from baseline 10?minutes after total parathyroidectomy and thymectomy. We used <60?pg/mL iPTH value on postoperative day 1 (POD1) as an indicator of successful removal of parathyroid glands and reviewed the frequency of reoperation other than in autografted sites during the observation period. This study was based on the Standards for the Reporting of Diagnositic accuracy compliant. The reoperation rate in patients with >60?pg/mL iPTH value (POD1) was significantly higher than that in patients with <60?pg/mL iPTH value (POD1), (13.0% versus 0.5% P?=?0.003). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of >70% IO-iPTH drop were 97.5%, 52.2%, and 92.9%, respectively, this criterion was demonstrated to be beneficial in 26 patients. In 5 patients, <70% IO-iPTH drop was observed and further exploration enabled sufficient removal of parathyroid glands. In 21 patients, although fewer than 4 parathyroid glands were removed after enough explorations, >70% IO-iPTH drop enabled termination of operations and iPTH value (POD1) was <60?pg/mL. An iPTH value of <60?pg/mL (POD1) was a good predictor for successful parathyroidectomy. A 70% IO-iPTH drop from the baseline was appropriate to determine sufficient parathyroid gland removal during parathyroidectomy for patients with secondary HPT. PMID:26200645

  17. A Retrospective Study of the Impact of Intraoperative Intact Parathyroid Hormone Monitoring During Total Parathyroidectomy for Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: STARD Study.

    PubMed

    Hiramitsu, Takahisa; Tominaga, Yoshihiro; Okada, Manabu; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone (IO-iPTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). The cut-off for IO-iPTH monitoring remains unknown. This was a single-center retrospective review of 226 consecutive patients (107 males and 119 females) who underwent parathyroidectomy for secondary HPT between May 2010 and March 2014. The predetermined cut-off for IO-iPTH was a 70% IO-iPTH drop from baseline 10 minutes after total parathyroidectomy and thymectomy. We used <60 pg/mL iPTH value on postoperative day 1 (POD1) as an indicator of successful removal of parathyroid glands and reviewed the frequency of reoperation other than in autografted sites during the observation period. This study was based on the Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy compliant. The reoperation rate in patients with >60 pg/mL iPTH value (POD1) was significantly higher than that in patients with <60 pg/mL iPTH value (POD1), (13.0% versus 0.5% P = 0.003). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of >70% IO-iPTH drop were 97.5%, 52.2%, and 92.9%, respectively, this criterion was demonstrated to be beneficial in 26 patients. In 5 patients, <70% IO-iPTH drop was observed and further exploration enabled sufficient removal of parathyroid glands. In 21 patients, although fewer than 4 parathyroid glands were removed after enough explorations, >70% IO-iPTH drop enabled termination of operations and iPTH value (POD1) was <60 pg/mL.An iPTH value of <60 pg/mL (POD1) was a good predictor for successful parathyroidectomy. A 70% IO-iPTH drop from the baseline was appropriate to determine sufficient parathyroid gland removal during parathyroidectomy for patients with secondary HPT. [Corrected] PMID:26200645

  18. Ectopic secretion of parathyroid hormone in a neuroendocrine tumor: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Emad; Noureldine, Salem; Khalek, Mohamed Abdel; Daroca, Philip; Friedlander, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Very few cases have been reported in which the production and secretion of intact PTH by a non-parathyroid tumor has been authenticated. This paper describes the case of a 73 year old white female with a clinical and biochemical profile characteristic of primary hyperparathyroidism. Sestamibi scan and comprehensive neck ultrasono-graphy failed to localize a cervical lesion. Because the clinical manifestations were striking, neck exploration was performed. Dissection of the central compartment identified a lesion. PTH levels dropped to normal within ten minutes after its removal. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assays facilitated the successful surgical removal of the lesion. Pathological examination yielded a diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor. These results document the ectopic production of intact PTH by a neuroendocrine tumor and present a novel neoplastic cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. This is the second report of an ectopic neuroendocrine tumor in the head and neck which secreted intact PTH. PMID:21977238

  19. Parathyroid hormone-dependent signaling pathways regulating genes in bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swarthout, John T.; D'Alonzo, Richard C.; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an 84-amino-acid polypeptide hormone functioning as a major mediator of bone remodeling and as an essential regulator of calcium homeostasis. PTH and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) indirectly activate osteoclasts resulting in increased bone resorption. During this process, PTH changes the phenotype of the osteoblast from a cell involved in bone formation to one directing bone resorption. In addition to these catabolic effects, PTH has been demonstrated to be an anabolic factor in skeletal tissue and in vitro. As a result, PTH has potential medical application to the treatment of osteoporosis, since intermittent administration of PTH stimulates bone formation. Activation of osteoblasts by PTH results in expression of genes important for the degradation of the extracellular matrix, production of growth factors, and stimulation and recruitment of osteoclasts. The ability of PTH to drive changes in gene expression is dependent upon activation of transcription factors such as the activator protein-1 family, RUNX2, and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Much of the regulation of these processes by PTH is protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent. However, while PKA is linked to many of the changes in gene expression directed by PTH, PKA activation has been shown to inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and proliferation of osteoblasts. It is now known that stimulation of MAPK and proliferation by PTH at low concentrations is protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent in both osteoblastic and kidney cells. Furthermore, PTH has been demonstrated to regulate components of the cell cycle. However, whether this regulation requires PKC and/or extracellular signal-regulated kinases or whether PTH is able to stimulate other components of the cell cycle is unknown. It is possible that stimulation of this signaling pathway by PTH mediates a unique pattern of gene expression resulting in proliferation in osteoblastic and kidney cells; however, specific examples of this are still unknown. This review will focus on what is known about PTH-mediated cell signaling, and discuss the established or putative PTH-regulated pattern of gene expression in osteoblastic cells following treatment with catabolic (high) or anabolic (low) concentrations of the hormone.

  20. Comparison of 1-84 and intact parathyroid hormone assay in pediatric dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Rita D; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2005-07-01

    The non-invasive diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy (ROD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains dependent on the determination of an accurate parathyroid hormone (PTH) level. Older assays that determine the "intact" PTH molecule are known to cross react with various PTH fragments, resulting in overestimation of PTH levels. Recently, assays that determine the whole 1-84 PTH molecule have been made available. Monthly PTH values in chronic dialysis patients at our institution were compared using the Nichols Bio-Intact PTH (BiPTH, 1-84 PTH) and the intact PTH (iPTH) assay over 3 consecutive months. One hundred twenty-four samples were obtained from 51 (29 male) pediatric dialysis patients (27 HD). The mean patient age was 14.2+/-5.6 years (1.8-25.7 years), with 12 patients<10 years and 15 patients <30 kg. The mean 1-84 PTH/iPTH ratio was 0.48+/-0.11. While BiPTH values correlated closely with iPTH values ( r =0.98, P <0.05), we observed significant intra-patient (16.4+/-15.4%; range: -73.9 to 67.7%, total % error: 47.2%) and inter-patient (17.2+/-18.9%; range: -73.9 to 129.9%, total % error: 55%) variability in the 1-84 PTH/iPTH ratio over the 3-month study period. Thus, our findings suggest that ROD management based on prior associations between iPTH levels and bone biopsy findings should not be extrapolated using the newer 1-84 PTH assay. PMID:15856315

  1. Interleukin-18 is regulated by parathyroid hormone and is required for its bone anabolic actions.

    PubMed

    Raggatt, Liza J; Qin, Ling; Tamasi, Joseph; Jefcoat, Stephen C; Shimizu, Emi; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Liew, Foo Y; Bevelock, Laura; Feyen, Jean H M; Partridge, Nicola C

    2008-03-14

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) can regulate osteoblast and osteoclast function. We have identified, using cDNA microarray technology, that IL-18 expression is increased in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic cells in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment. Confirmation of these data using real-time reverse transcription-PCR showed that steady-state levels of IL-18 mRNA increased by 2 h (3-fold), peaked by 4 h (10-fold), and had diminished after 12 h (4.4-fold) and that this regulation was via the protein kinase A signaling pathway and did not involve activation of the PKC signal cascade. PTH regulation of IL-18 was confirmed at the protein level, and analysis of differentiating primary rat calvarial osteoblasts verified that both IL-18 mRNA and protein are regulated by PTH in primary rat osteoblasts. Promoter reporter assays revealed that PTH regulated the upstream IL-18 promoter and induced the exon 1 containing 1.1-kb IL-18 mRNA transcript in primary osteoblast cells. The in vivo physiological role of IL-18 in the anabolic actions of PTH on bone was then assessed using IL-18 knock-out mice. Female IL-18 null mice and wild-type littermate controls were injected with vehicle or 8 microg/100 g of human 1-38 PTH for 4 weeks. In IL-18 knock-out animals the anabolic effect of PTH (determined by bone mineral density changes in the proximal tibia) was abolished in trabecular bone but not in the cortical component. These data characterize the PTH regulation of IL-18 expression in osteoblastic cells and suggest that this cytokine is involved in the anabolic actions of PTH. PMID:18165223

  2. Parathyroid hormone resets the cartilage circadian clock of the organ-cultured murine femur.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Naoki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Minami, Yoichi; Kunimoto, Tatsuya; Hosokawa, Toshihiro; Umemura, Yasuhiro; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Asada, Maki; Oda, Ryo; Kubo, Toshikazu; Yagita, Kazuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Background and purpose - The circadian clock governs endogenous day-night variations. In bone, the metabolism and growth show diurnal rhythms. The circadian clock is based on a transcription-translation feedback loop composed of clock genes including Period2 (Per2), which encodes the protein period circadian protein homolog 2. Because plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels show diurnal variation, we hypothesized that PTH could carry the time information to bone and cartilage. In this study, we analyzed the effect of PTH on the circadian clock of the femur. Patients and methods - Per2::Luciferase (Per2::Luc) knock-in mice were used and their femurs were organ-cultured. The bioluminescence was measured using photomultiplier tube-based real-time bioluminescence monitoring equipment or real-time bioluminescence microscopic imaging devices. PTH or its vehicle was administered and the phase shifts were calculated. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect PTH type 1 receptor (PTH1R) expression. Results - Real-time bioluminescence monitoring revealed that PTH reset the circadian rhythm of the Per2::Luc activity in the femurs in an administration time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Microscopic bioluminescence imaging revealed that Per2::Luc activity in the growth plate and the articular cartilage showed that the circadian rhythms and their phase shifts were induced by PTH. PTH1R was expressed in the growth plate cartilage. Interpretation - In clinical practice, teriparatide (PTH (1-34)) treatment is widely used for osteoporosis. We found that PTH administration regulated the femoral circadian clock oscillation, particularly in the cartilage. Regulation of the local circadian clock by PTH may lead to a more effective treatment for not only osteoporosis but also endochondral ossification in bone growth and fracture repair. PMID:25765847

  3. Exogenous Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide Promotes Fracture Healing in Lepr(-/-) Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anlong; Li, Yishan; Wang, Yinhe; Liu, Li; Shi, Hongfei; Qiu, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Diabetic osteoporosis continues to surge worldwide, increasing the risk of fracture. We have previously demonstrated that haploinsufficiency of endogenous parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) impairs fracture healing. However, whether an exogenous supply of PTHrP can repair bone damage and accelerate fracture healing remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of PTHrP in healing fractures. Standardized mid-diaphyseal femur fractures were generated in 12-week-old wild-type and leptin receptor null Lepr(-/-) mice. After administration of PTHrP for 2 weeks, callus tissue properties were analyzed by radiography, micro-computed tomography, histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biology techniques. At 2 weeks post-fracture, cartilaginous callus areas were reduced, while total callus and bony callus areas were increased in PTHrP-treated Lepr(-/-) animals and control wild-type mice, compared with vehicle-treated Lepr(-/-) mice. The following parameters were enhanced both in Lepr(-/-) mice after treatment with PTHrP and vehicle-treated wild-type animals, compared with vehicle-treated Lepr(-/-) mice: osteoblast numbers; tissue alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Type I collagen immunopositive areas; mRNA levels of ALP, Type I collagen, osteoprotegerin, and receptor activator for nuclear factor-? B ligand; protein levels of Runt-related transcription factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor-1; and the number and surface of osteoclasts. In conclusion, exogenous PTHrP by subcutaneous injection promotes fracture repair in Lepr(-/-) mice by increasing callus formation and accelerating cell transformation: upregulated osteoblastic gene and protein expression, increased endochondral bone formation, osteoblastic bone formation, and osteoclastic bone resorption. However, complete repair was not obtained in PTHrP-treated Lepr(-/-) mice as in control wild-type animals. PMID:26314884

  4. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy with or without intraoperative parathyroid hormone for primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Gu; Kim, Woo Young; Woo, Sang Uk; Lee, Jae Bok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The improvement of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) assay and localization studies has enabled a minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) in primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). The aim of this study is to analyze the demographics, clinical presentations, and surgical outcomes of the pHPT patients who received surgical management with versus without IOPTH. Methods Analysis of a database was performed on 53 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for pHPT from 2004 to 2013. Preoperative localization was done by both sestamibi scan and ultrasonography. We divided the patients into two groups (without IOPTH versus with IOPTH) and analyzed the surgical outcomes statistically between two groups. Results The concordance rate of Technetium 99m sestamibi scan and ultrasonography was 73.6% and 90.6%, respectively. The overall cure rate of group 1 (without IOPTH) was 94.9% and that of group 2 (with IOPTH) was 100%. The decline of PTH at postoperative 5 minutes and 10 minutes was 75.2% ± 14.9% and 84.9% ± 8.6% in cured patients. On the other hand, that of noncured patients at 5 minutes and 10 minutes was 17.2% ± 9.7% and 8.2% ± 2.2%. There was a significant difference in the drop rate of IOPTH between cured and persistent patients (P < 0.01). Pathological examination showed adenoma in 41 of 53 patients (77.4%) and hyperplasia in 10 of 53 patients (18.9%). Conclusion Even though the localization studies were successful, IOPTH monitoring is essential to avoid a surgical failure in MIP. PMID:26366379

  5. Parathyroid hormone gene family in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Ibrahim, Alexander S; Tay, Boon-Hui; Richardson, Samantha J; Bell, Justin; Walker, Terence I; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Danks, Janine A

    2010-12-01

    The development of bone was a major step in the evolution of vertebrates. A bony skeleton provided structural support and a calcium reservoir essential for the movement from an aquatic to a terrestrial environment. Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest living group of jawed vertebrates. In this study we have identified three members of the parathyroid hormone (Pth) gene family in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). The three genes include two Pth genes, designated as Pth1 and Pth2, and a Pthrp gene. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that elephant shark Pth2 is an ancient gene whose orthologue is lost in bony vertebrates. The Pth1 and Pth2 genes have the same structure as the Pth gene in bony vertebrates, whereas the structure of the Pthrp gene is more complex in tetrapods compared with elephant shark. The three elephant shark genes showed distinct patterns of expression, with Pth2 being expressed only in the brain and spleen. This contrasts with localization of the corresponding proteins, which showed considerable overlap in their distribution. There were conserved sites of localization for Pthrp between elephant shark and mammals, including tissues such as kidney, skin, skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, and cartilage. The elephant shark Pth1(1-34) and Pthrp(1-34) peptides were able to stimulate cAMP accumulation in mammalian UMR106.01 cells. However, Pth2(1-34) peptide did not show such PTH-like biologic activity. The presence of Pth and Pthrp genes in the elephant shark indicates that these genes played fundamental roles before their recruitment to bone development in bony jawed vertebrates. PMID:20614475

  6. Parathyroid hormone reverses radiation induced hypovascularity in a murine model of distraction osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Stephen Y.; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Donneys, Alexis; Rodriguez, Joey J.; Nelson, Noah S.; Felice, Peter A.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation treatment results in a severe diminution of osseous vascularity. Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been shown to have an anabolic effect on osteogenesis, though its impact on angiogenesis remains unknown. In this murine model of distraction osteogenesis, we hypothesize that radiation treatment will result in a diminution of vascularity in the distracted regenerate and that delivery of intermittent systemic PTH will promote angiogenesis and reverse radiation induced hypovascularity. Materials and methods Nineteen Lewis rats were divided into three groups. All groups underwent distraction of the left mandible. Two groups received radiation treatment to the left mandible prior to distraction, and one of these groups was treated with intermittent subcutaneous PTH (60 ?g/kg, once daily) beginning on the first day of distraction for a total duration of 21 days. One group underwent mandibular distraction alone, without radiation. After consolidation, the rats were perfused and imaged with micro-CT angiography and quantitative vascular analysis was performed. Results Radiation treatment resulted in a severe diminution of osseous vascularity in the distracted regenerate. In irradiated mandibles undergoing distraction osteogenesis, treatment with intermittent PTH resulted in significant increases in vessel volume fraction, vessel thickness, vessel number, degree of anisotropy, and a significant decrease in vessel separation (p < 0.05). No significant difference in quantitative vascularity existed between the group that was irradiated, distracted and treated with PTH and the group that underwent distraction osteogenesis without radiation treatment. Conclusions We quantitatively demonstrate that radiation treatment results in a significant depletion of osseous vascularity, and that intermittent administration of PTH reverses radiation induced hypovascularity in the murine mandible undergoing distraction osteogenesis. While the precise mechanism of PTH-induced angiogenesis remains to be elucidated, this report adds a key component to the pleotropic effect of intermittent PTH on bone formation and further supports the potential use of PTH to enhance osseous regeneration in the irradiated mandible. PMID:23643680

  7. Proteoglycan 4: A Dynamic Regulator of Skeletogenesis and Parathyroid Hormone Skeletal Anabolism

    PubMed Central

    Novince, Chad M; Michalski, Megan N; Koh, Amy J; Sinder, Benjamin P; Entezami, Payam; Eber, Matthew R; Pettway, Glenda J; Rosol, Thomas J; Wronski, Thomas J; Kozloff, Ken M; McCauley, Laurie K

    2014-01-01

    Proteoglycan 4 (Prg4), known for its lubricating and protective actions in joints, is a strong candidate regulator of skeletal homeostasis and parathyroid hormone (PTH) anabolism. Prg4 is a PTH-responsive gene in bone and liver. Prg4 null mutant mice were used to investigate the impact of proteoglycan 4 on skeletal development, remodeling, and PTH anabolic actions. Young Prg4 mutant and wild-type mice were administered intermittent PTH(1–34) or vehicle daily from 4 to 21 days. Young Prg4 mutant mice had decreased growth plate hypertrophic zones, trabecular bone, and serum bone formation markers versus wild-type mice, but responded with a similar anabolic response to PTH. Adult Prg4 mutant and wild-type mice were administered intermittent PTH(1–34) or vehicle daily from 16 to 22 weeks. Adult Prg4 mutant mice had decreased trabecular and cortical bone, and blunted PTH-mediated increases in bone mass. Joint range of motion and animal mobility were lower in adult Prg4 mutant versus wild-type mice. Adult Prg4 mutant mice had decreased marrow and liver fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) mRNA and reduced serum FGF-2, which were normalized by PTH. A single dose of PTH decreased the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR), and increased Prg4 and FGF-2 to a similar extent in liver and bone. Proteoglycan 4 supports endochondral bone formation and the attainment of peak trabecular bone mass, and appears to support skeletal homeostasis indirectly by protecting joint function. Bone- and liver-derived FGF-2 likely regulate proteoglycan 4 actions supporting trabeculae formation. Blunted PTH anabolic responses in adult Prg4 mutant mice are associated with altered biomechanical impact secondary to joint failure. PMID:21932346

  8. A Microperfusion Study of Phsophate Reabsorption by the Rat Proximal Renal Tubule EFFECT OF PARATHYROID HORMONE

    PubMed Central

    Bank, Norman; Aynedjian, Hagop S.; Weinstein, Stephen W.

    1974-01-01

    To study the mechanism of phsophate reabsorption by the proximal tubule and the effect of parathyroid hormone (PTH), microperfusion experiments were carried out in rats. Segments of proximal tubule isolated by oil blocks were perfused in vivo with one of three solutions, each containing 152 meq/liter Na+ and 2 mmol/liter phosphate, but otherwise differing in composition. The pH of solution 1 was 6.05-6.63, indicating that 60-85% of the phosphate was in the form of H2PO4-. The pH of solution 2 was 7.56-7.85, and 85-92% of the phosphate was in the form of HPO4=. Solution 3 contained HCO3- and glucose and had a pH of 7.50-7.65. When the proximal tubules were perfused with solution 1, the 32P concentration in the collected perfusate was found to be consistently lower than in the initial perfusion solution. In sharp contrast, when the tubules were perfused with solutions 2 or 3, 32P concentration usually rose above that in the initial solution. Water (and persumably Na+) reabsorption, as measured with [3H]inulin, was the same with the acid and alkaline solutions. Administration of partially purified PTH clearly prevented the fall in phosphate concentration with the acid solution, but had a less discernible effect on phosphate reabsorption with the two alkaline solutions. Measurements of pH within the perfused segments with antimony microelectrodes demonstrated that PTH enhanced alkalinization of the acid perfusion solution. The findings are consistent with the view that H2PO4- is reabsorbed preferentially over HPO4=. This can be attributed to either an active transport mechanism for H2PO4- or selective membrane permeability to this anion. PTH appears to either inhibit an active transport process for H2PO4-, or to interfere with passive diffusion of phosphate by alkalinizing the tubular lumen. PMID:4418449

  9. Parathyroid hormone induces the Nrna family of nuclear orphan receptors in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Pirih, Flavia Q. . E-mail: fqpirih@ucla.edu; Aghaloo, Tara L. . E-mail: taghaloo@ucla.edu; Bezouglaia, Olga . E-mail: obezougl@ucla.edu; Nervina, Jeanne M. . E-mail: jnervina@ucla.edu; Tetradis, Sotirios; E-mail: sotirist@dent.ucla.edu

    2005-07-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has both anabolic and catabolic effects on bone metabolism, although the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are largely unknown. Among the transcription factors induced by Pth in osteoblasts are the nerve growth factor-inducible factor B (NR4A; NGFI-B) family of orphan nuclear receptors: Nurr1, Nur77, and NOR-1. PTH induces NR4A members through the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in vitro. We report here that PTH rapidly and transiently induced expression of all three NR4A genes in PTH-target tissues in vivo. In calvaria, long bones, and kidneys, NR4A induction was maximal 0.5-1 h after a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 80 {mu}g/kg PTH. Nur77 demonstrated the highest expression, followed, in order, by Nurr1 and NOR-1. In calvaria and long bone, PTH-induced expression of each NR4A gene was detectable at 10 {mu}g/kg i.p. with maximum induction at 40-80 {mu}g/kg. PTH (3-34) did not induce NR4A mRNA levels in calvaria, long bone, and kidney in vivo, confirming our in vitro results that NR4A genes are induced primarily through the cAMP-PKA pathway. The magnitude of PTH-induced NR4A expression was comparable in vivo and in vitro. However, NR4A mRNA levels peaked and returned to baseline faster in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro, PTH induced NR4A pre-mRNA levels suggesting that induction of these genes is, at least in part, through activation of mRNA synthesis. The in vivo induction of the NR4A family members by PTH suggests their involvement in, at least some, PTH-induced changes in bone metabolism.

  10. Role of paraoxonase-1 in bone anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone in hyperlipidemic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jinxiu; Cheng, Henry; Atti, Elisa; Shih, Diana M.; Demer, Linda L.; Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles; Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles ; Tintut, Yin

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ? Anabolic effects of PTH were tested in hyperlipidemic mice overexpressing PON1. ? Expression of antioxidant regulatory genes was induced in PON1 overexpression. ? Bone resorptive activity was reduced in PON1 overexpressing hyperlipidemic mice. ? PON1 restored responsiveness to intermittent PTH in bones of hyperlipidemic mice. -- Abstract: Hyperlipidemia blunts anabolic effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) on cortical bone, and the responsiveness to PTH are restored in part by oral administration of the antioxidant ApoA-I mimetic peptide, D-4F. To evaluate the mechanism of this rescue, hyperlipidemic mice overexpressing the high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (Ldlr{sup ?/?}PON1{sup tg}) were generated, and daily PTH injections were administered to Ldlr{sup ?/?}PON1{sup tg} and to littermate Ldlr{sup ?/?} mice. Expression of bone regulatory genes was determined by realtime RT-qPCR, and cortical bone parameters of the femoral bones by micro-computed tomographic analyses. PTH-treated Ldlr{sup ?/?}PON1{sup tg} mice had significantly greater expression of PTH receptor (PTH1R), activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in femoral cortical bone, as well as significantly greater cortical bone mineral content, thickness, and area in femoral diaphyses compared with untreated Ldlr{sup ?/?}PON1{sup tg} mice. In contrast, in control mice (Ldlr{sup ?/?}) without PON1 overexpression, PTH treatment did not induce these markers. Calvarial bone of PTH-treated Ldlr{sup ?/?}PON1{sup tg} mice also had significantly greater expression of osteoblastic differentiation marker genes as well as BMP-2-target and Wnt-target genes. Untreated Ldlr{sup ?/?}PON1{sup tg} mice had significantly greater expression of PTHR1 than untreated Ldlr{sup ?/?} mice, whereas sclerostin expression was reduced. In femoral cortical bones, expression levels of transcription factors, FoxO1 and ATF4, were also elevated in the untreated, control Ldlr{sup ?/?}PON1{sup tg} mice, suggesting enhancement of cellular protection against oxidants. These findings suggest that PON1 restores responsiveness to PTH through effects on oxidant stress, PTH receptor expression, and/or Wnt signaling.

  11. Effects of prolonged adrenaline infusion and of mental stress on plasma minerals and parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Joborn, H; Hjemdahl, P; Larsson, P T; Lithell, H; Olsson, G; Wide, L; Bergström, R; Ljunghall, S

    1990-01-01

    The role of the sympatho-adrenal system for the secretion of PTH in humans is not established. Previous studies on the effects of adrenaline on plasma mineral homeostasis have focused on injections or short-term infusions of adrenaline, and conflicting results concerning calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) responses have been reported. We therefore infused adrenaline or placebo continuously for 3 h to 10 healthy volunteers and studied several plasma minerals, as well as PTH levels. Venous plasma adrenaline concentrations increased to the upper physiological range (5 nmol l-1) during adrenaline infusion. Another nine volunteers were exposed for 25 min to mental stress (a colour word conflict test; CWT), which causes marked circulatory changes and raises plasma catecholamine concentrations. Plasma ionized and total calcium, and magnesium concentrations were slowly and gradually reduced during infusion of adrenaline, but there was only a small increase in PTH. Plasma potassium was decreased by adrenaline within 30 min and thereafter did not change further during infusion. There was a marked but transient increase in the plasma free fatty acids concentration, which were not related to the reduction of the calcium or magnesium levels. The adrenaline-induced decrements in calcium, magnesium and potassium, and increases in heart rates persisted 30 min after the infusion, despite a rapid decrease in plasma adrenaline concentrations within 5 min of termination of the infusion. Plasma phosphate concentrations were lowered during the first 90 min of adrenaline infusion, but after 3 h they had returned to baseline despite continued infusion. CWT induced small increments of the plasma ionized calcium and PTH concentrations. Plasma potassium levels were raised despite increases in plasma adrenaline at the beginning of the stress test, while phosphate values were reduced at the end of the test. Thus, long-lasting elevations of circulating adrenaline lower plasma ionized and total calcium, phosphate, magnesium and potassium, but the time courses for these changes differed markedly. Despite the reduction of plasma ionized calcium there was only little increase in PTH and thus no indication that sustained elevations of circulating adrenaline stimulates the secretion of PTH in vivo in humans. Responses to acute mental stress and adrenaline infusion differed qualitatively, indicating that adrenaline responses to stress are of minor importance in this respect. PMID:2302935

  12. The Efficacy of Parathyroid Hormone Analogues in Combination With Bisphosphonates for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wan; Chen, Wenjian; Lin, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues increase bone strength primarily by stimulating bone formation, whereas antiresorptive drugs (bisphosphonates) reduce bone resorption. Therefore, some studies have been designed to test the hypothesis that the concurrent administration of the 2 agents would increase bone density more than the use of either one alone. This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether combining PTH analogues with bisphosphonates would be superior to PTH alone. Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant publications up to March, 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PTH analogues combined bisphosphonates with PTH for osteoporosis were analyzed. According to the Cochrane Handbook for systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.2, we identified eligible studies, evaluated the methodological quality, and abstracted relevant data. Totally 7 studies involving 641 patients were included for meta-analysis. The pooled data showed that there were no significant differences in the percent change of spine BMD (MD1-year?=??0.97, 95% CI ?2.81 to 0.86, P?=?0.30; MD2-year?=????0.57, 95% CI ?5.01 to 6.14, P?=?0.84), femoral neck BMD (MD1-year?=?0.60, 95% CI ?0.91 to 2.10, P?=?0.44; MD2-year?=??0.73, 95% CI ?4.97 to 3.51, P?=?0.74), the risk of vertebral fracture (risk ratio [RR]?=?1.27; 95% CI 0.29–5.57; P?=?0.75), and the risk of nonvertebral fracture (RR?=?0.97; 95% CI 0.40–2.35; P?=?0.95) between the 2 groups, whereas combination group improves the percent change of hip BMD at 1 year (MD?=?1.16, 95% CI 0.56–1.76; P?

  13. Mechanisms of Enhancer-mediated Hormonal Control of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Expression in Target Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Min; Meyer, Mark B; Benkusky, Nancy A; O'Brien, Charles A; Pike, J Wesley

    2015-12-18

    The biological actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), whose expression in bone cells is regulated positively by 1,25(OH)2D3, retinoic acid, and parathyroid hormone through both intergenic and intronic enhancers. In this report, we used ChIP-sequencing analysis to confirm the presence of these Vdr gene enhancers in mesenchyme-derived bone cells and to describe the epigenetic histone landscape that spans the Vdr locus. Using bacterial artificial chromosome-minigene stable cell lines, CRISPR/Cas9 enhancer-deleted daughter cell lines, transient transfection/mutagenesis analyses, and transgenic mice, we confirmed the functionality of these bone cell enhancers in vivo as well as in vitro. We also identified VDR-binding sites across the Vdr gene locus in kidney and intestine using ChIP-sequencing analysis, revealing that only one of the bone cell-type enhancers bound VDR in kidney tissue, and none were occupied by the VDR in the intestine, consistent with weak or absent regulation by the 1,25(OH)2D3 hormone in these tissues, respectively. However, a number of additional sites of VDR binding unique to either kidney or intestine were present further upstream of the Vdr gene, suggesting the potential for alternative regulatory loci. Importantly, virtually all of these regions retained histone signatures consistent with those of enhancers and exhibited unique DNase I hypersensitivity profiles that reflected the potential for chromatin access. These studies define mechanisms associated with hormonal regulation of the Vdr and hint at the differential nature of VDR binding activity at the Vdr gene in different primary target tissues in vivo. PMID:26504088

  14. Fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone predict extent of aortic valve calcifications in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Lullo, Luca; Gorini, Antonio; Bellasi, Antonio; Morrone, Luigi F.; Rivera, Rodolfo; Russo, Luigi; Santoboni, Alberto; Russo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac valve calcifications are present in dialysis patients and regarded as dependent on a deranged mineral metabolism. Few data are available for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis. This study evaluates the potential association between the extent of cardiac valve calcification and levels of intact parathyroid hormone (i-PTH), phosphorus, calcium, 25-OH vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), Klotho and C-reactive protein (CRP) simultaneously measured in patients with mild to moderate CKD. Methods Consecutive non-hospitalized patients referring to five nephrology units were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were age >18 years, CKD Stages 3–4, and the presence of aortic and/or mitral valve calcification assessed by echocardiography as routinely clinical evaluation. Patients underwent clinical examination and routine biochemistry. Baseline i-PTH, phosphorus, calcium, 25-OH vitamin D, FGF-23, Klotho and CRP were simultaneously ascertained. Results Extent of aortic valve calcification (n = 100 patients) was moderate in 68 patients and mild in the remaining patients. Mitral valve calcification (n = 96 patients) score was 1, 2 and 3 in 61, 34 and 1 patients, respectively. In univariate analysis, no association was found between extent of mitral valve calcification and markers of mineral metabolism and CRP; aortic valve extent of calcification was positively associated with i-PTH (r2 = 0.212; P = 0.03) and FGF-23 (r2 = 0.272; P = 0.01), and negatively with Klotho (r2 = ?0.208; P = 0.04). In multivariable analysis, extent of aortic valve calcification was associated with FGF-23 (P = 0.01) and PTH (P = 0.01) levels. Conclusions Extent of aortic valve calcification is associated to FGF-23 and PTH in naďve CKD patients with mild to moderate CKD. Further studies should examine whether FGF-23 assay should be included in routine clinical evaluation of CKD as part of cardiovascular risk stratification. PMID:26613033

  15. An inflection point of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D for maximal suppression of parathyroid hormone is not evident from multi-site pooled data in children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In adults, maximal suppression of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) has commonly been used to determine the sufficiency of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D]. In children and adolescents, the relationship between serum 25(OH) D and PTH is less clear, and most studies reporting a relationship are der...

  16. Parathyroid hormone plus alendronate in osteoporosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinggang; Qian, Jing; Zhu, Yuchang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases both bone formation (BMD) and bone resorption, whereas alendronate reduces bone resorption. It is possible that the combination therapy of PTH with alendronate will enhance their effects on BMD. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of the combination therapy of PTH with alendronate in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science was conducted to identify relative studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), which assessed the efficacy of combination therapy in patients with osteoporosis. The outcomes included the mean percent increases in BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and distal radius. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using of random-effects or fixed-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity between the included studies. Results: Six RCTs with a total number of 833 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled estimates showed that, the combination therapy of PTH with alendronate resulted in a higher mean percent change of increased BMD in distal radius (WMD = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.58, 3.31; P = 0.000), but not in lumbar spine (WMD = -0.83, 95% CI: -3.48, 1.81; P = 0.538), femoral neck (WMD = -0.99, 95% CI: -2.04, 0.07; P = 0.068), and total hip (WMD = -0.06, 95% CI: -0.93, 0.81; P = 0.892). The subgroup analysis based on the dosage and schedule of PTH, study duration, gender of patients, and anabolic agents, were conducted. And results revealed that among the patients in the combination therapy group, greater increases in the spine BMD were observed when the PTH was administered with a dosage of 20 ?g (WMD = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.43; P = 0.000), or the treatment duration lasted more than 12 months (WMD = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.47; P = 0.000), or the combination therapy was used in osteoporosis women (WMD = 1.58, 95% CI: 0.63, 2.53; P = 0.001). However, the combination of PTH of 40 ?g with alendronate produced a decrease in the BMD at spine (WMD = -4.56, 95% CI: -7.56, -1.56; P = 0.003) and femoral neck (WMD = -5.82, 95% CI: -9.91, -1.72; P = 0.005). Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the addition of alendronate to PTH in the treatment of osteoporosis, reduced the ability of PTH therapy to increase the BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. PMID:26064224

  17. Novel electrochemiluminescence immunoassay exclusively for full-length parathyroid hormone during treatment with cinacalcet for secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hisae; Komaba, Hirotaka; Koizumi, Masahiro; Kakuta, Takatoshi; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2011-06-01

    A novel, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay that exclusively measures full-length parathyroid hormone (PTH), called Elecsys PTH (1-84) assay, is currently under development for clinical use. We measured serum PTH levels using this novel assay, as well as the Elecsys Intact PTH assay and the Whole PTH immunoradiometric assay, in 53 hemodialysis patients who participated in a 52-week clinical trial of cinacalcet. At baseline, serum PTH (1-84) levels measured with the Elecsys PTH (1-84) assay and those with the Whole PTH assay were comparable, and both values were significantly lower than Elecsys Intact PTH levels. After 52 weeks of cinacalcet treatment, Elecsys PTH (1-84) levels and Whole PTH levels decreased significantly by 56% and 60% from baseline, respectively. These results indicate that the Elecsys PTH (1-84) assay provides comparable data to the Whole PTH assay for monitoring parathyroid function in patients receiving hemodialysis. Introduction of this novel automated immunoassay would provide more widespread measurements of full-length PTH (1-84) in clinical practice. PMID:21595854

  18. Induction of thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity by parathyroid hormone-related peptide through upregulation of TRPV1 function and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mickle, Aaron D; Shepherd, Andrew J; Loo, Lipin; Mohapatra, Durga P

    2015-09-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying chronic pain associated with cancers are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that factors specifically elevated in the tumor microenvironment sensitize adjacent nociceptive afferents. We show that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), which is found at elevated levels in the tumor microenvironment of advanced breast and prostate cancers, is a critical modulator of sensory neurons. Intraplantar injection of PTHrP led to the development of thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in both male and female mice, which were absent in mice lacking functional transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). The PTHrP treatment of cultured mouse sensory neurons enhanced action potential firing, and increased TRPV1 activation, which was dependent on protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide induced robust potentiation of TRPV1 activation and enhancement of neuronal firing at mild acidic pH that is relevant to acidic tumor microenvironment. We also observed an increase in plasma membrane TRPV1 protein levels after exposure to PTHrP, leading to upregulation in the proportion of TRPV1-responsive neurons, which was dependent on the activity of PKC and Src kinases. Furthermore, co-injection of PKC or Src inhibitors attenuated PTHrP-induced thermal but not mechanical hypersensitivity. Altogether, our results suggest that PTHrP and mild acidic conditions could induce constitutive pathological activation of sensory neurons through upregulation of TRPV1 function and trafficking, which could serve as a mechanism for peripheral sensitization of nociceptive afferents in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25970319

  19. Impact of race on intraoperative parathyroid hormone kinetics: an analysis of 910 patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Cisco, Robin M; Kuo, Jennifer H; Ogawa, Lauren; Scholten, Anouk; Tsinberg, Michael; Duh, Quan-Yang; Clark, Orlo H; Gosnell, Jessica E; Shen, Wen T

    2012-11-01

    HYPOTHESIS African American patients exhibit different intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) profiles than non-African American patients. DESIGN Retrospective review. SETTING University medical center. PATIENTS Nine hundred ten patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism between July 2005 and August 2010. INTERVENTIONS All patients underwent preoperative imaging with ultrasonography and sestamibi; operative exploration; and IOPTH measurement at 2 points preexcision and 5 and 10 minutes postexcision. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Preexcision and postexcision IOPTH measurements. RESULTS Of the 910 patients, 734 self-reported their race as white (81%); 91, Latino/other (10%); 56, Asian (6%); and 28, African American (3%). African American patients had significantly higher initial preexcision IOPTH levels compared with white patients (348 vs 202 pg/mL; P = .048) and significantly higher 5-minute postexcision IOPTH levels (151 vs 80 pg/mL; P = .01). The 10-minute postexcision IOPTH levels were similar between the 2 groups (52 vs 50 pg/mL). A similar percentage of white and African American patients had a 50% drop in IOPTH level at 10 minutes postexcision. No differences in IOPTH kinetics were observed in the other racial groups examined. CONCLUSIONS African American patients with primary hyperparathyroidism exhibit significantly higher preincision and 5-minute postexcision IOPTH values when compared with white patients. The 10-minute postexcision IOPTH values did not differ between races. The altered IOPTH kinetics identified in African American patients may reflect the severity of biochemical disease but may also be related to genetically predetermined differences in parathyroid hormone metabolism. PMID:22801754

  20. Phospholipase-A2 action and arachidonic acid metabolism in calcium-mediated parathyroid hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Bourdeau, A; Souberbielle, J C; Bonnet, P; Herviaux, P; Sachs, C; Lieberherr, M

    1992-03-01

    The involvement of arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites in the control of PTH secretion by porcine parathyroid cells was investigated. Increasing the extracellular calcium concentration from 0.5 to 2 mM increased free [3H]AA release and decreased PTH secretion from labeled parathyroid cells as a function of time (1-30 min). Free [3H]AA in the medium was significantly increased (+153 +/- 6%) after 5 min, while PTH secretion was significantly decreased (-75 +/- 7%) only after 15 min, suggesting a link between the two. [3H]AA release was associated with a decrease in [3H]AA incorporated into phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylcholine, suggesting that these phospholipids are the major source of AA. Exogenous phospholipase-A2 (PL-A2; 1-500 mU/ml) and AA (5-40 microM) inhibited PTH secretion in a dose-dependent manner. PTH secretion inhibited by 2 mM Ca2+ was restored by two PL-A2 inhibitors, indomethacin (30 microM) and mepacrine (50 microM). The cyclooxygenase pathway inhibitor ibuprofen (20 microM) did not restore PTH secretion of affect high Ca(2+)-, AA-, or PL-A2-inhibited PTH secretion. Two inhibitors of the lipoxygenase pathway (LO), phenidone (1 microM) and baicalein (0.1 microM), a relatively selective 12-LO inhibitor, blunted high Ca(2+)-induced inhibition of PTH secretion (+101 +/- 10% and +105 +/- 6%, respectively), but nordihydroguaiaretic acid, which inhibits the 5-LO pathway, did not restore PTH secretion inhibited by high Ca2+, AA, or PL-A2. These results suggested that AA and agents that cause its liberation inhibit PTH secretion. AA may act via the 12-LO, but not via the 5-LO or cyclooxygenase, pathway. Thus, 12-LO products may be second messengers in parathyroid cells. PMID:1537295

  1. The parathyroid is a target organ for FGF23 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Dov, Iddo Z.; Galitzer, Hillel; Lavi-Moshayoff, Vardit; Goetz, Regina; Kuro-o, Makoto; Mohammadi, Moosa; Sirkis, Roy; Naveh-Many, Tally; Silver, Justin

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is maintained by a counterbalance between efflux from the kidney and influx from intestine and bone. FGF23 is a bone-derived phosphaturic hormone that acts on the kidney to increase phosphate excretion and suppress biosynthesis of vitamin D. FGF23 signals with highest efficacy through several FGF receptors (FGFRs) bound by the transmembrane protein Klotho as a coreceptor. Since most tissues express FGFR, expression of Klotho determines FGF23 target organs. Here we identify the parathyroid as a target organ for FGF23 in rats. We show that the parathyroid gland expressed Klotho and 2 FGFRs. The administration of recombinant FGF23 led to an increase in parathyroid Klotho levels. In addition, FGF23 activated the MAPK pathway in the parathyroid through ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased early growth response 1 mRNA levels. Using both rats and in vitro rat parathyroid cultures, we show that FGF23 suppressed both parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and PTH gene expression. The FGF23-induced decrease in PTH secretion was prevented by a MAPK inhibitor. These data indicate that FGF23 acts directly on the parathyroid through the MAPK pathway to decrease serum PTH. This bone-parathyroid endocrine axis adds a new dimension to the understanding of mineral homeostasis. PMID:17992255

  2. The parathyroid is a target organ for FGF23 in rats.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dov, Iddo Z; Galitzer, Hillel; Lavi-Moshayoff, Vardit; Goetz, Regina; Kuro-o, Makoto; Mohammadi, Moosa; Sirkis, Roy; Naveh-Many, Tally; Silver, Justin

    2007-12-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is maintained by a counterbalance between efflux from the kidney and influx from intestine and bone. FGF23 is a bone-derived phosphaturic hormone that acts on the kidney to increase phosphate excretion and suppress biosynthesis of vitamin D. FGF23 signals with highest efficacy through several FGF receptors (FGFRs) bound by the transmembrane protein Klotho as a coreceptor. Since most tissues express FGFR, expression of Klotho determines FGF23 target organs. Here we identify the parathyroid as a target organ for FGF23 in rats. We show that the parathyroid gland expressed Klotho and 2 FGFRs. The administration of recombinant FGF23 led to an increase in parathyroid Klotho levels. In addition, FGF23 activated the MAPK pathway in the parathyroid through ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased early growth response 1 mRNA levels. Using both rats and in vitro rat parathyroid cultures, we show that FGF23 suppressed both parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and PTH gene expression. The FGF23-induced decrease in PTH secretion was prevented by a MAPK inhibitor. These data indicate that FGF23 acts directly on the parathyroid through the MAPK pathway to decrease serum PTH. This bone-parathyroid endocrine axis adds a new dimension to the understanding of mineral homeostasis. PMID:17992255

  3. Targets for parathyroid hormone in secondary hyperparathyroidism: is a “one-size-fits-all” approach appropriate? A prospective incident cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) consider that a “one-size-fits-all” target enables efficacy of care. In routine clinical practice, SHPT continues to pose diagnosis and treatment challenges. One hypothesis that could explain these difficulties is that dialysis population with SHPT is not homogeneous. Methods EPHEYL is a prospective, multicenter, pharmacoepidemiological study including chronic dialysis patients (?3 months) with newly SHPT diagnosis, i.e. parathyroid hormone (PTH) ?500 ng/L for the first time, or initiation of cinacalcet, or parathyroidectomy. Multiple correspondence analysis and ascendant hierarchical clustering on clinico-biological (symptoms, PTH, plasma phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase) and treatment of SHPT (cinacalcet, vitamin D, calcium, or calcium-free calcic phosphate binder) were performed to identify distinct phenotypes. Results 305 patients (261 with incident PTH???500 ng/L; 44 with cinacalcet initiation) were included. Their mean age was 67?±?15 years, and 60% were men, 92% on hemodialysis and 8% on peritoneal dialysis. Four subgroups of SHPT patients were identified: 1/ “intermediate” phenotype with hyperphosphatemia without hypocalcemia (n?=?113); 2/ younger patients with severe comorbidities, hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia, despite SHPT multiple medical treatments, suggesting poor adherence (n?=?73); 3/ elderly patients with few cardiovascular comorbidities, controlled phospho-calcium balance, higher PTH, and few treatments (n?=?75); 4/ patients who initiated cinacalcet (n?=?43). The quality criterion of the model had a cut-off of 14 (>2), suggesting a relevant classification. Conclusion In real life, dialysis patients with newly diagnosed SHPT constitute a very heterogeneous population. A “one-size-fits-all” target approach is probably not appropriate. Therapeutic management needs to be adjusted to the 4 different phenotypes. PMID:25123022

  4. Pre-diagnostic Circulating Parathyroid Hormone Concentration and Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Pischon, Tobias; Norat, Teresa; Jansen, Eugčne H.J.M.; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B.; Tjřnneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Engel, Pierre; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Sieri, Sabina; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra HM; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Rodríguez, Laudina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Bonet, Catalina; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Göran; Key, Timothy J.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Wark, Petra A.; Romaguera, Dora; Jenab, Mazda

    2011-01-01

    Background Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been proposed to play a promoting role in carcinogenesis. However, no epidemiologic studies have yet directly investigated its role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods A case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort was conducted with 1,214 incident, sporadic CRC cases matched to 1,214 controls. Circulating pre-diagnostic PTH and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Detailed dietary and lifestyle questionnaire data were collected at baseline. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for the association between circulating PTH and CRC risk. Results In multivariate analyses (including adjustment for 25(OH)D concentration) with a priori defined cut-points, high levels of serum PTH (?65ng/L) compared to medium PTH levels of 30–65 ng/L were associated with increased CRC risk (RR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.03-1.93). In analyses by sex, the CRC risk was 1.77 (95%CI: 1.14-2.75) and 1.15 (95%CI: 0.73-1.84) in men and women, respectively (Pheterogeneity=0.01). In sub-group analyses by anatomical sub-site, the risk for colon cancer was RR=1.56, 95%CI:1.03-2.34, and for rectal cancer RR=1.20, 95%CI:0.72-2.01 (Pheterogeneity=0.21). Effect modification by various risk factors was examined. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that high serum PTH levels may be associated with incident, sporadic CRC in Western European populations, and in particular among men. Impact To our knowledge, this is the first study on PTH and CRC. The role of PTH in carcinogenesis needs to be further investigated. PMID:21378267

  5. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Hawkins, D.S.; Rubin, L.P.; Posillico, J.T.; Brown, E.M.; Schiff, I.

    1988-10-01

    Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy.

  6. Parathyroid hormone levels 1 hour after thyroidectomy: an early predictor of postoperative hypocalcemia

    PubMed Central

    AlQahtani, Awad; Parsyan, Armen; Payne, Richard; Tabah, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Background Parathyroid dysfunction leading to symptomatic hypocalcemia is not uncommon following a total or completion thyroidectomy and is often associated with significant patient morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. A simple, reliable indicator to identify patients at risk would permit earlier pharmacologic prophylaxis to avoid these adverse outcomes. We examined the role of intact parathormone (PTH) levels 1 hour after surgery as a predictor of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Methods We prospectively reviewed the cases of consecutive patients undergoing total or completion thyroidectomy. Ionized calcium (Ca2+) and intact PTH levels were measured preoperatively and at 1-, 6- and 24-hour intervals postoperatively. The specificity, sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values of the 1-hour PTH serum levels (PTH-1) in predicting 24-hour post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia and eucalcemia were determined. Results We reviewed the cases of 149 patients. Biochemical hypocalcaemia (Ca2+ < 1.1 mmol/L) developed in 38 of 149 (25.7%) patients 24 hours after thyroidectomy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a low PTH-1 were 89%, 100%, 97% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion We found that PTH-1 levels were predictive of symptomatic hypocalcemia 24 hours after thyroidectomy. Routine use of this assay should be considered, as it could prompt the early administration of calcitriol in patients at risk of hypocalcemia and allow for the safe and timely discharge of patients expected to remain eucalcemic. PMID:25078927

  7. A Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying the Role of the Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein System in Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Ricardo J.; Ortega, Arantxa; Izquierdo, Adriana; Arribas, Ignacio; Bover, Jordi; Esbrit, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone- (PTH-) related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor, the PTH1 receptor (PTH1R), are widely expressed in the kidney, where PTHrP exerts a modulatory action on renal function. PTHrP is known to be upregulated in several experimental nephropathies such as acute renal failure (ARF), obstructive nephropathy (ON) as well as diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this paper, we will discuss the functional consequences of chronic PTHrP overexpression in the damaged kidney using a transgenic mouse strain overexpressing PTHrP in the renal proximal tubule. In both ARF and ON, PTHrP displays proinflammatory and profibrogenic actions including the induction of epithelia to mesenquima transition. Moreover, PTHrP participates in the mechanisms of renal hypertrophy as well as proteinuria in experimental DN. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a critical factor in the progression of renal injury, appears to be, at least in part, responsible for endogenous PTHrP upregulation in these pathophysiological settings. These findings provide novel insights into the well-known protective effects of Ang II antagonists in renal diseases, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:21052497

  8. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 determines parathyroid hormone mRNA levels and stability in rat models of secondary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Nechama, Morris; Uchida, Takafumi; Mor Yosef-Levi, Irit; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2009-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a major complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In experimental models of secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by hypocalcemia or CKD, parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA levels increase due to increased PTH mRNA stability. K-homology splicing regulator protein (KSRP) decreases the stability of PTH mRNA upon binding a cis-acting element in the PTH mRNA 3? UTR region. As the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) Pin1 has recently been shown to regulate the turnover of multiple cytokine mRNAs, we investigated the role of Pin1 in regulating PTH mRNA stability in rat parathyroids and transfected cells. The data generated were consistent with Pin1 being a PTH mRNA destabilizing protein. Initial analysis indicated that Pin1 activity was decreased in parathyroid protein extracts from both hypocalcemic and CKD rats and that pharmacologic inhibition of Pin1 increased PTH mRNA levels posttranscriptionally in rat parathyroid and in transfected cells. Pin1 mediated its effects via interaction with KSRP, which led to KSRP dephosphorylation and activation. In the rat parathyroid, Pin1 inhibition decreased KSRP–PTH mRNA interactions, increasing PTH mRNA levels. Furthermore, Pin1–/– mice displayed increased serum PTH and PTH mRNA levels, suggesting that Pin1 determines basal PTH expression in vivo. These results demonstrate that Pin1 is a key mediator of PTH mRNA stability and indicate a role for Pin1 in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism in individuals with CKD. PMID:19770516

  9. Vitamin D designates a group of calcitriols, fat solu ble hormones of secosteroid nature [1 3]. The calcitriols

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Vitamin D designates a group of calcitriols, fat solu ble hormones of secosteroid nature [1 3]. The calcitriols include vitamins D2, D3, D4, D5, and their derivatives [3]. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, 4]. Vitamin D3 itself is biologi cally inert, and its bioactivation involves double hydroxy lation

  10. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide-Linked Hypercalcemia in a Melanoma Patient Treated With Ipilimumab: Hormone Source and Clinical and Metabolic Correlates.

    PubMed

    Mills, Teresa Anne; Orloff, Marlana; Domingo-Vidal, Marina; Cotzia, Paolo; Birbe, Ruth C; Draganova-Tacheva, Rossitza; Martinez Cantarin, Maria P; Tuluc, Madalina; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo

    2015-12-01

    A patient diagnosed with metastatic melanoma developed the paraneoplastic syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and cachexia after receiving ipilumumab. The cause of the hypercalcemia was thought to be secondary to parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) as plasma levels were found to be elevated. The patient underwent two tumor biopsies: at diagnosis (when calcium levels were normal) and upon development of hypercalcemia and cachexia. PTHrP expression was higher in melanoma cells when hypercalcemia had occurred than prior to its onset. Metabolic characterization of melanoma cells revealed that, with development of hypercalcemia, there was high expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), which is the main importer of lactate and ketone bodies into cells. MCT1 is associated with high mitochondrial metabolism. Beta-galactosidase (?-GAL), a marker of senescence, had reduced expression in melanoma cells upon development of hypercalcemia compared to pre-hypercalcemia. In conclusion, PTHrP expression in melanoma is associated with cachexia, increased cancer cell lactate and ketone body import, high mitochondrial metabolism, and reduced senescence. Further studies are required to determine if PTHrP regulates cachexia, lactate and ketone body import, mitochondrial metabolism, and senescence in cancer cells. PMID:26615135

  11. The relationship between insulin, insulin resistance, parathyroid hormone, cortisol, testosterone, and thyroid function tests in the presence of nephrolithiasis: a comprehensive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Halit

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that hormonal factors such as levels of insulin, cortisol, testosterone, and insulin resistance are related with increased nephrolithiasis (NL). However, no previous study has evaluated the relationship between insulin, insulin resistance, thyroid hormones, cortisol, intact parathyroid hormone and testosterone levels with the presence of NL in a comprehensive manner. Materials and methods All patients underwent the following procedures: history taking, physical examination, biochemical analysis [including measurement of levels of insulin, thyroid hormones, cortisol, and total testosterone (for male patients only)], urine analysis, 24–hour urine collection to measure urinary protein, sodium excretion, and creatinine clearance. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA–INDEX). The presence of NL was determined by ultrasonography. Results The study was composed of 136 patients. In total, 30 patients had NL. Patients with NL were more likely to be older, male, obese, and smokers. Uric acid and HOMA–INDEX were also higher in patients with NL. In the whole group, only insulin (Odds ratio:1.128, CI:1.029–1.236, P:0.01) but not other hormones, and HOMA–INDEX were related with the presence of NL. In males, none of the hormones including total testosterone were associated with NL. Conclusions Only levels of insulin, but not other hormones were associated with the presence of NL in a group of patients with suspicion of NL. More studies are needed to highlight the mechanisms regarding NL and hormone levels. PMID:24982784

  12. About the Parathyroid Glands

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to produce another hormone called calcitriol or “active vitamin D.” What does calcitriol do? Actually it does ... calcium in the urine. PTH also activates the vitamin D system to help the gut absorb as ...

  13. Vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and preeclampsia123

    PubMed Central

    Scholl, Theresa O; Chen, Xinhua; Stein, T Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is defined by a high concentration of intact parathyroid hormone when circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is low, is a functional indicator of vitamin D insufficiency and a sign of impaired calcium metabolism. Two large randomized controlled trials examined effects of calcium supplementation on preeclampsia but did not consider the vitamin D status of mothers. Objective: We examined the association of secondary hyperparathyroidism with risk of preeclampsia. Design: Circulating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and intact parathyroid hormone were measured at entry to care (mean ± SD: 13.7 ± 5.7 wk) using prospective data from a cohort of 1141 low-income and minority gravidae. Results: Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurred in 6.3% of the cohort and 18.4% of women whose 25(OH)D concentrations were <20 ng/mL. Risk of preeclampsia was increased 2.86-fold (95% CI: 1.28-, 6.41-fold) early in gestation in these women. Gravidae with 25(OH)D concentrations <20 ng/mL who did not also have high parathyroid hormone and women with high parathyroid hormone whose 25(OH)D concentrations were >20 ng/mL were not at increased risk. Intact parathyroid hormone was related to higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures and arterial pressure at week 20 before clinical recognition of preeclampsia. Energy-adjusted intakes of total calcium and lactose and circulating 25(OH)D were correlated inversely with systolic blood pressure or arterial pressure and with parathyroid hormone. Conclusion: Some women who are vitamin D insufficient develop secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia. PMID:23885046

  14. Parathyroid Hormone Levels May Predict Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghoghaei, Morteza; Taghdiri, Foad; Khajeh, Elias; Azmoudeh Ardalan, Farid; Sedaghat, Mojtaba; Hosseini Shirvani, Sepideh; Zarei, Shadi; Toolabi, Karamollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity as a worldwide health problem is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Since severe liver injury may be present in asymptomatic obese patients and a definite diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis can only be made after an invasive procedure of liver biopsy, there is a need for noninvasive methods to predict the probability of NASH. Objectives: To investigate the role of vitamin D endocrine system in predicting the probability of presence of NASH in asymptomatic morbidly obese candidates of bariatric surgery. Patients and Methods: From December 09 to March 11, every patient undergoing bariatric surgery had a liver biopsy. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was diagnosed using the Lee’s criteria, the baseline labs obtained and the association between laboratory data and presence of NASH assessed. Results: Forty-six patients (34 women, aged 36.5 ± 10.6 years) were analyzed. The mean levels of liver enzymes were significantly higher in the group with NASH (P value < 0.01). In an unadjusted logistic model, PTH was the only variable in vitamin D endocrine system which was significantly associated with NASH (odds ratio (OR): 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.07). After adjustment for possible confounding factors, age (OR: 1.22, 95%CI: 1.00 - 1.50) and PTH (OR: 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.16) were predictive factors for NASH (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: Elevated serum PTH level was the predictive factor for NASH in morbidly obese patients. Also, we reported elevated serum liver enzymes, high serum PTH levels and older age as predictors of NASH in patients seeking obesity surgical treatments. PMID:26300934

  15. Intermittent Administration of Parathyroid Hormone [1–34] Prevents Particle-Induced Periprosthetic Osteolysis in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Fanggang; Shi, Zhongli; Zhou, Chenhe; Liu, An; Shen, Yue; Yan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone [1–34] (PTH[1–34]; 60 ?g/kg/day) can prevent the negative effects of titanium (Ti) particles on implant fixation and periprosthetic osteolysis in a rat model. Eighteen adult male rats (12 weeks old, bones still growing) received intramedullary Ti implants in their bilateral femurs; 6 rats from the blank group received vehicle injections, and 12 rats from the control group and PTH treatment group received Ti particle injections at the time of operation and intra-articular injections 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively. Six of the rats that received Ti particles from the PTH group also received PTH[1–34] treatment. Six weeks postoperatively, all specimens were collected for assessment by X-ray, micro-CT, biomechanical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and dynamic histomorphometry. A lower BMD, BV/TV, Tb.N, maximal fixation strength, and mineral apposition rate were observed in the control group compared to the blank group, demonstrating that a periprosthetic osteolysis model had been successfully established. Administration of PTH[1–34] significantly increased the bone mineral density of the distal femur, BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp, Con.D, SMI, and maximal fixation strength in the PTH group compared to that in the control group. SEM revealed higher bone–implant contact, thicker lamellar bone, and larger trabecular bone area in the PTH group than in the control group. A higher mineral apposition rate was observed in the PTH group compared to both the blank and control groups. These findings imply that intermittent administration of PTH[1–34] prevents periprosthetic osteolysis by promoting bone formation. The effects of PTH[1–34] were evaluated at a suprapharmacological dosage to the human equivalent in rats; therefore, additional studies are required to demonstrate its therapeutic potential in periprosthetic osteolysis. PMID:26441073

  16. Roles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor and reactive oxygen species in hyperlipidemia-induced PTH resistance in preosteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Garcia, Jamie; Lu, Jinxiu; Iriana, Sidney; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rowe, David; Demer, Linda L; Tintut, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive lipids initiate inflammatory reactions leading to pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Evidence shows that they also contribute to bone loss by inhibiting parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) expression and differentiation of osteoblasts. We previously demonstrated that bone anabolic effects of PTH(1-34) are blunted in hyperlipidemic mice and that these PTH effects are restored by antioxidants. However, it is not clear which osteoblastic cell developmental stage is targeted by bioactive lipids. To investigate the effects of hyperlipidemia at the cellular level, hyperlipidemic Ldlr(-/-) mice were bred with Col3.6GFPtpz mice, in which preosteoblasts/osteoblasts carry a topaz fluorescent label, and with Col2.3GFPcyan mice, in which more mature osteoblasts/osteocytes carry a cyan fluorescent label. Histological analyses of trabecular bone surfaces in femoral as well as calvarial bones showed that intermittent PTH(1-34) increased fluorescence intensity in WT-Tpz mice, but not in Tpz-Ldlr(-/-) mice. In contrast, PTH(1-34) did not alter fluorescence intensity in femoral cortical envelopes of either WT-Cyan or Ldlr(-/-)-Cyan mice. To test the mechanism of PTH1R downregulation, preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with bioactive lipids and the antioxidant Trolox. Results showed that inhibitory effects of PTH1R levels by bioactive lipids were rescued by pretreatment with Trolox. The inhibitory effects on expression of PTH1R as well as on PTH-induced osteoblastic genes were mimicked by xanthine/xanthine oxidase, a known generator of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest an important role of the preosteoblastic development stage as the target and downregulation of PTH receptor expression mediated by intracellular oxidant stress as a mechanism in hyperlipidemia-induced PTH resistance. PMID:24038594

  17. Skeletal unloading causes resistance of osteoprogenitor cells to parathyroid hormone and to insulin-like growth factor-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostenuik, P. J.; Harris, J.; Halloran, B. P.; Turner, R. T.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Bikle, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal unloading decreases bone formation and osteoblast number in vivo and decreases the number and proliferation of bone marrow osteoprogenitor (BMOp) cells in vitro. We tested the ability of parathyroid hormone (PTH) to stimulate BMOp cells in vivo by treating Sprague Dawley rats (n = 32) with intermittent PTH(1-34) (1 h/day at 8 microg/100 g of body weight), or with vehicle via osmotic minipumps during 7 days of normal weight bearing or hind limb unloading. Marrow cells were flushed from the femur and cultured at the same initial density for up to 21 days. PTH treatment of normally loaded rats caused a 2.5-fold increase in the number of BMOp cells, with similar increases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization, compared with cultures from vehicle-treated rats. PTH treatment of hind limb unloaded rats failed to stimulate BMOp cell number, ALP activity, or mineralization. Hind limb unloading had no significant effect on PTH receptor mRNA or protein levels in the tibia. Direct in vitro PTH challenge of BMOp cells isolated from normally loaded bone failed to stimulate their proliferation and inhibited their differentiation, suggesting that the in vivo anabolic effect of intermittent PTH on BMOp cells was mediated indirectly by a PTH-induced factor. We hypothesize that this factor is insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which stimulated the in vitro proliferation and differentiation of BMOp cells isolated from normally loaded bone, but not from unloaded bone. These results suggest that IGF-I mediates the ability of PTH to stimulate BMOp cell proliferation in normally loaded bone, and that BMOp cells in unloaded bone are resistant to the anabolic effect of intermittent PTH therapy due to their resistance to IGF-I.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor I is required for the anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone on mouse bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Leary, Colin; Elalieh, Hashem; Ginzinger, David; Rosen, Clifford J.; Beamer, Wesley; Majumdar, Sharmila; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic agent for bone, but the mechanism(s) by which it works remains imperfectly understood. Previous studies have indicated that PTH stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I production, but it remains uncertain whether IGF-I mediates some or all of the skeletal actions of PTH. To address this question, we examined the skeletal response to PTH in IGF-I-deficient (knockout [k/o]) mice. These mice and their normal littermates (NLMs) were given daily injections of PTH (80 microg/kg) or vehicle for 2 weeks after which their tibias were examined for fat-free weight (FFW), bone mineral content, bone structure, and bone formation rate (BFR), and their femurs were assessed for mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. In wild-type mice, PTH increased FFW, periosteal BFR, and cortical thickness (C.Th) of the proximal tibia while reducing trabecular bone volume (BV); these responses were not seen in the k/o mice. The k/o mice had normal mRNA levels of the PTH receptor and increased mRNA levels of the IGF-I receptor but markedly reduced basal mRNA levels of the osteoblast markers. Surprisingly, these mRNAs in the k/o bones increased several-fold more in response to PTH than the mRNAs in the bones from their wild-type littermates. These results indicate that IGF-I is required for the anabolic actions of PTH on bone formation, but the defect lies distal to the initial response of the osteoblast to PTH.

  19. Impact of treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis (bisphosphonates, parathyroid hormone, strontium ranelate, and denosumab) on bone quality: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, S J; Dixon, T

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the influence of treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis (parathyroid hormone [PTH], bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, and denosumab) on bone quality and discuss the clinical implications. Most bone-quality data for PTH is from teriparatide. Teriparatide results in a rapid increase in bone-formation markers, followed by increases in bone-resorption markers, opening an "anabolic window," a period of time when PTH is maximally anabolic. Teriparatide reverses the structural damage seen in osteoporosis and restores the structure of trabecular bone. It has a positive effect on cortical bone, and any early increases in cortical porosity appear to be offset by increases in cortical thickness and diameter. Bisphosphonates are antiresorptive agents which reduce bone turnover, improve trabecular microarchitecture, and mineralization. Concerns have been raised that the prolonged antiresorptive action of bisphosphonates may lead to failure to repair microdamage, resulting in microcracks and atypical fragility. Strontium ranelate is thought to have a mixed mode of action, increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption. Strontium ranelate improves cortical thickness, trabecular number, and connectivity, with no change in cortical porosity. Denosumab exerts rapid, marked, and sustained effects on bone resorption, resulting in falls in the markers of bone turnover. Evidence from bone-quality studies suggests that treatment-naive women, aged 60-65 years, with very low BMD T scores may benefit from PTH as primary therapy to improve bone substrate and build bone. Post-PTH treatment with bisphosphonates will maintain improvements in bone quality and reduce the risk of fracture. PMID:20872215

  20. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A modulates the anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone in mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Kari B; Conover, Cheryl A

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic therapy for bone, and several studies have implicated local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in mediating this effect. The IGF system is complex and includes ligands and receptors, as well as IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGFBP proteases. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloprotease expressed by osteoblasts in vitro that has been shown to enhance local IGF action through cleavage of inhibitory IGFBP-4. This study was set up to test two specific hypotheses: 1) Intermittent PTH treatment increases the expression of IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A in bone in vivo, thereby increasing local IGF activity. 2) In the absence of PAPP-A, local IGF activity and the anabolic effects of PTH on bone are reduced. Wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice were treated with 80?g/kg human PTH 1-34 or vehicle by subcutaneous injection five days per week for six weeks. IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A mRNA expression in bone were significantly increased in response to PTH treatment. PTH treatment of WT mice, but not PAPP-A KO mice, significantly increased expression of an IGF-responsive gene. Bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by DEXA, was significantly decreased in femurs of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. Volumetric BMD, as measured by pQCT, was significantly decreased in femoral midshaft (primarily cortical bone), but not metaphysis (primarily trabecular bone), of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. These data suggest that stimulation of PAPP-A expression by intermittent PTH treatment contributes to PTH bone anabolism in mice. PMID:26297833

  1. Mobilization of Endogenous Bone Marrow Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Therapeutic Potential of Parathyroid Hormone after Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Li; Chen, Dongdong; Lee, Jinhwan; Gu, Xiaohuan; Alaaeddine, Ghina; Li, Jimei; Wei, Ling; Yu, Shan Ping

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a major neurovascular disorder threatening human life and health. Very limited clinical treatments are currently available for stroke patients. Stem cell transplantation has shown promising potential as a regenerative treatment after ischemic stroke. The present investigation explores a new concept of mobilizing endogenous stem cells/progenitor cells from the bone marrow using a parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy after ischemic stroke in adult mice. PTH 1-34 (80 µg/kg, i.p.) was administered 1 hour after focal ischemia and then daily for 6 consecutive days. After 6 days of PTH treatment, there was a significant increase in bone marrow derived CD-34/Fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1) positive endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood. PTH treatment significantly increased the expression of trophic/regenerative factors including VEGF, SDF-1, BDNF and Tie-1 in the brain peri-infarct region. Angiogenesis, assessed by co-labeled Glut-1 and BrdU vessels, was significantly increased in PTH-treated ischemic brain compared to vehicle controls. PTH treatment also promoted neuroblast migration from the subventricular zone (SVZ) and increased the number of newly formed neurons in the peri-infarct cortex. PTH-treated mice showed significantly better sensorimotor functional recovery compared to stroke controls. Our data suggests that PTH therapy improves endogenous repair mechanisms after ischemic stroke with functional benefits. Mobilizing endogenous bone marrow-derived stem cells/progenitor cells using PTH and other mobilizers appears an effective and feasible regenerative treatment after ischemic stroke. PMID:24503654

  2. Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone improves the repairing process of rat calvaria defects: A histomorphometric and radiodensitometric study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Eduardo-de-Paula; Marques, Marcelo-Rocha; Dias da Silva, Marco-Antônio; Manzi, Flávio-Ricardo; Barros, Silvana-Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intermittent treatment of parathyroid hormone (PTH (1-34)) on the bone regeneration of critically-sized rat calvarial bone defects. Material and Methods Thirty-two male rats were trephined (4mm fullthickness diameter), in the central part of the parietal bones and divided into 2 groups of 16. The PTH group received subcutaneous injections of PTH (1-34) at 40µg/kg, 3 times a week and the control (CTL) group received the vehicle in the same regimen. The rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-treatment regimen, the parietal bones were extracted and samples were evaluated through histomorphometry and radiodensitometry. Results The histological observations showed that the PTH group presented more “island-like” new bone between the defect margins with fibrous tissues than did the CTL group. The PTH group significantly exhibited greater histologic bone formation than did the CTL group (1.5mm ±0.7; 1.9 mm ± 0.6, p<0.05/ for residual bone defect). The radiodensitometry analysis revealed significant differences among the PTH and CTL groups (2.1 Al eq. ±0.04; 1.8Al eq. ±0.06, p<0.05), demonstrating an increase in bone mineral density. The PTH treatment contributed to the bone formation with a higher amount of mineral and/or fibrous tissue when compared with the CTL group. Conclusions The results suggest that it was possible to increase the process of bone regeneration by accelerating the healing process in rat calvarial defects through intermittent administration of the PTH treatment. Key words: Bone, skull, rats, bone regeneration, bone density. PMID:26034928

  3. Parathyroid hormone inhibition of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 transcription: Intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factor expression.

    PubMed

    Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Bezerra, Camila Nogueira Alves; Queiroz-Leite, Gabriella Duarte; Polidoro, Juliano Zequini; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral

    2015-06-12

    The main transport mechanism of reabsorption of sodium bicarbonate and fluid in the renal proximal tubules involves Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), which is acutely and chronically downregulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Although PTH is known to exert an inhibitory effect on NHE3 expression and transcription, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that, in opossum kidney proximal tubule (OKP) cells, PTH-induced inhibition of Nhe3 gene promoter occurs even in the core promoter that controls expression of the reporter gene. We found that inhibition of the protein kinase A (PKA) and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways transformed PTH from an inhibitor of promoter activity into an activator of that same activity, as did point mutations in the EGR1, Sp1, and Sp3 binding consensus elements in the promoter. In nuclear extracts of PTH-treated OKP cells, we also observed increased expression of EGR1 mRNA and of some Sp3 isoforms. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed a supershift of the -61 to -42-bp probe with an anti-EGR1 antibody in PTH-treated cells, suggesting that EGR1 binding is relevant for the inhibitory activity of PTH. We conclude that PTH-induced inhibition of NHE3 transcription is related to higher EGR1 expression; to EGR1 binding to the proximal and core promoters; and to PKA and JAK/STAT pathway activation. This mechanism might be responsible, at least in part, for lower NHE3 expression and sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules in the presence of high PTH levels. PMID:25888790

  4. The Effect of Bovine Parathyroid Hormone Withdrawal on MC3T3-E1 Cell Proliferation and Phosphorus Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sijia; Cui, Tongxia; Li, Zhonghe; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zhuo; Wu, Jianxiong; Liang, Xinling; Lin, Zheng; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia are common complications after parathyroidectomy (PTX). Sudden removal of high circulating levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes decreased osteoclastic resorption resulting in a decreased bone remodeling space. These phenomena are likely due to an increased influx of calcium and phosphorus into bone. However, there are currently no data to support this hypothesis. In this study, we found that PTX significantly reduced levels of PTH, calcium and phosphate. Compared with preoperative levels, after 1 year, postoperative PTH, calcium and phosphate levels were 295.6 ± 173.7 pg/mL (P < 0.05), 86.62 ± 15.98 mg/dL (P < 0.05) and 5.56 ± 2.03 mg/dL (P < 0.05), respectively. We investigated continuous bovine PTH administration as well as withdrawal of bovine PTH stimulation in the mouse osteoblast precursor cell line MC3T3-E1. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with continuous bovine PTH treatment for 20 days or with transient bovine PTH treatment for 10 days. High doses of continuous bovine PTH exposure strongly reduced cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and the number of mineralized calcium nodules. However, withdrawal of bovine PTH (100 ng/mL) significantly increased the number of mineralized calcium nodules and caused a rapid decline in calcium and phosphorus content of culture medium. In conclusion, continuous exposure to bovine PTH inhibited osteoblast differentiation and reduced the formation of mineralized nodules. However, this inhibition was removed and mineralized nodule formation resumed with withdrawal of bovine PTH. According to the results of our clinical examinations and in vitro experiments, we hypothesize that the sudden removal of high levels of PTH may cause an increased influx of calcium and phosphorus into bone after PTX. PMID:25775025

  5. Parathyroid hormone is a plausible mediator for the metabolic syndrome in the morbidly obese: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The biological mechanisms in the association between the metabolic syndrome (MS) and various biomarkers, such as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vit D) and magnesium, are not fully understood. Several of the proposed predictors of MS are also possible predictors of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We aimed to explore whether PTH is a possible mediator between MS and various possible explanatory variables in morbidly obese patients. Methods Fasting serum levels of PTH, vit D and magnesium were assessed in a cross-sectional study of 1,017 consecutive morbidly obese patients (68% women). Dependencies between MS and a total of seven possible explanatory variables as suggested in the literature, including PTH, vit D and magnesium, were specified in a path diagram, including both direct and indirect effects. Possible gender differences were also included. Effects were estimated using Bayesian path analysis, a multivariable regression technique, and expressed using standardized regression coefficients. Results Sixty-eight percent of the patients had MS. In addition to type 2 diabetes and age, both PTH and serum phosphate had significant direct effects on MS; 0.36 (95% Credibility Interval (CrI) [0.15, 0.57]) and 0.28 (95% CrI [0.10,0.47]), respectively. However, due to significant gender differences, an increase in either PTH or phosphate corresponded to an increased OR for MS in women only. All proposed predictors of MS had significant direct effects on PTH, with vit D and phosphate the strongest; -0.27 (95% CrI [-0.33,-0.21]) and -0.26 (95% CrI [-0.32,-0.20]), respectively. Though neither vit D nor magnesium had significant direct effects on MS, for women they both affected MS indirectly, due to the strong direct effect of PTH on MS. For phosphate, the indirect effect on MS, mediated through serum calcium and PTH, had opposite sign than the direct effect, resulting in the total effect on MS being somewhat attenuated compared to the direct effect only. Conclusion Our results indicate that for women PTH is a plausible mediator in the association between MS and a range of explanatory variables, including vit D, magnesium and phosphate. PMID:21306649

  6. Human parathyroid hormone-(1-38) restores cancellous bone to the immobilized, osteopenic proximal tibial metaphysis in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. F.; Jee, W. S. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Lin, B. Y.; Liang, X. G.; Li, M.; Yamamoto, N.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if human parathyroid hormone-(1-38) (PTH) can restore cancellous bone mass to the established osteopenic, immobilized proximal tibial metaphyses (PTM) of female rats. The right hindlimbs of six-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were immobilized by bandaging the right hindlimbs to the abdomen. After 30 days of right hindlimb immobilization (RHLI), the rats were subcutaneously injected with 200 microgram hPTH(1-38)/kg/day for 15 (short-term) or 75 (longer-term) days. Static bone histomorphometry was performed on the primary spongiosa, while both static and dynamic histomorphometry were performed on the secondary spongiosa of the right PTM. Immobilization for 30 days without treatment decreased trabecular bone area, number and thickness in both primary and secondary spongiosa, and induced an increase in eroded perimeter and a decrease in tissue referent-bone formation rate (BFR/TV) in the secondary spongios. These changes reached a new steady state thereafter. Treatment with 200 microgram hPTH(1-38)/kg/day for 15 days, beginning at 30 days post immobilization (IM), significantly increased trabecular bone area, thickness and number in both primary and secondary spongiosa despite continuous IM when compared to the age-related and IM controls. The short-term (15 days) PTH treatment significantly increased labeling perimeter, mineral apposition rate and BFR/TV in the secondary spongiosa and stimulated longitudinal bone growth as compared to the age-related and IM controls. PTH treatment for longer-term (75 days) further increased trabecular bone area, thickness and number as compared to aging and IM controls and short-term (15 days) PTH treated groups. The bone formation indices in the secondary spongiosa of these longer-term treated rats were lower than that of short-term (15 days) PTH treated group, but they were still higher than those of IM and age-related controls. Our findings indicate that PTH treatment stimulates cancellous bone formation, restores and adds extra cancellous bone to the established, disuse-osteopenic proximal tibial metaphysis of continuously RHLI female rats. These results suggest that PTH may be a useful agent in treatment disuse-induced osteoporosis in humans.

  7. Human parathyroid hormone-(1-38) restores cancellous bone to the immobilized, osteopenic proximal tibial metaphysis in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. F.; Jee, W. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Lin, B. Y.; Liang, X. G.; Li, M.; Yamamoto, N.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if human parathyroid hormone-(1-38) (hPTH(1-38)) can restore cancellous bone mass to the established osteopenic, immobilized proximal tibial metaphyses of female rats. The right hindlimbs of 6-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were immobilized by bandaging the right hindlimbs to the abdomen. After 30 days of right hindlimb immobilization, the rats were subcutaneously injected with 200 micrograms hPTH(1-38)/kg/day for 15 days (short-term treatment) or 75 days (longer-term treatment). Static bone histomorphometry was performed on the primary spongiosa, and both static and dynamic histomorphometry were performed on the secondary spongiosa of the right proximal tibial metaphyses. Immobilization for 30 days without treatment decreased trabecular bone area, number, and thickness in both primary and secondary spongiosa, and induced an increase in eroded perimeter and a decrease in tissue referent-bone formation rate in the secondary spongiosa. These changes reached a new steady state thereafter. Treatment with 200 micrograms hPTH(1-38)/kg/day for 15 days, beginning 30 days after immobilization, significantly increased trabecular bone area, thickness, and number in both primary and secondary spongiosa despite continuous immobilization when compared with controls. The short-term PTH treatment (15 days) significantly increased labeling perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and tissue referent-bone formation rate in the secondary spongiosa and stimulated longitudinal bone growth as compared with the controls. Longer PTH treatment (75 days) further increased trabecular bone area, thickness, and number as compared with controls and groups given short-term PTH treatment (15 days). The bone formation indices in the secondary spongiosa of the longer-term treated rats were lower than those of the short-term treated group, but they were still higher than those of controls. Our findings indicate that PTH treatment stimulates cancellous bone formation, and restores and adds extra cancellous bone to the established, disuse-osteopenic proximal tibial metaphysis of female rats with continuously immobilized right hindlimbs. These results suggest that PTH may be useful in treating disuse-induced osteoporosis in humans.

  8. Association of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels with semen and hormonal parameters

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Ahmad O; Wayne Meikle, A; Matthew Peterson, C; Stanford, Joseph; Gibson, Mark; Carrell, Douglas T

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D levels have been linked to various health outcomes including reproductive disorders. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between serum vitamin D level (25-hydroxy-vitamin D, or 25OHD) and semen and hormonal parameters. This is a cross-sectional study that included 170 healthy men recruited for the study of spermatogenesis from the general population. Men completed general and reproductive health questionnaires, and donated blood and semen samples. The main measures were hormonal (total and free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and semen parameters, adjusted (n=147) for age, body mass index (BMI), season, alcohol intake and smoking, in relation to categories of vitamin D levels, determined a priori. The mean age of the study population was 29.0±8.5 years and mean BMI was 24.3±3.2 kg m?2. The mean 25OHD was 34.1±15.06 ng ml?1. BMI showed a negative association with 25OHD. Sperm concentration, sperm progressive motility, sperm morphology, and total progressively motile sperm count were lower in men with ‘25OHD?50 ng ml?1' when compared to men with ‘20 ng ml?1?25OHD<50 ng ml?1'. Total sperm count and total progressive motile sperm count were lower in men with ‘25OHD<20 ng ml?1' when compared to men with ‘20 ng ml?1?25OHD<50 ng ml?1'. The adjusted means of various hormonal parameters did not show statistical difference in the different categories of 25OHD. In conclusion, serum vitamin D levels at high and low levels can be negatively associated with semen parameters. PMID:23042450

  9. Vitamin D hormone regulates serotonin synthesis. Part 1: relevance for autism.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rhonda P; Ames, Bruce N

    2014-06-01

    Serotonin and vitamin D have been proposed to play a role in autism; however, no causal mechanism has been established. Here, we present evidence that vitamin D hormone (calcitriol) activates the transcription of the serotonin-synthesizing gene tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) in the brain at a vitamin D response element (VDRE) and represses the transcription of TPH1 in tissues outside the blood-brain barrier at a distinct VDRE. The proposed mechanism explains 4 major characteristics associated with autism: the low concentrations of serotonin in the brain and its elevated concentrations in tissues outside the blood-brain barrier; the low concentrations of the vitamin D hormone precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3]; the high male prevalence of autism; and the presence of maternal antibodies against fetal brain tissue. Two peptide hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, are also associated with autism and genes encoding the oxytocin-neurophysin I preproprotein, the oxytocin receptor, and the arginine vasopressin receptor contain VDREs for activation. Supplementation with vitamin D and tryptophan is a practical and affordable solution to help prevent autism and possibly ameliorate some symptoms of the disorder. PMID:24558199

  10. Crystallization of the receptor-binding domain of parathyroid hormone-related protein in complex with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody Fab fragment

    SciTech Connect

    McKinstry, William J.; Polekhina, Galina; Diefenbach-Jagger, Hannelore; Sato, Koh; Onuma, Etsuro; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, Thomas J.; Parker, Michael W.

    2009-04-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays an important role in regulating embryonic skeletal development and is abnormally regulated in the pathogenesis of skeletal complications observed with many cancers and osteoporosis. It exerts its action through binding to a G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane cell-surface receptor (GPCR). Structurally, GPCRs are very difficult to study by X-ray crystallography. In this study, a monoclonal antibody Fab fragment which recognizes the same region of PTHrP as its receptor, PTH1R, was used to aid in the crystallization of PTHrP. The resultant protein complex was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.6, b = 96.3, c = 88.5 {angstrom}, and diffracted to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal structure will shed light on the nature of the key residues of PTHrP that interact with the antibody and will provide insights into how the antibody is able to discriminate between PTHrP and the related molecule parathyroid homone.

  11. Vitamin D: a rapid review.

    PubMed

    Moyad, Mark A

    2008-10-01

    Interest in all aspects of vitamin D seems to be surging due to perhaps the increased number of diverse positive studies suggesting it could prevent a variety of chronic diseases. However, before patients and health care professionals are educated on the preventive aspects of this vitamin that acts more like a hormone, a basic rapid review of vitamin D is needed. There are multiple reasons for the high rate of vitamin D deficiency around the world, including an aging population, obesity, protective skin care measures, skin pigmentation, increased awareness, more utilized diagnostic assays, and perhaps even the lack of natural and fortified food and beverage sources. Various benefits and limitations of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation are discussed. The proper use of the vitamin D blood test, also known as "25-OH vitamin D," is important, and changing the normal range of this test may allow for a slightly higher cutoff value based on parathyroid hormone reductions and experience from clinical trials of osteoporosis prevention. The vitamin D doses needed to adequately increase blood levels are provided. Finally, increasing the recommended daily allowance of this vitamin to 800 to 1,000 IU per day may be beneficial for most age groups. PMID:18980100

  12. Copyright Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Neurosteroid hormone vitamin D and its utility in clinical nutrition

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    . Neurosteroid hormone vitamin D and its utility in clinical nutrition Allan V. Kalueffa and Pentti Tuohimaab Purpose of review Vitamin D is a seco-steroid hormone with multiple functions in the nervous system. We discuss clinical and experimental evidence of the role of vitamin D in normal and pathological brain

  13. Duplicated zebrafish co-orthologs of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP, Pthlh) play different roles in craniofacial skeletogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yi-Lin; Bhattacharya, Poulomi; He, Xin Jun; Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Marquardt, Ben; Layman, Jason; Grunloh, Melissa; Postlethwait, John H.; Rubin, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP, alias PTH-like hormone (Pthlh)) acts as a paracrine hormone that regulates the patterning of cartilage, bone, teeth, pancreas, and thymus. Beyond mammals, however, little is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms by which Pthlh regulates early development. To evaluate conserved pathways of craniofacial skeletogenesis, we isolated two Pthlh co-orthologs from the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and investigated their structural, phylogenetic, and syntenic relationships, expression, and function. Results showed that pthlh duplicates originated in the teleost genome duplication. Zebrafish pthlha and pthlhb were maternally expressed and showed overlapping and distinct zygotic expression patterns during skeletal development that mirrored mammalian expression domains. To explore the regulation of duplicated pthlh genes, we studied their expression patterns in mutants and found that both sox9a and sox9b are upstream of pthlha in arch and fin bud cartilages, but only sox9b is upstream of pthlha in the pancreas. Morpholino antisense knockdown showed that pthlha regulates both sox9a and sox9b in the pharyngeal arches but not in the brain or otic vesicles and that pthlhb does not regulate either sox9 gene, which is likely related to its highly degraded nuclear localization signal. Knockdown of pthlha but not pthlhb caused runx2b overexpression in craniofacial cartilages and premature bone mineralization. We conclude that in normal cartilage development, sox9 upregulates pthlh, which downregulates runx2, and that the duplicated nature of all three of these genes in zebrafish creates a network of regulation by different co-orthologs in different tissues. PMID:22761277

  14. Parathyroids and ultimobranchial bodies in monotremes.

    PubMed

    Haynes, J I

    1999-02-01

    Only scant information is available in the scientific literature on the parathyroids and ultimobranchial bodies in the primitive mammals, the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). The major aim of this paper is to describe the morphology of the monotreme parathyroid gland and to compare it with parathyroids in mammals and reptiles. The gross anatomy and light microscopic structure of the ultimobranchial body, thymus, and thyroid are also given. Animals were dissected and routine light and electron microscopic techniques used to examine the microscopic morphology. The locations of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide in tissue sections were identified by immunostaining. Monotremes have one pair of parathyroid glands located in the thorax and they are often associated with thymic tissue but never with the thyroid which is also present in the mediastinum. Ultimobranchial bodies are ventrolateral to the commencement of the trachea. Thymic lobules with Hassall's corpuscles are scattered in the fibrofatty tissue of the mediastinum and the ventral surface of the pericardium. Histologically, principal cells, water-clear cells, and non-secretory cells were identified in the parathyroid glands. Principal cells showed polarity and had microlamellar projections that formed intercellular canaliculi. Non-secretory cells had features similar to those of thymic epithelial reticular cells. Immunostaining of parathyroid hormone showed a diffuse distribution in parathyroid principal cells and none in ultimobranchial bodies. Identification of the ultimobranchial bodies was confirmed by immunostaining. The monotreme parathyroid gland, ultimobranchial bodies and thyroid show reptilian as well as mammalian features. PMID:9972812

  15. Amphibian parathyroids: morphological and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, A K; Das, V K; Das, S; Sasayama, Y; Suzuki, N

    1995-10-01

    Amphibians living partially or totally in a terrestrial environment are the first tetrapods to possess parathyroid glands. Purely aquatic amphibians and amphibian larvae lack these endocrine glands. The parathyroids develop at the time of metamorphosis. The parathyroid glands in caecilians consist of a single cell type, that of urodeles may be composed of basal (supporting) cells and suprabasal (chief) cells, and that of anurans of small and large chief cells. Parathyroid glands of caecilians and anurans lack connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves. The parathyroid cells become activated in response to decreased blood calcium concentration and undergo changes indicating increased parathyroid hormone secretion. Increased blood calcium concentration suppresses secretory activity. Usually, parathyroidectomy elicits hypocalcemia in most amphibians. Such operations have no effect in lower urodeles. Parathyroid hormone administration provokes hypercalcemia in most amphibians. The parathyroids of caecilians have not been studied in detail. The urodeles and anurans exhibit seasonal changes in the parathyroid glands. These changes may be initiated by environmental stimuli such as light, temperature, or alterations in blood calcium levels caused by natural hibernation. PMID:8580512

  16. Association of High Vitamin D Status with Low Circulating Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Independent of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged and Elderly Males

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Zhixiao; Cao, Mengdie; Gao, Yuan; Mao, Jia; Li, Yanyun; Shi, Yun; Yang, Fan; Zheng, Shuai; Tang, Wei; Duan, Yu; Huang, Xiaoping; He, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background. A recent study has reported that high circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with low circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, but only in younger individuals. The goal of the present study was to explore the relationship between vitamin D status and circulating TSH levels with thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid hormone levels taken into consideration in a population-based health survey of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods. A total of 1,424 Chinese adults, aged 41–78?years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum levels of 25(OH)D, TSH, thyroid hormones, and thyroid autoantibodies were measured. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94.29% in males and 97.22% in females, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55.61% in males and 69.64% in females. Vitamin D status was not associated with positive thyroid autoantibodies after controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and smoking status. Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with lower TSH levels after controlling for age, FT4 and FT3 levels, thyroid volume, the presence of thyroid nodule(s), and smoking status in males. Conclusion. High vitamin D status in middle-aged and elderly males was associated with low circulating TSH levels independent of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:24693286

  17. Parathyroid hormone induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in human renal proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yunshan; Li, Zhen; Ding, Raohai; Li, Hongdong; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Weijie; Wang, Yanxia

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to play an important role in renal fibrogenesis. Recent studies suggested parathyroid hormone (PTH) could accelerate EMT and subsequent organ fibrosis. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying PTH-induced EMT remain unknown. The present study was to investigate whether Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway is involved in PTH-induced EMT in human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells) and to determine the profile of gene expression associated with PTH-induced EMT. PTH could induce morphological changes and gene expression characteristic of EMT in cultured HK-2 cells. Suppressing ?-catenin expression or DKK1 limited gene expression characteristic of PTH-induced EMT. Based on the PCR array analysis, PTH treatment resulted in the up-regulation of 18 genes and down-regulation of 9 genes compared with the control. The results were further supported by a western blot analysis, which showed the increased Wnt4 protein expression. Wnt4 overexpression also promotes PTH-induced EMT in HK-2 cells. The findings demonstrated that PTH-induced EMT in HK-2 cells is mediated by Wnt/?-catenin signal pathway, and Wnt4 might be a key gene during PTH-induced EMT. PMID:25337242

  18. Novel Role of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein in the Pathophysiology of the Diabetic Kidney: Evidence from Experimental and Human Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Montserrat; Ortega, Arantxa; Olea, Nuria; Arenas, María Isabel; Izquierdo, Adriana; Bover, Jordi; Esbrit, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor type 1 (PTH1R) are extensively expressed in the kidney, where they are able to modulate renal function. Renal PTHrP is known to be overexpressed in acute renal injury. Recently, we hypothesized that PTHrP involvement in the mechanisms of renal injury might not be limited to conditions with predominant damage of the renal tubulointerstitium and might be extended to glomerular diseases, such as diabetic nephropathy (DN). In experimental DN, the overexpression of both PTHrP and the PTH1R contributes to the development of renal hypertrophy as well as proteinuria. More recent data have shown, for the first time, that PTHrP is upregulated in the kidney from patients with DN. Collectively, animal and human studies have shown that PTHrP acts as an important mediator of diabetic renal cell hypertrophy by a mechanism which involves the modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins and TGF-?1. Furthermore, angiotensin II (Ang II), a critical factor in the progression of renal injury, appears to be responsible for PTHrP upregulation in these conditions. These findings provide novel insights into the well-known protective effects of Ang II antagonists in renal diseases, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:23984429

  19. Parathyroid hormone increases the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I and transforming growth factor beta 1 in rat bone.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeilschifter, J; Laukhuf, F; Müller-Beckmann, B; Blum, W F; Pfister, T; Ziegler, R

    1995-01-01

    Intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone mass in experimental animals and humans. In vitro studies have suggested that the anabolic effect of PTH may be mediated by local growth factors. However, the relevance of these findings to in vivo situations remains unclear. In this study, we examined a time course of daily s.c. injections of hPTH (1-34) on the skeletal concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in the proximal tail vertebrae of male rats. PTH caused a time and dose-dependent increase in the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine. This anabolic effect on bone mass was accompanied by progressive increases in bone matrix-associated IGF-I and TGF-beta 1. Increases in IGF-I and TGF-beta 1 became apparent after four and eight weeks of PTH treatment respectively and persisted through week 12. PTH had no effect on circulating IGF-I, suggesting that the increase of bone matrix IGF-I was due to the local effect of PTH on bone tissue directly rather than to an increase of circulating IGF-I. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that IGF-I and TGF-beta 1 may play a role as local mediators of the anabolic effects of PTH on bone metabolism. PMID:7635970

  20. Identification of transcripts encoding a parathyroid hormone-like peptide in messenger RNAs from a variety of human and animal tumors associated with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, K; Mangin, M; Dreyer, B E; Webb, A C; Posillico, J T; Stewart, A F; Bander, N H; Weir, E C; Insogna, K L; Broadus, A E

    1988-01-01

    The syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) appears to be mediated in many instances by a parathyroid hormone-like peptide, which has recently been purified, sequenced, and cloned. Using a probe representing the coding region of the human PTH-like peptide, we examined by Northern analysis poly (A)+ RNA from a variety of human and animal tumors associated with HHM. Hybridizing transcripts were identified in mRNA from each of 12 human and each of four animal HHM-associated tumors, with a complex hybridization pattern observed in the human mRNAs and a relatively simple pattern observed in the animal mRNAs. Poly (A)+ RNA prepared from tumors of similar histological types unassociated with HHM failed to hybridize with the probe. Messenger RNA-dependent biological activity from the animal tumors was entirely eliminated in a hybridization-arrest experiment using a complementary oligonucleotide spanning the region of homology between human PTH and the PTH-like peptide. These findings indicate that the PTH-like peptide is associated with the syndrome of HHM in a wide spectrum of tumor types from a variety of mammalian species and that the PTH-like sequence in the proximal amino terminus of the peptide is highly conserved. Images PMID:2454953

  1. Nucleotide sequence analysis of CDR3 elements of a panel of anti-peptide monoclonal antibodies recognizing parathyroid hormone-related protein.

    PubMed Central

    Rapley, R; Flora, P S; Walsh, D J; Walker, M R

    1993-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of heavy (VH) and light (VL) chain variable region complementarity determining regions have been determined from in vitro amplified mRNA isolated from a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) raised to a synthetic 34mer peptide representing the N-terminal portion of human parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP or parathyrin) reported to contain an immunodominant epitope. These mAb vary in affinity for the synthetic peptide and native PTHrP (Ka between 5.9 x 10(8) and 1.9 x 10(11)l/M). All 10 mAb studied were found were found to utilized restricted VH2, V kappa 2, JH4 and J kappa 1 family genes. Significant differences in the length and sequence of D elements were found; however 9/10 mAb utilize members of the DSP2 family. Significantly, two broad ranges of affinity could be determined based on the presence of Asp or Ala at residue 101 in JH. Images Figure 2 PMID:8478021

  2. N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride nanoparticle as a novel delivery system for parathyroid hormone-related protein 1-34.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sheng-hao; Wu, Xiao-ting; Guo, Wei-chun; Du, Yu-min; Yu, Ling; Tang, Jin

    2010-06-30

    Chitosan (CS) and epoxy propyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (EPTAC) were used to prepare the water-soluble N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC). HTCC and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were mixed to form HTCC nanoparticles based on ionic gelation. Parathyroid hormone-related protein 1-34 (PTHrP1-34) was incorporated into the HTCC nanoparticles. The particle size and morphology of nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HTCC/PTHrP1-34 nanoparticles were 100-180 nm in size and their encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were related to HTCC concentration, TPP concentration and initial concentration of PTHrP1-34. Relatively optimum encapsulation efficiency (78.4%) and loading capacity (13.7%) of PTHrP1-34 is achieved, and the in vitro release profile of PTHrP1-34 from nanoparticles has an initial burst, which is followed up by a slow release phase. These studies showed that HTCC/PTHrP1-34 nanoparticles are suitable for the treatment of osteoporosis, because of their slow-continuous-release properties, and the relevant in vivo experiments and clinical trials should be further studied. PMID:20435115

  3. Value of intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring in papillary thyroid cancer surgery: can it be used to guide the choice of operation methods?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiafeng; Gu, Jialei; Han, Qianbo; Wang, Wendong; Shang, Jinbiao

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess the diagnostic value of decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) in hypoparathyroidism after unilateral operation. Methods: A study was conducted on patients with PTC undergoing total or near-total thyroidectomy plus central neck dissection (CND). Results: Postoperative hypocalcemia was found in 42 patients (51.2%). For patients undergoing bilateral CND, those whose tumor invasion proceeded beyond the thyroid capsule have a higher rate of postoperative hypoparathyroidism (P<0.05). PTH level of hypoparathyroidism patients was lower than that of non-hypoparathyroidism patients from surgery to 6 months later (P<0.05). When unilateral thyroidectomy and central region dissection were completed, PTH level decreased by 47.06% in hypoparathyroidism patients, which was significantly higher than non-hypoparathyroidism patients (28.35%) (P<0.001). PTH level (AUC 0.806) and its decreasing degree (AUC 0.736) played predicting roles in assessing postoperative hypoparathyroidism (P<0.001). Conclusions: For PTC surgery, PTH level and its decreasing degree played predicting roles in assessing postoperative hypoparathyroidism. PMID:26221329

  4. Surgery for Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Preoperatively Negative Sestamibi Scan and Discordant Imaging Studies: The Usefulness of Intraoperative Parathyroid Hormone Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Calň, Pietro Giorgio; Pisano, Giuseppe; Loi, Giulia; Medas, Fabio; Tatti, Alberto; Piras, Stefano; Nicolosi, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring on surgical strategy, intraoperative findings, and outcome in patients with negative sestamibi scintigraphy and with discordant imaging studies. We divided our 175 patients into 3 groups: group A was methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI)-positive and ultrasonography positive and was concordant (114 patients), group B was MIBI-positive and ultrasonography-negative (50 patients), and group C was MIBI—and ultrasonography-negative (11 patients). The overall operative success was 99.12% in group A, 98% in group B, and 90.91% in group C, with an incidence of multiglandular disease of 3.5% in group A, 12% in group B, and 9.09% in group C. Intraoperative PTH monitoring changed the operative management in 2.63% of patients in group A and 14% in group B. The use of intraoperative PTH achieves to obtain excellent results in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in high-volume centers, even in the most difficult cases, during MIBI-negative and discordant preoperative imaging studies. PMID:24250241

  5. A new immobilization procedure for development of an electrochemical immunosensor for parathyroid hormone detection based on gold electrodes modified with 6-mercaptohexanol and silane.

    PubMed

    Say?kl? ?im?ek, Çi?dem; Nur Sonuç Karabo?a, Münteha; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication of a new electrochemical impedance-based biosensor for the analysis of parathyroid hormone (PTH), using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of mercaptohexanol and (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane on gold electrodes, was investigated for the first time in the field. Anti-PTH was used as a biorecognition element. To monitor immobilization processes in the biosensor fabrication, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were successfully operated. CV and EIS techniques were also used in quantification of PTH. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) was also applied to identify surface modifications. Fabrication and working parameters of the biosensor were optimized. Moreover, Kramers-Kronig transformations were performed for validation of obtained EIS data in all steps of biosensor fabrication. The linear PTH detection range of the presented biosensor was 10-50pg/mL PTH. The chrono-impedance technique for real-time monitoring of PTH binding was also implemented. The biosensor has exhibited good repeatability (with a correlation) and reproducibility. Finally, artificial serum samples spiked with known concentrations of PTH were analyzed by the proposed biosensor. To demonstrate the feasibility of the biosensor in practical analysis, real human serum samples and the artificial serum samples were analyzed. PMID:26452812

  6. Parathyroid hormone blocks the stimulatory effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on collagen synthesis in cultured 21-day fetal rat calvariae

    SciTech Connect

    Kream, B.E.; Petersen, D.N.; Raisz, L.G. )

    1990-01-01

    We examined the interaction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on collagen synthesis in 21-day fetal rat calvariae as assessed by measuring the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)proline into collagenase-digestible protein. After 96 hours of culture, 10 nM PTH antagonized the stimulation of collagen synthesis and partially blocked the increase in dry weight produced by 10 nM IGF-I. The effect of PTH to block IGF-I stimulated collagen synthesis was observed in the central bone of calvariae and was mimicked by forskolin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but not by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, transforming growth factor-alpha or dexamethasone. Our data are consistent with the concept that the direct effect of PTH is to inhibit basal CDP labeling and fully oppose IGF-I stimulated CDP labeling. The finding that this effect of PTH is mimicked by forskolin and PMA suggests that this block in IGF-I stimulation of CDP labeling involves both cAMP and protein kinase C mediated pathways.

  7. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced cell death: First evidence of a novel endocrine-cardiovascular interaction.

    PubMed

    Datta, Nabanita S; Chukkapalli, Sahiti; Vengalil, Nathan; Zhan, Enbo; Przyklenk, Karin; Lasley, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Although there is a growing interest in the molecular cross-talk between the endocrine and cardiovascular systems, the cardiac effects of calcium-regulating hormones (i.e., parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP)) have not been explored. In this study, we examined the effect of PTHrP on the viability of isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes subjected to oxidative stress. Myocytes from 19 to 22 week old male 129J/C57BL6 mice were exposed to oxidative insult in the form of H2O2 which led to more than 70% loss of cell viability. Herein we demonstrate, for the first time, that pretreatment with 100 nM PTHrP prior to 100 ?M H2O2 incubation prevents H2O2 -induced cell death by more than 50%. Immunoblot analysis revealed H2O2 induction of MKP-1 protein expression while PTHrP decreased MKP-1 expression. Moreover, myocytes derived from MKP1 KO mice were resistant to oxidative injury. No added benefit of PTHrP treatment was noted in MKP-1 null cardiomyocytes. Using specific pharmacological inhibitors we demonstrated that P-p38, P-ERK and P-AKT mediated PTHrP's cardioprotective action. These data provide novel evidence that: i) down-regulation of MKP1 affords profound protection against oxidative stress; and ii) PTHrP is cardioprotective, possibly via down-regulation of MKP-1 and activation of MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling. PMID:26518653

  8. Impaired Vitamin D Metabolism in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, Cortney; de Boer, Ian H.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism consists of both production and catabolism, which are enzymatically driven and highly regulated. Renal vitamin D metabolism requires filtration and tubular reabsorption of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and is regulated by parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor-23, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. In CKD, renal production of1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D from 25-hydroxyvitamin D is reduced. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and epidemiologic studies of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the most abundant product of 25-hydroxyvitamin D catabolism by CYP24A1, suggest that vitamin D catabolism is also reduced. New insights into the mechanisms and regulation of vitamin D metabolism may lead to novel approaches to assess and treat impaired vitamin D metabolism in CKD. PMID:23465502

  9. The origin of the parathyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Masataka; Graham, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    It has long been held that the parathyroid glands and parathyroid hormone evolved with the emergence of the tetrapods, reflecting a need for new controls on calcium homeostasis in terrestrial, rather than aquatic, environments. Developmentally, the parathyroid gland is derived from the pharyngeal pouch endoderm, and studies in mice have shown that its formation is under the control of a key regulatory gene, Gcm-2. We have used a phylogenetic analysis of Gcm-2 to probe the evolutionary origins of the parathyroid gland. We show that in chicks, as in mice, Gcm-2 is expressed in the pharyngeal pouches and the forming parathyroid gland. We find that Gcm-2 is present not only in tetrapods but also in teleosts and chondrichthyans, and that in these species, Gcm-2 is expressed within the pharyngeal pouches and internal gill buds that derive from them in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a teleost, and dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula), a chondrichthyan. We further demonstrate that Gcm-2 is required for the formation of the internal gill buds in zebrafish. We also have identified parathyroid hormone 1/2-encoding genes in fish and show that these genes are expressed by the gills. We further show that the gills express the calcium-sensing receptor, which is used in tetrapods to monitor serum calcium levels. These results indicate that the tetrapod parathyroid gland and the gills of fish are evolutionarily related structures, and that the parathyroid likely came into being as a result of the transformation of the gills during tetrapod evolution. PMID:15591343

  10. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  11. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Noureldine, Salem I; Gooi, Zhen; Tufano, Ralph P

    2015-10-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  12. Effect of Human Parathyroid Hormone on Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells in NOD/SCID Mice Co-Transplanted with Human Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yeon-Jung; Hwang, Kyoujung; Kim, Miyeon; Cho, Youl-Hee; Lee, Jong-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the effect of human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) on the engraftment and/or in vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells in an umbilical cord blood (UCB)-xenotransplantation model. In addition, we assessed its effect on the expression of cell adhesion molecules. Materials and Methods Female NOD/SCID mice received sublethal total body irradiation with a single dose of 250 cGy. Eighteen to 24 hours after irradiation, 1×107 human UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) and 5×106 human UCB-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were infused via the tail vein. Mice were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 mice received MNCs only, Group 2 received MNCs only and were then treated with hPTH, Group 3 mice received MNCs and MSCs, and were treated with hPTH. Results Engraftment was achieved in all the mice. Bone marrow cellularity was approximately 20% in Group 1, but 70-80% in the hPTH treated groups. Transplantation of MNCs together with MSCs had no additional effect on bone marrow cellularity. However, the proportion of human CD13 and CD33 myeloid progenitor cells was higher in Group 3, while the proportion of human CD34 did not differ significantly between the three groups. The proportion of CXCR4 cells in Group 3 was larger than in Groups 1 and 2 but without statistical significance. Conclusion We have demonstrated a positive effect of hPTH on stem cell proliferation and a possible synergistic effect of MSCs and hPTH on the proportion of human hematopoietic progenitor cells, in a xenotransplantation model. Clinical trials of the use of hPTH after stem cell transplantation should be considered. PMID:23225826

  13. Roles of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Receptor and Reactive Oxygen Species in Hyperlipidemia-Induced PTH(1-34) Resistance in Preosteoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Garcia, Jamie; Lu, Jinxiu; Iriana, Sidney; Kalajzic, Ivo; Rowe, David; Demer, Linda; Tintut, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive lipids initiate inflammatory reactions leading to pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Evidence shows that they also contribute to bone loss by inhibiting parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) expression and differentiation of osteoblasts. We previously demonstrated that bone anabolic effects of PTH(1-34) are blunted in hyperlipidemic mice and that these PTH effects are restored by antioxidants. However, it is not clear which osteoblastic cell developmental stage is targeted by bioactive lipids. To investigate the effects of hyperlipidemia at the cellular level, hyperlipidemic Ldlr?/? mice were bred with Col3.6GFPtpz mice, in which preosteoblasts/osteoblasts carry a topaz fluorescent label, and with Col2.3GFPcyan mice, in which more mature osteoblasts/osteocytes carry a cyan fluorescent label. Histological analyses of trabecular bone surfaces in femoral as well as calvarial bones showed that intermittent PTH(1-34) increased fluorescence intensity in WT-Tpz mice, but not in Tpz-Ldlr?/? mice. In contrast, PTH(1-34) did not alter fluorescence intensity in femoral cortical envelopes of either WT-Cyan or Ldlr?/?-Cyan mice. To test the mechanism of PTH1R downregulation, preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with bioactive lipids and the antioxidant Trolox. Results showed that inhibitory effects of PTH1R levels by bioactive lipids were rescued by pretreatment with Trolox. The inhibitory effects on expression of PTH1R as well as on PTH-induced osteoblastic genes were mimicked by xanthine/xanthine oxidase, a known generator of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest an important role of preosteoblasts as the target development stage and downregulation of PTH receptor expression mediated by intracellular oxidant stress as a mechanism in hyperlipidemia-induced PTH resistance. PMID:24038594

  14. Parathyroid hormone enhances fluid shear-induced [Ca2+]i signaling in osteoblastic cells through activation of mechanosensitive and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, K. D.; Duncan, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    Osteoblasts respond to both fluid shear and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with a rapid increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). Because both stimuli modulate the kinetics of the mechanosensitive cation channel (MSCC), we postulated PTH would enhance the [Ca2+]i response to fluid shear by increasing the sensitivity of MSCCs. After a 3-minute preflow at 1 dyne/cm2, MC3T3-E1 cells were subjected to various levels of shear and changes in [Ca2+]i were assessed using Fura-2. Pretreatment with 50 nM bovine PTH(1-34) [bPTH(1-34)] significantly enhanced the shear magnitude-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i. Gadolinium (Gd3+), an MSCC blocker, significantly inhibited the mean peak [Ca2+]i response to shear and shear + bPTH(1-34). Nifedipine (Nif), an L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (VSCC) blocker, also significantly reduced the [Ca2+]i response to shear + bPTH(1-34), but not to shear alone, suggesting VSCC activation plays an interactive role in the action of these stimuli together. Activation of either the protein kinase C (PKC) or protein kinase A (PKA) pathways with specific agonists indicated that PKC activation did not alter the Ca2+ response to shear, whereas PKA activation significantly increased the [Ca2+]i response to lower magnitudes of shear. bPTH(1-34), which activates both pathways, induced the greatest [Ca2+]i response at each level of shear, suggesting an interaction of these pathways in this response. These data indicate that PTH significantly enhances the [Ca2+]i response to shear primarily via PKA modulation of the MSCC and VSCC.

  15. Effects of Pump versus Twice-Daily Injection Delivery of Synthetic Parathyroid Hormone 1-34 in Children with Severe Congenital Hypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Karen K.; Fulton, Kara; Albert, Paul; Cutler, Gordon B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the response with synthetic human parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34 delivery via twice-daily injection vs insulin pump in children with severe congenital hypoparathyroidism due to calcium receptor mutation or autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1. Study design Children and young adults aged 7-20 years with congenital hypoparathyroidism (N = 12) were randomized to receive PTH 1-34, delivered either via twice-daily subcutaneous injection or insulin pump for 13 weeks, followed by crossover to the opposite delivery method. The principal outcome measures were serum and urine calcium levels. Secondary outcomes included serum and urine magnesium and phosphate levels and bone turnover markers. Results PTH 1-34 delivered via pump produced near normalization of mean serum calcium (2.02 ± 0.05 [pump] vs 1.88 ± 0.03 [injection] mmol/L, P < .05, normal 2.05-2.5 mmol/L), normalized mean urine calcium excretion (5.17 ± 1.10 [pump] vs 6.67 ± 0.76 mmol/24 h/1.73 m2, P = .3), and significantly reduced markers of bone turnover (P < .02). Serum and urine calcium and magnesium showed a biphasic pattern during twice-daily injection vs minimal fluctuation during pump delivery. The PTH 1-34 dosage was markedly reduced during pump delivery (0.32 ± 0.04 vs 0.85 ± 0.11 ?g/kg/d, P < .001), and magnesium supplements were also reduced (P < .001). Conclusion Compared with twice-daily delivery, pump delivery of PTH 1-34 provides more physiologic calcium homeostasis and bone turnover in children with severe congenital hypoparathyroidism. PMID:24948345

  16. Effects of flavonoid on calcium content in femoral tissue culture and parathyroid hormone-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow culture in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Hamamoto, Reiko; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Ishiyama, Kaori

    2007-09-01

    The effect of various flavonoids, which are present in food and plants, on bone calcium content and osteoclastogenesis were investigated to compare action of flavonoid on bone formation and bone resorption in vitro. Rat femoral-diaphyseal (cortical bone) and -metaphyseal (trabecular bone) tissues were cultured for 48 h in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (high glucose) supplemented with antibiotics and bovine serum albumin. Amoung quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, curcumin, hesperidin, or astaxanthin in the range of 10(-7)-10(-5)M, culture with quercetin (10(-6) or 10(-5)M) caused a significant increase in diaphyseal calcium content. Such an effect was not seen in other compounds. Mouse bone marrow cells were cultured for 7 days in the presence of parathyroid hormone (PTH; 10(-7)M), a bone-resorbing factor, in vitro. Culture with PTH caused a significant increase in osteoclast-like cell formation. This increase was significantly inhibited in the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, or curcumin in the range of 10(-8)-10(-6)M. Such an effect was not seen in the case of hesperidin or astaxanthin. In addition, culture with PTH (10(-7)M) caused a significant decrease in diaphyseal calcium content. This decrease was completely prevented in the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferal, or isorhamnetin of 10(-6)M. This study demonstrates that various flavonoids have a potent inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption rather than bone formation in vitro. Among various flavonoids, quercetin had a stimulatory effect on bone formation and an inhibitory effect on bone resorption in vitro. PMID:17541507

  17. Parathyroid-hormone variance is only marginally explained by a panel of determinants: a cross-sectional study of 909 hip-fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; Vallero, Fulvia; Di Monaco, Roberto; Tappero, Rosa

    2014-09-01

    Several factors affect the levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in hip-fracture patients. We hypothesized that a panel of easily assessable determinants could account for both a substantial proportion of PTH variance and the occurrence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. We evaluated 909 of 981 hip-fracture inpatients admitted consecutively to our Rehabilitation division. In each patient we assessed PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, albumin-adjusted total calcium, phosphate, magnesium, and creatinine on a fasting blood sample 21.3 ± 6.1 (mean ± SD) days after fracture occurrence. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation. Functional level was assessed using the Barthel index. On multivariate analysis, six factors (phosphate, albumin-adjusted total calcium, estimated GFR (eGFR), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, age, and magnesium) were significantly associated with PTH levels. Overall, the panel of variables accounted for 23.7 % of PTH variance. Among the 909 patients, 304 (33.4 %) had PTH levels exceeding the normal range. Six factors (phosphate, albumin-adjusted total calcium, eGFR, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, age, and Barthel index scores) were significantly associated with the category of PTH level (either normal or elevated). The model correctly classified 70.4 % of cases. For the optimal cut-off point, sensitivity was 80 % and specificity was 61 %. Data shows that six factors were significantly associated with PTH levels in hip-fracture inpatients. However, the six factors accounted for only 23.7 % of PTH variance and the presence or absence of secondary hyperparathyroidism was correctly categorized in a modest proportion of cases. We conclude that more knowledge is needed on the factors affecting PTH levels after hip fracture. PMID:24202062

  18. Loss of cancellous bone mass and connectivity in ovariectomized rats can be restored by combined treatment with parathyroid hormone and estradiol.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, V; Dempster, D W; Birchman, R; Xu, R; Lindsay, R

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the potential use of a combination of antiresorption and bone formation-promoting agents as a treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis, we examined the effects of combined and separate administration of estrogen (17 beta-estradiol, 30 micrograms/kg per d, s.c.) and parathyroid hormone (rPTH [1-34], 40 micrograms/kg per d, s.c.) on the proximal tibia of ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. The treatments lasted for 4 wk and were initiated 1, 3, and 5 wk after surgery. Ovx resulted in rapid loss of cancellous bone volume (Cn-BV/TV) as well as trabecular connectivity, as determined by two dimensional strut analysis. When administered in a preventive mode, treatment beginning 1 wk post-Ovx, estrogen or PTH treatment alone preserved Cn-BV/TV and trabecular connectivity, and combined estrogen and PTH treatment caused a 40% increment in Cn-BV/TV while maintaining comparable trabecular connectivity with that seen in the Sham-operated animals. When administered in a curative mode to rats with established osteoporosis, treatments beginning 3 or 5 wk post-Ovx, estrogen or PTH treatment alone prevented further loss of connectivity and Cn-BV/TV, whereas the combined treatment resulted in as much as a 300% improvement in one of the parameters of trabecular connectivity, node to node strut length, and a 106% increase in Cn-BV/TV, with respect to the bone status at the initiation of treatment. The beneficial effects of this combined treatment derive from estrogen's ability to prevent accelerated bone resorption and, simultaneously, PTH's promotion of bone formation. These data demonstrate, in an animal model, that therapies can be devised to cure the skeletal defects associated with established osteoporosis. PMID:8514860

  19. Programmed administration of parathyroid hormone increases bone formation and reduces bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded ovariectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Cavolina, J. M.; Halloran, B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Gonadal insufficiency and reduced mechanical usage are two important risk factors for osteoporosis. The beneficial effects of PTH therapy to reverse the estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in the laboratory rat are well known, but the influence of mechanical usage in this response has not been established. In this study, the effects of programed administration of PTH on cancellous bone volume and turnover at the proximal tibial metaphysis were determined in hindlimb-unloaded, ovariectomized (OVX), 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. PTH was administered to weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats with osmotic pumps programed to deliver 20 microg human PTH (approximately 80 microg/kg x day) during a daily 1-h infusion for 7 days. Compared with sham-operated rats, OVX increased longitudinal and radial bone growth, increased indexes of cancellous bone turnover, and resulted in net resorption of cancellous bone. Hindlimb unloading of OVX rats decreased longitudinal and radial bone growth, decreased osteoblast number, increased osteoclast number, and resulted in a further decrease in cancellous bone volume compared with those in weight-bearing OVX rats. Programed administration of PTH had no effect on either radial or longitudinal bone growth in weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats. PTH treatment had dramatic effects on selected cancellous bone measurements; PTH maintained cancellous bone volume in OVX weight-bearing rats and greatly reduced cancellous bone loss in OVX hindlimb-unloaded rats. In the latter animals, PTH treatment prevented the hindlimb unloading-induced reduction in trabecular thickness, but the hormone was ineffective in preventing either the increase in osteoclast number or the loss of trabecular plates. Importantly, PTH treatment increased the retention of a baseline flurochrome label, osteoblast number, and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis regardless of the level of mechanical usage. These findings demonstrate that programed administration of PTH is effective in increasing osteoblast number and bone formation and has beneficial effects on bone volume in the absence of weight-bearing and gonadal hormones. We conclude that the actions of PTH on cancellous bone are independent of the level of mechanical usage.

  20. Parathyroid Hormone Induces Bone Cell Motility and Loss of Mature Osteocyte Phenotype through L-Calcium Channel Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Prideaux, Matthew; Dallas, Sarah L.; Zhao, Ning; Johnsrud, Erica D.; Veno, Patricia A.; Guo, Dayong; Mishina, Yuji; Harris, Stephen E.; Bonewald, Lynda F.

    2015-01-01

    Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) can exert both anabolic and catabolic effects on the skeleton, potentially through expression of the PTH type1 receptor (PTH1R), which is highly expressed in osteocytes. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible, we examined the effects of PTH on osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation using primary osteocytes and the IDG-SW3 murine cell line, which differentiate from osteoblast to osteocyte-like cells in vitro and express GFP under control of the dentin matrix 1 (Dmp1) promoter. PTH treatment resulted in an increase in some osteoblast and early osteocyte markers and a decrease in mature osteocyte marker expression. The gene expression profile of PTH-treated Day 28 IDG-SW3 cells was similar to PTH treated primary osteocytes. PTH treatment induced striking changes in the morphology of the Dmp1-GFP positive cells in IDG-SW3 cultures and primary cells from Dmp1-GFP transgenic mice. The cells changed from a more dendritic to an elongated morphology and showed increased cell motility. E11/gp38 has been shown to be important for cell migration, however, deletion of the E11/gp38/podoplanin gene had no effect on PTH-induced motility. The effects of PTH on motility were reproduced using cAMP, but not with protein kinase A (PKA), exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epac), protein kinase C (PKC) or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (Pi3K) agonists nor were they blocked by their antagonists. However, the effects of PTH were mediated through calcium signaling, specifically through L-type channels normally expressed in osteoblasts but decreased in osteocytes. PTH was shown to increase expression of this channel, but decrease the T-type channel that is normally more highly expressed in osteocytes. Inhibition of L-type calcium channel activity attenuated the effects of PTH on cell morphology and motility but did not prevent the downregulation of mature osteocyte marker expression. Taken together, these results show that PTH induces loss of the mature osteocyte phenotype and promotes the motility of these cells. These two effects are mediated through different mechanisms. The loss of phenotype effect is independent and the cell motility effect is dependent on calcium signaling. PMID:25942444

  1. Effects of parathyroid hormone on cortical porosity, non-enzymatic glycation and bone tissue mechanics in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G M; Tiwari, S; Hofbauer, C; Picke, A-K; Rauner, M; Huber, G; Peńa, J A; Damm, T; Barkmann, R; Morlock, M M; Hofbauer, L C; Glüer, C-C

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases skeletal fragility; however, the contributing mechanisms and the efficacy of bone-forming agents are unclear. We studied diabetes and parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment effects on cortical porosity (Ct.Po), non-enzymatic glycation (NEG) and bone mechanics in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Eleven-week old ZDF diabetic (DB) and non-diabetic (ND) rats were given 75?g/kg PTH (1-84) or vehicle 5days per week over 12weeks. The right femora and L4 vertebrae were excised, micro-CT scanned, and tested in 3-point bending and uniaxial compression, respectively. NEG of the samples was determined using fluorescence. Diabetes increased Ct.Po (vertebra (vert): +40.6%, femur (fem): +15.5% vs. ND group, p<0.05) but had no effect on NEG. PTH therapy reduced vertebral NEG in the ND animals only (-73% vs untreated group, p<0.05), and increased femoral NEG in the DB vs. ND groups (+63%, p<0.05). PTH therapy had no effect on Ct.Po. Diabetes negatively affected bone tissue mechanics where reductions in vertebral maximum strain (-22%) and toughness (-42%) were observed in the DB vs. ND group (p<0.05). PTH improved maximum strain in the vertebra of the ND animals (+21%, p<0.05) but did not have an effect in the DB group. PTH increased femoral maximum strain (+21%) and toughness (+28%) in ND and decreased femoral maximum stress (-13%) and toughness (-27%) in the DB animals (treated vs. untreated, p<0.05). Ct.Po correlated negatively with maximum stress (fem: R=-0.35, p<0.05, vert: R=-0.57, p<0.01), maximum strain (fem: R=-0.35, p<0.05, vert: R=-0.43, p<0.05) and toughness (fem: R=-0.34, p<0.05, vert: R=-0.55, p<0.01), and NEG correlated negatively with toughness at the femur (R=-0.34, p<0.05) and maximum strain at the vertebra (R=-0.49, p<0.05). Diabetes increased cortical porosity and reduced bone mechanics, which were not improved with PTH treatment. PTH therapy alone may worsen diabetic bone mechanics through formation of new bone with high AGEs cross-linking. Optimal treatment regimens must address both improvements of bone mass and glycemic control in order to successfully reduce diabetic bone fragility. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Bone and diabetes". PMID:25952971

  2. Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vitamin K You can usually get all your vitamins from the foods you eat. Your body can also make vitamins ... night blindness. The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In some cases, you may need to take ...

  3. Relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Yan-Chiou; Liu, Mu-En; Ku, Chang-Sheng; Liu, Ta-Yuan; Lin, Shoa-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may be associated with coronary risk factors and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in parathyroid hormone, which increases insulin resistance and is associated with diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. In this review, we analyze the association between vitamin D supplementation and the reduction in cardiovascular disease. The role of vitamin D deficiency in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is still controversial, and larger scale, randomized placebo controlled trials are needed to investigate whether oral vitamin D supplementation can reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the low cost, safety, and demonstrated benefit of higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, vitamin D supplementation should become a public health priority for combating common and costly chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24109497

  4. Vitamin D and Clinical Outcomes in Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Coral; Gutgarts, Victoria; Eisenberg, Elliot; Melamed, Michal L

    2015-11-01

    Most dialysis patients are vitamin D deficient, including deficiencies in both activated vitamin D (1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D) and the less active 25-hydroxyvitamin D. These and other abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), if they remain untreated, lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone changes, such as osteitis fibrosa cystica. Activated vitamin D has been proven to decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in dialysis patients and is currently used for this indication. There are multiple other potential "pleotrophic" effects associated with vitamin D therapy. These include associations with lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, lower rates of infections and improved glycemic indexes. Meta-analyses of multiple observational studies have shown activated vitamin D therapy to be associated with improved survival. Observational data also suggest fewer infections and better glucose control. There have been no randomized clinical trials powered to evaluate mortality or other clinical outcomes. Small trials of nutritional vitamin D (ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol) showed increases in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels without hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia, even when given in addition to activated vitamin D therapy. While activated vitamin D therapy is associated with improved outcomes, it also leads to higher fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels, which may be detrimental in dialysis patients. Further research is needed to evaluate whether activated or nutritional vitamin D therapy are beneficial in dialysis patients for outcomes other than secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26424141

  5. Role of parathyroid hormone therapy in reversing radiation-induced nonunion and normalization of radiomorphometrics in a murine mandibular model of distraction osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, K. Kelly; Deshpande, Sagar; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Donneys, Alexis; Sarhaddi, Deniz; Nelson, Noah S.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) for tissue replacement after oncologic resection or for defects caused by osteoradionecrosis has been described but, in fact, has seen limited clinical utility. Previous laboratory work has shown that radiation (XRT) causes decreased union formation, decreased cellularity, and decreased mineral density in an animal model of MDO. Our global hypothesis is that radiation-induced bone damage is partly driven by the pathologic depletion of both the number and function of osteogenic cells. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved anabolic hormonal therapy that has demonstrated efficacy for increasing bone mineral density for the treatment of osteoporosis. We postulate that intermittent systemic administration of PTH will serve as an anabolic stimulant to cellular function that will act to reverse radiation-induced damage and enhance bone regeneration in a murine mandibular model of DO. Methods A total of 20 isogenic male Lewis rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups. Group 1 (XRT-DO, n = 7) and group 2 (XRT-DO-PTH, n = 5) received a human bioequivalent dose of 70 Gy fractionated over 5 days. All groups including group 3 (DO, n = 8) underwent a left unilateral mandibular osteotomy with bilateral external fixator placement. Four days later, mandibular DO was performed at a rate of 0.3 mm every 12 hours to reach a maximum gap of 5.1 mm. Group 2 was injected PTH (60 ?g/kg) subcutaneously daily for 3 weeks following the start of MDO. On postoperative day 41, all left hemimandibles were harvested. Micro-CT at 45-?m voxel size was performed and radiomorphometrics parameters of bone mineralization were generated. Union quality was evaluated on a 4-point qualitative grading scale. Radiomorphometric data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA, and union quality assessment was analyzed via the Mann–Whitney test. Statistical significance was considered at p ? .05. Results Groups 1 and 2 appropriately demonstrated clinical signs of radiation-induced stress ranging from alopecia to mucositis. Union quality was significantly higher in PTH-treated XRT-DO animals, compared with XRT-DO group animals (p = .02). Mineralization metrics, including bone volume fraction (BVF) and bone mineral density (BMD), also showed statistically significant improvement. The groups that were treated with PTH showed no statistical differences in union or radiomorphometrics when compared with DO in nonradiated animals. Conclusion We have successfully demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of PTH to stimulate and enhance bone regeneration in our irradiated murine mandibular model of DO. Our investigation effectively resulted in statistically significant increases in BMD, BVF, and clinical unions in PTH-treated mandibles. PTH demonstrates immense potential to treat clinical pathologies where remediation of bone regeneration is essential. PMID:23335324

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G.; Cherr, Gary N.; Hanna, Lynn A.; Keen, Carl L. . E-mail: clkeen@ucdavis.edu

    2006-09-01

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis.

  7. Parathyroid autotransplantation in rats having hypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Erikoglu, Mehmet; Colak, Bayram; Toy, Hatice; Gurbilek, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Re-implantation techniques of extracted parathyroid tissue were developed in order to prevent temporary hypocalcemia. During thyroid surgery; inadvertently removed or devascularized parathyroid gland is usually implanted in the sternocleidomastoid muscle. In this experimental study using rats with hypoparathyroidism, our aim was to investigate whether the excised parathyroid tissue could be seeded in the liver and in the peritoneum, instead of the SCM muscle. In our study, four different groups, each consisting of 10 Wistar albino rats were used (Control group, sternocleidomastoid muscle group, liver group, peritoneum group). Parathyroidectomy was performed and the parathyroid tissue was seeded into the sternocloid mastoid muscle, liver and peritoneum. After 14 days, the rats were sacrificed and levels of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone were measured in rats’ blood samples. The autotransplanted parathyroid tissue was then excised and examined. In all groups, parathyroid tissues were analyzed histopathologically according to calcification, necrosis, tissue loss, foreign body reaction, inflammation and fibrosis. Regarding Ca, Mg, PO4, ALP; There were no difference between the groups. When we compared control group with the other groups; a difference was observed in the levels of PTH (P<0.05). In pathological examination; regarding tissue loss; there was a difference between liver and peritoneum groups (P<0.05). In our study, we expected better result in plantings inside liver and peritone compared to SKM. However, there were no difference between the groups.

  8. Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trials: Interaction of calcium plus vitamin D and Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, John A; Aragaki, Aaron; Crandall, Carolyn J; Manson, Joann E; Carbone, Laura; Jackson, Rebecca; Lewis, Cora E.; Johnson, Karen C.; Sarto, Gloria; Stefanick, Marcia L; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the added value of Calcium and vitamin D (CaD) for fracture prevention among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). Methods A prospective, partial-factorial design, randomized controlled double blind trial amongst Women’s Health Initiative post-menopausal participants, ages 50–79, at 40 centers in the US, with 7.1 years average follow-up. 27,347 women were randomized to HT (conjugated estrogen 0.625 mg alone, or CEE 0.625 mg daily plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5mg) and 36,282 women randomized to either 1000mg elemental calcium (carbonate) plus 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily each compared to placebo. A total of 16,089 women were in both arms. The predefined outcomes were adjudicated hip fractures and measured bone mineral density. Results Interaction between HT and CaD on hip fracture (P-interaction = 0.01) was shown. The effect of CaD was stronger among women assigned to HT (HR, 0.59; 95%CI, 0.38–0.93) than placebo (HR, 1.20; 95%CI, 0.85, 1.69). The effect of HT on hip fracture was stronger among women assigned to active CaD (HR, 0.43; 0.28–0.66) than placebo (HR, 0.87; 95%CI, 0.60–1.26). CaD supplementation enhanced the anti-fracture effect of the HT at all levels of personal calcium intake. There was no interaction of HT and CaD on change in hip or spine BMD. Conclusions Postmenopausal women at normal risk of hip fracture on HT, supplementation with CaD significantly reduced incident hip fracture beyond HT alone; at all levels of personal baseline total calcium intake. PMID:23799356

  9. Primary Vitamin D Target Genes Allow a Categorization of Possible Benefits of Vitamin D3 Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Carlberg, Carsten; Seuter, Sabine; de Mello, Vanessa D. F.; Schwab, Ursula; Voutilainen, Sari; Pulkki, Kari; Nurmi, Tarja; Virtanen, Jyrki; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Uusitupa, Matti

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of developing a number of diseases. Here we investigated samples from 71 pre-diabetic individuals of the VitDmet study, a 5-month high dose vitamin D3 intervention trial during Finnish winter, for their changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations and the expression of primary vitamin D target genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and adipose tissue. A negative correlation between serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 25(OH)D3 suggested an overall normal physiological vitamin D response among the participants. The genes CD14 and thrombomodulin (THBD) are up-regulated primary vitamin D targets and showed to be suitable gene expression markers for vitamin D signaling in both primary tissues. However, in a ranking of the samples concerning their expected response to vitamin D only the top half showed a positive correlation between the changes of CD14 or THBD mRNA and serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Interestingly, this categorization allows unmasking a negative correlation between changes in serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and the inflammation marker interleukin 6. We propose the genes CD14 and THBD as transcriptomic biomarkers, from which the effects of a vitamin D3 supplementation can be evaluated. These biomarkers allow the classification of subjects into those, who might benefit from a vitamin D3 supplementation, and others who do not. PMID:23923049

  10. Differential temporal effects of sclerostin antibody and parathyroid hormone on cancellous and cortical bone and quantitative differences in effects on the osteoblast lineage in young intact rats.

    PubMed

    Ominsky, Michael S; Brown, Danielle L; Van, Gwyneth; Cordover, David; Pacheco, Efrain; Frazier, Emily; Cherepow, Linda; Higgins-Garn, Marnie; Aguirre, J Ignacio; Wronski, Thomas J; Stolina, Marina; Zhou, Lei; Pyrah, Ian; Boyce, Rogely Waite

    2015-12-01

    Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are bone-forming agents that have different modes of action on bone, although a study directly comparing their effects has not been conducted. The present study investigated the comparative quantitative effects of these two bone-forming agents over time on bone at the organ, tissue, and cellular level; specifically, at the level of the osteoblast (Ob) lineage in adolescent male and female rats. Briefly, eight-week old male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either vehicle, Scl-Ab (3 or 50mg/kg/week subcutaneously), or human PTH (1-34) (75?g/kg/day subcutaneously) for 4 or 26weeks. The 50mg/kg Scl-Ab and the PTH dose were those used in the respective rat lifetime pharmacology studies. Using robust stereological methods, we compared the effects of these agents specifically at the level of the Ob lineage in vertebrae from female rats. Using RUNX2 or nestin immunostaining, location, and morphology, the total number of osteoprogenitor subpopulations, Ob, and lining cells were estimated using the fractionator or proportionator estimators. Density estimates were also calculated referent to total bone surface, total Ob surface, or total marrow volume. Scl-Ab generally effected greater increases in cancellous and cortical bone mass than PTH, correlating with higher bone formation rates (BFR) at 4weeks in the spine and mid-femur without corresponding increases in bone resorption indices. The increases in vertebral BFR/BS at 4weeks attenuated with continued treatment to a greater extent with Scl-Ab than with PTH. At 4weeks, both Scl-Ab and PTH effected equivalent increases in total Ob number (Ob.N). Ob density on the formative surfaces (Ob.N/Ob.S) remained similar across groups while mineral apposition rate (MAR) was significantly higher with Scl-Ab at week 4, reflecting an increase in individual Ob vigor relative to vehicle and PTH. After 26weeks, Scl-Ab maintained BFR/BS with fewer Ob and lower Ob.N/Ob.S by increasing the Ob footprint (bone surface area occupied by an Ob) and increasing MAR, compared with PTH. The lower Ob.N and Ob.N/Ob.S with Scl-Ab at 26weeks were associated with decreased osteoprogenitor numbers compared with both vehicle and PTH, an effect not evident at week 4. Osteoprogenitor numbers were generally positively correlated with Ob.N across groups and timepoints, suggesting dynamic coordination between the progenitor and Ob populations. The time-dependent reductions in subpopulations of the Ob lineage with Scl-Ab may be integral to the greater attenuation or self-regulation of bone formation observed at the vertebra, as PTH required more Ob at the formative site with correlative increased numbers of progenitors compared with Scl-Ab indicating potentially greater stimulus for progenitor pool proliferation or differentiation. PMID:26261096

  11. Pathologic femur fracture due to a brown tumor in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D-resistant rickets.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Eric; Day, Matthew; Fadare, Oluwole; Schaefer, Heidi

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin D-resistant rickets is the common clinical outcome of multiple genetic mutations that alter the regulation of phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism, mainly through their effects on fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). These diseases typically present in childhood with the classic physical examination finding of nutritional rickets, such as genu varum/valgum and rachitic rosary. Treatment, which is aimed at improving severe bone disease with vitamin D and phosphorus supplementation, can cause secondary hyperparathyroidism and/or kidney failure from nephrocalcinosis over the life of the patient. Although FGF-23 has been shown to downregulate parathyroid hormone in vitro, its effect on parathyroid secretion in disease states such as chronic kidney disease and X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets is unclear because elevations in FGF-23 and parathyroid hormone levels characterize both of these disease states. We describe a case of vitamin D-resistant rickets that presented with a femur fracture through a brown tumor. Radiographs show the combination of severe bony abnormalities associated with both long-standing hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D-resistant rickets. PMID:22959760

  12. Replantation with cryopreserved parathyroid for permanent hypoparathyroidism: a case report and review of literatures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai-Guang; Chen, Zai-Chong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Permanent postsurgical hypoparathyroidism is defined as insufficient parathyroid hormone (PTH) to maintain normocalcemia 6 months after surgery. It occurs mostly in reoperation for persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. The treatment of long-term calcium and vitamin D supplement is burdensome and may cause iatrogenic complications. PTH replacement is potential but still under trials. Only replantation with cryopreserved parathyroid is an available treatment for patients to reduce or stop long-term drug administration. However, this treatment is not applied widely in developing countries, due to lack of experiences and skills. Herein, we reported a 58-year-old male presented a continuous elevated parathyroid hormone up to about 2342 ng/L and bone pain during hemodialysis for 6 years due to chronic renal failure. He underwent the first operation total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation. After this operation, he suffered from a persistent calcemia and permanent hypoparathyroidism. After three times of replantation with cryopreserved parathyroid and dialysis with a high calcium dialysate, the low concentration of calcium was elevated and symptoms of hypocalcemia disappeared. However, PTH was not elevated significantly in the long term. It might be related to our nonstandard cryopreservation protocol and no microbiological and histological examinations before replantation, compared with other successful reports. Therefore, we suggest a standard cryopreservation protocol should be followed by non-experienced institutions, especially in developing countries. Furthermore, a high calcium dialysate is efficient to increase calcium concentration and alleviate symptoms of hypocalcemia. It may be an available treatment of persistent hypocalcemia and permanent hypoparathyroidism in dialysis patients. PMID:26064394

  13. Single-sperm typing: Determination of genetic distance between the sup G. gamma. -globulin and parathyroid hormone loci by using the polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiangfeng; Li, Honghua; Galas, D.; Arnheim, N. ); Goradia, T.M. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA ); Lange, K. ); Kazazian, H.H. Jr. )

    1989-12-01

    The frequency of recombination between the {sup G}{gamma}-globin (HBG2) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) loci on the short arm of human chromosome 11 was estimated by typing >700 single-sperm samples from two males. The sperm-typing technique employed involves the polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization. The maximum likelihood recombination fraction estimate of 0.16 falls well within previous estimates based on family studies. With current technology and a sample size of 1000 sperm, recombination fractions down to {approx}0.009 can be estimated with statistical reliability; with a sample size of 5000 sperm, this value drops to about 0.004. Reasonable technological improvements could result in the detection of recombination frequencies <0.001.

  14. Nutritional Status of Vitamin D and the Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in Korean Breast-fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Na, Bomi; No, So-Jung; Han, Heon-Seok; Jeong, Eun-Hwan; Lee, Wonkuk; Han, Younghee; Hyeun, Taisun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the vitamin D status and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Korean breast-fed infants. The healthy term newborns were divided into 3 groups; A, formula-fed; B, breast-fed only; S, breast-fed with vitamin D supplementation. We measured serum concentrations of vitamin D (25OHD3), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (AP), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and bone mineral density (BMD) at 6 and 12 months of age. Using questionnaires, average duration of sun-light exposure and dietary intake of vitamin D, Ca and P were obtained. At 6 and 12 months of age, 25OHD3 was significantly higher in group S than in group B (P<0.001). iPTH was significantly lower in group S than in group B at 6 months (P=0.001), but did not differ at 12 months. Regardless of vitamin D supplementation, BMD was lower in group B and S than in group A (P<0.05). Total intake of vitamin D differed among 3 groups (P<0.001, A>S>B), but total intake of Ca and P were higher in group A than in group B and S (P<0.001). In conclusion, breast-fed infants show lower vitamin D status and bone mineralization than formula-fed infants. Vitamin D supplementation (200 IU/day) in breast-fed infants increases serum 25-OH vitamin D3, but not bone mineral density. PMID:20052352

  15. Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wheat and oats wheat germ leafy green vegetables vegetable oils like sunflower, canola, and olive egg yolks nuts ... foods are rich in vitamin K? leafy green vegetables dairy products, like milk and yogurt broccoli soybean oil When your body gets this vitamin and the ...

  16. Acute Vitamin D Intoxication Possibly Due to Faulty Production of a Multivitamin Preparation

    PubMed Central

    An?k, Ahmet; Çatl?, Gönül; Abac?, Ayhan; Dizdarer, Ceyhun; Böber, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication usually occurs as a result of inappropriate use of vitamin D preparations and can lead to life-threatening hypercalcemia. It is also known that there are a number of physicians who prescribe vitamin D supplements for various clinical conditions, such as poor appetite and failure to thrive. While inappropriate use of vitamin D supplements may lead to vitamin D intoxication, there are no reports of cases of vitamin D toxicity due to manufacturing errors of vitamin D preparations. Here, we present cases of hypervitaminosis D which developed following the use of a standard dose of a multivitamin preparation. All three cases presented with hypercalcemia symptoms and had characteristic laboratory findings such as hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, low levels of parathyroid hormone. The very high serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels in these patients indicated vitamin D excess. The vitamin D level of the prescribed multivitamin preparation in the market was studied and was found to contain a very low level of vitamin D (10 IU/5 mL). Although the stated vitamin D content of the preparations ingested by these patients was not high, unproven but possible manufacturing errors were considered to be a possible cause of the hypervitaminosis D diagnosed in these three patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23748070

  17. Acute vitamin D intoxication possibly due to faulty production of a multivitamin preparation.

    PubMed

    An?k, Ahmet; Çatl?, Gönül; Abac?, Ayhan; Dizdarer, Ceyhun; Böber, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication usually occurs as a result of inappropriate use of vitamin D preparations and can lead to life-threatening hypercalcemia. It is also known that there are a number of physicians who prescribe vitamin D supplements for various clinical conditions, such as poor appetite and failure to thrive. While inappropriate use of vitamin D supplements may lead to vitamin D intoxication, there are no reports of cases of vitamin D toxicity due to manufacturing errors of vitamin D preparations. Here, we present cases of hypervitaminosis D which developed following the use of a standard dose of a multivitamin preparation. All three cases presented with hypercalcemia symptoms and had characteristic laboratory findings such as hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, low levels of parathyroid hormone. The very high serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels in these patients indicated vitamin D excess. The vitamin D level of the prescribed multivitamin preparation in the market was studied and was found to contain a very low level of vitamin D (10 IU/5 mL). Although the stated vitamin D content of the preparations ingested by these patients was not high, unproven but possible manufacturing errors were considered to be a possible cause of the hypervitaminosis D diagnosed in these three patients. PMID:23748070

  18. The effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on calciotropic hormones and bone mineral density in obese subjects with low levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin d: results from a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Wamberg, Louise; Pedersen, Steen B; Richelsen, Bjřrn; Rejnmark, Lars

    2013-07-01

    Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) are associated with increased bone turnover and risk of fractures. Plasma 25OHD is inversely related to body mass index, and vitamin D deficiency is common in obesity. We aimed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation affects bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in obese subjects. Fifty-two healthy obese men and women aged 18-50 years with plasma 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/L were randomized to 7,000 IU of cholecalciferol daily or placebo for 26 weeks. We measured plasma levels of 25OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and markers of bone turnover, as well as BMD at the hip, spine, forearm, and whole body. Compared with placebo, treatment with cholecalciferol increased mean plasma 25OHD from 35 to 110 nmol/L (p < 0.00001) and significantly decreased PTH (p < 0.05). BMD increased significantly at the forearm by 1.6 ± 0.7 % (p = 0.03). The bone resorption marker C-terminal telopetide of type 1 collagen (CTX) decreased borderline significantly in the cholecalciferol group compared with the placebo group (p = 0.07). Changes in plasma 25OHD correlated inversely with changes in plasma levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (r = -0.38, p = 0.01) and CTX (r = -0.33, p = 0.03). Changes in CTX correlated inversely with changes in spine BMD (r = -0.45, p = 0.04). Increasing circulating 25OHD levels by cholecalciferol treatment is of importance to bone health in young obese subjects as increased levels of 25OHD are associated with a decrease in both PTH and bone turnover and with an increase in BMD at the forearm. PMID:23591713

  19. Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Wheat germ and wheat germ oil Vitamin K: Cabbage Cauliflower Cereals Dark green vegetables (broccoli, Brussels sprouts, ... Avocado Broccoli, kale, and other vegetables in the cabbage family Eggs Legumes and lentils Milk Mushroom Organ ...

  20. Efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients on hemodialysis as evaluated by parathyroid hormone levels according to K/DOQI guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motoko; Itoh, Kazuko; Matsushita, Kazunori; Matsushita, Kazutaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2005-02-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a major complication of hemodialysis patients. Recently, percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) has become a useful alternative treatment to parathyroidectomy (PTx). In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of PEIT for SHPT according to Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines. We studied 28 patients on hemodialysis with high intact-PTH (>400 pg/mL) and one to four swollen parathyroid glands detected by power Doppler ultrasonography. They were classified into Group 1 (N = 16), with 1 or 2 swollen glands, Group 2 (N = 5), with 3 or 4 swollen glands, and Group 3 (N = 7), high-risk patients for PTx. We compared serum intact-PTH levels 1 year after PEIT according to K/DOQI guidelines among these groups. We also evaluated the effectiveness of PEIT and PTx by comparing intact-PTH levels in 21 patients 1 year after PEIT (groups 1 and 2) with 11 patients after PTx. In Group 1, adequate intact-PTH levels were noted in 13 of 16 (81.2%) patients after PEIT, while 1 patient of 5 (20%) was achieved in Group 2, and 2 of 7 (28.6%) patients of Group 3. Adequate intact-PTH levels were attained in 14 of 21 (66.7%) patients of the PEIT group but only in 2 of 11 (18.2%) patients of the PTx group. Our results suggest that PEIT is a useful treatment for SHPT, especially in patients with one or two swollen glands. Through appropriate selection of patients for PEIT and correct injection of ethanol into the enlarged parathyroid gland, PEIT could accomplish better outcomes based on K/DOQI guidelines. PMID:15828906

  1. Phosphate metabolism and vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate plays many essential roles in our body. To accomplish these functions, serum phosphate needs to be maintained in a certain range. Serum phosphate level is regulated by intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate handling and equilibrium of extracellular phosphate with that in bone or intracellular fluid. Several hormones such as parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulate serum phosphate by modulating intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate reabsorption and/or bone metabolism. In addition, dietary phosphate rapidly enhances renal phosphate excretion, although detailed mechanisms of this adaptation remain to be clarified. Physiologically, extracellular concentrations of phosphate and these hormones are maintained by several negative feedback loops. For example, 1,25(OH)2D enhances FGF23 production and FGF23 reduces 1,25(OH)2D level. In addition, phosphate affects 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23 levels. Dysfunction of these negative feedback loops results in several diseases with abnormal phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D levels. Especially, excess actions of FGF23 cause several hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia with relatively low level of 1,25(OH)2D that had been classified as vitamin D-resistant rickets/osteomalacia. In contrast, deficient actions of FGF23 cause hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. However, there still remain several unanswered questions regarding phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. PMID:24605214

  2. Phosphate metabolism and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate plays many essential roles in our body. To accomplish these functions, serum phosphate needs to be maintained in a certain range. Serum phosphate level is regulated by intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate handling and equilibrium of extracellular phosphate with that in bone or intracellular fluid. Several hormones such as parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulate serum phosphate by modulating intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate reabsorption and/or bone metabolism. In addition, dietary phosphate rapidly enhances renal phosphate excretion, although detailed mechanisms of this adaptation remain to be clarified. Physiologically, extracellular concentrations of phosphate and these hormones are maintained by several negative feedback loops. For example, 1,25(OH)2D enhances FGF23 production and FGF23 reduces 1,25(OH)2D level. In addition, phosphate affects 1,25(OH)2D and FGF23 levels. Dysfunction of these negative feedback loops results in several diseases with abnormal phosphate and 1,25(OH)2D levels. Especially, excess actions of FGF23 cause several hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia with relatively low level of 1,25(OH)2D that had been classified as vitamin D-resistant rickets/osteomalacia. In contrast, deficient actions of FGF23 cause hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. However, there still remain several unanswered questions regarding phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. PMID:24605214

  3. Hormones

    MedlinePLUS

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  4. Malignancy of parathyroid: An uncommon clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Kamran; Sarangi, Rathindra; Dhawan, Shashi; Agarwal, Brij B.; Gupta, Manish K.

    2013-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare cause of hyperparathyroidism. The diagnosis is usually established on histopathological grounds of capsular and vascular invasion, but a potential clue to the diagnosis is also offered by the severity of clinical profile, abrupt onset of symptoms, and a high degree of hypercalcemia and raised serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). We report a case of an elderly female with a prolonged history of generalized weakness and bone pain along with bilateral renal calculi, classical bony lesions, and a high serum calcium and PTH level who underwent a right inferior parathyroidectomy considering a parathyroid adenoma as our diagnosis. However, the biopsy report was consistent with a parathyroid carcinoma, and so, she was further subjected to an ipsilateral hemithyroidectomy as a completion procedure. So, we would like to emphasize that its preferable to have a high index of suspicion for parathyroid carcinoma when these clues are present, than to miss the opportunity for surgical cure in the first go by failing to consider it in the differential diagnosis. PMID:23776914

  5. Vitamin D and muscle function.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, M; Begerow, B; Minne, H W

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge on the relation between vitamin D and muscle function. Molecular mechanisms of vitamin D action on muscle tissue have been known for many years and include genomic and non-genomic effects. Genomic effects are initiated by binding of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) to its nuclear receptor, which results in changes in gene transcription of messenger RNA and subsequent protein synthesis. Non-genomic effects of vitamin D are rapid and mediated through a membrane-bound vitamin D receptor (VDR). Genetic variations in the VDR and the importance of VDR polymorphisms in the development of osteoporosis are still a matter of controversy and debate. Most recently, VDR polymorphisms have been described to affect muscle function. The skin has an enormous capacity for vitamin D production and supplies the body with 80-100% of its requirements of vitamin D. Age, latitude, time of day, season of the year and pigmentation can dramatically affect the production of vitamin D in the skin. Hypovitaminosis D is a common feature in elderly people living in northern latitudes and skin coverage has been established as an important factor leading to vitamin D deficiency. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 50 nmol/l has been associated with increased body sway and a level below 30 nmol/l with decreased muscle strength. Changes in gait, difficulties in rising from a chair, inability to ascend stairs and diffuse muscle pain are the main clinical symptoms in osteomalacic myopathy. Calcium and vitamin D supplements together might improve neuromuscular function in elderly persons who are deficient in calcium and vitamin D. Thus 800 IU of cholecalciferol in combination with mg of elemental calcium reduces hip fractures and other non-vertebral fractures and should generally be recommended in individuals who are deficient in calcium and vitamin D. Given the strong interdependency of vitamin D deficiency, low serum calcium and high levels of parathyroid hormone, however, it is difficult to identify exact mechanisms of action. PMID:11991436

  6. Functional and genetic studies of isolated cells from parathyroid tumors reveal the complex pathogenesis of parathyroid neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuhong; Hogue, Joyce; Dixit, Darshana; Koh, James; Olson, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid adenomas (PAs) causing primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are histologically heterogeneous yet have been historically viewed as largely monotypic entities arising from clonal expansion of a single transformed progenitor. Using flow cytometric analysis of resected adenomatous parathyroid glands, we have isolated and characterized chief cells, oxyphil cells, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. The parathyroid chief and oxyphil cells produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), express the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), and mobilize intracellular calcium in response to CASR activation. Parathyroid tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are T cells by immunophenotyping. Under normocalcemic conditions, oxyphil cells produce ?50% more PTH than do chief cells, yet display significantly greater PTH suppression and calcium flux response to elevated calcium. In contrast, CASR expression and localization are equivalent in the respective parathyroid cell populations. Analysis of tumor clonality using X-linked inactivation assays in a patient-matched series of intact tumors, preparatively isolated oxyphil and chief cells, and laser-captured microdissected PA specimens demonstrate polyclonality in 5 of 14 cases. These data demonstrate the presence of functionally distinct oxyphil and chief cells within parathyroid primary adenomas and provide evidence that primary PA can arise by both clonal and polyclonal mechanisms. The clonal differences, biochemical activity, and relative abundance of these parathyroid adenoma subpopulations likely reflect distinct mechanisms of disease in PHPT. PMID:24510902

  7. Parathyroid cell resistance to fibroblast growth factor 23 in secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Galitzer, H; Ben-Dov, I Z; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2010-02-01

    Although fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) acting through its receptor Klotho-FGFR1c decreases parathyroid hormone expression, this hormone is increased in chronic kidney disease despite an elevated serum FGF23. We measured possible factors that might contribute to the resistance of parathyroid glands to FGF23 in rats with the dietary adenine-induced model of chronic kidney disease. Quantitative immunohistochemical and reverse transcription-PCR analysis using laser capture microscopy showed that both Klotho and FGFR1 protein and mRNA levels were decreased in histological sections of the parathyroid glands. Recombinant FGF23 failed to decrease serum parathyroid hormone levels or activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the glands of rats with advanced experimental chronic kidney disease. In parathyroid gland organ culture, the addition of FGF23 decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and mRNA levels in control animals or rats with early but not advanced chronic kidney disease. Our results show that because of a downregulation of the Klotho-FGFR1c receptor complex, an increase of circulating FGF23 does not decrease parathyroid hormone levels in established chronic kidney disease. This in vivo resistance is sustained in parathyroid organ culture in vitro. PMID:20016468

  8. Association of vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and heterotopic ossification in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Christina V; Seidel, Benjamin J; Zhan, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the relationship between low vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Ninety-six subjects with acute or chronic motor complete SCI participated. Levels of serum vitamin D25(OH), calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were collected, and information regarding nutritional patterns and fracture history was obtained from subjects. Evidence of current or previous HO was ascertained through chart review. Of the 96 subjects, 12 were found to have developed HO, 11 with serum vitamin D25(OH) between 5 and 17 ng/mL. Nine subjects exhibited secondary hyperparathyroidism in the range of 72 to 169 pg/mL. Only one subject demonstrated HO in the absence of low vitamin D. However, many subjects with low vitamin D (5-31 ng/mL) did not have hyperparathyroidism or HO. Statistical testing demonstrated a correlation between hyperparathyroidism and HO (p < 0.001) as well as hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL). Direct correlation between HO and low vitamin D was not observed, but hyperparathyroidism may increase this risk. We believe that those patients who demonstrate low vitamin D and elevated PTH should be screened for HO in addition to beginning vitamin supplementation. Initiating early treatment of low vitamin D to restore therapeutic levels may prevent development of HO. PMID:24458959

  9. The hormone-bound vitamin D receptor enhances the FBW7-dependent turnover of NF-?B subunits

    PubMed Central

    Fekrmandi, Fatemeh; Wang, Tian-Tian; White, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling by hormonal vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) has attracted increasing interest because of its non-classical actions, particularly its putative anticancer properties and its role in controlling immune system function. Notably, the hormone-bound vitamin D receptor (VDR) suppresses signaling by pro-inflammatory NF-?B transcription factors, although the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Recently, the VDR was shown to enhance the turnover of the oncogenic transcription factor cMYC mediated by the E3 ligase and tumor suppressor FBW7. As FBW7 also controls the turnover of the p100 (NF-?B2) subunit of the family, we determined whether the 1,25D enhanced FBW7-dependent turnover of NF-?B subunits p100, p105 (NF-?B1) and p65 (RELA). Protein levels of all three subunits declined markedly in the presence of 1,25D in multiple cell lines in the absence of substantial changes in mRNA expression. The VDR coimmunoprecipitated with all three subunits, and 1,25D treatment accelerated subunit turnover in cycloheximide-treated cells. Importantly, we observed an association of FBW7 with p105 and p65, as well as p100, and knockdown of FBW7 eliminated 1,25D-dependent subunit turnover. Moreover, expression of NF-?B target genes was elevated in FBW7-depleted cells. These results reveal that 1,25D signaling suppresses NF-?B function by enhancing FBW7-dependent subunit turnover. PMID:26269414

  10. Stages of Parathyroid Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of a parathyroid gland. ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. ...

  11. Parathyroid Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of a parathyroid gland. ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. ...

  12. Regulation of Calcitriol Biosynthesis and Activity: Focus on Gestational Vitamin D Deficiency and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Avila, Euclides; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Díaz, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years due to a global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency associated with an increased risk of a variety of human diseases. Specifically, hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women is highly common and has important implications for the mother and lifelong health of the child, since it has been linked to maternal and child infections, small-for-gestational age, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, as well as imprinting on the infant for life chronic diseases. Therefore, factors that regulate vitamin D metabolism are of main importance, especially during pregnancy. The hormonal form and most active metabolite of vitamin D is calcitriol. This hormone mediates its biological effects through a specific nuclear receptor, which is found in many tissues including the placenta. Calcitriol synthesis and degradation depend on the expression and activity of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 cytochromes, respectively, for which regulation is tissue specific. Among the factors that modify these cytochromes expression and/or activity are calcitriol itself, parathyroid hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23, cytokines, calcium and phosphate. This review provides a current overview on the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, focusing on vitamin D deficiency during gestation and its impact on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25584965

  13. Non-functioning parathyroid gland carcinoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Krvavica, Ana; Kovaci?, Marijan; Baraka, Ivan; Rudi?, Milan

    2011-06-01

    Parathyroid gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy. The tumor is mostly functioning, causing severe hyperparathyroidism, with high serum calcium level and severe bone disease. Non-functioning parathyroid carcinomas are extremely rare. We report on a 60-year-old male patient admitted to ENT Department due to a large neck tumor mass compressing the thyroid and trachea. Preoperatively, thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium serum levels were normal. The following immunohistochemical markers (DAKO, Denmark) were used: bcl-2; CD-10; Chromogranin-A; Cyclin-D1; EMA; Ki-67; Mdm-2; p-53; PGP-9,5; RCC; Synaptophysin; Thyroglobulin; and TTF-1. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated the diagnosis of a primary parathyroid gland carcinoma. Tumor cells showed diffusely positive immunohistochemical staining with chromogranin-A and PGP-9,5, positive staining of variable intensity with synaptophysin, and weakly positive reaction with EMA. Also, the cytoplasm of tumor cells was diffusely positively stained with bcl-2, while the nuclei showed positive reaction with p-53 oncogene and TTF-1. The remaining markers (CD-10, cyclin-D1, Ki-67, Mdm-2, RCC and thyroglobulin) were negative. Four years after the surgery, the patient died from renal carcinoma pulmonary metastases and liver cirrhosis complications. In conclusion, non-functioning parathyroid gland carcinoma is a very rare disease. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis is needed to distinguish it from other thyroid and parathyroid neoplasms and metastatic carcinoma. Surgical treatment is presently the best mode of therapy. PMID:22263388

  14. Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a cause of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Imachi, Hitomi; Murao, Koji; Kontani, Keiichi; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Miyai, Yumi; Yamamoto, Yuka; Kushida, Yoshio; Haba, Reiji; Ishida, Toshihiko

    2009-10-01

    A 38-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain, and he was confirmed to have acute exudative pancreatitis. After the episode of acute pancreatitis subsided, laboratory investigation revealed increased serum calcium (12.0 mg/dl), decreased serum phosphorus (2.7 mg/dl), and increased serum parathyroid hormone (intact) levels (131 pg/ml). A computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck did not reveal any mass lesions in the parathyroid gland. However, (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy revealed that there was one functioning parathyroid gland in the upper mediastinum. Combined (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy and CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in the mediastinum. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of a parathyroid adenoma (1.3 x 0.4 cm(2)) adjacent to the atrophic parathyroid gland in right thymus gland. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism due to an ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma. An ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenoma may manifest as an episode of acute pancreatitis. Preoperative investigation to determine the exact location of an adenoma should include two types of imaging studies, preferably (99m)Tc sestamibi scintigraphy and CT of the neck and chest. PMID:19598003

  15. The effects of programmed administration of human parathyroid hormone fragment (1-34) on bone histomorphometry and serum chemistry in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobnig, H.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    PTH treatment can result in dramatic increases in cancellous bone volume in normal and osteopenic rats. However, this potentially beneficial response is only observed after pulsatile treatment; continuous infusion of PTH leads to hypercalcemia and bone abnormalities. The purpose of these studies was to determine the optimal duration of the PTH pulses. A preliminary study revealed that human PTH-(1-34) (hPTH) is cleared from circulation within 6 h after sc administration of an anabolic dose of the hormone (80 microg/kg). To establish the effects of gradually extending the duration of exposure to hPTH without increasing the daily dose, we programmed implanted Alzet osmotic pumps to deliver the 80 microg/kg x day dose of the hormone during pulses of 1, 2, and 6 h/day, or 40 microg/kg x day continuously. Discontinuous infusion was accomplished by alternate spacing of external tubing with hPTH solution and sesame oil. After 6 days of treatment, we evaluated serum chemistry and bone histomorphometry. As negative and positive controls, groups of rats received pumps that delivered vehicle only and 80 microg/kg x day hPTH by daily sc injection, respectively. Dynamic and static bone histomorphometry revealed that the daily sc injection and 1 h/day infusion dramatically increased osteoblast number and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis, whereas longer infusion resulted in systemic side-effects, including up to a 10% loss in body weight, hypercalcemia, and histological changes in the proximal tibia resembling abnormalities observed in patients with chronic primary hyperparathyroidism, including peritrabecular marrow fibrosis and focal bone resorption. Infusion for as little as 2 h/day resulted in minor weight loss and changes in bone histology that were intermediate between sc and continuous administration. The results demonstrate that the therapeutic interval for hPTH exposure is brief, but that programmed administration of implanted hormone is a feasible alternative to daily injection as a route for administration of the hormone.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Vitamin D-dependent rickets

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hormone ; hyperparathyroidism ; hypotonia ; inherited ; muscle tone ; parathyroid ; phosphate ; population ; prevalence ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; rickets You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the ...

  17. Prevalence and Prognostic Implications of Vitamin D Deficiency in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Hamano, Takayuki; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important nutrient involved in bone mineral metabolism, and vitamin D status is reflected by serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and nutritional vitamin D supplementation decreases elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations in subgroups of these patients. Furthermore, vitamin D is supposed to have pleiotropic effects on various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, infectious diseases, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Indeed, there is cumulative evidence showing the associations of low vitamin D with the development and progression of CKD, cardiovascular complication, and high mortality. Recently, genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D-binding protein have received great attention because they largely affect bioavailable 25(OH)D concentrations. This finding suggests that the serum total 25(OH)D concentrations would not be comparable among different gene polymorphisms and thus may be inappropriate as an index of vitamin D status. This finding may refute the conventional definition of vitamin D status based solely on serum total 25(OH)D concentrations. PMID:25883412

  18. Evaluation of the 'putative' role of intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone assay during parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. A retrospective study on 35 consecutive patients: intraoperative iPTH assay during parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Conzo, G; Perna, A; Avenia, N; De Santo, R M; Della Pietra, C; Palazzo, A; Sinisi, A A; Stanzione, F; Santini, L

    2012-12-01

    In the surgical treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT) of chronic kidney disease (CKD), a parathyroidectomy (PTx) of 4 glands can only be presumed as 'total', and indications for autoimplantation are complex. Intraoperative rapid parathyroid hormone assay could be useful to predict a radical resection. We evaluated iPTH levels 20 min and 24 h after a 4-gland PTx in 35 patients to determine the predictive value of intraoperative iPTH assay. We analysed retrospectively 35 patients affected by 2HPT of CKD, 13 undergoing total parathyroidectomy (TP) and 22 TP + autoimplantation (TPai), after removing 4 glands in 33 cases and 5 glands in 2. Intact PTH assays were acquired after 40 min before induction of anaesthesia, after removing both ipselateral glands, at 20 min after surgery and on postoperative day 1. 20 min after 4-gland PTx, a decrease of iPTH levels >80 % of the preoperative value was observed in 27 of 35 cases (77.1 %) and <80 % in 8 of 35 cases (22.8 %). In 6 of these 8 patients, iPTH levels were within the normal range 24 h after surgery. Although the intraoperative iPTH assays are of interest in the treatment of 2HPT, the predictive value of this method is not entirely satisfactory. In fact, a 4-gland PTx ensures euparathyroidism in most cases, even when intraoperative iPTH assays are not trustworthy; however, intraoperative iPTH assay, although not a perfect 'tool', is a proved aid for the surgeon in making his decision. PMID:22418689

  19. Is there an association between elevated or low serum levels of phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and calcium and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biochemical markers of altered mineral metabolism have been associated with increased mortality in end stage renal disease patients. Several studies have demonstrated non-linear (U-shaped or J-shaped) associations between these minerals and mortality, though many researchers have assumed linear relationships in their statistical modeling. This analysis synthesizes the non-linear relationships across studies. Methods We updated a prior systematic review through 2010. Studies included adults receiving dialysis and reported categorical data for calcium, phosphorus, and/or parathyroid hormone (PTH) together with all-cause mortality. We performed 2 separate meta-analyses to compare higher-than-referent levels vs referent and lower-than-referent levels vs referent levels. Results A literature review showed that when a linear relationship between the minerals and mortality was assumed, the estimated associations were more likely to be smaller or non-significant compared to non-linear models. In the meta-analyses, higher-than-referent levels of phosphorus (4 studies, RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.15-1.25), calcium (3 studies, RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.14), and PTH (5 studies, RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07-1.16) were significantly associated with increased mortality. Although no significant associations between relatively low phosphorus or PTH and mortality were observed, a protective effect was observed for lower-than-referent calcium (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.83-0.89). Conclusions Higher-than-referent levels of PTH, calcium, and phosphorus in dialysis patients were associated with increased mortality risk in a selection of observational studies suitable for meta-analysis of non-linear relationships. Findings were less consistent for lower-than-referent values. Future analyses should incorporate the non-linear relationships between the minerals and mortality to obtain accurate effect estimates. PMID:23594621

  20. Combination therapy with ONO-KK1-300-01, a cathepsin K inhibitor, and parathyroid hormone results in additive beneficial effect on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yasuo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mori, Hiroshi; Kawada, Naoki; Tanaka, Makoto; Imagawa, Akira; Ohmoto, Kazuyuki; Kawabata, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a novel cathepsin K inhibitor, ONO-KK1-300-01 (KK1-300), used concurrently with parathyroid hormone (PTH) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. KK1-300 (3 mg/kg, twice daily), alendronate (1 mg/kg, once daily) or vehicle were orally administered to OVX rats for 56 days, starting the day after ovariectomy, followed by combination treatment with or without PTH (3 ?g/kg, subcutaneously three times a week) for another 28 days. OVX control animals exhibited a significant increase in both bone resorption (urinary deoxypyridinoline; DPD) and formation markers (serum osteocalcin) as well as microstructural changes associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH significantly decreased urinary DPD and increased serum osteocalcin, indicating a sustained beneficial effect compared to the effect of each mono-therapy. On the other hand, combination therapy with alendronate and PTH weakened the PTH-induced increase in osteocalcin. In proximal tibia, combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH increased BMD to a level significantly higher than that achieved following single treatment with KK1-300 or PTH alone. On the other hand, combination treatment with alendronate and PTH failed to produce any significant additive effect on BMD following single treatment with alendronate or PTH alone. Microstructural analysis revealed that the PTH-induced increase in bone formation (MS/BS and BFR/BS) was fully maintained following combination treatment with KK1-300 and PTH, but not following combination treatment with alendronate and PTH. These findings indicate that KK1-300, unlike alendronate, has an additive effect on the preventive action of PTH on bone loss in OVX rats. PMID:25762435

  1. Negative Association between Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Urinary Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Thiocyanate Concentrations in U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chien-Liang; Lee, Jie-Jen; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Yang, Po-Sheng; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are well-known inhibitors of the sodium-iodide symporter and may disrupt thyroid function. This exploratory study investigated the association among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentrations and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the general U.S. population. Methods We analyzed data on 4265 adults (aged 20 years and older) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005 through 2006 to evaluate the relationship among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentration and PTH levels and the presence of hyperparathyroidism cross-sectionally. Results The geometric means and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) concentrations of urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were 3.38 (3.15–3.62), 40363 (37512–43431), and 1129 (1029–1239) ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables and sample weights, creatinine-corrected urinary perchlorate was negatively associated with serum PTH levels in women (P?=?0.001), and creatinine-corrected urinary nitrate and thiocyanate were negatively associated with serum PTH levels in both sex groups (P?=?0.001 and P<0.001 for men, P?=?0.018 and P<0.001 for women, respectively). Similar results were obtained from sensitivity analyses performed for exposure variables unadjusted for creatinine with urinary creatinine added as a separate covariate. There was a negative relationship between hyperparathyroidism and urinary nitrate and thiocyanate [odds ratio (95% CI)?=?0.77 (0.60–0.98) and 0.69 (0.61–0.79), respectively]. Conclusions A higher urinary concentration of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate is associated with lower serum PTH levels. Future studies are needed to determine the pathophysiological background of the observation. PMID:25514572

  2. The Allografted Parathyroid Gland: Evaluation of Function in the Immunosuppressed Host

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Samuel A.; Burdick, James F.; Hattler, Brack G.; Christiansen, Christine; Pettigrew, Hugh M.; Abe, Minoura; Sherwood, Louis M.

    1974-01-01

    Parathyroid autografts were performed in 19 random bred mongrels and parathyroid allografts were exchanged between seven random bred mongrels. Three pairs of siblings from a beagle colony were immunosuppressed and parathyroid allografts exchanged between them. The parathyroid autografts were successful, while parathyroid allografts failed on all occasions in the non-immunosuppressed host. In immunosuppressed animals, however, the allografts were successful in five of six dogs. The success of parathyroid transplantation was determined by the following observations: 1) The experimental animal, having grafted parathyroid tissue as the only source of hormone, maintained a normal or near normal serum calcium concentration. 2) Following removal of the parathyroid graft, there was an immediate fall in the serum calcium concentration associated with tetany and/or death. 3) Histological study of the grafted gland revealed normal architecture, and 4) Radioimmunoassay of extracted grafts revealed moderate to large quantities of parathyroid hormone. ImagesFig. 5a.Fig. 5b.Fig. 5c.Fig. 5d.Fig. 5e.Fig. 5f.Fig. 6a.Fig. 6b.Fig. 6c.Fig. 6d. PMID:4279632

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of vitamin D deficiency in inherited ichthyosis: A French prospective observational study performed in a reference center

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, few studies have investigated serum vitamin D status in patients with inherited ichthyosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (defined as serum level <10 ng/mL) in a French cohort of patients and to identify associated risk factors. Methods This was a prospective observational study performed in a hospital reference center with expertise for rare skin diseases. Patients’ clinical characteristics were recorded. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone were determined. For patients with vitamin D deficiency, serum calcium, serum phosphorus and bone mineral density were also investigated. Comparisons between groups (25-hydroxyvitamin D <10 ng/mL versus ?10 ng/mL) were conducted by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Of the 53 included patients, 47 (88.7%) had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D below the optimal level of 30 ng/mL: 18 (34%) had vitamin D sufficiency, 14 (26.4%) had vitamin D insufficiency, and 15 (28.3%) had vitamin D deficiency. A negative linear correlation was found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels for the whole study population. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normal for the 15 patients with vitamin D deficiency. Bone mineral density was investigated for 11 of these latter 15 patients, and six of them had osteopenia. Winter/spring seasons of vitamin D measurement, severity of ichthyosis, and phototypes IV–VI were identified as independent risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware of the risk of vitamin D deficiency in the management of patients with inherited ichthyosis, especially in winter and spring, and in case of dark skin or severe disease. PMID:25091406

  4. Experimental induction of parathyroid adenomas in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Wynford-Thomas, V.; Wynford-Thomas, D.; Williams, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    Neonatal inbred Wistar albino rats were given either 5 or 10 microCi radioiodine (/sup 131/I) within 24 hours of birth. After weaning, animals were placed on diets high, normal, or deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) for periods up to 2 years. In animals aged 12 months and older, adenomas were found in 0 of 67 unirradiated controls, in 22 of 67 given 5 microCi /sup 131/I, and in 25 of 67 given to microCi /sup 131/I. The incidence of tumors in irradiated animals was highest (55%) in those on a low-vitamin D diet and lowest (20%) in those on a high-vitamin D diet. Plasma calcium levels were significantly increased by the high-vitamin D diet, but the low-vitamin D diet did not lead to any significant decrease as compared to the calcium levels of the normal vitamin D diet group. Small but significant calcium increases were found in tumor-bearing animals. These findings indicate that parathyroid tumors in the rat can be induced by radiation and that their incidence is strongly influenced by dietary vitamin D content. The possibility that metabolites of vitamin D3 may influence parathyroid growth and tumor formation directly is discussed.

  5. Hormone levels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... others. For more information, see: 5-HIAA 17-OH progesterone 17-hydroxycorticosteroids 17-ketosteroids 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion rate 25-OH vitamin D Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ACTH stimulation test ...

  6. Thyroid and parathyroid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.P.; Patton, J.A.; Partain, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the numerous modalities currently used in the diagnosis and treatment of both thyroid and parathyroid disorders. Each modality is fully explained and then evaluated in terms of benefits and limitations in the clinical context. Contents: Production and Quality Control of Radiopharmaceutics Used for Diagnosis and Therapy in Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders. Basic Physics. Nuclear Instrumentation. Radioimmunoassay: Thyroid Function Tests. Quality Control. Embryology, Anatomy, Physiology, and Thyroid Function Studies. Scintigraphic Thyroid Imaging. Neonatal and Pediatric Thyroid Imaging. Radioiodine Thyroid Uptake Measurement. Radioiodine Treatment of Thyroid Disorders. Radiation Dosimetry of Diagnostic Procedures. Radiation Safety Procedures for High-Level I-131 Therapies. X-Ray Fluorescent Scanning. Thyroid Sonography. Computed Tomography in Thyroid Disease. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Thyroid Disease. Parathyroid Imaging.

  7. Vitamin D Status and Its Relationship with Metabolic Markers in Persons with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in the UAE: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Solafa M.; Skaria, Sijomol; Abusnana, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To report vitamin D status and its impact on metabolic parameters in people in the United Arab Emirates with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methodology. This cross-sectional study included 309 individuals with obesity and T2D who were randomly selected based on study criteria. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (s-25(OH)D), calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, glycemic profile, and cardiometabolic parameters were assessed in fasting blood samples, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Results. Vitamin D deficiency (s-25(OH)D < 50?nmol/L) was observed in 83.2% of the participants, with a mean s-25(OH)D of 33.8 ± 20.3?nmol/L. Serum 25(OH)D correlated negatively (P < 0.01) with body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B and positively (P < 0.01) with age and calcium concentration. Waist circumference was the main predictor of s-25(OH)D status. There was no significant association between serum 25(OH)D and glycemic profile. Conclusion. There is an overwhelming prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our sample of the Emirati population with obesity and T2D. Association of s-25(OH)D with body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, markers of calcium homeostasis and cardiometabolic parameters suggests a role of vitamin D in the development of cardiometabolic disease-related process. PMID:25371907

  8. The effect of oral vitamin D on serum level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide

    PubMed Central

    Seirafian, Shiva; Haghdarsaheli, Yalda; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Hosseini, Mohsen; Moeinzadeh, Firouzeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The risk of cardiovascular disease in dialysis patients is higher than the general population. Vitamin D receptors exist in myocardium inhibit cardiac hypertrophy. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) is a neurohormone secreted by the heart in response to ventricular mass increase. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral vitamin D on serum level of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) in peritoneal dialysis patients. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 84 peritoneal dialysis patients (49 males and 35 females) were randomly divided into two groups. The intervention group received 50000 units oral vitamin D per week, for 12 weeks if 25-hydroxy-vitamin D level was <10 ng/ml and for 8 weeks if it was between 10 ng/ml and 30 ng/ml. The control group received placebo. Parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphor, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, albumin and NT-pro-BNP were evaluated before and after the study. Results: The mean serum level of pro-BNP in patients receiving vitamin D and placebo group before the study was 875 pg/ml and 793 pg/ml, respectively. There was 895.9 pg/ml in the intervention group and 736.7 pg/ml in the control group (P = 0.7). Mean serum level of 25(OH) D in patients receiving oral vitamin D and placebo group before the study was 16.9 ng/ml and 31.9 ng/ml, respectively. There was 28.9 ng/ml in the intervention group and 12.9 ng/ml in the control group (P = 0.001). There were no significant differences regarding other indices (Alb, P, Ca, intact parathyroid hormone) between two groups. Conclusion: Vitamin D did not significantly change the serum level of pro-BNP in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:25625100

  9. Vitamin D insufficiency and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tosh, Aneesh K.; Belenchia, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Obese adolescents represent a particularly vulnerable group for vitamin D deficiency which appears to have negative consequences on insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis. Poor vitamin D status is also associated with future risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the obese. The biological mechanisms by which vitamin D influences glycemic control in obesity are not well understood, but are thought to involve enhancement of peripheral/hepatic uptake of glucose, attenuation of inflammation and/or regulation of insulin synthesis/secretion by pancreatic ? cells. Related to the latter, recent data suggest that the active form of vitamin, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, does not impact insulin release in healthy pancreatic islets; instead they require an environmental stressor such as inflammation or vitamin D deficiency to see an effect. To date, a number of observational studies exploring the relationship between the vitamin D status of obese adolescents and markers of glucose homeostasis have been published. Most, although not all, show significant associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamn D concentrations and insulin sensitivity/resistance indices. In interpreting the collective findings of these reports, significant considerations surface including the effects of pubertal status, vitamin D status, influence of parathyroid hormone status and the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The few published clinical trials using vitamin D supplementation to improve insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in obese adolescents have yielded beneficial effects. However, there is a need for more randomized controlled trials. Future investigations should involve larger sample sizes of obese adolescents with documented vitamin D deficiency, and careful selection of the dose, dosing regimen and achievement of target 25-hydroxyvitamn D serum concentrations. These trials should also include clamp-derived measures of in vivo sensitivity and ?-cell function to more fully characterize the effects of vitamin D replenishment on insulin resistance. PMID:25489472

  10. A novel rat model of vitamin D deficiency: safe and rapid induction of vitamin D and calcitriol deficiency without hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Stavenuiter, Andrea W D; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Ferrantelli, Evelina; Keuning, Eelco D; Vila Cuenca, Marc; ter Wee, Piet M; Beelen, Robert H J; Vervloet, Marc G; Dusso, Adriana S

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a range of clinical disorders. To study the mechanisms involved and improve treatments, animal models are tremendously useful. Current vitamin D deficient rat models have important practical limitations, including time requirements when using, exclusively, a vitamin D deficient diet. More importantly, induction of hypovitaminosis D causes significant fluctuations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and mineral levels, complicating the interpretation of study results. To overcome these shortcomings, we report the successful induction of vitamin D deficiency within three weeks, with stable serum PTH and minerals levels, in Wistar rats. We incorporated two additional manoeuvres compared to a conventional diet. Firstly, the vitamin D depleted diet is calcium (Ca) enriched, to attenuate the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Secondly, six intraperitoneal injections of paricalcitol during the first two weeks are given to induce the rapid degradation of circulating vitamin D metabolites. After three weeks, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) levels had dropped below detection limits, with unchanged serum PTH, Ca, and phosphate (P) levels. Therefore, this model provides a useful tool to examine the sole effect of hypovitaminosis D, in a wide range of research settings, without confounding changes in PTH, Ca, and P. PMID:25815325

  11. A Novel Rat Model of Vitamin D Deficiency: Safe and Rapid Induction of Vitamin D and Calcitriol Deficiency without Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Stavenuiter, Andrea W. D.; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Ferrantelli, Evelina; Keuning, Eelco D.; Vila Cuenca, Marc; ter Wee, Piet M.; Beelen, Robert H. J.; Vervloet, Marc G.; Dusso, Adriana S.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a range of clinical disorders. To study the mechanisms involved and improve treatments, animal models are tremendously useful. Current vitamin D deficient rat models have important practical limitations, including time requirements when using, exclusively, a vitamin D deficient diet. More importantly, induction of hypovitaminosis D causes significant fluctuations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and mineral levels, complicating the interpretation of study results. To overcome these shortcomings, we report the successful induction of vitamin D deficiency within three weeks, with stable serum PTH and minerals levels, in Wistar rats. We incorporated two additional manoeuvres compared to a conventional diet. Firstly, the vitamin D depleted diet is calcium (Ca) enriched, to attenuate the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Secondly, six intraperitoneal injections of paricalcitol during the first two weeks are given to induce the rapid degradation of circulating vitamin D metabolites. After three weeks, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) levels had dropped below detection limits, with unchanged serum PTH, Ca, and phosphate (P) levels. Therefore, this model provides a useful tool to examine the sole effect of hypovitaminosis D, in a wide range of research settings, without confounding changes in PTH, Ca, and P. PMID:25815325

  12. Parathyroid Cyst Presenting as Acute Pancreatitis: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Young; Chung, Cho-Yun; Kim, Jong-Sun; Myung, Dae-Seong; Cho, Sung-Bum; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Young

    2013-01-01

    We report the first case of hypercalcemia-induced acute pancreatitis caused by a functioning parathyroid cyst in a 67-year-old man. Laboratory investigation revealed increased serum amylase and lipase, increased serum ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, and decreased serum phosphate, indicating pancreatitis and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed mild swelling of the pancreatic head with peri-pancreatic fat infiltration and fluid collection around the pancreatic tail. Ultrasonography and CT of the neck showed a cystic lesion at the inferior portion of the left thyroid gland, suggesting a parathyroid cyst. There was no evidence of parathyroid adenoma by 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy. PHPT caused by a functioning parathyroid cyst was suspected. The patient underwent surgical resection of the functioning parathyroid cyst owing to his prolonged hypercalcemia. At 3 weeks after the operation, his serum levels of PTH, total calcium, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphate, amylase, and lipase were normalized. At the follow-up examinations, he has remained asymptomatic. PMID:24400215

  13. [A case of parathyroid adenoma with oxyphil cells].

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Kenichi; Amano, Sadao

    2014-11-01

    A 56-year-old woman who was undergoing dialysis for renal failure that occurred 4 years previously was identified with hypercalcemia and high levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), as observed on blood analysis results. Blood analysis also indicated high levels of Ca (12.7 mg/dL) and parathyroid hormone (PTH 1,280 ng/mL). Secondary hyperparathyroidism was suspected to be the cause of hypercalcemia. Cervical neck ultrasonography revealed a 13-× 4-mm hypoechoic mass in the lower left pole of the thyroid gland. Tc-99 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG )imaging revealed aberrant accumulation at the lower region of the left accessory thyroid. Cervical neck computed tomography revealed a 12-mm mass at the inferior pole of the left thyroid gland. Considering the above observations, a diagnosis of lower left parathyroid adenoma was made. Lumpectomy was performed, and the final pathology report indicated oxyphilic adenoma. Chief cells are often observed in parathyroid adenoma, but, to our knowledge, this is the first case of a parathyroid adenoma with oxyphil cells. PMID:25731384

  14. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in women and newborns in the immediate postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Mara Rúbia Maciel Cardoso; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Assis, Karine Franklin; Ribeiro, Sarah Aparecida Vieira; do Prado, Pedro Paulo; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors in women and their newborns in the postpartum period. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in 226 women and their newborns in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, BR) between December 2011 and November 2012. Cord blood and venous maternal blood were collected to evaluate the following biochemical parameters: vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone. Poisson regression analysis, with a confidence interval of 95%, was applied to assess vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with 25(OH)D deficiency in the newborns and women from the study. The criteria for variable inclusion in the multiple linear regression model was the association with the dependent variable in the simple linear regression analysis, considering p<0.20. Significance level was ? <5%. Results: From 226 women included, 200 (88.5%) were 20-44 years old; the median age was 28 years. Deficient/insufficient levels of vitamin D were found in 192 (85%) women and in 182 (80.5%) neonates. The maternal 25(OH)D and alkaline phosphatase levels were independently associated with vitamin D deficiency in infants. Conclusions: This study identified a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in women and newborns and the association between maternal nutritional status of vitamin D and their infants' vitamin D status. PMID:26100593

  15. Core binding factor beta (Cbf?) controls the balance of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by up-regulating Indian hedgehog (Ihh) expression and inhibiting parathyroid hormone-related protein Receptor (PPR) expression in postnatal cartilage and bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lianfu; Zhu, Guochun; Ma, Junqing; Gao, Bo; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Core binding factor beta (Cbf?) is essential for embryonic bone morphogenesis. Yet, the mechanisms by which Cbf? regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation as well as postnatal cartilage and bone formation remain unclear. Hence, using the paired-related homeobox transcription factor 1-Cre (Prx1-Cre) mice, mesenchymal stem cell-specific Cbf?-deficient (Cbf?f/f Prx1-Cre) mice were generated to study the role of Cbf? in postnatal cartilage and bone development. These mutant mice survived to adulthood but exhibited severe sternum and limb malformations. Sternum ossification was largely delayed in the Cbf?f/fPrx1-Cre mice and the xiphoid process was non-calcified and enlarged. In newborn and 7-day-old Cbf?f/fPrx1-Cre mice, the resting zone was dramatically elongated, the proliferation zone and hypertrophic zone of the growth plates were drastically shortened and disorganized, and trabecular bone formation was reduced. Moreover, in one-month-old Cbf?f/fPrx1-Cre mice, the growth plates were severely deformed and trabecular bone was almost absent. In addition, Cbf? deficiency impaired intramembranous bone formation both in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, while the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) was largely reduced, the expression of Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor (PPR) was dramatically increased in the Cbf?f/fPrx1-Cre growth plate, indicating that that Cbf? deficiency disrupted the Ihh-PTHrP negative regulatory loop. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and promoter luciferase assay demonstrated that the Runx/Cbf? complex binds putative Runx-binding sites of the Ihh promoter regions, and also Runx/Cbf? complex directly up-regulates Ihh expression at the transcriptional level. Consistently, the expressions of Ihh target genes, including CyclinD1, Ptc and Pthlh, were down-regulated in Cbf?-deficient chondrocytes. Taken together, our study reveals not only that Cbf? is essential for chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation for the growth and maintenance of the skeleton in postnatal mice, but also that it functions in up-regulating Ihh expression to promoter chondrocyte proliferation and osteoblast differentiation and inhibiting PPR expression to enhance chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:24821091

  16. Preliminary evidence for vitamin D deficiency in nodulocystic acne

    PubMed Central

    Yildizgören, Mustafa Turgut; Togral, Arzu Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease, and hormonal influences, follicular plugging and follicular hyperkeratinization, increased sebum secretion, Propionibacterium acnes colonization, and inflammation are involved in its pathogenesis. Recently, a significant body of evidence has accumulated that describes the comedolytic properties of vitamin D and its roles as a modulator of the immune system, a regulator of the proliferation and differentiation of sebocytes and keratinocytes, and as an antioxidant. In this study, we aimed to compare serum vitamin D levels in a group of patients with nodulocystic acne with vitamin D levels in a group of control subjects to determine whether there was any relationship between the vitamin D and acne. Methods: Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) were measured in 43 patients with newly diagnosed nodulocystic acne and in 46 healthy control subjects, and participants were grouped according to their 25[OH]D levels as follows: normal/sufficient (>20 ng/mL) or insufficient/deficient (<20 ng/mL). Serum concentrations of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured. Results: Forty-three patients and 46 control individuals, with mean ages of 23.13 (± 5.78) years and 25.23 (± 4.73) years, respectively, were included in this study. There were no significant differences between the groups in relation to their body mass indices and Ca, P, ALP, and PTH levels. However, the patients with nodulocystic acne had significantly lower 25[OH]D levels than the subjects in the control group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: The patients with nodulocystic acne had relatively low serum vitamin D levels compared with the subjects in the control group. The findings from this study suggest that there is a connection between low vitamin D levels and acne. Larger epidemiologic studies are needed to confirm the status of vitamin D levels in patients with acne. PMID:26413187

  17. Parathyroid-specific deletion of dicer-dependent microRNAs abrogates the response of the parathyroid to acute and chronic hypocalcemia and uremia.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Vitali; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z; Nechama, Morris; Silver, Justin; Naveh-Many, Tally

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) down-regulate gene expression and have vital roles in biology but their functions in the parathyroid are unexplored. To study this, we generated parathyroid-specific Dicer1 knockout (PT-Dicer(-/-) ) mice where parathyroid miRNA maturation is blocked. Remarkably, the PT-Dicer(-/-) mice did not increase serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in response to acute hypocalcemia compared with the >5-fold increase in controls. PT-Dicer(-/-) glands cultured in low-calcium medium secreted 5-fold less PTH at 1.5 h than controls. Chronic hypocalcemia increased serum PTH >4-fold less in PT-Dicer(-/-) mice compared with control mice with no increase in PTH mRNA levels and parathyroid cell proliferation compared with the 2- to 3-fold increase in hypocalcemic controls. Moreover, uremic PT-Dicer(-/-) mice increased serum PTH and FGF23 significantly less than uremic controls. Therefore, stimulation of the parathyroid by both hypocalcemia and uremia is dependent upon intact dicer function and miRNAs. In contrast, the PT-Dicer(-/-) mice responded normally to activation of the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor (Casr) by both hypercalcemia and a calcimimetic that decreases PTH secretion, demonstrating that they are dicer-independent. Therefore, miRNAs are essential for the response of the parathyroid to both acute and chronic hypocalcemia and uremia, the major stimuli for PTH secretion. PMID:26054367

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin D in Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Güttler, Norbert; Zheleva, Kirila; Parahuleva, Mariana; Chasan, Ridvan; Bilgin, Mehmet; Neuhof, Christiane; Burgazli, Mehmet; Niemann, Bernd; Erdogan, Ali; Böning, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Dietary modification and supplementation play an increasingly important role in the conservative treatment of cardiovascular disease. Current interest has focused on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D. Clinical trial results on this subject are contradictory in many aspects. Several studies indicate that n-3 PUFA consumption improves vascular and cardiac hemodynamics, triglycerides, and possibly endothelial function, autonomic control, inflammation, thrombosis, and arrhythmia. Experimental studies show effects on membrane structure and associated functions, ion channel properties, genetic regulation, and production of anti-inflammatory mediators. Clinical trials evaluating a possible reduction in cardiovascular disease by n-3 PUFA have shown different results. Supplementation of vitamin D is common regarding prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. But vitamin D also seems to have several effects on the cardiovascular system. Vitamin D deficiency appears to be related to an increase in parathyroid hormone levels and can predispose to essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, increased insulin resistance, and eventually to atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events. Randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D and omega-3 FA supplementation therapy should be recommended as a routine therapy for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23346457

  19. Fat-Soluble Vitamin Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kala, G.; Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is a form of elder mistreatment. The systematic characterization of self-neglecting individuals is the goal of the CREST project. Reported here is the evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects were recruited and consented following referral from Adult Protective Services. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status, as possible. We report here on 47 SN subjects (age 77 plus or minus 7, mean plus or minus SD; body weight 76 kg plus or minus 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 y plus or minus 7, 79 kg plus or minus 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of fat-soluble vitamin status. Plasma retinol (p less than 0.01) was lower in SN subjects. Plasma tocopherol tended (p less than 0.06) to be lower in SN subjects, while gamma-tocopherol was unchanged. SN subjects tended to have lower serum 25-OH vitamin D (p less than 0.11), and to be vitamin D deficient (26% below 23 mmol/L). Hypercalcemia occurred more often in SN subjects (23% had values above 2.56 mmol/L), as did elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate that many nutrients are affected in the self-neglecting elderly, and that long-term deficits are evident by the nature of changes in fat soluble vitamins.

  20. The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on vitamin D level and biochemical parameters of mothers and neonates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy leads to several adverse effects on mother and child. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of being a passive smoker during pregnancy on vitamin D level and related biochemical indices including parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in mothers and newborns. Methods One hundred eight pregnant women and their newborns participated in a historical cohort study in two equal groups (n?=?54) with and without cigarette smoke exposure. Maternal blood and urine samples and blood samples of umbilical cord were obtained in the delivery room. Concentration of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and related biochemical indices in samples of maternal and cord blood were investigated. Exposure to cigarette smoke was evaluated through questionnaire and maternal urine and umbilical cord serum cotinine levels. Results The mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in maternal serum was 9.28?±?5.19?ng/mlin exposed and 10.75?±?5.26?ng/ml in non-exposed group(p?>?0.05). The mean concentration of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in cord serum was 10.83?±?6.68?ng/ml in the exposed and 11.05?±?4.99?ng/ml in the non-exposed group(p?>?0.05). The exposed mothers had significantly higher parathyroid hormone level (p?=?0.013), lower serum calcium (p?=?0.024) and higher serum alkaline phosphatase (p?=?0.024). There was a significant correlation between maternal and umbilical cord serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D within both exposed and non-exposed groups (p?parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase in mothers. PMID:23663478

  1. The history of parathyroid endocrinology

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P.; Sahay, Rakesh; Sawhney, Kanishka

    2013-01-01

    The parathyroid glands are now recognized as being essential for life. Their structure and function is well delineated, and their disease and dysfunction, well characterized. Diagnosis and management of parathyroid disease has improved in the past few decades. The path of parathyroid science, however, has been far from smooth. This paper describes the early history of parathyroid endocrinology. In doing so, it focuses on major events and discoveries, which improved the understanding and practice of our specialty. Contribution in anatomy, physiology, pathology, medicine, surgery and biochemistry are reviewed. PMID:23776911

  2. Vitamin D and bone health: Epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Allelic variation in the vitamin D receptor was the first non-structural gene to be associated with osteoporosis, and together with the effects of the vitamin D system on bone homeostasis, suggested that this vitamin might have a strong role in bone health. However, controversy exists regarding what level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is optimal. Current data from biochemical, observational and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), indicate serum 25(OH)D levels of at least 50?nmol?l?1 are required for normalization of parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, to minimize the risk of osteomalacia and for optimal bone cell function. The skeletal consequences of 25(OH)D insufficiency include secondary hyperparathyroidism, increased bone turnover and bone loss and an increased risk of minimal trauma fractures. In large scale epidemiological studies, serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with bone mineral density in both men and women. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of optimizing serum 25(OH)D levels for the prevention of bone loss and minimal trauma fractures in postmenopausal women and older men. There may be some benefit on primary fracture prevention for those who have inadequate serum levels of 25(OH)D, particularly in institutionalised elderly patients, but only when combined with calcium supplements. For optimal bone health, evidence from RCTs suggests vitamin D may be considered a threshold nutrient with few further bone benefits observed at levels of 25(OH)D above which PTH is normalized. An adequate calcium intake is also imperative to gain optimum benefit from an improved vitamin D status in those with insufficient 25(OH)D levels, with an increased calcium intake being associated with suppression of PTH levels. PMID:24818003

  3. Selective Vitamin D Receptor Activation as Anti-Inflammatory Target in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Donate-Correa, J.; Domínguez-Pimentel, V.; Méndez-Pérez, M. L.; Muros-de-Fuentes, M.; Mora-Fernández, C.; Martín-Núńez, E.; Cazańa-Pérez, V.; Navarro-González, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor (VDR) activator used for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD), has been associated with survival advantages, suggesting that this drug, beyond its ability to suppress parathyroid hormone, may have additional beneficial actions. In this prospective, nonrandomised, open-label, proof-of-concept study, we evaluated the hypothesis that selective vitamin D receptor activation with paricalcitol is an effective target to modulate inflammation in CKD patients. Eight patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate between 15 and 44?mL/min/1.73?m2 and an intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level higher than 110?pg/mL received oral paricalcitol (1??g/48 hours) as therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nine patients matched by age, sex, and stage of CKD, but a PTH level <110?pg/mL, were enrolled as a control group. Our results show that five months of paricalcitol administration were associated with a reduction in serum concentrations of hs-CRP (13.9%, P < 0.01), TNF-? (11.9%, P = 0.01), and IL-6 (7%, P < 0.05), with a nonsignificant increase of IL-10 by 16%. In addition, mRNA expression levels of the TNF? and IL-6 genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased significantly by 30.8% (P = 0.01) and 35.4% (P = 0.01), respectively. In conclusion, selective VDR activation is an effective target to modulate inflammation in CKD. PMID:24511210

  4. Selective vitamin D receptor activation as anti-inflammatory target in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Donate-Correa, J; Domínguez-Pimentel, V; Méndez-Pérez, M L; Muros-de-Fuentes, M; Mora-Fernández, C; Martín-Núńez, E; Cazańa-Pérez, V; Navarro-González, J F

    2014-01-01

    Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor (VDR) activator used for treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD), has been associated with survival advantages, suggesting that this drug, beyond its ability to suppress parathyroid hormone, may have additional beneficial actions. In this prospective, nonrandomised, open-label, proof-of-concept study, we evaluated the hypothesis that selective vitamin D receptor activation with paricalcitol is an effective target to modulate inflammation in CKD patients. Eight patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate between 15 and 44?mL/min/1.73?m(2) and an intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level higher than 110?pg/mL received oral paricalcitol (1? ?g/48 hours) as therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nine patients matched by age, sex, and stage of CKD, but a PTH level <110?pg/mL, were enrolled as a control group. Our results show that five months of paricalcitol administration were associated with a reduction in serum concentrations of hs-CRP (13.9%, P < 0.01), TNF-? (11.9%, P = 0.01), and IL-6 (7%, P < 0.05), with a nonsignificant increase of IL-10 by 16%. In addition, mRNA expression levels of the TNF? and IL-6 genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased significantly by 30.8% (P = 0.01) and 35.4% (P = 0.01), respectively. In conclusion, selective VDR activation is an effective target to modulate inflammation in CKD. PMID:24511210

  5. Therapeutic Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in a Pilot Study of Crohn's Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Linlin; Weaver, Veronika; Smith, Jill P; Bingaman, Sandra; Hartman, Terryl J; Cantorna, Margherita T

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low vitamin D status may be associated with Crohn's disease. A pilot study was performed in patients with mild-to-moderate Crohn's disease to determine the dose of vitamin D needed to raise serum vitamin D levels above 40?ng/ml. METHODS: Patients were evaluated for severity of symptoms using the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and patients with mild-to-moderate (150–400 CDAI scores) Crohn's disease were entered into the study (n=18). Vitamin D3 oral therapy was initiated at 1,000?IU/d and after 2 weeks, the dose was escalated incrementally until patients' serum concentrations reached 40?ng/ml 25(OH)D3 or they were taking 5,000?IU/d. Patients continued on the vitamin D supplements for 24 weeks. CDAI, quality of life measures, bone mineral density, dietary analyses, cytokines, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and several other laboratory measurements were evaluated at baseline and after 24 weeks supplementation. RESULTS: Fourteen of eighteen patients required the maximal vitamin D supplement of 5,000?IU/d. Vitamin D oral supplementation significantly increased serum 25(OH)D3 levels from 16±10?ng/ml to 45±19?ng/ml (P<0.0001) and reduced the unadjusted mean CDAI scores by 112±81 points from 230±74 to 118±66 (P<0.0001). Quality-of-life scores also improved following vitamin D supplementation (P=0.0004). No significant changes in cytokine or other laboratory measures were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-four weeks supplementation with up to 5,000?IU/d vitamin D3 effectively raised serum 25(OH)D3 and reduced CDAI scores in a small cohort of Crohn's patients suggesting that restoration of normal vitamin D serum levels may be useful in the management of patients with mild–moderate Crohn's disease. PMID:23594800

  6. Effects of glutamine alone or in combination with zinc and vitamin A on growth, intestinal barrier function, stress and satiety-related hormones in Brazilian shantytown children

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Aldo A. M.; Anstead, Gregory M.; Zhang, Qiong; Figueiredo, Ítalo L.; Soares, Alberto M.; Mota, Rosa M. S.; Lima, Noélia L.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Oriá, Reinaldo B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of supplemental zinc, vitamin A, and glutamine alone or in combination on growth, intestinal barrier function, stress and satiety-related hormones among Brazilian shantytown children with low median height-for-age z-scores. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in children aged two months to nine years from the urban shanty compound community of Fortaleza, Brazil. Demographic and anthropometric information was assessed. The random treatment groups available for testing (a total of 120 children) were as follows: (1) glutamine alone, n?=?38; (2) glutamine plus vitamin A plus zinc, n?=?37; and a placebo (zinc plus vitamin A vehicle) plus glycine (isonitrogenous to glutamine) control treatment, n?=?38. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and plasma levels of cortisol were measured with immune-enzymatic assays; urinary lactulose/mannitol and serum amino acids were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00133406. RESULTS: Glutamine treatment significantly improved weight-for-height z-scores compared to the placebo-glycine control treatment. Either glutamine alone or all nutrients combined prevented disruption of the intestinal barrier function, as measured by the percentage of lactulose urinary excretion and the lactulose:mannitol absorption ratio. Plasma leptin was negatively correlated with plasma glutamine (p?=?0.002) and arginine (p?=?0.001) levels at baseline. After glutamine treatment, leptin was correlated with weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) (p?0.002) at a 4-month follow-up. In addition, glutamine and all combined nutrients (glutamine, vitamin A, and zinc) improved the intestinal barrier function in these children. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings reveal the benefits of glutamine alone or in combination with other gut-trophic nutrients in growing children via interactions with leptin. PMID:24714829

  7. Tumour nuclear oestrogen receptor beta 1 correlates inversely with parathyroid tumour weight

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Felix; Rosin, Gustaf; Nilsson, Inga-Lena; Juhlin, C Christofer; Pernow, Ylva; Norenstedt, Sophie; Dinets, Andrii; Larsson, Catharina; Hartman, Johan; Höög, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrinopathy, frequently caused by a parathyroid adenoma, rarely by a parathyroid carcinoma that lacks effective oncological treatment. As the majority of cases are present in postmenopausal women, oestrogen signalling has been implicated in the tumourigenesis. Oestrogen receptor beta 1 (ERB1) and ERB2 have been recently identified in parathyroid adenomas, the former inducing genes coupled to tumour apoptosis. We applied immunohistochemistry and slide digitalisation to quantify nuclear ERB1 and ERB2 in 172 parathyroid adenomas, atypical adenomas and carcinomas, and ten normal parathyroid glands. All the normal parathyroid glands expressed ERB1 and ERB2. The majority of tumours expressed ERB1 (70.6%) at varying intensities, and ERB2 (96.5%) at strong intensities. Parathyroid carcinomas expressed ERB1 in three out of six cases and ERB2 in five out of six cases. The intensity of tumour nuclear ERB1 staining significantly correlated inversely with tumour weight (P=0.011), and patients whose tumours were classified as ERB1-negative had significantly greater tumour weight as well as higher serum calcium (P=0.002) and parathyroid hormone levels (P=0.003). Additionally, tumour nuclear ERB1 was not expressed differentially with respect to sex or age of the patient. Levels of tumour nuclear ERB2 did not correlate with clinical characteristics. In conclusion, decreased ERB1 immunoreactivity is associated with increased tumour weight in parathyroid adenomas. Given the previously reported correlation with tumour-suppressive signalling, selective oestrogen receptor modulation (SERMs) may play a role in the treatment of parathyroid carcinomas. Future studies of SERMs and oestrogen treatment in PHPT should consider tumour weight as a potential factor in pharmacological responsiveness. PMID:25648860

  8. 25-Hydroxy-vitamin D level may predict presence of coronary collaterals in patients with chronic coronary total occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Sarli, Bahadir; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Kurtul, Serkan; Akpek, Mahmut; Sahin, Omer; Odabas, Huseyin; Dondurmac?, Engin; Ugurlu, Mehmet; Ozkan, Eyup

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sufficient coronary collateral circulation (CCC) protects myocardial tissue against ischemia in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO). Vitamin D is a steroid hormone which has been related to increased prevalence of hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. Aim To investigate whether there is an association between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels and development of CCC in patients with coronary CTO. Material and methods A total of 188 patients with CTO at coronary angiography were included in this study. Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were measured on the day of coronary angiography. Development of collateral circulation was graded according to the Rentrop classification after coronary angiography. Then, patients were divided into two groups on the basis of CCC grades: group 1 included 68 (36%) patients with poorly developed CCC, and group 2 included 120 (64%) patients with well-developed CCC. Results Patients with poorly developed CCC had significantly lower serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels compared to those with well-developed CCC (20 ±3 vs. 30 ±6 ng/ml, p<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (OR = 1.794, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.453–2.216; p<0.001) as an independent predictor of poor collateral flow in patients with CTO. Conclusions Low vitamin D level is an independent predictor of poor CCC in patients with CTO. PMID:26677358

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Parathyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of a parathyroid gland. ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. ...

  10. Patterns in the Parathyroid Response to Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion Test in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Anastasiou, Olympia E.; Pliakos, Ioannis; Triantafyllopoulou, Konstantina; Kokaraki, Georgia; Papavramidis, Spiros

    2014-01-01

    Background. The sodium bicarbonate infusion test evaluates the function of the parathyroid glands. The present study aims to evaluate the range of parathyroid response in healthy individuals and the potential influence of various factors. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers were subjected to the test. Levels of vitamin D, calcium, albumin, and PTH were measured before infusion. PTH was measured at 3, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after infusion. Results. A curve describing the response of parathyroids to the test was drawn. Twenty percent of the subjects had blunted PTH response. No significant difference was observed between normal and blunted responders concerning age, BMI, baseline PTH, or calcium levels. Nonetheless, there was a significant difference in vitamin D levels (P = 0.024). Interpretation. The test is easy to perform and may be used for everyday screening. It has to be clarified whether our observations are, at least partly, produced due to the presence of individuals with a constitutively blunted response or if low levels of vitamin D decrease the ability of the parathyroids to respond. Whichever the case, PTH response of normal individuals to sodium bicarbonate infusion test is more varied than previously thought and vitamin D levels influence it. PMID:24804234

  11. Modified-release oral calcifediol corrects vitamin D insufficiency with minimal CYP24A1 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Petkovich, Martin; Melnick, Joel; White, Jay; Tabash, Samir; Strugnell, Stephen; Bishop, Charles W

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and increased risk of bone and vascular disease. Unfortunately, supplementation of stage 3 or 4 CKD patients with currently recommended vitamin D2 or D3 regimens does not reliably restore serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D to adequacy (?30ng/mL) or effectively control SHPT. Preclinical and clinical studies were conducted to evaluate whether the effectiveness of vitamin D repletion depends, at least in part, on the rate of repletion. A modified-release (MR) oral formulation of calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3) was developed which raised serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcitriol levels gradually. Single doses of either bolus intravenous (IV) or oral MR calcifediol were administered to vitamin D deficient rats. Bolus IV calcifediol produced rapid increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, calcitriol and FGF23, along with significant induction of CYP24A1 in both kidney and parathyroid gland. In contrast, oral MR calcifediol produced gradual increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcitriol and achieved similar hormonal exposure, yet neither CYP24A1 nor FGF23 were induced. A 10-fold greater exposure to bolus IV than oral MR calcifediol was required to similarly lower intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Single doses of oral MR (450 or 900?g) or bolus IV (450?g) calcifediol were administered to patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, SHPT and vitamin D insufficiency. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcitriol and in plasma iPTH were determined at multiple time-points over the following 42 days. IV calcifediol produced abrupt and pronounced increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcitriol, but little change in plasma iPTH. As in animals, these surges triggered increased vitamin D catabolism, as evidenced by elevated production of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. In contrast, MR calcifediol raised serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and calcitriol gradually, and meaningfully lowered plasma iPTH levels. Taken together, these studies indicate that rapid increases in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 trigger CYP24A1 and FGF23 induction, limiting effective exposure to calcitriol and iPTH reduction in SHPT. They also support further investigation of gradual vitamin D repletion for improved clinical effectiveness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "17th Vitamin D Workshop". PMID:25446887

  12. THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM DEFICIENCIES ON PLASMA THYROID AND THYMIC HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN THE CHICKEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning at hatching, male Cornell K strain single comb white leghorn chickens were fed a basal diet, with or without vitamin E (100 IU/kg) and/or selenium (Se, 0.2 ppm). After 3 weeks of treatment, animals fed either the Se-deficient or basal diet had significantly reduced plasma Se-dependent glut...

  13. Vitamin D metabolism and osteomalacia in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Friedman, H Z; Langman, C B; Favus, M J

    1985-03-01

    A 25-yr-old black man with cystic fibrosis and cirrhosis developed symptoms of osteomalacia and hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD). Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-[OH]2D) was within the normal range. Iliac crest bone biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of osteomalacia. Oral administration of 50,000 IU of vitamin D2 failed to relieve symptoms or raise serum 25-OHD levels to normal. Intramuscular vitamin D2, 10,000 IU every 8-12 week, improved symptoms, raised serum 25-OHD to normal, and increased circulating 1,25-[OH]2D to values five times normal. Over the next 10 mo circulating 1,25-[OH]2D remained elevated despite normalization of serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone. Repeat bone biopsy 1 yr after parenteral vitamin D showed healing of the osteomalacia. Malabsorption of vitamin D appears secondary to profound steatorrhea due to pancreatic insufficiency and secondary biliary cirrhosis. Although extensive hepatocellular disease was present, hepatic conversion of vitamin D to 25-OHD was intact. Both high and low circulating 1,25-[OH]2D levels during active osteomalacia have been reported; initially, the level was in the normal range and higher values in this patient occurred with repletion of 25-OHD substrate. This study shows that symptomatic osteomalacia may be a major manifestation of cystic fibrosis in those patients surviving into adulthood. Measurements of serum 25-OHD in cystic fibrosis patients may identify those who should receive supplemental vitamin D. PMID:3871414

  14. Study Protocol – Metabolic syndrome, vitamin D and bone status in South Asian women living in Auckland, New Zealand: A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind vitamin D intervention

    PubMed Central

    von Hurst, Pamela R; Stonehouse, Welma; Matthys, Christophe; Conlon, Cathryn; Kruger, Marlena C; Coad, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Background The identification of the vitamin D receptor in the endocrine pancreas suggests a role for vitamin D in insulin secretion. There is also some limited evidence that vitamin D influences insulin resistance, and thus the early stages of the development of type 2 diabetes. Methods Eighty-four women of South Asian origin, living in Auckland, New Zealand, were randomised to receive either a supplement (4000IU 25(OH)D3 per day) or a placebo for 6 months. At baseline, all participants were vitamin D deficient (serum 25(OH)D3 <50 nmol/L), insulin resistant (HOMA-IR > 1.93) and/or hyperinsulinaemic, hyperglycemic or had clinical signs of dislipidaemia. Changes in HOMA-IR, lipids, parathyroid hormone, calcium and bone markers were monitored at 3 months and 6 months. Discussion This randomised, controlled trial will be the first to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects. It will subsequently contribute to the growing body of evidence about the role of vitamin D in metabolic syndrome.Registered clinical. Trial registration Registered clinical trial – Registration No. ACTRN12607000642482 PMID:18667086

  15. A Case Report of 20 Lung Radiofrequency Ablation Sessions for 50 Lung Metastases from Parathyroid Carcinoma Causing Hyperparathyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Tochio, Maki Takaki, Haruyuki; Yamakado, Koichiro; Uraki, Junji; Kashima, Masataka; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takao, Motoshi; Shimamoto, Akira; Tarukawa, Tomohito; Shimpo, Hideto; Takeda, Kan

    2010-06-15

    A 47-year-old man presented with multiple lung metastases from parathyroid carcinoma that caused hyperparathyroidism and refractory hypercalcemia. Lung radiofrequency (RF) ablation was repeated to decrease the serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels and improve general fatigue. Pulmonary resection was combined for lung hilum metastases. The patient is still alive 4 years after the initial RF session. He has received 20 RF sessions for 50 lung metastases during this period.

  16. Relevance of Vitamin D Receptor Target Genes for Monitoring the Vitamin D Responsiveness of Primary Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seuter, Sabine; Saksa, Noora; de Mello, Vanessa D. F.; Nurmi, Tarja; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Carlberg, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D3 has transcriptome- and genome-wide effects and activates, via the binding of its metabolite 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR), several hundred target genes. Using samples from a 5-month vitamin D3 intervention study (VitDmet), we recently reported that the expression of 12 VDR target genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as 12 biochemical and clinical parameters of the study participants are significantly triggered by vitamin D3. In this study, we performed a more focused selection of further 12 VDR target genes and demonstrated that changes of their mRNA expression in PBMCs of VitDmet subjects significantly correlate with alterations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 serum levels. Network and self-organizing map analysis of these datasets together with that of the other 24 parameters was followed by relevance calculations and identified changes in parathyroid hormone serum levels and the expression of the newly selected genes STS, BCL6, ITGAM, LRRC25, LPGAT1 and TREM1 as well as of the previously reported genes DUSP10 and CD14 as the most relevant parameters for describing vitamin D responsiveness in vivo. Moreover, parameter relevance ranking allowed the segregation of study subjects into high and low responders. Due to the long intervention period the vitamin D response was not too prominent on the level of transcriptional activation. Therefore, we performed in the separate VitDbol trial a short-term but high dose stimulation with a vitamin D3 bolus. In PBMCs of VitDbol subjects we observed direct transcriptional effects on the selected VDR target genes, such as an up to 2.1-fold increase already one day after supplementation onset. In conclusion, both long-term and short-term vitamin D3 supplementation studies allow monitoring the vitamin D responsiveness of human individuals and represent new types of human in vivo vitamin D3 investigations. PMID:25875760

  17. Vitamin D intoxication in two brothers: be careful with dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Conti, Giovanni; Chirico, Valeria; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Silipigni, Lorena; Fede, Claudia; Vitale, Agata; Fede, Carmelo

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin D (VitD) intoxication, a well-known cause of hypercalcaemia in children, has renal, cardiac and neurological consequences. Iatrogenic or accidental administrations are the most common causes. We present two cases of hypervitaminosis D due to over-the-counter VitD supplement self-medication. A 12-year-old boy was hospitalised for abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Routine biochemistry indicated severe hypercalcaemia and renal failure. Plasma 25-OH VitD level was very high and parathyroid hormone was suppressed. Renal ultrasound showed nephrolithiasis. Hydration, diuretics and prednisone induced a progressive reduction of calcium levels. His brother, who was receiving the same treatment, was hospitalised although asymptomatic. Normal serum calcium and renal function were revealed, while 25-OH VitD was high and parathyroid hormone was suppressed. Renal ultrasound was within the normal range. Examination of the VitD content of the over-the-counter supplement revealed a higher amount than declared. VitD administration implies several risks and must be prescribed only when needed and under strict medical control. PMID:24670344

  18. Effects of a 2X gravity environment on the ultrastructure of the gerbil parathyroid gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sannes, P. L.; Hayes, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A number of studies concerning the effects of hypergravity on bone have shown increases in bone mass or bone dimensions. Correlative studies, which could provide clues to the mechanism for such a response, have been lacking. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ultrastructure of parathyroid glands of Mongolian gerbils exposed to a continuous 2 X gravity force for 60 d. It was found that the experimental animals had parathyroid glands which had a greater percentage of chief cells in the active stage of their secretory cycle when compared with control animals. This result was interpreted to indicate an increase in parathyroid gland secretory activity and, hence, an increase in parathyroid hormone release. It was suggested that increased parathyroid secretory activity was necessary to maintain serum calcium levels of hypergravity animals within normal limits. Cellular forms resembling water clear cells and highly compact, degenerating cells were described in experimental animals but not in controls. Areas suggestive of cellular dissolution and disorganization were also reported in experimental parathyroids.

  19. Unmasking of primary hyperparathyroidism by Vitamin D therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bala, S.; Shah, B.; Rajput, P.; Rao, P.

    2015-01-01

    A 38-year-old female on Vitamin D therapy presented with hypercalcemia induced acute kidney injury. Evaluation revealed primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and iatrogenic hypervitaminosis D. After medical stabilization, she underwent surgical removal of the parathyroid adenoma, and made a full recovery. This case highlights unmasking of subclinical hyperparathyroidism by vitamin D therapy leading to severe hypercalcemia.

  20. Iatrogenic vitamin D toxicity in an infant--a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Wadams, Heather; Lteif, Aida; Singh, Ravinder J

    2015-04-01

    Public concern over vitamin D deficiency has led to widespread use of over the counter (OTC) vitamin D (-D3 or -D2) supplements, containing up to 10,000 IU/unit dose (400 IU=10?g). Overzealous use of such supplements can cause hypercalcemia due to vitamin D toxicity. Infants are particularly vulnerable to toxicity associated with vitamin D overdose. OTC supplements are not subject to stringent quality control regulations from FDA and high degree of variability in vitamin D content in OTC pills has been demonstrated. Other etiologies of vitamin D induced hypercalcemia include hyperparathyroidism, granulomatous malignancies like sarcoidosis and mutations in the CYP24A1 gene. The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia should include iatrogenic and genetic etiologies. C24-hydroxylation and C3-epimerization are two important biochemical pathways via which 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) is converted to its metabolites, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) or its C3 epimer, 3-epi-25-OH-D3 respectively. Mutations in the CYP24A1 gene cause reduced serum 24,25(OH)2D3 to 25(OH)D3 ratio (<0.02), elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3), hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis. Studies in infants have shown that 3-epi-25(OH)D3 can contribute 9-61.1% of the total 25(OH)D3. Therefore, measurements of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3 are useful to investigate whether the underlying cause of vitamin D toxicity is iatrogenic versus genetic. Here we report a case of vitamin D3 associated toxicity in a 4-month-old female who was exclusively breast-fed and received an oral liquid vitamin D3 supplement at a dose significantly higher than recommended on the label. The vitamin D3 content of the supplement was threefold higher (6000 IU of D/drop) than listed on the label (2000 IU). Due to overdosing and higher vitamin D3 content, the infant received ?50,000 IU/day for two months resulting in severe hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. We also review the relevant literature on vitamin D3 toxicity in this report. PMID:25636720

  1. Renal effects of calcitonin and parathyroid extract in man

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Heinrich G.; Dambacher, Maximilian A.; Gun?aga, Jan; Lauffenburger, Thierry

    1971-01-01

    To clarify the controversial renal action of calcitonin (CT) and a possible interrelationship between CT and parathyroid hormone, eight patients with untreated surgical hypoparathyroidism were studied. Various calcitonins, i.e. extracted porcine, synthetic porcine, synthetic human, and synthetic salmon CT in doses of 150 Medical Research Council U or 1.5 mg were infused over a 3 hr period. Subsequently, six of the same subjects received 500 USP U parathyroid extract (PTE) (Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind.) in 3 hr and later a combination of CT and PTE. In addition, two patients were given an infusion of ammonium phosphate with the aim of producting a phosphaturia of comparable degree as seen after CT and PTE, thus differentiating hormonal from nonhormonal influences on cation excretion. A protocol of serial clearance (C) studies using the patients as their own controls was followed. Serum and urinary inorganic phosphate (P), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and creatinine (Cr) were determined and the clearance values calculated. All CT peptides caused a uniform, immediate and significant increase of CP, CNa, CK, CCa, and CMg, PTE evoked a rise of CP, CNa, and CK, but CCa and CMg were reduced, the Ca and Na figures being not statistically significant. The administration of both CT and PTE resulted in a summation of individual hormone effects on Ca and Mg excretion. Phosphate infusion on the other hand induced an isolated phosphaturia but no concomitant changes of the urinary cations. The hypoparathyroid data demonstrate that calcitonin enhances urinary elimination of P, Na, K, Ca, and Mg independently of parathyroid action, CT and PTE act qualitatively similarly on P, Na, and K excretion, while an antagonism seems to exist for the renal handling of Ca and Mg. PMID:5166965

  2. Identification and preservation of the parathyroid gland during total thyroidectomy in dogs with bilateral thyroid carcinoma: a report of six cases

    PubMed Central

    FUKUI, Sho; ENDO, Yoshifumi; HIRAYAMA, Kazuko; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki; KADOSAWA, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous removal of bilateral thyroid tumors was performed while preserving the parathyroid gland in six dogs. At least one external parathyroid gland was identified in all dogs. In five cases, the external parathyroid gland and its blood supply were preserved intact. In one dog, the vessels supplying the external parathyroid gland had been invaded by the tumor, and the gland was thus removed and reimplanted into the sternohyoid muscle. That dog required postoperative treatment with oral calcium gluconate and vitamin D3. Local tumor recurrence was not observed in any of the cases. The mean survival time was 920 days. We found that the external parathyroid gland could be identified and preserved in most dogs undergoing total thyroidectomy. PMID:25716481

  3. Oxyphil Cell Parathyroid Adenomas Causing Primary Hyperparathyroidism: a Clinico-Pathological Correlation.

    PubMed

    Howson, Pamela; Kruijff, Schelto; Aniss, Ahmad; Pennington, Thomas; Gill, Anthony J; Dodds, Tristan; Delbridge, Leigh W; Sidhu, Stan B; Sywak, Mark S

    2015-09-01

    Oxyphil cell parathyroid adenomas (OPA) are considered to be an uncommon cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), and were historically thought to be clinically silent. It has been our clinical impression that these adenomas present more often than previously thought and may manifest a more severe form of primary hyperparathyroidism than classical adenoma. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and clinical presentation of OPA. An observational case-control study was undertaken. The study group comprised patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for PHPT where the final pathology confirmed OPA. The controls were made up of an age- and sex-matched group of patients having parathyroidectomy in the same time period where the final pathology confirmed a classical or non-oxyphil adenoma. OPA were defined as parathyroid tumours containing >75% oxyphilic cells. The OPA cases were obtained by reviewing all histopathology slides over an 11-year period (2002-12) where the reports contained the words 'oxyphil' or 'oxyphilic' parathyroid adenomas. These were then reviewed by two independent pathologists to confirm a diagnosis of OPA. The primary outcome measures were preoperative serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Secondary outcome measures were symptoms at presentation, accuracy of preoperative localization studies, parathyroid gland weight following surgery, and type of surgery undertaken. In the period 2002-2012, 2739 patients underwent surgery for PHPT. Following pathological review, 91 cases were confirmed as being OPA and formed the study group. A control group (n?=?91) from the same period was selected following matching on the basis of age at presentation and sex. OPA were associated with higher preoperative serum calcium (10.84 versus 10.48 mg/dL, p?parathyroid hormone (139 versus 64 ng/L, p?parathyroid tissue between the groups (868 mg for OPA versus 789 mg for the control group, p?=?0.6). OPA are frequently symptomatic and are associated with higher preoperative serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels than classical types of parathyroid adenomas. OPA are less likely to be localised on preoperative ultrasound examination. PMID:26091632

  4. The effect of a single, large bolus of vitamin D in healthy adults over the winter and following year: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, MD; Binongo, JNG; Watson, D; Alvarez, JA; Lodin, D; Ziegler, TR; Tangpricha, V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although single, high doses of vitamin D effectively maintain vitamin D sufficiency in several populations, no studies have evaluated healthy adults over winter, during which vitamin D status declines. This study investigated whether high-dose vitamin D3 given once to healthy adults before winter will (1) prevent the wintertime decline in vitamin D status, (2) promote vitamin D sufficiency 1 year following the dose and (3) prevent the rise of parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations. SUBJECTS/METHODS In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assessed plasma 25(OH)D and PTH concentrations at baseline, 5, 90 and 365 days after drug administration in 28 healthy adults. In all, >80% of subjects returned at each time point. RESULTS At baseline, the young, healthy participants had a mean plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 17.5 ± 6.1 ng/ml. Only two subjects exhibited plasma 25(OH)D concentrations >30 ng/ml. At 5 days, subjects randomized to vitamin D3 had a higher mean plasma 25(OH)D concentration compared with the placebo group (39.1 vs 19.1 ng/ml, P<0.001). Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations returned to baseline at 90 and 365 days in the vitamin D3 group and remained unchanged in the placebo group. PTH and calcium concentrations were unrelated to changes in 25(OH)D levels and similar between groups over time. CONCLUSIONS A dose of 250 000 IU of vitamin D3 given once in November resulted in a robust increase in plasma 25(OH)D after 5 days, but it was unable to sustain this increase after 90 days. A larger or more frequent dosing regimen may be needed for long-term vitamin D sufficiency. PMID:25271011

  5. 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Vitamin D Status of Community Dwelling Black and White Americans

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Anders H.; Powe, Camille E.; Evans, Michele K.; Wenger, Julia; Ortiz, Guillermo; Zonderman, Alan B.; Suntharalingam, Pirianthini; Lucchesi, Kathryn; Powe, Neil R.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) is a metabolite of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D). Blacks frequently have low total 25D without manifestations of vitamin D deficiency, suggesting that total serum 25D may incorrectly reflect vitamin D status in different racial groups. The ratio of serum 24,25(OH)2D to 25D (Vitamin D Metabolite Ratio [VMR]) represents a new candidate biomarker for vitamin D status. METHODS We measured 24,25(OH)2D3 and 25D3 by mass spectrometry in a random community cohort of black (n=212) and white (n=164) Americans to evaluate VMR as a marker for vitamin D status. We measured parathyroid hormone concentrations by immunoassay to compare VMR and 25D3 against a physiological indicator of vitamin D deficiency. RESULTS Serum 24,25(OH)2D3 strongly correlated with 25D3 in both black and white subjects (r = 0.90, p<0.001 and r = 0.86, p<0.001 respectively). Blacks had lower mean 25D3 than whites (17.0±7.8 vs. 27.5±11.3 ng/mL (42.4±19.5 vs. 68.6±28.2 nmol/L), p<0.001) and lower mean 24,25(OH)2D3 (2.1±1.3 vs. 3.6±2.0 ng/mL (5.1±3.1 vs. 8.7±4.8 nmol/L)), p<0.001). In contrast to total 25D3 concentrations, mean VMR values were similar in blacks and whites (11.9±4.0 vs. 12.5±3.4, p=0.16, respectively) and were negatively correlated with parathyroid hormone concentrations in both races (rs= ?0.26, p<0.001 and rs= ?0.25, p<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide further evidence that measurement of total 25D for assessment of vitamin D status in patients of African descent deserves reevaluation, and suggests that alternative measures such as VMR should be considered. PMID:25922442

  6. Carcinoma in a mediastinal fifth parathyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Kastan, D.J.; Kottamasu, S.R.; Frame, B.; Greenwald, K.A.

    1987-03-06

    Commonly four parathyroid glands are located in the neck. The incidence of a fifth supernumery parathyroid gland has been reported to be between 2% and 6%. Most reports of a hyperfunctioning supernumery parathyroid gland have been adenomas. There have been only a few reports of parathyroid gland carcinoma occurring outside of the cervical region, none of which were in a supernumery parathyroid gland. The authors believe this is the first report of a carcinoma occurring in a supernumery parathyroid gland. Following surgery, four views of the chest during a barium swallow examination showed an anterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the mediastinum confirmed a contrast-enhancing soft-tissue mass anterior to and separate from the aorta.

  7. Parathyroid Scintigraphy in Renal Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Taďeb, David; Ureńa-Torres, Pablo; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Rubello, Domenico; Ferretti, Alice; Henter, Ioline; Henry, Jean-François; Schiavi, Francesca; Opocher, Giuseppe; Blickman, Johan G.; Colletti, Patrick M.; Hindié, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is a major complication for patients with end-stage renal disease on long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. When the disease is resistant to medical treatment, patients with severe sHPT are typically referred for parathyroidectomy (PTx), which usually improves biological parameters as well as clinical signs and symptoms. Unfortunately, early surgical failure with persistent disease may occur in 5%–10% of patients and recurrence reaches 20%–30% at 5 years. Presently, the use of parathyroid scintigraphy in sHPT is usually limited to the management of surgical failures after initial PTx. This review describes the strengths and limitations of typical 99mTc-sestamibi imaging protocols, and highlights the potential benefits of using parathyroid scintigraphy in the initial workup of surgical patients. PMID:23751837

  8. Heritable syndrome of pseudoxanthoma elasticum with abnormal phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mallette, L E; Mechanick, J I

    1987-12-01

    A patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum was documented to be hyperphosphatemic and mildly hypercalcemic for six years. Complications included metastatic calcification, absorptive hypercalciuria, and renal insufficiency. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D value was elevated, despite normal serum parathyroid hormone values, high serum phosphate levels, and renal insufficiency. Either increased dietary calcium or prednisone seemed to suppress the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D value. Nephrolithiasis or abnormalities suggestive of pseudoxanthoma elasticum occurred in the patient's father, daughter, and several siblings, suggesting a distinct familial syndrome in which connective tissue changes are accompanied by abnormalities of phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism that may resemble those in the syndrome of familial tumoral calcinosis. Nine similar cases were described before 1970. PMID:3332571

  9. Epigenetic alterations in human parathyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Verdelli, Chiara; Forno, Irene; Vaira, Valentina; Corbetta, Sabrina

    2015-06-01

    Epigenetics alterations are involved in tumorigenesis and have been identified in endocrine neoplasia. In particular, DNA methylation, microRNAs deregulations and histone methylation impairment are detected in tumors of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid tumors are the second most common endocrine neoplasia following thyroid cancer in women, and it is associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, a disease sustained by PTH hypersecretion. Despite the hallmark of global promoter hypomethylations was not detectable in parathyroid tumors, increase of hypermethylation in specific CpG islands was detected in the progression from benign to malignant parathyroid tumors. Furthermore, deregulation of a panel of embryonic-related microRNAs (miRNAs) was documented in parathyroid tumors compared with normal glands. Impaired expression of the histone methyltransferases EZH2, BMI1, and RIZ1 have been described in parathyroid tumors. Moreover, histone methyltransferases have been shown to be modulated by the oncosuppressors HIC1, MEN1, and HRPT2/CDC73 gene products that characterize tumorigenesis of parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas, respectively. The epigenetic scenario in parathyroid tumors have just began to be decoded but emerging data highlight the involvement of an embryonic gene signature in parathyroid tumor development. PMID:25722013

  10. Parathyroid Gland Function in Primary Aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Asbach, E; Bekeran, M; Reincke, M

    2015-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most frequent cause of secondary arterial hypertension. Beyond its effects on intravascular volume and blood pressure, PA causes metabolic alterations and a higher cardiovascular morbidity, which is reduced by PA-directed therapy. Experimental studies demonstrated that mineralocorticoid excess may also influence mineral homeostasis. A role in cardiovascular disease has also been attributed to parathyroid hormone (PTH). Increasing evidence supports a bidirectional interaction between aldosterone and PTH.Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with arterial hypertension and an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which might be associated to higher aldosterone values; parathyreoidectomy results in lowered aldosterone and blood pressure levels. PA leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is reversible by PA-directed therapy. A lower bone mineral density and a higher fracture rate were also shown to be reversible by PA-directed therapy. There is a suspicion of a bidirectional interaction between aldosterone and PTH, which might lead to a higher cardiovascular risk. There are more and more reports about coincident PA and primary hyperparathyroidism. From a pathophysiologic point of view this constellation is best characterized as tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Future aspects should further clarify the extent of these endocrine interactions and analyze the influence of this interplay on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and bone health. PMID:26667802

  11. Vitamin D Bioavailability and Catabolism in Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Denburg, Michelle R.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; de Boer, Ian H.; Hewison, Martin; Shults, Justine; Zemel, Babette S.; Stokes, David; Foerster, Debbie; Laskin, Benjamin; Ramirez, Anthony; Leonard, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and catabolism have not been examined in childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Serum vitamin D [25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25(OH)2D], DBP, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) concentrations were measured in 148 participants with CKD stages 2–5D secondary to congenital anomalies of the kidney/urinary tract (CAKUT), glomerulonephritis (GN), or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were calculated using total 25(OH)D, albumin and DBP. Results All vitamin D metabolites were lower with more advanced CKD (p<0.001) and glomerular diagnoses (p?0.002). Among non-dialysis participants, DBP was lower in FSGS vs. other diagnoses (FSGS-dialysis interaction p=0.02). Winter season, older age, FSGS and GN, and higher FGF23 were independently associated with lower free and bioavailable 25(OH)D. Black race was associated with lower total 25(OH)D and DBP, but not free or bioavailable 25(OH)D. 24,25(OH)2D was the vitamin D metabolite most strongly associated with iPTH. Lower 25(OH)D, black race, greater CKD severity, and higher iPTH were independently associated with lower 24,25(OH)2D, while higher FGF23 and GN were associated with greater 24,25(OH)2D. Conclusions Children with CKD exhibit altered catabolism and concentrations of DBP and free and bioavailable 25(OH)D, and there is an important impact of their underlying disease. PMID:23728936

  12. Vitamin D status and hypercholesterolemia in Spanish general population

    PubMed Central

    Cutillas-Marco, Eugenia; Prosper, Amparo Fuertes; Grant, William B; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María M

    2013-01-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels have been associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. A possible relation between lipids and 25(OH)D might explain this association. This investigation aimed to determine the association between vitamin D and cholesterol, as well as the influence of statins on this association. This was a cross-sectional population-based study with 177 subjects aged 18–84 years. We collected demographics and data on sun exposure, sun protection habits, current medication including lipid-lowering drugs, and estimated vitamin D intake. Serum measurements included levels of 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorus, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose. The mean 25(OH)D level was 24 ± 9 ng/ml. Young age (P = 0.04) and spending more than 1 h outdoors (P = 0.04) were independently associated with higher 25(OH)D levels. The 25(OH)D concentrations correlated negatively with total cholesterol (P = 0.01) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.04) levels. The adjusted OR for total cholesterol > 200 mg/ml was 2.8 (range, 1.1–7.5). Receiving statins was associated with higher 25(OH)D levels (P = 0.04). In conclusion, this study supports an association between 25(OH)D levels and cholesterol. Further studies are required to explain this association. PMID:24516690

  13. Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and predictors of vitamin D status in Italian healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D plays an important role in health promotion during adolescence. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common in adolescents worldwide. Few data on vitamin D status and risk factors for hypovitaminosis D in Italian adolescents are currently available. Methods 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were evaluated in 427 Italian healthy adolescents (10.0-21.0 years). We used the following cut-off of 25-OH-D to define vitamin D status: deficiency?vitamin D deficiency as 25-OH-D levels?vitamin D status. Results Enrolled adolescents had a median serum 25-OH-D level of 50.0 nmol/L, range 8.1-174.7, with 82.2% having hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were detected in 49.9% and 32.3% of adolescents, respectively. Among those with deficiency, 38 subjects were severely deficient (38/427, 8.9% of the entire sample). Non-white adolescents had a higher prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency than white subjects (6/17-35.3% vs 32/410-7.8% respectively, p?=?0.002). Logistic regression showed increased risk of hypovitaminosis D as follows: blood withdrawal taken in winter-spring (Odds ratio (OR) 5.64) compared to summer-fall period; overweight-obese adolescents (OR 3.89) compared to subjects with normal body mass index (BMI); low sun exposure (OR 5.94) compared to moderate-good exposure and regular use of sunscreens (OR 5.89) compared to non regular use. Adolescents who performed?vitamin D status. Serum 25-OH-D levels were inversely related to PTH (r?=?-0.387, p?vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Pediatricians should tackle predictors of vitamin D status, favoring a healthier lifestyle and promoting supplementation in the groups at higher risk of hypovitaminosis D. PMID:24902694

  14. Relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and the efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment in children with idiopathic short stature.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Luo, X P; Cai, L X; Cui, Z R; Luo, X Y; Luo, R K

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are associated with idiopathic short stature (ISS) in several countries. This study aimed to identify a possible correlation between polymorphisms in the VDR promoter in Chinese children with ISS and the efficacy of the recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment. Pre-pubertal children with ISS and healthy age- and gender-matched children (N = 95 each) were enrolled in this study. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR promoter (rs11568820 at the Cdx-2-binding site upstream of exon 1e and rs4516035 at -1012 upstream of exon 1a) were typed. The growth velocity, standard deviation score (SDS) of height for chronological age, height SDS for bone age, predicted adult height, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels of the ISS patients were determined before and 6 months after rhGH treatment. No significant differences were observed in the genotype frequencies between the ISS cases and controls. After rhGH treatment, the growth velocity of the A/G genotype at the Cdx-2-binding site SNP locus was significantly higher than that of the G/G genotype; the IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were also higher in the treated group than the untreated group. However, these changes were independent of the VDR-promoter genotype. Polymorphisms in the VDR promoter may not result in the pathogenesis of ISS in Chinese children. The A/G genotype showed a significantly higher growth velocity than the G/G genotype, and may represent a short-term marker of growth potential. PMID:26400282

  15. Activation of calcium-sensing receptor accelerates apoptosis in hyperplastic parathyroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mizobuchi, Masahide; Ogata, Hiroaki Hatamura, Ikuji; Saji, Fumie; Koiwa, Fumihiko; Kinugasa, Eriko; Koshikawa, Shozo; Akizawa, Tadao

    2007-10-12

    Calcimimetic compounds inhibit not only parathyroid hormone (PTH) synthesis and secretion, but also parathyroid cell proliferation. The aim of this investigation is to examine the effect of the calcimimetic compound NPS R-568 (R-568) on parathyroid cell death in uremic rats. Hyperplastic parathyroid glands were obtained from uremic rats (subtotal nephrectomy and high-phosphorus diet), and incubated in the media only or the media which contained high concentration of R-568 (10{sup -4} M), or 10% cyclodextrin, for 6 h. R-568 treatment significantly suppressed medium PTH concentration compared with that of the other two groups. R-568 treatment not only increased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay-positive cells, but also induced the morphologic changes of cell death determined by light or electron microscopy. These results suggest that CaR activation by R-568 accelerates parathyroid cell death, probably through an apoptotic mechanism in uremic rats in vitro.

  16. Vitamin D deficiency remains prevalent despite increased laboratory testing in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Quaggiotto, Paul; Tran, Huy; Bhanugopan, Marie

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and toxicity, the frequency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) testing, and 25(OH)D variations with respect to patient gender, patient age and season in New South Wales, Australia. METHODS A retrospective analysis of pathology records was performed to ascertain patient age, patient gender, sample collection date, plasma or serum 25(OH)D levels, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, and test numbers between 2001 and 2010. Linear regression with Bonferroni correction was used to calculate and compare age- adjusted mean 25(OH)D levels. Relationships of 25(OH)D with PTH and calcium were tested using Spearman’s rank correlation. RESULTS 25(OH)D testing increased by 730% over the ten-year study period. In 2010, many men (33%) and women (40%) were, to some degree, vitamin D deficient (? 50 nmol/L). Vitamin D toxicity was rare, with only one instance noted. 25(OH)D levels correlated positively with calcium and negatively with PTH levels. 25(OH)D levels decreased with age. In 2010, 25(OH)D levels were highest in February and lowest in September/October. Cyclical variation was observed for 25(OH)D levels between 2006 and 2010. CONCLUSION We found that vitamin D deficiency was prevalent in both men and women, with a higher prevalence in the latter, despite the substantial increased demand for 25(OH)D testing in our population over the decade. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with elevated PTH levels. Vitamin D toxicity was rare and only observed once during our study period. 25(OH)D levels decreased with age and varied with season, with the highest levels observed in late summer and the lowest in early spring. PMID:24862752

  17. Evidence for increased renal tubule and parathyroid gland sensitivity to serum calcium in human idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Worcester, Elaine M; Bergsland, Kristin J; Gillen, Daniel L; Coe, Fredric L

    2013-09-15

    Patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) have decreased renal calcium reabsorption, most marked in the postprandial state, but the mechanisms are unknown. We compared 29 subjects with IH and 17 normal subjects (N) each fed meals providing identical amounts of calcium. Urine and blood samples were collected fasting and after meals. Levels of three candidate signalers, serum calcium (SCa), insulin (I), and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), did not differ between IH and N either fasting or fed, but all changed with feeding, and the change in SCa was greater in IH than in N. Regression analysis of fractional excretion of calcium (FECa) was significant for PTH and SCa in IH but not N. With the use of multivariable analysis, Sca entered the model while PTH and I did not. To avoid internal correlation we decomposed FECa into its independent terms: adjusted urine calcium (UCa) and UFCa molarity. Analyses using adjusted Uca and unadjusted Uca parallel those using FECa, showing a dominant effect of SCa with no effect of PTH or I. The effect of SCa may be mediated via vitamin D receptor-stimulated increased abundance of basolateral Ca receptor, which is supported by the fact PTH levels also seem more responsive to serum Ca in IH than in N. Although our data support an effect of SCa on FECa and UCa, which is more marked in IH than in N, it can account for only a modest fraction of the meal effect, perhaps 10-20%, suggesting additional mediators are also responsible for the exaggerated postprandial hypercalciuria seen in IH. PMID:23863465

  18. Evidence for increased renal tubule and parathyroid gland sensitivity to serum calcium in human idiopathic hypercalciuria

    PubMed Central

    Bergsland, Kristin J.; Gillen, Daniel L.; Coe, Fredric L.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) have decreased renal calcium reabsorption, most marked in the postprandial state, but the mechanisms are unknown. We compared 29 subjects with IH and 17 normal subjects (N) each fed meals providing identical amounts of calcium. Urine and blood samples were collected fasting and after meals. Levels of three candidate signalers, serum calcium (SCa), insulin (I), and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), did not differ between IH and N either fasting or fed, but all changed with feeding, and the change in SCa was greater in IH than in N. Regression analysis of fractional excretion of calcium (FECa) was significant for PTH and SCa in IH but not N. With the use of multivariable analysis, Sca entered the model while PTH and I did not. To avoid internal correlation we decomposed FECa into its independent terms: adjusted urine calcium (UCa) and UFCa molarity. Analyses using adjusted Uca and unadjusted Uca parallel those using FECa, showing a dominant effect of SCa with no effect of PTH or I. The effect of SCa may be mediated via vitamin D receptor-stimulated increased abundance of basolateral Ca receptor, which is supported by the fact PTH levels also seem more responsive to serum Ca in IH than in N. Although our data support an effect of SCa on FECa and UCa, which is more marked in IH than in N, it can account for only a modest fraction of the meal effect, perhaps 10–20%, suggesting additional mediators are also responsible for the exaggerated postprandial hypercalciuria seen in IH. PMID:23863465

  19. A Case of Low Bone Mineral Density with Vitamin D Deficiency Due to Prolonged Lactation and Severe Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Min Young; Kang, Yea Eun; Kong, Si Eun; Ju, Sang Hyeon; Back, Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition associated vitamin D deficiency contributes to the calcium loss from bone and results in osteoporosis and osteomalacia at final stage. Osteomalacia is characterized with softening of bone secondary to defective bone mineralization. Here, we report a case of possible osteomalacia caused by prolonged lactation and severe malnutrition in 35-year-old female. She was a housewife and her body mass index was 11.8 kg/m2. She was diagnosed with severe osteoporosis in regular health check-up 2 years ago, but did not take any medication. Nine months ago, she had been treated with anti-tuberculosis medications for 6 month due to active pulmonary tuberculosis. After complete remission of pulmonary tuberculosis, she had lost her appetite severely. Furthermore, she felt gait difficulty and suffered from generalized bone pain. On serologic examination, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, high alkaline phosphatase, low vitamin D3 and high parathyroid hormone level were seen. In the bone mineral density, Z-score from her lumbar spine was -6.5. She was treated with oral calcium and vitamin D3 intramuscularly. After 1 year treatment, she felt significant improvement in bone pain and could walk alone. Also her serum calcium, phosphate and vitamin D3 level are all normalized. PMID:25774364

  20. Increase in the dosage amount of vitamin D3 preparations by switching from calcium carbonate to lanthanum carbonate.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Toru; Kawakami, Junko; Mikami, Noriko; Wakai, Haruki; Ishii, Daisuke; Yoshida, Kazunari; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Hida, Miho; Kurata, Yasuhisa

    2014-06-01

    It is widely known that dialysis patients who are administered vitamin D preparations have a better prognosis than patients who are not. In this study, of 22 patients on maintenance dialysis who had been administered calcium (Ca) carbonate in our hospital, we investigated the dosage amount of vitamin D3 preparations after the phosphorus (P) binder was switched from Ca carbonate to the newly developed lanthanum carbonate (LC). After completely switching to LC, the dosage amount of oral vitamin D3 preparation (alfacalcidol equivalent) was significantly increased from 0.094 ?g/day to 0.375 ?g/day (P = 0.0090). No significant changes were observed in the values of serum corrected Ca, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone and P after switching. The administration of LC enabled complete cessation of the administration of Ca carbonate preparations, and increased the dosage amount of vitamin D3 preparations. Therefore, LC may be a useful P binder to improve patient prognosis. PMID:24953761

  1. Reduced serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in Egyptian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Relation to disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Rasha T.; Awwad, Khaled S.; Ali, Mohamed K.; Hamed, Amira I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Recently, vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a potential environmental factor triggering some autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)). In addition, patients with SLE, especially those with increased disease activity, were suggested to have decreased vitamin D level, suggesting that vitamin D might play a role in regulating autoantibody production. Material/Methods To assess 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] status in Egyptian patients with SLE and its relation to disease activity. Clinical evaluation and assay of serum 25(OH)D, total calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were done on 60 SLE patients in comparison to 60 matched-healthy subjects. Serum 25(OH)D levels <30 and 10 ng/ml were defined as vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, respectively. Results Serum 25(OH)D was significantly lower in patients than in controls (26.33±12.05 vs. 42.66±9.20 respectively, p<0.0001), with 13.30% and 60% being deficient and insufficient, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D levels were lower with increased disease activity (p=0.03) and frequency of photosensitivity(p=0.02) and photoprotection (p=0.002). Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (OR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.42–5.18, P=0.002), photosensitivity (OR: 3.6, 95% CI: 1.9–6.8, P<0.01) and photoprotection (OR: 6.7, 95% CI: 2.9–8.8, P<0.001) were significant predictors of 25(OH)D level among SLE cases. Conclusions Low vitamin D status is prevalent in Egyptian SLE patients despite plentiful exposure to sunlight throughout the year, and its level is negatively correlated to disease activity. Future studies looking at a potential role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology and treatment of SLE are warranted. PMID:22129903

  2. Comparison of the effects of a potent synthetic analog of bovine parathyroid hormone with native bPTH-(1-84) and synthetic bPTH-(1-34) on bone resorption and collagen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Raisz, L G; Lorenzo, J; Gworek, S; Kream, B; Rosenblatt, M

    1979-01-01

    An analog of bobine PTH [nle-8, nle-18, tyr-34 bPTH-(1-34) amide, (PTH-Ana)] which is a potent stimulator of renal adenylate cyclase has been compared with the native hormone bPTH-(1-84) and the biologically active amino terminal portion, bPTH-(1-34), for its effects on bone resorption and bone collagen synthesis in organ culture. All three compounds stimulated the release of previously incorporated 45Ca from cultured fetal rat long bone shafts with similar dose-response curves at 10(-9) to 3 X 10(-8) M. All three compounds inhibited bone collagen synthesis as measured by incorporation of proline into collagenase digestible protein, whereas incorporation into noncollagen protein was not inhibited. The effects were dose related and decreases in percent collagen synthesis were significant at 10(-9) M. Thus PTH-Ana appears to have the same effects on bone resorption and collagen synthesis as bPTH-(1-84) and (1-34) and is likely to be a valid probe for investigating PTH receptors in bone as well as in kidney. PMID:117885

  3. Phosphatonins: new hormones involved in numerous inherited bone disorders

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Summary Phosphate (Pi) homeostasis is under control of several endocrine factors that play effects on bone, kidney and intestine. The control of Pi homeostasis has a significant biological importance, as it relates to numerous cellular mechanisms involved in energy metabolism, cell signaling, nucleic acid synthesis, membrane function, as well as skeletal health and integrity. Pi is essential for diverse biological processes, and negative Pi balance resulting from improperly regulated intestinal absorption, systemic utilization, and renal excretion. As results of these functions, chronic Pi deprivation causes several biological alterations, such as bone demineralization with unmineralized osateoid typical of osteomalacia in adults and rickets in developing animals and humans (1). Phosphatonins are new hormones playing an important role in the control of Pi homeostasis together with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3. Most insight into the underlying mechanisms was established by defining the molecular basis of different inherited disorders that are characterized by an abnormal regulation of Pi homeostasis. PMID:22461821

  4. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Public Health > The Nutrition Source > Vitamin K Vitamin K in Stumbleupon Vitamin K helps make four of the 13 proteins ... warfarin (Coumadin) must be careful to keep their vitamin K intake stable. Lately, researchers have demonstrated that ...

  5. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Public Health > The Nutrition Source > Vitamin C Vitamin C in Stumbleupon Vitamin C has been in the public eye for a ... laureate Linus Pauling promoted daily megadoses of vitamin C (the amount in 12 to 24 oranges) as ...

  6. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin. It is needed for normal growth and development. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve ... Vitamin C is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It is ...

  7. Vitamin D supplementation in older people (VDOP): Study protocol for a randomised controlled intervention trial with monthly oral dosing with 12,000 IU, 24,000 IU or 48,000 IU of vitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The randomised, double blind intervention trial ‘Optimising Vitamin D Status in Older People’ (VDOP) will test the effect of three oral dosages of vitamin D given for one year on bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical markers of vitamin D metabolism, bone turnover and safety in older people. VDOP is funded by Arthritis Research UK, supported through Newcastle University and MRC Human Nutrition Research and sponsored by the Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.a Background Vitamin D insufficiency is common in older people and may lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss, impairment of muscle function and increased risk of falls and fractures. Vitamin D supplementation trials have yielded conflicting results with regard to decreasing rates of bone loss, falls and fractures and the optimal plasma concentration of 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) for skeletal health remains unclear. Method/design Older (?70 years) community dwelling men and women are recruited through General Practices in Northern England and 375 participants are randomised to take 12,000 international units (IU), 24,000 IU or 48,000 IU of vitamin D3 orally each month for one year starting in the winter or early spring. Hip BMD and anthropometry are measured at baseline and 12 months. Fasting blood samples are collected at baseline and three-month intervals for the measurement of plasma 25OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH), biochemical markers of bone turnover and biochemistry to assess the dose–response and safety of supplementation. Questionnaire data include falls, fractures, quality of life, adverse events and outcomes, compliance, dietary calcium intake and sunshine exposure. Discussion This is the first integrated vitamin D supplementation trial in older men and women using a range of doses given at monthly intervals to assess BMD, plasma 25OHD, PTH and biochemical markers of bone turnover and safety, quality of life and physical performance. We aim to investigate the vitamin D supplementation and plasma 25OHD concentration required to maintain bone health and to develop a set of biochemical markers that reflects the effect of vitamin D on bone. This will aid future studies investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on fracture risk. #ISRCTN 35648481 (assigned 16 August 2012), EudraCT 2011-004890-10. PMID:24041337

  8. Spontaneous cervical-mediastinal hematoma caused by hemorrhage into parathyroid adenoma: A clinical case

    PubMed Central

    Ilyicheva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous cervical-mediastinal hematoma caused by extracapsular rupture of parathyroid gland occurs extremely rarely. There are no standard treatment approaches because of the peculiarities of each case. Presentation of case We report herewith about a rare case of spontaneous cervical-mediastenal hematoma occured by hemorrhage in parathyroid adenoma, which was detected in an previously absolutely healthy female patient in the age of 29. This woman was hospitalized in 2 days after the manifestation, complaining about a neck ache. Indirect laryngoscopy: right-side larynx paresis. Blood test: parathyroid hormone 843 pg/ml (norm 15–65), ionized calcium 1.8 mmol/l (norm 0.9–1.1). Positive dynamics was observed throughout 8 days of anti-inflammatory therapy. Symptoms of neck organs compression increased acutely at the 9th day. The patient was operated – hematoma lancing with resection of walls. Histological examination discovered the fragments of parathyroid adenoma in the hematoma's wall. Level of ionized blood calcium got normal approximately in 24 h after the surgery. The patient was examined 6 months after the surgery. The patient had no disphagy, voice quality was intact, breathing was not restricted. Level of parathyroid hormone in blood got normal. Discussion A rareness of this pathology and treatment variability does not allow to choose a unified medical and diagnostic tactics. Conclusion Our case demonstrates that radical correction of primary hyperparathyroidism by excision of hematoma and its fibrous capsule with preservation of thyroid gland is possible in conditions of tense cervical-mediastinal hematoma with inflammation process in the hemorrhage area. PMID:25553526

  9. Low vitamin D status associated with dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Veli; Bozcali, Evin; Uygun, Turgut; Opan, Selçuk; Karakaya, Osman

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a growing body of evidence supports that vitamin D plays a crucial role in various cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac muscle cells have vitamin D receptors as well as calcitriol-dependent Ca2+ binding protein. Therefore, the vitamin D may have an effect on cardiac function. In this research, we investigated the association between vitamin D status and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP). We compared serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25OHD3) concentrations in 39 patients (mean age 50.4 ± 11.7 years, 15 women) with DCMP and in 35 healthy controls (mean age 54.6 ± 13.2 years, 17 women). Parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca++), phosphorus, lipid profile, albumin and echocardiographic parameters (left-ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV fractional shortening, LV-end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions) were measured in all study participants. The mean serum 25OHD3 concentrations in patients with the DCMP were significantly lower in compared to healthy controls (24.1 ± 10.4 ng/mL versus 41.4 ± 20.9 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). PTH concentrations were significantly higher in patients with DCMP in comparison with healthy controls (90.6 ± 29.8 pg/mL versus 49.1 ± 18 pg/mL, P < 0.0001). Additionally, we observed a significant negative correlation between 25OHD3 concentrations and PTH concentrations, LV end-diastolic dimensions, LV end-systolic dimensions (r = -0.66; P < 0.0001, r = -0.49; P < 0.0001, r = -0.50; P < 0.0001, respectively). Moreover, 25OHD3 was positively correlated with LV ejection fraction, LV fractional shortening, stroke volume, cardiac output, cardiac index (r = 0.46; P < 0.001, r = 0.44; P < 0.001, r = 0.25; P = 0.03, r = 0.37; P < 0.001, r = 0.25; P = 0.03; respectively). Our findings support that vitamin D has a potential role both in the development of DCMP and LV remodeling. PMID:25785137

  10. Imaging of the parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Minisola, Salvatore; Cipriani, Cristiana; Diacinti, Daniele; Tartaglia, Francesco; Scillitani, Alfredo; Pepe, Jessica; Scott-Coombes, David

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is one of the most frequent endocrine diseases worldwide. Surgery is the only potentially curable option for patients with this disorder, even though in asymptomatic patients 50 years of age or older without end organ complications, a conservative treatment may be a possible alternative. Bilateral neck exploration under general anaesthesia has been the standard for the definitive treatment. However, significant improvements in preoperative imaging, together with the implementation of rapid parathyroid hormone determination, have determined an increased implementation of focused, minimally invasive surgical approach. Surgeons prefer to have a localization study before an operation (both in the classical scenario and in the minimally invasive procedure). They are not satisfied by having been referred a patient with just a biochemical diagnosis of PHPT. Imaging studies must not be utilized to make the diagnosis of PHPT. They should be obtained to both assist in determining disease etiology and to guide operative procedures together with the nuclear medicine doctor and, most importantly, with the surgeon. On the contrary, apart from minimally invasive procedures in which localization procedures are an obligate choice, some surgeons believe that literature on parathyroidectomy over the past two decades reveals a bias towards localization. Therefore, surgical expertise is more important than the search for abnormal parathyroid glands. PMID:26340967

  11. Serum vitamin-D predicts insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Deep; Maisnam, Indira; Shrivastava, Ankit; Sinha, Anirban; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Patients with diabetes and vitamin-D insufficiency have increased insulin resistance. Similar observations among individuals with prediabetes are not well documented. The aim of this study was to find the occurrence of vitamin-D insufficiency/deficiency among individuals with prediabetes and to evaluate the relationship between vitamin-D status and insulin resistance. Methods: One hundred fifty seven individuals with prediabetes who fulfilled all the inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent clinical examination, anthropometric measurements (waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio) and blood sampling after overnight fast for estimation of fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, 25(OH)vitamin-D, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and lipid profile. One hour post 75 g glucose (1hPG) blood glucose during oral glucose tolerance test was measured. Results: Vitamin-D deficiency/insufficiency was found in 115 (73.25%) individuals with prediabetes. Severe vitamin-D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) was seen in 14.65 per cent individuals. Individuals with the lowest vitamin-D levels (<10 ng/ml) had the highest insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR: 2.04 ± 0.67). Serum 25(OH)D had a statistically significant inverse correlation with insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR; r=-0.33; P=0.008), and positive correlation with insulin sensitivity (QUICKI; r=0.39; P=0.002), after adjusting for BMI and HbA1c. There was no correlation between vitamin-D status and estimated beta cell mass (HOMA-?). The mean waist-height ratio among individuals with prediabetes was 0.57 (normal<0.5) indicating a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Individuals with elevated 1hPG>155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI and worse insulin resistance, and 1hPG correlated well with 2 hour post glucose blood glucose (r=0.57; P<0.001). Interpretations & conclusions: Vitamin-D deficiency/insufficiency may have some role in the development/worsening of insulin resistance in individuals with prediabetes in our country who have a high cardiovascular risk. Prospective studies on a large group of individuals need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:24521626

  12. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Its Related Factors in Pregnant Women in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pratumvinit, Busadee; Wongkrajang, Preechaya; Wataganara, Tuangsit; Hanyongyuth, Sithikan; Nimmannit, Akarin; Chatsiricharoenkul, Somruedee; Manonukul, Kotchamol; Reesukumal, Kanit

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few data focusing on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in tropical countries. Objectives We determined the vitamin D status in pregnant women and examined the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study of 147 pregnant Thai women aged 18–45 years at Siriraj Hospital (a university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand) was undertaken. Clinical data and plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, albumin, phosphate and magnesium were obtained in pregnant women at delivery. Results The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D [defined as 25(OH)D <75 nmol/L] in pregnant women at delivery was 75.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 67.7–82.2%). Of these, vitamin D insufficiency [defined as 25(OH)D 50–74.9 nmol/L] was found in 41.5% (95% CI, 33.4–49.9%) and vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] was found in 34.0% (95% CI, 26.4–42.3%) of women. The mean 25(OH)D concentration was 61.6±19.3 nmol/L. The correlation between 25(OH)D and iPTH was weak (r = –0.29, P<0.01). Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency by multiple logistic regression were: pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI in kg/m2, odds ratio (OR), 0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97, P = 0.01) and season of blood collection (winter vs. rainy, OR, 2.62, 95% CI 1.18–5.85, P = 0.02). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is common among pregnant Thai women. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased in women who had a lower pre-pregnancy BMI and whose blood was collected in the winter. Vitamin D supplementation may need to be implemented as routine antenatal care. PMID:26147381

  13. Vitamin D Safety and Requirements

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Francisco J.A.; Rosen, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D an ancient secosteroid is essential for mineral homeostasis, bone remodeling, immune modulation, and energy metabolism. Recently, debates have emerged about the daily vitamin D requirements for healthy and elderly adults, the safety and efficacy of long term supplementation and the role of vitamin D deficiency in several chronic disease states. Since this molecule acts as both a vitamin and a hormone, it should not be surprising that the effects of supplementation are multi-faceted and complex. Yet despite significant progress in the last decade, our understanding of vitamin D physiology and the clinical relevance of low circulating levels of this vitamin remains incomplete. The present review provides the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of vitamin D requirements and safety. It also raises some provocative research questions. PMID:22179017

  14. Parathyroid Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Parathyroid Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (espańol) ...

  15. Robotic transaxillary and retroauricular parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Bhatia, Parisha; Aslam, Rizwan; Moulthrop, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Current advancement in robotic surgery has provided a safe, precise, 3-dimensional (3D) magnified dissection for parathyroid surgery without the need for CO2 insufflation, and with a better cosmetic outcome due to an invisible scar in the axillary or retroauricular region. Preoperative imaging studies that assist in the localization of lesions have been key elements in patients’ selection for targeted parathyroid surgery. PMID:26425455

  16. Prevention of hip fractures by correcting calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Meunier, P

    1996-01-01

    For a 50-year old caucasian woman today, the risk of a hip fracture over her remaining lifetime is about 17%. Tomorrow the situation will clearly be worse because the continual increase in life expectancy will cause a 3-fold rise in worldwide fracture incidence over the next 60 years, particularly in women, but also in men. In addition, a secular increase in the incidence of hip fractures in individuals of the same age has been noted in both sexes by several investigators, and the cost of hip fractures is expected to dramatically increase in the next decades. Consequently, preventive strategies are urgently required. A great deal has been learned in recent years about the risk factors for hip fracture, the pathophysiology of this fracture, and the prediction of fracture risk, particularly through bone mass measurements on the hip and biochemical evaluations of parathyroid and vitamin D status. The two main determinants of hip fractures are falls and bone loss leading to an intrinsic femoral fragility. A substantial femoral bone loss continues throughout the old age, with a continuous and exponential increase in the risk of hip fracture, and any reduction or arrest of this loss will induce an important reduction in the incidence of hip fractures. A preventive effect on the risk of hip fracture may be partly achieved by using long term estrogen replacement therapy after menopause, but also by using vitamin D and calcium supplements for a late prevention in elderly people. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficit in calcium intake are very common in elderly people living either in institutions or at home, particularly in Europe where dairy products are not fortified with vitamin D. The cumulative response to this deficit in calcium intake and low vitamin D status is a negative calcium balance which stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion. In 300 residents of nursing homes, we recently found a significant negative correlation between serum 25 OHD and log serum PTH after age-adjustment. In addition, in 446 elderly women living at home in 5 French cities and selected from the voting lists, we also found an age-adjusted relationship between serum 25 OHD and PTH concentrations. This senile secondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the determinants of femoral bone loss and can be reversed by calcium and vitamin D supplements. We have shown in a 3-year controlled prospective study that the daily use of these supplements (1.2 g of calcium and 800 IU of vitamin D3) given in a large population of 3270 elderly ambulatory women living in nursing homes reduced of 23% (intention-to-treat analysis) the number of hip fractures and other non vertebral fractures. In parallel, serum perathyroid hormone concentration was reduced of 28% and low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration returned to normal values. After 18 months of treatment the bone density of the total proximal femoral region had increased 2.7% the vitamin D3-calcium group and decreased 4.6% in the placebo group (p < 0.001). This prevention is safe and can be recommended in people living in institutions. It could be also useful in other elderly subjects particularly at risk because of a low calcium intake, an absence of solar exposure and a previous history of falls. From the data of our study we assessed the economic consequences in terms of medical cost of this prevention. In case of treatment of all women living in nursing homes in France, this would saved FF 150000000 per year, the economic balance of prevention becoming positive as soon as the age of the beginning of the prevention reaches 73.5 years. It is now possible to partly stop bone loss in elderly people and it is never too late to prevent hip fractures with calcium and vitamin D supplements. PMID:8966494

  17. Differential expression and regulation of Klotho by paricalcitol in the kidney, parathyroid, and aorta of uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Cynthia S; Zhang, Sarah; Delmez, James; Finch, Jane L; Slatopolsky, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Klotho plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Klotho is highly expressed in the kidney and parathyroid glands, but its presence in the vasculature is debated. Renal Klotho is decreased in CKD, but the effect of uremia on Klotho in other tissues is not defined. The effect of vitamin D receptor activator therapy in CKD on the expression of Klotho in various tissues is also in debate. In uremic rats (surgical 5/6th nephrectomy model), we compared 3 months of treatment with and without paricalcitol on Klotho immunostaining in the kidney, parathyroid glands, and aorta. With uremia, Klotho was unchanged in the parathyroid, significantly decreased in the kidney (66%) and the intimal-medial area of the aorta (69%), and significantly increased in the adventitial area of the aorta (67%) compared with controls. Paricalcitol prevented the decrease of Klotho in the kidney, increased expression in the parathyroid (31%), had no effect in the aortic media, but blunted the increase of Klotho in the aortic adventitia. We propose that fibroblasts are responsible for the expression of Klotho in the adventitia. In hyperplastic human parathyroid tissue from uremic patients, Klotho was higher in oxyphil compared with chief cells. Thus, under our conditions of moderate CKD and mild-to-moderate hyperphosphatemia in rats, the differential expression of Klotho and its regulation by paricalcitol in uremia is tissue-dependent. PMID:25692955

  18. Imaging techniques in parathyroid surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Mohebati, A.; Shaha, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    As more patients present with the incidental diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism due to biochemical screening, treatment guidelines have been developed for the treatment of hyperparathyroidism. Management of primary hyperparathyroidism has evolved in recent years with considerable interest in minimally invasive approaches. Successful localization of the diseased gland(s) by nuclear imaging and anatomical studies along with rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay has allowed for focused and minimally invasive surgical approaches. Patients in whom the localization studies have identified single gland adenoma or unilateral disease are candidates for such focused approaches instead of the traditional approach of bilateral exploration. These imaging techniques have also been critical in the successful management of patients with persistent or recurrent disease. PMID:22154018

  19. Xenotransplantation of parathyroids in rats using barium-alginate and polyacrylic acid multilayer microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Gaumann, A; Laudes, M; Jacob, B; Pommersheim, R; Laue, C; Vogt, W; Schrezenmeir, J

    2001-04-01

    The integrity and function of encapsulated parathyroid tissue following xenotransplantation is limited by oxygen and nutrition supply and capsule fibrosis. Since some of these factors depend on stability and biocompatibility of the coating material, multilayer microcapsules have been developed. Parathyroid tissue pieces and digested single cells from pigs were encapsulated in barium-alginate and in polyacrylic acid (PAA) multilayer capsules. After 7 days of culture the function of the encapsulated cells were assessed. Subsequently, in a part of the cultured microcapsules the viability was directly assessed whereas the other part was transplanted in dark animal [DA] rats for 30 days. After explantation viability and fibrotic reaction were examined. Single cells showed a significant increase in parathyroid hormone [PTH] secretion when exposed to medium low in calcium, whereas minced tissue pieces revealed necrosis without stimulatory responsiveness. Morphometry showed significantly better viability of single cells compared with minced tissue in vitro and in vivo. The fibrotic reaction against capsules with minced tissue was more pronounced than for capsules containing single cells. There was no difference between barium alginate and PAA capsules when containing minced tissue. In single cells, however, the fibrous tissue reaction differed significantly between barium alginate and PAA capsules. Encapsulated single cells of parathyroid tissue maintain detectable function and viability. In contrast minced tissue underwent necrosis and induced significantly more connective tissue reaction than single cells indicating an interrelationship between necrosis and fibrosis. PMID:11370732

  20. Video assisted thoracoscopic excision of mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenomas: a UK regional experience

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ali Zamir; Rew, David; Lagattolla, Nicholas; Singh, Neeta

    2015-01-01

    Background To report the first series of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) resection of mediastinal ectopic parathyroid adenomas (MEPAs) in the UK. Methods A case series of seven cases undergoing VATS between 2004 and 2009 to treat single gland hyperparathyroidism. Methylene blue (MB) was used in 5/7 cases immediately before exploration to identify the adenomas. Carbon dioxide (CO2) up to pressures of 10 mmHg was used safely to deflate the lung in two cases. Results There were five women and two men with a mean age of 53 years (range, 27-72 years). Histopathology confirmed successful resection of the parathyroid adenoma in 6/7 cases. There was one conversion to open thoracotomy due to bleeding from the azygos vein resulting from excessive traction. Despite marked MB uptake, this patient proved to have tuberculoid adenopathy and no parathyroid tissue was identified. Postoperative plasma calcium returned to normal in 6/7 patients and parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in 6/7 patients. The median hospital stay was 2 days and there was no mortality in this series. Conclusions MEPAs can be safely resected using VATS with minimal surgical morbidity, short drainage time and short hospital stay. CO2 insufflation and the intraoperative use of MB are safe and help to accurately localise the ectopic adenoma. VATS should be considered as the first-line approach for resection of MEPAs. PMID:26693148

  1. Use of a gamma probe to identify and guide resection of recurrent parathyroid carcinoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ricardo Pedrini; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel; Vilhordo, Daniel Weiss; Hoffmann, Anselmo; Mottin, Cláudio Corá

    2011-02-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) accounts for less than 0.005% of all cancers and less than 5% of causes of hyperparathyroidism. This tumor is difficult to identify during surgery, which is detrimental to the oncologic results. Surgery is still the main treatment for the primary tumor and to control parathyroid hormone levels after recurrence. We report a case of recurrent parathyroid carcinoma in a 30-year-old man, identified and managed with the use of a gamma probe during surgery. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of a gamma probe being used to guide resection of a recurrent PC. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment, analyzing the current evidence-based literature. PMID:21264760

  2. Vitamin D metabolites and/or analogs: which D for which patient?

    PubMed

    Mazzaferro, S; Goldsmith, D; Larsson, T E; Massy, Z A; Cozzolino, M

    2014-03-01

    Numerous drugs with vitamin D activity are available for clinical use and it may not be easy for the nonspecialist to select the most suitable for the individual patient. In this paper we review the main characteristics of the available drugs and provide evidence about any potential specific clinical indications, with special emphasis on renal patients, in order to facilitate the optimal choice. Natural vitamin D products (i.e. those identical to natural metabolites) are first examined, followed by the most frequently used synthetic molecules (i.e. bioengineered molecules not-existing in nature), which are generally indicated as " analogs". Either cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol or calcifediol can be employed in subjects with normal renal function and in CKD stage 3-5 patients to correct vitamin D deficiency and improve, respectively, age- or growth-related bone disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Calcifediol can be considered more rapid and effective. In all cases, especially with increasing doses, the risk of hypercalcemia must be taken into account. Calcitriol, which can be regarded as the active hormonal form of vitamin D, has the most potent hypercalcemic effect in both normal and renal failure patients. In renal patients calcitriol is a potent inhibitor of parathyroid activity, but the risk of hypercalcemia, now regarded as harmful, is evident whenever pharmacologic doses are used. Alfacalcidol, requiring 25-hydroxylation to become the active hormonal form of vitamin D3, is prescribed in normal subjects to treat osteoporosis and in renal patients to cure hyperparathyroidism and renal bone disease. Doxercalciferol, transformed into the active hormonal form of vitamin D2 following 25-hydroxylation, is mostly studied in renal patients in whom it cures secondary hyperparathyroidism, possibly with a lower calcemic effect than calcitriol. Paricalcitol, a vitamin D2 analog not requiring activation, has been specifically developed to suppress PTH in renal patients with a limited calcemic effect. As such it is now regarded as a powerful drug useful to treat even severe cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Importantly, reno-protective and cardio-protective effects of this analog have been recently evaluated by means of randomized clinical trials in renal patients with partially positive renal effects and negative cardiac results, thus additional studies are needed for confirmation. 22-oxacalcitriol, a vitamin D3 analog with a limited calcemic effect available in Japan, is mostly used in renal patients affected by secondary hyperparathyroidism. The clinical activity of some vitamin D analogs is such that they can be employed in diseases like cancer and autoimmunity. The clinical activity of some vitamin D analogs is such that they can be employed in diseases like cancer and autoimmunity. In summary, available drugs with vitamin D like activity are not all the same either in terms of pharmacological actions, and side-effects. They have specific characteristics that may be useful to know in order to operate the best choice in the individual patient. PMID:23713876

  3. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en espańol Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin A Fact Sheet for Consumers What is vitamin A and what does it do? Vitamin A ... and dietary supplements is beta-carotene . How much vitamin A do I need? The amount of vitamin ...

  4. [Hormones and the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Czyzyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Hormones have an influence on many tissues and organs, including the cardio-vascular system (CVS). Depending on their activity on CVS, they can be divided into 4 groups: having hypertensive or hypotensive influence and chronotropic positive or negative action. Endocrine regulation in CVS may occur in many ways. Apart from hormones usually connected with CVS regulation, other more recently, discovered ones can act on it. A few of these act directly through specific receptors in heart or vessel wall cells, whereas some act indirectly - stimulating other neuroendocrine factors. Additionally, novel mechanisms of signal transduction have been discovered for steroid and thyroid hormones, which are independent of gene transcription regulation and are - known as "nongenomic". Hormones which increase blood pressure include: urotensin II, endothelins, angiotensin II, catecholamines, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and leptin. On the other hand, blood pressure can be decreased by: natriuretic peptides, the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family, angiotensin 1-7, substance P, neurokinin A, ghrelin, Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), oxytocin, and, sex hormones. Hormones which when appearing in excess increase the heart rate are: catecholamines, endothelins, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, leptin and PTHrP. Those which decrease the heart rate include: natriuretic peptides, substance P, neurokinin A, oxytocin, angiotensin 1-7. This paper describes the contemporary view of the functions of hormones which act on the vessel tree and heart. The particular effect of mediator depends on many circumstances i.e.: hormone concentration, receptor type. It may also undergo contraregulation. The majority of those hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of CVS diseases', which can result in the development of new medicines. PMID:18979453

  5. Preoperative localization of parathyroid carcinoma using Tc-99m MIBI.

    PubMed

    Kitapçi, M T; Tastekin, G; Turgut, M; Caner, B; Kars, A; Barista, I; Bekdik, C

    1993-03-01

    A patient with parathyroid cancer is presented who underwent Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy. The Tc-99m MIBI image demonstrated increased accumulation of activity at the lower pole of the left thyroid lobe which was later confirmed as a parathyroid cancer. Uptake by parathyroid cancer must be kept in mind as a cause of increased Tc-99m MIBI accumulation when a disease is in question in the thyroid or parathyroid gland. PMID:8462212

  6. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... used to reduce complications of diseases such as malaria, HIV, measles, and diarrhea in children with vitamin ... in HIV-positive children with vitamin A deficiency. Malaria. Taking vitamin A by mouth seems to decrease ...

  7. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Vitamin D KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Nutrition Basics > Vitamin ... get the recommended daily amount. Continue How Much Vitamin D Do I Need? The Institute of Medicine ( ...

  8. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to foods like cereals. Most people get enough vitamin E from the foods they eat. People with certain disorders, such as liver diseases, cystic fibrosis, and Crohn's disease may need extra vitamin E. Vitamin E supplements may be harmful for ...

  9. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the risk of infant death in areas where malnutrition or vitamin A deficiency is common. A type ... take vitamin A if you have liver disease. Malnutrition: In people with severe protein malnutrition, taking vitamin ...

  10. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of vitamin C is better than the other forms. Am I getting enough vitamin C? Most people in the United States get enough vitamin C from foods and beverages. However, certain groups of people are more likely than others to ...

  11. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en espańol Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin D Fact Sheet for Consumers Additional Resources Health ... espańol Other Resources See also: Calcium What is vitamin D and what does it do? Vitamin D ...

  12. Vitamin D status and cholecalciferol supplementation in chronic kidney disease patients: an Italian cohort report

    PubMed Central

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Vigo, Valentina; Baronti, Maria Enrica; D’Alessandro, Claudia; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Egidi, Maria Francesca

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with hypovitaminosis D, in a cohort of 405 prevalent patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 2–4, living in Italy and followed-up in tertiary care. The effect of cholecalciferol 10,000 IU once-a-week for 12 months was evaluated in a subgroup of 100 consecutive patients with hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 269 patients (66.4%) whereas vitamin D insufficiency was found in 67 patients (16.5%). In diabetic patients, 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency was detected in 80% of cases. In patients older than 65 years, the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 89%. In the univariate analysis, 25-hydroxyvitamin D was negatively related to age, parathyroid hormone (PTH), proteinuria, and Charlson index, while a positive relationship has emerged with hemoglobin level. On multiple regression analysis, only age and PTH levels were independently associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. No relationship emerged between vitamin D deficiency and renal function. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D or prevalence of hypovitaminosis D did not differ between patients on a free-choice diet and on a renal diet, including low-protein, low-phosphorus regimens. Twelve-month oral cholecalciferol administration increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and reduced PTH serum levels. In summary, hypovitaminosis D is very prevalent in CKD patients (83%) in Italy, and it is similar to other locations. PTH serum levels and age, but not renal function, are the major correlates of hypovitaminosis D. Implementation of renal diets is not associated with higher risk of vitamin D depletion. Oral cholecalciferol administration increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and mildly reduced PTH serum levels. Oral cholecalciferol supplementation should be recommended as a regular practice in CKD patients, also when serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D determination is not available or feasible. PMID:26640388

  13. Association between promoter region genetic variants of PTH SNPs and serum 25(OH)-vitamin D level

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Krishnaswamy, Soundararajan; Yakout, Sobhy M; Mohammed, Abdul Khader; Alenad, Amal M; Chrousos, George P; Alokail, Majed S

    2015-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a crucial role in calcium metabolism and skeletal development via altering vitamin D level. Besides, hypersecretion of PTH is implicated in the etiology of osteoporosis. In this study, we analyzed association between promoter region sequence variants of PTH gene and circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) level. Genotypes of PTH SNPs rs1459015, rs10500783 and rs10500784 and circulating serum 25(OH)D level of healthy adults (N=386) of different nationalities living in Riyadh were determined and relation between the different PTH allelic variants and corresponding mean 25(OH)D values were obtained using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons. We observed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/l) among all nationals which ranged from 59% among Indians to 82% among Yemeni. Comparison of the means of 25(OH)D levels corresponding to different genotypes of PTH SNPs indicated that the T allele of SNP rs1459015 was associated with higher 25(OH)D level in the Sudanese (P=0.03), while the T allele of SNP rs10500783 was associated with higher 25(OH)D level in Saudis (P=0.03). Analysis of results also indicated that the Sudanese carriers of the CC genotype of SNP rs1459015 had a higher risk of suffering from vitamin D deficiency (P=0.02). In conclusion, our study indicated significant association between specific PTH gene promoter region variants and altered levels of 25(OH)D and vitamin D deficiency among specific nationals. PMID:26339419

  14. Mineral metabolism and vitamin D in chronic kidney disease--more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, David J A; Cunningham, John

    2011-06-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of total and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The underlying pathophysiology of this association remains largely unexplained and there is currently no clear interventional pathway. Emphasis has been placed on measuring serum levels of calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) to monitor disease progression, driven by the assumption that achieving values within the 'normal' range will translate into improved outcomes. Retrospective studies have provided a body of evidence that abnormal levels of mineral biomarkers, and phosphate in particular, are associated with clinical events. Disturbances in vitamin D metabolism are also likely to contribute to the pathophysiology of CKD. Designing studies that yield useful information has proved to be difficult, partly owing to conceptual and financial limitations, but also because of the tight interdependency of calcium, phosphate and PTH, and the potential impact of vitamin D on these mineral metabolites. An intervention that perturbs any one of these factors is likely to exert effects on the others, making isolation of the individual variables almost impossible. However, some therapies in current use have the potential to act as probes to answer questions relating to the association between mineral biomarkers and outcomes in CKD. PMID:21537350

  15. Evidence that obesity does not influence the vitamin D-endocrine system in blacks.

    PubMed

    Epstein, S; Bell, N H; Shary, J; Shaw, S; Greene, A; Oexmann, M J

    1986-04-01

    As compared to nonobese white men and women, age-matched nonobese black subjects and obese white individuals show alterations in the vitamin D-endocrine system that are characterized by increases in mean serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D], and urinary cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cAMP) and by decreases in mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 OHD) and in urinary calcium. Thus, both groups show secondary hyperparathyroidism which is associated with increased renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and increased renal synthesis of 1,25-(OH)2D. In view of these findings, studies were conducted in 10 obese black subjects (3 men and 7 women) and in 12 nonobese black individuals (7 men and 5 women), ranging in age from 20 to 35 yr, to determine whether obesity influences the vitamin D-endocrine system in blacks. Body weight averaged 99 +/- 4 kg in the obese and 73 +/- 3 kg in the nonobese subjects (p less than .001). All of them were hospitalized on a metabolic ward and were given a constant daily diet containing 400 mg of calcium, 900 mg of phosphorus, 110 meq of sodium, 65 meq of potassium, and 18 meq of magnesium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3503535

  16. Double parathyroid adenomas. Clinical and biochemical characteristics before and after parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Tezelman, S; Shen, W; Shaver, J K; Siperstein, A E; Duh, Q Y; Klein, H; Clark, O H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is considerable debate about whether double parathyroid adenomas are a discrete entity or represent hyperplasia with parathyroid glands of varying sizes. This distinction is important because it impacts on the extent of parathyroid resection and the success of the parathyroid operation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Double parathyroid adenomas have been reported to occur in 1.7% to 9% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). It is important for surgeons to differentiate between double adenoma and hyperplasia with glands of varying sizes using gross examination during the initial procedure because microscopic findings of a small biopsy specimen at frozen-section examination may not be diagnostic. METHODS: From 1982 to 1992, 416 unselected patients (309 women and 107 men) with primary HPT without familial HPT or multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) were treated by one surgeon at the University of California at San Francisco. Double adenoma occurred in 49 patients, solitary adenoma in 309 patients, and hyperplasia in 58 patients. The authors analyzed the clinical manifestations, the preoperative and postoperative serum levels of calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and the success rate and outcome after parathyroidectomy and compared their results in 49 patients with double adenomas to the results for patients with solitary adenomas or hyperplasia. RESULTS: Ten of the patients with double adenomas (20.4%) were referred for persistent HPT after removal of one abnormal parathyroid gland. The ages of the patients with double adenoma, single adenoma, and hyperplasia were 61 +/- 14, 56 +/- 15, and 58 +/- 7 years, respectively. Fatigue, muscle weakness, and bone pain were common in patients with double adenomas, whereas nephrolithiasis occurred more frequently in patients with solitary adenoma (p = 0.0001). Serum calcium and PTH levels (per cent of upper limit of normal) fell from 11.5 +/- 1.2 mg/dL and 487% to 9.5 +/- 0.8 mg/dL and 61% for patients with double adenomas; from 11.9 +/- 0.9 mg/dL and 378% to 9.3 +/- 1.4 mg/dL and 101% for patients with single adenoma; and from 10.9 +/- 0.5 mg/dL and 418% to 9.1 +/- 0.7 mg/dL and 94% for patients with hyperplasia, respectively. There was no recurrence in the patients with double adenomas with a mean follow-up time of 5.8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Double adenomas are a discrete entity and occur more often in older patients. Patients with double adenomas can be successfully treated by removal of the two abnormal glands. Images Figure 1. PMID:8103983

  17. Dioxin-induced up-regulation of the active form of vitamin D is the main cause for its inhibitory action on osteoblast activities, leading to developmental bone toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Noriko Nishimura, Hisao; Ito, Tomohiro; Miyata, Chie; Izumi, Keiko; Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Matsumura, Fumio

    2009-05-01

    Dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD) is known to cause bone toxicity, particularly during animal development, although its action mechanism to cause this toxicity has yet to be elucidated. Mouse pups were exposed to TCDD via dam's milk that were administered orally with 15 {mu}g TCDD/kg b.w. on postnatal day 1. Here we report that TCDD causes up-regulation of vitamin D 1{alpha}-hydroxylase in kidney, resulting in a 2-fold increase in the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}, in serum. This action of TCDD is not caused by changes in parathyroid hormone, a decrease in vitamin D degrading enzyme, vitamin D 24-hydroxylase, or alterations in serum Ca{sup 2+} concentration. Vitamin D is known to affect bone mineralization. Our data clearly show that TCDD-exposed mice exhibit a marked decrease in osteocalcin and collagen type 1 as well as alkaline phosphatase gene expression in tibia by postnatal day 21, which is accompanied with a mineralization defect in the tibia, lowered activity of osteoblastic bone formation, and an increase in fibroblastic growth factor-23, a sign of increased vitamin D effect. Despite these significant effects of TCDD on osteoblast activities, none of the markers of osteoclast activities was found to be affected. Histomorphometry confirmed that osteoblastic activity, but not bone resorption activity, was altered by TCDD. A prominent lesion commonly observed in these TCDD-treated mice was impaired bone mineralization that is characterized by an increased volume and thickness of osteoids lining both the endosteum of the cortical bone and trabeculae. Together, these data suggest that the impaired mineralization resulting from reduction of the osteoblastic activity, which is caused by TCDD-induced up-regulation of vitamin D, is responsible for its bone developmental toxicity.

  18. The effects of vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation on glycaemic control and related metabolic parameters in people at risk of type 2 diabetes: protocol of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing. Effective strategies to address this public health challenge are currently lacking. A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations between low concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and the incidence of diabetes, but a causal link has not been established. We investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the metabolic status of individuals at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods/design In a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial individuals identified as having a high risk of type 2 diabetes (non-diabetic hyperglycaemia or positive diabetes risk score) are randomised into one of three groups and given 4 doses of either placebo, or 100,000 IU Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) or 100,000 IU Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) at monthly intervals. The primary outcome measure is the change in glycated haemoglobin level between baseline and 4 months. Secondary outcome measures include blood pressure, lipid levels, apolipoproteins, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and safety of supplementation. and C-reactive protein. The trial is being conducted at two sites (London and Cambridge, U.K.) and a total of 342 participants are being recruited. Discussion Trial data examining whether supplementation of vitamin D improves glycaemic status and other metabolic parameters in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes are sparse. This trial will evaluate the causal role of vitamin D in hyperglycaemia and risk of type 2 diabetes. Specific features of this trial include recruitment of participants from different ethnic groups, investigation of the relative effectiveness and safety of vitamin D2 and D3 and an evidence based approach to determination of the dose of supplementation. Trial registration EudraCT2009-011264-11; ISRCTN86515510 PMID:24152375

  19. Vitamin Chart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin problems. Oral acne medicines are vitamin A supplements, and a continued excess of vitamin A can build up in the body, causing headaches, skin changes, or even liver damage. Vitamin C (also called ascorbic acid) Vitamin C is needed to form collagen, a tissue that helps to hold cells together. ...

  20. B Vitamins

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get B vitamins from proteins such as fish, poultry, meat, eggs, and dairy products. Leafy green vegetables, beans, and peas also have B vitamins. Many cereals and some breads have added B vitamins. Not getting enough of certain B vitamins can cause diseases. A lack of B12 or B6 can cause ...

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

  2. A Dermatologist's Perspective on Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Vanchinathan, Veena; Lim, Henry W.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone that is crucial for human health and has recently generated controversy regarding its role in human health and disease. In this Special Article, we discuss our dermatologic perspective on vitamin D in a question-and-answer format. We discuss methods of obtaining vitamin D, including cutaneous photobiosynthesis, diet, and supplements and include the recent US Institute of Medicine recommendations. Other reviewed topics include the associations among skin pigmentation, climate, photoprotection, and vitamin D levels. We also elaborate on the popular interest in sun exposure as a method of normalizing vitamin D levels in the context of the risks of solar and artificial radiation. We also discuss groups at risk for vitamin D inadequacy, the need for testing serum vitamin D levels, and the role of phototherapy in patients with malabsorption conditions and hypervitaminosis D, with a focus on patients with sarcoidosis. Finally, we summarize our recommendations on vitamin D. PMID:22425213

  3. Technical Factors Involved in Parathyroid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dumitras, M; Strambu, V; Radu, P A; Iorga, C; Bengulescu, I; Popa, F

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the frequency of ectopic and supernumerary parathyroid glands in our series of renal hyperparathyroidism. From October 2011 to November 2014, 202 patients with chronic renal failure and advanced SHPT nonresponsive to medical therapy were hospitalized in the General Surgery Department of the Carol Davila Nephrology Hospital. These patients underwent a number of 188 (93%) total parathyroidectomies and a number of 14 patients (7%) subtotal parathyroidectomies. Of these 202 patients, reoperation was carried out for 14 patients (7%) in which we identified ectopic and supernumerary parathyroid glands. Operative details and pathology results were prospectively collected and reviewed after we obtained informed consent for data and pictures use. In 188 patients (93% cases), four or more parathyroid glands were removed at the first operation. In 14 cases (7%) high PTH level persisted after the initial operation. In 22 of them (11%), supernumerary glands were found at the first operation and in 6 of them (3%) at the second operation. We conclude that extensive cervical exploration in addition with preoperative imaging tests, parathyroid ultrasound; scintigraphy with Tc will reduce secondary hyperparathyroidism surgery. PMID:26531785

  4. Parathyroid allotransplantation in rabbits without cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ismail; Aysan, Erhan; Yucesan, Emrah; Sayitoglu, Muge; Ozbek, Ugur; Ercivan, Merve; Atasoy, Hakan; Buyukpinarbasili, Nur; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Permanent hypoparathyroidism is a serious clinical situation. Allotransplantation of the parathyroid cells is relatively new approach to treatment. Non-cultivated allotransplantation in rabbits is not tried before. In this research parathyroidectomy was performed in six female New Zealand white rabbits. After division of surgically removed tissues into two, cryopreservation after cell isolation was done. Non-cultivated cross allotransplantation was performed under immunosuppression. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were observed 15 days and histopathological analyses of the transplanted parathyroid tissues were studied. Significant changes in serum calcium and phosphorus levels during the experiment were observed (p=0.001 for both). Calcium levels which were significantly dropped to 6.66±0.7 mg/dL after parathyroidectomy and progressively increased up to 15.98±1.25 mg/dL at the end of the experiment (p=0.004). Phosphorus levels which were increased to 9.38±0.63 mg/dL after parathyroidectomy and stabilized to 4.46±1.06 mg/dL at the end of the experiment (p=0.007). All allotransplanted parathyroid tissues showed normal tissue architecture without evidence of cellular rejection. In conclusion allotransplantation of the parathyroid tissues without cultivation may be considered as an alternative and safe approach for the treatment of permanent hypoparathyroidism. PMID:24482717

  5. Mineral and bone disorders in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease patients: new insights into vitamin D receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Bover, Jordi; Cozzolino, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Progressive loss of kidney function leads to reduced production of calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D; active vitamin D) and an imbalance in serum calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels, which are associated with progression of renal failure as well as increased rates of cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality. In addition, multifactorial hypocalcemia and resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) can lead to prolonged and excessive synthesis and secretion of PTH, eventually leading to development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. These changes associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), extending beyond bone and related biochemical abnormalities, have prompted the development of the term CKD–mineral and bone disorder to describe its systemic nature. Excessive P loading, among other factors, will promote vascular calcification (VC), and PTH production will affect bone remodeling. Although administration of calcitriol increases serum Ca levels and decreases PTH, it is also associated with elevated Ca × P product. Therefore, compounds that selectively activate vitamin D receptors (VDR activators), potentially reducing Ca–P toxicity and distinctly affecting pathogenic mechanisms of VC, might enhance CV and renal protection, increase the vitamin D therapeutic window, and thus provide a significant clinical benefit. Moreover, selective VDR activators have been associated with improvement in survival, at least among dialysis patients. Thus, selective VDR activators should be considered a novel and interesting approach to enhance the standard of care in CKD patients. PMID:25018911

  6. Clinical, biochemical, and histological studies of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and parathyroid function in chronic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Long, R G; Meinhard, E; Skinner, R K; Varghese, Z; Wills, M R; Sherlock, S

    1978-01-01

    Twenty of 32 patients with either chronic cholestatic or hepatocellular liver disease had bone pain or recent fractures. On bone biopsy five patients had normal bone, 15 had osteomalacia, five had osteoporosis, and seven had a combination of osteomalacia and osteoporosis. In the presence of osteoporosis, osteomalacia was minimal or absent. There was no biochemical, radiological, or histological evidence of excess parathyroid activity. No significant correlations were demonstrated between the plasma and urinary biochemical findings and the presence of either osteoporosis or osteomalacia and bone biopsy was essential for correct diagnosis. There was no statistical relationship between low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D values and the presence of osteomalacia. Bone disease was not prevented by regular intramuscular vitamin D2, although biochemical changes were improved. Drugs such as corticosteroids and cholestyramine may be important aetiological factors in hepatic osteodystrophy. PMID:305386

  7. A phase I study of the vitamin D analogue EB 1089 in patients with advanced breast and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Gulliford, T.; English, J.; Colston, K. W.; Menday, P.; Moller, S.; Coombes, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that the vitamin D analogue EB 1089 has significantly less calcaemic activity than its parent compound 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) and significant anti-tumour activity. This phase I trial was designed to evaluate the calcaemic effect of the drug in patients with advanced cancer. EB 1089 was given to 36 patients with advanced breast and colorectal cancer in doses of between 0.15 and 17.0 microg m(-2) day(-1). Serial serum and urine calcium, urine creatinine and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) were monitored. Hypercalcaemia was seen in all patients receiving 17.0 microg m(-2) day(-1). Hypercalcaemia attributable to EB 1089 was reversible by discontinuing or reducing EB 1089 therapy. During the first 5 days of treatment, urine calcium (P = 0.0001) and serum-corrected calcium (P = 0.027) were related to EB 1089 dose, whereas serum parathyroid hormone (P = 0.0001) showed an inverse relationship. Twenty-one patients received compassionate treatment for between 10 and 234 days. No complete or partial responses were seen. Six patients on treatment for more than 90 days showed stabilization of disease. EB 1089 was well tolerated and adverse events considered to be caused by EB 1089 were limited to dose-dependent effects on calcium metabolism. The dose estimated to be tolerable for most patients from this study is around 7 microg m(-2) day(1). These data support previous work that has demonstrated EB 1089 to be significantly less calcaemic than 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. PMID:9662243

  8. Physical performance and life quality in postmenopausal women supplemented with vitamin D: a two-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li-hong; Zhu, Wen-jun; Liu, Yu-juan; Gu, Jie-mei; Zhang, Zhen-lin; Wang, Ou; Xing, Xiao-ping; Xu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone turnover marker levels, muscle strength and quality of life in postmenopausal Chinese women. Methods: A total of 485 healthy postmenopausal Chinese women (63.44±5.04 years) were enrolled in this open-label, 2-year, prospective, community-based trial. The participants were divided into group A, B, C, which were treated with calcium (600 mg/d) alone, calcium (600 mg/d) and cholecalciferol (800 IU/d) or calcium (600 mg/d) and calcitriol (0.25 ?g/d), respectively, for 2 years. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, ?-CTX and P1NP were measured, and the muscle strength and quality of life were assessed at baseline and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Results: Four hundred and sixty one participants completed this study. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were significantly increased in group C, but not changed in groups A and B at 24-month follow-up. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone, bone turnover marker ?-CTX and bone formation marker P1NP were significantly decreased in group C, while serum levels of ?-CTX were increased in group A at 24-month follow-up. The participants in group C maintained the grip strength, while those in groups A and B exhibited decreased grip strength at 24-month follow-up. The quality of life for the participants in groups B and C remained consistent, but that in group A was deteriorated at 24-month follow-up. Conclusion: Supplementation with calcitriol and calcium modifies the bone turnover marker levels, and maintains muscle strength and quality of life in postmenopausal Chinese women, whereas supplementation with cholecalciferol and calcium prevents aging-mediated deterioration in quality of life. PMID:26279157

  9. Thalamic calcication in vitamin D receptor knockout mice

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Thalamic calci˘cation in vitamin D receptor knockout mice Allan Kalueˇa , Elena Losevaa , Hannu (TAYS, Finland) and the Academy of Finland. Received 3 February 2006; accepted15 February 2006 Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with many important functions in the brain, mediated through the nuclear vitamin D

  10. Preoperative predictive factors for parathyroid carcinoma in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Choi, Hyung Jin; Lee, Yenna; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Young Joo; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Do Jun; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, Sang Wan

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to review the clinical characteristics of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) and to evaluate potential preoperative predictive factors for PC in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). We performed a retrospective review of electronic medical records of 194 patients with pathologically confirmed PHPT in affiliated teaching hospitals of Seoul National University from January 2000 to March 2011. Adenoma was diagnosed in 171 patients, hyperplasia in 12, and carcinoma in 11. Several biochemical measurements were higher in patients with PC than in patients with benign disease, including serum total calcium (P < 0.001), intact parathyroid hormone (P = 0.003), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P < 0.001). Tumors were larger in PC than in benign disease (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that serum ALP level (P < 0.001) and tumor size were associated with PC (P = 0.03). Tumor size and serum ALP level were evaluated as preoperative predictive factors for PC using ROC analyses: a tumor size of 3.0 cm (sensitivity 90.9%, specificity 92.1%) and serum ALP level of 285 IU/L (83.3%, 97.0%) had predictive value for the diagnosis of PC in patients with PHPT. In conclusion, elevated serum ALP and a large parathyroid mass at the time of diagnosis can be helpful to predict PC in patients with PHPT. PMID:22876055

  11. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Growth Hormone Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: GH; Human Growth Hormone; HGH; Somatotropin; Growth Hormone Stimulation Test; Growth Hormone ...

  12. Parathyroid imaging with thallium-201, activity in parathyroid and other tissue removed surgically

    SciTech Connect

    Gimlette, T.M.D.

    1985-05-01

    Parathyroid imaging by the T1-201 thallous chloride and Tc-99m pertechnetate subtraction technique is moderately successful, but its sensitivity is limited by the difficulty in correctly localizing small parathyroid lesions, particularly those of less than 0.5 g. In a series of 35 patients operated upon for primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism, only one parathyroid lesion out of ten less than 0.5 g was correctly localized, while twenty-nine out of thirty-five over 0.5 g were correctly localized. In order to quantify further the limitations of the test, percentage uptake of Tl-201 in parathyroid lesions has been estimated. Doses of 3.7 MBq (100 ..mu..Ci) T1-201 were injected intravenously in 7 patients when the thyroid was exposed at operation before dissection or compromise of the blood supply occurred. Subsequently weighed and histologically confirmed samples of parathyroid, thyroid and skeletal muscle were counted against a standard in a well counter. Samples had been removed at times from 5 to 180 minutes after the injection of T1-201. Parathyroid activity varied from 0.011-0.033%/g (mean 0.018%/g), thyroid from 0.004-0.014%/g (mean 0.009%/g) and skeletal muscle from 0.001-0.004%/g. Activity in the tissues sampled tended to decrease with time after injection. The findings suggest that a parathyroid uptake of some 0.01% of the imaging dose (74 MBq, 2 mCi) defines approximately the lower limit for correct localization by current methods using T1-201.

  13. Study of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Sarhan, Iman I; Halawa, Mohamed R; Afify, Essam N; Hebah, Hayam A; Al-Gohary, Eman A; El-Shazly, Islam O

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D is claimed to have an adjuvant effect on glycemic control by dual action on pancreatic ?-cells and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effect of short-term alfacalcidol supply on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Twenty type 2 diabetic HD patients (using diet and oral drugs but not insulin) were randomly selected from our dialysis unit as well as 20 non-diabetic HD patients as control. A third group of 12 healthy subjects were studied as well. All three groups were similar in age, sex, and body mass index. Oral alfacalcidol therapy was administrated daily as recommended by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines for 12 weeks guided by monthly serum phosphorus and Cax PO4 product. Corrected total calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D), and glucoparameters (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c%], insulin resistance by homeostatic model assessment, and ?-cell function by HOMA-?%) were measured under basal conditions and after 3 months of therapy. 25(OH)D was non-significantly lower in diabetic than non-diabetic HD patients, but significantly lower than healthy subjects at the start of the study. However, vitamin D level increased significantly after 3 months of trial, although the levels did not reach normal values. This vitamin D rise was associated with highly significant improvement in concentrations of fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin, HbA1c%, and HOMA-?-cell function in diabetic and non-diabetic controls. However, there was a significant rise in insulin resistance after treatment. The percentage of change was evident more in diabetics regarding FBS and 25(OH)D concentration. Adjustment of 25(OH)D level in type 2 diabetic prevalent HD patients may improve, at least with short-term therapy, glycemic control mainly through improving ?-cell function. PMID:26448381

  14. Alteration of vitamin D metabolic enzyme expression and calcium transporter abundance in kidney involved in type 1 diabetes-induced bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Papasian, C. J.; Deng, H.-W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study aimed to delineate the mechanism involved in type 1 diabetes-induced bone loss. The results revealed the alteration of vitamin D metabolic enzyme expression and the downregulation of renal calcium transporter abundance in type 1 diabetic mice. Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of the expression of vitamin D metabolic enzymes and transcellular calcium-transporting proteins in kidneys from mice with experimentally induced diabetes. Methods Male DBA/2J mice were injected with either vehicle (control) or streptozotocin (STZ) daily for five consecutive days. Bone mineral density was measured by peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, and bone histomorphology was analyzed by Safranin O staining. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were applied to determine the expression of target genes and proteins. Results Type 1 diabetes produced high urinary calcium excretion and loss of trabecular bone measured at the proximal metaphysis of the tibia and the distal femur. Bone loss was associated with deterioration of trabecular bone microstructure. Quantified PCR results showed that mRNA expression level in the kidney of diabetic mice for 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase was downregulated at week 10, while those for 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1?-hydroxylase were upregulated at week 20. In addition, mRNA expression levels for renal transient receptor potential V6, plasma membrane Ca-ATPase (PMCA)1b, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes were decreased in STZ-treated mice. Western blot analysis showed that protein expression of PMCA1b and VDR was significantly decreased in kidneys from STZ-treated mice compared to that of controls. Conclusions The limitation in this study is the lack of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and phosphorus levels in serum. However, the present study supports the conclusion that the underlying mechanism contributing to type 1 diabetes-associated bone loss may be alterations of vitamin D metabolic enzyme expression and associated decreases in expression of renal calcium transporters. PMID:20878391

  15. Association between vitamin D insufficiency and tuberculosis in a vietnamese population

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent in vitro evidence suggests a link between vitamin D status and the risk of tuberculosis (TB). This study sought to examine the association between vitamin D status, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the risk of TB in a Vietnamese population. Methods The study was designed as a matched case-control study, which involved 166 TB patients (113 men and 53 women), who were age-and-sex matched with 219 controls (113 men and 106 women). The average age of men and women was 49 and 50, respectively. TB was diagnosed by the presence of acid-fast bacilli on smears from sputum, and the isolation of M. tuberculosis. All patients were hospitalized for treatment in a TB specialist hospital. Controls were randomly drawn from the general community within the Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and PTH was measured prior to treatment by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) on a Roche Elecsys. A serum level of 25(OH)D below 30 ng/mL was deemed to be vitamin D insufficient. Results The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 35.4% in men with TB and 19.5% in controls (P = 0.01). In women, there were no significant differences in serum 25(OH)D and serum PTH levels between TB patients and controls. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in women with TB (45.3%) was not significantly different from those without TB (47.6%; P = 0.91). However, in both genders, serum calcium levels in TB patients were significantly lower than in non-TB individuals. Smoking (odds ratio [OR] 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10 - 14.7), reduced 25(OH)D (OR per standard deviation [SD]: 1.14; 95% CI 1.07 - 10.7) and increased PTH (OR per SD 1.13; 95% CI 1.05 - 10.4) were independently associated with increased risk of TB in men. Conclusion These results suggest that vitamin D insufficiency was a risk factor for tuberculosis in men, but not in women. However, it remains to be established whether the association is a causal relationship. PMID:20973965

  16. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hydroxyvitamin D. Blood levels are described either as nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or nanomoles per liter ( ... Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamins reflects how much of each vitamin most people should get on ...

  17. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disorder called beta-thalessemia and vitamin E deficiency. Bladder cancer. Taking 200 IU of vitamin E by mouth ... 10 years seems to help prevent death from bladder cancer. Leakage of chemotherapy drug into surrounding tissue. Applying ...

  18. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin K helps your body by making proteins for healthy bones and tissues. It also makes proteins for blood clotting. If you don't have enough vitamin K, you may bleed too much. Newborns have very ...

  19. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin C is an antioxidant. It is important for your skin, bones, and connective tissue. It promotes healing and helps the body absorb iron. Vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables. Good sources include ...

  20. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and to treat bleeding caused by medications including salicylates, sulfonamides, quinine, quinidine, or antibiotics. Vitamin K is ... 4-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Naphthol, Fat-Soluble Vitamin, Menadiol Acetate, ... Sodium Bisulfite, Menaquinone, Ménaquinone, Menatetrenone, Menatétrenone, ...

  1. Vitamin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegg, Ronald B.; Landen, W. O.; Eitenmiller, Ronald R.

    Vitamins are defined as relatively low-molecular-weight compounds which humans, and for that matter, any living organism that depends on organic matter as a source of nutrients, require small quantities for normal metabolism. With few exceptions, humans cannot synthesize most vitamins and therefore need to obtain them from food and supplements. Insufficient levels of vitamins result in deficiency diseases [e.g., scurvy and pellagra, which are due to the lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and niacin, respectively].

  2. Comparison of Five Parathyroid Scintigraphic Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Tunninen, Virpi; Varjo, Pekka; Schildt, Jukka; Ahonen, Aapo; Kauppinen, Tomi; Lisinen, Irina; Holm, Anu; Eskola, Hannu; Seppänen, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared five parathyroid scintigraphy protocols in patients with primary (pHPT) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) and studied the interobserver agreement. The dual-tracer method (99mTc-sestamibi/123I) was used with three acquisition techniques (parallel-hole planar, pinhole planar, and SPECT/CT). The single-tracer method (99mTc-sestamibi) was used with two acquisition techniques (double-phase parallel-hole planar, and SPECT/CT). Thus five protocols were used, resulting in five sets of images. Materials and Methods. Image sets of 51 patients were retrospectively graded by four experienced nuclear medicine physicians. The final study group consisted of 24 patients (21 pHPT, 3 sHPT) who had been operated upon. Surgical and histopathologic findings were used as the standard of comparison. Results. Thirty abnormal parathyroid glands were found in 24 patients. The sensitivities of the dual-tracer method (76.7–80.0%) were similar (P = 1.0). The sensitivities of the single-tracer method (13.3–31.6%) were similar (P = 0.625). All differences in sensitivity between these two methods were statistically significant (P < 0.012). The interobserver agreement was good. Conclusion. This study indicates that any dual-tracer protocol with 99mTc-sestamibi and 123I is superior for enlarged parathyroid gland localization when compared with single-tracer protocols using 99mTc-sestamibi alone. The parathyroid scintigraphy was found to be independent of the reporter. PMID:23431436

  3. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K, a fat-soluble vitamin, is an enzyme cofactor for post-translation modification of specific glutamate residues that are converted into '-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues by a vitamin K-dependent (VKD) carboxylase. Seven VKD coagulation proteins are synthesized in the liver. The extra-he...

  4. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin A plays a role in your Vision Bone growth Reproduction Cell functions Immune system Vitamin A is an antioxidant. It can come from plant ... Animal sources include liver and whole milk. Vitamin A is also added to foods like cereals. Vegetarians, ...

  5. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one of the main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis or rickets. Vitamin D also has a role in your nerve, ...

  6. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eating a variety of foods including the following: Vegetable oils like wheat germ, sunflower, and safflower oils are ... best sources of vitamin E. Corn and soybean oils also provide some vitamin E. Nuts ... vegetables, such as spinach and broccoli, provide some vitamin ...

  7. Short-term effects of high-dose oral vitamin D3 in critically ill vitamin D deficient patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D deficiency is encountered frequently in critically ill patients and might be harmful. Current nutrition guidelines recommend very low vitamin D doses. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single oral high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in an intensive care setting over a one-week observation period. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in a medical ICU at a tertiary care university center in Graz, Austria. Twenty-five patients (mean age 62 ± 16yrs) with vitamin D deficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ?20 ng/ml] and an expected stay in the ICU >48 hours were included and randomly received either 540,000 IU (corresponding to 13.5 mg) of cholecalciferol (VITD) dissolved in 45 ml herbal oil or matched placebo (PBO) orally or via feeding tube. Results The mean serum 25(OH)D increase in the intervention group was 25 ng/ml (range 1-47 ng/ml). The highest 25(OH)D level reached was 64 ng/ml, while two patients showed a small (7 ng/ml) or no response (1 ng/ml). Hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria did not occur in any patient. From day 0 to day 7, total serum calcium levels increased by 0.10 (PBO) and 0.15 mmol/L (VITD; P < 0.05 for both), while ionized calcium levels increased by 0.11 (PBO) and 0.05 mmol/L (VITD; P < 0.05 for both). Parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 19 and 28 pg/ml (PBO and VITD, ns) over the seven days, while 1,25(OH)D showed a transient significant increase in the VITD group only. Conclusions This pilot study shows that a single oral ultra-high dose of cholecalciferol corrects vitamin D deficiency within 2 days in most patients without causing adverse effects like hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria. Further research is needed to confirm our results and establish whether vitamin D supplementation can affect the clinical outcome of vitamin D deficient critically ill patients. EudraCT Number 2009-012080-34 German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00000750 PMID:21443793

  8. The medico-legal aspects of prescribing vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Davies, John S; Poole, Chris D; Feldschreiber, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is a particularly important sterol hormone and its effects beyond bone are increasingly recognized. Over the last decade clinical interest has grown in vitamin D, with increased recognition of deficiency and hence increased prescribing of vitamin D products. However, the increased prescription of vitamin D has generally been met with unlicensed vitamin D products which potentially expose the patient to clinical risk. This review discusses the issues relating to the clinical use of unlicensed vitamin D products, safety concerns that may arise from this, as well as discussing the medico-legal responsibilities of the prescriber and dispenser. PMID:25047693

  9. Mouse and Human BAC Transgenes Recapitulate Tissue-Specific Expression of the Vitamin D Receptor in Mice and Rescue the VDR-Null Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong Min; Bishop, Kathleen A.; Goellner, Joseph J.; O'Brien, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    The biological actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed in numerous target tissues in a cell type-selective manner. Recent studies using genomic analyses and recombineered bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) have defined the specific features of mouse and human VDR gene loci in vitro. In the current study, we introduced recombineered mouse and human VDR BACs as transgenes into mice and explored their expression capabilities in vivo. Individual transgenic mouse strains selectively expressed BAC-derived mouse or human VDR proteins in appropriate vitamin D target tissues, thereby recapitulating the tissue-specific expression of endogenous mouse VDR. The mouse VDR transgene was also regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 and dibutyryl-cAMP. When crossed into a VDR-null mouse background, both transgenes restored wild-type basal as well as 1,25(OH)2D3-inducible gene expression patterns in the appropriate tissues. This maneuver resulted in the complete rescue of the aberrant phenotype noted in the VDR-null mouse, including systemic features associated with altered calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and disrupted production of parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23, and abnormalities associated with the skeleton, kidney, parathyroid gland, and the skin. This study suggests that both mouse and human VDR transgenes are capable of recapitulating basal and regulated expression of the VDR in the appropriate mouse tissues and restore 1,25(OH)2D3 function. These results provide a baseline for further dissection of mechanisms integral to mouse and human VDR gene expression and offer the potential to explore the consequence of selective mutations in VDR proteins in vivo. PMID:24693968

  10. Potential role for carbon nanoparticles identification and preservation in situ of parathyroid glands during total thyroidectomy and central compartment node dissection

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jialei; Wang, Jiafeng; Nie, Xilin; Wang, Wendong; Shang, Jinbiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the potential role of intraoperative carbon nanoparticles (CN) injections for identification and preservation of parathyroid glands, thereby reducing the postoperative hypocalcaemia. Methods: 100 patients with thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy and central compartment node dissection (CCND) were randomly assigned to receive intraoperative injection of (CN) or not for identifying and preserving normal parathyroid glands. Results: There was no significantly difference for preoperative and postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels between the CN and control group (P>0.05). The levels of albumin-adjusted serum calcium (AASC) before surgery and at day 1 and 1 month after surgery did not reach the significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). However, the patients in CN group had the higher level of AASC at day 3 after surgery than those in control group (P=0.044). Transient postoperative hypoparathyroidism occurred in 24 (48%) patients in CN group and 28 (56%) in control groups, respectively (P=0.423). The incidence of transient postoperative hypocalcemia was 20% (10/50) in CN group and 24% (12/50) in control groups, respectively (P=0.629). Conclusions: Carbon nanoparticles can make the thyroid gland and the central lymph node black-stained, but no-stained for parathyroid glands. After rapidly identifying parathyroid and distinguishing it from thyroid and lymph nodes by carbon nanoparticles, complete lymph node dissection and preservation of parathyroid glands become feasible during total thyroidectomy with neck lymph node dissection. After identification, strict adherence to capsular dissection remains essential for safe preservation in situ of the parathyroid glands and their blood supply. PMID:26309638

  11. Physiology of Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism: 1980 Refresher Course, Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Franklyn G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This syllabus reviews information concerning calcium and phosphate regulation. Topics of interest include the following: calcium metabolism, phosphorus metabolism, bone, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D. (CS)

  12. Calcium-phosphate and parathyroid intradialytic profiles: A potential aid for tailoring the dialysate calcium content of patients on different hemodialysis schedules.

    PubMed

    Ferraresi, Martina; Pia, Anna; Guzzo, Gabriella; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Mongilardi, Elena; Nazha, Marta; Aroasio, Emiliano; Gonella, Cinzia; Avagnina, Paolo; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Severe hyperparathyroidism is a challenge on hemodialysis. The definition of dialysate calcium (Ca) is a pending issue with renewed importance in cases of individualized dialysis schedules and of portable home dialysis machines with low-flow dialysate. Direct measurement of calcium mass transfer is complex and is imprecisely reflected by differences in start-to-end of dialysis Ca levels. The study was performed in a dialysis unit dedicated to home hemodialysis and to critical patients with wide use of daily and tailored schedules. The Ca-phosphate (P)-parathyroid hormone (PTH) profile includes creatinine, urea, total and ionized Ca, albumin, sodium, potassium, P, PTH levels at start, mid, and end of dialysis. "Severe" secondary hyperparathyroidism was defined as PTH?>?300?pg/mL for ?3 months. Four schedules were tested: conventional dialysis (polysulfone dialyzer 1.8-2.1?m(2) ), with dialysate Ca 1.5 or 1.75?mmol/L, NxStage (Ca 1.5?mmol/L), and NxStage plus intradialytic Ca infusion. Dosages of vitamin D, calcium, phosphate binders, and Ca mimetic agents were adjusted monthly. Eighty Ca-P-PTH profiles were collected in 12 patients. Serum phosphate was efficiently reduced by all techniques. No differences in start-to-end PTH and Ca levels on dialysis were observed in patients with PTH levels?

  13. Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Spitz, Jörg; Reichrath, Jörg; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease. The recent data on vitamin D from experimental, ecological, case-control, retrospective and prospective observational studies, as well as smaller intervention studies, are significant and confirm the sunshine vitamin’s essential role in a variety of physiological and preventative functions. The results of these studies justify the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations. In general, closer attention should therefore be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. PMID:24516687

  14. Effect of Vitamin D, Calcium and Multiple Micronutrients Supplementation on Lipid Profile in Pre-menopausal Bangladeshi Garment Factory Workers with Hypovitaminosis D

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ahmed, Abu; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Kärkkäinen, Merja; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in sera are both well-known risk factors of coronary heart disease. Adequate vitamin D status is important for optimal function of many organs and tissues of our body. There is continuing controversy about the effect of adequate vitamin D consumption on serum lipids and lipoproteins. The present study assessed the effect of vitamin D, calcium and multiple micronutrients supplementation on the lipid profile in Bangladeshi young female garment factory workers who have hypovitaminosis D. This placebo-controlled intervention trial conducted over a period of one year randomly assigned a total of 200 apparently healthy subjects aged 16-36 years to 4 groups. The subjects received daily supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D (VD group) or 400 IU of vitamin D+600 mg of calcium lactate (VD-Ca group), or multiple micronutrients with 400 IU of vitamin-D+600 mg of calcium lactate (MMN-VD-Ca group), or the group consuming placebo (PL group). Serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured at baseline and after one year of follow-up. No significant changes in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were observed in the supplemented groups compared to the placebo group. Supplementation had a positive effect (p<0.05) on very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG). A negative correlation between changes in serum iPTH and HDL-C was observed, which indicated that subjects with the greatest decline in S-iPTH had the greatest increase in HDL-C. The results suggest that consumption of adequate vitamin D with calcium or MMN for one-year may have no impact on serum lipid profile in the subjects studied. Longer-term clinical trials with different doses of supplemental vitamin D are warranted in evaluating the effect of intervention. PMID:25895202

  15. Mexico City normal weight children exposed to high concentrations of ambient PM2.5 show high blood leptin and endothelin-1, vitamin D deficiency, and food reward hormone dysregulation versus low pollution controls. Relevance for obesity and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueńas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Blaurock-Busch, Eleonore; Busch, Yvette; Chao, Chih-kai; Thompson, Charles; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George

    2015-07-01

    Millions of Mexico, US and across the world children are overweight and obese. Exposure to fossil-fuel combustion sources increases the risk for obesity and diabetes, while long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mexico City Metropolitan Area children are chronically exposed to PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above the standards and exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We investigated adipokines, food reward hormones, endothelial dysfunction, vitamin D and apolipoprotein E (APOE) relationships in 80 healthy, normal weight 11.1±3.2 year olds matched by age, gender, BMI and SES, low (n: 26) versus high (n:54) PM2.5 exposures. Mexico City children had higher leptin and endothelin-1 (p<0.01 and p<0.000), and decreases in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP 1), ghrelin, and glucagon (<0.02) versus controls. BMI and leptin relationships were significantly different in low versus high PM2.5 exposed children. Mexico City APOE 4 versus 3 children had higher glucose (p=0.009). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<30 ng/mL was documented in 87% of Mexico City children. Leptin is strongly positively associated to PM 2.5 cumulative exposures. Residing in a high PM2.5 and O3 environment is associated with 12h fasting hyperleptinemia, altered appetite-regulating peptides, vitamin D deficiency, and increases in ET-1 in clinically healthy children. These changes could signal the future trajectory of urban children towards the development of insulin resistance, obesity, type II diabetes, premature cardiovascular disease, addiction-like behavior, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Increased efforts should be made to decrease pediatric PM2.5 exposures, to deliver health interventions prior to the development of obesity and to identify and mitigate environmental factors influencing obesity and Alzheimer disease. PMID:26037109

  16. Vitamin D binding protein genotype is associated with plasma 25OHD concentration in West African children

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, V.S.; Jones, K.S.; Schoenmakers, I.; Silver, M.; Prentice, A.; Hennig, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is well known for its role in promoting skeletal health. Vitamin D status is determined conventionally by circulating 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration. There is evidence indicating that circulating 25OHD concentration is affected by variation in Gc, the gene encoding the vitamin D binding protein (DBP). The composite genotype of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs7041 and rs4588) results in different DBP isotypes (Gc1f, Gc1s and Gc2). The protein configurational differences among DBP isotypes affect DBP substrate binding affinity. The aims of this study were to determine 1) Gc variant frequencies in a population from an isolated rural region of The Gambia, West Africa (n = 3129) with year-round opportunity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis and 2) the effects of Gc variants on 25OHD concentration (n = 237) in a genetically representative sub-group of children (mean (SD) age: 11.9 (4.8) years). The distribution of Gc variants was Gc1f: 0.86, Gc1s: 0.11 and Gc2: 0.03. The mean (SD) concentration of 25OHD was 59.6 (12.9) nmol/L and was significantly higher in those homozygous for Gc1f compared to other Gc variants (60.7 (13.1) vs. 56.6 (12.1) nmol/L, P = 0.03). Plasma 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D concentration was significantly associated with parathyroid hormone in Gc1f-1f but not in the other Gc variants combined. This study demonstrates that different Gc variants are associated with different 25OHD concentrations in a rural Gambian population. Gc1f-1f, thought to have the highest affinity for 25OHD, had the highest 25OHD concentration compared with lower affinity Gc variants. The considerable difference in Gc1f frequency observed in Gambians compared with other non-West African populations and associated differences in plasma 25OHD concentration, may have implications for the way in which vitamin D status should be interpreted across different ancestral groups. PMID:25652210

  17. Hormone therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    HRT; Estrogen replacement therapy; ERT; Hormone replacement therapy ... vaginal dryness and pain with intercourse. The hormone estrogen protects against thinning of the bones ( osteoporosis ). However, ...

  18. [Vitamin C].

    PubMed

    Fain, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin which is mainly fresh fruits and vegetables foodborne. Vitamin C deficiency is most often due to a lack of daily amount. Scurvy is characterized by the occurrence of fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia, purpura, bleeding disorders, and later by dental manifestations. Biological signs are nonspecific: anemia, hypocholesterolemia, hypoalbuminemia. Clinical suspicion is confirmed by the decrease in ascorbic acid level (< 2 mg/L). It must be interpreted in light of the acute phase reactants. The treatment is the administration of 1 g of vitamin C per day for 15 days. Vitamin C depletion (ascorbic acid: 2 to 5 mg/L) could induce long-term complications. The recommended dietary allowance of vitamin C protect from these risks. PMID:24298827

  19. The changing face of parathyroid surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes some of the earlier experiences of parathyroid disease in Birmingham. It goes on to describe the experience of the disease in patients with and without renal failure treated by one surgeon over the past decade. It should be read in conjunction with a previous publication in the Annals (3). A careful neck exploration by a surgeon experienced in parathyroidectomy gives a high (92.3%) cure of all comers with primary hyperparathyroidism. The majority of failures are cases with familial disease. The surgical treatment of secondary hyperparathroidism in renal failure is more controversial. The author's preference for total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation is explained. PMID:6703632

  20. Calculated free and bioavailable vitamin D metabolite concentrations in vitamin D-deficient hip fracture patients after supplementation with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol.

    PubMed

    Glendenning, Paul; Chew, Gerard T; Inderjeeth, Charles A; Taranto, Mario; Fraser, William D

    2013-10-01

    We previously showed that oral cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol have comparable effects in decreasing circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH), despite a greater increase in total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration with cholecalciferol supplementation. However, the effects of cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol on total serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), free 25OHD and free 1,25(OH)2D concentrations have not been previously studied. We randomized 95 hip fracture patients (aged 83±8 years) with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD <50 nmol/L) to oral supplementation with either cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day (n=47) or ergocalciferol 1000 IU/day (n=48) for three months. All were given matching placebos of the alternative treatment to maintain blinding. We measured serum 25OHD (high-pressure liquid chromatography), 1,25(OH)2D (Diasorin radioimmunoassay), DBP (immunonephelometry), ionized calcium (Bayer 800 ion-selective electrode) and albumin (bromocresol green) concentrations before and after treatment. We calculated free and bioavailable concentrations of the vitamin D metabolites using albumin and DBP, and calculated free vitamin D metabolite indices as the ratios between the molar concentrations of the vitamin D metabolites and DBP. Seventy participants (74%) completed the study with paired samples for analysis. Total serum 1,25(OH)2D did not change significantly with either treatment (p>0.05, post-treatment vs baseline). Both treatments were associated with comparable increases in DBP (cholecalciferol: +18%, ergocalciferol: +16%, p=0.32 between groups), albumin (cholecalciferol: +31%, ergocalciferol: +21%, p=0.29 between groups) and calculated free 25OHD (cholecalciferol: +46%, ergocalciferol: +36%, p=0.08), with comparable decreases in free 1,25(OH)2D (cholecalciferol: -17%, ergocalciferol: -19%, p=0.32 between groups). In the treatment-adherent subgroup the increase in ionized calcium was marginally greater with cholecalciferol compared with ergocalciferol (cholecalciferol: +8%, ergocalciferol: +5%, p=0.03 between groups). There were no significant differences between the treatments in their effects on the calculated bioavailable concentrations or free indices of the vitamin D metabolites (p>0.05 between groups). In vitamin D-deficient hip fracture patients, oral supplementation with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol had no effect on total serum 1,25(OH)2D, and comparable effects on DBP and free vitamin D metabolite concentrations. This is despite cholecalciferol having greater effects than ergocalciferol in increasing total 25OHD, and in increasing ionized calcium in treatment-adherent subjects. These findings may explain why cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol supplementation result in similar magnitudes of PTH reduction, but implicate potential differences in other vitamin D metabolites, such as 24,25(OH)2D, that could explain their different effects on ionized calcium. PMID:23792937

  1. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Iruzubieta, Paula; Terán, Álvaro; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis, but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known, but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases. Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease. Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required. PMID:25544877

  2. Applications of Anabolic Vitamin D Analogs as Countermeasures to Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karin, Norman J.

    1998-01-01

    The experiments in Round 2 were designed to extend the results of our efforts in Round 1 which led us to hypothesize that the seco-steroid, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3[1,25(OH)2D3], acts in synergy with parathyroid hormone (PTH) to regulate bone calcium homeostasis. Our work centered on one particular target of 1,25(OH)2D3 action, the voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC's), which are activated acutely by this steroid within milliseconds of exposure . A second area of research focused on the effects of mechanical strain on VSCC expression in bone. These experiments were performed in collaboration with Dr. Steven Goldstein (Univ. Michigan), who generously provided RNA extracted from dog bones that had been exposed to mechanical strain in vivo. Our results suggest that mechanical loading elevated VSCC expression in the long bones from 3 of the 6 animals tested. A second line of experimentation, carried out in collaboration with Dr. Randall Duncan, a NASA-funded investigator in Indianapolis, centered on RT-PCR analysis of effects of mechanical strain on Ca2(+) channel expression in cultured bone cells. Compared to unstrained controls, the expression of vitamin-D-sensidve Ca2(+) channels is elevated 3- to 5-fold over a 24 hr period.

  3. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

    MedlinePLUS

    Vitamin C is a vitamin. Some animals can make their own vitamin C, but people must get this vitamin from food and other sources. Good sources of vitamin C are fresh fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits. ...

  4. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hyperhomocysteinemia). Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, along with folic acid and sometimes pyridoxine (vitamin B6), can lower blood ... that taking vitamin B12 with other vitamins, including folic acid and vitamin B6, might help prevent an eye ...

  5. Impact of a cholesterol membrane transporter's inhibition on vitamin D absorption: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mariana Costa; Faulhauber, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira; Leite, Érica Neves; Goulart, Kamila Ramborger; Ramirez, Jorge Mario Ahumada; Cocolichio, Fernanda Mariani; Furlanetto, Tania Weber

    2015-12-01

    Oral supplements are important to prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency. Despite the growing number of prescriptions, vitamin D's absorptive mechanisms are not clearly elucidated. By evaluating the effect of ezetimibe on vitamin D absorption, we aim to determine if the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 transporter contributes to it. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.govNCT02234544) was developed in a South Brazilian University Hospital. Fifty-one medical students were randomized to ezetimibe 10mg/day or placebo for 5days. On the fifth and 19th days, blood samples for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and albumin were collected. After the first blood sample collection, all participants received a single oral 50,000IU cholecalciferol dose during a 15g-fat meal. Serum 25OHD levels were measured by the immunoassay Diasorin Liaison®. Measurements were compared in a general linear model adjusted for multiple comparisons by the Bonferroni test. Before cholecalciferol administration, 25OHD was <30ng/mL and <20ng/mL, respectively, in all and in 82.3% of the participants. Fourteen days after a single 50,000IU oral dose of cholecalciferol, mean (SD) changes in serum 25OHD were similar in both groups, after adjustment to BMI and 25OHD levels before cholecalciferol administration (p=0.26): 8.7 (3.7) ng/mL in the ezetimibe group, versus 10.0 (3.8) ng/mL in the placebo group. Mean serum 25OHD, PTH, calcium and albumin levels remained similar in both groups. We conclude that ezetimibe had no effect on the mean change in serum 25OHD after a single oral dose of cholecalciferol, in these healthy and young adults. PMID:26208795

  6. Cervical SPECT Camera for Parathyroid Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    Primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands has become one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world affecting about 1 per 1000 in the United States. Standard treatment is highly invasive exploratory neck surgery called ���¢��������Parathyroidectomy���¢�������. The surgery has a notable mortality rate because of the close proximity to vital structures. The move to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is hampered by the lack of high resolution pre-surgical imaging techniques that can accurately localize the parathyroid with respect to surrounding structures. We propose to develop a dedicated ultra-high resolution (~ 1 mm) and high sensitivity (10x conventional camera) cervical scintigraphic imaging device. It will be based on a multiple pinhole-camera SPECT system comprising a novel solid state CZT detector that offers the required performance. The overall system will be configured to fit around the neck and comfortably image a patient.

  7. Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paras, Constantine; Keller, Matthew; White, Lisa; Phay, John; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2011-06-01

    A major challenge in endocrine surgery is the intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands during both thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies. Current localization techniques such as ultrasound and sestamibi scan are mostly preoperative and rely on an abnormal parathyroid for its detection. In this paper, we present near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence as a nonintrusive, real-time, automated in vivo method for the detection of the parathyroid gland. A pilot in vivo study was conducted to assess the ability of NIR fluorescence to identify parathyroid glands during thyroid and parathyroidectomies. Fluorescence measurements at 785 nm excitation were obtained intra-operatively from the different tissues exposed in the neck region in 21 patients undergoing endocrine surgery. The fluorescence intensity of the parathyroid gland was found to be consistently greater than that of the thyroid and all other tissues in the neck of all patients. In particular, parathyroid fluorescence was two to eleven times higher than that of the thyroid tissues with peak fluorescence occurring at 820 to 830 nm. These results indicate that NIR fluorescence has the potential to be an excellent optical tool to locate parathyroid tissue during surgery.

  8. Vitamin K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K was identified in the early 1930’s when it was shown to be essential for normal blood coagulation. Phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) found in green plants is the major source of the vitamin. Large amounts of menaquinones with lengthy side chains are also synthesized in...

  9. Vitamin C

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... food sources of vitamin C: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  10. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... food sources of vitamin E: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  11. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... food sources of vitamin A: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  12. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food guidance system, ChooseMyPlate . Where can I find ... food sources of vitamin D: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for vitamin ...

  13. Vitamin D - roles in women's reproductive health?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years a growing interest in vitamin D can be observed in the lay and biomedical literature due to findings demonstrating a low vitamin D status in the population. In addition to its importance for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis recent epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low vitamin D levels and multiple disease states. This secosteroid hormone also regulates the expression of a large number of genes in reproductive tissues implicating a role for vitamin D in female reproduction. In this report we summarize the recent evidence that vitamin D status influences female reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Human and animal data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Evidence from observational studies shows higher rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis and gestational diabetes in women with low vitamin D levels. However, confirmation of experimental observations establishing an association of vitamin D deficiency with adverse reproductive outcomes by high quality observational and large-scale randomized clinical trials is still lacking. The determination of optimal 25(OH)D3 levels in the reproductive period and the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve those levels for the numerous actions of vitamin D throughout a woman's life would have important public health implications. PMID:22047005

  14. Sports Health Benefits of Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Shuler, Franklin D.; Wingate, Matthew K.; Moore, G. Hunter; Giangarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D is a potent secosteroid hormone that provides many skeletal and extraskeletal health benefits. Musculoskeletal injury prevention and recovery are potentially affected by sufficient circulating levels of the storage form of vitamin D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, or 25(OH)D. Vitamin D deficiency can exist among young, active, and healthy people, which may put them at increased risk for injury and prolonged recovery. Evidence Aquisition: PubMed was searched using vitamin D and skeletal muscle, vitamin D and athletic performance, and vitamin D review articles. Studies from the 1930s to 2012 were used for the review. Results: There is strong correlation between vitamin D sufficiency and optimal muscle function. Increasing levels of vitamin D reduce inflammation, pain, and myopathy while increasing muscle protein synthesis, ATP concentration, strength, jump height, jump velocity, jump power, exercise capacity, and physical performance. 25(OH)D levels above 40 ng/mL are required for fracture prevention, including stress fractures. Optimal musculoskeletal benefits occur at 25(OH)D levels above the current definition of sufficiency (> 30 ng/mL) with no reported sports health benefits above 50 ng/mL. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in athletes. For athletes presenting with stress fractures, musculoskeletal pain, and frequent illness, one should have a heightened awareness of the additional likely diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. Correction of this deficiency is completed by standardized and supervised oral supplementation protocols producing significant musculoskeletal sports health benefits. PMID:24179588

  15. Genetic influences on bone density: Physiological correlates of vitamin D receptor gene alleles in premonopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, G.; Nguyen, T.; Morrison, N.

    1995-09-01

    Common vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene alleles have recently been shown to contribute to the genetic variability in bone mass and bone turnover; however, the physiological mechanisms involved are unknown. To examine this, the response to 7 days of 2 {mu}g oral 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25-(OH){sub 2}D] (calcitrol) stimulation was assessed in 21 premenopausal women, homozygous for one or other of the common VDR alleles (bb, N = 11; BB, n = 10). Indices of bone turnover and calcium homeostasis were measured during 2 weeks. Baseline osteocalcin, 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D, type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide, and inorganic phosphate levels were significantly higher and spinal bone mineral density was significantly lower in the BB allelic group. After calcitrol administration, similar levels of 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D were attained throughout the study in both genotypic groups. The increase in serum osteocalcin levels in the BB group was significantly less than that in the bb group (11% vs. 32%, P = 0.01). The genotype-related baseline difference in osteocalcin levels was not apparent at the similar serum 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D levels. By contrast, the baseline differences in phosphate and type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide persisted throughout the study. Serum ionized calcium levels did not differ between genotypes, nor did it move out of normal range values. However, parathyroid hormone was less suppressed in the low bone density group (38% vs. 11%, P = 0.01). These data indicate that the VDR alleles are associated with differences in the vitamin D endocrine system and may have important implications in relation to the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Active Vitamin D and Accelerated Progression of Aortic Stiffness in Hemodialysis Patients: A Longitudinal Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Catherine; Mac-Way, Fabrice; De Serres, Sacha A.; Marquis, Karine; Douville, Pierre; Desmeules, Simon; Larivičre, Richard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND We hypothesized that high-dose active vitamin D therapy in the form of alphacalcidol (?-calcidol), used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease, could lead to vascular calcification and accelerated progression of aortic stiffness. METHODS We conducted an observational study in 85 patients on chronic hemodialysis, among which 70 were taking a weekly dose of ?-calcidol of <2 µg and 15 were taking a weekly dose of ?2 µg (pharmacological dose). Parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23, and ?-klotho were determined. Aortic stiffness was assessed by determination of carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 1.2 years. A multivariable regression model was used to evaluate the impact of pharmacological dose of ?-calcidol on the progression of aortic stiffness. RESULTS At baseline, clinical, biological, and hemodynamic parameters were similar. At follow-up, cf-PWV increased more in patients with pharmacological dose of ?-calcidol (0.583±2.291 m/s vs. 1.948±1.475 m/s; P = 0.04). After adjustment for changes in mean blood pressure and duration of follow-up, pharmacological dose of ?-calcidol was associated with a higher rate of progression of cf-PWV (0.969 m/s; 95% confidence interval = 0.111–1.827; P = 0.03), and this association persisted after further adjustments for parameters of mineral metabolism. CONCLUSIONS In this study, pharmacological dose of ?-calcidol was associated with accelerated progression of aortic stiffness. This study suggest that the vascular safety of active vitamin D posology may need to be specifically addressed in the treatment of chronic kidney disease–related bone mineral disorder. PMID:24695980

  17. Absorption, dosage, and effect on mineral homeostasis of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in premature infants: comparison with 400 and 800 IU vitamin D2 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hillman, L S; Hollis, B; Salmons, S; Martin, L; Slatopolsky, E; McAlister, W; Haddad, J

    1985-06-01

    Because the efficiency of vitamin D absorption or hepatic uptake and 25-hydroxylation appears decreased in very premature infants, the routine use of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) supplementation has been suggested. Absorption studies of a 3 micrograms/kg orally administered dose of 25-OHD3 showed peak serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and -vitamin D3 (25-OHD) concentrations at 4 to 8 hours similar in timing but of lesser magnitude to those seen in adults. Administration of 1 microgram/kg birth weight/day of 25-OHD3 corrected moderately low, but not very low serum (25-OHD) concentrations, and 2 micrograms/kg BW/day resulted in rapid and sustained increase in serum 25-OHD. Administration of 800 IU ergocalciferol (D2) also produced significantly higher serum 25-OHD concentrations than those in infants given 400 IU vitamin D2, but increases in serum 25-OHD were more gradual than in infants given 25-OHD3. In treatment trials with infants weighing less than 1500 gm, those given 800 IU D2, compared with those given 400 IU D2, had higher serum calcium concentrations and less frequent moderate or severe hypomineralization. Infants given 2 micrograms/kg BW 25-OHD3 had a significant increase in serum phosphorus values, but a decrease in serum calcium and magnesium concentrations, and parathyroid hormone also was suppressed to low normal values. The frequency of moderate to severe hypomineralization remained the same as in infants given 400 IU D2. In a subgroup of infants, serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was elevated over adult values, both in infants given 25-OHD3 (68.5 +/- 8.4 pg/ml) and in infants given vitamin D2 (60 +/- 6.7 pg/ml). Serum vitamin D concentrations were undetectable in four of six infants receiving 25-OHD3, but were elevated (5 to 31 ng/ml) in four infants receiving vitamin D2. Although 800 to 1000 IU D2 can be recommended as routine vitamin D supplementation in very premature infants fed standard formula, the use of 25-OHD3 requires further study. PMID:3889260

  18. A phase I/II dose-escalation trial of vitamin D3 and calcium in multiple sclerosis(e–Pub ahead of print)(LOE Classification)

    PubMed Central

    Burton, J.M.; Kimball, S.; Vieth, R.; Bar-Or, A.; Dosch, H.-M.; Cheung, R.; Gagne, D.; D'Souza, C.; Ursell, M.; O'Connor, P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Low vitamin D status has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence and risk, but the therapeutic potential of vitamin D in established MS has not been explored. Our aim was to assess the tolerability of high-dose oral vitamin D and its impact on biochemical, immunologic, and clinical outcomes in patients with MS prospectively. Methods: An open-label randomized prospective controlled 52-week trial matched patients with MS for demographic and disease characteristics, with randomization to treatment or control groups. Treatment patients received escalating vitamin D doses up to 40,000 IU/day over 28 weeks to raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] rapidly and assess tolerability, followed by 10,000 IU/day (12 weeks), and further downtitrated to 0 IU/day. Calcium (1,200 mg/day) was given throughout the trial. Primary endpoints were mean change in serum calcium at each vitamin D dose and a comparison of serum calcium between groups. Secondary endpoints included 25(OH)D and other biochemical measures, immunologic biomarkers, relapse events, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. Results: Forty-nine patients (25 treatment, 24 control) were enrolled [mean age 40.5 years, EDSS 1.34, and 25(OH)D 78 nmol/L]. All calcium-related measures within and between groups were normal. Despite a mean peak 25(OH)D of 413nmol/L, no significant adverse events occurred. Although there may have been confounding variables in clinical outcomes, treatment group patients appeared to have fewer relapse events and a persistent reduction in T-cell proliferation compared to controls. Conclusions: High-dose vitamin D (?10,000 IU/day) in multiple sclerosis is safe, with evidence of immunomodulatory effects. Classification of evidence: This trial provides Class II evidence that high-dose vitamin D use for 52 weeks in patients with multiple sclerosis does not significantly increase serum calcium levels when compared to patients not on high-dose supplementation. The trial, however, lacked statistical precision and the design requirements to adequately assess changes in clinical disease measures (relapses and Expanded Disability Status Scale scores), providing only Class level IV evidence for these outcomes. GLOSSARY ALP = alkaline phosphatase; ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; EAE = experimental autoimmune encephalitis; EDSS = Expanded Disability Status Scale; IL = interleukin; LS = least squares; MMP-9 = matrix metalloproteinase-9; MS = multiple sclerosis; PTH = parathyroid hormone; TCS = T-cell score; TIMP-1 = tissue inhibitory of metalloproteinase-1; TNF? = tumor necrosis factor–?. PMID:20427749

  19. Vitamin D Status and Bone and Connective Tissue Turnover in Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) during Hibernation and the Active State

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Peter; Střen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E.; Mosekilde, Leif; Heickendorff, Lene; Fröbert, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background Extended physical inactivity causes disuse osteoporosis in humans. In contrast, brown bears (Ursus arctos) are highly immobilised for half of the year during hibernation without signs of bone loss and therefore may serve as a model for prevention of osteoporosis. Aim To study 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) levels and bone turnover markers in brown bears during the hibernating state in winter and during the active state in summer. We measured vitamin D subtypes (D2 and D3), calcitropic hormones (parathyroid hormone [PTH], 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]) and bone turnover parameters (osteocalcin, ICTP, CTX-I), PTH, serum calcium and PIIINP. Material and Methods We drew blood from seven immobilised wild brown bears during hibernation in February and in the same bears while active in June. Results Serum 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (25OHD3) was significantly higher in the summer than in the winter (22.8±4.6 vs. 8.8±2.1 nmol/l, two tailed p - 2p?=?0.02), whereas 25-hydroxy-ergocalciferol (25OHD2) was higher in winter (54.2±8.3 vs. 18.7±1.7 nmol/l, 2p<0.01). Total serum calcium and PTH levels did not differ between winter and summer. Activated 1,25(OH)2D demonstrated a statistically insignificant trend towards higher summer levels. Osteocalcin levels were higher in summer than winter, whereas other markers of bone turnover (ICTP and CTX-I) were unchanged. Serum PIIINP, which is a marker of connective tissue and to some degree muscle turnover, was significantly higher during summer than during winter. Conclusions Dramatic changes were documented in the vitamin D3/D2 ratio and in markers of bone and connective tissue turnover in brown bears between hibernation and the active state. Because hibernating brown bears do not develop disuse osteoporosis, despite extensive physical inactivity we suggest that they may serve as a model for the prevention of this disease. PMID:21731765

  20. VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND ELEVATED PTH LEVELS IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS IN HOUSTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased parathyroid hormone levels (PTH) have been reported in adolescents with low 25-hydroxyvitamins D status (25D). As part of a study evaluating longitudinal changes in calcium (Ca) metabolism, we gave Ca-fortified orange juice (Ca-OJ, Minute Maid) once daily with breakfast to 88 adolescents (...

  1. Skeletal and hormonal effects of magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rude, Robert K; Singer, Frederick R; Gruber, Helen E

    2009-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is the second most abundant intracellular cation where it plays an important role in enzyme function and trans-membrane ion transport. Mg deficiency has been associated with a number of clinical disorders including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is common problem accounting for 2 million fractures per year in the United States at a cost of over $17 billion dollars. The average dietary Mg intake in women is 68% of the RDA, indicating that a large proportion of our population has substantial dietary Mg deficits. The objective of this paper is to review the evidence for Mg deficiency-induced osteoporosis and potential reasons why this occurs, including a cumulative review of work in our laboratories and well as a review of other published studies linking Mg deficiency to osteoporosis. Epidemiological studies have linked dietary Mg deficiency to osteoporosis. As diets deficient in Mg are also deficient in other nutrients that may affect bone, studies have been carried out with select dietary Mg depletion in animal models. Severe Mg deficiency in the rat (Mg at <0.0002% of total diet; normal = 0.05%) causes impaired bone growth, osteopenia and skeletal fragility. This degree of Mg deficiency probably does not commonly exist in the human population. We have therefore induced dietary Mg deprivation in the rat at 10%, 25% and 50% of recommended nutrient requirement. We observed bone loss, decrease in osteoblasts, and an increase in osteoclasts by histomorphometry. Such reduced Mg intake levels are present in our population. We also investigated potential mechanisms for bone loss in Mg deficiency. Studies in humans and and our rat model demonstrated low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D levels, which may contribute to reduced bone formation. It is known that cytokines can increase osteoclastic bone resorption. Mg deficiency in the rat and/or mouse results in increased skeletal substance P, which in turn stimulates production of cytokines. With the use of immunohistocytochemistry, we found that Mg deficiency resulted in an increase in substance P, TNFalpha and IL1beta. Additional studies assessing the relative presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), found a decrease in OPG and an increase in RANKL favoring an increase in bone resorption. These data support the notion at dietary Mg intake at levels not uncommon in humans may perturb bone and mineral metabolism and be a risk factor for osteoporosis. PMID:19828898

  2. Voice change following thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Meek, Pauline; Carding, P N; Howard, D H; Lennard, T W J

    2008-11-01

    Voice complications following thyroid and parathyroid procedures have long been recognized in the literature. However, there is little clear data on the nature, severity, and duration of any changes. No single previous study has comprehensively addressed the multiple issues involved. Most studies have been retrospective, preventing control over extraneous variables, or are small prospective studies using limited assessment measures. Emphasis has been on damage (paralysis) to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). The effects of surgery on the more subtle (but equally important) aspects of voice disorders have received little attention. This prospective study of 67 participants used multidimensional voice outcomes measures to assess changes in voice following thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Strict exclusion criteria minimized the effects of extraneous variables. Participants were assessed preoperatively to establish a baseline and at least twice more postoperatively. Generally speaking, the patient vocal performance and expert perceptual rating data suggest an incidence of 0% for all operation types. Mild changes at the early postoperative stages had settled in all cases by the 3-month postoperative assessment. Videostroboscopic evaluation revealed an interesting picture of six patients who appeared to have improved vocal function postsurgery, 15 patients who showed signs of neurological damage at their first postoperative examination, and only five "permanent" RLN paralyses at 12 months postsurgery. The potential for improvement in voice quality postsurgery has not previously been reported in the literature as far as we are aware. Symptoms consistent with RLN and superior laryngeal nerve palsy were present both pre- and postoperatively. Apparent nerve damage did not necessarily result in dysphonia. The potential for undiagnosed nerve damage preoperatively has rarely been reported in the literature. These results may have medico-legal implications, in addition to influencing surgical risk management and informed patient consent. PMID:17574811

  3. Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma presenting as acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih-Wei; Lin, Shan-Zu; Sun, Chih-Hao; Chen, Chun-Chia; Yang, An-Hang; Chang, Full-Young; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2013-02-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of hyperparathyroidism, accounting for fewer than 1% of cases. The incidence of acute pancreatitis in patients with hyperparathyroidism was reported to be only 1.5%. We report a very rare case of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma presenting as acute pancreatitis. A 72-year-old man presented with acute pancreatitis and hypercalcemia. During the work-up for hypercalcemia, a mediastinal parathyroid tumor was identified by (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The tumor was completely removed via a lower cervical collar incision. The histopathology revealed parathyroid carcinoma. There was no tumor recurrence or abdominal symptoms at 3-year follow-up. PMID:23351422

  4. Demographic, dietary, and biochemical determinants of vitamin D status in inner-city children1234

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Thomas O; Herreros, Francisca; Zhang, Jane H; Ellis, Bruce K; Simpson, Christine; Torrealba-Fox, Esther; Kim, Grace J; Savoye, Mary; Held, Nancy A; Cole, David EC

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reports of clinical rickets are particularly evident in minority infants and children, but only limited analyses of vitamin D are available in this demographic group. Objective: We sought to characterize circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and their determinants, including circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH), total alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), calcium, and phosphorus, in minority infants and children. Design: We obtained demographic information and blood samples for measurement of PTH, ALP, 25(OH)D, and 1,25(OH)2D in >750 6-mo- to 3-y-old children. Dietary intake data were obtained and analyzed. Results: The mean (±SD) 25(OH)D concentration was 66 ± 22 nmol/L (26.3 ± 8.7 ng/dL). A total of 15% of children had 25(OH)D concentrations less than the recommended target threshold of 50 nmol/L. Combined elevations of PTH and ALP occurred in only 2.5% of children. Determinants of 25(OH)D included vitamin D intake, age (decreasing with age), skin type (greater concentrations in lighter-skinned children than in darker-skinned children), formula use (higher intakes), season (greater concentrations in the summer and fall than in the winter and spring), and, inversely, PTH. The mean 1,25(OH)2D concentration was 158 ± 58 pmol/L (60.6 ± 22.5 pg/mL), which was consistent with a reference range of 41–274 pmol/L or 15.7–105.5 pg/mL. Determinants for 1,25(OH)2D were age (decreasing with age), sex (greater concentrations in girls than in boys), skin type (greater concentrations in lighter-skinned children than in darker-skinned children), and, inversely, serum calcium and phosphorus. Conclusions: Although 15% of subjects were vitamin D insufficient, only 2.5% of subjects had elevations of both PTH and ALP. The greater 25(OH)D concentrations observed with formula use confirm that dietary vitamin D fortification is effective in this demographic group. Circulating 1,25(OH)2D is higher in infants than in older children and adults and, in contrast to 25(OH)D, is not directly correlated with nutrient intakes. PMID:22170368

  5. Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in blacks.

    PubMed

    Bell, N H; Greene, A; Epstein, S; Oexmann, M J; Shaw, S; Shary, J

    1985-08-01

    As compared with values in white subjects, bone mass is known to be increased and urinary calcium to be diminished in black individuals. To evaluate the possibility that these changes are associated with alterations in the vitamin D-endocrine system, an investigation was performed in 12 black subjects, 7 men and 5 women, and 14 white subjects, 8 men and 6 women, ranging in age from 20 to 35 yr. All of them were hospitalized on a metabolic ward and were given a constant daily diet containing 400 mg of calcium, 900 mg of phosphorus, and 110 meq of sodium. Whereas mean serum calcium, ionized calcium, and phosphate were the same in the two groups, mean serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (350 +/- 34 vs. 225 +/- 26 pg/ml, P less than 0.01) and mean serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) (41 +/- 3 vs. 29 +/- 2 pg/ml, P less than 0.01) were significantly higher, and mean serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD) was significantly lower in the blacks than in the whites (6 +/- 1 vs. 20 +/- 2 ng/ml, P less than 0.001). Mean urinary sodium and 24-h creatinine clearance were the same in the two groups, whereas mean urinary calcium was significantly lower (101 +/- 14 vs. 166 +/- 13 mg/d, P less than 0.01) and mean urinary cyclic AMP was significantly higher (3.11 +/- 0.47 vs. 1.84 +/- 0.25 nM/dl glomerular filtrate, P less than 0.01) in the blacks. Further, the blacks excreted an intravenous calcium load, 15 mg/kg body weight, as efficiently as the whites (49 +/- 3 vs. 53 +/- 3%, NS). Mean serum Gla protein was lower in blacks than in whites (14 +/- 2 vs. 24 +/- 3 ng/ml, P less than 0.02), and increased significantly in both groups in response to 1,25(OH)2D3, 4 micrograms/d for 4 d. There was a blunted response of urinary calcium to 1,25(OH)2D3 in the blacks, and mean serum calcium did not change. The results indicate that alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system with enhanced renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and increased circulating 1,25(OH)2D as a result of secondary hyperparathyroidism may contribute to the increased bone mass in blacks. Their low serum 25-OHD is attributed to diminished synthesis of vitamin D in the skin because of increased pigment. PMID:3839801

  6. High-Dose Vitamin D and Calcium Attenuates Bone Loss with Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Overton, Edgar Turner; Chan, Ellen S.; Brown, Todd T.; Tebas, Pablo; McComsey, Grace A.; Melbourne, Kathleen M.; Napoli, Andrew; Hardin, William Royce; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Yin, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for HIV-1 infection is associated with 2-6% loss in bone mineral density (BMD). Objective To evaluate vitamin D3 (4000 IU daily) plus calcium (1000 mg calcium carbonate daily) supplementation on bone loss associated with ART initiation. Design 48-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Setting Thirty nine AIDS Clinical Trials Network research units. Participants ART-naďve HIV-infected adults. Measurements BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphate metabolism, markers of bone turnover and systemic inflammation. Results 165 eligible subjects were randomized (79 Vitamin D/calcium (VitD/Cal); 86 placebo); 142 subjects with evaluable DXA data were included in the primary analysis. The study arms were well-balanced at baseline: median age 33 years; 90% male; 33% non-Hispanic black; median CD4 count 341 cells/mm3; and median 25(OH)D 23 ng/mL (57 nmol/L). At 48 weeks, subjects receiving placebo had greater decline in total hip BMD than VitD/Cal: ?3.19% median change (1st-3rd quartile (Q1, Q3) ?5.12%, ?1.02%) vs. (?1.46% ?3.16%,?0.40%). respectively (p=0.001). Lumbar spine BMD loss for the two groups was similar: ?2.91% (?4.84%, ?1.06%) vs. ?1.41% (?3.78%, 0.00%), (p=0.085). At week 48, 90% of participants achieved HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL. Levels of 25(OH)D3 increased in the VitD/Cal but not the placebo group: median change of 24.5 (14.6, 37.8) vs. 0.7 (?5.3, 4.3) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). Additionally, increases in markers of bone turnover were blunted in the VitD/Cal group. Limitations No international sites were included; only 48 weeks of follow up Conclusion Vitamin D/calcium supplementation mitigates the loss of BMD seen with initiation of efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir, particularly at the total hip, which is the site of greatest concern for fragility fracture. Primary Funding Source National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bristol-Meyers Squibb, Gilead Sciences. PMID:26075752

  7. Behavioural anomalies in mice evoked by ``Tokyo'' disruption of the Vitamin D receptor gene

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Behavioural anomalies in mice evoked by ``Tokyo'' disruption of the Vitamin D receptor gene Allan V December 2005 Available online 19 January 2006 Abstract Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with many important functions in the brain, mediated through the nuclear Vitamin D receptor (VDR). Mounting clinical data link

  8. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also known as retinol because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye. Vitamin A ... some fortified foods. Carotenoids are dark-colored dyes (pigments) found in plant foods that can turn into ...

  9. Vitamin D

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is also used for diabetes, obesity, muscle weakness, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, ... loss in women with a condition called hyperparathyroidism. Multiple sclerosis (MS). Research shows that taking vitamin D can ...

  10. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vitamin E is found in the following foods: Vegetable oils (such as wheat germ, sunflower, safflower, corn, and soybean oils) Nuts (such as almonds, peanuts, and hazelnuts/filberts) ... (such as spinach and broccoli) Fortified breakfast cereals, ...

  11. Vitamin E

    MedlinePLUS

    ... death in people with liver disease. An inherited muscle disorder called myotonic dystrophy. Taking vitamin E and selenium ... does not slow the progression of an inherited muscle disorder called myotonic dystrophy. Mouth sores (oral musosal lesions). ...

  12. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... amount each day. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: When taken in the recommended amount each day, vitamin K is considered safe for pregnant and breast-feeding women. Don't use higher amounts without the ...

  13. Vitamin K

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leaf lettuce Vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage Fish, liver, meat, eggs, and cereals ( ... the same from day to day. Ask your health care provider how much vitamin K-containing foods ...

  14. Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eating Pyramid Healthy Eating Plate Translations Whole Grains Protein Vegetables and Fruits Fats and Cholesterol Types of ... Braesco V, Pascal G. Vitamin A in pregnancy: requirements and safety limits. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; ...

  15. Vitamin D and Bone Minerals Status in the Long-term Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Reisi, Nahid; Iravani, Parisa; Raeissi, Pouran; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low vitamin D and diminished bone minerals with the potential for fractures are one of the nonapparent late effects of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Chemotherapy and radiation were known as two important risk factors. We evaluated these late effects in ALL survivors who were treated with chemotherapy or chemo plus cranial radiation therapy. Methods: In a case–control study, 33 of ALL survivors who were treated with chemotherapy (Group A), and 33 subjects who were treated with chemoplus cranial radiation (Group B) were compared against 33 matched age, sex, and pubertal stage of their healthy siblings (Group C). Standard anthropometric data were collected as well as Tanner staging for puberty, number of fractures since treatment, serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D). The independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Chi-square test, and Tukey's test were used to analyze the data. Results: The findings indicated that the mean serum levels of 25(OH) D in ALL survivors (i.e. Groups A and B) with age mean score of 11.2 years and 12.3 years, average treatment length: 3.25 years and average time after treatment completion: 4 years, was lower compared to the controls group (12.94 ± 6.69, 14.6 ± 8.1, 20.16 ± 10.83, respectively, P < 0.001) but no significant difference was observed between Group A and B in this regard (P > 0.05). Other clinical and laboratory parameters had no significant differences between the survivors and control. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was observed in 27% of group A and 24% of group B and vitamin D insufficiency (20–30 ng/ml) in 72.7% and 69.6% survivors of Group A and B and 48.5% of controls group (P = 0.003). Conclusions: ALL treatment is associated with the increase in prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in the childhood ALL survivors and since the low vitamin D level potentially increases the risk of low bone density, subsequent malignancies, and cardiovascular disease in the survivors, close follow-up of such patients are highly recommended to prevent the stated complications. PMID:26445634

  16. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 801 Vitamins and Minerals WHY ARE VITAMINS AND MINERALS IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ... selenium, Vitamin E (Tocopherol), and Vitamin C Magnesium , Selenium, Calcium and Zinc WHAT ABOUT OTHER SUPPLEMENTS? In ...

  17. Vitamins and Minerals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Vitamins and Minerals KidsHealth > Teens > Food & Fitness > Nutrition Basics > Vitamins and ... of a good thing? What Are Vitamins and Minerals? Vitamins and minerals make people's bodies work properly. ...

  18. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumer Datos en espańol Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer How much vitamin B6 do I need? The amount of vitamin ...

  19. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism during winter in pre-menopausal Bangladeshi and Somali immigrant and ethnic Finnish women: associations with forearm bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Zahirul; Viljakainen, Heli T; Kärkkäinen, Merja U M; Saarnio, Elisa; Laitinen, Kalevi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is one of the outcomes of vitamin D deficiency that negatively affects bone metabolism. We studied the ethnic differences in vitamin D status in Finland and its effect on serum intact parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH) concentration and bone traits. The study was done in the Helsinki area (60°N) during January-February 2008. A total of 143 healthy women (20-48 years of age) from two groups of immigrant women (Bangladeshi, n 34 and Somali, n 48), and a group of ethnic Finnish women (n 61) were studied in a cross-sectional setting. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25OHD) and S-iPTH were measured. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements were taken at 4 and 66 % of the forearm length. In all groups, the distribution of S-25OHD was shifted towards the lower limit of the normal range. A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (S-25OHD < 50 nmol/l) was observed (89·6 %) in the Somali group. The prevalence of SHPT (S-iPTH>65 ng/l) was higher (79·1 %) in Somali women than in Finnish women (16 %). There was a significant association between S-25OHD and S-iPTH (r - 0·49, P < 0·001). Ethnicity and S-25OHD together explained 30 % of the variation in S-iPTH. The total bone mass at all sites of the forearm, fracture load and stress-strain index was higher (P < 0·001) in Bangladeshi and Finnish women than in Somali women. The high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, SHPT and low bone status in Somali women indicates a higher risk of osteoporosis. PMID:21824446

  20. Painful ophthalmoplegia from metastatic nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma: case study and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Eurelings, Marijke; Frijns, Catharina J. M.; Jeurissen, Frank J. F.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy. Of the fewer than 400 cases reported, most have been cases of producing parathyroid carcinoma with accompanying hypercalcemia. Only 13 patients with nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma have been described. Nine of these 13 patients had metastatic disease. We report a patient with i.c. metastasis. Distal metastases of producing parathyroid carcinoma are treated surgically to prolong survival and prevent complications of hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia. One half of the patients with producing parathyroid carcinoma die within 5 years, mostly because of the complications of hypercalcemia. Nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma compares unfavorably with producing parathyroid carcinoma in terms of tumor progression and prognosis. Few data on choice of therapy in nonproducing parathyroid carcinoma are available. We treated our patient with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Treatment was followed by an unexpectedly prolonged survival of 31 months after diagnosis of metastatic disease. PMID:11772432

  1. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones ...

  2. Relevance of vitamin D in reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Janelle; Torrealday, Saioa; Neal Perry, Genevieve; Pal, Lubna

    2012-01-01

    The steroid hormone vitamin D is historically recognized for its relevance to bone health and calcium homeostasis. Recent years have witnessed a shift in focus to non-skeletal benefits of vitamin D; in this latter context, an accruing body of literature attests to a relevance of vitamin D to reproductive physiology. This article reviews the existing data about the diverse and previously underappreciated roles for vitamin D in reproductive health. A large body of available literature suggests that vitamin D deficiency may be detrimental to reproductive biology. However, given that our appreciation of vitamin D's role in reproductive physiology is almost entirely shaped by ‘associative’ studies and that data based on prospective interventional trials are limited, these concepts remain predominantly conjectural. Exact mechanisms whereby vitamin D may participate in the regulation of reproductive physiology remain far from clear. This review underscores a need for appropriately designed intervention trials to address the existing knowledge gaps and to delineate the specific roles of vitamin D signaling in reproductive biology. PMID:22824625

  3. Image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, H.; Tominaga, Y.; Uchida, K.; Yamada, N.; Morimoto, T.; Yasue, M.

    1983-07-01

    Twenty-two out of 31 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy before operation underwent non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands by computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy with /sup 201/TlCl and /sup 99m/TcO/sup 4 +/, and/or ultrasonography. CT visualized 39 of 45 parathyroid glands (86.7%), weighing more than 500 mg. Scintigraphy with a subtraction method using a computer performed the diagnosis in 19 of 27 glands (70.4%). Ultrasonography detected 21 of 27 glands (77.8%). Image diagnosis was also useful in the postoperative follow-up study. The non-invasive image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in patients with chronic renal failure is thus valuable for 1) definite diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism, 2) localization, and 3) diagnosis for effectiveness of conservative treatment.

  4. Vitamin D metabolites and bone mineral density: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    van Ballegooijen, Adriana J; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; Katz, Ronit; Criqui, Michael; Budoff, Matthew; Li, Dong; Siscovick, David; Hoofnagle, Andy; Shea, Steven J; Burke, Gregory; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies demonstrate associations of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures, motivating widespread use of vitamin D supplements for bone health. However, previous studies have been limited to predominantly White populations despite differences in the distribution and metabolism of 25(OH)D by race/ethnicity. We determined associations of serum 25(OH)D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH2)D3), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with BMD among 1773 adult participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) in a staggered cross-sectional study design. Vitamin D metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and PTH using a 2-site immunoassay from serum collected in 2000-2002. Volumetric trabecular lumbar BMD was measured from computed tomography scans performed in 2002-2005 expressed as g/cm(3). We used linear regression and graphical methods to compare associations of vitamin D metabolite and PTH concentrations with BMD as the outcomes measure among White (n=714), Black (n=353), Chinese (n=249), and Hispanic (n=457) participants. Serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH2)D3 concentrations were highest among Whites and lowest among Blacks. BMD was greatest among Black participants. Higher serum 25(OH)D was only associated with higher BMD among Whites and Chinese participants (P-for-interaction=0.054). Comparing the lowest category of 25(OH)D (<20 ng/ml) to the highest (?30 ng/ml), the adjusted mean difference in BMD was -8.1g/cm3 (95% CI -14.8, -1.4) for Whites; -10.2g/cm3 (-20.4, 0.0) for Chinese vs. 8.8 g/cm3 (-2.8, 20.5) for Black and -1.1g/cm3 (-8.3, 6.2) for Hispanic. Similar results were observed for serum 24,25(OH2)D3. Serum PTH was not associated with BMD. In a multi-ethnic population, associations of 25(OH)D with BMD were strongest among White and Chinese participants and null among Black and Hispanic participants. Further studies are needed to determine optimal biomarkers for bone health for multiple ethnic groups. PMID:25976951

  5. [Metabolism and effects of vitamin D. Definition of vitamin D deficiency].

    PubMed

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest for vitamin D in the medical and scientific community as well as in the public media as illustrated by a huge number of publications. Most experts claim that vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is widespread with potential important public health consequences. It may seem surprising for many persons that a deficiency in a vitamin may be so frequent in countries where food is so diversified and easily available. In fact, vitamin D is not a vitamin stricto sensu as it is mainly synthesized in the skin under the action of UVB rays, while its food sources are scarce. Furthermore, UVB rays are absent during a marked part of the year at latitudes greater than 35-40°, while pollution, cloud cover reduce the number of UVB reaching the earth, and many factors such as age, skin pigmentation, covering clothes, sun creams reduce the capacity of the skin to synthesize vitamin D3. Vitamin D must be hydroxylated to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25OH2D), the active metabolite. As 1,25OH2D is released into the bloodstream and binds to a receptor present in several distant tissues, it may be considered as a hormone, vitamin D being thus a pre-prohormone. In the present article, we review briefly the metabolism and various effects of vitamin D as well as vitamin D treatments. We define vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency considering separately the population and the patient level and propose our opinion according to which patients may beneficiate from vitamin D testing. PMID:24948019

  6. Use of vitamin D in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Cannell, John J; Hollis, Bruce W

    2008-03-01

    The recent discovery--from a meta-analysis of 18 randomized controlled trials--that supplemental cholecalciferol (vitamin D) significantly reduces all-cause mortality emphasizes the medical, ethical, and legal implications of promptly diagnosing and adequately treating vitamin D deficiency. Not only are such deficiencies common, and probably the rule, vitamin D deficiency is implicated in most of the diseases of civilization. Vitamin D's final metabolic product is a potent, pleiotropic, repair and maintenance, seco-steroid hormone that targets more than 200 human genes in a wide variety of tissues, meaning it has as many mechanisms of action as genes it targets. One of the most important genes vitamin D up-regulates is for cathelicidin, a naturally occurring broad-spectrum antibiotic. Natural vitamin D levels, those found in humans living in a sun-rich environment, are between 40-70 ng per ml, levels obtained by few modern humans. Assessing serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) is the only way to make the diagnosis and to assure treatment is adequate and safe. Three treatment modalities exist for vitamin D deficiency: sunlight, artificial ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and vitamin D3 supplementation. Treatment of vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy patients with 2,000-7,000 IU vitamin D per day should be sufficient to maintain year-round 25(OH)D levels between 40-70 ng per mL. In those with serious illnesses associated with vitamin D deficiency, such as cancer, heart disease, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, autism, and a host of other illnesses, doses should be sufficient to maintain year-round 25(OH)D levels between 55 -70 ng per mL. Vitamin D-deficient patients with serious illness should not only be supplemented more aggressively than the well, they should have more frequent monitoring of serum 25(OH)D and serum calcium. Vitamin D should always be adjuvant treatment in patients with serious illnesses and never replace standard treatment. Theoretically, pharmacological doses of vitamin D (2,000 IU per kg per day for three days) may produce enough of the naturally occurring antibiotic cathelicidin to cure common viral respiratory infections, such as influenza and the common cold, but such a theory awaits further science. PMID:18377099

  7. Vitamin B-12

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient that is found naturally ... shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, and fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and ...

  8. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  9. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency. Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, through the nose, or as a shot is ... of homocysteine in the blood (Hyperhomocysteinemia). Taking vitamin B12 by mouth, along with folic acid and sometimes pyridoxine (vitamin ...

  10. Vitamin D and alternative splicing of RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Garcia, Alejandro J; Xu, Jianzhong; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The active form of vitamin D (1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D) exerts its genomic effects via binding to a nuclear high-affinity vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent deep sequencing analysis of VDR binding locations across the complete genome has significantly expanded our understanding of the actions of vitamin D and VDR on gene transcription. However, these studies have also promoted appreciation of the extra-transcriptional impact of vitamin D on gene expression. It is now clear that vitamin D interacts with the epigenome via effects on DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA generation to maintain normal biological functions. There is also increasing evidence that vitamin D can influence pre-mRNA constitutive splicing and alternative splicing, although the mechanism for this remains unclear. Pre-mRNA splicing has long been thought to be a post-transcription RNA processing event, but current data indicate that this occurs co-transcriptionally. Several steroid hormones have been recognized to coordinately control gene transcription and pre-mRNA splicing through the recruitment of nuclear receptor co-regulators that can both control gene transcription and splicing. The current review will discuss this concept with specific reference to vitamin D, and the potential role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNPC), a nuclear factor with an established function in RNA splicing. hnRNPC, has been shown to be involved in the VDR transcriptional complex as a vitamin D-response element-binding protein (VDRE-BP), and may act as a coupling factor linking VDR-directed gene transcription with RNA splicing. In this way hnRNPC may provide an additional mechanism for the fine-tuning of vitamin D-regulated target gene expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. PMID:25447737

  11. Effects of vitamin C on health: a review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Bei, Roberto; Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Calabrese, Giorgio; Masuelli, Laura; Giganti, Maria Gabriella; Modesti, Andrea; Galvano, Fabio; Gazzolo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C is an essential dietary nutrient for the biosynthesis of collagen and a co-factor in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, L-carnitine, cholesterol, amino acids, and some peptide hormones. The lack of vitamin C causes scurvy, a pathological condition leading to blood vessel fragility and connective tissue damage due to failure in producing collagen, and, finally, to death as result of a general collapse. Vitamin C is potentially involved also in cancer and cardiovascular diseases prevention. In addition, vitamin C effects on nervous system and chronically ill patients have been also documented. This review attempts to summarize recent and well established advances in vitamin C research and its clinical implications. Since vitamin C has the potential to counteract inflammation and subsequent oxidative damage that play a major role in the initiation and progression of several chronic and acute diseases, it represents a practical tool to administer for the early prevention of these pathologic conditions. PMID:23747864

  12. Facts about Vitamin A

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vitamin essential to our health. It helps us see normally in the dark. Vitamin A also promotes normal growth and health of body cells and keeps skin healthy. There are animal sources (retinol) and vegetable sources (carotenoids) of vitamin ...

  13. Vitamin A Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin A Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , Vitamin B12 and Folate , Vitamin D Tests , Iron Tests , ...

  14. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sunlight, which triggers the skin to make this vitamin. Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D. Milk and a few ... can cause skin cancer. In supplements and fortified foods, vitamin D comes in two forms: D2 and D3. ...

  15. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vitamin B and vitamin E during pregnancy and breast-feeding seems to reduce the risk of transmitting HIV ... kidney stone recurrence. Special precautions & warnings: Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Vitamin C is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant or ...

  16. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePLUS

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach makes ...

  17. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these vitamins actually help prevent or treat dementia. Energy and athletic performance Advertisements often promote vitamin B12 supplements as a way to increase energy or endurance. Except in people with a vitamin ...

  18. Kidney function and influence of sunlight exposure in patients with impaired 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D due to CYP24A1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Figueres, Marie-Lucile; Linglart, Agnčs; Bienaime, Frank; Allain-Launay, Emma; Roussey-Kessler, Gwenaelle; Ryckewaert, Amélie; Kottler, Marie-Laure; Hourmant, Maryvonne

    2015-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of CYP24A1, the enzyme that converts the major circulating and active forms of vitamin D to inactive metabolites, recently have been implicated in idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. Patients with biallelic mutations in CYP24A1 present with severe hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis in infancy or hypercalciuria, kidney stones, and nephrocalcinosis in adulthood. We describe a cohort of 7 patients (2 adults, 5 children) presenting with severe hypercalcemia who had homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in CYP24A1. Acute episodes of hypercalcemia in infancy were the first symptom in 6 of 7 patients; in all patients, symptoms included nephrocalcinosis, hypercalciuria, low parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, and higher than expected 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. Longitudinal data suggested that in most patients, periods of increased sunlight exposure tended to correlate with decreases in PTH levels and increases in calcemia and calciuria. Follow-up of the 2 adult patients showed reduced glomerular filtration rate and extrarenal manifestations, including calcic corneal deposits and osteoporosis. Cases of severe PTH-independent hypercalcemia associated with hypercalciuria in infants should prompt genetic analysis of CYP24A1. These patients should be monitored carefully throughout life because they may be at increased risk for developing chronic kidney disease. PMID:25446019

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency—Prognostic Marker or Mortality Risk Factor in End Stage Renal Disease Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Treated with Hemodialysis—A Prospective Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Adalbert; Gadalean, Florica; Schiller, Oana; Timar, Romulus; Bob, Flaviu; Munteanu, Mircea; Stoian, Dana; Mihaescu, Adelina; Timar, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    Background End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher mortality rate and an increase prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to those without DM. It is still debated if vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor or a prognostic marker for mortality in these patients. This study investigated the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its impact on all-cause mortality in HD patients with DM. Methods Our prospective non-interventional cohort study included 600 patients on hemodialysis therapy (HD) (median aged 56, interquartile range (19) years, 332 (55.3%) males) recruited from 7 HD centers, from all main geographical regions of Romania. The prevalence of DM was 15.3%. They were then followed regarding: dialysis duration, dialysis efficiency, renal anemia, CKD-MBD, inflammatory status and comorbidities: coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and stroke. The deficiency of 25-OH vitamin D was defined as a value lower than12 ng/mL. Results Patients were followed for 3 years. The overall 3 year mortality was 25.5% (153 individuals), being higher in patients with DM as compared to those without DM (33.7% vs. 24.0%; P = 0.049). The time-related prognosis was also influenced by the presence of DM, at the survival analysis resulting in a HR of 1.52 [1.03 to 2.26] 95% CI, P = 0.037, for death in dialyzed patients with DM. In DM patients, 25-OH vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher (37.0% compared to 24.0%, P = 0.009). Furthermore, in patients with DM we observed a shorter dialysis duration (2 vs. 3 years, P<0.001) and a lower intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (258.0 pg/ml vs. 441.9 pg/ml, P = 0.002). Regarding the presence of comorbidities at the inclusion in the study, the presence of diabetes in dialyzed patients was associated with increased prevalence of CAD (87.0% vs. 58.1%, P<0.001), PVD (67.4% vs. 17.3%, P<0.001) and history of stroke (29.3% vs. 14.0%, P<0.001). In patients with DM the presence of 25-OH vitamin D deficiency increased the probability of death (50.0% vs. 24.1%; P = 0.011). In multiple Cox proportional hazards analysis, vitamin D deficiency remained an independent predictor for mortality in dialysis patients with DM (HR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.43, P = 0.003). In the same time, multiple Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that age (HR = 1.02 per one year increase, P = 0.004), CAD (HR = 1.55, P = 0.046) and PVD (HR = 1.50, P = 0.029) were independent predictors for mortality in dialysis patients with DM. Conclusions ESRD patients with DM treated with HD have a higher overall mortality than non-DM patients. Vitamin D deficiency is significantly more prevalent in HD patients with DM. Low 25-OH vitamin D levels were associated with increased all-cause mortality in these patients. According to our data, in HD patients with DM, screening for vitamin D deficiency (and its correction) should be mandatory for an optimal risk reduction strategy. PMID:25965403

  20. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause Share: Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol ... take HT for symptom relief.) What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  1. Vitamin D and Pain: Vitamin D and Its Role in the Aetiology and Maintenance of Chronic Pain States and Associated Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, Edward A.; Shipton, Elspeth E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of new data suggests that the benefits of Vitamin D extend beyond healthy bones. This paper looks at Vitamin D and its role in the aetiology and maintenance of chronic pain states and associated comorbidities. The interfaces between pain and Vitamin D and the mechanisms of action of Vitamin D on pain processes are explored. Finally the association between Vitamin D and pain comorbidities such as sleep and depression is investigated. The paper shows that Vitamin D exerts anatomic, hormonal, neurological, and immunological influences on pain manifestation, thereby playing a role in the aetiology and maintenance of chronic pain states and associated comorbidities. More research is necessary to determine whether Vitamin D is useful in the treatment of various pain conditions and whether or not the effect is limited to patients who are deficient in Vitamin D. PMID:26090221

  2. Cytologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid lesion.

    PubMed

    Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Brumund, Kevin; Lin, Grace; Hasteh, Farnaz

    2013-08-01

    On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, clear cell parathyroid lesions can be misdiagnosed as thyroid neoplasms, salivary gland neoplasms, paraganglioma, or even metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report the clinicopathological, cytologic, and histologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid tumor in a 64-year-old HIV-positive patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a heterogeneous and enhancing mass at the inferolateral aspect of the left thyroid lobe. FNA showed a cellular smear with many single and loosely clustered tumor cells with finely granular and vacuolated light-purple cytoplasm and central nuclei. Occasional microfollicular structures were noted. No colloid was seen. This FNA was misdiagnosed as a follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Sections of the excised mass showed large polyhedral cells with well-defined cell membranes and clear cytoplasm with a small amount of eosinophilic granular material. These clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin and PTH immunohistochemical stains. These results favored a diagnosis of parathyroid Water Clear Cell Adenoma. This brief report highlights the cytologic findings of clear cell parathyroid lesions and their potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:22144114

  3. Prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients: the key role of native vitamin D supplementation.

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Vanel, T; Terrat, J-C; Chazot, C

    2010-10-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a frequent complication in chronic kidney disease, especially in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Treatments for SHPT include calcitriol analogues (CA), phosphate binders, cinacalcet (CC), and surgical parathyroidectomy (PTX). This study aimed to assess the incidence and prevalence of SHPT in a single center during the period when native vitamin D (N-VitD) supplementation and CC treatment became available. All incident and prevalent HD patients were prospectively recorded and compared using 3 periods from 2004 to 2005 (period 1), 2006 to 2007 (period 2), and 2008 to 2009 (period 3). SHPT was diagnosed with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels >300 pg/mL or the need for CA, CC, or PTX. Between periods 1 and 3, in incident patients (n=120 and 101), N-VitD prescription increased from 11% to 68% (P<0.0001), CA prescription remained stable (40%), and patients with PTH>300 pg/mL decreased from 40% to 12% (P<0.0001). In prevalent HD patients (n=235), N-VitD treatment increased from 55% to 91% (P<0.0001), whereas treatment with CA decreased from 67% to 17% (P<0.0001). Patients with serum PTH>300 pg/mL decreased from 38% to 13% (P<0.001), whereas patients with PTH<150 pg/mL remained stable (<30%). New CC prescriptions decreased from 45 to 3 (P<0.0001). Since 2004, SHPT has decreased drastically in incident and prevalent HD patients. The preventive role of N-VitD supplementation appears to be obvious and represents one more argument for its general recommendation in CKD patients. PMID:20955282

  4. Vitamin D levels in juvenile idiopathic arthritis from an equatorial region.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Studart, Sâmia Araújo; Leite, Ana Caroline Rocha Melo; Marinho, Aryana Lushese Lima Feitosa; Pinto, Ana Carolina Matias Dinelly; Rabelo Júnior, Carlos Nobre; de Melo Nunes, Rodolfo; Rocha, Hermano Alexandre Lima; Rocha, Francisco Airton Castro

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to describe the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients living in a low-latitude (3°43'S) region. Fifty JIA patients, 31 (62 %) female, seen between May 2012 and April 2013 in the northeast of Brazil had clinical data and serum collected for determination of 25OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) using a chemiluminescent ELISA; 20 age- and sex-matched controls were used for comparison. Mean age was 13.4 ± 4 years. Twenty-five (50 %), 15 (30 %), 4 (8 %), 4 (8 %), and 2 (4 %) patients were of the polyarticular, oligoarticular, systemic, enthesitis-related, and undifferentiated categories, respectively. Mean 25OHD was 31.6 ± 10 and 30.4 ± 5.7 ng/mL in patients and controls (P > 0.05), respectively; PTH was normal in JIA and controls; 25OHD was similar regardless of JIA category, disease activity, or severity measured by JADAS-27, CHAQ, or presence of joint deformities. Twenty-six (52 %), 20 (40 %), and 4 (8 %) patients were considered to have optimal, sufficient, and deficient 25OHD levels, respectively, whereas 11 (52 %) and 10 (48 %) controls had optimal and sufficient 25OHD. Ethnicity, body mass index, seasonal variation, and use of steroids did not influence 25OHD levels. This is the first study on 25OHD levels in JIA patients living in a low-latitude region, showing the lowest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency ever reported. Serum 25OHD was similar in JIA and controls and did not vary regardless of JIA category or severity. PMID:25991398

  5. Determinants of Vitamin D Levels in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stagi, Stefano; Lapi, Elisabetta; Romano, Silvia; Bargiacchi, Sara; Brambilla, Alice; Giglio, Sabrina; Seminara, Salvatore; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Poor studies have evaluated 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) levels in Down syndrome (DS). Objective. To assess in DS subjects serum 25(OH)D value, to identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, and to evaluate whether a normal 25(OH)D value can be restored with a 400?I.U. daily supplement of cholecalciferol in respect to controls. Methods. We have longitudinally evaluated 31?DS patients (aged 4.5–18.9 years old) and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In these subjects, we analysed calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25(OH)D concentrations, and calcium and 25(OH)D dietary intakes, and we quantified outdoor exposure. After 12.3 months (range 8.1–14.7 months) of 25(OH)D supplementation, we reevaluated these subjects. Results. DS subjects showed reduced 25(OH)D levels compared to controls (P < 0.0001), in particular DS subjects with obesity (P < 0.05) and autoimmune diseases history (P < 0.005). PTH levels were significantly higher in DS subjects than controls (P < 0.0001). After cholecalciferol supplementation, 25(OH)D levels were significantly ameliorated (P < 0.05), even if reduced compared to controls (P < 0.0001), in particular in DS subjects with obesity (P < 0.05) and autoimmune diseases (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Hypovitaminosis D is very frequent in DS subjects, in particular in presence of obesity and autoimmune diseases. In these subjects, there could be a need for higher cholecalciferol supplementation. PMID:25685147

  6. Effect of 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ after surgery on the function of parathyroid gland in differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, ZHI-HUA; LI, FENG-QI; HAN, JIAN-KUI; LI, XIAN-JUN

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignant tumor of the endocrine glands. Although surgery is the optimal treatment utilized, the disease is characterized by recurrence and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of iodine-131 (131I) ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ following surgery on the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and its effect on the function of the parathyroid gland. A total of 160 patients diagnosed with DTC, who were consecutively admitted to our Hospital between June 2012 and June 2014 and underwent total thyroidectomy or subtotal resection, were included in the present study. After three months, the patients were administered 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment and underwent a whole body scan after 1 week to determine whether ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment was successful or not. The treatment was repeated within 3 months if not successful. Of the 160 patients, 24 patients had cancer metastasis (15.0%). The average dose of 131I used for the first time was 6.4+1.2 GBq and the treatment was successful in 66 cases (41.3%). The average treatment time was 2.8±0.6 therapy sessions. The results showed that, prior to and following the first treatment and at the end of the follow up, levels of the parathyroid hormone, serum calcium and phosphorus were compared, and no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) was observed. There were 5 patients with persistent hypothyroidism and 8 patients with transient hypothyroidism. The levels of thyroglobulin were significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). A total of 48 patients (30%) with hypothyroidism were identified. In conclusion, the results have shown that DTC resection and 131I ‘clear residual thyroid tissue’ treatment did not significantly impair the parathyroid function, thereby improving the treatment effect. PMID:26668598

  7. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from one of the ovaries, a process called ovulation . If the egg is not fertilized, no pregnancy ... reproductive system that contain the eggs released at ovulation and produce hormones. Ovulation: The release of an ...

  8. VITAMIN D: A D-LIGHTFUL SOLUTION FOR HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout evolution sunlight produced vitamin D in the skin has been critically important for health. Vitamin D, known as the sunshine vitamin, is actually a hormone. Once it is produced in the skin or ingested from the diet it is converted sequentially in the liver and kidneys to its biologically active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. This hormone interacts with its receptor in the small intestine to increase the efficiency of intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption for the maintenance of the skeleton throughout life. Vitamin D deficiency during the first few years of life results in a flattened pelvis making it difficult for childbirth. Vitamin D deficiency causes osteopenia and osteoporosis increasing risk of fracture. Essentially every tissue and cell in the body has a vitamin D receptor. Therefore vitamin D deficiency has been linked to increased risk for preeclampsia, requiring a Cesarean section for birthing, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes, type II diabetes, heart disease, dementia, deadly cancers and infectious diseases. Therefore sensible sun exposure along with vitamin D supplementation of at least 2000 IU/d for adults and 1000 IU/d for children is essential to maximize their health. PMID:21415774

  9. Vitamin D and Its Relationship with Obesity and Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Cristiana; Pepe, Jessica; Piemonte, Sara; Colangelo, Luciano; Cilli, Mirella; Minisola, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The skin synthesis of vitamin D represents the first step of a metabolic pathway whose features have been extensively studied and clarified in the last decades. In particular, the production of active and inactive forms of the hormone and the actions of the corresponding enzymes have offered new insights into the knowledge of vitamin D metabolism. Additionally, the description of the different organs and tissues expressing the vitamin D receptor and its possible functions, as well as its genetic determinants, have allowed focusing on the interrelationship between vitamin D and many physiological and pathological functions. In this context, many studies reported the association between vitamin D and adipose tissue metabolism, as well as the possible role of the hormone in obesity, weight, and fat mass distribution. Finally, many reports focused on the vitamin D-related effects on skeletal muscle, particularly on the mechanisms by which vitamin D could directly affect muscle mass and strength. This paper is mainly aimed to review vitamin D metabolism and its relationship with obesity and skeletal muscle function. PMID:25161666

  10. Zebrafish Bone and General Physiology Are Differently Affected by Hormones or Changes in Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Aceto, Jessica; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Marée, Raphael; Dardenne, Nadia; Jeanray, Nathalie; Wehenkel, Louis; Aleström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire organism is still incomplete. We used altered gravity and drug treatment experiments to evaluate their effects specifically on bone formation and more generally on whole genome gene expression. By combining morphometric tools with an objective scoring system for the state of development for each element in the head skeleton and specific gene expression analysis, we confirmed and characterized in detail the decrease or increase of bone formation caused by a 5 day treatment (from 5dpf to 10 dpf) of, respectively parathyroid hormone (PTH) or vitamin D3 (VitD3). Microarray transcriptome analysis after 24 hours treatment reveals a general effect on physiology upon VitD3 treatment, while PTH causes more specifically developmental effects. Hypergravity (3g from 5dpf to 9 dpf) exposure results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones. Gene expression analysis after 24 hrs at 3g revealed differential expression of genes involved in the development and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Finally, we propose a novel type of experimental approach, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day. 5 days exposure to 3g during these early stages also caused increased bone formation, while gene expression analysis revealed a central network of regulatory genes (hes5, sox10, lgals3bp, egr1, edn1, fos, fosb, klf2, gadd45ba and socs3a) whose expression was consistently affected by the transition from hyper- to normal gravity. PMID:26061167

  11. Vitamin and mineral requirements

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition Second edition Please go to the Table/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements (1998 : Bangkok, Thailand). Vitamin, 21­30 September 1998. 1.Vitamins -- standards 2.Micronutrients -- standards 3.Trace elements

  12. Vitamin D and Human Health: Lessons from Vitamin D Receptor Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bouillon, Roger; Carmeliet, Geert; Verlinden, Lieve; van Etten, Evelyne; Verstuyf, Annemieke; Luderer, Hilary F.; Lieben, Liesbet; Mathieu, Chantal; Demay, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system is essential for calcium and bone homeostasis. The precise mode of action and the full spectrum of activities of the vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D], can now be better evaluated by critical analysis of mice with engineered deletion of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Absence of a functional VDR or the key activating enzyme, 25-OHD-1?-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), in mice creates a bone and growth plate phenotype that mimics humans with the same congenital disease or severe vitamin D deficiency. The intestine is the key target for the VDR because high calcium intake, or selective VDR rescue in the intestine, restores a normal bone and growth plate phenotype. The VDR is nearly ubiquitously expressed, and almost all cells respond to 1,25-(OH)2D exposure; about 3% of the mouse or human genome is regulated, directly and/or indirectly, by the vitamin D endocrine system, suggesting a more widespread function. VDR-deficient mice, but not vitamin D- or 1?-hydroxylase-deficient mice, and man develop total alopecia, indicating that the function of the VDR and its ligand is not fully overlapping. The immune system of VDR- or vitamin D-deficient mice is grossly normal but shows increased sensitivity to autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or type 1 diabetes after exposure to predisposing factors. VDR-deficient mice do not have a spontaneous increase in cancer but are more prone to oncogene- or chemocarcinogen-induced tumors. They also develop high renin hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and increased thrombogenicity. Vitamin D deficiency in humans is associated with increased prevalence of diseases, as predicted by the VDR null phenotype. Prospective vitamin D supplementation studies with multiple noncalcemic endpoints are needed to define the benefits of an optimal vitamin D status. PMID:18694980

  13. Hypochlorite radioiodination of parathyroid peptides (hPTH1-34, (Tyr43)hPTH44-68)

    SciTech Connect

    Orwoll, E.; Kopel, A.; Opsahl, Z.; Roberts, L.; Endres, D.; McClung, M.

    1985-02-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) radioimmunoassays have conventionally utilized (/sup 125/I)bPTH1-84 as a radioligand, but more region-specific PTH assays are now possible with the use of recently available synthetic PTH peptides as standards and radioligands. A radioiodination procedure has been developed that utilizes hypochlorite as an oxidant and that is capable of producing PTH tracers of high specific activity (200 to 250 microCi/micrograms), prolonged stability, and excellent immunologic potency. Radioiodinated hPTH1-34 and (Tyr43)hPTH44-68 produced by hypochlorite iodination techniques can be used to develop sensitive and region-specific PTH assays of use in clinical and research situations.

  14. Circulating concentrations of vitamin E isomers: Association with bone turnover and arterial stiffness in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hampson, G; Edwards, S; Sankaralingam, A; Harrington, D J; Voong, K; Fogelman, I; Frost, M L

    2015-12-01

    The effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular and bone health are conflicting with beneficial and detrimental findings reported. To investigate this further, we carried out a cross-sectional study to determine the relationship between circulating concentrations of the 2 vitamin E isomers, ?- and ?-tocopherol (TP) with bone turnover and arterial stiffness. Two hundred and seventy eight post-menopausal women with mean age [SD] 60.9 [6.0] years were studied. Fasting serum ?-TP and ?-TP, bone turnover markers; procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), parathyroid hormone (PTH), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central augmentation index (AI) as markers of arterial stiffness were also determined. A positive correlation was observed between ?-TP and ?-TP (r=0.14, p=0.022). A significant negative association between ?-TP and P1NP only was seen in multiple linear regression analysis following adjustment for serum TC and TG (p=0.016). In a full multi-linear regression model, following correction for age, years since menopause, smoking habits, alcohol intake, use of calcium supplements, BMI, PTH, serum calcium, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the association between ?-TP and P1NP remained significant (p=0.011). We did not observe any significant association between ?-TP or ?-TP/?-TP ratio with P1NP or CTX. P1NP was significantly lower in subjects with ?-TP concentrations of >30?mol/L (?-TP >30?mol/L; P1NP: 57.5 [20.7], ?-TP<30?mol/L; P1NP: 65.7 [24.9] ?g/L, p=0.005). PWV was significantly associated with ?-TP/?-TP ratio (p=0.04) but not with serum ?-TP or ?-TP in a full multi-linear regression model adjusting for serum lipids, age, and blood pressure. The data suggest that high serum concentrations of ?-TP may have a negative effect on bone formation. The balance of ?-TP and ?-TP may be important in maintaining arterial compliance. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the impact of the vitamin E isomers on bone and cardiovascular health. PMID:26271527

  15. Label-free Intraoperative Parathyroid Localization With Near-Infrared Autofluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Paras, Constantine; White, Lisa M.; Phay, John E.; Solórzano, Carmen C.; Broome, James T.; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Context: The inability to accurately localize the parathyroid glands during parathyroidectomy and thyroidectomy procedures can prevent patients from achieving postoperative normocalcemia. There is a critical need for an improved intraoperative method for real-time parathyroid identification. Objective: The objective of the study was to test the accuracy of a real-time, label-free technique that uses near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence imaging to localize the parathyroid. Setting: The study was conducted at the Vanderbilt University endocrine surgery center. Subjects and Methods: Patients undergoing parathyroidectomy and/or thyroidectomy were included in this study. To validate the intrinsic fluorescence signal in parathyroid, point measurements from 110 patients were collected using NIR fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence imaging was performed on 6 patients. Imaging contrast is based on a previously unreported intrinsic NIR fluorophore in the parathyroid gland. The accuracy of fluorescence imaging was analyzed in comparison with visual assessment and histological findings. Main Outcome Measure: The detection rate of parathyroid glands was measured. Results: The parathyroid glands in 100% of patients measured with fluorescence imaging were successfully detected in real time. Fluorescence images consistently showed 2.4 to 8.5 times higher emission intensity from the parathyroid than surrounding tissue. Histological validation confirmed that the high intrinsic fluorescence signal in the parathyroid gland can be used to localize the parathyroid gland regardless of disease state. Conclusion: NIR fluorescence imaging represents a highly sensitive, real-time, label-free tool for parathyroid localization during surgery. The elegance and effectiveness of NIR autofluorescence imaging of the parathyroid gland makes it highly attractive for clinical application in endocrine surgery. PMID:25148235

  16. Parathyroid crisis in a 20 year old—an unusual cause of hypercalcaemic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, P; Carmeci, C; Jeffrey, R; Weigel, R

    2001-01-01

    Since the advent of automated serum analysis, patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are often asymptomatic at presentation or have mild symptoms attributable to the disease. Parathyroid crisis is a rare and potentially fatal complication of PHPT in which patients develop severe hypercalcaemia with signs and symptoms of multiple organ dysfunction. A case of parathyroid crisis in a 20 year old man who presented with brown tumours and renal stones is described.???Keywords: hypercalcaemia; hyperparathyroidism; parathyroid crisis; hypercalcaemic crisis PMID:11423601

  17. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers

    PubMed Central

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Singh, Ravinder J.; Grebe, Stefan K.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Rule, Andrew D.; Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca) kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined. Methods In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls. Results Serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001). Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008). Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82). In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH)2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05). Conclusions Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk. PMID:26332888

  18. Serum Vitamin D Levels and Polycystic Ovary syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunla; Lin, Zhoumeng; Robb, Sara Wagner; Ezeamama, Amara E.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is common in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and may be associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in PCOS. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the associations of serum vitamin D levels with metabolic and endocrine dysregulations in women with PCOS, and to determine effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic and hormonal functions in PCOS patients. The literature search was undertaken through five databases until 16 January 2015 for both observational and experimental studies concerning relationships between vitamin D and PCOS. A total of 366 citations were identified, of which 30 were selected (n = 3182). We found that lower serum vitamin D levels were related to metabolic and hormonal disorders in women with PCOS. Specifically, PCOS patients with VDD were more likely to have dysglycemia (e.g., increased levels of fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR)) compared to those without VDD. This meta-analysis found no evidence that vitamin D supplementation reduced or mitigated metabolic and hormonal dysregulations in PCOS. VDD may be a comorbid manifestation of PCOS or a minor pathway in PCOS associated metabolic and hormonal dysregulation. Future prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials with repeated VDD assessment and better characterization of PCOS disease severity at enrollment are needed to clarify whether VDD is a co-determinant of hormonal and metabolic dysregulations in PCOS, represents a consequence of hormonal and metabolic dysregulations in PCOS or both. PMID:26061015

  19. Non-functional parathyroid gland carcinoma, a rare malignant tumor of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Kotromanovi?, Zeljko; Birti?, Darija; Vceva, Andrijana; Medi?, Darija; Zubci?, Zeljko; Mihalj, Hrvoje; Kotromanovi?, Zdenka; Eri?, Suzana; Dmitrovi?, Branko; Stefani?, Mario

    2012-11-01

    Carcinoma of the parathyroid gland is a very rare tumor of the head and neck. The largest number of carcinomas are discovered by chance. (intraoperatively, during surgery removal of the parathyroid gland are adenomas). Around 1% of the primary parathyreoidism is caused by the cancer of parathyroid glands. Only 10% of these rare tumors make up dysfunctional cancer of parathyroid glands. There have been 24 cases reported of this disease in the literature. The focus of our study is to present a case of this disease and to review the published literature to date. PMID:23397750

  20. Undescended parathyroid adenomas as cause of persistent hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Germán; Lorente-Poch, Leyre; Sancho, Juan J.; Sitges-Serra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Undescended glands are a rare cause of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT), but they are more common, however, among patients with recurrent HPT or those who have undergone a failed initial cervical exploration. The currently development of more precise noninvasive imaging techniques has improved the results of preoperative diagnosis of these ectopic lesions. Methods The operative reports of patients undergoing parathyroidectomy at our institution were reviewed to identify patients with an undescended parathyroid gland adenomas. Demographic, clinical, imaging and surgical variables were recorded. Results Three patients were included: 2/598 parathyroidectomies performed for primary HPT and 1/93 performed for secondary HPT. One case is presented as jaw tumor syndrome (JTS). All the patients had undergone at least one operation before the definitive focused surgery and represented 6% of our parathyroid reoperations. No significant complications and no recurrences were observed in the long-term follow up. Conclusions Accurate preoperative localization of these lesions was possible with noninvasive studies. High cure rate is possible through selective approach when accurate preoperative localization. Thorough knowledge of parathyroid embryology and meticulous surgical technique are essential, particularly in patients with previous unsuccessful explorations. PMID:26312215

  1. Defining the syndromes of parathyroid failure after total thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lorente-Poch, Leyre; Sancho, Juan J.; Muńoz-Nova, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic parathyroid insufficiency syndromes are the most common complication after total thyroidectomy. Permanent hypoparathyroidism imposes an important medical burden on patient lifestyle due to the need for lifetime medication, regular visits and significant long-term costs. Its true prevalence has been underestimated due to lack of clear definitions, inadequate follow-up and conflicts of interest when reporting individual patient series. The aim of this review is to propose precise definitions for the different syndromes associated to parathyroid failure based on the follow-up and management of patients developing hypocalcemia (<8 mg/dL at 24 hours) after first-time total thyroidectomy for cancer or goiter at our unit. Short and long-term post-thyroidectomy parathyroid failure presents as three different metabolic syndromes: (I) postoperative hypocalcemia is defined as a s-Ca <8 mg/dL (<2 mmol/L) within 24 hours after surgery requiring calcium/vit D replacement therapy at the time of hospital discharge; (II) protracted hypoparathyroidism as a subnormal iPTH concentration (<13 pg/mL) and/or need for calcium/vit D replacement at 4-6 weeks; and (III) permanent hypoparathyroidism as a subnormal iPTH concentration (<13 pg/mL) and/or need for calcium/vit D replacement 1 year after total thyroidectomy. Each of these syndromes has its own pattern of recovery and should be approached with different therapeutic strategies. PMID:25713783

  2. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePLUS

    International Resource Center Online Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living ...

  3. Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home » Hormones and Menopause Heath and Aging Hormones and Menopause What about hormones? How would I ... different story. Cathy wanted more information. What about hormones? Symptoms such as hot flashes might result from ...

  4. Inadequate vitamin D status in pregnancy: evidence for supplementation.

    PubMed

    Finer, Sarah; Khan, Khalid S; Hitman, Graham A; Griffiths, Chris; Martineau, Adrian; Meads, Catherine

    2012-02-01

    The role of vitamin D in maintaining a healthy pregnancy has seen emerging interest among clinicians and researchers in recent years. The functions of this hormone are widespread and complex, and during pregnancy and breastfeeding it facilitates crucial transfer of calcium from mother to child for skeletal development. Aside from the role of vitamin D in bone development and health, a myriad of other physiological actions are now known, and it is hypothesized that maternal deficiency may increase susceptibility to adverse pregnancy events during pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia. The role of vitamin D in pregnancy and breastfeeding is summarized and applied to the knowledge from studies associating vitamin D deficiency with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and childhood asthma. Current clinical guidelines for vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy are discussed in the context of the available evidence. The need for robust randomized controlled trials to address areas of existing uncertainty is highlighted. PMID:22007763

  5. Redefining Human Vitamin D Sufficiency: Back to the Basics

    PubMed Central

    Adams, John S.; Ramin, Jonathan; Rafison, Brandon; Windon, Charles; Windon, Annika; Liu, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    The role of the endocrine vitamin D pathway in regulating the serum calcium concentration in man is well described. In the presence of a low serum calcium level, the vitamin D metabolic pathway is called upon to produce more of the active vitamin D hormone, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1, 25-D), via up-regulation of the CYP27b1-hydroxylase activity in the kidney. The consequence is mobilization of skeletal calcium stores to return the circulating calcium level back to the normal range. On the other hand, when the serum calcium level increases, endocrine forces move to suppress renal 1, 25D production and squelch bone resorption. It is now known that vitamin D metabolites also operate in an autocrine, paracrine and intracrine mode to control vitamin D receptor-directed biological responses at the tissue level. Because the metabolism and action of vitamin D occurs at the tissue level in this situation, use of circulating vitamin D metabolites and biomarkers to ascertain the local action of the vitamin D pathway is often misleading. This mini-review seeks to compare and contrast the operation of the vitamin D pathway at the endocrine and tissue level. PMID:25285234

  6. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  7. Thyroid cancer incidence in simultaneous thyroidectomy with parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Emirikçi, Selman; Özç?nar, Beyza; Öner, Gizem; Omarov, Nail; A?cao?lu, Orhan; Soyta?, Yi?it; Aksakal, Nihat; Yanar, Fatih; Barbaros, Umut; Erbil, Ye?im

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is often seen in conjunction with an underlying thyroid disorder. Imaging methods that are used to localize the parathyroid adenoma also detect associated thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to detect the rate of thyroid cancer identified while performing parathyroidectomy and thyroidectomy in patients with PHPT. Material and Methods: Files of all patients who were operated for PHPT and who underwent simultaneous thyroidectomy were analyzed. Data regarding parathyroid pathology, surgical procedures, indications of thyroid surgery, and pathology results were retrospectively recorded. The indications for thyroid surgery included presence of suspicious thyroid nodules in ultrasonography, increase in size of thyroid nodules in follow-up ultrasound, or presence of suspicious thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) findings. Rates of thyroid cancer detection were investigated according to definite pathology reports. Results: Eighty-three patients who underwent parathyroidectomy with a diagnosis of PHPT with concurrent thyroidectomy in Department of General Surgery, ?stanbul University ?stanbul Faculty of Medicine were included in the study. Eighteen patients were male (22%) and 65 were female (78%). The median age was 53 (18–70) years. The primary indication for parathyroidectomy was primary hyperparathyroidism in all patients. The thyroid procedures applied in addition to parathyroidectomy were lobectomy + isthmusectomy in 29 patients (35%), bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy in 20 patients (24%), bilateral total thyroidectomy in 23 patients (28%), and total thyroidectomy on one side and near total thyroidectomy to the other side in 11 patients (13%). The only indication for thyroidectomy was the presence of thyroid nodules until 2000 (20 patients, 24%). Indications in the remaining 63 patients included the presence of multiple nodules that cannot be followed up by ultrasonography in 25 patients (30%), presence of a suspicious nodule on ultrasonography in 33 patients (40%), growth in nodule size in 2 patients (2%), and detection of suspicious findings on FNAB in 3 patients (4%). Five patients (6%) were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer, four of whom were micropapillary cancer. Conclusion: Imaging methods performed to localize the pathological parathyroid gland for a diagnosis of PHPT are useful in estimating other accompanying pathologies. Presence of thyroid nodules should be evaluated before all parathyroid procedures, and if the nodule has an indication for surgery, thyroid surgery should be considered at the same operation with parathyroid surgery. PMID:26668529

  8. Effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and ionized Ca/sup 2 +/ on /sup 45/Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto normotensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bukoski, R.D.; Xue, H.; McCarron, D.A.

    1987-08-14

    The effect of several regulators of whole animal Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis on /sup 45/Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes isolated from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats was examined. Exposure of confluent cells to 1.0, 1.25 or 1.50 mM ionized Ca/sup 2 +/ in serum-free medium for seven days resulted in increased /sup 45/Ca uptake at the higher concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ in cells of the SHR but not the WKY. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 (1 ng/ml) for 7 days caused enhanced influx in cells from both the SHR and WKY while parathyroid hormone (1-34) (1 ng/ml) was without effect. The data indicate that humoral factors that serve to regulate whole animal Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis may also play a role in the regulation of Ca/sup 2 +/ metabolism of the vascular smooth muscle cell.

  9. Vitamins and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Irene; Caroppo, Francesca; Alaibac, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamins in chemoprevention and therapy of melanoma could be encouraged if supported by pre-clinical and clinical evidence. PMID:26213971

  10. Evolution of sex-biased maternal effects in birds: III. Adjustment of ovulation order can enable sex-specific allocation of hormones,

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    sex-specific allocation of hormones, carotenoids, and vitamins A. V. BADYAEV,* D. ACEVEDO SEAMAN,* K: carotenoids; egg-laying order; estradiol; maternal effects; testosterone; vitamins. Abstract Overlap in growth to ovulation order, whereas distribution of carotenoids and vitamins correlated with each follicle

  11. Relationship between Body Mass Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Skin Fibrosis and 25(OH) Vitamin D Serum Levels in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Corrado, Addolorata; Colia, Ripalta; Mele, Angiola; Di Bello, Valeria; Trotta, Antonello; Neve, Anna; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    A reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is observed in several rheumatic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc); nevertheless, data concerning the possible determinants of bone loss in this disease are not fully investigated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between BMD, body mass composition, skin sclerosis and serum Vitamin D levels in two subsets of SSc patients. 64 post-menopausal SSc patients, classified as limited cutaneous (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) SSc, were studied. As control, 35 healthy post-menopausal women were recruited. Clinical parameters were evaluated, including the extent of skin involvement. BMD at lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck and body mass composition were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urine pyridinium cross-links, intact parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were measured. BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to controls. In dcSSc subset, BMD at spine, femoral neck and total hip was significantly lower compared to lcSSc. No differences in both fat and lean mass were found in the three study groups even if patients with dcSSc showed a slightly lower total body mass compared to healthy controls. Total mineral content was significantly reduced in dSSc compared to both healthy subjects and lcSSc group. Hypovitaminosis D was observed both in healthy post-menopausal women and in SSc patients, but 25OHD levels were significantly lower in dcSSc compared to lcSSc and inversely correlated with the extent of skin thickness. These results support the hypothesis that the extent of skin involvement in SSc patients could be an important factor in determining low circulating levels of 25OHD, which in turn could play a significant role in the reduction of BMD and total mineral content. PMID:26375284

  12. Engineering of therapeutic polypeptides through chemical synthesis: early lessons from human parathyroid hormone and analogues.

    PubMed

    Dong, Suwei; Shang, Shiying; Li, Jianfeng; Tan, Zhongping; Dean, Thomas; Maeda, Akira; Gardella, Thomas J; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2012-09-12

    Application of chemical synthesis to gain access to high purity hPTH as well as more stable analogues was accomplished through a menu of extended NCL followed by metal free dethiylation. PMID:22891619

  13. Original Full Length Article Effect of sequential treatments with alendronate, parathyroid hormone

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Robert

    , University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA f Osteoporosis Research Center, School of Medicine-resorptive and anabolic agents are often prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis continuously or sequentially osteoporosis are the second greatest cause of disability worldwide. Their overall impact on death

  14. Parathyroid hormone-related protein in rat penis: expression, localization, and effect on cavernosal pressure.

    PubMed

    Lang, H; Endlich, N; Lindner, V; Endlich, K; Massfelder, T; Stewart, A F; Saussine, C; Helwig, J J

    1999-09-01

    Although PTH-related protein-(1-36) [PTHrP-(1-36)] is known to be expressed in smooth muscle and to exert potent myorelaxant effects, its tonic effects on cavernosal smooth muscle has not yet been explored. Using the RT-PCR technique, the present study establishes that PTHrP messenger RNA is present in microdissected corpus cavernosa in the rat. In immunohistochemical studies using affinity-purified antibodies to middle regions of PTHrP, immunostaining was localized throughout the penile structures, including vessels, cavernosal smooth muscle, and trabecular fibroblasts. Strong immunostaining for PTHrP was also detected in the dorsal nerve bundles. In anesthetized rats, intracavernosally injected boluses of increasing doses of PTHrP-(1-36) (0.3-30 pmol in 100 microl saline) had little effect on intracavernosal pressure. However, they markedly potentiated the dilatory response to papaverine (8-800 nmol), increasing the papaverine-induced intracavernous pressure by 2.5-fold, close to the mean arterial pressure. In conclusion, the cavernosal expression of PTHrP messenger RNA, the distribution of immunoreactive PTHrP throughout the structuro-functional components of the erectile apparatus and its strong potentiating action on papaverine-induced cavernosal relaxation, collectively suggest that PTHrP participates in the control of cavernosal tone. PMID:10465308

  15. The parathyroid hormone circadian rhythm is truly endogenous--a general clinical research center study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    el-Hajj Fuleihan, G.; Klerman, E. B.; Brown, E. N.; Choe, Y.; Brown, E. M.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    While circulating levels of PTH follow a diurnal pattern, it has been unclear whether these changes are truly endogenous or are dictated by external factors that themselves follow a diurnal pattern, such as sleep-wake cycles, light-dark cycles, meals, or posture. We evaluated the diurnal rhythm of PTH in 11 normal healthy male volunteers in our Intensive Physiologic Monitoring Unit. The first 36 h spent under baseline conditions were followed by 28-40 h of constant routine conditions (CR; enforced wakefulness in the strict semirecumbent position, with the consumption of hourly snacks). During baseline conditions, PTH levels followed a bimodal diurnal rhythm with an average amplitude of 4.2 pg/mL. A primary peak (t1max) occurred at 0314 h, and the secondary peak (t2max) occurred at 1726 h, whereas the primary and secondary nadirs (t1min and t2min) took place, on the average, at 1041 and 2103 h, respectively. This rhythm was preserved under CR conditions, albeit with different characteristics, thus confirming its endogenous nature. The serum ionized calcium (Cai) demonstrated a rhythm in 3 of the 5 subjects studied that varied widely between individuals and did not have any apparent relation to PTH. Urinary calcium/creatinine (UCa/Cr), phosphate/Cr (UPO4/Cr), and sodium/Cr (UNa/Cr) ratios all followed a diurnal rhythm during the baseline day. These rhythms persisted during the CR, although with different characteristics for the first two parameters, whereas that of UNa/Cr was unchanged. In general, the temporal pattern for the UCa/Cr curve was a mirror image of the PTH curve, whereas the UPO4/Cr pattern moved in parallel with the PTH curve. In conclusion, PTH levels exhibit a diurnal rhythm that persists during a CR, thereby confirming that a large component of this rhythm is an endogenous circadian rhythm. The clinical relevance of this rhythm is reflected in the associated rhythms of biological markers of PTH effect at the kidney, namely UCa/Cr and UPO4/Cr.

  16. Parathyroid hormone induces c-fos and c-jun messenger RNA in rat osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clohisy, J. C.; Scott, D. K.; Brakenhoff, K. D.; Quinn, C. O.; Partridge, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    PTH is a potent regulator of osteoblast gene expression, yet the nuclear events that mediate PTH action are poorly understood. We were interested in identifying immediate early genes which may regulate PTH-altered gene expression in the osteoblast. Therefore, we examined the effects of PTH on c-fos and c-jun gene expression in a rat osteoblastic cell line (UMR 106-01). Under control conditions, c-fos and c-jun mRNAs were present at low basal levels. After PTH treatment, c-fos mRNA abundance dramatically increased, with a maximal and transient response at 30 min. PTH also stimulated an increase in c-jun mRNA, but in a biphasic manner, with maximal levels at 30 min and 2 h. These responses were dose dependent, not altered by cotreatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, and preceded PTH-induced expression of matrix metallo-proteinase-1 mRNA. Nuclear run-on assays demonstrated an increased rate of c-fos and c-jun transcription after PTH exposure. To determine the signal transduction pathways involved, second messenger analogs were tested for their ability to mimic the effects of PTH. 8-Bromo-cAMP and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) caused increases in the abundance of c-fos and c-jun transcripts. Ionomycin had no effect on the expression of these genes. Pretreatment of the cells with PMA resulted in a decrease in basal c-jun expression, but did not alter the PTH-mediated increase in c-fos, c-jun, or matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNAs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  17. Regulation of an H-ras-related transcript by parathyroid hormone in rat osteosarcoma cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. K.; Weaver, W. R.; Clohisy, J. C.; Brakenhoff, K. D.; Kahn, A. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    The rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR 106-01 is a commonly used model system for the study of osteoblast function. However, it also expresses a phenotype characteristic of transformed cells. To test whether the latter could be accounted for by aberrant oncogene expression, we probed Northern blots of UMR and other osteoblastic cells with a panel of oncogene probes. These blots, when probed with a cDNA specific for v-H-ras, revealed a 7.0-kilobase (kb) H-ras-related transcript (designated HRRT) in UMR 106-01 cells that was not expressed in other osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-enriched calvarial cells expressed the typical 1.1-kb H-ras mRNA, which was absent in UMR cells. Additionally, Western blots of lysates of UMR cells documented the presence of three proteins immunologically related to H-rasp21. To determine whether HRRT represented a recombinant retrovirus product, Northern blots were probed with a cDNA specific for the highly conserved gag-pol region of Moloney murine leukemia virus. These blots showed parallel cross-reactivity with an apparently identical transcript of 7.0 kb. The 7.0-kb transcripts detected by both v-H-ras and gag-pol probes declined to the same extent after treatment with concentrations of PTH known to inhibit proliferation of these cells. PTH regulated the abundance of HRRT in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with greatest repression of the transcript after 8 h of treatment with 10(-8) M PTH. The decrease in HRRT could not be completely accounted for by changes in transcriptional activity, as determined by nuclear run-on assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  18. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  19. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... popular belief that vitamin C can cure the common cold , research about this claim is conflicting. Large doses ... E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;1:CD000980. DOI: ...

  20. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePLUS

    ... over age 50 lose the ability to absorb vitamin B12 from foods. People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet should try to eat vitamin B12-fortified foods or talk to their health care provider about ...